About This Operations Manual
Radian Research, Inc. makes no warranty on the accuracy of the information contained in this Operations
Manual and accepts no liability for its use.
The information contained in this Operations Manual remains the property of Radian Research, Inc. It is
provided in good faith for the operation and servicing of this Radian Research, Inc. product. We reserve
the right to take legal action where this information is divulged to third parties without our written consent
or in circumstances that may cause us commercial harm.
The operation of this equipment requires training and experience in electric meter testing. The information
in this Operations Manual is designed to supplement existing knowledge and experience already attained
and practiced by journeyman-level meter test technicians. Novice meter test technicians should not
attempt to operate this equipment without first gaining the basic knowledge of meter testing and the
application of meter testing equipment from a certified training course.
Copyright © 2017 Radian Research, Inc.
Radian Research reserves the right to change any information in this document without notice.
Table of Contents
General Safety Summary ......................................................................................................... 5
1.0 WECO 4000X Series vs. WECO 4000 Series ..................................................................... 6
1.1 RX Standard Inside ...........................................................................................................6
1.2 Touchscreen Interface .......................................................................................................6
2.0 Test Board Basics .............................................................................................................. 7
2.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................7
2.2 Front Panel ........................................................................................................................7
2.2.1 Optics Arm ................................................................................................................................... 8
2.2.2 Smart Socket .............................................................................................................................. 10
2.2.3 Touch Screen ............................................................................................................................. 10
2.2.4 Controls and Indicators .............................................................................................................. 15
2.3 Back Panel ......................................................................................................................21
2.3.1 Back Panel Connections ............................................................................................................ 22
3.0 Getting Started ..................................................................................................................23
3.1 Test Board Set-up Introductions ......................................................................................23
4.0 Maintenance ......................................................................................................................26
4.1 Contact Information .........................................................................................................26
4.2 Routine Maintenance .......................................................................................................26
4.2.1 Socket Cleaning and Inspection ................................................................................................ 27
4.2.2 Socket Shield ............................................................................................................................. 27
4.2.3 Voltage Pins ............................................................................................................................... 28
4.2.4 Current Jaws .............................................................................................................................. 29
4.2.5 Meter in Position Tabs ............................................................................................................... 29
4.2.6 Test Board Cleaning .................................................................................................................. 30
4.2.7 Replacing Fuses ........................................................................................................................ 31
4.2.8 Quick Checks ............................................................................................................................. 31
4.3 Warranty Service .............................................................................................................32
4.3.1 To Obtain Warranty Service ....................................................................................................... 32
4.4 After Warranty Service.....................................................................................................32
4.4.1 To Obtain After Warranty Service .............................................................................................. 32
Glossary ..................................................................................................................................33
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General Safety Summary
Warning
● Operation of this equipment involves high voltage.
● Follow all safety guidelines contained in this manual.
Caution
● Do not use this equipment for any purpose other than for which it was
designed.
● Do not operate the equipment outside of the environmental conditions
specified in this manual.
● Do not operate this equipment with covers or panels removed. Keep
equipment surfaces clean and dry.
● Handle the WECO 4050X, 4150X and 4330X Test Systems with care;
they are precision instruments.
● Inspect the equipment before each use. Do not use the equipment if
damage is observed.
● Use only cables provided by Radian Research, Inc.
● When moving the test board, be aware of the weight of the system.
● Only move the test board if the personnel handling the system is
capable of moving equipment around 150 lbs.
● Keep in mind while lifting:
● Do not attempt to lift by bending forward. Bend your hips and
knees to squat down to your load, keep it close to your body,
and straighten your legs to lift.
● Never lift a heavy object above shoulder level.
● Avoid turning or twisting your body while lifting or holding a
heavy object.
Symbols Found on the Equipment
The following safety symbols appear on the WECO 4000X Test Systems:
Figure 1.1: Laser Caution Symbol
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1.0 WECO 4000X Series vs. Model 4000 Series
There are two key features that puts the 4000X Series on a new level compared to the 4000 Series.
1.1 RX Standard Inside
Radian Research is committed to leading innovative and technologically superior
products that provide power and energy measurement that is surpassed by none. Our
engineers drew on the expertise and knowledge we acquired from our industryleading legacy RM (Metronic) and RD (Dytronic) Reference Standards to develop
the RX (Xytronic), the ultimate in power and energy measurement perfection.
The RX is designed to operate over a broad Current, Voltage & Power Factor
measurement range. A dynamic range of 30 VAC - 600 VAC, 1 mA – 200 A
provides the versatility to operate in a multitude of Power & Energy applications.
Three-phase fully auto-ranging, simultaneous four quadrant precision measurements,
computes, records and presents instantaneous metrics.
The RX uses the latest ADC technology incorporating six high speed A/D
convertors. The RX allows the user to do more with a single instrument.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended measurement range 1 mA - 200 A
Accurate in extreme environments
Exceeds IEC 61010 – CAT IV
Extraordinarily versatile and Exceptional value
Expanded 17025 Accreditation
Service & Support
Maximize signal processing
RX-30 (0.04%)
RX-31 (0.02%)
1.2 Touchscreen Interface
The new touchscreen interface used on the 4000X Series shows a real-time look at
the standards inside the unit. This provides more accessibility to the user, as
instantaneous metrics can be viewed from the front of the unit to directly compare to
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the data being read by the meter. In addition, it can be used to view the following
information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Measurement Metrics
Phase Diagrams
Phase Overlay viewed on top of instantaneous metrics
RX Pulse Port Output
Model/Serial Number of RX
Network Properties
Analog Sense
Transducer
2.0 Test Board Basics
2.1 Introduction
The WECO 4000X Series Automated Watthour Meter Test System is composed of
three main components; (1) the 4000X Series test board, (2) a PC compatible
computer with WinBoard Software and (3) optional accessories.
The 4000X Series test board is the physical connection to the meter under test. The
test board generates independently programmable test voltages, currents and phase
angles. The programmability of the 4000X Series allows the operator to simulate
line conditions or run preprogrammed test parameters. Refer to the 4000X Series
specifications for more detail.
