audio analyzer r&amp
Test and Measurement
Division
Operating Manual
AUDIO ANALYZER
R&S UPL/UPL16/UPL66
DC to 110 kHz
1078.2008.06/16/66
Software version UPL 3.00
Volume 1
Operating manual consists of 2 volumes
Printed in the Federal
Republic of Germany
1078.2089.12-11-
1
Dear Customer,
The Audio Analyzer R&S UPL is abbreviated as UPL.
UPL
Tabbed Divider Overview
Tabbed Divider Overview
Contents
Data Sheets
Safety Instructions
Certificate of quality
EU Certificate of Conformity
List of R & S Representatives
VOLUME 1
Tabbed Divider
1
Chapter 1:
Preparation for Use
2
Chapter 2:
Manual Operation
3
Index
VOLUME 2
Contents
Tabbed Divider
1078.2089.12
4
Chapter 3:
Remote Control
5
Chapter 4:
Maintenance
6
Annex A
UPL Default Setup
7
Index
RE
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UPL
Contents
Contents
1 Preparation for Use
1.1
Putting into Operation ...........................................................................................................1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.6
1.1.7
1.2
Setting up the Audio Analyzer ........................................................................................1.1
Rackmounting ................................................................................................................1.1
Power Supply .................................................................................................................1.1
Switching On ..................................................................................................................1.3
Connecting an External Keyboard .................................................................................1.4
Connecting a Mouse ......................................................................................................1.4
Fitting Options.......................................................................................................................1.5
1.2.1 Enabling Software Options.............................................................................................1.5
1.2.2 Installation of Supplementary Software..........................................................................1.6
1.2.3 Installation of Virtual Drive (RAMDRIVE).......................................................................1.7
1.3
Software Installation .............................................................................................................1.8
1.4
UPL Start Options ................................................................................................................1.10
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
Restarting the UPL Software........................................................................................1.10
Integration of Supplementary Programs ......................................................................1.10
Command line Parameters of R&S UPL Software .....................................................1.11
Immediate Effect of Command line Parameters at Power-Up....................................1.14
2 Manual Operation
2.1
Explanations of Front- and Rearpanel Views incl. Key Combinations on the External
Keyboard.................................................................................................................................2.3
2.1.1 Front-panel View ............................................................................................................2.3
2.1.2 Rear-panel View...........................................................................................................2.11
2.1.3 Block Diagram .............................................................................................................2.12
2.2
Operating Instructions.........................................................................................................2.13
2.2.1 Brief Introduction ..........................................................................................................2.13
2.2.2 Introductory Examples .................................................................................................2.15
2.3
General Instructions for Use...............................................................................................2.29
2.3.1 Panels ..........................................................................................................................2.31
2.3.2 Data Entry ....................................................................................................................2.34
2.3.2.1 Selecting a Parameter.....................................................................................2.34
2.3.2.2 Entry of Numeric Data.....................................................................................2.35
2.3.2.3 Using the Softkeys ..........................................................................................2.36
2.3.2.4 Help Line .........................................................................................................2.36
2.3.2.5 Entry of File Names.........................................................................................2.36
2.3.2.6 Data Input or Output during Measurements....................................................2.39
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2.3.3 Display of Measured Values ........................................................................................2.40
2.3.4 Settling Process ...........................................................................................................2.41
2.3.4.1 Introduction......................................................................................................2.41
2.3.4.2 The Settling Parameters: ................................................................................2.42
2.3.4.3 Settling Process with External Sweep:............................................................2.47
2.3.4.4 SETTLING Check and Optimization ...............................................................2.48
2.3.5 Status Display ..............................................................................................................2.51
2.3.6 Error Messages............................................................................................................2.53
2.3.7 Help Function ...............................................................................................................2.55
2.3.8 Simplification of Panels .................................................................................................2.56
2.4
Units ......................................................................................................................................2.57
2.4.1 Units for the Display of Measurement Results.............................................................2.57
2.4.2 Units for the Entry of Values ........................................................................................2.61
2.5
Generators (GENERATOR Panel) .......................................................................................2.64
2.5.1 Selecting the Generator ...............................................................................................2.65
2.5.2 Configuration of Analog Generator ..............................................................................2.66
2.5.2.1 Unbalanced Output (Output UNBAL) ..............................................................2.68
2.5.2.2 Balanced Output (Output BAL) .......................................................................2.69
2.5.2.3 Output Power ..................................................................................................2.70
2.5.3 Configuration of the Digital Generator .........................................................................2.71
2.5.3.1 Generating Jitter, Phase and Common Mode................................................2.77
2.5.3.2 AES/EBU Protocol Definition...........................................................................2.78
2.5.4 Functions......................................................................................................................2.85
2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for Generator Signals...................................................2.86
2.5.4.1.1 Common Parameters for SINE, DFD, MOD DIST Signals ...........2.86
2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions........................2.87
2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of the Signals SINE, SINE BURST, DFD,
MULTISINE, RANDOM .................................................................2.88
2.5.4.1.4 Amplitude Variation of the Signals MULTISINE, RANDOM and
ARBITRARY..................................................................................2.89
2.5.4.2 Sweeps.........................................................................................................2.91
2.5.4.3 SINE .............................................................................................................2.99
2.5.4.4 MULTISINE ................................................................................................2.101
2.5.4.5 SINE BURST ..............................................................................................2.106
2.5.4.6 SINE2 BURST ............................................................................................2.109
2.5.4.7
MOD DIST (Two-tone Signal to SMPTE) ..................................................2.111
2.5.4.8 DFD (Difference Frequency Distortion) .....................................................2.114
2.5.4.9 Random (Pseudo Noise) ............................................................................2.117
2.5.4.10 Arbitrary (User-Programmable Signal) .......................................................2.124
2.5.4.11 POLARITY (Polarity Test Signal) .............................................................2.127
2.5.4.12 FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) ....................................................................2.127
2.5.4.13 STEREO SINE ...........................................................................................2.128
2.5.4.14 MODULATION (modulated sine)................................................................2.132
2.5.4.15 DC Voltage .................................................................................................2.133
2.5.4.16 Coded Audio (Coded Audio Signals)..........................................................2.134
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2.5.5 Auxiliary Generator ....................................................................................................2.139
2.5.5.1 Auxiliary Generator Used as Analog Generator ............................................2.140
2.5.5.2 Auxiliary Generator Used as Common Mode Generator ..............................2.141
2.5.5.3 Auxiliary Generator Used as Jitter Generator ...............................................2.141
2.5.5.4 Auxiliary Generator Sweep............................................................................2.142
2.6
Analyzers (ANALYZER Panel) ...........................................................................................2.143
2.6.1 Selecting the Analyzer................................................................................................2.143
2.6.2 Configuration of Analog Analyzers .............................................................................2.147
2.6.3 Configuration of Digital Analyzer ................................................................................2.154
2.6.3.1 Measurement of Jitter, Phase and Common Mode ......................................2.159
2.6.4 Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep................................................................2.160
2.6.5 Functions....................................................................................................................2.166
2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions..............................................2.167
2.6.5.2 RMS (incl. S/N)...........................................................................................2.179
2.6.5.3 RMS SELECT (Selective RMS Value) .......................................................2.185
2.6.5.4 PEAK, Q-PEAK (Peak and Quasi-peak Weighting incl. S/N)...................2.197
2.6.5.5 DC ..............................................................................................................2.199
2.6.5.6 THD Measurement .....................................................................................2.200
2.6.5.7 THD+N/SINAD Measurement (Total Harmonic Distortion+ Noise)...........2.204
2.6.5.8 MOD DIST (Modulation Distortion)............................................................2.213
2.6.5.9 DFD (Difference Frequency Distortion) .....................................................2.215
2.6.5.10 Wow & Flutter.............................................................................................2.218
2.6.5.11 POLARITY (Polarity Test) ..........................................................................2.220
2.6.5.12 FFT (Spectrum) ..........................................................................................2.221
2.6.5.13 FILTER SIM................................................................................................2.230
2.6.5.14 Waveform (Display in the Time Domain) ...................................................2.231
2.6.5.15 Protocol Analysis ........................................................................................2.235
2.6.5.16 Measurement of Digital Input Amplitude ....................................................2.235
2.6.5.17 Measurement of Phase between Digital Input and
Reference Signal.........................................................................2.235
2.6.5.18 INPUT Display ...........................................................................................2.236
2.6.5.19 Frequency Measurement ...........................................................................2.238
2.6.5.20 Combined Frequency, Phase and Group Delay Measurement .................2.241
2.6.5.22 Coherence Measurement and Transfer Function ......................................2.245
2.6.5.23 Loudspeaker Measurements (RUB & BUZZ)............................................2.247
2.6.5.24 Third Analysis (1/3 OCTAVE).....................................................................2.253
th
th
2.6.5.25 12 OCTAVE Analysis (12 OCTAVE) ......................................................2.257
2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output ......................................................................................2.261
2.6.7 Applications................................................................................................................2.268
2.6.7.1 Crosstalk Measurement ................................................................................2.268
2.6.7.2 Linearity Measurements ................................................................................2.270
2.6.7.3 Fast Frequency-Response Measurements ...................................................2.273
2.6.8 Optimizing the Measurement Speed..........................................................................2.274
1. Speed Optimization without Affecting Measurement Results ................................2.274
2. Compromise between Measurement Time and Accuracy or Dynamic..................2.275
3. Speed Optimization Through Use of Internal Generator........................................2.276
4. Optimizing the Speed of Generator Sweeps..........................................................2.276
5. Optimized Utilization of DSP Performance with the Clock Rate ............................2.278
2.6.9 Improving the Frequency Response ..........................................................................2.279
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2.7
UPL
Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel) ........................................................................................2.280
2.7.1 Weighting Filters ........................................................................................................2.281
2.7.2 Creating the User-definable Filters ............................................................................2.286
2.7.2.1 Common Parameters of All Filters ................................................................2.287
2.7.2.2 Lowpass / Highpass ......................................................................................2.288
2.7.2.3 Bandpass / Bandstop ....................................................................................2.289
2.7.2.4 Notch .............................................................................................................2.291
2.7.2.5 Third-octave / Octave....................................................................................2.292
2.7.2.6 Internal Calculation of Filters.........................................................................2.293
2.7.2.7 File-defined Filter ("FILE-DEF").....................................................................2.294
2.8
STATUS Panel ....................................................................................................................2.295
2.9
Series of Measured Values, Files and Loadable Instrument Settings (FILE Panel) ...2.296
2.9.1 Loading and Storing ...................................................................................................2.296
2.9.1.1 Loading and Storing of Instrument Setups and Complete Setups ................2.298
2.9.1.2 Loading and Storing of Series of Measured Values and Block/List Data......2.304
2.9.1.3 Format of Block/List Files...............................................................................2.309
2.9.1.4 Editing Limit Files ..........................................................................................2.314
2.9.1.5 Generating a Limit file from a Trace File.......................................................2.316
2.9.1.6 Generating a Limit File using an Application Program ..................................2.319
2.9.1.7 Limit Report...................................................................................................2.319
2.9.2 Editing Files and Directories ......................................................................................2.323
2.9.3 Series of Measured Values (Sweeps and Scans) and Block/List Data......................2.326
2.9.3.1 Scan count =1 ...............................................................................................2.326
2.9.3.2 Interpolation to a Common X Axis.................................................................2.327
2.9.3.3 Scan Count >1 ..............................................................................................2.327
2.10 Graphical Data Presentation (DISPLAY and GRAPHICS Panels) ................................2.329
2.10.1
2.10.2
2.10.3
2.10.4
2.10.5
2.10.6
2.10.7
2.10.8
2.10.9
Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra (DISPLAY Panel)...........................2.332
Trace and Spectrum Display (GRAPH panel) .........................................................2.339
Parameters for the Display of Lists .........................................................................2.346
Display (GRAPH) of Lists ........................................................................................2.348
Parameters for BARGRAPH Display.......................................................................2.349
BARGRAPH Display (GRAPHICS Panel) ...............................................................2.351
Limit Check..............................................................................................................2.352
PROTOCOL Analysis .............................................................................................2.354
Switching between Full-screen and Part-screen Mode ...........................................2.359
2.11 Starting and Stopping Measurements or Sweeps ..........................................................2.360
2.11.1
2.11.2
2.11.3
2.11.4
2.11.5
2.11.6
2.11.7
2.11.8
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Overview of Measurement and Sweep Systems.....................................................2.360
Switching Measurement Modes On and Off............................................................2.361
Operating States of Measurement System (No Sweep Active)...............................2.362
Overview of Sweep Modes......................................................................................2.363
Switching Sweeps On and Off.................................................................................2.364
Operating States of Sweep System.........................................................................2.365
Operating Modes of External Frequency and Level Sweeps ..................................2.369
Several Sweep Traces Displayed in a Diagram ......................................................2.370
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2.12 Display of Selected Inputs / Outputs................................................................................2.372
2.13 Fast Switch-off of Outputs ................................................................................................2.373
2.14 Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents............................................................2.373
2.14.1 Screen Copy to Printer (pixel-oriented)......................................................................2.383
2.14.2 Output in HP-GL Format ............................................................................................2.385
2.14.3 Output in PCX Format................................................................................................2.385
2.14.4 Output in PostScript Format.......................................................................................2.386
2.14.4 1 PostScript Configuration File PS.CFG .......................................................2.387
2.14.4 2 Integrating and Output of PostScript Files..................................................2.389
2.14.5 Output of Measurement Traces and Lists..................................................................2.391
2.15 Setting and Displaying Auxiliary Parameters (OPTIONS Panel)..................................2.392
2.15.1 Selecting the Remote-Control Interface (IEC/IEEE Bus/COM2)................................2.392
2.15.2 Beeper On/Off............................................................................................................2.395
2.15.3 Keyboard Settings ......................................................................................................2.395
2.15.4 Language of Help Texts.............................................................................................2.395
2.15.5 Display Settings .........................................................................................................2.396
2.15.5.1 Switching the Measurement Display ON/OFF............................................2.396
2.15.5.2 Reading Rate of Measurement Results .....................................................2.397
2.15.5.3 Resolution of Measurement Results ..........................................................2.397
2.15.5.4 Graphics Display with Selectable Colours..................................................2.397
2.15.6 Calibration ..................................................................................................................2.401
2.15.7 Version Display and Service Functions......................................................................2.403
2.15.8 Transfer of Parameters (Parameter Link Function) ...................................................2.405
2.15.9 Selecting the Sampling Mode ....................................................................................2.407
2.16 Macro-Operation ................................................................................................................2.408
2.17 Connecting External Devices............................................................................................2.410
2.18 UPL Used as Computer .....................................................................................................2.414
2.18.1 Setting the Realtime Clock ......................................................................................2.414
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3 Remote Control
3.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................3.1
3.2
First Steps (Read-in of Measured Values) ...........................................................................3.3
3.3
Switchover to Remote Control..............................................................................................3.4
3.3.1 Setting the Device Address............................................................................................3.4
3.3.2 Indications During Remote Control ................................................................................3.4
3.3.3 Return to Manual Operation...........................................................................................3.5
3.4
IEC/IEEE-Bus Messages ........................................................................................................3.6
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.5.6
3.5.7
3.5.8
3.6
Instrument Model and Command Processing...................................................................3.18
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
3.6.5
3.6.6
3.6.7
3.6.8
3.7
Interface Messages........................................................................................................3.6
Device-Dependent Messages (Commands and Responses)........................................3.6
Structure and Syntax of Device-Dependent Messages .................................................3.7
SCPI Introduction ...........................................................................................................3.7
Command Structure.......................................................................................................3.7
Structure of a Command Line ........................................................................................3.9
