SonoDur2 Instruction Manual
Portable UCI Hardness Testing System
with
Motorized and Hand-held Measuring Probes
This issue 04, 09/2016 applies to software version V1.15 and higher,
SonoDur2.
Subject to technical alterations.
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Issue 04 09/2016
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Copyright
Copyright 2016 by NewSonic GmbH.
All Rights reserved. No part of this manual may be copied, reproduced or stored in any form without
the prior written permission of NewSonic GmbH, except for personal non-commercial use of the
buyer.
Disclaimer
All information and technical data in this manual or any other documents have been prepared with
great care and believed to be reliable, but the accuracy or completeness thereof is not guaranteed.
NewSonic assumes no responsibility for inaccuracies or omissions and specifically disclaims any
liabilities, losses, or risks, personal or otherwise, incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of
the use or application of any part of this document.
For the latest documentation, please contact your local NewSonic representative or visit us online at
http://www.newsonic.de/
NewSonic reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any product or system to
improve reliability, function or design.
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1
Table of Contents
1
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................ 3
2
Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 7
3
4
2.1
Measuring Method .................................................................................................................. 7
2.2
Safety Information................................................................................................................. 12
2.3
Meaning of “Attention” and “Please note”........................................................................... 12
2.4
Hardness Testing Requirements............................................................................................ 13
Measurement Components .......................................................................................................... 14
3.1
Device Connections ............................................................................................................... 14
3.2
Initial Commissioning ............................................................................................................ 15
Power Supply ................................................................................................................................. 16
4.1
Power Supply Unit ................................................................................................................. 16
4.2
Exchange Battery Pack .......................................................................................................... 16
4.3
Charging................................................................................................................................. 17
4.4
Operating Time ...................................................................................................................... 19
4.4.1
Querying of Battery Capacity ........................................................................................ 19
5
Turning On and Off ........................................................................................................................ 20
6
Connect and Disconnect Probe ..................................................................................................... 21
7
6.1
Connect Probe ....................................................................................................................... 21
6.2
Disconnect Probe .................................................................................................................. 21
6.3
Removing Probe Connector during Operation...................................................................... 22
6.4
Operating without Probe – Simulation Mode ....................................................................... 22
Operation ...................................................................................................................................... 23
7.1
Control Elements ................................................................................................................... 23
7.1.1
Operating Structure....................................................................................................... 24
7.1.2
Description of Control Elements ................................................................................... 24
7.2
Soft Keys ................................................................................................................................ 25
7.3
Entries via System Keyboard or SonoDur2 Keyboard ........................................................... 26
7.4
Main Menu Measurement .................................................................................................... 26
7.4.1
Carrying out of Measurement by Means of Motorized Probes .................................... 27
7.4.2
Automatic Measurement with Probe Shoe and Switching Sleeve: ............................... 27
7.4.3
Manual Measurement without Switching Sleeve: ........................................................ 29
7.4.4
Performing a Measurement by Means of Hand-held Probes ....................................... 31
7.5
Information Menu ................................................................................................................. 32
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7.6
Device Menu.......................................................................................................................... 33
7.7
Adjustment ............................................................................................................................ 33
7.7.1
Adjust Measurement Value ........................................................................................... 34
7.7.2
Adjustment Number Directly ........................................................................................ 35
7.7.3
Delete Adjustment ........................................................................................................ 36
7.7.4
Save and Load Adjustment ............................................................................................ 37
7.8
7.8.1
Hardness Scale............................................................................................................... 38
7.8.2
Standard ........................................................................................................................ 38
7.8.3
Material ......................................................................................................................... 38
7.8.4
Representation of Readings beyond Conversion Limits ................................................ 38
7.9
Measurement Results ........................................................................................................... 40
7.10
Settings .................................................................................................................................. 40
7.10.1
Limits (Thresholds) ........................................................................................................ 40
7.10.2
Dwell Time ..................................................................................................................... 40
7.10.3
Measurement Mode...................................................................................................... 41
7.10.4
Working with Templates ............................................................................................... 43
7.10.5
Tester ............................................................................................................................. 44
7.11
8
Conversions ........................................................................................................................... 38
SonoDur2 Data Handling ....................................................................................................... 45
7.11.1
Save Files ....................................................................................................................... 45
7.11.2
Open File........................................................................................................................ 46
7.11.3
Data Transfer and Interfaces ......................................................................................... 46
7.11.4
USB Cable ...................................................................................................................... 47
7.11.5
Bluetooth ....................................................................................................................... 47
7.11.6
WLAN ............................................................................................................................. 48
7.11.7
Data Card Operation...................................................................................................... 48
Functional Monitoring by the Operator ........................................................................................ 49
8.1
Software Version ................................................................................................................... 49
8.2
Error Messages ...................................................................................................................... 50
8.3
Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................... 51
8.3.1
9
Operating the On/Off Switch......................................................................................... 51
Care and Maintenance .................................................................................................................. 52
9.1
Test Device, Probe and Cable ................................................................................................ 52
9.2
Screen .................................................................................................................................... 52
9.3
Batteries ................................................................................................................................ 52
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System ....................................................................................................................................... 53
10.1
System Settings ..................................................................................................................... 53
10.2
Display Lighting...................................................................................................................... 53
10.3
Automatic Shutdown............................................................................................................. 54
10.4
Adjust Touch Screen .............................................................................................................. 54
10.5
Virtual Keyboard .................................................................................................................... 54
10.6
Installing Interfaces and Drivers ............................................................................................ 55
10.6.1
Preparedness ................................................................................................................. 55
10.6.2
Connecting SonoDur2 to your Computer ...................................................................... 56
10.6.3
Bluetooth Setup............................................................................................................. 57
10.6.4
Transfer Data to the Computer ..................................................................................... 60
10.6.5
WLAN ............................................................................................................................. 60
11
Appendix.................................................................................................................................... 61
11.1
Scope of Delivery and Accessories ........................................................................................ 61
11.1.1
Standard parts and packages ........................................................................................ 61
11.2
Technical Data – SonoDur2 ................................................................................................... 65
11.3
Hardness Scales and Limits.................................................................................................... 67
11.4
Formulas and Terms .............................................................................................................. 68
11.5
Compliance with Environmental Constraints ........................................................................ 71
11.6
Limited Warranty .................................................................................................................. 71
12
Accessories ................................................................................................................................ 72
12.1
SONO-PM-4, Prisms Attachment Kit for Motorized Probes .................................................. 72
12.1.1
Technical Data and Components................................................................................... 72
12.1.2
Handling......................................................................................................................... 73
13
Glossary ..................................................................................................................................... 75
14
Addresses .................................................................................................................................. 76
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Attention:
WARNING:
Before using the device, please read the following manual carefully, including
safety instructions, provided in section “Safety Information“, page 12.
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2
Introduction
This instruction manual describes the hardness tester SonoDur2 with motorized and hand-held
measuring probes for UCI hardness testing (Ultrasonic Contact Impedance).
2.1 Measuring Method
The hardness measurement by means of ultrasonic indirectly evaluates the indentation testing of the
Vickers diamond and digitally displays the result immediately. The application of force can be
implemented either motor-driven or manually against a spring. A hardness value is calculated at a
defined force (penetration force), which correlates to the area of impression after indentation,
although the measurement was carried out under load.
The UCI hardness testing is standardized according to ASTM A 1038, DIN 50159-1 and -2 and
described in VDI / VDE Standards 2616, Sheet 1.
Thereby, it must be noted that the measurement result depends, among others, on the elastic
properties of the test material and therefore, the measurement device must be calibrated onto the
test material. Hence, the UCI hardness testing is representing a comparative method attributed to
reference standards (calibrated or adjusted by the operator). The reference scale for the hardness
testing is the Vickers unit (HV). Adjustment can be indirectly performed on hardness reference blocks
or directly via comparative measurement, for instance, by means of a Vickers machine (identical test
force) on a specimen of the test material.
If a different test method is being used (Rockwell, Brinell, etc.), shape and material of the indenter,
indentation size and hence, the measuring range varies. Therefore, depending on the material,
treatment and surface condition, adjustment or conversion of hardness values can be incorrect or
inadmissible with one another as well as with tensile strength values.
Conversions from the calculated Vickers hardness values are therefore permitted with restrictions
and only in accordance with relevant standards. All conversion tables in accordance with EN ISO
18265, ASTM E 140 are defined in the SonoDur2 tester. However, it’s up to the responsible individual
to decide about the admissibility of a conversion based on the calculated Vickers hardness on the
basis of his specific requirements and experiences.
Motorized measuring probes: Based on the very low test forces between 1 N (HV0, 1) and 8.6 N
(HV1), the measurements are virtually non-destructive at almost constantly low dispersion of
measured values, even at high hardness levels. Thus, the main applications for motorized probes,
production control and maintenance checks of smooth (polished, lapped) and thereby also coated
surfaces (hard chrome, copper), such as rollers, rotogravure cylinders, automotive components and
other components, are associated with high-level requirements pertaining to a clean and undamaged
material surface. It is also very well possible to measure small spring components or other precious
components, if a possible component vibration can be suppressed by holding or fastening the device
properly.
Hand-held measuring probes with, for instance, test forces of 10N (HV1), 50N (HV 5) and 100N
(HV10), have fewer roughness requirements. Therefore, the area of application is wider, also rather
tends to very large and heavy components in hardening plants, for example, after induction
hardening, on welding seams of boilers and pressure pipes. For the cutting edge assessment on
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structural steel, HV10 measurements will become mandatory as of July 2012 in accordance with EN
ISO 1090.
Further applications are described in the following:
SONO-10H, 10N Test Load (HV1):
In principle, all measurement tasks described under the SONO-8M motorized measuring probe can
be accomplished. The smaller design enables improved accessibility, i.e. it is easier to measure
components with more complex geometry from all directions - toothed wheels with a smaller
number of modules, forming tools, thin-walled parts.
SONO-50H, 50N Test Load (HV5):
This probe is used most frequently in day-to-day operations, since it can be used not only on thinly
coated components, but also on all components of the above described probes.
There are lower requirements on the surface characteristics than with all probes mentioned above,
which allows to test more coarse grained materials as well.
In relation between surface condition and manual test force or manual control needed, the
application is very well balanced.
SONO-100H, 98N Test Load (HV10):
Conversions in tensile strength of steel are possible here, for instance on hardened and tempered
steels after flame or induction hardening - according to this standard, it does not apply below HV10 –
in addition, conversions in the range of Rockwell and Brinell testing is more likely, since the surface
portion decreases relative to the volume fraction of the measurement.
Rougher surfaces, such as cold work tool steel for stamping tools, embossing dies and stamps,
forging jaws, sintered metals and high-strength vehicle components, are well suited for HV10
measurements.
Weld seam testing, in accordance with HV10 regulation, safety containers, etc.
Information on the test loads:
In publications and in our documents, the conversion from HV1, HV5, HV10, etc., is sometimes
indicated in rounding numbers due to the conversion factor 1 kp (kgf) = 9.81 N in Newton, N is
sometimes indicated as rounding number (HV 5 = 49N is frequently indicated with 50N and HV10 =
98 N with 100 N). But, the force is precisely adjusted in Newton, thus, for instance: 49N, 98N!
The test conditions in terms of surface characteristics (surface roughness) or layer thicknesses
comply with the requirements of the traditional Vickers hardness measurement. At a HV1
measurement, the UCI standard DIN 50159-1/2 specifies a maximum roughness Ra of <0.5 µm, which
corresponds to  ≈ 10 − 20 ×  in relation to the penetration depth. Accordingly, with HV5 it
comes to 0.8 µm and with HV 10 up to 1.0 µm.
In this context, penetration depth (d) and average diagonal length (Ld) can be determined by
Equation 2-1
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The table below shows a few examples of the more significant penetration depth (in “µm”):
Hardness HV10
HV5
HV1
HV0.3
HV0.1
800 HV
22
15
7
4
2
600 HV
25
18
9
5
2,5
300 HV
36
25
11
6
4
Table 2-1
In general, the nature of the component surface in the range of low-load hardness testing, are of
particular importance. High dispersion of measured values can be an indication of excessive surface
roughness. In this case, reworking of the surface with suitable abrasives as well as a re-measurement
may be recommended.