The 4000X Series test board is designed for operation from either the accompanying
computer or the front panel controls of the test board. Before a test can be
performed, meter information and test parameters must be set on the computer.
Information such as the meter form, and desired test conditions are all that is
required. If the optional barcode scanner is included, information can be entered by
simply scanning the AEP code on the meter. The test can then be started and run
from the test board front panel, the computer keyboard and/or the mouse.
2.2 Front Panel
The front panel of the WECO 4000X Series test board contains all necessary
controls to perform meter testing. The test parameters must first be set from the
computer. Once the test parameters are set, meters of the same type can be tested
from the front panel without need for the operator to use the computer.
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The 4000X Series front panel can perform specific tasks during the test. Smart
socket, optics arm, and/or contact input devices or control buttons and indicators can
be interfaced from the front panel. Refer to Figure 2.2.1 for an overview of the
functions. Each function is discussed in this section.
Figure 2.2.1: WECO 4000X Series Front Panel
2.2.1 Optics Arm
The 4000X Series is equipped with solid state lasers for through-the-hole and
reflect-mode testing of electromechanical meters. The operator of the 4000X Series
test board is advised to use all applicable safety practices associated with the
operation of Class II laser products. The laser emits an intensely focused beam of
light. DO NOT stare into the emitted beam. DO NOT stare into the laser spot
reflected from a surface. A Class II laser emits light in the visible spectrum (400-700
nm). The normal human aversion response to bright radiant sources should provide
ample protection. Class II laser light may present some potential for hazard if
viewed directly for long periods of time.
The optics arm serves as a platform from which to position the lasers and sensors
used in through-the-hole and reflect mode testing. The optics assembly is comprised
of a horizontally adjustable "C" bracket, an articulated swing arm and optical sensor
elements (lasers and photodiodes). Figure 2.2.2 depicts the location of the main
components.
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Figure 2.2.2: WECO 4000X Series Optics Arm
The optics arm is articulated, it can pivot horizontally 180° at the base of the test
board. A knuckle at midpoint adds additional flexibility. The "C" bracket is attached
to the end of the swing arm on a pivot point and can rotate a 350° around the swing
arm. DO NOT attempt to rotate the "C" bracket past the stop pin, as damage to the
internal wiring may result. Figure 2.2.3 illustrates swing arm rotation.
Figure 2.2.3: WECO 4000X Series Optics Arm
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2.2.2 Smart Socket
A key feature of the 4000X Series is the smart socket. The smart socket accepts all
S-base ANSI meter forms and with optional adapters can accept A-base and K-Base
meter forms. A zero-insertion force feature is designed into the socket reducing
operator fatigue. Operation is easy, simply align the meter spades with the socket
jaws and using minimal force insert the meter. Presence of the meter is detected
when at least one of the four meter-in-position sensor switches are pressed by the
meter’s “feet”. After a delay of approximately 0.5 seconds the jaws of the socket
will automatically clamp the meter in place. To release the meter, press the "Meter
Release" button on the front panel. (Hold the meter as is may fall from the socket)
Figure 2.2.4: WECO 4000X Smart Socket
The socket is controlled by a dedicated microcontroller. This small computer detects
the presence of a meter and intelligently controls the jaw solenoids clamping the
meter in place. The intelligent control also incorporates safety measures to prevent
premature release of a meter due to electrical or environmental conditions. In the
event of a power failure the socket remains in its previous state (open or closed).
For more information on A-base, K-Base, IEC specialty or custom adapters please
consult Radian Research or your Radian sales representative.
2.2.3 Touch Screen
The 4000X Series is equipped with a touch screen mounted on the front panel,
allowing direct access to the screen of the internal RX reference standard. From the
touch screen, metrics, vector diagrams, and other information that the internal RX
reference standard provides. Information on each RX screen is provided below.
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RX Metrics
Actively provides information regarding the measurements of the RX Standard.
These metrics will correlate with the power that the 4000X Series Test Board is
programmed to output.
Figure 2.2.5: WECO 4000X Metrics Touch Screen
RX Vector Diagram
Shows a vector diagram of power being delivered to the RX. The vector diagram
can be customized using the on-screen buttons.
Figure 2.2.6: WECO 4000X Vector Touch Screen
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RX Metrics/Vector Diagram
A combination of the first two screens, conveniently placed on one screen.
Figure 2.2.7: WECO 4000X Metrics/Vector Touch Screen
RX Port Setup
Shows how each port is set up on the RX.
Figure 2.2.8: WECO 4000X Ports Touch Screen
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RX Information
RX Model and Serial Number information can be viewed here.
Figure 2.2.9: WECO 4000X Information Touch Screen
RX IP Configuration/Date/Time
The IP Address, Date, and Time set in the RX can be viewed here.
Figure 2.2.10: WECO 4000X Configuration Touch Screen
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RX Analog Sense
Information regarding Analog Sense features of the RX can be viewed from this
screen.
Figure 2.2.11: WECO 4000X Analog Sense Touch Screen
RX Options
Options regarding the Screen Saver and SCPI can be set on this screen.
Figure 2.2.12: WECO 4000X Screen Saver Settings
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2.2.4 Controls and Indicators
The 4000X Series is designed to automate watthour meter testing. Most of the
control of the test board is provided by the external computer. The controls on the
4000X Series are intuitive and easy to use. They are divided into four areas;
(1) Voltage and Current Energized Indicators
(2) Meter Release Button
(3) Meter Test Function Buttons
(4) Audio and Optics Controls
Voltage and Current Energized Indicators
The voltage and current indicators are in the top right corner of the 4000X Series
front panel. Illumination of a LED indicates the 4000X Series is generating voltage
and/or current and delivering it to the jaws of the smart socket.
Figure 2.2.13: Voltage/Current Indicator
Meter Release Button
As discussed in the section on the smart socket, pressing the meter release button
opens the socket jaws to allow the operator to retrieve the meter. Before releasing a
meter, the meter test should be stopped by pressing the CANCEL button. The green
LED above the button will illuminate when the meter socket is closed and a meter is
present. As a safety precaution, if the voltage and/or current indicator(s) are lit, the
Meter Release button is disabled. Upon completion of the test functionality is
returned to the button.