Responses to Queries .................................................................................................3.11
Types of Parameters....................................................................................................3.13
Overview of Syntax Elements ......................................................................................3.15
Programming Model of UPL Generator .......................................................................3.16
Programming Model of UPL Analyzer..........................................................................3.17
Input Unit......................................................................................................................3.18
Parser...........................................................................................................................3.19
Setting the Device Hardware .......................................................................................3.19
Why is a Specific Operating Sequence Sometimes Required?...................................3.19
Status Reporting System .............................................................................................3.21
Output Unit ...................................................................................................................3.21
Triggering a Measurement/Sweep...............................................................................3.21
Command Synchronization ..........................................................................................3.21
3.6.8.1 Wait for End of Calibration ..............................................................................3.22
3.6.8.2 Wait for End of Measurement/Sweep .............................................................3.22
3.6.8.3 Comparison of Synchronization Capabilities...................................................3.24
Status Reporting System.....................................................................................................3.24
3.7.1 Structure of SCPI Status Register ...............................................................................3.25
3.7.2 Overview of Status Register.........................................................................................3.27
3.7.3 Description of Status Registers....................................................................................3.28
3.7.3.1 Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)....................3.28
3.7.3.2 IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)...........................................3.29
3.7.3.3 Definition of bits used in the Event Status Register ........................................3.29
3.7.3.4 STATus:OPERation Register..........................................................................3.30
3.7.3.5 STATus:QUEStionable Register .....................................................................3.31
3.7.3.6 STATus XQUEStionable Register...................................................................3.32
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3.7.4 Use of Status Reporting System ..................................................................................3.33
3.7.4.1 Service Request, Use of Hierarchical Structure..............................................3.33
3.7.4.2 Serial Poll ........................................................................................................3.34
3.7.4.3 Parallel Poll .....................................................................................................3.34
3.7.4.4 Queries............................................................................................................3.35
3.7.4.5 Error Queue Query..........................................................................................3.35
3.7.5 Resetting the Status Reporting Systems .....................................................................3.36
3.8
Notation of Command Table ...............................................................................................3.37
3.9
Common Commands ...........................................................................................................3.39
3.10 IEC/IEEE-Bus Commands....................................................................................................3.41
3.10.1 Generators ...................................................................................................................3.41
3.10.1.1
Selection of Generator ..................................................................3.41
3.10.1.2
Configuration of Analog Generators..............................................3.41
3.10.1.3
Configuration of Digital Generators...............................................3.44
3.10.1.3.1 AES / EBU PROTOCOL Definition ...............................................3.48
3.10.1.3.2 Auxiliary AUX GEN.........................................................................3.50
3.10.1.4 Generator Sweeps.........................................................................................3.52
3.10.1.4.1 Sweep Settings for Auxiliary Generator (AUX GEN).....................3.52
3.10.1.5 Generator Functions......................................................................................3.62
3.10.1.5.1 SINE............................................................................................3.63
3.10.1.5.2 MULTISINE .................................................................................3.65
3.10.1.5.3 SINE BURST...............................................................................3.69
3.10.1.5.4 SINE2 BURST.............................................................................3.71
3.10.1.5.5 MOD DIST ..................................................................................3.73
3.10.1.5.6 DFD.............................................................................................3.76
3.10.1.5.7 RANDOM ....................................................................................3.79
3.10.1.5.8 ARBITRARY................................................................................3.83
3.10.1.5.9 POLARITY ..................................................................................3.86
3.10.1.5.10 FSK (Frequency shift keying)......................................................3.87
3.10.1.5.11 STEREO SINE ............................................................................3.88
3.10.1.5.12 MODULATION (FM or AM signal)..............................................3.91
3.10.1.5.13 DC voltage..................................................................................3.92
3.10.1.5.14 Coded Audio (Coded Audio Signals) ..........................................3.93
3.10.2 IEC/IEEE-Bus Commands for Analyzers .....................................................................3.97
3.10.2.1
Selection of Analyzer.....................................................................3.97
3.10.2.2
Configuration of Analog Analyzers ................................................3.97
3.10.2.3
Configuration of Digital Analyzers ...............................................3.100
3.10.2.4
Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep ...............................................3.103
3.10.2.5
Analyzer Functions ......................................................................3.105
3.10.2.5.1 Common Parameters for Analyzer Functions .............................3.106
3.10.2.5.2 RMS Measurement incl. S/N.......................................................3.108
3.10.2.5.3 Selective RMS Measurement incl. Sweep ..................................3.112
3.10.2.5.4 Peak and Quasi-Peak Measurement incl. S/N............................3.119
3.10.2.5.5 DC Measurement ........................................................................3.122
3.10.2.5.6 THD Measurement......................................................................3.123
3.10.2.5.7 THD + N / Sinad Measurement...................................................3.125
3.10.2.5.8 MOD DIST...................................................................................3.128
3.10.2.5.9 DFD .............................................................................................3.129
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3.10.2.5.10 Wow & Flutter ..........................................................................3.130
3.10.2.5.11 POLARITY ...............................................................................3.131
3.131
3.10.2.5.12 FFT
3.10.2.5.13 Filter Simulation .......................................................................3.136
3.10.2.5.14 WAVEFORM............................................................................3.137
3.10.2.5.15 Coherence Measurement and Transfer Function ....................3.140
3.10.2.5.16 Loudspeaker Measurements (RUB & BUZZ) ..........................3.142
3.10.2.5.17 Input Level of Digital Signal (DIG INP AMP) ............................3.146
3.10.2.5.18 Phase Measurement (PHAS TO REF) ....................................3.147
3.10.2.5.19 PROTOCOL.............................................................................3.147
3.10.2.5.20 INPUT DISP .............................................................................3.148
3.10.2.5.21 Frequency Measurement .........................................................3.150
3.10.2.5.22 Combined Frequency, Phase and Group-Delay Measurement3.151
3.10.2.5.23 Sample Rate Measurement .....................................................3.154
3.10.2.5.24 Terzanalyse...............................................................................3.156
3.10.2.5.25 12th Octave Analysis (12th OCTAVE) ....................................3.160
3.10.3 Selection of Analyzer Filter .....................................................................................3.163
3.10.4 Units for IEC/IEEE Measurement Results...............................................................3.171
3.10.5 Loading and Storing ................................................................................................3.177
3.10.5.1 Loading and Storing Instrument Setups ...................................................3.177
3.10.5.1.1 Loading and Storing Traces and Lists.........................................3.179
3.10.5.1.2 Storing Limit Violations (Error Reports).......................................3.180
3.10.5.1.3 Storing Equalization Files ............................................................3.181
3.10.5.2 Commands for Editing Files and Directories............................................3.182
3.10.6 Commands for Graphical Representation of Results ................................................3.183
3.10.6.1 Commands for Limit Check......................................................................3.193
3.10.6.2 PROTOCOL Analysis...............................................................................3.195
3.10.7 Commands for Printing/Plotting of Screen and Storing in Files .................................3.197
3.10.8 Setting and Display of Auxiliary Parameters ..............................................................3.207
3.10.8.1 IEC/IEEE-Bus Address.............................................................................3.207
3.10.8.2 Switching the Beeper On/Off....................................................................3.207
3.10.8.3 MACRO Operating ...................................................................................3.208
3.10.8.4 Transfer of Settings..................................................................................3.209
3.10.8.6 Parameters of COM2 Interface ................................................................3.211
3.10.8.7 Keyboard Settings ....................................................................................3.212
3.10.8.8 Display Settings........................................................................................3.213
3.10.8.9 Version Display ........................................................................................3.217
3.10.8.10 Calibration ................................................................................................3.219
3.10.8.11 Loading Speed for Setups and Analyzer Measurement Functions ..........3.220
3.10.9
3.10.10
3.10.11
3.10.12
3.10.14
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Commands for Data Output ..................................................................................3.221
Commands for Input/Output of Block Data ...........................................................3.222
Commands for Status and Error Queries..............................................................3.229
Commands for Synchronization ............................................................................3.232
Settings without Corresponding IEC/IEEE-Bus Command ...................................3.234
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3.11 Alphabetical List of IEC/IEEE-Bus Commands ...............................................................3.235
3.12 IEC/IEEE-Bus Interface ......................................................................................................3.293
3.12.1 Interface Characteristics ............................................................................................3.293
3.12.2 Bus Lines ...................................................................................................................3.293
3.12.3 Interface Functions ....................................................................................................3.294
3.13 Interface Messages ............................................................................................................3.295
3.13.1 Common Commands.................................................................................................3.295
3.13.2 Addressed Commands ..............................................................................................3.295
3.14 List of Error Messages ......................................................................................................3.296
3.14.1 SCPI-Specific Error Messages ..................................................................................3.296
3.14.2 Command Error .........................................................................................................3.297
3.14.3 Execution Error ..........................................................................................................3.298
3.14.4 Device-Specific Error .................................................................................................3.299
3.14.5 Query Error ................................................................................................................3.299
3.14.6 UPL-Specific Error Messages....................................................................................3.299
3.15 Examples of IEC/IEEE-Bus Programming (Hints and Program Examples) ................3.300
3.15.1 R&S BASIC ................................................................................................................3.300
3.15.2 IEC/IEEE-Bus Control after Power-Up.......................................................................3.300
3.15.3 Command Logging - Converting UPL-B10 Commands into
IEC/IEEE-Bus Commands ......................................................................................3.300
3.15.4 Initialization and Default Status ..................................................................................3.302
3.15.5 Sending Instrument Setting Commands ....................................................................3.302
3.15.6 Switchover to Manual Control ....................................................................................3.302
3.15.7 Readout of Instrument Settings .................................................................................3.302
3.15.8 Readout of Measurement Results .............................................................................3.303
3.15.8.1 Readout of Triggered Measurements ........................................................3.304
3.15.8.2 Readout of Non-Triggered Measurements.................................................3.305
3.15.9 Setting/Trigger.........................................................................................................3.305
3.15.9.1
Generator Sweep ........................................................................3.305
3.15.9.2
External Sweep ...........................................................................3.306
3.15.9.3
RMS-Selektiv-Sweep ..................................................................3.306
3.15.10 Tuning - Setup for Maximum Measurement Speed ...............................................3.307
3.15.10.1 Configuration for Maximum Measurement Speed......................................3.307
3.15.10.2 Adapting Measurement Speed to Signal Frequency..................................3.307
3.15.10.3 Configuration for Maximum Sweep Speed.................................................3.309
3.15.10.3.1 Generator Sweep....................................................................3.309
3.15.10.3.2 External Sweep.......................................................................3.310
3.15.10.3.3 RMS Selective Sweep ............................................................3.310
3.15.10.3.4 Measurement Speed with Reference
to Sampling Mode ...................................................................3.312
3.15.11 List Management...................................................................................................3.312
3.15.11.1 Loading Lists into the UPL .......................................................................3.312
3.15.11.1.1 Loading Sweep Lists into the UPL ..........................................3.312
3.15.11.1.2 Loading and Display of Several Traces in the UPL ................3.312
3.15.11.1.3 Loading and Displaying of Trace Pairs in the UPL .................3.313
3.15.11.2 Readout of Data Lists from the UPL ........................................................3.314
3.15.11.2.1 Readout of Lists of up to 1024 Values ....................................3.315
1078.2089.02
11
E-11
Contents
UPL
3.15.11.2.2
3.15.11.2.3
3.15.11.2.4
3.15.11.2.5
Readout of FFT Lists of more than 1024 Values ......................3.315
FFT Lists with Suppressed Noise Floor ....................................3.317
Readout of Several Traces from UPL.......................................3.317
Readout of Trace Pairs from UPL.............................................3.318
3.15.12 Filter Settings 3.319
3.15.13 Finding a File 3.320
3.15.14 Readout of Error Queue ........................................................................................3.320
3.15.15 Command Synchronization ...................................................................................3.320
3.15.15.1 Command Synchronization with *WAI .....................................................3.321
3.15.15.2 Command Synchronization with *OPC?...................................................3.321
3.15.15.3 Command Synchronization with *OPC and SRQ.....................................3.321
3.15.16 Service Request ....................................................................................................3.322
3.15.16.1 SRQ Interrupt Routine with Serial Poll .....................................................3.322
3.15.16.1.1 Initialization of Serial Poll SRQ..................................................3.322
3.15.16.1.2 Serial Poll SRQ Routine............................................................3.323
3.15.16.2 SRQ Interrupt Routine with Parallel Poll ..................................................3.324
3.15.16.2.1 Initialization of Parallel Poll SRQ...............................................3.324
3.15.16.2.2 Parallel Poll SRQ Routine .........................................................3.324
3.15.17 Readout of Cursor Position and Values ................................................................3.325
3.15.18 Call a BASIC-Macro ..............................................................................................3.329
3.15.19 Third analysis - Output of Block Data....................................................................3.333
3.16 Automatic Control of UPL with R&S BASIC ....................................................................3.337
3.16.1
3.16.2
3.16.3
3.16.4
Use............................................................................................................................3.337
Scope of Functions ...................................................................................................3.337
Preparation for Use...................................................................................................3.338
Operation ..................................................................................................................3.339
3.16.4.1 Switchover between UPL and BASIC Entry Mode ...................................3.339
3.16.4.2 First Steps (Readout of Measurement Results) .......................................3.340
3.16.4.3 Logging Mode...........................................................................................3.340
3.16.4.4 Differences to IEC/IEEE-Bus Remote Control .........................................3.341
3.16.4.5 UPL-Specific Modifications to the BASIC Manual ....................................3.346
3.16.4.6 BASIC Screen ..........................................................................................3.348
3.16.4.7 Control Commands Unsuitable for Logging .............................................3.349
3.16.4.8 Driver for Screen and Keyboard STRINX.SYS ........................................3.350
3.16.4.9 Operation of Serial Interfaces COM1 and COM2.....................................3.354
3.16.4.10 UPL-Specific Error Messages From BASIC.............................................3.355
3.16.4.11 UPL/BASIC Memory Management...........................................................3.356
3.17 Remote Control via RS-232 Interface ...............................................................................3.357
3.17.1
3.17.2
3.17.3
3.17.4
Preparation for Use ...............................................................................................3.357
Switchover to Remote Control...............................................................................3.358
Return to Manual Operation ..................................................................................3.358
First Steps (Readout of Measurement Results) ....................................................3.358
3.17.4.1 Readout of Measurement Results in QuickBASIC.....................................3.359
3.17.4.2 Readout of Measurement Results in R&S BASIC......................................3.360
3.17.4.3 Readout of Measurement Results in Borland-C 3.0...................................3.361
3.17.5 Binary Data via RS232 Interface .............................................................................3.363
3.17.6 Differences to Remote Control via IEC/IEEE Bus ...................................................3.364
1078.2089.02
12
E-11
UPL
Contents
4 Maintenance and Troubleshooting
4.1
Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................4.1
4.2
4.1.1 Mechanical Maintenance ...............................................................................................4.1
4.1.2 Electrical Maintenance ...................................................................................................4.1
Function Test..........................................................................................................................4.1
4.3
Troubleshooting.....................................................................................................................4.2
4.3.1 BIOS-SETUP .................................................................................................................4.2
4.3.2 Others..............................................................................................................................4.5
5 UPL Default Setup
A.1
Default Settings of Generator .............................................................................................. A.1
A.2
Default Settings of Analyzer ............................................................................................. A.13
A.3
Default Settings of Filter Panel .......................................................................................... A.21
A.4
Default Settings of Display Panel ...................................................................................... A.22
A.5
Default Settings of Options Panel ..................................................................................... A.23
A.6
Default Settings of File Panel............................................................................................. A.24
6 Index
1078.2089.02
13
E-11
Safety Instructions
This unit has been designed and tested in accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the
manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully complying with safety standards.
To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, the user must observe all instructions and warnings
given in this operating manual.
Safety-related symbols used on equipment and documentation from R&S:
Observe
operating
instructions
1.
Weight
indication for
units >18 kg
PE terminal
Ground
terminal
The unit may be used only in the operating conditions and positions specified by the manufacturer. Unless otherwise agreed, the following
applies to R&S products:
IP degree of protection 2X, pollution severity 2
overvoltage category 2, only for indoor use, altitude max. 2000 m.
The unit may be operated only from supply networks fused with max. 16 A.
Unless specified otherwise in the data sheet, a
tolerance of ±10% shall apply to the nominal
voltage and of ±5% to the nominal frequency.
2.
For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms
> 30 V, suitable measures should be taken to
avoid any hazards.
(using, for example, appropriate measuring
equipment, fusing, current limiting, electrical
separation, insulation).
3.
If the unit is to be permanently wired, the PE
terminal of the unit must first be connected to
the PE conductor on site before any other connections are made. Installation and cabling of
the unit to be performed only by qualified technical personnel.