Some other influencing factors are summarized in the following:
 Minimum layer thickness: 10 x d (no noticeable influence by the base material after
adjustment)
 Minimum material thickness without coupling: > 3 mm (component resonances can falsify
measurement values)
 Minimum mass without coupling: > 0.3 kg (component resonances can falsify measurement
values or may make it impossible to perform a measurement)
 Minimum distance from the component edge of the element = 3 x Ld, between the
indentations = 6 x Ld
 The surface roughness should be much less as the penetration depth (< 1/5 x d)
In the latest issue of the German standard DIN 50159-1,2-2015 examples for the required surface
roughness Ra for different test loads and as well for the grit size for the manual grinding work are
given, see tables below:
Testload [N]
10
50
98
Ra [µm]
0,5
0,8
1,0
Ra [µm] ASTM
5
10
15
Tabelle 2-2: Guidelines for the maximum surface roughness according to EN ISO 6507 (Vickers) and
information given in the standard ASTM A 1038
Sand paper grit size
120
180
240
Ra [µm]
1,2
1,0
0,6
Tabelle 2-3: Surface roughness after manual grinding using sand paper with various grit size (FEPAStandard, „Federation of the European Producers of Abrasives“).
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Besides surface roughness, material properties such as texture, mechanical tensions, layer structures
and underground also play a role for measurement value variations and deviations from nominal
values.
The above information is based on experience where the real practical situation has to be tested on
the material and part in question.
The permissible limiting deviations for average values on hardness reference blocks apply in the
assessment of measurement accuracy of UCI devices - refer to table below (from DIN 50159-1/2):
Limiting Deviation
%
Hardness
Scale
HV 0.1
HV 0.3
HV 0.8
HV 1
HV 5
HV 10
< 250 HV
6
6
5
5
5
5
250 HV – 500 HV
7
7
5
5
5
5
500 HV – 800 HV
8
8
6
6
5
5
> 800 HV
9
9
7
7
5
5
Table 2-4
All SonoDur2 probes must meet internal standards with max. ± 3% from 3 -5 measurements on
hardness reference blocks (see Technical Data – SonoDur2, Page 65).
In accordance with the UCI standard DIN 50159-1/2, hardness reference blocks with specific
dimensions are mandatory for the testing, namely a minimum thickness of 15mm and a diameter of
80mm. These blocks are often hardly obtainable. However, docking the hardness reference block to a
flat hard surface, most preferably made of steel, has much higher significance than the "correct"
dimension. Depending on the support material (wood, cloth, etc.), test force and test position, test
reference blocks can develop macroscopically very complex panel vibrations that can complicate the
performance of an UCI measurement or make it even impossible. Triangular Vickers hardness
reference blocks with a thickness of 6 mm (see image below) are very much prone to panel vibrations
and therefore it must definitely be ensured that these are always well coupled!
Attention
These triangle reference blocks need well coupling!
Figure 2.1
The best way to derive this type of influence is to observe the ranges of a measurement series.
Depending on the probe and hardness, mean values are furthermore generally more or less
significantly lower or higher than the indications provided on the reference block itself.
Caution is also needed on some Rockwell reference blocks (HRC), if they are only roughly grounded
and therefore depending on the test force, may tend to indicate too low UCI hardness values.
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Furthermore special care is to be taken when using hot isostatic pressed blocks are used (applied for
some Leeb-Blocks) because of local scatter in Hardness or Young’s modulus.
The surface of the test object must be definitely bare, free of surface coverage and scale as well as
liquids. In addition, the test object may not move or vibrate when measurement is performed.
During the operation with induction hardening machines, measurements may must not be
performed while a high-frequency field is present, since disturbances could occur or the
measurement system may temporarily fail completely.
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2.2 Safety Information
The SonoDur2 is manufactured and tested in accordance with the applicable safety regulations (EN
60950-1:2006, EC Low Voltage Directive) and has left the factory in a safety-related flawless
condition. In order to maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, please make sure you
read the following safety information before you start using the device:
 UCI hardness measuring probes are highly accurate precision measurement instruments
which may not, under any circumstances, be exposed to shocks or impact load!
 The device must be exclusively used for material testing, other applications, e.g. medical
applications are not allowed!
 Keep measurement devices and accessories out of children’s reach!
 The SONO-NG plug-in power supply unit may be used in dry areas only! Please do not use a
power supply plug-in adaptor that is not approved for this product!
 The test device and/or plug-in power supply may no longer be used and need to be secured
against unintentional commissioning, if
 visible damages are apparent
 the system no longer works properly
 the device had been under extraordinary transportation stress
 after prolonged storage under extremely unfavorable environmental conditions
(temperature/humidity)
 Store and operate the test device and accessory only in the specific environmental conditions
(temperature/humidity)!
 When used in commercial facilities, the accident prevention regulations of the professional
trade association for electrical installations and equipment must be observed.
 Repairs may only be performed by authorized specialist staff.
 Never turn on the device/power supply unit, if the device/accessory is moved from a cold to
a warm area. The generated condensation water may damage the device/accessory under
unfavorable conditions! Leave the device/equipment switched off before it has been
adjusted to room temperature.
2.3 Meaning of “Attention” and “Please note”
Attention:
Ignoring these important facts can potentially lead to severe consequences.
Please note
Information provided to make your work easier and to improve results.
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2.4 Hardness Testing Requirements
An adequate training of operating personnel in the field of material testing is required in order to
perform hardness measurements. This includes, for instance, adequate knowledge of:
 General hardness testing
 Effect of material characteristics on the hardness testing and selection of the measurement
system
 Influence of surface condition
 Selection of test force
 Understanding about the comparability to other measurement methods, conversion.
Attention:
Lack of knowledge may lead to incorrect test results and cause unforeseeable consequences!
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3
Measurement Components
The SonoDur2 consists of a display unit and the herewith connected hardness measuring probe. The
hardness measuring probe can be either motorized or hand-held, equipped with the relevant
features to perform the required measurements. All probes will be attached to the display unit by
USB interface with the cable that is firmly connected to the device. In contrast to other commonly
used devices, the probe is equipped with a microcontroller that already performs the control system
functions, raw data acquisition and signal processing inside the probe.
Hence, the probe can be easily integrated into almost any measurement system via a standard USB
interface.
An overview of the scope of delivery and accessories can be found in the “Appendix” under “Section
Scope of Delivery and Accessories“, page 61.
3.1 Device Connections
Sensors
Battery indicator
Micro
USB
Probe Connector
Stylus
Speaker
Touch
Screen
Keypad
Battery
Cover
Power
Button
Docking Connector
Figure 3.1
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Please note:
All connectors are polarized and can only connect to the device plug in one position. When
plugging the cable, it must be ensured that the cable plug is in the correct position towards the
device plug (if necessary, determine by gently rotating it). In this position, the plug can be effortlessly
slid by a few mm into the device plug. Only then, the plug can be clicked into place by pressing it
down firmly - but without using any force. Otherwise, the plug connection may be damaged or
destroyed!
Please make sure that the instructions for connecting the plug connector are definitely observed!
(Connecting and Disconnecting of the probe, Page 21)
Attention:
If the plug is forcibly pushed into the connector socket, the entire connector system may be
damaged, resulting in an unusable measurement system.
3.2 Initial Commissioning
Each of our products is thoroughly inspected and carefully packed prior to delivery. However, please
check that the shipment is complete and has not been damaged during transportation. (Please see
also section Safety Information, page12 and Scope of Delivery and Accessories, page 61).
Before the first use, check the battery status and charge the instrument, if necessary. Insert the
adapter into the SONO-NG plug-in power supply unit, as described in section “Power Supply Unit“,
page 16. Connect the micro USB plug with the device (be careful!) and the bigger rectangular USB
plug with the power supply unit.
Attention:
All connectors can only be inserted one way into the jack. Do not, under any circumstances, use force
since the connector system may get damaged.
Plug in the power supply unit into the mains. Switch on the instrument as described in chapter
Turning On and Off, page 20. Start the SonoDur program by pressing the start button (see
Description of Control Elements, page 24). The instrument is ready for taking measurements.
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4
Power Supply
The SonoDur2 instrument is featured with an user exchange Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) rechargeable battery
pack (3.7V / 2600mAh). The battery pack can be charged in the instrument or external in the docking
station. The SONO-NG plug-in power supply unit can be connected to the USB plug connector in
order to supply power.
4.1 Power Supply Unit
The SONO NG power supply unit automatically adapts itself to all alternating voltages between 90
and 264 VAC (50 /60 Hz). By default, the power supply unit is equipped with alternating voltage
adapter when delivered. However, you can simply replace it with a different one. (Please also see
Section Scope of Delivery and Accessories): In order to do this, press the unlock button (1) and
disconnect the adapter. Slide in the desired adapter into the indentation until it clicks.
1
Figure 4.1
Figure 4.2
Depending on the state of charge, the battery will be automatically charged when connected to the
power supply unit. You can let the power supply unit plugged in without any concern, even after the
batteries are fully charged, since overloading is out of question.
4.2 Exchange Battery Pack
Attention:
Please don’t remove the battery pack or try to take this PDA apart while the SonoDur2 is charging or
the instrument is powered on. These actions will result in some damages and may invalidate your
warranty!
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The battery pack can be easily exchanged by opening the rear battery cover. Please follow the
instructions given in pictures below.
Unlock the two quick fastener and lift the cover. Pull the plastic strip on the battery and remove it.
Figure 4.3
Figure 4.4
Figure 4.5
Re-insert the battery block by latching the bottom first and then pull it down. Mount the cover (make
sure the latches of the cover fit in the mounting holes) and lock the two quick fastener.
Figure 4.6
Figure 4.7
4.3 Charging
When charging, the tester must be connected to the SONO-NG power supply unit by means of the
SONO-USB power cable. Charging of a completely discharged accumulator to 80% capacity takes up
to 2 hour and up to 4 hours to 100% capacity when using the SONO-NG.
Please note:
Do not use any other USB-cables, because the plug may fit but will not make stable electrical
connection!
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If the SonoDur2 is connected to a USB port of a PC/laptop, charging is only possible when the
instrument is turned off! Nevertheless charging time increases significantly because the USB port
could only supply limited power.
Please note:
During on state, the USB-port is not able to deliver enough power to charge the battery pack.
Fully discharged batteries or deep-discharged cells (due to prolonged storage) must be charged by
means of the SONO-NG. A connection to a USB port would result in a shutdown of the USB port due
to the high charging current level!
Prior to initial operation, the SonoDur2 hardness tester should be connected at least 4 hours to the
SONO-NG battery charger.
Attention:
Please also observe our safety guidelines under “Section Safety Information“, page 12.
In order to ensure a long life of the block battery, please follow the instructions below:
 After the device has been used for the first time, we recommend to fully charge/discharge
the battery between 2 and 3 times.
 Please use the device only within the specified temperature range (see section “Technical
Data – SonoDur2“, page 65)!
 The battery life is greatly reduced at higher ambient temperatures. Optimum charging takes
place at temperatures between 0°C and 25°C. We therefore recommend unplugging the
power supply unit at higher temperatures.
 Please prevent the batteries from becoming completely discharged. You may even charge
the device more frequently, since it does not harm the capacity of the battery!
 Avoid storage at high temperatures, for instance, don’t leave the device in your car during
summer!
 If you keep the device out of service for a prolonged time, charge the battery pack and store
the device in a dry and cool place.
Please note:
Remove the USB cable SONO USB from the device, if voltage is not supplied to the power supply unit
or USB port. The SonoDur2 could become discharged!
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4.4 Operating Time
The operating time decisively depends on the selected mode, ambient temperature, maintenance
condition and battery’s age. Therefore, only a typical operating time can be specified, which however
cannot be guaranteed for the stated reasons.
Operation time for SonoDur2 is >8 hours under normal operating conditions and up to 6 hours
continuous operating time.
Once the error message "Main Battery Low" appears or the battery indicator flashes red, the current
series of measurements should be completed and the SonoDur2 must be connected with the SONONG plug-in power supply for charging or the battery pack must be exchanged.
4.4.1 Querying of Battery Capacity
The battery status can be queried at any time by touching the status bar and then touching the
battery symbol. By acknowledging the OK button or by pressing the upper left button, you will be
returned to the program.
Figure 4.8
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5
Turning On and Off
The device is turned on/off via the power button (bottom left most position of the keypad, see
Figure 5.1). To turn on the device, press and hold the key (3-4 sec) until you will feel a slight vibration
and the display shows the boot logo, release the key. After approx. 20 sec. the boot sequence is
finished and the start screen is shown, see Figure 5.2.
Figure 5.1
To start the SonoDur program, please press the function key F1 or touch the SonoDur icon on the
touch screen, refer to chapter Turning On and Off, page 20.