CAUTION: The operator should be prepared to catch the meter when it is released
from the socket. Gravity at work!
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Figure 2.2.14: Meter Release Button
Meter Test Function Button
Test function may be controlled from the front panel of the 4000X Series after the
test parameters have been set on the computer. Four meter test functions are
controllable; (1) Creep, (2) Jog, (3) Start, and (4) Cancel.
CREEP: The creep button applies voltage to the meter. The voltage given to the
meter is defined in the software. For electromechanical meters, this can be used to
look for motion in the disk when only voltage is applied. For solid state meters, it
can be used to power up the meter and no pulses should be detected during a creep
test. A small green LED will illuminate while the creep function is active.
JOG: The jog button applies voltage, current and phase angle to the meter under test
so the optical sensors can be adjusted for testing. The applied voltage, current and
phase angle are determined by test parameter settings in the software. Pressing JOG
with a solid-state meter in the socket results in the initiation of a stream of pulses
from the meter under test which are then detected using the infrared sensors on the
reflect mode sensor or an optional Optical Coupler. A small green LED will
illuminate while the jog function is active.
START: Initiate the selected test sequence or test. The LEDs for Jog or Creep will
be extinguished and the meter test will begin. The Start LED will illuminate once
testing begins. The parameters for the test or test sequence are obtained from the
computer and must be setup before testing begins.
CANCEL: Stops the current test operation, removes power from the meter, and
turns off the Voltage and Current indicator lights.
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Figure 2.2.15: Meter Test Function Button
Audio and Optics Controls
There are three buttons located within the Optics Controls section. The top button
increases the volume of audible tones that are emitted when the test board receives a
pulse from the selected optical source. The middle button mutes the audible tone
from pulse inputs. A green LED will light when the audio source is muted. The
bottom button will lower the volume of audible tones. The pulse indicator will
illuminate when a mark/pulse is detected. The signal strength meter is a tri-color bar
graph indicating the strength of the laser used in through-hole or reflect mode
testing. The meter also indicated the strength of the infrared pickup used for solid
state meters. Audio status can be controlled from the software as well.
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Figure 2.2.16: Audio/Optics Controls
KYZ Connections
The 4000X Series has front panel connections for contact devices such as KYZ.
Multiple and specialty contact devices may be connected through the advanced I/O
port. Contact device connections made through the base of the meter are set up
automatically when the form/base is software selected.
Figure 2.2.17: KYZ Connections
Inputs and Outputs
Inputs and Outputs represent optional device connections which may be used with
the 4000X Series to aid in meter testing or system calibration.
-
The Optical Port is used to connect the optical coupler used in testing and
programming of solid state meters.
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-
-
-
The Barcode port is used to connect a barcode scanner. The barcode scanner
is used to automated entry of meter information and test setup. The AEP
code on a meter may be scanned to enter the meter form, test voltage, Kh,
and other meter data encoded in the barcode label affixed to the meter. Other
test parameters can be enter using barcode labels allowing test to be started,
stopped, test results saved and any of a variety of other test related functions
can be performed.
The Pulse Input and Pulse Output port is used in several different ways. It
can be used in conjunction with another Radian reference standard for
Standards Compare testing or the port can be used to either receive input
pulses from solid state meters or to read pulses on external hardware.
The Analog Input port is used in transducer testing.
The Analog Output port is used in transducer testing.
Figure 2.2.18: Input/Output Ports
Power Switch
The unit’s main power switch is located on the front panel in the lower right corner.
The switch will light up when the unit is powered on.
Figure 2.2.19: Power Switch
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Fuses
The unit's power system is protected by two fuses located to the left of the power
switch. The fuse block is depicted in Figure 2.2.20. The Main Fuse (AGC-10)
provides protection to the socket and to the power supply. The Convenience Outlets
Fuse (AGC-5) provides protection to the convenience power outlets on the front and
back of the test board. For replacement information refer to Section 4:
Maintenance; Replacing Fuses.
Figure 2.2.20: Fuse Panel
Convenience Outlets
The 4000X Series is equipped with four convenience outlets, two on the front panel
and two on the back panel. Figure 2.2.21 depicts one of the outlets. These auxiliary
power outlets are intended to provide power for adapters used with modems,
programmers and other miscellaneous devices. Each outlet can carry up to four
amps. However,
● DO NOT exceed four amps for ALL four of the outlets.
● DO NOT use the auxiliary power outlets to power uninterruptible power
supplies (UPS), power tool such as electric drills or saws or any device
known to generate electrical noise.
● DO NOT use an auxiliary power outlet to power fluorescent lighting.
● DO NOT use an auxiliary power outlet to power additional 4000X Series test
boards.
● DO NOT power external devices from an auxiliary power outlet using an
extension cord.
● DO NOT power the PC (computer) and/or monitor from the auxiliary outlets.
Powering these devices from the auxiliary power outlets could result in faulty meter
test results, blown fuses and possible damage to the test board.
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Figure 2.2.21: Convenience Outlets
2.3 Back Panel
The back panel of the 4000X Series test board provides connections for power and
Ethernet interfacing. Figure 2.2.22 illustrates the back panel of the 4000X.
Figure 2.2.22: WECO 4000X Back Panel
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2.3.1 Back Panel Connections
AC Power Connector
The unit’s main AC power connection is located on the rear panel in the lower left
corner. Figure 2.2.23 illustrates the connector. AC power is supplied from a 120 volt
or 240-volt wall outlet. The service can handle voltages between 90V and 264V and
1500W of power at its maximum. Connect the power cord supplied with the unit to
the power connector.
Figure 2.2.23: AC Power Connector
Test Board Interface
The test board interface holds three Ethernet ports as shown in Figure 2.2.24 to
communicate between the test board and the PC or between other test boards.
Figure 2.2.24: Test Board Interface
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Power Line Carrier
This outlet is used to power an external Power Line Carrier module direct from the
test board, as shown in Figure 2.2.25.