4.
For permanently installed units without built-in
fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective devices, the supply circuit must be fused such as
to provide suitable protection for the users and
equipment.
5.
Prior to switching on the unit, it must be ensured
that the nominal voltage set on the unit matches
the nominal voltage of the AC supply network.
If a different voltage is to be set, the power fuse
of the unit may have to be changed accordingly.
6.
Units of protection class I with disconnectible
AC supply cable and appliance connector may
be operated only from a power socket with
earthing contact and with the PE conductor connected.
095.1000 Sheet 17
Danger!
Shock hazard
Warning!
Hot surfaces
Ground
Attention!
Electrostatic
sensitive devices require
special care
7.
It is not permissible to interrupt the PE conductor intentionally, neither in the incoming cable
nor on the unit itself as this may cause the unit
to become electrically hazardous.
Any extension lines or multiple socket outlets
used must be checked for compliance with relevant safety standards at regular intervals.
8.
If the unit has no power switch for disconnection
from the AC supply, the plug of the connecting
cable is regarded as the disconnecting device.
In such cases it must be ensured that the power
plug is easily reachable and accessible at all
times (length of connecting cable approx. 2 m).
Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing disconnection from the AC
supply.
If units without power switches are integrated in
racks or systems, a disconnecting device must
be provided at system level.
9.
Applicable local or national safety regulations
and rules for the prevention of accidents must
be observed in all work performed.
Prior to performing any work on the unit or
opening the unit, the latter must be disconnected from the supply network.
Any adjustments, replacements of parts, maintenance or repair may be carried out only by
authorized R&S technical personnel.
Only original parts may be used for replacing
parts relevant to safety (eg power switches,
power transformers, fuses). A safety test must
be performed after each replacement of parts
relevant to safety.
(visual inspection, PE conductor test, insulationresistance, leakage-current measurement, functional test).
continued overleaf
Safety Instructions
10. Ensure that the connections with information
technology equipment comply with IEC950 /
EN60950.
11. Lithium batteries must not be exposed to high
temperatures or fire.
Keep batteries away from children.
If the battery is replaced improperly, there is
danger of explosion. Only replace the battery by
R&S type (see spare part list).
Lithium batteries are suitable for environmentally-friendly disposal or specialized recycling.
Dispose them into appropriate containers, only.
Do not short-circuit the battery.
12. Equipment returned or sent in for repair must be
packed in the original packing or in packing with
electrostatic and mechanical protection.
095.1000 Sheet 18
13. Electrostatics via the connectors may dam-
age the equipment. For the safe handling and
operation of the equipment,
appropriate
measures against electrostatics should be implemented.
14. The outside of the instrument is suitably
cleaned using a soft, lint-free dustcloth. Never
use solvents such as thinners, acetone and
similar things, as they may damage the front
panel labeling or plastic parts.
15. Any additional safety instructions given in this
manual are also to be observed.
Certified Quality System
Certified Environmental System
ISO 9001
ISO 14001
DQS REG. NO 1954 QM
DQS REG. NO 1954 UM
Qualitätszertifikat
Certificate of quality
Certificat de qualité
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Dear Customer,
Cher client,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf eines Rohde &
Schwarz-Produktes entschieden. Hiermit
erhalten Sie ein nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden hergestelltes Produkt. Es
wurde nach den Regeln unseres Qualitätsmanagementsystems entwickelt, gefertigt und geprüft. Das Rohde & SchwarzQualitätsmanagementsystem ist u.a. nach
ISO 9001 und ISO14001 zertifiziert.
You have decided to buy a Rohde &
Schwarz product. You are thus assured of
receiving a product that is manufactured
using the most modern methods available.
This product was developed, manufactured and tested in compliance with our
quality management system standards.
The Rohde & Schwarz quality management system is certified according to standards such as ISO9001 and ISO14001.
Vous avez choisi d'acheter un produit
Rohde & Schwarz. Vous disposez donc
d'un produit fabriqué d'après les méthodes les plus avancées. Le développement,
la fabrication et les tests respectent nos
normes de gestion qualité. Le système de
gestion qualité de Rohde & Schwarz a été
homologué, entre autres, conformément
aux normes ISO 9001 et ISO14001.
EC Certificate of Conformity
Certificate No.: 9502140
This is to certify that:
Equipment type
Order No.
Designation
UPL
UPL16
UPL66
1078.2008.02/.05/.06
1078.2008.16
1078.2008.66
Audio Analyzer
UPL-B1
UPL-B11
UPL-B2
UPL-B29
UPL-B5
1078.4400.02
1154.7600.02
1078.4000.02
1078.5107.02
1078.4600.02/.03
Low Distortion Generator
LAN Interface
Digital Audio I/O
Digital Audio I/O 96 kHz
Monitoroutput
complies with the provisions of the Directive of the Council of the European Union on the
approximation of the laws of the Member States
- relating to electrical equipment for use within defined voltage limits
(73/23/EEC revised by 93/68/EEC)
- relating to electromagnetic compatibility
(89/336/EEC revised by 91/263/EEC, 92/31/EEC, 93/68/EEC)
Conformity is proven by compliance with the following standards:
EN61010-1 : 1993 + A2 : 1995
EN50081-1 : 1992
EN50082-1 : 1997
Affixing the EC conformity mark as from 1995
ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, D-81671 München
Munich, 2002-07-04
1078.2008.01
Central Quality Management FS-QZ / Becker
CE
E-7
Support Center
Telefon / Telephone:
Fax:
E-mail:
+49 (0)180 512 42 42
+49 89 41 29 137 77
[email protected]
Für technische Fragen zu diesem Rohde & Schwarz-Gerät steht Ihnen
die Hotline der Rohde & Schwarz Vertriebs-GmbH, Support Center, zur
Verfügung.
Unser Team bespricht mit Ihnen Ihre Fragen und sucht Lösungen für Ihre
Probleme.
Die Hotline ist Montag bis Freitag von 8.00 bis 17.00 Uhr MEZ besetzt.
Bei Anfragen außerhalb der Geschäftszeiten hinterlassen Sie bitte eine
Nachricht oder senden Sie eine Notiz per Fax oder E-Mail. Wir setzen
uns dann baldmöglichst mit Ihnen in Verbindung.
Um Ihr Gerät stets auf dem neuesten Stand zu halten,
abonnieren Sie bitte Ihren persönlichen Newsletter unter
http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/www/response.nsf/newsletterpreselection.
Sie erhalten dann regelmäßig Informationen über Rohde &
Schwarz-Produkte Ihrer Wahl, über Firmware-Erweiterungen,
neue Teiber und Applikationsschriften.
Should you have any technical questions concerning this Rohde &
Schwarz product, please contact the hotline of Rohde & Schwarz
Vertriebs-GmbH, Support Center.
Our hotline team will answer your questions and find solutions to your
problems.
You can reach the hotline Monday through Friday from 8:00 until 17:00
CET.
If you need assistance outside office hours, please leave a message or
send us a fax or e-mail. We will contact you as soon as possible.
To keep your instrument always up to date, please subscribe
to your personal newsletter at
http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/www/response.nsf/newsletterpreselection.
As a subscriber, you will receive information about your
selection of Rohde & Schwarz products, about firmware
extensions, new drivers and application notes on a regular
basis.
1007.8684.14-02.00
UPL
Putting into Operation
1
Preparation for Use
1.1
Putting into Operation
1.1.1
Setting up the Audio Analyzer
The UPL can be operated in the following positions:
• Horizontal position: fold out the front feet provided on the instrument bottom in order to obtain an
better view on the LC display.
• Vertical position tilted on its rear panel. Fold out the feet provided on the rear panel and use a 90%
offset power connector (included in the accessories supplied).
Note:
To ensure optimum performance of the audio analyzer observe the following:
• Do not cover the rear lateral ventilation openings.
• Adhere to the permissible ambient temperature specified in the data sheet.
• Avoid moisture condensation. If it has already occurred, dry out the instrument before switching it on.
1.1.2
Rackmounting
Use the adapter (see Data Sheet for type and order number.).
Note:
To ensure optimum performance of the audio analyzer observe the following:
• Be sure sufficient air is supplied within the rack.
• There must be adequate space between ventilation openings and rack housing.
1.1.3
Power Supply
The UPL can be set to operate at AC supply voltages of 100 V, 120 V, 220 V and 230 V with a tolerance
of ± 10 % and a frequency of 47 Hz to 63 Hz. It can also be operated from AC supplies with other
nominal voltages as shown in the table below.
Table 1-2
Operation of UPL from other AC supplies
Nominal AC supply voltage
Setting of voltage selector
110 V
100 V
+4%
– 18 %
+ 20 %
–6%
+ 15 %
– 10 %
+4%
– 18 %
+6%
– 15 %
120 V
115 V
120 V
127 V
120 V
240 V
230 V
11078.2008.02
Tolerance of instrument
1.1
E-11
Putting into Operation
UPL
Before initial power-up, check that the correct supply voltage is set. If the setting is not correct, reset as
follows:
• Remove power cable.
• Open cap of voltage selector using a slotted screwdriver.
• Remove both fuse holders and insert fuses of appropriate value (included in the accessories
supplied):
Rated voltages 100 to 120 V,
2 fuses T 4.0 H (IEC 127-2/III)
Rated voltages 220 to 240 V,
2 fuses T 2.5 H (IEC 127-2/III)
• Insert fuse holder.
Remove the cylinder labeled with the rated voltages and re-insert it such that the value visible in the
cap window when fitted corresponds to the desired rated voltage. If there is no suitable imprint, select
the value closest to the desired one.
• Close the cap.
1078.2008.02
1.2
E-11
UPL
Putting into Operation
1.1.4
Switching On
Note:
Make sure no disk is available in the disk drive when turning the UPL ON (press ON/OFF
switch on the front panel).
Switch-on of the UPL is followed by the system start-up, selftest of the controller and loading of the MSDOS operating system as well as of the measurement and operating software from the hard disk. While
the UPL switch-on logo is being displayed, the selftest of the measurement hardware is executed (see
Section 4.2 Function Test). The last UPL setup which has been automatically stored is subsequently
loaded from the CMOS-RAM, setting the UPL to the status valid before switch-off.
Note:
If no characters are displayed on the screen after switch-on, the contrast control may be
maladjusted (UPL02 with monochrome display only). Press the "Contrast" key in the
CONTROL field of the front panel keypad and set the contrast for the desired angle of view
using the rotary knob.
For operation of an external monitor, refer to Section 2.17, Connecting External Devices.
Note:
• The system selftest also includes checking the availability of an external keyboard (see 2.17
Connecting External Devices). If an external keyboard is connected, it can be used for operating the
UPL.
• Connecting the external keyboard after having turned on the UPL may involve that the software does
not recognize the keyboard i.e. it is without function.
• With the use of an external keyboard, the storage test of the system can be aborted - while the
storage addresses are being counted up - using the ESC key.
• The system messages output during system start-up are not displayed, since the LC display is not yet
ready at this time. To make these messages visible, which is usually not required, it is necessary to
connect an external monitor.
• The message
PRESS <DEL> IF YOU WANT TO RUN SETUP/EXTD-SET
or any corresponding message is displayed during system start-up (on an external monitor, only).
Pressing this key allows you to enter the SETUP program where system configuration, date and time
can be defined. We advise against calling this program as changing its settings, though inadvertently,
may cause the UPL to work incorrectly or not work at all.
Calling this program is required only after battery replacement. (Section 4.3 Troubleshooting,
deals with battery replacement and setups and, in addition, how to correct a maladjusted SETUP.) If
required, date or time should be changed using the DOS commands DATE and TIME.
11078.2008.02
1.3
E-11
Putting into Operation
UPL
1.1.5 Switching Off
• Wait until there are no accesses to the hard disk or disk drive anymore.
• Remove the disk from the drive.
• Press the ON/OFF key on the front panel. (All UPL setups are maintained.)
1.1.6
Connecting an External Keyboard
Note: Connect the keyboard only with instrument switched off. Otherwise, correct function of
keyboard cannot be guaranteed.
the
The keyboard connector is fitted to the rear of the instrument (KEYBOARD label). Any standard PC
keyboard may be used.
In normal operation, the keyboard facilitates the entry of commentary texts, file names etc. If the
controller mode of the UPL is selected, e. g., in order to store measurement results in documents, the
keyboard assumes its usual PC function (cf. 2.18 UPL Used as Computer).
Section 2.1.1 (Front View of the Instrument) includes an overview of the assignment of the key functions
of the UPL front panel to short-key combinations of the external keyboard. This assignment table can be
looked up at any time in the help function (press front panel key HELP or F1 on the ext. keyboard) under
the key-word "UPL".
The automatic repetition rate with constant key stroke and the associated delay can be modified in the
OPTIONS panel (Rep rate, Rep delay).
Either a keyboard with German or English key assignment can be selected:
•
•
•
change to DOS (press SYSTEM key)
call "BOOTSET" program and make appropriate selection
enter UPL to return to measuring operation
1.1.7
Connecting a Mouse
Note:
Connect the mouse only with the instrument switched off. Otherwise, correct operation cannot be
guaranteed.
The complete UPL may be mouse-controlled. Particularly, the entry of commentary texts, file names etc.
is easier than via the front panel keys, only (selecting the keys of a "screen keypad"). Mouse control is
described in Section 2.3.
The UPL requires the appropriate mouse driver in the path C:\MOUSE of the UPL named mouse.com.,
which must be available on a 3.5"-disk.
Proceed as follows:
(In the subsequent example, the mouse driver to be installed is called msmouse.com and is located in
the root directory of the disk)
•
•
•
•
•
Connect external keyboard. Connect mouse to the interface COM1 and switch on the instrument
Press ESC while the UPL switch-on logo is displayed to change to the DOS level
Insert the disk with the driver to be installed in the 3.5" drive.
Execute the following DOS command:
copy a:msmouse.com c:\mouse\mouse.com
Enter UPL: the UPL operator surface is started.
1078.2008.02
1.4
E-11
UPL
Fitting Options
1.2
Fitting Options
Installation of hardware options:
Hardware options may be installed only by a Rohde & Schwarz service center.
Installation of software options:
•
•
Either manual entry of installation key (see 1.2.1) or
installation of supplementary software by means of a installation program supplied with automatic
enabling of option (see 1.2.2 Installation of Supplementary Software).
Which of the two methods is used depends on the option concerned and is described in the installation
instructions enclosed.
To order the following options, the serial number (SER. xxxxxx/xxx) at the rear of the unit has to be
entered; the material number (1078.2008Kxx) is additionally required for newer units (SER. xxxxxx).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Digital Audio Protocol
Jitter and Interface Test
Remote Control
Extended Analysis Functions
Universal Sequence Controller
Line Measurement to ITU-T O.33
Coded Audio Signal Generation
Mobile Phone Test Set
3G Mobile Phone Tests
1.2.1
UPL-B21
UPL-B22
UPL-B4
UPL-B6
UPL-B10
UPL-B33
UPL-B23
UPL-B8
UPL-B9
1078.3856.02
1078.3956.02
1078.3804.02
1078.4500.02
1078.3904.02
1078.4852.02
1078.5188.02
1117.3505.02
1154.7500.02
(manual enabling)
(manual enabling)
(manual enabling)
(manual enabling)
(manual enabling)
(manual enabling)
(automatic installation)
(automatic installation)
(automatic installation)
Enabling Software Options
If one of the options was uninstalled by mistake, it has to be installed again, which is explained in the
following, the Remote Control UPL-B4 being used as an example.
• Switch on unit.
• Select the OPTIONS panel by means of the OPTIONS key on the UPL front panel or by pressing the
ALT+O keys on the external keyboard and scroll to the panel end by means of the Cursor or Page key.
• Enter the numbers printed on the adhesive label at the rear of the unit into the Option No. and
InstallKey fields in the OPTIONS panel.
OPTIONS
OPTIONS
. Remote via IEC BUS
.
.
.
.
DIAGNOSTIC
Device
Option No.
InstallKey
11078.2008.02
password?
INSTALL KEY
0
XXXXX
Adhesive label
OPTION UPL-B4
REMOTE CONTROL
1078.3804.02
OPTION NO. 0
INSTALLATION KEY
XXXXX
MADE IN GERMANY
1.5
E-11
Fitting Options
UPL
If the correct installation key has been entered, the following message is displayed:
Option installed!