Figure 5.2
Figure 5.3
Figure 5.4
After the instrument has powered on, pressing the power button again will pop up the shutdown
menu. Touching the red power off icon on the screen will switch off the instrument (Figure 5.4).
Close the SonoDur program before switch off to avoid data loss!
Please note:
Please connect or disconnect probes only when the instrument is switched. Otherwise the
instrument may not recognize the probe and the message “COM6: is not the virtual USB-interface….”
will be displayed (Figure 6.1). In this case the instrument should be switched off and on again.
You can also force the instrument to shut down at any time by holding the power button for
approximately 8 seconds until the instrument switches off.
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6
Connect and Disconnect Probe
The probes are connected to the SonoDur2 through a shielded connection cable. The silver metal
plug is a locking connector in accordance with the push-pull principle: When inserting the connector,
3 claws securely lock the connector into the jack. Releasing is only possible by pulling back the outer
sleeve of the plug which releases the locking claws!
Please connect or disconnect probes only when the instrument is switched of or the application is
closed! Otherwise the instrument may not recognize the probe and the message “COM6: is not the
virtual USB-interface….” (Figure 6.1).
Figure 6.1
In this case the instrument should be switched off and on again.
Attention:
The connector has a contact arrangement, which allows the connection in only one position.
All connectors can only be inserted one way into the jack. Do not, under any circumstances, use force
since the connector system may get damaged.
6.1 Connect Probe
Carefully slide the silver metal plug into the probe socket and rotate until the plug has reached the
correct position and can be smoothly pushed into the socket. Locking is indicated by a "Click". The
connector is now firmly locked with the jack through 3 claws.
6.2 Disconnect Probe
Unlock the silver probe connector by pulling back the sleeve and pulling it out of the jack.
Please note:
The probe should not be connect or disconnect from the instrument during operation!
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6.3 Removing Probe Connector during Operation
If the probe connector is removed during operation, the program SonoDur2 will be closed. After
starting the SonoDur again, the message “COM6: is not the virtual USB-interface….” may appear (see
Figure 6.2). In this case the system may not recognize the probe and SonoDur2 should be switched
off and on again to rescan the USB-ports.
6.4 Operating without Probe – Simulation Mode
The device is equipped with a special feature when turning it on without a connected probe: The
simulation mode makes it possible to test all functions of the SonoDur2 measurement program,
without having to perform self-measurements with probes.
“Measurement Values" will now be generated by touching the probe symbol (see Figure 6.3) and all
functions in connection with the testing procedure can be operated – a special way of fast training
for operators and also to give presentations to all those who are interested.
Start program without probe:
Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3
Figure 6.4
For returning to normal operation please follow the instructions below:
 Terminate the SonoDur Program by pressing the “EXIT” button or the “OK” key in the upper
right corner of the display (in this case the program will not ask for saving data and be
terminated immediately).
 Switch of the instrument
 Connect a probe
 Switch on the instrument
 Re-start the SonoDur2 program via Start -> SonoDur (or with the function key , see chapter
Control Elements 7.1, page 23)
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7
Operation
7.1 Control Elements
The SonoDur2 is operated via the keypad and touch-sensitive fields on the screen ("soft keys“). These
soft keys can be labeled fields, round buttons or symbols, numbers or figures and are activated by
soft touching the screen. Additional functions are available via the 3 function keys.
Status Bar with pull down menu
Status LED
Touchscreen with
„Softkeys“
Function keys
On/Off Key
Keypad
Figure 7.1
Attention:
CAUTION! Never use anything other than the stylus on the touch screen. Otherwise this could cause
a permanent damage.
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7.1.1 Operating Structure
The SonoDur2 basically provides two-level operation, the measurement menu (Figure 7.2) and the
instrument menu (Figure 7.3).
Figure 7.2
Figure 7.3
7.1.2 Description of Control Elements
Changeovers between the menus are performed via touch-sensitive menu buttons at the lower edge
of the screen or symbols or tiles.
Menu
Changeover to the Instrument Menu.
Exit
1. Exiting the Measurement Menu, end of the measurement series
2. Exiting any sub-program within the Instrument Menu and changeover into the Measurement
Menu
3. Closing SonoDur2 (after processing the last measuring series and prior to the first new
measurement value).
Info
Display device settings for the measurement process, display of measurement results such as
statistics, single values and corresponding correction possibilities.
Forward
Call up “green” highlighted menu item and take one step forward within the sub-menu.
Back
Go back one step within the sub-menu.
File (within the “Info” sub-menu)
Activating and displaying of stored measurement data.
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7.2 Soft Keys
By touching the screen within the Measurement menu, direct changeovers to specific sub-menus can
take place. See next table and for functions of the touchable symbols/tiles.
Symbol / Tile
Remark
Attached motorized probe, 3N test force
Adjustment off, standard adjustment for mild steel
Short cut for material table
Indentation time set to 5 sec
Name of the tester
Lower threshold
Upper threshold
Mean value
Number of measurements
Actual (last) measurement
Hardness Scale
Opens the instrument menu
Exits from the SonoDur2 program, or jumps back
to the measuring menu from any sub-menus
Opens the information menu
Actual
value
Sono3M
Off
A1
5s
NewSonic
500
550
518
3
520
HV
Direct access to
measurement method selection
Adjustment settings
Material table setting
Dwell time setting
Tester setting
Threshold setting
Threshold setting
Info menu
Info menu
Delete reading yes/no
Hardness scale selection
Instrument menu
Measurement menu, end
program
Information menu
Table 7-1
Probe Symbol:
Manual initiation of
measurement cycle by
touching the probe symbol
(solely motor probes)
Status bar: Represents the
speed of applying the test force
Instrument Control:
Menu = Instrument Menu
Exit = Change over to
“measurement” or “end of
measurement”
Info = Display of settings
and results
Figure 7.4
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7.3 Entries via System Keyboard or SonoDur2 Keyboard
Any position inside the input field can be marked, modified or supplemented. The keyboard can be
accessed by clicking the keyboard symbol at the lower bottom of the screen. Numbers can be
entered via the large SonoDur2 keyboard: Number field, horizontal arrow as delete key (individual
symbols on the left hand side in order to place the cursor) and decimal point.
Figure 7.5
Figure 7.6
Figure 7.7
Switching between keyboards by means of the keyboard symbol, show or hide keyboard.
7.4 Main Menu Measurement
The SonoDur2 test device must be in the main menu “Measurement“, to enable the accomplishment
of a measurement. The Measurement menu can be accessed from any program item via the Exit
button. The operation with motorized- and handheld probes is described below. If a handheld probe
is used, a horizontal bar is displayed over the softkeys Menu, Exit and Info. The bar represents the
velocity of applying the test force. This information should help the user to find the right handling of
the probe! A short bar (left end)=test force is applied too fast, middle (green bar)=ok, long bar (right
end)=applied test force too slow (refer Figure 7.11 to Figure 7.13).
Figure 7.8
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Figure 7.9
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Figure 7.10
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7.4.1
Carrying out of Measurement by Means of Motorized Probes
Figure 7.11
Figure 7.12
Measurement menu and probe guidance during the performance of a measurement: As shown in the
image above, it is recommended to hold the probe on the bottom of the probe base during the
penetration phase in order to prevent it from tipping over. This risk is particularly high, if the probe is
only held on the top.
7.4.2 Automatic Measurement with Probe Shoe and Switching Sleeve:
Carefully attach the SonoDur2 motorized probe (Figure 7.12), keep it pressed down and wait until
the measurement process is completed. When the probe touches down, the switching sleeve (Figure
7.19) will be pressed backwards, triggering the motor control through a micro-switch. The Vickers
diamond will be automatically moved from the casing towards the material surface. This process is
indicated by a directional arrow in the probe symbol of the device display (Figure 7.13). As soon as
the nominal test force has been reached, the probe symbol will be replaced by the remaining
penetration time (units, indicated in seconds) and the countdown starts to run. Once the preset
penetration time has expired, the measured value will be indicated and the reverse engine
movement simultaneously displayed by an arrow in the opposite direction, until the end position has
been reached (see picture sequence below).
It is recommended to not raise the motorized measuring probe for the next measurement
beforehand. In this way, potential surface damages by the retracting Vickers diamond can be
definitely avoided.
In either case, a new measurement cannot be triggered until the end position had been reached.
Please note:
If the Vickers diamond was not able to touch the material surface no reading will be taken and the
motor drives the rod back in parking position.
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Figure 7.13
Figure 7.14
Figure 7.15
Figure 7.13 until Figure 7.15: Probe movement, countdown of penetration time (in this case, 2 sec),
probe moves up until end point is reached.
When the probe shoe is unscrewed (Figure 7.16), the switching sleeve protrudes approximately 5
mm from the casing and starts the motor once it is placed on the material surface (automatic
measurement) by activating the micro switch (red circle). Figure 7.17 show manual measurements
with free vibrating rod or by unscrewing a protective sleeve (Figure 7.18) for measurements in places
with difficult access.
Figure 7.16
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Figure 7.17
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Figure 7.18
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7.4.3 Manual Measurement without Switching Sleeve:
After removing the switching sleeve, (in the picture on the left, Figure 7.19) the measurement will be
started by touching the probe symbol on the SonoDur2 display or by pressing and holding the microswitch.
Figure 7.19
Example – Measurements with Probe Shoe:
Measurement points can be set in close distance from each other without lifting the motorized
probe. After reaching the upper position (end position) of the Vickers diamond, slightly shifting the
probe and touching the probe symbol on the device is sufficient in order to take a new
measurement.
Attention:
In order to prevent damages to the surface or to the Vickers diamond as a result of shifting the probe
too soon, it is absolutely required to wait until the upper probe position has been reached!
Example – Motorized Measurements without Probe Shoe:
In this configuration, however, the vibrating rod of the motorized probe, is free and can be easily
damaged by careless handling (Figure 7.17). This configuration is only recommended, when
operating with a stand, good probe guidance and defined distance between probe tip and test object
or by very well trained and experienced operating personnel. By unscrewing the protection sleeve,
the probe rod is optimally protected against mechanical damages (Figure 7.18). However, stable
probe guidance is also required in this case.
In both cases, the measurement is triggered via touch screen command or by pressing the microswitch on the underside of the probe.
Free Measurements with Protection Sleeve:
The probe is gently placed onto the test object, and the measurement commences. It must thereby
be ensured that the probe will not be tilted during the measurement phase. After the measuring
time has lapsed, the vibrating rod returns to its initial position.
When performing such manually operated measurements, it can easily happen that a slight tilting of
the probe occurs during the motor movement. This is due to the small surface area of the circular
protective tube. Hence, the hardness measurement value could be indicated too low. This effect can
be avoided by pressing firmly on the test object surface with both hands and keeping it still, after the
probe has been placed. Another possibility is to only hold it softly at first, so that the motor is
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pushing the probe slightly upwards, once it moves outside. At the end of the motor movement, the
operator can gently press against it with his hand and reattach the probe protective tube onto the
test object without any great effort. The measuring time should be as short as possible, for instance,
1 or at maximum of 2 seconds. In this way, the effect of tilting will be minimized in both cases. As in
all manual measurements, this procedure requires a certain amount of practice and patience.
Free Measurements with Free Vibrating Rod:
Attention:
This testing guidance requires extensive training on hardness reference blocks and should be only
performed by experienced operators!
When taking measurements with a free vibrating rod (Figure 7.17), it should be proceeded in such a
way, that the penetration time is initially set to 1 second. Preferably, the probe is held perpendicular
to the test surface with one hand. At first, the vibrating rod does not touch the surface, i.e. it directly
sticks out above the material surface into the air (this task is normally fulfilled by the protective
tube). The motor movement will now be commenced with the other hand by tapping the probe
symbol on the SonoDur2 device and the probe carefully placed and held with the diamond tip onto
the test object. As soon as the diamond touches the material surface, the motor will press against
the operator’s hand. The operator has to keep still and press against it, until the measurement time
has elapsed and the motor retracts again.
Example: Manual Measurements without Motor and without Probe Coupler:
In the device menu Settings (Figure 7.20 and Figure 7.21), the manual measurement mode with lifted
probe tip (approximately 4 mm) can be selected. This is indicated in the Measurement menu by
“Manually operated” (up to V1.07 it is named Hands-free) at the top left corner (Figure 7.22) - by
tapping on it, you will also get directly into the selection menu “Manually operated” (Figure 7.21).
Once the operator manually pushes the vibrating rod carefully on the test material, a hardness
measurement will be taken. Shortly after the contact with the test object has taken place, the
penetration time starts to count down and the measurement will be triggered.