Figure 2.2.25: Power Line Carrier
3.0 Getting Started
3.1 Test Board Setup Instructions
Unpack the Test Board(s)
Remove the test board(s) and accompanying PC from their shipping containers.
Place them on a level surface with access to power outlets.
Locate the components necessary to set up your WECO test board(s):
- Test board(s)
- PC
- USB To Ethernet Adapter
- Ethernet Interface Cable(s)
- 120 Volt Test board Power Cable(s)
Setup the PC
The PC shipped with your test board(s) will differ depending on the specific system
ordered. Refer to the PC documentation located in the PC shipping container to
ensure that all the necessary parts are present and for information setting up the PC.
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Setup Communications
Using the Radian recommended Ethernet configuration (See figure 3.1.1), connect
the USB to Ethernet Adapter into a USB connection on the PC. Insert the Ethernet
Interface Cable into the Ethernet Adapter .
Plug the other end of the Ethernet Interface Cable into any of the 3 Ethernet PC
Interface ports on the rear of the test board (See figure 2.2.24).
For multiple position units, install additional Ethernet cables from each station to the
next station until all the stations are daisy chained together — up to a total of six
stations.
Connect to The Network
If a company network connection is required, connect an Ethernet cable from the
PC’s internal network adapter to your LAN.
Power Up the Unit (See figure 2.2.19)
Insert the 120 Volt AC power cord into the power input on the rear of the test
board(s). Plug the power cord(s) into a 120 Volt electrical outlet(s).
Power on the unit(s) with the power switch located just above the power input
connector located on the front panel for 4000X Series.
Install WATT-Net software
This step is only necessary if the PC is customer supplied and the PC was NOT
shipped to Radian Research for software installation.
To download the software, follow this link:
http://download.watthour.com/WNBasic/WNBasicInstaller.zip
To download the WATT-Net Basic Quick Start Guide for complete installation
instructions visit:
http://www.radianresearch.com/pdf/WNBasic_Quickstart_Guide.pdf.
Ethernet Configuration:
1. Connect test board to the PC using the supplied
USB to Ethernet adapter. (Optional - PC to LAN
using the PC’s internal NIC.)
Note: This installation is not required if Radian
supplied the PC or if your PC was shipped to
Radian.
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2. Test board network settings:
o The test board ships with a static link-local IP
address. The IP address is 169.254.XX.YY — where
XX is the first two digits of the test board serial
number and YY is the last two digits of the test
board’s serial number. The subnet mask is set to
255.255.0.0.
o For multiple position test boards contained within a
single cabinet, each station’s IP YY address is
increased incrementally by one. For multiple position
test boards each within individual cabinets, each
station has a unique serial number and IP address.
o Network settings are configured using Cal95.exe: Ethernet Interface
— should these settings need modification.
3. PC network settings:
o The PC’s USB to Ethernet adapter should be
configured with a static link-local IP address of
169.254.1xx.yy — where xx is the first two digits of
the test board’s serial number and yy is the last two
digits of the test board’s serial number.
o The subnet mask for the USB to Ethernet adapter
should be set to 255.255.0.0.
Optional configuration to
Test board to PC with LAN connection optional.
Figure 3.1.1: Connections
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4.0 Maintenance
4.1 Contact Information
For questions related to maintenance and service, contact Radian Research, Inc.:
Radian Research, Inc.
3852 Fortune Drive
Lafayette, IN 47905 USA
Tel: (765) 449-5576
Fax: (765) 448-4614
Email: technicalsupport@radianresearch.com
Website: www.radianresearch.com
4.2 Routine Maintenance
To assure accurate test results the Smart Socket, illustrated in Figure 4.2.1, requires
periodic maintenance. A cleaning and inspection schedule should be established.
The primary factor in determining how frequently to clean and inspect the socket is
test board usage. For utility company meter shops with a low throughput of meters,
cleaning and inspecting once a month may be sufficient. However, for a production
facility with a significantly higher meter throughput once a day or even every shift
change may be required. As a rule of thumb clean the socket after every 100 meters.
Figure 4.2.1: Smart Socket
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Cleaning the socket is important! The contacts can become dirty from contact with
the meter spades. The contact surface of the socket develops a thin layer of dirt and
other contaminates. This layer builds as more contaminates are compressed each
time the socket is closed. Contaminates create an additional impedance in the test
circuit. This increased impedance affects the meter test accuracy by causing a
voltage drop at the meter. The voltage at the meter is now lower than the voltage
applied to the reference standard. When the two voltages are compared the result is
poor meter accuracy.
4.2.1 Socket Cleaning and Inspection
Before you perform maintenance to the test board TURN OFF THE POWER.
Cleaning of the Smart Socket involves four basic areas, (1) the socket shield, (2) the
current jaws, (3) the voltage pins, and (4) the meter in position tabs. Figure 4.2.2
provides a detailed view of the smart socket components.
Figure 4.2.2: Smart Socket Details
As part of the cleaning regime a visual inspection should be performed. Look for
signs of wear on contact surfaces and check for dirty contacts. The contact surfaces
of the current jaws and voltage pins may wear as meters are inserted and removed.
Excessive wear may result in poor meter accuracy.
4.2.2 Socket Shield
● Clean the surface area of the shield using a soft brush or a paint brush.
Remove all dust, dirt and grime. Dust and dirt will accumulate heavily on the
edges of the shield near the socket jaws. Accumulation of this type is caused
by the cooling fans inside the test board. The fans draw air through the small
openings around the socket and leave the heavier dust and dirt particles
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behind. Check the surface of the shield. If it contains oil or grease, use a soft
cloth moistened with isopropyl or denatured alcohol to remove any
contaminates. Isopropyl alcohol can be purchased at any drugstore or chain
store and is preferred because it will thoroughly clean and degrease the
surface without leaving a residue. Do not saturate the cloth, use only enough
alcohol to remove the grease and not drip alcohol into the test board or the
socket jaws.
● Inspect the shield surface for damage such as cracks or punctures. Surface
damage is rare.