If a wrong installation key has been entered, the following message is displayed:
Wrong Installation Key!
Turn power off and restart UPL!
After the UPL has been switched off and on again, the installation key can be entered a second time.
If the installation key is entered again without having switched off/on the UPL beforehand, the following
message is displayed:
To retype Installation Key,
turn power off and restart UPL!
1.2.2
Installation of Supplementary Software
A software option for which supplementary software is required in addition to the installation key is
installed via an installation program supplied. This program checks whether the option is enabled and
queries the installation key, if necessary. If an already enabled option is installed (for the first time), this
query will be omitted.
For first-time installation of option software, proceed as follows:
•
Switch off unit (so that keyboard will be recognized correctly afterwards).
•
Connect external keyboard.
•
Switch on unit.
•
Quit the UPL operating software either
by pressing the ESC key (or CANCEL key of the UPL keyboard) while the start-up logo is being
displayed or
(while the UPL operating software is running) by pressing the SYSTEM and ENTER keys
(corresponds to ”Normal Exit to DOS” in the selection box).
Perform all subsequent entries via the external keyboard.
•
Insert floppy #1 of option software.
•
Enter "A:" and confirm entry using the Return key.
•
Enter name of installation program according to installation instructions (e.g. PHONINST for
UPL-B8, B23INST for UPL-B23) and confirm entry using the Return key.
•
Enter the installation key supplied when prompted to do so (only for first-time installation).
Note:
If the entry via the external keyboard is not possible, the Universal Sequence Controller
had been selected after power-up of the UPL. In this case, the UPL has to be switched
off and the installation has to be started again. The selection of "Universal Sequence
Controller" has to be avoided.
•
Continue installation according to instructions displayed. Normally, the only action required is to
insert and remove floppies.
•
If the software consists of several floppies, make sure that the floppies are inserted in the correct
order (start with floppy #1).
1078.2008.02
1.6
E-11
UPL
Fitting Options
Note:
The software is supplied on the floppies in compressed form and is unpacked only during
installation (the size of the unpacked software is therefore much larger than the capacity of
the floppy). The program for unpacking the software may output messages like
"Exploding...", "Unpack" etc. These messages are correct. They do not indicate an
erroneous installation.
1.2.3 Installation of Virtual Drive (RAMDRIVE)
If the UPL has sufficient RAM capacity (at least 16 Mbyte), part of the RAM can be used as a RAM
drive. Like normal hard disk drives, this virtual drive can be accessed via a drive letter (normally D:).
Data on the RAM drive can be processed much faster than data on the hard disk but is no longer
available if the UPL has been switched off. Therefore, the user has to make sure that RAM drive data is
saved (on floppy or hard disk) - unless it is to be used only temporarily - prior to switching off the unit.
The RAM drive can be easily activated by means of the UPL software (version 3.0 or higher). In the
CONFIG.SYS (available in the UPL root directory) the corresponding line is marked with REM which
means that the line cannot be executed. To activate the RAM drive, delete the keyword REM in the
following line:
REM DEVICEhigh =c:\dos\RAMDRIVE.SYS 17000 /E
Then install the UPL software (PROGRAM floppy) 3.0 or higher again to ensure that this modification is
implemented in all other relevant files.
If a RAM drive is to be installed in an UPL software version 1.xx or 2.xx, the following has to be
observed:
•
The line mentioned above must be entered in all CONFIG.* files (in the root directory of the UPL);
otherwise this entry will be lost upon reconfiguration (with UPLSET.BAT).
•
These entries are lost when the software is updated to version 1.xx or 2.xx.
If less than 32 Mbyte RAM is installed in the UPL, the RAM drive capacity should be selected so that at
least 4 Mbyte or better 8 Mbyte RAM is available for the UPL:
•
With 16 Mbyte RAM a smaller RAM drive of max. 8 Mbyte is to be generated. The numeric value
17000 (17 Mbyte) in the above line then has to be reduced to 8000.
•
With 8 Mbyte RAM a RAM drive should not be used. If the ARBITRARY generator function is not
used to play CPR, ACC or WAV files, a small RAM drive of max. 4 Mbyte may be used.
•
With 4 Mbyte RAM no RAM drive can be installed.
Notes:
•
It is strongly recommended to install a RAM drive for the option UPL-B23. The RAM drive is installed
if the installation is performed in the factory.
•
To operate the option UPL-B23 (Coded Audio Signal Generation) with 8 or 4 Mbyte RAM, it is
recommended to start the UPL with the call parameter '-ramdriveC'. Thus, the UPL knows that it has
to use a hard disk directory to buffer the files. Since there is only a subset of library files in this
directory, download times are considerably reduced.
•
DOS automatically assigns a drive letter to the RAM drive. In the UPL, this is normally drive D:. If a
different drive letter (e.g. X:) is used due to a special configuration of the UPL, this letter should be
communicated to the UPL software (from version 3.0 or higher) via the call parameter '-ramdriveX'
with X being the designation of the RAM drive.
11078.2008.02
1.7
E-11
Fehlermeldungen
1.3
UPL
Software Installation
The following floppy disks are supplied together with the UPL:
• MS-DOS system floppies, containing all programs associated with MS-DOS.
• UPL program floppies, including the complete UPL operating and measurement software.
• UPL Example Disk. It contains examples for remote control via IEC/IEEE-bus and for Universal
Sequence Control UPL-B10. as well as setups to different measurement applications.
The UPL is supplied with the operating system and the UPL software including example files already
installed on the built-in hard disk. The supplied floppy disks are needed only when the complete
software or parts thereof have been deleted inadvertently by the user. The MS-DOS, UPL software and
example files can also be installed separately.
Note:
The UPL software is supplied in packed format and unpacked only during installation (the
software then considerably exceeds the capacity available on the disk). The unpacking
program may output messages such as "Exploding...", "Unpacking” etc. These messages are
correct and do not mean faulty installation.
Installing the MS-DOS operating system:
• Connect the external keyboard.
• Switch on UPL, insert 1st disk.
• Press CTRL + ALT + DEL (or STRG+ ALT+ ENTF) keys.
• The installation program is started.
Continue the installation following the notes on the screen.
Installing the UPL operating and measurement software:
• Connect the external keyboard.
• Switch on UPL.
• Exit the UPL operating software by pressing ESC key while the switch-on logo is being displayed on
the screen, or, with the UPL operating software loaded, by pressing the SYSTEM key and Enter
(corresponds to ”Normal Exit to DOS” in the selection box).
• Insert the UPL program disk.
• Key in A :, press Enter.
• Key in UPLINST, press Enter.
The UPL software is now copied onto the hard disk.
Continue the installation following the notes on the screen.
The UPL user interface is be displayed on the LCD screen.
Note:
If an updated version of the UPL software is to be installed, proceed as described above.
1078.2008.02
1.8
E-11
R&S UPL
Start Options of the R&S UPL
Installation of UPL example files:
• Connect the external keyboard.
• Switch on UPL.
• Exit the UPL operating software by pressing ESC key while the switch-on logo is being displayed on
the screen, or, with the UPL operating software loaded, by pressing the SYSTEM key and Enter
(corresponds to ”Normal Exit to DOS” in the selection box).
• Insert the UPL example disk.
• Key in A :, press Enter.
• Key in SETINST, press Enter.
The UPL example files are now copied onto the hard disk. Then the UPL operating software can be
started as usual.
The files copied onto the hard disk during installation are stored in the following directory structure:
C:\
DOS
UTIL
TEMP
MOUSE
UPL
REF
SETUP
USER
DSP
DRIVER
IEC_EXAM
B10_EXAM
DEMO
SET_EXAM
AA
AD
DA
DD
The READ.ME file in the C:\ directory refers to the contents of the individual directories and files.
After installation, the \DOS, \UTIL and \UPL paths are defined.
Note:
To ensure correct functioning of the UPL measurement and operating software, do not modify
the directory structure stated above nor the paths.
11078.2008.02
1.9
E-11
Fehlermeldungen
1.4
UPL
UPL Start Options
This chapter is primarily for advanced users since basic knowledge of the MSDOS operating system is
required, thus allowing the user to additionally optimize the UPL for special applications.
1.4.1
Restarting the UPL Software
The software is automatically started when the UPL is switched on. A restart of the UPL software is
normally not required but may be performed any time. There are different possibilities to do this:
1. If an external keyboard is not provided, the UPL has to be switched off and on again by means of
the power switch (cold booting). Wait at least 10 s before switching the UPL on again to prevent the
hard disk from being damaged.
2. If an external keyboard is provided, the UPL can be restarted by pressing the keys Ctrl + Alt + Del
(warm booting). This is much faster than method 1.
3. The UPL software can be quit via the SYSTEM key (Ctlr F9 on external keyboard). The UPL is then
at operating system level which is shown by the DOS prompt "C:path name>". The path name
indicates the current directory. The UPL software can be restarted at this level by entering "upl" and
then pressing the Enter key. This is even faster than the warm booting method described above.
1.4.2
Integration of Supplementary Programs
It may be desirable for certain applications to install supplementary programs on the UPL and to start
them upon power-up prior to starting the UPL software. Such supplementary programs can be hardware
drivers (e.g. mouse drivers, keyboard drivers for special external keyboards) but also batch files or
programs for special applications.
Usually, such programs are entered in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file. This is, however, not a solution
recommended for the UPL since the AUTOEXEC.BAT file is overwritten whenever the software is
installed (e.g. during a software update) and when the configuration program BOOTSET is called up.
Instead, all additional applications should be called up in the batch file USERKEYB.BAT. This file – if not
yet available – is generated in the UPL root directory (C:\UPL) together with a USERKEYB.DEF sample
file during the installation of the UPL software (version 3.0 or higher) and then comprises examples of
lines for potential applications. These lines cannot be executed since they are preceded by the keyword
REM.
Like any other batch file, USERKEYB.BAT can be processed by a text editor (e.g. EDIT) and adapted to
user requirements:
•
A program line is activated by deleting the keyword REM at the beginning of the line.
•
A program line is deactivated by inserting the keyword REM at the beginning of the line or by
deleting the whole line.
•
The whole batch file is deactivated by renaming (e.g. USERKEYB.SAV) or by deleting it.
USERKEYB.BAT must be located in the UPL root directory where it is called up while AUTOEXEC.BAT
is being executed.
USERKEYB.BAT is exclusively checked by the user and is neither modified by the UPL software nor by
installation programs.
Like AUTOEXEC.BAT, USERKEYB.BAT is executed only once when the internal controller is
(re)started. Calling "upl" from the operating system level (see 1.4.1) does not execute the two batch
files.
1078.2008.02
1.10
E-11
R&S UPL
1.4.3
Start Options of the R&S UPL
Command line Parameters of R&S UPL Software
The (start) behaviour of the R&S UPL can be customized by means of command line parameters.
Moreover, particular command line parameters, called 't-switches', allow the R&S UPL to be configured
for very special functions.
If the R&S UPL is called using an invalid command line parameter, a list of valid parameters is displayed
and the program is terminated.
Some of the command line parameters of the R&S UPL are described in the following. Other
parameters, especially those beginning with "-t" should be selected by the user only if the function is well
understood since those parameters can, in some cases, cause the R&S UPL's behaviour to deviate
significantly from the normal functionality that is described.
The complete list with all command line parameters is displayed on the R&S UPL when the R&S UPL
software is called using the parameter "-t?".
Display settings:
parameter
Value
Description
-c
Coloured display on LCD and external monitor.
-m
Monochrome display on LCD and external monitor.
-i
Monochrome display on LCD, only; external monitor is not addressed.
Setup used:
parameter
Value
-d
Description
The R&S UPL always starts with the default setting.
-s<filename.xxx>
The R&S UPL always starts with the setting of the given setup "filename.xxx".
"filename.xxx" must be a "complete" setup.
Configuration of universal sequence controller (BASIC options):
parameter
Value
Description
-bp<x>
<x>= 8 to 64
Explicit indication of BASIC program memory capacity in kbyte. The default setting is 32 or
64 kbyte depending on the configuration selected.
-bd<x>
<x>= 4 to 64
Explicit indication of BASIC data memory capacity in kbyte. The default setting is 32 or 64
kbyte depending on the configuration selected.
-bn<filename>
BASIC program (macro) to be loaded and started automatically upon program start.
-r
Suppresses the waiting interval for user entries while the R&S UPL is being started. The
R&S UPL can be started much more quickly. This parameter is also recommended when
the R&S UPL is remote-controlled.
11078.2008.02
1.11
E-11
Fehlermeldungen
UPL
Miscellaneous:
parameter
Value
-a<x>
Description
Analyzer options:
<x>=1
-o<x>
When the analog channels are switched off, the outputs are switched to high impedance
(high Z).
Parameter to ensure compatibility with previous software versions:
<x>=1
Digital FS is not dealt with according to AES-17 standard: A sine signal with the amplitude
1 FS yields an RMS value of 0.7071 FS. A squarewave signal with the amplitude 1 FS
yields an RMS value of 1.0 FS.
<x>=2
During S/N measurements, the wanted signal is also measured using the selected filters.
<x>=4
Waveform can be represented on a logarithmic scale.
<x>=5
Modification of rollkey function in the operating panels: The rollkey cannot be used for
navigating in the panel. Instead, it opens the selection window at the cursor position in the
panel.
<x>=14
Protocol data is no longer updated when switching over to PROTOCOL PANEL OFF
(default behaviour prior to version 3.0).
<x>=15
Use of previous jitter weighting filter (prior to version 3.0).
<x>=16
Third analysis does not supply any unsettled (intermediate) result even if running in
continuous mode. The first spectrum appears after the settling and measurement time has
elapsed (default behaviour prior to version 3.03).
-ramdrive<X>
Definition of drive X as (pseudo) RAM drive.
<X>=D
Default state; drive D: is used as RAM drive.
<X>=C
A temporary directory on the hard disk is used as pseudo RAM drive. This is
recommended if not enough RAM memory capacity is available to install a RAM drive and
the Option R&S UPL-B23 is used.
<X>=E
or higher
The RAM drive used by the Option R&S UPL-B23 is drive E: (or higher); it is
recommended if other drives or RAM drives are installed in the R&S UPL.
Hidden command line parameters:
parameter
Value
Description
-tsk
PCX pictures are printed using the softkeys.
-tjit
Jitter mode is selectable (clock or data jitter).
-tdc<x>
<x>=h
The optional audio monitor is reconfigured to operate as DC output. Voltage range -6 V to
+6V.
<x>=l
DC voltage range of reconfigured Audio Monitor: -2 V to +2 V.
-tsync<x>
Behaviour in case of "lock error" (default: no reset, but restart of measurement).
<x>=1
No reset but measurement is continued.
<x>=2
No check for "lock error" in digital analyzer.
<x>=3
Reset of AES receiver; measurement is restarted (default behaviour prior to version 3.0).
-tlog
Activates logging of IEC/IEEE-bus commands as BASIC commands. This allows you to
find out (with R&S UPL-B10 installed) which IEC/IEEE-bus commands were sent from the
host processor to the R&S UPL.
-trest
Prevents the ongoing measurement from being restarted with generator frequency and
level settings.
-tfil<xz>.<yz>
Rub & buzz measurement: modifies the waiting time for filter settling:
1078.2008.02
<xz>
xz: divides the settling time of an optional lowpass filter by x.z.
<yz>
yz: divides the settling time of the standard tracking highpass filter by y.z.
1.12
E-11
R&S UPL
parameter
Start Options of the R&S UPL
Value
Description
Examples
99 reduces the settling time by a factor of 1/9.9 = 0.101.
10 leaves the settling time unchanged.
04 increases the settling time by a factor of 1/0.4 = 2.5.
-ttimo
Deactivates the timeout test for measurements.
-tthdnwin
THD+N measurement: window for FFT is settable.
-tpanel
Automatically generates a text file of the same name (TXT file) with the contents of all
panels when an actual setup (SAC files) is stored.