Figure 7.20
Figure 7.21
Figure 7.22
Figure 7.23
As soon as the manual measurement is completed, an arrow will be shown on the display, indicating
that the probe should be raised (Figure 7.23). When measuring without a protective sleeve, the
vibrating rod is carefully attached by hand and the probe is pushed down slightly (approximately 3 - 4
mm) and held until the measurement time has lapsed (1 or a maximum of 2 seconds). Also in this
case, an extensive practical training is recommended.
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7.4.4 Performing a Measurement by Means of Hand-held Probes
The performance of measurements is only possible, if the SonoDur2 display device is set to the
measurement mode. The test force has to be applied manually against a spring in the probe casing.
As a general rule, the forces are significantly higher than when using motorized probes (HV1-10N,
50N-HV 5 or HV 10-100N) and the spring is already strongly pre-stressed, so that the nominal test
force will be reached after a very short distance – approx. 3 mm penetration path back into the
housing. This requires an extremely careful handling of hand-held probes in order to prevent damage
to the diamond if it touches the surface too hard!
Please note:
Dwell time is set fixed to zero (will be set automatically if a hand-held probe is detected) and has
to be verified before measuring!
This is the proper way to proceed:
1.) Carefully attach it preferably perpendicular to the test object surface – the contact signal
appears in the display
2.) Press the probe gently and continuously on the material until the probe attachment sleeve
slightly touches the test object surface or - if the probe attachment sleeve is unscrewed until the end stop inside the probe casing has been reached. Thereby, always keep an eye on
the probe or the test position since the device display only shows the old measurement
value!
3.) When gently pressed, the nominal test force will be already reached before the end position
and the hardness value will be immediately calculated from the measured frequency shift –
raise the probe and only now read the measurement value!
It is absolutely unnecessary and also hazardous to press hard and long time because the measurement has already been performed long before the end stop is reached. It is also not required to
perform the test sequence within a short period of time limit as it is possibly need to be done with
any other hardness testers. On the contrary: It is advisable to leave yourself enough time in order to
perform the entire process slowly and in a controlled manner. In this way, overloads or damages to
the diamond can be prevented. The probes behave extraordinarily good-natured and any operator
influence is hardly felt. In addition, the measurement results are direction independent.
With the above method, exact measuring results can be achieved after a short training, which
otherwise can be only achieved by means of additional guidance supports or support stands.
Figure 7.24
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Figure 7.25
Figure 7.26
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Figure 7.27
Page 31
The force should be exclusively applied starting from the probe closure head via the palm of the hand
or the thumb. Other fingers are solely there for the probe guidance free of side-forces. A second
hand can serve for this purpose as well. In any case the force vector must point into the direction of
the oscillation rod axes in order to avoid disturbances by lateral forces. When the probe attachment
sleeve is unscrewed, small and narrow test positions can be also securely measured (see Figure 7.27,
SONO-100H, HV10 to test cutting edges on construction steel according to EN ISO 1090).
7.5 Information Menu
Display of current device settings, statistic and processing of measurement data.
Figure 7.28
Figure 7.29
Figure 7.30
All relevant information is displayed at a glance (Figure 7.28) and via "Forward" button, one receives
information on the measurement results (Figure 7.29 and Figure 7.30). Figure 7.30 shows the same
result as Figure 7.29 with the only difference, that the original measurement values (HV) have been
converted to HRC, whereas the results of the original scale are always carried along for information
purpose. The relevant tolerance thresholds will be automatically converted from the original scale to
the re-evaluated hardness scale along with the summarized results for the average value, overline X,
mean error of individual measurement σ, range R, minimum and maximum.
Interpretation of results (in this case, in HRC):
Figure 7.31
Thresholds: Minimum, maximum, hardness unit HRC
Measurement quantity N = "8", thereof "6" measurements
within the tolerance range, "2" above, "0" below.
Average value, overline X =29.5 HRC, σ = 13.2 HV or 18.7 % of
overline X
Extreme values: Max = 50.9 HRC, Min = 22.0 HRC, R = 28.9
HRC or 41.0 % of overline X
Process parameters: Cp = 0.07 or Cpk = -0.14; Cal= off
(dimensionless, standard steel)
Individual results: Green = Ok, Red = beyond tolerance, > =
above and < = below, X = deleted, Black = Vickers values for
comparison.
Please see Appendix for further explanations on terms and formulas (Formulas and Terms, page 68).
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Correction of measurement results by tapping on a measurement value (in this case: No. 7,
50.8 HRC, Figure 7.32) by confirming (Yes/No) or recovery of deleted measurement values (in this
case: Same measurement value 50.8 HRC, former measuring point, No. 7, Figure 7.34). Any
Measurement values can be deleted or restored after analysis has been performed. The statistic
results are updated and newly calculated for each condition.
Figure 7.32
Figure 7.33
Figure 7.34
Please note:
Deleted measurements are marked with a “X” in the position row (see Figure 7.33, red circle) and
will still be shown, but not taken account of in the statistic calculations!
This deleted data can be restored. After re-storage the value will appear at the same position and the
statistic will be re-calculated.
7.6 Device Menu
The device menu can be accessed via the Menu button with access to all instrument parameters, the
data logger and the adjustment function.
Additional program steps are indicated in plain text with the aforesaid
colored dots:
Green: Will be executed by the “Forward” button
Blue: Is available as menu item
Red: Is not available as menu item
By tapping a blue highlighted menu item, the item will become
highlighted in green and executed via the “Forward” button.
Within the new menu item, the name of the menu item and the currently
selected setting will appear once again on the top of the status bar.
Figure 7.35
7.7 Adjustment
This is where the measuring system can be adjusted to the test material by determining a setting
value containing the material properties (modulus of elasticity deviating from low-alloy steel) and
applies to the specified test method. This setting value depends on the test load, probe type (handheld or motorized measuring probe) and on the frequency sweep (penetration time and
measurement direction). Stored adjustments only apply to the specific probe type.
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The adjustment is carried out via the subprogram "Adjust Measurement Value", in which the setting
value is directly determined through a direct adjustment measurement on the test object or via
"Setting Value Directly" by entering the setting value without performing a adjustment
measurement, whereas all measurement values will be immediately recalculated by using this new
setting value.
7.7.1 Adjust Measurement Value
If a measurement series has been recorded, one can choose between two adjustment options, which
are described under a) and b). Then the system will ask whether the result (average value) of the
already recorded readings already recorded, should be used for the adjustment (see Figure 7.38).
Figure 7.36
Figure 7.37
Figure 7.38
a.) “YES": The determined average value will be immediately indicated in the "Reading"
(measurement value) field as well as in the "Reference Value" (nominal value) field. The
desired reference hardness value can now be entered here via the keyboard (Figure 7.39).
Figure 7.39
Figure 7.40
Figure 7.41
Figure 7.42
Thereby, each digit in the nominal value field can be separately highlighted and modified.
If there is subsequently a difference between “measured value” and “nominal value”, by pressing
one of the buttons "Menu", "Exit", "Back" it is queried whether these changes should be carried
over (YES) or not (NO) with the possibility of cancellation (Figure 7.40). In case of cancellation (red
circle), the system remains in the previous state and further modifications can be carried out (e.g. to
correct incorrect inputs). If the result of the adjustment is accepted with a "Yes" (Figure 7.40),
SonoDur2 will then query whether the new adjustment should be applied to the current
measurement series or if a new series should be started (Figure 7.41). With a "Yes", the
measurement data will be converted with the new adjustment number and the measurement series
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will be continued. With a "No", the measurement counter will be set to N = 0 and it is queried
whether the data should be stored. If "Yes", the sub-program “Save File”, Page 42, section 7.11.1,
opens up. Only then a new measurement series will be started.
b.) "NO" (Figure 7.38): The determined average value is not used and therefore, (3-5)
measurement values must now be recorded within the adjustment program (Figure 7.43).
Only the average value will be displayed. Subsequently, the nominal value can be entered
(Figure 7.44) and reconfirmed.
If no measurement series is available, the adjustment measurement will be directly started, as
described under b.).
Figure 7.43
Figure 7.44
Figure 7.45
Please note:
The proceeding under a.), i.e. recording a measurement series at first, has the advantage that the
individual measurements can be analyzed in the run-up via the info button in the measurement
menu and hence, potential rogue results can be detected and eliminated. In this way, an “improved’’
adjustment measurement is possible in the first place, since under b.). This possibility of correction of
individual measurements is not provided.
Thus, we recommend the proceeding under a).
7.7.2 Adjustment Number Directly
If the adjustment number is already known, it can be directly used by selecting “Set of Adj. Number”.
Figure 7.46
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Figure 7.47
Figure 7.48
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Page 35
The SonoDur2 then asks, if the adjustment number should be used for the actual measurement set,
or if a new test series should be started. By answering “No” all actual measurement values will be recalculated with the new adjustment value.
Figure 7.49
Figure 7.50
By answering “Yes”, the instrument queries if the actual measurement set should be stored or not. If
“Yes” the “Store File” menu opens and after storing the measurement set, a new test series will be
initialized.
7.7.3 Delete Adjustment
By executing via the “Forward”-button, the adjustment number will be set back to 0 = low alloy steel,
if a adjustment exists (Figure 7.52).
Figure 7.51
Figure 7.52
Please note:
If a different material than low alloy steel (A1) is chosen (for example F5 with its corresponding
adjustment number), the adjustment is not deleted but in case recessed to the initial value.
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7.7.4 Save and Load Adjustment
Save (Figure 7.53): The device automatically suggests a name. A new name can now be selected by
means of the keyboard. Load (Figure 7.55): Calling up of a stored adjustment file in the Folder
“SonoDur2_Calibration”. The standard setting for the directory is “All Folders”.
Figure 7.53
Figure 7.54
Figure 7.55
Figure 7.56
Attention:
If an adjustment files is chosen containing different test force data as the connected probe has
programmed for, the message above (Figure 7.56) is shown.
Long time practical experience using our stable SonoDur probes shows a good correlation for all
probe types using the same adjustment number even for different test loads. Therefore we have one
unique CAL value for different test loads using the material tables F2, F3, F4, F5 (EN ISO 18265) or
T4, T7, T8, T9 (ASTM E140).
Definitely the adjustment for all test loads is true for the correction of the influence of the young’s
modulus. This holds as long as no other surface effects (hardness increase, roughness) affects the
measurement.
Therefor adjustment data can be used for probes with other test forces as stored in the selected
adjustment file. It is the responsibility of the inspector to use these settings or not.
If you are not sure, use a probe with the corresponding test load.
The “Save” Button is hidden (Figure 7.53) through the virtual keyboard, you have to close the
keyboard first to save adjustment data.
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7.8 Conversions
7.8.1 Hardness Scale
Selection can be made by tapping on the available scale (Figure 7.58). The conversion standard and
selected material will be indicated in the status bar. Standard or material can also be selected by
means of the "Back"-button.
7.8.2 Standard
Two conversion standards, in accordance with ASTM E140 and EN ISO 18265, are available in its
current version (Figure 7.59) - Status 2015.
Attention:
Please consider the conversion limits. Exceeding the limits of a scale (for example within the HB
scale) you will receive the message out of the HB revaluation and the measurement values will be
shown within the Info-window as deleted (please refer to the representation of the measurement
values outside of the conversion limits, section 7.8.4).
7.8.3 Material
Up to program version V1.07 conversions are only stored for steel, from version V1.09 and higher all
conversions according EN ISO 18265 are available (Figure 7.60). Selecting a differing material as A1
Steel will also automatically select the corresponding CAL factor (deviation of the material properties
related to low-alloy steel, refer to chapter 7.7 Adjustment, page 33).
Figure 7.57
Figure 7.58
Figure 7.59
Figure 7.60
Please note:
Some conversions are related to a standard, so conversion to HK scale is not possible in EN ISO 18265
(red dot). In that case, you have to select the ASTM140 standard.
7.8.4 Representation of Readings beyond Conversion Limits
Conversion tables according EN ISO 18265 and ASTM E140 are defined over different ranges for
different material tables. For all SonoDur instruments the Vickers scale (HV) is the reference scale
and for every measurement there is always a Vickers value. If there exists no pairs of values in HRC,
HB etc. for conversion, a value will be generated using extrapolation algorithm. If this is unsuccessful,
the user should switch to another hardness scale or select the Vickers scale. Values which are
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generated by extrapolation algorithm are not covered by standards and do have a higher
uncertainty. Therefor these values are displayed in red and it is up to the user to decide whether to
use these values or not.