4.2.3 Current Jaws
● Clean the contact surfaces of the jaws using a soft cloth wrapped around a
tongue depressor or Popsicle stick. Lightly moisten the cloth with isopropyl
or denatured alcohol. Do not saturate the cloth, use only enough alcohol to
remove contaminates. Be careful not to remove the lubricant at the pivot pin.
Ample lubrication is applied at the factory to last the life of the socket.
Excessive alcohol will collect at the pivot pin and degrade or remove the
lubricant causing the jaws to wear prematurely. Figure 4.2.3 illustrates the
components of the jaw.
● Inspect the jaw. Look for contaminants that were not removed during
cleaning. Examine the jaw for damage from debris that may have been
attached to the meter spade(s). Be sure the silver surface of the contacts is
not scratched or pitted. Look for signs of wear.
Figure 4.2.3: Current Jaws
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4.2.4 Voltage Pins
● The voltage pins of the socket require minimal maintenance. Figure 4.2.4
depicts the voltage pins. Clean the pins using a soft cloth moistened with
isopropyl or denatured alcohol. Apply light pressure while rubbing the
contact surface of each pin in a circular motion.
● Inspect each pin. Look for signs of wear along the shaft. Look for deep
scratches on the contact surface of each pin. Also check for contaminates that
may not have been removed during cleaning. Fully depress each pin and
release to ensure the spring returns the contact to the original position.
Figure 4.2.4: Voltage Pins
4.2.5 Meter in Position Tabs
● The Smart Socket contains four micro switches used as sensors. The switches
are used to detect the presence of a meter and actuate the socket. Figure 4.2.5
depicts the locations of the Meter in Position Tabs. There is no maintenance
required for the switches other than an occasional inspection to insure all
four switches are functioning properly.
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Figure 4.2.5: Position Tabs
● To check the Meter in Position Tabs;
○ Turn on the power to the test board.
○ Press and hold the sensor in the top left corner of the socket. Listen
for an audible click, and then the current contacts on the socket
should close. Observe that they all operate and close an equivalent
distance. When the jaws are closed and one or more of the Meter in
Position Tab(s) is depressed the LED on the Meter Release button
will illuminate.
○ Press the Meter Release button on the front panel of the 4000X
Series, the socket jaws will open, and the LED on the Meter Release
button will turn off. A delay of approximately 0.5 seconds will occur
after the Meter Release button or Meter in Position Tab(s) are
pressed. The delay is a design feature to prevent inadvertent operation
of the socket.
○ Repeat for each of the four sensors. If a sensor does not operate the
socket jaws, contact Technical Support for assistance.
4.2.6 Test Board Cleaning
● The WECO 4000X Series requires periodic cleaning. Using a soft dry cloth,
a clean paintbrush, or a shop vacuum dust the exterior surfaces of the test
board. As previously mentioned dust and dirt will accumulate heavily on the
edges where air is drawn into the test board by the cooling fans. Use a soft
cloth moistened with isopropyl or denatured alcohol to remove any
contaminates on the surface of the test board.
● The interior of the test board should be cleaned on a regular basis. Dirt and
dust in the shop is drawn inside the test board by the cooling fans. Turn OFF
the power and unplug the test board before attempting to clean the interior.
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Use a dry shop towel to carefully remove all dust and dirt that has
accumulated. Use caution not to unplug connectors or damage the wiring
while dusting.
4.2.7 Replacing Fuses
● The unit's power system is protected by two fuses located on the front panel
to the left of the power switch. The fuse block is depicted in Figure 4.2.6
● The Main Fuse (AGC-10) provides protection to the socket and to the power
supply. This part can be replaced by a 10 Amp, 250 Volt, Glass Tube Fuse.
● The Convenience Outlets Fuse (AGC-5) provides protection to the
convenience power outlets on the front and back of the test board. This part
can be replaced by a 5 Amp, 250 Volt, Glass Tube Fuse.
Figure 4.2.6: Fuses Location
4.2.8 Quick Checks
Quick checks can be performed at the back of the unit to ensure that the unit is
running properly. If the back panel is opened, there are LED Indicators that show
the status of the Power Supplies and Amplifiers. Periodically check to make sure
that those LED’s illuminate “Green.”
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4.3 Warranty Service
Radian Research, Inc. warrants that each product is free from defects in material and
workmanship. Our obligation under this warranty is to repair or replace any instrument or
component therein that, within two years after shipment and with normal use, proves to be
defective upon examination.
4.3.1 To Obtain Warranty Service
All warranty returns must have a return materials authorization (RMA) number. To obtain an
RMA, visit http://radianresearch.com/support.php#rma. Follow these guidelines to ensure
prompt warranty service:
• Radian Research, Inc. must authorize all warranty replacements.
• Ship returned items prepaid, fully insured, and in the original packing to minimize
the possibility of damage.
• Radian Research, Inc. will not accept collect shipments and does not accept liability
for damage caused by improper packing or handling during shipment.
• Include in the shipment a detailed description of the problem and the events that led
up to the development of the problem.
• Radian Research, Inc. will pay local domestic surface freight costs to return the
product to the customer. Radian will not pay for overnight or express shipping
service.
• Use the following address for warranty returns:
Radian Research, Inc. 3852 Fortune Drive Lafayette, IN 47905 USA
4.4 After Warranty Service
If after-warranty service by Radian Research, Inc. is needed:
• A purchase order is required.
• The owner must pay all shipping costs.
• If requested, Radian Research, Inc. can provide an estimate for the repair;
however, if the repair is not made, the cost of labor required to obtain the
estimate will be invoiced at the hourly repair rate.
4.4.1 To Obtain After Warranty Service
All after-warranty service requests must have a return materials authorization
(RMA) number. To obtain an RMA, visit
www.radianresearch.com/forms/RMA/RMA-form.html. Payment information must
also be provided (purchase order or credit card).
Please follow these guidelines to ensure prompt after-warranty service:
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•
•
•
Ship returned items prepaid, fully insured, and in the original packing to
minimize the possibility of damage.
Include in the shipment a detailed description of the problem and the events
that led up to the development of the problem.
Radian Research, Inc. will invoice return shipping costs to the customer.
Glossary
A
Accuracy
The extent to which a given measurement agrees with the defined value.