-tterz<x.y>
<x.y>= 0.1 Third analysis: sets the decay time constant (in seconds) for the Maxhold function.
to 9.9 (s)
(Example: -tterz0.1 sets 0.1s)
-twin12oct
12th-analysis: allows selections of "Meas Mode" NARROW (default behaviour; HANN
window provided on input data) or WIDE (no window)
-twav<x>
ARBITRARY generator function: selects the channel of WAV files to be played (default:
stereo is played in mono).
-tpolar<x>
<x> = 0
Left mono channel.
<x> = 1
Right mono channel.
<x> = 2
Stereo (only possible in digital generator with 8-bit signals).
<x> > 0
Rub & buzz measurement: determines the measurement time of the polarity measurement
in Zs (-tpolar200 sets a measurement time of 0.2 ms).
-tquot
Allows the vertical line (|) instead of the inverted comma (') in IEC/IEEE-bus commands.
-tappl
Causes the "Working Dir" of the application setups to remain unchanged even in the event
of loading from the application level and protects it from being overwritten by the current
working directory. This facilitates application setup adaptation with subsequent storage at
the same location.
-tkeyb
Allows the connection of an external keyboard even after R&S UPL power-up. Deactivates
the virtual keyboard. An external keyboard must be connected to enter letters.
-tsinad
SINAD/THDN measurement: the weighting filter also has an effect on the RMS
measurement result.
–tanlg
Allows the FFT representation in the 110 kHz analyzer up to 140 kHz; typical level error
above 120 kHz: approx. 3 dB.
–tmute<x>
<x>= 0 to Causes muting of the generator at the sweep end. The generator is switched on again
30000 (ms) automatically when a new sweep is started or when a sweep is switched off. The start of
the first measurement is delayed by the value of X (in ms) so that the DUT can settle to
the reapplied level.
–txfft<x>
<x> = 1
With the FFT or post-FFT switched on, also the real part is available in scans 8 to 11 and
the imaginary part in scans 12 to 15 (is not valid for zoom-FFT) – in addition to the
magnitude bins in scans
0 to 7.
<x> = 2
With the FFT or post-FFT switched on, also the phase data is available in scans 8 to 15 in addition to the magnitude bins in scan 0 to 7.
–to33l<x>
<x> = 2 to The message length of the ITU-T O33 strings is limited to <x> characters. If <x>
99
characters are received without any delimiter, the message is regarded as invalid.
–to33inv
Inverts the MARK/SPACE-relation of the generated and decoded FSK-Signal (for UPLB33):
Default state:
MARK = 1650 Hz; SPACE = 1850 Hz
using "–to33inv": MARK = 1850 Hz; SPACE = 1650 Hz
–tgenfilt
Playback of WAV- and CPR- files via generator function "ARBITRARY" opens a menu line
to enter the name of a file defined generator filter. If an existing file is specified and the file
contains valid filter data generator output is filtered; otherwise "UNFILTERED" is displayed
and no filter used.
–techo
In addition to manufacturer, unit, software and setup version, the "*IDN?" IEC/IEEE-bus
command supplies information on all activated command line parameters that were
entered after the "-techo" parameter in the command line or the configuration string.
11078.2008.02
1.13
E-11
Software Installation
UPL
Immediate Effect of Command line Parameters at Power-Up
1.4.3
If command line parameters are to be effective every time the UPL is started, it is desirable to enter
them as fixed data. The method of writing them into the AUTOEXEC.BAT– as described in Section 1.4.2
Starting Supplementary Programs – is not a useful long-term solution.
The USERKEYB.BAT file is also suitable for this application. The DOS variable UPLCFG can be defined
with the desired list of arguments which is then transferred to the UPL program. The correct syntax is as
follows:
set UPLCFG=lists of arguments
The "list of arguments" contains all desired command line parameters separated by blanks.
Example:
set UPLCFG=–r –d
The UPL is always started in the default setting (-d) without waiting for any keystroke (-r).
1078.2008.02
1.14
E-11
UPL
2
Note:
Manual Operation
Manual Operation
You do not need any specific knowledge as to the MS-DOS operating system for use of the
UPL.
We assume that you know what is meant by e.g. a file, a directory or a path and do not provide
any further explanations on that.
Legend of graphic symbols used in this manual:
Front-panel keys
Softkey
Analyzer
Menu item of a panel
Analyzer
ANLG 22 kHz
1078.2008.02
Parameter of a menu item
2.1
E-11
Front View
UPL
1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8
9
AUDIO ANALYZER . 10 Hz ... 110 kHz . UPL
D IGITAL AUDIO
C ON TR O L
OUTPUT
UNBAL
ST OP
START SINGLE
O PTICAL
G EN
ANLR
7
8
ST ATUS
4
IN PU T
O PTICAL
FILT ER
BAL
F ILE
BAC KSP
5
6
CANCEL
5
7
O PTIONSSHO W I/O
0
.
CUR SOR / VAR IATIO N
SELECT
9
DISPLAY GRAPH
1
OFF
REM
OUTPUT LOCAL
H CO PY SYST EM
ED IT
DAT A / PANEL
BAL
UNBAL
CONT
ENT ER
+
/-
ANALOG
GENERATOR
1
ANALYZER
2
2
1
POWER
G EN
OVLD
35V RMS / 100 VPK
17
16
15
14 13
12
11
10
Fig. 2-1 Front-view
1078.2008.02
2.2
E-11
UPL
Front View
2.1
Explanations of Front- and Rearpanel Views incl. Key
Combinations on the External Keyboard
2.1.1
Front-panel View
1
Display of the result of a selected measurement function, simultaneously for channel 1 and 2
2
Display of a second measured value per channel, e.g., peak level of input signal, simultaneously for
channel 1 and 2
3
Display of frequency for both input signals or of frequency and phase between both input signals
4
Current mode of generator, analyzer and sweep system. Date and time.
5
DATA / PANEL
Keypad with dual assignment:
DATA-LED ON:
DATA-LED OFF:
Keys serve as numeric keypad (± key switches the sign over)
Keys are used to call a panel (see 2.3.1 Panels); the labeling above the keys
is valid:
Front-panel key
Key combination
External keyboard
Function
GEN
Alt G
Settings of all generators (see 2.5
(GENERATOR Panel)
ANLR
Alt A
Settings of all analyzers (see 2.6 Analyzer PANEL)
FILTER
Alt T
Filter definitions of analyzers (see 2.7 Analyzer Filters
(FILTER Panel)
STATUS
Alt S
Sum up user-definable menu items of any panel (see
2.8 STATUS Panel)
FILE
Alt F
Loading and storing traces and lists (see 2.9.1),
editing files and directories (see 2.9.2)
DISPLAY
Alt D
Parameters for graphical display of results (see 2.10
Graphical Data Presentation)
GRAPH
Alt R
Activate panel or graphical display (toggle function)
ALT Z
Switch between full-screen and part-screen mode
(toggle function) (see 2.10.9)
1078.2008.02
2.3
Generators
E-11
Front View
UPL
1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8
9
AUDIO ANALYZER . 10 Hz ... 110 kHz . UPL
D IGITAL AUDIO
C ON TR O L
OUTPUT
UNBAL
ST OP
START SINGLE
O PTICAL
G EN
ANLR
7
8
ST ATUS
4
IN PU T
O PTICAL
FILT ER
BAL
F ILE
BAC KSP
5
6
CANCEL
5
7
O PTIONSSHO W I/O
0
.
CUR SOR / VAR IATIO N
SELECT
9
DISPLAY GRAPH
1
OFF
REM
OUTPUT LOCAL
H CO PY SYST EM
ED IT
DAT A / PANEL
BAL
UNBAL
CONT
ENT ER
+
/-
ANALOG
GENERATOR
1
ANALYZER
2
2
1
POWER
G EN
OVLD
35V RMS / 100 VPK
17
16
15
14 13
12
11
10
Fig. 2-1 Front-view
1078.2008.02
2.4
E-11
UPL
5
Front View
DATA / PANEL
Keypad with dual assignment:
DATA-LED ON:
DATA-LED OFF:
OPTIONS
SHOW I/O
Keys serve as numeric keypad (± key switches the sign over)
Keys are used to call a panel (see 2.3.1 Panels); the labeling above the keys
is valid:
Alt O
Parameters for printout (see 2.14 Printing/ Plotting)
and auxiliary settings (see 2.15 Setting and Displaying
Auxiliary Parameters)
Alt I
Front-panel display with the selected inputs/ outputs
marked; explanations in the case of indistinct input
signals
Open a box for setting the monitoring volume if the
Option UPL-B5 (Monitor Output) is installed.
+/-
6
EDIT keypad
(see 2.3.2 Data Entry)
SELECT
Space
Open a selection, input or dialog window, selects
characters in the entry box for entering text without
external keyboard
BACKSP
*
Delete the character before the cursor
CANCEL
Esc
Close open window, the old value or parameter will
remain effective
ENTER
Enter
Close open window, the new value or parameter will
be accepted
7
CONTROL keypad
START
Ctrl F5/ Strg F5
Starts continuous
( LED lights up).
measurement
or
sweeps.
Resets min. and max. values of bargraph display,
average values and average traces (see 2.11
Starting and Stopping of Measurements or
Sweeps)
SINGLE
Ctrl F6/ Strg F6
Starts a single measurement or single sweep. LED
lights during a single sweep (see 2.11 Starting and
Stopping of Measurements or Sweeps)
STOP/CONT
Ctrl F7/ Strg F7
Stops or continues measurement or sweep (toggle
function) (see 2.11
Starting and Stopping of
Measurements or Sweeps)
H COPY
Ctrl F8/ Strg F8
Prints a hard copy of screen (see 2.14.1
copy to printer (pixel-oriented))
SYSTEM
Ctrl F9/ Strg F9
Return to MS-DOS (see 2.18
Computer)
1078.2008.02
2.5
Screen
UPL Used as
E-11
Front View
UPL
1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8
9
AUDIO ANALYZER . 10 Hz ... 110 kHz . UPL
D IGITAL AUDIO
C ON TR O L
OUTPUT
UNBAL
ST OP
START SINGLE
O PTICAL
G EN
ANLR
7
8
ST ATUS
4
IN PU T
O PTICAL
FILT ER
BAL
F ILE
BAC KSP
5
6
CANCEL
5
7
O PTIONSSHO W I/O
0
.
CUR SOR / VAR IATIO N
SELECT
9
DISPLAY GRAPH
1
OFF
REM
OUTPUT LOCAL
H CO PY SYST EM
ED IT
DAT A / PANEL
BAL
UNBAL
CONT
ENT ER
+
/-
ANALOG
GENERATOR
1
ANALYZER
2
2
1
POWER
G EN
OVLD
35V RMS / 100 VPK
17
16
15
14 13
12
11
10
Fig. 2-1 Front-view
1078.2008.02
2.6
E-11
UPL
7
Front View
CONTROL keypad
Ctrl F10/ Strg F10
Open window for setting the contrast of the LCD via
rotary knob.
OUTPUT
Ctrl F11/ Strg F11
Switches all outputs ON/OFF (OFF: LED lights up)
(see 2.13 Fast Switch-off of Outputs)
LOCAL
Ctrl F12/ Strg F12
Switch
from
remote
to
local
mode
(Remote control: LED is ON)
In LOCAL mode, the internal loudspeaker and,
optionally, the connected headphones are switched
on/off if the option UPL-B5 (Monitor Output) is
installed.
(Speaker off)
8
CURSOR / VARIATION keypad
(see 2.3.2 Data Entry, 2.3.1 Panels)
HELP
F1
,
PAGE , PAGE
,
Opens a help window
Tabulator right/left; change to the next input field to
the right or to the left, may be used also for toggling
between input panel and graphical window
,
Page , Page
Picture , Picture
Move the cursor up/down
,
,
Rotary knob
Turn pages in a panel or move windows back and
forth
If the graphical window is activated (by means of the
GRAPH key or Alt R, and discernible from the
softkeys being labeled with the graphics control
functions), the PAGE keys are used to scroll up or
down the scan index (see 2.9.3.3, Scans count >1).
Move the cursor to the left, right; only effective in an
open input window.
In the graphical window, too, the cursor position is
changed unless MANUAL SWEEP is selected. With
MANUAL SWEEP (started by means of the START
key), the sweep steps are advanced by means of the
horizontal cursor keys. When the STOP key is
pressed, switchover is made back to the graphics
cursors. In manual sweeps, the rotary knob has the
same function as the horizontal cursor keys.
,
Cntrl
Cntrl
/ Strg
/ Strg
Increment or decrement the number on the cursor
position, move the active cursor in the graphical
display
9
3.5" disk drive, LED indicates a read or write access
10
Headphones connector (Option UPL-B5)
1078.2008.02
2.7
E-11
Front View
UPL
1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8
9
AUDIO ANALYZER . 10 Hz ... 110 kHz . UPL
D IGITAL AUDIO
C ON TR O L
OUTPUT
UNBAL
ST OP
START SINGLE
O PTICAL
G EN
ANLR
7
8
ST ATUS
4
IN PU T
O PTICAL
FILT ER
BAL
F ILE
BAC KSP
5
6
CANCEL
5
7
O PTIONSSHO W I/O
0
.
CUR SOR / VAR IATIO N
SELECT
9
DISPLAY GRAPH
1
OFF
REM
OUTPUT LOCAL
H CO PY SYST EM
ED IT
DAT A / PANEL
BAL
UNBAL
CONT
ENT ER
+
/-
ANALOG
GENERATOR
1
ANALYZER
2
2
1
POWER
G EN
OVLD
35V RMS / 100 VPK
17
16
15
14 13
12
11
10
Fig. 2-1 Front view
1078.2008.02
2.8
E-11
UPL
Front View
11
Input and output connectors of the analyzers and generator for the analog interfaces (see 2.5.2
Configuration of the Analog Generator and/or 2.6.2 Configuration of the Analog Analyzers)
12
Graphical presentation of results, the measured values at the cursor positions being used.
13
Operator guidance line, also indicating the permissible range of values during data entry.
14
Softkeys. Entry of units and operation of the graphical display; can also be activated via mouse or
function keys of external keyboard.
15
One of altogether 7 panels, each containing all the appertaining settings
16
Power Switch
17
Input and output connectors of the analyzer and generator for the digital interfaces (Option UPL-B2, see
data sheet for order No.); see 2.5.3 Configuration of the Digital Generator / 2.6.3 Configuration of the
Digital Analyzer.
Unbal:
BNC connector
Optical:
Interface EIJ CP-340, system TOSLINK
Bal:
XLR connector
To avoid EMC problems the user should take care of proper shielding of the XLR
connector cables.
1078.2008.02
2.9
E-11
Rear View
UPL
1
4
5
6
2
3
7
Fig. 2-2 Rear-panel view
1078.2008.02
2.10
E-11
UPL
2.1.2
Rear View
Rear-panel View
1
Connector for an external keyboard (see 1.1.6, Connecting an external keyboard)
2
Inputs and outputs for reference and sync signals of the digital audio interfaces (Option UPL-B2) (see
UPL-B2 data sheet)
REF IN:
input for a digital audio reference signal (DARS)
REF OUT:
output for a digital audio reference signal generated by UPL
SYNC IN:
synchronization input for wordclock and video signals
SYNC OUT:
synchronization output for synchronization of external devices (e.g., oscilloscope) to
digital input signal
3
Display of the set ac voltage
4
IEC-BUS female connector (IEC-625/IEEE-488), Remote Control Option (UPL-B4) required, (see data
sheet for order No.) (see Section 3, Remote Control)
5
Connector for an external VGA monitor, 15-contact D-SUB female connector, triple-row
6
two RS 232-C interfaces, 9-contact D-Sub female
7
Parallel printer interface, 25-contact D-Sub female
1078.2008.02
2.11
E-11
Rear View
UPL
2.1.3 Block Diagram
Block Diagram of UPL
Audio Monitor
(Option UPL-B5)
in t . S p e a ke r
Analyzer
from Digital I/O
DemodSignal 1
-20...+20dB
LEV
1
-6dB
+6dB
24dB THD
0 ... 25dB
2kHz
24dB
CH 1
ANALOG_MON1
ANALYZER
-6dB
PC Mainboard
20Bit
M
U
X
MUX
A
Antialias
A
D
DIG_IN
UPL-B5
DIG AUDIO
ANA
GEN
D
DFD-D2
from Digital I/O
Demod Signal 2
-20...+20dB
LEV
-6dB
+6dB
24dB THD
2
0 ... 25dB
2kHz
24dB
CH 2
Demultiplexer
Digital Input Data
(from DIG AUDIO I/O)
ANALOG_MON2
-6dB
M
U
X
M
U
X
ext. Keyboard
Control signals
(Option UPL-B4)
IEC625/
IEEE488
IEEE
Controller
DSP A
Control
14Bit
A
110kHz
D
Interface
Antialias
ext. CRT
VGA
Controller
DFD-D2
to LCD
Gen Audio Data
to DIGITAL AUDIO I/O
Mod_Signal
5kHz
Level control
1
GENERATOR
SetupRAM
M
U
X
MUX
Out Imp
23 kHz
A
D
LPT1
(to/from DIG AUDIO I/O)
AT-Bus
IDE
Controller
Keyboard
Controller
Floppy
2
to internal
Keyboard
0...-20dB
Digital Unit
Atten
Front Panel
ANALOG UNIT
Generator
Front Panel Module
DIGITAL AUDIO I/O (Option UPL-B2)
Reclocked Input
AES Main Board
Reclocking
Common Mode Ampl.