 If the converted value is slightly outside the scale limits given in the standards, a value will be
calculated using extrapolation algorithm and displayed in red.
 Exceeding the extended conversion limits (extrapolation range)* an error message „Outside
HB Conversion“ (if HB scale is selected) will be displayed . These readings are marked as
deleted and displayed as --- in the information menu (Figure 7.62). Returning to the
measuring menu the latest valid reading will be shown.
Figure 7.61
Figure 7.62
Figure 7.63
Attention:
Extended conversion ranges (extrapolation ranges)* are calculated from the correlations given in the
EN ISO 18265 (ASTM E140). Due to the fact of higher uncertainty of these values the responsible
inspector must decide about the permissibility of the conversions from Vickers hardness into another
hardness scale by his own.
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7.9 Measurement Results
Selection of the presentation of measurement results in the device menu under "Settings".
Figure 7.64
Figure 7.65
Figure 7.66
The factory setting is “Standard" (e.g. Figure 7.65). Users, who want to view all measurement results,
may select "Statistics" (Figure 7.66). However, the direct access to the submenus will be turned off
and the operation is only possible via the lower menu buttons.
7.10 Settings
7.10.1 Limits (Thresholds)
If no limits (thresholds) have been defined (Figure 7.68), the maximum tolerance range for the
selected hardness scale will be displayed for selection.
Figure 7.67
Figure 7.68
Figure 7.69
The selected tolerance thresholds must be turned on via "thresholds active" (check mark, Figure
7.69). Tolerance thresholds can be set at any time of measurement in order to optimize the analysis
of results.
7.10.2 Dwell Time
In accordance with the instructions for motorized measuring probes, the dwell time (penetration
time) can be adjusted between 1 and 99 seconds (Figure 7.72). If the input value exceeds the
permitted limits, an error message will be generated which must be confirmed in the display via the
“OK”- button. Thereupon, the initial numerical value will be displayed once again, which then can be
corrected in the input field. If the penetration time gets changed, a current series of measurement
must be completed and a new series must be started (Figure 7.72 and Figure 7.73).
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Attention:
The dwell time is set to fixed value 0 seconds with hand-held measuring probes and can’t be
changed. Nevertheless please check this setting, otherwise false readings are possible.
Setting of dwell time:
Figure 7.70
Figure 7.71
Figure 7.72
Figure 7.73
7.10.3 Measurement Mode
Selecting the operational mode for the motor driven probe (chapter 7.4.1, Carrying out of
Measurement by Means of Motorized Probes) or automatic data storage function (Figure 7.77,
available from software version 1.13 and higher). This is particularly beneficial in cases where many
measurements have to be taken on the same object on different test positions. The number of
desired measurements can be pre-defined (in this case 5) and is displayed in square brackets (Figure
7.77) in the measurement menu. If the counter N for the number of measurements equals the predefined value in the square brackets, the actual measurement series will be stored automatically.
Figure 7.74
Figure 7.75
Figure 7.76
Figure 7.77
After the selection of the Measurement-mode and automatic close, the dialog for the settings of the
automatic save-function will open. The last used file name will be used with indexing (Index increases
+1, so that the already saved file will not be overwritten). This name can be changed.
The user can choose between the full- and half-automatic modes. Within the choice of the automatic
close-Mode, the current measuring row, after achievement of the number of measuring values, will
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be saved under the given file name (here Tube). After 5 other measurements in each case becomes
Tube_01, Tube_02 etc. saved.
To avoid overwriting of existing files, the file name (if already present) will be extended with an index
by +01, see example in the following:
Tube
Tube_01
Tube_02
Tube_02_01
Tube_02_02
Tube_02_03
new Name, 1. Save
2. Save
3. Save
4. Save, Name Tube_02 is already listed!
5. Save
6. Save
Within the choice of half-automatic-closure, the dialog for the storing process is opened, when you
reach the preset number of measurements:
Figure 7.78
Figure 7.79
Figure 7.80
Figure 7.81
If quering “Yes“ when beeing asked „End Test Series” (Figure 7. 75), the save file menu will pop up
(see chapter 7.11.1). If the file already exists, SonoDur asks if it should be replaced (Figure 7.77).
With “Yes”, the file will overwrite the existing one and jump back into the measuring menu. With
“No” another name can be chosen.
By confirmation the query “End Test Series” with “No”, the measuring row is continued and the
counter N for the measuring value number is increased with every measurement.
Figure 7.82
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7.10.4 Working with Templates
From software version 115 or higher measuring values and tester names can be easily managed using
templates. These templates in txt-format are located in the SonoDur_System folder and can be easily
created or modified on a PC.
Creating a new entry for an inspectors name is done as before via the menu settings/Tester or
clicking on the input field “Tester” in the main menu. A new selection list with already created tester
names is arranged left beside the input field. Tester names could be directly selected from the list
(see following section).
Figure 7.84
Now storage of measuring values due to periodic inspections of known components and test
positions is now much easier and faster using templates. The file name of the data set which has to
be stored must not entered via the keyboard but can be created by selecting from the template.
This template (.txt format) must be created first and copied to the SonoDur_System folder. If this
template is available in the SonoDur_System folder, the user can enable the use of the template by
selecting Test list template from the Settings/Measurement mode menu (see Figure 7.85).
After the instrument has been set up to use templates, the selection list (max. 5 columns possible)
will pop up if the store file dialog is selected or the automatic data storage function (Figure 7.77).
This saves the hazzle of typing the name for the data file and makes it much easier during periodic or
known inspection positions to create complex names fast and without any errors.
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Figure 7.85
Figure7.86
Figure7.87
Figure7.88
Example of a template (FNameList.txt), each column is separated with an empty row, in this case 4
columns.
Kurbelw_1654
Kurbelw_1746
Kurbelw_1911
_N 1
_N 2
_N 3
_N 4
_Oben
_25
_45
_65
_90
_130
_Unten
_250
_270
_295
_315
_335
_Unb
_End
Figure 7.89
7.10.5 Tester
From software version 1.03 SonoDur2 offers the ability to personalize the results by entering the
tester. Change from the instrument menu over to the setting menu and select “Tester”. Using the
keyboard you can enter the name of the inspector (see Figure 7.91). Direct access by tapping the
soft-key “Tester” in the measuring menu is also possible. The name of the tester will appear in the
log file as well.
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Figure 7.90
Figure 7.91
Figure 7.92
Figure 7.93
7.11 SonoDur2 Data Handling
SonoDur2 provides the opportunity to store and access measurement data and transfer to external
computers.
7.11.1 Save Files
Measurement data can be stored under an individual name and reactivated. Upon completion of the
measurement series via the “Exit”-button, SonoDur2 queries whether the measurement data should
be stored. This also applies to the event, that the process parameters should be changed (dwell time,
new adjustment). If the question is answered with "Yes", the device menu for the saving of
measurement data opens up (Figure 7.95). SonoDur2 suggests a file name and increments each with
+1 if a new measurement series has been finished.
Figure 7.94
Figure 7.95
Figure 7.96
Please note:
The virtual keyboard must be closed first get access to the “SAVE” Button.
The domain "SonoDur2_Dat" is predefined as data folder. This can be modified in the PDA menu. All
data is stored on the installed micro SD-Card, which can be removed and externally read from a card
reader connected to a PC. Further details are provided in the next Section “Open File“, section
7.11.2.
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7.11.2 Open File
If you select "Open File" in the device menu, any saved measurement series can be indicated again.
The accessible program area is limited to the information area, i.e., the data can only be viewed (see
Figure 7.97 to Figure 7.100).
Figure 7.97
Figure 7.98
Figure 7.99
Figure 7.100
It is not possible to make any further changes (measuring value correction) and tapping on a
measurement line is responded with an error message. This can be easily cancelled by clicking the
“OK”-button.
Please note:
When leaving the INFO menu via the EXIT button (Figure 7.99), the stored measurement settings of
this file can be carried over in the transition to the measurement menu, if the query becomes
confirmed with "Yes" (Figure 7.100) and the currently connected probe features the same test force
than the probe under which the measurements have been stored. This enables the direct
continuation of measurement series with the familiar settings.
7.11.3 Data Transfer and Interfaces
In order to be able to transfer data via USB cable, Bluetooth or WLAN, the installation software for
the SonoDur2 device must be installed.
Detailed descriptions of computer systems, based on WIN XP and WIN 7 can be found in section 10.6,
“Installing Interfaces and Drivers”.
Please note:
It is generally recommended to back up important adjustment data into higher-level computer
systems in order to avoid data loss in case the device is defective.


The saved measurement data is stored in two file formats, namely text files (.txt), and source
files (.hdt). After data transfer completion the text files can be further processed in any
desired form.
However, the original data is immutable and should therefore also be stored in higher-level
computer systems.
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
These original measurement data is important for the verification of data security and
traceability of test results for potential audits.
7.11.4 USB Cable
Connect the SonoDur2 device to the PC via USB cable and turn on the device. The driver software will
now be automatically installed (this may take a while) on your PC and the appropriate
communication program starts automatically.
WIN XP: The system folder "Windows Mobile" can now be opened via "My Computer" and like with
any other external storage device, data can be read or folders may be created and deleted.
WIN 7: Windows Mobile will be automatically started and the SonoDur2 device will be configured.
The "Windows Mobile Device Center" will open up and the setup of the SonoDur2 device is provided
however, this is not necessarily required and therefore can be interrupted (please also see section
10.6.2, “Connecting SonoDur2 to your Computer”). Only the internal memory of the SonoDur2 device
can be opened under "File Management" and the data processing can now take place with any
external storage device.
All stored data can now be completely transferred from the SonoDur2 device to the PC in one go and
the text files, for instance, can be converted into Excel files. For this purpose, Excel gets started in
order to import the desired text document.
7.11.5 Bluetooth
Please see Section “Bluetooth Setup“, page 45 in order to install the Bluetooth interface.
Activate the Bluetooth function on the SonoDur2 screen (SonoDur2 program must be closed for this
purpose) by tapping on the appropriate symbol on the bottom right hand side. The Bluetooth menu
will be started and Bluetooth can be turned by tapping on the tick and make it recognizable to other
devices.
Select the relevant file for data transmission and select the “Transfer File” menu function on the
bottom right hand corner of the screen. At this point, the Bluetooth interface of the PC will be
searched and released for data transfer by tapping on the SonoDur2 screen – please also see section
10.6.4, page 60.
The data transfer must be approved with "Yes" on the PC. The result of the data transfer will then be
displayed in the so-called “Inbox” of the USB device and can be stored on a PC for further processing
via Excel, Word, etc.
Please note:
 The PC must be equipped with a Bluetooth interface or featured with a USB Bluetooth
adapter (Please see section 11.1, “Scope of Delivery and Accessories”).
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 In order to ensure faultless installation, please follow the instructions on the individual
device menus.
 It is only possible to transfer individual files. In order to perform a complete transfer of
records, it is required to connect a USB cable.
 Data cannot be collected from the SonoDur2 device by means of the PC, i.e. the whole data
processing procedure must take place inside the device itself, if no USB interface is used.
 In order to avoid unnecessary energy consumption, it is recommended to deactivate the
Bluetooth interface during normal test operation.
7.11.6 WLAN
Please contact your network administrator or your local service provider in terms of WLAN
connections.
7.11.7 Data Card Operation
The SonoDur2 saves all measurement and adjustment data on an exchangeable micro SD card. The
advantage is that in the (unlikely) event of a device defect, measurement and adjustment data will
remain safe with very high probability and can be easily transferred from the SD card to a PC. In this
event, please contact our customer service.
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8
Functional Monitoring by the Operator
The UCI tester is a precision device and should therefore guarantee flawless operation over a long
period of time, if appropriately and carefully used. Nevertheless, it is advisable to perform the
following system checks:
 Check the measurement accuracy and reproducibility with hardness reference blocks (we
recommend MPA-certified hardness reference blocks). It is described in DIN 50159. Here we
deviate from the mandatory use of a specific size of block but recommend in any case to
couple any reference plate to a solid plane steel block using NewSonic special coupling fluid
for instance. At least 3 measurements should be performed (spread over the entire area of
the hardness reference block). The permissible deviation from the mean value to the
nominal value of the block must not exceed 5 % at test forces between HV 5 and HV 10 or
depending on the range, 7 % at HV 1. In the low load range from HV 0.1 until HV 0.8, the
maximum uncertainty of measurement amounts up to 9%. (see section “Measuring
Method“, page 7)
 Check the penetration diamond under the microscope for damages.