Ampere-Hour
The average quantity of electric current flowing in a circuit for one hour.
Amps
The desired test amps - usually set to what is listed on the faceplate of the meter.
AMR Type
Informs Winboard if special commands or conditions need to be turned on due to a certain
AMR Type present in the meter.
Artificial Load
See Phantom Load.
As Found
The meter accuracy calculated during the first time a test step was run on the meter.
As Left
The meter accuracy calculated during the last time a test step was run on the meter.
Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)
The reading of meters from a location remote from where the meter is installed. Telephone,
radio, and electric power lines are used to communicate meter readings to remote locations.
B
Balanced Load
The term balanced load is used to indicate equal currents in all phases and relatively equal
voltages between phases and between each phase and neutral (if one exists), with
approximately equal watts in each phase of the load.
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Blondel's Theorem
In a system of N conductors, N-l meter elements, properly connected, will measure the
power or energy taken. The connection must be such that all voltage coils have a common
tie to the conductor in which there is no current coil.
Bottom-Connected Meter
A meter having a bottom connection terminal assembly. Also referred to as an A-base
electricity meter.
Burden
The load, usually expressed in voltamperes at a specified power factor, placed on instrument
transformer secondary by the associated meter coils, leads, and other connected devices.
Button Panel
Command buttons on the side of a window in a PC application that allow users to control
functions in the program.
C
Calibration
Comparison of the indication of the instrument under test, or registration of meter under test,
with an appropriate standard.
Cancel
A test is stopped either manually or automatically by the test board. In either case the test
board stops generating voltage and current.
Class Designation
The maximum of the watthour meter load range in amperes.
Clockwise Rotation
Motion in the same direction as that of the hands of a clock, front view.
Constant
A quantity used in an equation, the value of which remains the same regardless of the values
of other quantities used in the equation.
Constant - KYZ Output (Ke)
Pulse constant for the KYZ outputs of a solid- state meter, programmable in unit-hours per
pulse.
Constant - Watthour
(a)
For an electromechanical meter (Kh): The number of watthours represented by one
revolution of the disk, determined by the design of the meter and not normally changed.
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Also called Disk Constant. (b) For a solid-state meter (Kh or Kt): The number of watthours
represented by one increment (pulse period) of serial data. Example: Kh or Kt = 1.8
watthours/pulse.
Constant Kilowatt-hour of a Meter (Register Constant Dial Constant)
The multiplier applied to the register reading
to obtain kilowatt-hours.
Creep
For mechanical meters, a continuous motion of the rotor of a meter with normal operating
voltage applied and the load terminals open- circuited. For electronic meters, a continuous
accumulation of data in a consumption register when no power is being consumed.
Custom Test
A meter test using any percentage of test volts, test amps, and phase angle desired.
Cycle
One complete set of positive and negative values of an alternating current or voltage. These
values repeat themselves at regular intervals (See Hertz).
D
Dead-Front
Equipment which, under normal operating conditions, has no live parts exposed, is called
dead-front.
Demand
The average value of power or related quantity over a specified interval of time. Demand is
expressed in kilowatts, kilovoltamperes, kiloVARs, or other suitable units. An interval may
be 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, or 60 minutes.
Demand - Continuous Cumulative
The sum of the previous billing period maximum demands and the present period maximum
demand.
Demand - Cumulative
The sum of the previous billing period maximum demand readings. At the time of billing
period reset, the maximum demand for the most recent billing period is added to the
previously accumulated total of all maximum demands.
Demand - Maximum
The highest demand measured over a selected period of time such as one month. Also called
Peak Demand.
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Demand - Rolling Interval
A method of measuring power or other quantity by taking measurements within fixed
intervals of the demand period. This method can be used to determine total demand, average
demand, maximum demand, and average maximum demand during the full interval.
Demand - Sliding Window
See Demand, Rolling Interval.
Demand - Threshold Alert
An output to indicate that a programmed value of demand has been exceeded.
Demand Constant (Pulse Receiver)
The value of the measured quantity for each received pulse, divided by the demand interval,
expressed in kilowatts per pulse, kilo- VARs per pulse, or other suitable units. The demand
interval must be expressed in parts of an hour such as 1/4 for a 15-minute interval or 1/12 for
a 5-minute interval.
Demand Delay
The programmable amount of time before demand calculations are restarted after a power
outage. Also called Cold Load Pickup and Demand Forgiveness.
Demand Deviation
The difference between the indicated or recorded demand and the true demand, expressed as
a percentage of the full-scale value of the demand meter or demand register.
Demand Factor
The ratio of the maximum demand to the connected load.
Demand Interval (Block-Interval Demand Meter)
The specified interval of time on which a
demand measurement is based. Intervals such as 10, 15, or 60 minutes are commonly
specified.
Demand Interval Synchronization
Physical linking of meters to synchronize the demand intervals of all meters. Also called
Demand Timing Pulse.
Demand Meter
A metering device that indicates or records the demand, maximum demand, or both. Since
demand involves both an electrical factor and a time factor, mechanisms responsive to each
of these factors are required as well as an indicating or recording mechanism. These
mechanisms may be separate or structurally combined with one another.
Demand Meter (Indicating)
A demand meter equipped with a readout that indicates demand, maximum demand, or both.
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Demand Meter Integrating (Block-Interval)
A meter that integrates power or a related quantity over a fixed time interval and indicates or
records the average.
Demand Register
A mechanism for use with an integrating electricity meter that indicates maximum demand
and also registers energy (or other integrated quantity).
Demand-Interval Deviation
The difference between the measured demand interval and the specified demand interval,
expressed as a percentage of the specified demand interval.
Desired Accuracy
Used for loss compensation testing. If the meter is programmed to 2% compensation, then
the desired accuracy should be set to 102.00. Normal desired accuracy is 100%
Detent
A device installed in a meter to prevent reverse rotation (or meter registration).
Disconnect Relay
A relay, internal to the meter, used to interrupt the flow of electricity.
Disk Position Indicator or “Caterpillar”
An indicator on the display of a solid-state register that simulates rotation of a disk at a rate
proportional to power.