BAL
S yn c_ext
Ref PLL C LK
Ref PLL
G
Digital Input
A mpl.
32, 44.1, 48kHz
A
SYNC IN
Sync_ext
Video Sync
Separator
D
Divider
Digital Audio Input
Phase to
Ref
N1, N2
to
ANA Ch2
intern
OPTICAL
TOSLINK Tx
AES Jitter Demodulator
D em o d
Si gnal 2
Digital In CLK
Digital Audio
Out
Inputs
Gen CLK
Digital Input Data
(to DSP)
Digital Audio
IN / OUT
Reclocked
Input
CAL
Gen Audio Data
Fsync
Phase Meter
Dig Input
Amplitude
Gen CLK
Audio In CLK
Jitter
Modulator
Sync In CLK
Sync Out
Selector
Tx2 Data
Selector
LOW
Wordclocks
Tx Jitter ADJ
HIGH
Biphase Clocks
2.12
SYNC OUT
Tx2
Demod
Signal 1
to
ANA Ch1
Common Mode Amplitude
Common Mode Injection
Mo d_Sign al
(Analog Gen)
REF OUT
AES
Transmitter
PLL
Ref In C LK
DDS Sync Generator
Ref Out
Ref In CLK
Tx1 CLK
DDS
REF IN
Ref In
Rx2
Gen Sync
long cabl e
simulator
AES
Receiver
Digital Gen
Tx1
Ref PLL C LK
AES
Receiver
R x1
Ref Gen
BAL
Ref PLL CLK
Ref Input CLK
Sync
Dig Input
Tx1
Ampl
Adj.
AES
Transmitter
1078.2008.02
Rear Panel Module
Reclock
Phase A dj
VARI
TOSLINK R x
UNBAL
Rear Panel
(WordClock, Video)
Digital Input CLK
UNBAL
COM1
COM2
to TX1
LDG
(Option
UPL-B1)
ALC
HDD
DSP B
Channel Status Data
ÄI
Date
Name
Dep
01
06/19/96
Küfner
1GP2
E-11
UPL
Brief Introduction
2.2
Operating Instructions
2.2.1
Brief Introduction
General
Subsequent to switch-on, the instrument assumes the same state as prior to switch-off. This applies to
all setting parameters of the UPL, i.e., also for those which are currently not displayed.
The UPL is operated using the cursor (inverted field) ,the rotary knob and the keys SELECT, BACKSP,
CANCEL and ENTER . The cursor indicates the input field for which an entry is expected. The cursor
can be moved from one input field to another using the rotary knob or one of the keys , , PAGE ,
PAGE , Tab
and Tab . The cursor cannot be placed on fields with indicating function only. They
are displayed in a different gray or another color.
Panel Structure
Associated functions and settings are displayed together in panels:
• Analyzer panel
- selection of the instrument (analog or digital interfaces, frequency range)
- configuration of the interfaces
- measuring functions (incl. sweeps of tracking filters)
- trigger conditions (incl. ext. sweep)
- selection of the filters
• Generator panel
- selection of the instrument (analog or digital interfaces, frequency range)
- configuration of the interfaces
- selection of the test signals incl. level setting
- sweep of the generator signals
• Filter panel
- definition of the filter characteristics
• File panel
- storage and loading of instrument settings and measured-value sequences
- editing of files and directories
• Display panel
- definition of the type of graphical display
- scaling of x and y-axes
- selection of multiscans
- entry of tolerance lines
• Graph panel
- selection of cursor and marker functions
- graphical analysis of the measurement results
• Status panel
- user-configurable panel (only in combination with graphical display)
• Options panel
settings for
remote control
parameter link
printer/plotter
COM2-interface
1078.2008.02
2.13
E-11
Brief Introduction
UPL
external keyboard
external monitor
display of the measurement result: selection of the number of digits and update rate
display mode and language of the help texts
version numbers of hardware and software and options fitted
calibration
installation of options
Basic rules of operation
• First select the instrument (both generator and analyzer)
Reason: An individual set of parameters is provided for each instrument. This parameter set is
saved when changing the instrument and restored when returning to the instrument. It must
be loaded first before beginning to make new entries. When changing an instrument, the
current choice of functions may change also (e.g., analog instruments do not offer selection
of the sampling rate..).
• Always proceed from ”top to bottom” in the panels.
Reason: Variations in parameters of individual menu items may affect the selection or the range of
values of menu items further down, however not of menu items above.
• Edit the DISPLAY panel only after the generator and the analyzer have been set.
Reason: Everything which can be displayed graphically also depends on the selected measurement
function.
Many setting parameters of the DISPLAY panel are automatically adopted from other
panels, if desired, eliminating the need for setting display parameters.
Selection of function and entry of values
Selection of functions and parameters:
First open input box (SELECT key or space key on external keyboard), then
either:
or:
- select function or parameter using the arrow keys
- enter the first letter of the desired function on the external keyboard
Pressing the "Enter" key acknowledges the selection, "CANCEL" retains the previous selection.
Entry of numeric values:
either:
- open the input box (SELECT key or space key on the external keyboard
or first digit of the number to be entered)
- numeric entry
- terminate with "Enter"
the unit remains unchanged
or:
or:
- open the input box and do the numeric entry (as above)
- terminate by selecting the unit via softkey (or the
corresponding function key on the external keyboard)
switch the rotary knob function to "value change mode" by pressing one of
the keys ENTER,
or
vary the numeric values using the rotary knob, the position of the digit to be
changed can be selected using the cursor keys ( or )
The permitted range for the selected function is displayed in the operator guidance line (between panels
and softkeys).
1078.2008.02
2.14
E-11
UPL
Brief Introduction
Help Functions
The UPL provides a manifacility of help functions to support the user:
1. HELP function
• A HELP information is provided for each input field, optionally in German or English (HELP key or F1
of the external keyboard, selection of the language in the option panel).
• The help information corresponds always to the firmware version of the instrument
2. ONLINE help
The permitted range for the selected menu item is indicated in the operator guidance line (between the
panels and the softkeys), respectively.
3. Entries exceeding the specified range
Entries which exceed the specified range permitted for the selected function are not accepted, an
acoustic warning is output and the entry is modified to the respective minimum or maximum value.
4. SHOW I/O key
If the measured value can not be displayed, e.g., due to a missing or inappropriate input signal, the
message "-Input?- Press SHOW I/O" is displayed. Pressing this key causes notes on possible error
causes to be displayed together with the input and output configuration.
5. OUTPUT OFF
All UPL outputs can be switched off using this key, e.g., in order to protect a connected device under
test.
2.2.2
Introductory Examples
This section provides an introduction to the operation of the UPL via the front-panel keyboard by way of
examples which base on each other (operation via external keyboard or mouse, see Section 2.3
General Instructions for Use).
The examples are:
• Loading the default setup
• Frequency response measurement of the analog UPL generator from 15 Hz through 20 kHz using the
sweep function
• Cutting in a filter
• Ways of presentation of measurement results
• FFT of a two-tone signal, measured at digital interface
• Hard copy of screen
Note:
Menu items which are not explained in the examples remain unchanged.
1078.2008.02
2.15
E-11
Introductionary Examples
UPL
Example 1: Loading the Default Setup
(Only required to ensure that equal conditions prevail in the examples given below)
Press the figures key 5 on the front panel. As the instrument is currently
not expecting a numerical input (LED above the figures keys does not
light up) the secondary function indicated above the keys is automatically
executed. In this example, it is the FILE function.
Causes the appertaining panel (= input window) to be displayed on the
screen. The panel contains the menu items dealing with file management.
Mode
DEF SETUP
Note:
Using the keys above, place the cursor to the input field in the second line
of the panel (= right-hand column of menu item ”Mode” under the heading
LOAD INSTRUMENT STATE), press SELECT, select DEF SETUP with
the cursor, close the window using ENTER. The UPL default setup is
loaded.
The operator sequence ”SELECT, selection with the cursor, ENTER” is always necessary
to select a parameter, is however not explicitly stated in the following explanations.
Example 2: Frequency Response Measurement of the UPL Generator in the
Range from 15 Hz to 20 kHz using the Sweep Function
Analyzer settings:
Causes the panels for setting the analyzer filters to be displayed on the
screen instead of the display panel and then changes to the analyzer
panel. The cursor is always located in the last-selected panel.
Fig. 2-3
ANALYZER
ANLG 22 kHz
1078.2008.02
Define which one of the three analyzers is to be used. The preset
parameter is ANLG 22 kHz, which is designed for the analog interfaces
and the frequency range up to 22 kHz. The panel displayed on the screen
indicates all possible ways of setting this analyzer; the settings of the
other analyzers, e.g. the analyzer DIGITAL are suppressed, however
retained.
2.16
E-11
UPL
Introductionary Examples
Channel(s)
Define which channel is to be measured. Select two-channel
measurement.
1&2
CH1 Input
GEN CH2
Select the input on which the measurement is to be carried out. Switch
channel 1 to GEN CH2 and channel 2 to GEN CH1. The generator
outputs are now connected internally crosswise to the analyzer inputs.
(This feature is required, e.g., for performing precise gain measurements
or, as in this example to execute the examples without changing external
connections.)
CH2 Input
GEN CH1
FREQ / PHASE
Switch to simultaneous frequency and phase measurement.
Freq &Phase
FUNCTION
RMS&S/N
Define the measurement function. All measurement capabilities are listed
in the selection window (SELECT key). Keep the preset RMS
measurement (CANCEL key).
The UPL measures continuously, which is why the measurement results of the signal currently output by
the generator are already displayed on the upper range of the screen:
• the first window shows the results for both channels of the selected measurement function, which is
here the rms measurement (the heading of the window reflects the selected function)
• the second window gives the peak level of the input signal, also for both channels
• the third window outputs the frequency of the input signal and the phase between both channels
Generator settings:
Switch to the next input field (to the left); in this case, when pressing the
key no more than twice, to the GENERATOR panel and to the position the
cursor was placed when the panel was left, in this example the first line.
GENERATOR
Specify which one of the five generators is to be used. The preset
parameter is ANLG, which is the generator for the analog interfaces.
ANLG
1078.2008.02
2.17
E-11
Introductionary Examples
FUNCTION
UPL
Specify the type of signal to be output. The selection window lists all
possible types of signals. Keep the presetting, which is sine-wave.
SINE
SWEEP CTRL
AUTO SWEEP
X Axis
Define whether a sweep is to be carried out, whether the sweep is
specified by parameters or a list and whether the sweep is to be
continued automatically or manually via rotary knob. Switch to AUTO
SWEEP. The panel shows some additional lines in which the sweep
parameters are to be specified:
Define which parameter is to be swept, here the frequency.
FREQ
Start
20 kHz
Stop
Specify the start and stop values of the sweep. With a frequency sweep
selected, frequency values are expected:
Enter the start value of 20 kHz: place the cursor to the input field, press
SELECT (the LED DATA above the entry block for digits lights up
indicating that these keys have now the function of figures keys and
cannot be used to select panels), key in 20, press softkey kHz (= F6),
thus closing the input window. Select the input field for the stop value
using the cursor key.
Place the digital cursor to the second position using the
Hz using the rotary knob.
key, set
15
15 Hz
VOLTAGE
1.0 V
Note:
Specify the output voltage. Set to 1.0 V.
The permissible range of values is output in the operator guidance line
(above the softkeys).
The maximum level which is still permitted to be output can be defined in the menu item
”Max volt” (upper section of panel) (protects custom circuits against destruction in case of a
keying error). The upper range limit permissible for inputs is thus limited to this value and
accordingly varied in the operator guidance line.
Setting the Display Parameters:
Causes the DISPLAY panel to be displayed on the screen (at the former
position of the FILTER panel) and the cursor to be placed in this panel.
Contains all parameters concerning the graphical presentation.
OPERATION
The standard setting CURVE PLOT is used to display the measurement
results in the form of a curve.
CURVE PLOT
1078.2008.02
2.18
E-11
UPL
Introductionary Examples
Trace A
FUNC CH1
Unit
dBr
Scale
MANUAL
Top
0.2 dBr
Define which data are to be collected in the measured value memory A.
Here, the parameter FUNC CH1 specifies the results of the function
currently active for channel 1. With rms measurement selected in the
analyzer, the results of this measurement are collected.
Specify the unit with which the Y axis is to be scaled. (It is possible to
select a different unit from that selected in the ANALYZER panel for
numerical display of the measurement result. A different unit can be
selected even at a later date in order to rescale an already available
trace.)
Hint: The key allows for jumping to the end of the selection box, thus
obtaining dBr very fast.
The standard setting AUTO ONCE causes the scaling to be effected
automatically whenever a measurement function is changed. At the
beginning of the sweep, the full-scale values are set to a useful start
value. After the sweep has been completed, the measured full-scale
values are taken as the basis for rescaling.
Switch to Manual. Scaling can now be specified in the lines Top and
Bottom.
Enter the full-scale values +0.2 dBr and -0.2 dBr.
The full-scale values can be entered in units other than specified for
scaling of the axis. (Renders conversion of the full-scale values when
changing the scaling unit unnecessary.)
Bottom
-0.2 dBr
Trace B
The phase measurement values are collected in the measured value
memory B.
PHASE
Scale
Switch to manual scaling. The scale for trace B is displayed in the righthand margin of the graphics window.
MANUAL
Top
Enter full-scale values of ±1°.
+ 1°
Bottom
- 1°
1078.2008.02
2.19
E-11
Introductionary Examples
X AXIS
UPL
Indication value only. Is automatically set to the sweep control variable.
FREQ
Scale
Automatically scale the x axis with the start and stop values of the sweep.
Auto
Spacing
Select between linear and logarithmic scaling of the x axis (=sweep
parameter). Keep the presetting LOG.
LOG
Toggle key switching from the selected input panel to the window for
graphical presentation of traces, bargraphs or trace lists and vice versa.
Press the key.
The graphics window will appear in full display (because the key was
pressed when the panels were shown in full display, i.e. 3 panels
simultaneously).
Switches from full-screen to part-screen mode and vice versa.
The panel most recently selected (here: DISPLAY panel) is shifted to the
left on the screen, the GRAPH window being displayed next to it on the
right side instead of the other two panels (part-screen mode).
Start a single sweep. The current measured values are output in the
measurement result window and, at the same time, both traces are
displayed. The sweep starts at the high frequencies (because of start
value=20 kHz). The graph window is now active, i.e. the
and
keys,
the rotary knob and the softkeys refer to the graphical display.
The measurement of the sum frequency response of generator and analyzer is thus complete.
1078.2008.02
2.20
E-11
UPL
Introductionary Examples
Example 3: Cutting in a Filter
Select the DISPLAY panel.
TRACE B
Switch off trace B.
OFF
TOP
10 dBr
Reset the top full-scale value of trace A to 10 dBr and the bottom fullscale value of trace A to -90 dBr.
You can select Scale Auto Once instead, causing the scaling to be
automatically matched at the end of the sweep.
Bottom
- 90 dBr
Switch from part-screen to full-screen mode (here: 3-panel display as the
cursor was in a panel).