If you notice any damage to the probe and / or tester, you should immediately put the device out of
operation and send it to our service department for inspection. This also applies to the case if
measurement deviations are too high.
Please note:
We recommend to have the system reviewed on an annual basis by our service department or by any
other authorized NewSonic sales and service partners.
8.1 Software Version
The version of the SonoDur2 device software can be queried via the soft keys Help -> About:
Figure 8.1
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Figure 8.2
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8.2 Error Messages
Error Message
Corrective Action
Main battery is very weak, power
indicator LED is red
Connection is interrupted, shut-down of
Program.
Charge SonoDur2
COM 6: is not the virtual USB-interface,
or the Probe was not found under this
Interface. Start Program without Probe?
Probe is not connected during power on. Check correct
connections to probe. See section 6 “Connect and
Disconnect Probe”. SonoDur is in simulation mode.
Unknown USB device
SonoDur2 is not recognized as USB device when connected
to a PC. Check cable and firewall settings (see section
10.6.2)
Conversion into MPa solely for test loads
of equal to or higher than 100N (10kgf).
Allow anyhow?
Scale could only be used with a 100N (10kgf) probe. Select
correct probe (force), or allow conversion in Tensile
Strenghth for test loads < 100N (10kgf). In this case the
conversion is not covered by standards and do have a
higher uncertainty. Therefor the user is to decide whether
to use these values or not.
Dwell Time must be between 0 and 99
Seconds
Error in handling the probe, contact time
too long.
Chose dwell time between 0 and 99 sec.
Adjustment does not fit to current Test
Force
Cal=xxxx
Accept Changes?
Probe lost connection to instrument during operation.
Check cable and connectors. See Section 6.3 “Removing
Probe Connector during Operation“
Lift probe and start a new measurement. Check intender /
end of oscillation rod / bore of protection sleeve for
damages / contaminations. If necessary, clean surfaces
with a dry and soft cloth.
Adjustment was done with another test load (probe). It is
the responsibility of the inspector to use these settings or
not. (see chapter 7.7 Adjustment). If you are not sure, use
a probe with the corresponding test load.
Out of xx Scale
The measurement value is outside of the defined
conversion limits. Please choose another scale /standard or
Material-Table)
Error in probe, shift of zero frequency
out of tolerance. Reference value: xxx Hz
Actual value: yyy Hz. Program is
terminated.
Too large shift of oscillation frequency (mostly because of
contamination, drop or hard shock), program will
terminate. If the problem could not be solved due to
cleaning, please send probe back for check and
recalibration.
Table 8-1
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8.3 Troubleshooting
Should the unlikely event occur that the test device cannot be operated, proceed with the following
steps:
8.3.1 Operating the On/Off Switch
Keep the On/Off switch pressed down, until the screen goes black (approximately 8 seconds). Then
turn on the device again.
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9
Care and Maintenance
9.1 Test Device, Probe and Cable
From time to time, wipe the tester, probe and cable with a damp, but not moist cloth, e.g. microfiber
cloth. Under no circumstances, chemicals or cleaning agents should be used.
9.2 Screen
Do not use any sharp objects, chemicals or detergents for cleaning, since the protective foil could be
destroyed. Please use moist lens cleaning cloths instead. A protective film is attached in order to
protect the touch-sensitive touch screen. If it contains severe stains or scratches, the protective film
can be replaced by a new one.
9.3 Batteries
The batteries are nearly maintenance-free, if they are used in the specific environmental area.
However, you should observe the following instructions:
 Prior to initial commissioning and after it has been stored for more than 2 months, the
battery needs to be fully charged.
 The device is featured with an intelligent charging system to ensure that there is no danger
of overcharging, even if it has been connected for a longer period of time. However, we are
recommending that you disconnect the unit from the mains supply upon after completion of
charging.
Safety Information:
Batteries must never be exposed to temperatures exceeding the specified operating or storage
temperatures!
The plug-in power supply may only be operated in dry areas!
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10 System
The test device is an energy-efficient mini-computer with a Microsoft Mobile operating system. This
enables adjustments of many much energy and display settings. Upon delivery, the SonoDur2 is
preset to optimal default values, so that you usually no longer have to worry about these settings.
The following guidelines are intended for custom-specific settings.
10.1 System Settings
You reach the system settings over the Windows symbol in the lower left image border. Here you
also find the File-explorer with which you can look at files, copy or shift. With the symbol Settings
you reach the next menu level and from there you can change the button system in the system level
in which you can carry out all important device settings.
10.2 Display Lighting
To adjust the display lighting, you can access the menu via the icon Backlight:
Figure 10.1
Figure 10.5
Figure 10.2
Figure 10.6
Figure 10.3
Figure 10.4
Figure 10.7
The settings for the behavior for battery and mains operation and backlight control could be select
via the scroll bar below the status bar in the upper display region.
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Note:
The adjustment „Turn off backlight if device is not used for“ within the menu Battery Power does
not affect the brightness of the background, but the automatic shutdown function, after the adjusted
time!
We recommend that you don’t undertake any changes.
10.3 Automatic Shutdown
You can change the behavior for automatic switch off via the menu “Backlight”, see preceding tips.
10.4 Adjust Touch Screen
In case the operation of the touch-sensitive screen fails, you should adjust the touch screen.
You find this function by touch lightly the Screen of symbol in the system menu. You reach this
function in lower half of the system menu by pushing (wipe) the screen upwards. Press the button
Align Screen and follow with the touch pen the shown crossing. Close the adjustment with OK.
Figure 10.8
Figure 10.9
10.5 Virtual Keyboard
The virtual keyboard can be activated by pressing the button at the lower bottom of the screen (if
entries are necessary). The appearance can be modified by selection via the arrow symbol.
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10.6 Installing Interfaces and Drivers
Attention:
You should have basic knowledge of computers and working with the Microsoft file explorer.
Improper use can cause data loss and/or damage to system files, resulting in a non-functional device!
The SonoDur2 device features 3 data transmission interfaces, namely USB, Bluetooth and WLAN. In
the following, the installation for operating systems on the basis of Windows XP and WIN 7 will be
explained. During the installations, please follow the setup instructions displayed on your screen. In
case you are unsure or use other systems, please contact your network administrator.
When using the Bluetooth and WLAN radio links, please observe the following safety guidelines:
 Keep a distance of at least 30 cm to any medical equipment or pacemakers to avoid
interferences with these devices and thus, cause a potential danger to those individuals!
 Hearing aids can produce a disagreeable buzzing or humming.
 Please turn off your wireless components as a precautionary measure before boarding any
airplane or when you are driving a car.
 Please also turn off your wireless components, if you are in the vicinity of inflammable gases
or in explosion-hazardous environments.
10.6.1 Preparedness
In order to exchange data with a PC, you must have the software ActiveSync (Windows XP) or
Windows Mobile Device Center (Vista, Windows 7) installed on your PC. The corresponding program
is already installed on the SonoDur2 device.
For computers with Windows7 and higher the Microsoft Mobile Device Center is normally already
installed. If your computer uses Windows7, you can proceed with section 10.6.2.
Press -> Start -> All Programs and look for Microsoft ActiveSync or Microsoft Mobile Device Center.
If none of these programs exist, you have to install it.
In order to find out which operating system you are using, press -> Start, ->right mouse click on My
Computer and then click on -> Properties. You will find the appropriate driver for your operating
system on the SonoDur2 system CD. Double-click on the appropriate installation file and follow the
instructions.
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10.6.2 Connecting SonoDur2 to your Computer
The following description is created for computers with Win7, but basically true for other operating
systems.
Connect the SonoDur2 device to the PC using the USB data cable (turn on the power if necessary).
Wait until the Windows Mobile Device Center automatically starts (this may take a few seconds). The
green check mark indicates the active USB connection. Select "Connect without setting up your
device".
Attention:
Do not allow the computer to synchronize with the SonoDur2 instrument! Please check your firewall
settings and allow access for Microsoft Mobile Device Center or ActiveSync!
Figure 10.10
Move the mouse to "File Management", it opens a submenu. Please click on "browse contents of
your device". This opens the file manager and the SonoDur2 device is now shown as a mobile device
in the file explorer and you can access the measurement and adjustment data in the SonoDur2
directory (see Figure 10.12).
Figure 10.11
…\SonoDur\SD-MMCard\...
(SonoDur Version 1.01 and higher, storage path SD-MMCard)
Figure 10.12
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If you have chosen the main memory as the location for your measurement and calibration files, the
storage path is …\SonoDur2\MyDocuments\...
10.6.3 Bluetooth Setup
The SonoDur2 device is featured with an integrated Bluetooth module and is able to wirelessly
exchange data with (almost all) computers that are featured with Bluetooth functionality. If your
computer does not have Bluetooth functionality, you can simply expand your computer by means of
the USB stick Bluetooth SONO-Blue, if your PC is featured with Windows XP operating system or
higher (Vista, Windows 7).
Attention:
The following configuration has only to be done once for the initial setup of the new connection!
Simply plug the USB Bluetooth module into an available USB port. Windows normally automatically
recognizes the Bluetooth dongle and installs the required drivers. Alternatively the driver could be
installed from the SonoDur2 system CD. After the installation procedure has been successfully
completed, the symbol for Bluetooth devices appears on the bottom right corner of the taskbar:
Click on the symbol and check the connection adjustments on site oft he PC:
Figure 10.13
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Figure 10.14
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Switch on the SonoDur2 and change to Wireless Manager by selecting the status band in the upper
region of the display. Turn on the Bluetooth function, as shown below:
Figure 10.15
Figure 10.16
Figure 10.17
Figure 10.18
In order to get a bluetooth connection with your PC, press -> Menu and -> bluetooth settings. Make
the device visible or others and check the interface settings of the COM Ports (Standard COM9):
Figure 10.19
NewSonic SonoDur2
Figure 10.20
Figure 10.21
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Figure 10.22
Page 58
Search for bluetooth devices (here Torsten-PC) and use, if needed, a password, then press next. Now
a new window is shown on your PC and you will ask for a password, please enter the same as on the
SonoDur.
Figure 10.23
Figure 10.24
Figure 10.25
Figure 10.26
The Bluetooth connection has been successfully installed!
Attention:
If your computer is protected by a firewall you must allow data transfer via Bluetooth connection !
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10.6.4 Transfer Data to the Computer
Then, keep your finger or pen pressed down on the file to be transferred (or chose “Menu in the
right bottom corner) until another menu opens up. Select “Beam File”. After a few seconds
(searching), the file can be sent to the PC (see Figure 10.27 through Figure 10.31):
Figure 10.27
Figure 10.28
Figure 10.29
Figure 10.30
Figure 10.31
The PC will display a message after the file transfer and ask for the download folder to open.
Figure 10.32
Please note:
The Win Mobile Explorer is only able to transfer individual files!
10.6.5 WLAN
For configuration details, please contact your network administrator or local support center.