E
Electrical Degree
The 360th part of one complete alternating current cycle.
Element (1)
A combination of a voltage-sensing unit and a current-sensing unit which provides an output proportional to the quantities measured.
Element (2)
Meter elements (A, B, C).
Energy
The integral of active power with respect to time.
Energy Mode
The type of energy to be measured during a test (WATT Hrs, Var Hrs, Q Hrs, etc.).
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F
Firmware
Computer programs used by embedded systems and typically stored in read-only memories.
See Memory.
Form No.
A number representing a type of meter form.
Full Load Test
A meter test using one hundred percent of the test amps listed on the face- plate of the meter.
G
Gear Ratio
The number of revolutions of the rotating element of a meter compared to one revolution of
the first dial pointer.
Ground
A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electric circuit or
equipment and earth.
H
Hertz (Cycles per Second)
The practical unit of frequency of an alternating current or voltage. It is the number of
cycles, sets of positive and negative values, occurring in one second.
J
Jog
Voltage and current applied to the meter, but no test is performed.
K
Kh
A factor representing the amount of watthours of electricity accumulated per one disk
revolution or meter pulse (i.e. 1, 1.8, 7.2, 14.4, 28.8)
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Kilo
A prefix meaning one thousand of a specified unit (kilovolt, kilowatt). 1000 watts = 1
kilowatt.
KVA
The common abbreviation for kilovoltampere (equal to 1000 voltamperes).
KYZ Output
A three-wire pulse output from a metering device to drive external control or recording
equipment. Each pulse or transition rep- resents a predetermined increment of energy or
other quantity. Average power can be determined with a known pulse count over a specified
period and a given energy pulse value.
L
Lagging Current
An alternating current which, in each half- cycle, reaches its maximum value a fraction of a
cycle later than the maximum value of the voltage which produces it.
Leading Current
An alternating current which, in each half- cycle, reaches its maximum value a fraction of a
cycle sooner than the maximum value of the voltage which produces it.
Light Load Test
A meter test using ten percent of the test amps listed on the faceplate of the meter.
Load Compensation
That portion of the design of a watthour meter which provides good performance and
accuracy over a wide range of loads. In mod- ern, self-contained meters, this load range
extends from load currents under 10% of the rated meter test amperes to 667% of the test
amperes for class 200 meters.
Load Control
A procedure for turning off portions of customers’ loads based on predetermined time
schedules, system demand thresholds, or other circumstances.
Loss Compensation
A means for correcting the reading of a meter when the metering point and point of service
are physically separated resulting in measurable losses, including I2R losses in conductors
and transformers, and iron-core losses. These losses may be added to, or subtracted from, the
meter registration.
Lower Limit
The lower limit of a test accuracy before it is flagged as "out of limits".
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M
Mega
A prefix meaning one million of a specified unit (megawatt, megohm). 1 megohm =
1,000,000 ohms.
Menu Link
An underlined label which can be selected to access different options in the application. The
mouse cursor will change to a hand icon when hovered over a menu link.
Meter Code
A code defining a type of meter.
Micro
A prefix meaning one millionth part of a specified unit (microfarad, microohm). 1 microohm
= 0.000001 ohm.
Milli
A prefix meaning one thousandth part of a specified unit (milliampere, millihenry, millivolt).
1 millivolt = 0.001 volt.
Mode
The test mode can change between Normal, Pause, and Loop. Normal mode will run the
complete test sequence one time and then de-energize the meter. Pause mode will pause
between each test step, but leave the meter energized. Loop mode will run the complete test
sequence forever until the user manually cancels or the test board automatically cancels the
test.
O
Optical Port
A communications interface on metering products which allows the transfer of information,
while providing electrical isolation and metering security. The communications medium is
typically infrared light transmitted and received through the meter cover.
Optical Probe
An interface device which mates with the optical port of the meter, to read data or to
program the meter.
Optics
The method to detect a meter pulse or disk revolution.
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P
Peak Load
The maximum demand on an electric system during any period. Units may be kilowatts or
megawatts.
Percent Error
The percent error of a meter is the difference between its percent registration and one
hundred percent.
Percent Registration
The percent registration of a meter is the ratio of the actual registration of the meter to the
true value of the quantity measured in a given time, expressed as a percent. Also referred to
as the accuracy of the meter.
Phantom Load
A device which supplies the various load cur- rents for meter testing, used in portable form
for field testing. The power source is usually the service voltage which is transformed to a
low value. The load currents are obtained by suitable resistors switched in series with the
isolated low voltage secondary and output terminals. The same principle is used in
most meter test boards.
Phase Angle (1)
The phase angle or phase difference between a sinusoidal voltage and a sinusoidal current is
defined as the number of electrical degrees between the beginning of the cycle of voltage
and the beginning of the cycle of current.
Phase Angle (2)
The desired current phase angle during a test (usually only set during a Power Factor Test).
The Phase Angle is the angle between the voltage and current vectors when viewing a vector
diagram.
Phase Sequence
The order in which the instantaneous values of the voltages or currents of a polyphase
system reach their maximum positive values.
Phasor (Vector)
A quantity which has magnitude, direction, and time relationship. Phasors are used to
represent sinusoidal voltages and currents by plotting on rectangular coordinates. If the
phasors were allowed to rotate about the origin, and a plot made of ordinates against rotation
time, the instantaneous sinusoidal wave form would be represented by the phasor.
Phasor Diagram
A phasor diagram contains two or more phasors drawn to scale showing the relative
magnitude and phase or time relationships among the various voltages and currents.
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Power - Active
The time average of the instantaneous power over one period of the wave. For sinusoidal
quantities in a two-wire circuit, it is the product of the voltage, the current, and the cosine of
the phase angle between them. For non-sinusoidal quantities, it is the sum of all the
harmonic components, each determined as above. In a polyphase circuit it is the sum of the
active powers of the individual phases.
Power - Apparent
The product of the root-mean-square current and root-mean square voltage for any waveform. For sinusoidal quantities, apparent power is the square root of the sum of the squares
of the active and reactive powers.