FILTER
Filter 05
Select the FILTER panel. Up to 9 filters can be defined by the user at the
same time: Enter the type of filter (lowpass, highpass...), attenuation,
passband or center frequency and bandwidth you wish to use in the
menu item ”FILTER XX”, finished. To make the entry more convenient
for you, some filters are predefined.
Scroll to the first notch filter.
The parameters displayed in green or gray are values which have been
determined by the internal filter design program. These values are for
your information and cannot be changed.
If you need help, press the Help key to open the help window, which
provides you with brief information on the current menu item, here the
filters. You may select key words highlighted in the help text and obtain
further information on these items by pressing SELECT.
Cancel closes the help window (also ENTER).
1078.2008.02
2.21
E-11
Introductionary Examples
Center Frq
4 kHz
UPL
Set the center frequency to 4 kHz, the (band)Width to 500 Hz and
Atten(uation) to 50 dB. The filter is now defined and is automatically
designated ”5:NO4000 Hz".
Select the ANALYZER panel using e.g. the tabulator key (press twice)
and scroll to its end using e.g. the Page key.
Filter
5:NO4:00 KHz
Define the filters activated in the selected rms measurement. Scroll to
the first menu item ”Filter” under the heading FUNCTION, open the
selection window containing a list with the nine filters defined in the
FILTER panel together with their short designations and all weighting
filters. All settable filters can be made visible by scrolling with the and
cursor keys.
Place the cursor on Filter 5:NO4000 Hz and select using Enter.
The filter is now being calculated. The displayed filter parameters are
UPLated in the FILTER panel.
Select the GENERATOR panel.
1078.2008.02
2.22
E-11
UPL
Introductionary Examples
Frequency:
Spacing
Select linear spacing between sweep variables.
LIN Points
Start
Change the start and stop values of the sweep to 3500 Hz or 4500 Hz in
order to facilitate analysis of the stopband of the notch filter.
3500 Hz
Stop
4500 Hz
Stop
4500 Hz
Switch from full-screen (3 panels) to part-screen mode.
Start a new sweep. The frequency response for channel 1 with the notch
filter activated is displayed. Scaling of the X-axis is automatically
matched to the new sweep values.
Fig. 2-4
1078.2008.02
2.23
E-11
Introductionary Examples
UPL
Example 4: Ways of Presentation of Measurement Data
The graphical display window is activated, i.e. all entries (e.g. via rotary
knob, softkeys) are relevant for graphical display.
The softkey indicates by the filled circle which cursor is active, i.e. can be
moved using the cursor keys or the rotary knob (in the example 0cursor). Select the 0-cursor by pressing the softkey.
Graphical display and the cursor function can be altered using these
softkeys. The key sequence CURSOR, SET TO, MIN A, for example,
sets the (active) cursor to the minimum value of the sweep.
The Back softkey allows you to return to the next higher menu level.
Press twice.
The X-axis is zoomed symmetrically around the 0-cursor by the factor of
2 with each pressing of the key.
Select the DISPLAY panel.
OPERATION
SWEEP LIST
OPERATION
Bargraph
Display of measured value list for the most recent sweep. This list can be
stored e.g. for further processing (FILE panel, "STORE TRACE/LIST":
"STORE" "TRACE A", select a file name).
Select bargraph display. The function to be displayed and the other
parameters can be selected independently for each bargraph. The
minimum and maximum values indicated are reset whenever the START
key is pressed.
Start a continuous sweep. The current rms values and frequency are
indicated in bargraph display.
Ends the continuous sweep at the end of the last sweep.
1078.2008.02
2.24
E-11
UPL
Introductionary Examples
Example 5: FFT of a Two-tone Signal, Measured at Digital Interface
Select full-screen mode for the panels.
Select the GENERATOR panel.
GENERATOR
Select the generator for the digital interfaces.
DIGITAL
Channel(s)
Set single-channel output.
1
FUNCTION
DFD
MEAN FREQ
A difference tone is generated. A box is first displayed containing the
question: „Really Parameter Link Yes/No“. Yes means that the
corresponding DFD measurement is automatically switched on in the
analyzer. Acknowledge by entering NO in this example, since an FFT is
to be made. Select mean frequency (enter in menu item ”Mean Freq”)
and difference frequency (menu item ”Diff freq”) is generated. The total
level is 100 % FS (full scale), i.e. the peak value of the level matches the
maximum number that can still be displayed (”all bits set”).
Enter mean and difference frequency.
10 kHz
DIFF FREQ
80 Hz
Select the ANALYZER panel.
ANALYZER
Select the analyzer for the digital interfaces.
DIGITAL
1078.2008.02
2.25
E-11
Introductionary Examples
Input
Intern
Function
FFT
FFT-Size
8192
UPL
Switch to the internal digital interface to the generator. The generator is
connected internally to the analyzer. (The internal sample rate is fixedly
set to about 43 kHz.)
Select FFT analysis (selection in a box can always be made,
alternatively, by entering the first letter on the external keyboard, i.e. „F“
in this example).
Specify the size of the calculated FFT in number of points. The higher
the FFT, the higher the frequency resolution (see DISPLAY menu item
”Resolution”), however the more the measuring time (see DISPLAY
menu item ”Meas Time”).
Display
Trace A:
Unit
Select unit of the y-axis. Scaling is then made automatically, since the
parameter “Scale“ is set to “AUTO ONCE“.
dBFS
Switch to part-screen mode.
The spectrum of the difference tone signal is displayed.
Select analyzer panel.
Zooming
ON (2 ... 128)
Increases the frequency resolution by one center frequency (menu item
”Center”) through digital preprocessing of the signal by the zoom factor
(DISPLAY menu item ”Zoom-Fact”). The frequency range displayed is
thus decreased by the same factor (menu item ”Span”).
Note:
1078.2008.02
Not to be confused with the Zoom in Graph where the
measured data are only displayed in zoomed form. Here,
the measurement is really made at this higher resolution!
2.26
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UPL
Introductionary Examples
Center
10 kHz
Span
2.49 kHz
Set to 10 kHz (= center frequency of difference tone signal)
Select 2.49 kHz. This results in an expansion by a factor of 16 (zoom
factor). In the graphics window, the zoomed spectrum is displayed (see
Fig. 2.5).
Fig. 2-5
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Introductionary Examples
UPL
Example 6: Hard Copy of Screen
Span
Use the key in the “Span“ line to enter the first column of the panel. The
SELECT key is used to tick off this line and generate a copy of this line in
the status panel.
Activate the STATUS panel. In this panel, all lines which have been ticked
off by the user in one of the panels are listed. It is thus possible to sum up
all particularly important parameters in one panel and to print them out
together with the measurement results.
Span
1.37 kHz
The UPL can also be operated from the status panel: select a span of
1.37 kHz (the frequency resolution is increased again).
Essential parameters can thus be modified without changing the panel.
For generation of a hard copy, just connect a printer to the parallel interface and configure the UPL
appropriately:
Select the OPTIONS panel.
Destin
Select hardcopy output to a printer.
Printer
Printname
xxx
Select the appropriate printer driver from the list provided. Subsequently,
change to the type of display which is to be printed (e.g., activate status
panel again).
A box is displayed which allows for selection whether and which
comment is added to the printout. Upon acknowledging the request, the
printjob is started.
It is advisable with fast printers, to stop the measurements by pressing
the STOP key thus increasing the printwork.
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UPL
2.3
General Instructions for Use
General Instructions for Use
The UPL is very easy to operate, especially when you observe the following recommendations:
• First select the instrument (both generator and analyzer)
Reason: An individual set of parameters is provided for each instrument. This parameter set is
saved when changing the instrument and restored when returning to the instrument. It must
be loaded first before beginning to make new entries. When changing an instrument, the
current choice of functions may change also (e.g., analog instruments do not offer selection
of the sampling rate..).
• Always proceed from ”top to bottom” in the panels.
Reason: Variations in parameters of individual menu items may affect the selection or the range of
values of menu items further down, however not of menu items above.
• Edit the DISPLAY panel only after the generator and the analyzer have been set.
Reason: Everything which can be displayed graphically also depends on the selected measurement
function.
Many setting parameters of the DISPLAY panel are automatically adopted from other
panels, if desired, eliminating the need for setting display parameters.
General Hints as to Mouse Operation
If a mouse is connected to the UPL (see Section 1.1.7 Connecting a Mouse), an arrow the position of
which can be changed by moving the mouse appears on the screen. The arrow can be moved across
the entire screen. If the cursor is on the desired position, the action (see the following Section) is always
triggered by pressing a mouse key (= clicking on a field).
Further, the mouse can be used to
• select between the three different display modes:
3-panel display, part display and full display, with the left and right mouse key being pressed
simultaneously in the shaded area (cf. Fig. 2-6, a and c). The mouse click to change the display
modes must be at a position in the panel which is not assigned by an operable field.
• change between panel and graphics in the part display, with the left mouse key being pressed in the
shaded area (cf. Fig. 2-6 b).
• change the panel by clicking the panel heading using the left mouse key (cf. Fig. 2-6 d).
• entry of file names, comments etc. is easier than via the front-panel keypad. If no external keyboard
is connected, a “screen keyboard“ is displayed. Its keys can be actuated by selecting them using the
mouse.
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General Instructions for Use
Permitted range
for mouse click
UPL
Press left
mouse key
Press left and right
mouse key simultaneously
a)
b
Fig. 2-6
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UPL
Panels
2.3.1
Panels
Related settings and functions are always combined to form a so-called panel in the UPL. Each panel
has a name (= heading in the upper margin of the panel), which is used to call the panel.
In addition to the panels, there is another window in which the measurement results are displayed
graphically. Selection and activation of this graphics window matches that of a panel, which is just larger
than the panel.
Only one panel can be active at one time. An active panel is characterized by the cursor (field in inverse
display) being placed in it, i.e. entries can be made only in this panel. On the whole, there are eight
panels (incl. graphics window), a maximum of 3 panels being displayable on the screen at one time.
A panel is selected and, if required, displayed on the screen using
• the panel keys on the front panel
• the short-key combinations of the external keyboard (option)
Switchover between visible panels is also possible by:
• the Tab
, Tab
keys.
• moving the mouse cursor (arrow) to the desired panel and clicking on a field
• the short-key combination of the external keyboard (option) (see table 2-1).
When a panel is called, the position of the cursor matches that at the time when the panel was left
(exception: changing the panel using the mouse; in this case the position of the mouse cursor is
relevant). Thus, you can quickly switch between constantly recurring input points.
The keys on the front-panel keypad named DATA/PANEL are assigned two functions. The first is the
fast selection of the panels (see Table 2-1), the second function is that of a input block for numbers.
Switchover from first to second function and vice versa is made automatically. If the UPL expects the
entry of figures (after having pressed the SELECT key with the cursor placed on a field for the entry of
numerical values, see Section 2.3.2 Data Entry), the keys serve as figures keys, otherwise as keys for
panel selection. If the entry of data is expected, the LED above the designation DATA lights up.
Table 2-1
Panels and their functions
Panel name
Front panel
key
Key
combination
ext. keyboard
Function
Analyzer
ANLR
Alt-A
Settings of all six analyzers
Generator
GEN
Alt-G
Settings of all five generators
Filter
FILTER
Alt-T
Filter definitions of the analyzers
File
FILE
Alt-F
Loading and storing of traces and lists, editing of files and
directories
Display
DISPLAY
Alt-D
Parameters for graphical presentation of measurement
results
Status
STATUS
Alt-S
Summary of user-definable menu items of any panel
Options
OPTIONS
Alt-O
Settings for printer/plotter, ext. keyboard, ext. monitor,
information on options fitted, calling of calibration routines
Graphics
GRAPH
Alt-R
Activates panel or graphical display (toggle function)
Alt-Z
Switching from full-screen to part-screen mode (toggle
function)
Full-screen/part-screen
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Panels
Note:
UPL
For a complete list of short-key combinations for operation via an external keyboard, refer
to Section 2.1.1, Front-panel View or to the HELP menu under UPL (HELP key or F1 of the
external keyboard).
Every panel has a fixed position on the screen (except when part-screen mode is simultaneously
selected, see the following Section):
The GRAPH key allows you to switch from the active panel to graphical display and vice versa.
key is used to change from full-screen mode (graphics over the entire screen or 3-panel
The
display, depending on whether graphics or a panel is active) to part-screen mode (a panel by the side of
graphics) and vice versa.
In part-screen mode, the panel used most recently moves to the left side of the screen. Any
subsequently called panel is placed on this position, too, allowing the user to display and print any panel
(especially the
STATUS panel) together with the graphical presentation of results at one time.
After the part-screen mode has been switched off, the current panel is reshifted to its normal position.
Scrolling in the Panel
If a panel has more lines than can be displayed on the screen section, the , , Page and Page keys
(or the corresponding keys on the external keyboard) can be used for scrolling in the panel. The bar in
the right-hand margin of each panel stands for its complete size, the dark section representing the
section currently visible on the screen. Arrows show you in which direction to scroll to cause the lines not
visible to be displayed in the window.
With the mouse connected, the panel contents is scrolled by one line whenever the respective arrow is
selected. Pressing and holding down the mouse key causes the contents to be scrolled until the key is
released. Any desired panel section can be made visible by selecting the dark part of the bar and
positioning it appropriately by moving the mouse with the key held down.
STATUS Panel
This special panel can be called only in part-screen mode. Any line in any panel can be marked with a
tick in the first column (select the position using the Tab , and keys, press SELECT, the tick is
switched on or off (toggle function)). Each marked line is taken over into the so-called STATUS panel,
thus allowing the user to sum up all important parameters in one panel. It can be simultaneously
displayed with the measurement results and their graphical representation, which is of particular interest
for the documentation of results (see 2.8 STATUS Panel).
The UPL can be operated from the STATUS panel as well as from all other panels, thus allowing you to
execute any repetitively used control sequence from one panel only.
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UPL
Panels
Changing an Instrument
The UPL has three analyzers (one in each of the measurement ranges 22 kHz and 110 kHz for the
measurement on analog interfaces, three for the measurement on digital audio interfaces). All analyzers
are set in the ANALYZER panel. The generators are set correspondingly in the GENERATOR panel.
Each of these instruments has its own data set, each with a different structure. The data sets are
different with respect to
• the selection of the displayed menu items (= lines of the panel). All settings possible for the selected
instrument (e.g., of the analyzer for analog interfaces and the frequency range up to 22 kHz), the
settings of the other instruments (e.g.. of the analyzer for the digital interfaces) are suppressed,
however retained in the background. This ensures fast and convenient operation of the UPL despite
the wide variety of possible settings.
• the permissible range of values for the parameters. It is not possible, for example, to set a sample
rate in the analyzer ”ANLG 22 kHz”, however it is feasible in the analyzer ”DIGITAL”.
• the selection of the functions. To give an example, the analyzer for the frequency range up to 22 kHz
is provided with more measurement capabilities than the analyzer for the frequency range up to 110
kHz.
Parameter Link
It may sometimes be required with changing the instrument that the set of parameters which had been
set last time is not set, but that the one of the currently used instrument is set instead. This is, e.g., the
case when checking converters, if the same measurements are to be performed at the digital interfaces
as have been performed at the analog interfaces. The option panel allows for selection, if any
parameters of the current instrument are to be set and which ones, i.e., which are not to be overwritten
by the loaded data set (see 2.15.8 Parameter Link). If this so-called parameter link is activated, a query
box is displayed with changing the instrument where the user can select once again, whether the
parameter link is to be carried out or not.
For switching between the instruments, follow the instructions below:
Place the cursor on the input field of the first panel line (= right-hand column of the line named
ANALYZER or GENERATOR) using the mouse or the , Page and Tab
keys. Then press
press
(or any mouse key or space on the external keyboard). A selection window with a list of all available
analyzers or generators will be displayed.
Select an instrument using the
and
keys, rotary knob or mouse and press
press
(or any mouse key or Enter on the external keyboard). The selection window is closed and the settings
of the ”former” instrument are saved. The panel with the menu items and all settings appertaining to the
instrument most recently selected is built up anew.