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11 Appendix
11.1 Scope of Delivery and Accessories
11.1.1 Standard parts and packages
Partnumber
Description
12004
Instrument Package
SonoDur2, Hardness Tester with Data Logger and Data Export, Data Transfer to PC
(USB, WLAN or Bluetooth resp.)
including:
SONO2-NG/USB, Power Source + USB-Cable (Loading/Data)
SONO2-HM, ca. 1,5 m Probe Connection Cable
SONO2-TK-1, Transportation Case
SONO-CD, Product-USB-Stick incl. Operating Manual
SONO2-Protect, Protection Foil for Touchscreen
Manufacturing certificate
Attention: Probes and Hardness blocks to be ordered separately
11006
Package price
SonoDur-R, Hardness Tester "Rack" for automatic online Hardness Testing in
Production lines, WIN CE Operating System
Including:
Mounted Table Housing 19'' with Handles
Connectors for Probe, Controls, 24V-Power Unit, USB-Client (PC)
SONO-RM, 3,0 m Probe Connection cable
SONO-NG-24V Powersupply 115VAC-230VAC/24VDC for SonoDur-R
SONO2-Stylus, Stylus-Pin
SONO-CD, Product-USB-Stick incl. Operating Manual
Attention: Probes and Hardness blocks to be ordered separately
Necessary additional information on each order
Instrument language (operating system is always in English)
Handheld Probes
11101
11102
11103
11104
11105
11110
11111
11112
11113
11114
11115
11116
SONO-10H Handheld Probe 10N (1 kgf), Standard Version
SONO-50H Handheld Probe 49N (5 kgf), Standard Version
SONO-100 H Handheld Probe 98N (10 kgf), Standard Version
SONO-10H-L Handheld Probe 10N (1 kgf), Long rod Version
SONO-50H-L Handheld Probe 49N (5 kgf), Long rod Version
SONO-100H-L Handheld Probe 98N (10kgf), Long rod Version, Special edition
SONO-50H.17 Handheld Probe 49N (5 kgf), Special Version with thin Oscillationrod
SONO-10H.17 Handheld Probe 10N (1 kgf), Special Version with thin Oscillationrod
SONO-10HL.17 Handheld Probe 10N (1 kgf), Long rod Version with thin Oscillationrod
SONO-50HL.17 Handheld Probe 49N (5 kgf), Long rod Version with thin Oscillationrod
SONO-30H Handheld Probe 30N (3 kgf), Standard Version
SONO-30HL Handheld Probe 30N (3 kgf), Long rod Version
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Motor Probes
11106
11107
11108
SONO-1M Motor Probe 1N (0,1 kgf) with attachment sleeve
SONO-3M Motor Probe 3N (0,3 kgf) with attachment sleeve
SONO-8M Motor Probe 8,6N (0,9 kgf) with attachment sleeve
Recommended Standard Packages (Instrument+Probe)
12008
12014
12007
12009
12011
12013
12015
SONO2-1M SonoDur2 + SONO-1M Motor Probe 1N (0,1 kgf)
SONO2-3M SonoDur2 + SONO-3M Motor Probe 3N (0,3 kgf)
SONO2-8M SonoDur2 + SONO-8M Motor Probe 8,6N (0,9 kgf)
SONO2-10 H SonoDur2 + SONO-10H Handheld Probe 10N (1 kgf)
SONO2-50 H SonoDur2 + SONO-50H Handheld Probe 49N (5 kgf)
SONO2-100 H SonoDur2 + SONO-100H Handheld Probe 98N (10 kgf)
SONO2-10H-L SonoDur2 + SONO-10H-L Handheld Probe 10N (1 kgf) Long rod Version
12016
SONO2-50H-L SonoDur2 + SONO-50H-L Handheld Probe 49N (5 kgf) Long rod Version
12017
SONO2-100H-L SonoDur2 + SONO-100H-L Handheld Probe 98N (10 kgf) Long rod Version
12018
12019
12020
SONO2-50H.17 SonoDur2 + SONO-50H.17 Handheld Probe 49N (5 kgf)
SONO2-10H.17 SonoDur2 + SONO-10H.17 Handheld Probe 10N (1 kgf)
SONO2-10HL.17 SonoDur2 + SONO-10HL.17 Handheld Probe
10N (1 kgf)
SONO2-50HL.17 SonoDur2 + SONO-50HL.17 Handheld Probe
49N (5 kgf)
SONO2-3H SonoDur2 + SONO-3H Handheld Probe 30N (3 kgf)
SONO2-3HL SonoDur2 + SONO-3HL Handheld Probe 30N (3 kgf)
12021
12022
12023
Recommended accessories SonoDur2/SonoDur-R
11220
11221
11206
11209
11223
11210
11200
SONO-PS-1 Precision Test Stand for handheld probes
SONO-PS-2 Precision Test Stand for motor probes
SONO-PM-1 Prism support for concave surface shape approx. 100 to 350 mm for Motor
Probes
SONO-PM-4 Prism support set for motor probes
SONO-SF-2 Universal probe foot for Handheld probes (Prism, flat)
from Ø 50mm onwards
SONO-ZG-F Special Coupling Fluid, to suppress resonances, 100 ccm
SONO-Doc Auxiliary-SW with automatic documentation of results
Recommended accessories and spare parts SonoDur-R
11305
11203
11204
11306
11307
11315
SONO-RM Connection cable 3,0 m for handheld and motorprobes
(SonoDur-R)
SONO-RM-E05 Connection cable 5,0 m for handheld and
motor probes (SonoDur-R)
SONO-RM-E10 Probe cable elongation to 10 m, for handheld- and
motorprobes (SonoDur-R)
SONO-24V 3,0 m Power Cord, M12 a-Coded, one end open!
SONO-NG-24V Powersupply 115VAC-230VAC/24VDC for SonoDur-R
SONO-R-Stylus Stylus-Pen, handmade, special tip
Recommended accessories and spare parts SonoDur2
12301
11304
SONO2-HM Connection cable 1,5 m for handheld and motorprobes
(SonoDur2)
SONO-NG Power Supply 5V USB (SonoDur)
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12303
12312
11302
SONO2-NG/USB USB-Cable for Power Supply SONO-NG
(loading/data transfer)
SONO2-AKKU Li-Ion, 3.7V, 2600 mAH Power-Pack for SonoDur2
SONO-CD Product-USB-Stick incl. Operating Manual, drivers, tools, product photos etc.
12309
12310
12311
12003
11208
SONO2-TK-1 Transportation Case for SonoDur and accessories
SONO2-Protect Protection Foils for Touchscreen
SONO2-Stylus Stylus-Pen
SonoDur2 Hardness tester SonoDur2 Instrument with Data Logger
SONO-Blue Bluetooth USB-Connector for PC
Hardness Blocks
1140807
SONO-Y900HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 900±15 HV30, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1140802
SONO-Y800HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 800±15 HV30, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1140801
SONO-Y700HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 700±15 HV30, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1140808
SONO-Y600HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 600±15 HV10, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1140809
SONO-Y500HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 500±15 HV10, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1140803
SONO-Y400HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 400±15 HV10, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1140804
SONO-Y300HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 300±15 HV10, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1140805
SONO-Y200HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 200±15 HV10, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1140806
SONO-Y150HVy
Round Hardness Blocks, 150±15 HV10, HV1; Ø64x15 mm, Factory Certificate
1141000
SONO-MPA
MPA certificate each test block and test force
SONO-DAKKS
Instrument Calibration according to DIN 50159-2 with Certificate
Delivery time: approx. 3 weeks
1141001
Hardness Reference Blocks, please ask for delivery time!
Hardness levels between 150HV and 900HV or 25 HRC and 67 HRC.
xxx= Hardness value, y=test load in kgf
Training
11505
SONO-THT
Introduction into hardness testing and Instruments operation, plus travel expenses, living, per
hour
11506
SONO-TR
Group training Hardness Testing, Instrument Operation, per day and person, 4 individuals
max., plus travel expenses
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11.2 Technical Data – SonoDur2
Measuring Specifications
Measuring principle
Test indenter
Test loads
Newton scale (1kgf = 9.81 N)
Hardness scales and range
(according to relevant standards), in this
case table A1 respectively T1, T2 (low
alloy steel). Different measuring ranges
are valid for other materials. When
exceeding the limits the conversion range
will be extended. The calculated values
are highlighted in red besides the original
data in HV.
Note:
Conversions are acc. to latest ASTM E140Ԑ1
12b (2013) und EN ISO 18265:2014.
Conversions into tensile strength: 98N
(10kgf) test load only.
UCI Method, corresponds to DIN 50159, ASTM A1038
Vickers diamond 136°
Motor probes: 1N (0.1 kgf), 3N (0.3kgf) and 8.6 N (0.8 kgf)
Handheld Probes: 10N (1 kgf), 49N (5kgf), 98N (10kgf)
(Other test loads on request)
Vickers
HV
10 – 1999 (9999)
Brinell
HB
76 – 618
Rockwell
HRB
41 – 105
Rockwell
HRC
20,3 – 68
Rockwell
HRE
70 – 108,5
Rockwell
HRF
82,6 – 115,1
Rockwell
HRA
60,7 – 85,6
Rockwell (EN ISO 18265 only)
HRD
40,3 - 76,9
Rockwell
HR45N 19,9 – 75,4
Knoop (ASTM E140 only)
HK
87 – 920
Shore (ASTM E140 only)
HS
34,2 – 97,3
Tensile strength
MPa
255 - 2180
< 4 % (HV5, HV 10). For other test loads and ranges see table below.
< 5 % (HV5, HV 10). For other test loads and ranges see table below.
Measurement uncertainty*
Relative repeatability*
*exceeds DIN 50159, dependent on test load and range (see table below). Specifications are valid for 5
measurements using Vickers reference blocks and according to test conditions given in standard DIN 50159.
Mechanical and Environmental (Instrument and probe)
Operating time
>8 hours in measurement operation (depending on system
performance, temperature and instrument settings), up to 6 hours
continuous operation, quick exchangeable battery pack
Operating Temperature
Probe: 0°C to ~ +50°C
Instrument: -10° ~ +50°C // Charging +10°C ~ +45°C
Storage Temperature
-20°C ~ +60°C
Humidity
Max. 90%, non-condensing
Dimensions
Instrument ca. 153x78x29 (26) mm
Motor probe Ø38mm, L=190 mm
Handheld probe Ø25 mm, L=176 mm
(free length oscillation rod ca. 12,5 mm)
Handheld probe Ø25 mm, L=207 mm
(free length oscillation rod ca. 43 mm)
Weight
Instrument ca. 280 gr
Handheld probe ca. 280 gr
Motor probe ca. 370 gr
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Instrument
Processor and Memory
Operating system
Keypad
Power
Display
Interfaces
Dust / Water-splash proof
Drop test
Tumble Test
Vibration Test
Instrument Language
Table 11-1
NewSonic SonoDur2
TI Cortex A8 / 256 MB SDRAM / 512 MB Flash / micro SD Card up
to 32 GB
Windows Embedded Handheld (WM 6.5)
Keypad (21-key-Mobile alphanumeric keypad with backlight) and
full alphanumeric software keyboard
Main battery: 3,7V / 2600mAh, LiPo hard pack, quick exchange
Charging time: <2h to 80% capacity (Instrument off)
Shelf Hours: Up to 6 month
AC Power supply/charger: 90V to 264VAC 50/60Hz to 5VDC
3.5" sunlight readable color TFT (320x240) with resistive touch
screen, high brigthness LED-backlight (440 Cd/m2), adjustable
USB1.1 (Host and Device), micro SD-card, WLAN, Bluetooth version
2.1 +EDR,CLASS2
IP54 level (compliant with IEC60529 standard)
1.22-Meter / 4 Feet Drop Threshold
150 1.65 ft./0.5 m tumbles (equivalent to 300 consecutive drops)
at room temperature; meets and exceeds applicable IEC
tumble specifications
MIL-STD 810G Method 514.5, figure 514.5C-1; 1 hour per axis
D, EN, FR, PL, CZ, CN - more on request
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11.3 Hardness Scales and Limits
Conversion limits:
The Vickers scale is the basis for all conversions. Currently, the conversion tables for low-alloy steel
are entered. Depending on the specific requirements, conversion ranges and new material tables can
be generated.
Measurement range, in HV (UCI): 10 – 2000 (1 - 9999)
Minimum conversion: 80 HV = 76 HB, maximum conversion: 940 HV = 68 HRC (for low-alloy steel,
table A1 EN ISO 18265).
Conversion rules according to EN ISO 18265 for low-alloy steel:
Scale
HB
HRB
HRF
HRC
HRA
HRD
HR45N
Rm [MPa]
HK
Min
76
41
82,6
20,3
60,7
40,4
19,9
255
-
Max
618
105
115,1
68,0
85,6
76,9
75,4
2180
-
Table 11-2
Conversion rules according to ASTM 140-07 for low-alloy steel:
Scale
HB
HRB
HRF
HRC
HRA
HRD
HR45N
Rm [MPa]
HK
Min
100
55
88,2
20,0
37,2
40,1
19,6
-
112
Max
739
100
99,6
68,0
85,6
76,9
75,4
-
920
Table 11-3
Attention:
Conversion tables according EN ISO 18265 and ASTM E140 are defined over different
ranges for different material tables. For all SonoDur instruments the Vickers scale (HV) is
the reference scale and for every measurement there is always a Vickers value. If there
exists no pairs of values in HRC, HB etc. for conversion, a value will be generated using
extrapolation algorithm. If this is unsuccessful, the user should switch to another hardness
scale or select the Vickers scale. Values which are generated by extrapolation algorithm
are not covered by standards and do have a higher uncertainty. Therefor these values are
displayed in red and it is up to the user to decide whether to use these values or not.
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11.4 Formulas and Terms
Section 7.5 “Information Menu“, contains calculation results that are described in detail below (see
also EN ISO 18265).
Figure 11.1
Average value in Figure 11.1 is represented by the letter X with a bar over it, here referred to as
“Overline X”.