Power - Reactive
For sinusoidal quantities in a two-wire circuit, reactive power is the product of the voltage,
the current, and the sine of the phase angle between them with the current taken as reference.
With non-sinusoidal quantities, it is the sum of all the harmonic components, each
determined as above. In a polyphase circuit, it is the sum of the reactive powers of the
individual phases.
Power Factor
The ratio of the active power to the apparent power.
Power Factor Test
A meter test using one hundred percent of the test amps listed on the face- plate of the meter,
but also has a sixty-degree phase angle.
Power Line Carrier
A type of communication where data may be transmitted through existing electrical power
lines.
Pulse
The fluctuation output of an electronic meter.
Pulse Device (for Electricity Metering)
The functional unit for initiating, transmitting, re-transmitting, or receiving electric pulses,
representing finite quantities, such as energy, normally transmitted from some form of
electricity meter to a receiver unit.
Pulse Initiator
Any device, mechanical or electrical, used with a meter to initiate pulses, the number of
which are proportional to the quantity being measured. It may include an external amplifier
or auxiliary relay or both.
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R
Register Constant
The number by which the register reading is multiplied to obtain kilowatthours. The register
constant on a particular meter is directly proportional to the register ratio, so any change in
ratio will change the register constant.
Register Ratio
The number of revolutions of the gear meshing with the worm or pinion on the rotating
element for one revolution of the first dial pointer.
Registration
The registration of the meter is equal to the product of the register reading and the register
constant. The registration during a given period of time is equal to the product of the register
constant and the difference between the register readings at the beginning and the end of the
period.
Relay Test
A procedure used to verify the open and closed states of the disconnect relay in a meter.
Relays
are switches that open and close circuits electromechanically or electronically. Relays
control one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit.
Reverse Power
Used when testing a bi-directional meter (delivered & received power).
Revolutions or Rev
The meter disk rotations.
S
Save
Allows test results or changes to be stored.
Socket (or Trough)
The mounting device consisting of jaws, connectors, and enclosure for socket-type meters. A
mounting device may be a single socket or a trough. The socket may have a cast or drawn
enclosure, the trough an assembled enclosure which may be extensible to accommodate
more than one mounting unit.
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Standard - Basic Reference
Those standards with which the value of electrical units are maintained in the laboratory, and
which serve as the starting point of the chain of sequential measurements carried out in the
laboratory.
Start
By pressing the Start toolbar button or double clicking on a test sequence or test step the
testing will begin.
Service Type
Simulated electrical distribution types (1-Phase, 3-Phase Wye & Delta services) during a
meter test.
Skip
A test step can be passed over either at run time or selected to be skipped before starting a
test.
Switchboard-Mount Meter
A meter mounted in a drawn-out case where the meter may be removed as a functional
module, with provisions to properly shunt cur- rent paths before meter disconnection,
leaving behind the outer case to which service connections are permanently made.
T
Test Sequence
The set of test steps used to test a meter (or other device). Each test step has a test type.
Test Step
A test type with defined para- meters that is to be run on a meter (or other device).
Test Type
A specific test to run (i.e. Full Load, Light Load, Power Factor, Demand, Jog, Creep).
Test Board
WECO test equipment (i.e. models 2150, 2350, 4150X, 4330X).
Testing - Statistical Sample
A testing method which conforms to accepted principles of statistical sampling based on
either the variables or attributes method. The following expressions are associated with
statistical sample testing: (a) Method of Attributes—A statistical sample testing method in
which only the percent of meters tested found outside certain accuracy limits is used for
determining the quality or accuracy of the entire group of meters; (b) Method of Variables—
A statistical sample testing method in which the accuracy of each meter tested is used in the
total results for determining the quality or accuracy of the entire group of meters; (c) Bar
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X—A mathematical term used to indicate the average accuracy of a group of meters
tested; (d) Sigma—A mathematical term used to indicate the dispersion of the test results
about the average accuracy (Bar X) of a group of meters tested.
Time-of-Use Metering
A metering method which records demand during selected periods of time so consumption
during different time periods can be billed at different rates.
Toolbar
Command buttons at the top of a window in a PC application that allow users to control
functions in the program.
Transducer
A device to receive energy from one system and supply energy, of either the same or a
different kind, to another system, in such a manner that the desired characteristics of the
energy input appear at the output.
Transformer
An electric device without moving parts which transfers energy from one circuit to one or
more other circuits by means of electromagnetic fields. The name implies, unless otherwise
described, that there is complete electrical isolation among all windings of a transformer, as
contrasted to an auto- transformer.
Turbo Test
A special test mode allowing test steps to be completed in a fraction of the normal test time.
U
Upper Limit
The upper limit of a test accuracy before it is flagged as "out of limits".
V
View
Toggles the faceplate view on or off.
Volt
The practical unit of electromotive force or potential difference. One volt will cause one
ampere to flow when impressed across a one ohm resistor.
Voltampere
Voltamperes are the product of volts and the total current which flows because of the
voltage. See Power, Apparent.
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Volts
The desired test volts - usually set to what is listed on the faceplate of the meter. See Volt.
VAR
The term commonly used for voltampere reactive.
VARhour Meter
An electricity meter that measures and registers the integral, with respect to time, of
W
Watt
The practical unit of active power which is defined as the rate at which energy is delivered to
a circuit. It is the power expended when a current of one ampere flows through a resistance
of one ohm.
Watthour
The practical unit of electric energy which is expended in one hour when the average power
during the hour is one watt.
Watthour Meter Portable Standard
(Rotating Standard) - A special watthour meter used as the reference for tests of other
meters. The standard has multiple current and voltage coils or electronic equivalents, so a
single unit may be used in the field or in the shop for tests of any normally rated meter. The
portable standard watthour meter is designed and constructed to provide better accuracy and
stability than would normally be required in customer meters. The rotating standard has an
electromechanical dial rotating at a specified watthour per revolution; the solid-state
standard has a digital display of 1 watthour per revolution, or, essentially, a measured
watthour.
WATT-Net
PC application used to view and maintain test result information.
Winboard
PC application used to control test- boards.
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