Overline X =

∗ ∑ ()

(1)

With X(i) = Individual Hardness Measurement Value, N = Total Quantity of Measurements
If hardness gradient measurements are not performed, the average value is usually the characteristic
degree of hardness for a material or for a particular test position on the test object. Impacts caused
by the operator and/or material inhomogeneity effects can be reduced by averaging. (Highly
heterogeneous materials such as GG or GGG-cast iron are an exception).
R = Range/spread or maximum error in a series of measurements (absolute value):
R = X(Max) – X(Min)
(2)
Please note:
Relative range is defined dependent on the used scale according EN ISO 18265:
R [%] =
___ R___
Overline X
* 100
(for HV, HB, HK, MPa)
(3)
R [%] =
______ R ____
100 - Overline X
* 100
(for HRC, HRA, HRD, HRN)
(4)
R [%] =
______ R_____
130 - Overline X
* 100
(for HRB and HRF)
(5)
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The range enables the trapping of individual faulty measurements that can be deleted, whereas the
distribution of measured values within a series of measurements has to be taken additionally into
account. The respective test requirements and procedures must be observed in terms of the deletion
of obvious faulty measurements.
Mean error of the single measurement σ:


√∑ ( −  ())
σ=

(6)
( − )
Or relative mean error of the individual measurement σ [%] from (6):
Please note:
Relative mean error of an individual measurement is defined dependent on the used scale according
EN ISO 18265:
σ [%] =
___ σ ___
Overline X
* 100
(for HV, HB, HK, MPa)
(7)
σ [%] =
______ σ ____
100 - Overline X
* 100
(for HRC, HRA, HRD, HRN)
(8)
σ [%] =
______ σ_____
130 - Overline X
* 100
(for HRB and HRF)
(9)
The mean error of the individual measurement is an estimation of the individual faulty measurement
that contains random components as well as systematic components, such as:
 Individual care and skill when handling the probe by the operators (hand-held
measurements, guided measurements by means of stands or probe guidance).
 Testing material properties (local solidification and mechanical stresses, porosity, thermal
pre-treatments) as well as geometry (size, mass, thickness, shape, installation position).
 Surface condition (roughness, texture, granularity, machining grooves).
 Environmental influences (temperature, humidity, cleanliness of test object).
 Device specific dispersion.
The mean error of the individual measurement optimally reflects the quality of the test result in its
entirety as measured by the above factors.
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The process parameters Cp and Cpk:
Both parameters essentially describe the process capability, mainly in automated test facilities and
when measuring large quantities.
Cp describes the dispersion of the measured values (Xi) around an average value Overline X within an
admissible tolerance range (upper and lower thresholds Tmax, Tmin). The formula reads as follows:
Cp =
__Tmax – Tmin__
6σ
(10)
With σ = mean error of an individual measurement and 6σ = width of normal distribution curve.
As already mentioned, the application of this formula requires the presence of a large number of
measured values, which come close to a normal distribution.
The position of the measured value distribution is characterized by the second parameter Cpk. The
distance of the average value Overline X to the respective closer threshold value (Tmax – Overline X)
or (Overline X - Tmin) across half of the distribution width of the Gaussian distribution curve will be
correlated herewith.
Cpk =
__Tmax – Overline X__
3σ
or
__ Overline X – Tmax__
3σ
(11)
depending on which difference is smaller.
A negative sign indicates that the process has moved beyond the tolerance limits. For further
considerations it is referred to relevant literature.
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11.5 Compliance with Environmental Constraints
NewSonic actively participates in the take-back initiative applicable in Europe, "Waste Electrical and
Electronic Equipment" (WEEE) Directive 2002/96/EC.
The test device contains an integral li-ion accumulator (lithium-ion accumulator) that could harm
health and/or environment in case of improper disposal, and therefore must not be disposed as
unsorted household waste within the European Union.
Attention:
Therefore, please always return the device to the manufacturer NewSonic, even after the period of
product durability has expired!
11.6 Limited Warranty
For a period of two (2) years from the date of purchase, we warrant that this instrument will be free
of any claim of ownership by third parties, (ii) when new, be free from defects in material and
workmanship and perform in accordance with the product’s specifications under normal use and
service for the applicable warranty period, following the date of sale. The second year of this
warranty is only valid, if the instrument is calibrated either by us or one of our certified service
providers to values within the provided specifications, after month twelve of ownership, but before
month fourteen begins. The duration of the warranty may be extended or modified by explicit
service contracts.
This limited warranty shall not apply to any problems arising from (i) failure to follow the product
instructions or failure to perform preventive maintenance, (ii) service, repair or modification by
someone other than us or one of our authorized service representatives; or (iii) external causes, such
as accident, abuse, misuse, or problems with electrical power.
This warranty does not cover parts identified as wear-and-tear parts or lamps, transducers, tubes,
accessories, or optional equipment not manufactured by us, which possibly may be covered by
separate manufacturers’ warranties. Our obligation under this warranty is limited to the repair or
replacement of components determined by us to be defective within the warranty period at no cost
to the original purchaser. Customer shall arrange for delivery to us in approved packing material. This
warranty extends to the original purchaser and cannot be assigned or transferred to any other party.
EXCEPT FOR THE WARRANTY SET ABOVE, WE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES AND
REPRESENTATIONS OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO OUR PRODUCTS, WHETHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, TITLE AND ANY WARRANTIES ARISING FROM COURSE OF
PERFORMANCE, COURSE OF DEALING OR TRADE USAGE.
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12 Accessories
12.1 SONO-PM-4, Prisms Attachment Kit for Motorized Probes
This manual describes the use of the prism attachments for motorized probes of the SonoDur2
product family. The operation of the motorized probes is described in the SonoDur2 instruction
manual. Knowledge about such devices is required.
12.1.1 Technical Data and Components
The prisms attachment kit consists of a special probe base with screw thread, featured with four
levels to enable the best possible adaptation to curved surfaces as well as three pre-fitted plates and
one plate for flat surfaces that can be screwed onto the special probe foot.
SONO-PM-4, Order Number: 11209
Special probe base with screw-in sleeve and switching
sleeve
Probe plate for small cylindrical parts, Ø 36mm
Probe plate with Ø 70mm
Probe plate with milled edges Ø 50, width 36mm
Probe plate for flat surfaces, Ø 36mm
Figure 12.1
Figure 12.2
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Attention:
The switching sleeve of the special probe base (see right figure below) is differently designed than
the standard probe base and should therefore not be mixed up.
Figure 12.3
Standard probe base
Special probe base
12.1.2 Handling
To start with, gently unscrew the standard probe base. Select the desired probe plate and screw it
into the special probe base by paying attention to the engraved spacer rings. These indicate the
possible diameter range for each test specimen, as shown in Table 1, which applies to all probe
plates. After screwing it onto the motorized measuring probe, the special probe base is ready to be
used for curved surfaces.
Just like when using the standard probe base, the operating mode can be selected to automatic
measuring via the switching sleeve or manual measuring without the switching sleeve. In order to do
that, the switching sleeve must be taken out of the special probe base. Triggering the initiation of
measurement cycle is now only possible by touching the probe symbol on the SonoDur2 screen,
which however, simplifies the exact positioning.
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The probe plate for flat surfaces serves the same purpose as the standard probe base and permits
fast and simple switching between different probe plates.
Ring
Possible Diameters
3 (top)
From 0 to 10 mm
2
From 10 to 50 mm
1
From 50 to 100 mm
0 (bottom)
From 100 until even
Measured each time for the ring on the vision reference
block of the probe base, located in opposite to the lower
rim of the probe base.
Figure 12.4
Table 12-1
The spacer rings define the possible diameter range according to Table 12.1.
Attention:
Incorrect diameter setting causes that the motorized measuring probe spring force is either too low
or too high and thereby increases the risk of erroneous measurements. If the diameter is set
significantly too high, the Vickers diamond may possibly not reach the test object surface and an
error message will be issued. (Section 7.4.1 - Carrying out of Measurement by Means of Motorized
Probes).
Once the correct diameter adjustment has been made, carefully place the probe with the notch in
longitudinal direction of the cylindrical surface and wait for the measurement process.
Figure 12.5
Attention:
Please ensure that the measuring probe rests fully and is firmly tightened during the measurement
performance.
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13 Glossary
A
H
accumulator ............................................................ 17, 71
adjustment ........................................................ 34, 36, 74
ASTM A 1038 ................................................................... 7
ASTM E 140 ..................................................................... 7
Automatic Measurement .............................................. 27
average value ........................................ 32, 34, 35, 68, 70
B
Back ................................................................... 24, 34, 38
battery status ................................................................ 19
Bluetooth .........................................46, 47, 48, 55, 57, 59
Brinell .......................................................................... 7, 8
hand-held probes ...................................................... 7, 31
hardness. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34,
49, 68
hardness reference block .....................................7, 10, 49
hardness testing .....................................................7, 9, 13
hardness value ................................................................ 7
humidity ........................................................................ 12
I
indentation ............................................................... 7, 16
Info.......................................................................... 24, 49
instrument menu .......................................................... 24
C
K
cable ............................... 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 46, 47, 48, 52
calibration .................... 7, 9, 33, 34, 35, 36, 45, 46, 48, 56
certified ................................................................... 49, 71
charging ....................................................... 17, 18, 19, 52
connector .................................................... 15, 16, 21, 22
conversion ................................................. 7, 8, 13, 38, 67
keyboard ...................................................... 26, 34, 37, 54
L
Leeb .............................................................................. 11
LI-ion ............................................................................. 16
D
M
data .................... 14, 18, 24, 34, 45, 46, 47, 48, 55, 56, 57
diagonal length ................................................................ 8
diamond ....................................... 7, 27, 29, 30, 31, 49, 74
DIN 50159........................................................ 7, 8, 10, 49
display .................................. 14, 24, 27, 29, 30, 31, 40, 53
E
elastic properties ............................................................. 7
EN ISO 1090 ............................................................... 8, 32
EN ISO 18265 ....................................................... 7, 38, 67
error message ............................................. 19, 40, 46, 74
Exit .............................................................. 24, 26, 34, 45
F
File ....................................................24, 35, 45, 46, 47, 56
force ....................... 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 27, 31, 32, 46, 74
Forward ....................................................... 24, 32, 33, 36
freehand measurement .......................................... 29, 69
manual measurements ........................................... 28, 30
material 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 38, 67, 68, 69,
71
measurement .....7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 40, 45, 46,
47, 48, 49, 56, 69, 70, 73, 74
measurement menu ..................................................... 24
menu ............................................................................. 48
Menu ................................................ 24, 26, 32, 33, 34, 68
Messmodus ................................................................... 41
Minimum distance from the component edge ............... 9
Minimum layer thickness ................................................ 9
Minimum mass ............................................................... 9
Minimum material thickness .......................................... 9
motor ....................................................... 7, 27, 28, 29, 30
motorized probes...........................................7, 31, 40, 72
O
on / off .......................................................................... 20
operating time .............................................................. 19
G
P
Gaussian distribution .................................................... 70
penetration .........7, 8, 9, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 40, 41, 45, 49
power supply ............................. 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 52
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probe ..8, 10, 14, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 46, 49,
52, 69, 72, 73, 74
R
rechargeable battery ..................................................... 16
reference block ....................................................... 10, 74
Rockwell ................................................................ 7, 8, 11
rod ............................................................... 28, 29, 30, 32
roughness .................................................... 7, 8, 9, 10, 69
S
Safety Guidelines ..................................................... 15, 18
safety information ......................................................... 12
safety regulations .......................................................... 12
simulation mode ........................................................... 22
soft keys ........................................................................ 23
Software Version ........................................................... 49
standard .............................................8, 10, 14, 38, 73, 74
statistics ........................................................................ 24
steel ....................................................8, 10, 32, 33, 36, 67
surface ................ 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 74
surface roughness ........................................................... 9
T
temperature ................................................. 12, 18, 19, 69
temperature range........................................................ 18
tensile strength ........................................................... 7, 8
test force ....................................................................... 31
threshold ............................................................32, 40, 70
touch ................................................ 23, 24, 29, 30, 52, 54
U
UCI ............................................. 1, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 49, 67
Ultrasonic Contact Impedance ........................................ 7
Umwertegrenzen .......................................................... 38
USB ................................. 14, 15, 18, 46, 47, 48, 50, 55, 57
V
VDE.................................................................................. 7
VDI .................................................................................. 7
vibration .......................................................................... 7
Vickers............................................ 7, 8, 10, 27, 29, 67, 74
W
WLAN ........................................................... 46, 48, 55, 60
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