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Panels
UPL
Changing Functions or Parameters
Changing a function (e.g. from RMS to THD measurement or, from sinewave to multi-sinewave
generation) is performed analogously to changing an instrument, which is explained above: all menu
items including the parameters appertaining to the function are retained. (The frequencies and
amplitudes of all multi-sinewaves are still present, even when the frequency and amplitude of the single
sinewave have been changed in the meantime).
Also when changing parameters, the menu items not required are suppressed, their parameters are
however retained and are available again when they are activated.
Example:
Changing from ”OFF” to, for example, ”AUTO SWEEP” in the menu item ”Sweep CTRL” causes the
menu items (=lines) required in this mode "Start", "Stop", "Points" etc. to be displayed together with the
parameters set for the most recent sweep. These lines are canceled again, when the sweep is switched
off.
Note:
The order of the menu items in the panel is selected such that varying a parameter may
induce changes in the lines further down, however never in lines further up in the panel. We
advise you to proceed in the given order from top to bottom.
Parameter Link
It may sometimes be required with changing a function that the set of parameters which had been set
last time is not set, but that the one of the currently used function is set instead. This parameter link can
be selected in the option panel (see 2.15.8 Parameter Link). If this so-called parameter link is activated,
a query box is displayed with changing the function where the user can select once again, whether the
parameter link is to be carried out or not.
2.3.2
Data Entry
The cursor (field in inverse display) indicates for which input field an entry is currently expected. The
cursor can be moved from one input field to the other using the front-panel keys , , Page , Page ,
Tab
and Tab
or the corresponding keys on the external keyboard. Some fields in the column with
the input fields have display function only, the cursor cannot be placed into them. They are displayed in
a different color or in a different gray shade. Menu items without input field serve as headings.
Note:
The same menu item may have an input field or just serve as heading depending on the
parameters selected in other menu items.
Note Section 2.3.2.6 Data Input or Output during Measurements
2.3.2.1
Selecting a Parameter
Place the cursor on the desired input field. Press the SELECT key (or the space bar on the external
keyboard) or any mouse key to open a selection window containing all parameters appertaining to this
menu item. The cursor and cursor keys or the mouse are used to select the parameters. The window
is closed again using ENTER (also with external keyboard), CANCEL (or ESC on external keyboard) or
by pressing a mouse key. The parameter of the selection window is taken over with ENTER whereas
the former setting is retained with CANCEL. Also, the parameter is accepted when selected with the
mouse or, the window is closed while the former setting is retained when any point outside the selection
window is selected using the mouse.
Note:
The contents of the selection windows are not constant but vary depending on the other
settings selected.
For a list of all key combinations assigned to the front-panel keys of the external keyboard,
refer to Section 2.1, Front- and Rear-panel Views. The key combinations are therefore not
explicitly specified in the following description.
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UPL
2.3.2.2
Data Entry
Entry of Numeric Data
Entry using the rotary knob
Place the cursor on the desired input field using the rotary knob or the cursor keys
or
press ENTER or move the numerical cursor (= underscore) to the position to be incremented or
decremented.
the color of the current field changes and the rotary knob can be used to scroll the figure.
The digits can be varied only within the range of values specified in the user info line. A warning is
audible when the limit values are reached (can be deactivated, see 2.15.2 Beeper On/Off)
After having left the field by one of the keys , , PgUp, PgDn, TAB, SHIFT TAB or CANCEL the rotary
knob is used to move the cursor up and down the panel.
Sweep parameters (e.g. generator frequency or level) may be incremented or decremented by a userdefined value which is set by specifying the step width of the manual sweep.
Note:
Some settings require other settings in the panel to be varied (example: when changing
the reference voltage, all settings referring to this value must be converted). In this case,
the complete panel must be rewritten whenever a value is changed, thus slowing down the
rotary knob function.
Entry using the numeric keypad
Position the cursor to the desired input field, press SELECT or any mouse key or a number key on the
external keyboard causing a small input window with the current value to be displayed. (The number of
digits available in the input window may be higher than that of the input field allowing the user to enter
values with a higher accuracy than can be displayed in the panel, if required. After having closed the
window the rounded value appears in the panel.)
If the value is to be re-entered completely, simply enter the figure using the numeric keypad. The first
pressing of the key automatically deletes the old value. The BACKSP key is used to delete the figure to
the left of the cursor during input.
If you wish to change only individual figures, place the numerical cursor on the respective position using
the
or
and enter the desired figure (changing the position of the numerical cursor before the entry
of the first figure or deleting a character causes the former value to be retained).
Close the window using
• ENTER:
the value entered anew is accepted
• CANCEL:
the old value is retained
• Softkeys:
the selected unit is set and the value entered anew is accepted
• Clicking with the mouse inside the input window: the value entered anew is accepted
• Clicking with the mouse outside the input window: the value entered anew is not accepted
Entries outside the specified range of values are not accepted, a warning is audible (can be switched
off, see 2.15.2 Beeper On/Off) and the entry is changed to the appropriate minimum or maximum
value.
Changing the unit at a later date
Place the cursor on the unit field (using Tab
in the numeric input field) causing a softkey line with the
units permissible for this menu item to be displayed. The current numeric value is converted for the
selected unit by pressing the respective softkey (see also next Section).
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Data Entry
2.3.2.3
UPL
Using the Softkeys
The softkeys (eight keys at the bottom screen margin) are used for the entry of units and operation of
graphical display. The MORE softkey switches to further softkeys available to this operating point, the
BACK softkey returns to the next higher softkey level.
The softkeys can be activated
• using the front-panel keys
• using the function keys on the external keyboard specified in the softkey labeling
• by mouse click.
2.3.2.4
Help Line
The help line is between the panels and the softkeys and always refers to the input field marked by the
cursor. It provides you with information on which keys to use for further operation or the permissible
range of values. Entries outside the specified range are not accepted, a warning is audible and the entry
is replaced by the appropriate minimum or maximum value.
Note:
The maximum permissible range of values may depend on other settings, i.e. is not
constant. For further information on the current menu item, press the HELP key.
2.3.2.5
Entry of File Names
Position the cursor on the input field of the menu item the file name of which is to be changed and press
the SELECT key. A dialog window consisting of three more windows will be displayed.
Fig. 2-7
The top window serves for editing the file name (incl. path name, if required). When selecting the
dialog window, it is preassigned with the current file name of the selected menu item. The line below
indicates the currently used path (disk drive and directory, see also paragraph ”Working Directory”).
The ”Files” window allows you to select an already available file. This window lists all files contained in
the current path of the file type provided as standard for this menu item. (The type of file is identifiable
by the three letters after the point. Different types of files are used for the different tasks of a file (e.g.
limit file, sweep list file etc.) to facilitate file management. For a list of all types and their meanings,
2.9.1 Loading and Storing).
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UPL
Data Entry
The ”Directories” window allows the user to change the directory. It contains the subdirectories (if
any) of the current path. The directory name ”...” represents the higher-order directory with respect to
the current directory.
The Tab
and Tab
keys can be used to switch between the above windows.
Selecting an already available file
Change to the Directories window using the tab key in the open dialog
window.
Select the desired directory. Scrolling is possible as in a panel, also with
the help of Page ¬ (see Section 2.3.1 Panels)
The newly selected, current path is displayed, the window contents are
UPLated, *.xxx is entered as file name, where xxx stands for the type of
file provided as standard for the selected menu item.
Change to the Files window and select the desired file.
The selected file name is taken over into the input window where it can
still be modified (see below ”Entering a new file name”). Entering an
already available file name is to be preferred, in particular when no
keyboard is used as entering a completely new name is then timeconsuming.
Close the dialog window, storing or loading is effected with the name
stated in the input window. CANCEL closes the window without any
operation carried out, the old file name being retained.
Entering a new file name
Change to the uppermost window.
The file name to be entered must comply with the MS-DOS
conventions: a maximum of eight characters followed by a point and
the data type consisting of a maximum of three characters. The <> = , ;
: . * ? [] () /\ + ! characters must not be used.
There are three ways of entering the file name:
• using an external keyboard
• with the help of the mouse (also with no external keyboard connected)
• via the front-panel keypad
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Data Entry
UPL
For entries without using an external keyboard, place the input cursor (" /\" character) on the position
there characters are to be entered using the
or
key. Press the mouse key or the SELECT key. A
selection window with all characters which can be entered will be displayed. Select a character (using
the mouse or ,
keys), which is then inserted into the file name at the cursor position whenever a
mouse key or the SELECT key is pressed. An entry at the first position causes the former file name to
be automatically deleted. BACKSP is used to delete the character to the left of the input cursor. Close
the selection window using the ENTER key, by selecting <ok> in the selection window or by selecting
one of the three windows in the dialog window with the help of the mouse.
When using an external keyboard, editing is made directly in the input window, the above selection
window with the alphabet is not displayed. On power-up, the UPL checks whether an external keyboard
is connected. (Being not initialized when connected after power-up of the UPL, the key-board does not
function properly.)
The following can be entered in the input window (see also previous section ”Working Directory”):
• File name without path specification: The path specified in the next line is used. Storing and loading is
initiated using ENTER.
• File names with wild cards (don't care characters * and ?). ENTER serves to display the respective
files in the FILES window, e.g. *.LUP is used to list all files of this type. The search for file types other
than the standard files is thus possible.
• Only a path. The path and window contents are correspondingly updated.
• File name incl. the complete path specification. Storing and loading is initiated using ENTER.
Using the Working Directory
Files can be summed up in a working directory for certain projects or instrument users (see Section
2.9.1 Loading and Storing). The path specified in the menu item WORKING DIRECTORY of the FILE
panel (e.g. C:\PROJECT1) precedes all file names used in the UPL at the time of loading or storing,
provided they do not begin with ”\” or ”Drive:\”.
Example:
Entering the file name MEAS5\MYFILE.XYZ results in the path C:\PROJECT1\MEAS5\MYFILE.XYZ, to
use the above example again.
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UPL
2.3.2.6
Data Entry
Data Input or Output during Measurements
Internal or external sweep switched off
(External sweep: The parameter AUTO is not selected for menu item START COND of analyzer)
All entries are permissible at any time. After having terminated an entry (ENTER), the present
measurement or output is aborted, the newly selected parameters are set and the measurement or
output is restarted.
Note that with graphical display (e.g. continuous FFT, bargraph, histogram of intermodulation
measurement), the graphics output is interrupted when a selection window is opened, however the
measurement continues. After having closed the window, the graphics is restored, or, when display
parameters were changed, the graphics is deleted and built up again with the new settings (in the case
of continuous FFT, this is performed only at the end of the present FFT).
Internal or external sweep switched on
(External sweep: The parameter AUTO is not selected for menu item START COND of analyzer)
Any entry causes the sweep to be stopped (i.e. it is stopped after conclusion of the current sweep) and
then the action initiated by the activated key to be executed because modifications to parameters during
a sweep may affect the measurement, thus rendering the measurement results displayed on the screen
questionable.
Exceptions:
The following keys can be activated or the following actions can be made without aborting a sweep:
• Entries in the DISPLAY panel
• Display of any panel without varying parameters
• Rotary knob (enables a manual sweep, (see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps)
• Softkeys of graphical display of results
Changes in the GENERATOR, ANALYZER, FILTER or STATUS panels cause the internal instrument
status to be set to ”measurement invalid” because the measurement results do not match the setting
parameters. The attempt to save or print these measurement results is prompted by an appropriate
warning (see Section 2.9.1 Loading and Storing and Section 2.14 Printing/Plotting/Storing the Screen
Contents (OPTIONS Panel)). It is no longer possible to continue the sweep using the CONT key, a
restart with the START or SINGLE key is required.
Modifications to parameters in the DISPLAY, FILE and OPTIONS panels do not affect the measurement
results; the internal instrument status is ”measurement valid”. Entries are immediately processed.
(Exception: With continuous FFT, modifications to the display parameters are considered only in the
next spectrum to be output). The measurement can be continued with the CONT key.
Note:
See also 2.11 Starting and Stopping of Measurements or Sweeps
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Display of Measured Values
2.3.3
UPL
Display of Measured Values
The display windows for a maximum of 6 measurement results are in the upper section of the screen
except for in full-screen mode.
To the right of the windows, there are status information on the current instrument state, see 2.3.5
Status Display.
Measured value display
Input Peak
RMS Select
Status block
Frequency
CH1
-41.18 dBV
12.34 mV
1.234 kHz
CH2
22.11 DBµV
9.876 V
1.234 kHz
GEN-Status see 2.3.5
ANL-Status "
SWP-Status "
Apr01 1992
Wed 20:44:50
Fig. 2-8
1st column:
Measurement results of the selected measurement functions ...
2nd column:
Measurement results of the measuring function selected in menu item „Input Disp“
(in the example, peak value display of input levels) ...
3rd column:
Frequency and phase measurement results ...
... each for both channels at one time.
Display of measured values:
The measurement results are shown in 3 ½-, 4 ½- or 5 ½-digit display i.e.
the decimal point jumps at the transition 2.999
3.00, 29.99
30.0, 299.9
300 etc. If a measured value happens to be in the transition range,
hysteresis prevents an unsteady display.
The number of digits and the rate of updating the displayed measurement
results can be selected in the option panel - depending on the measurement
function (see 2.6.5 Functions). Independent of this reading rate, the
measurement rate can be selected for the individual functions (see 2.6.5
Functions). Only the function influences the measurement accuracy.
With fluctuating measurement results it is advisable to reduce the number of
digits to be displayed (reading resolution) in order to obtain a steady display.
The measurement results can be displayed with various units individually for
each channel. The unit is selected in the analyzer panel with the
measurement
function.
The measurement channel or function is OFF, for example,
Input Peak = OFF
There is no measurement result related to the selected function available,
e.g., there are no frequency measurement results during DC
measurements.
The measurement result cannot be displayed because of an inappropriate
input signal.
A hint about how to eliminate the error appears when pressing the SHOW
I/O key (see 2.6.3).
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UPL
Settling Process
2.3.4
Settling Process
2.3.4.1
Introduction
Why settling is necessary:
If a modification is made at the generator of the UPL and if the settling time of a test item is known, it
can be considered using the delay indication in the analyzer panel (cf. 2.6.4 Ways of Starting the
Analyzer, Ext. Sweep). Settling processes within the UPL are automatically considered so that the user
does not need to take these times into account. The analyzer supplies settled, valid measurement
results.
If there is a test item with an unknown transient response between the generator and the analyzer of the
UPL or if a test item is fed by an external generator, a transient response will usually be observed at the
measurement result after a change of the signal or a manipulation at the test item (in the case of a high
measurement rate compared to the settling time) until the display has stabilized. The steadied readout is
then accepted to be valid.
The settling process in the UPL has the aim of imitating and automating this procedure. A measured
value is only output if it satisfies a certain accuracy the user can enter freely (maximal deviation from the
settled final value, later the expression ”tolerance” is used). The settling process is preferably used in
cases where measurements are to be made at test items with an unknown or changing settling time.
The settling process can be combined with a delay so that an undesired signal characteristic can be
ignored before the settling process begins as of the starting time of the measurement (change of
generator or of signal with external sweep). The settling process can also be used to steady the readout
by rejecting values which do not comply with the accuracy entered.
How the settling process is realized:
The value measured by the UPL is permanently compared with up to 5 measured values stored
immediately before. A measured value is only accepted as valid if it is within the tolerance limits entered
by the user with regard to the previous measured values. Otherwise it is rejected and included in the
series of comparison values for the next measured value.
Where settling can be set:
The settling process can be applied to:
- External sweep
(START COND
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2 VOLT CH1 VOLT CH2)
- Frequency results
(FREQ/PHASE
FREQ)
- Phase results
(FREQ/PHASE
FREQ&PHASE)
- Function results
for all functions except for FFT, POLARITY and WAVEFORM
(START COND
AUTO)
The settling process for the external sweep and the settling process for the frequency, phase or function
measurement can be combined.
Exception:
Settling process in combination with external sweep with a change of the frequency as trigger
condition (setting START COND
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2) cannot be combined with a
settling of the frequency results. Reason: There are already settled frequency results which do
not have to be weighted using a settling process again!
All settling settings can be activated in the ANALYZER panel in the corresponding panel sections under
menu item ”Settling”.
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Settling Process
2.3.4.2
UPL
The Settling Parameters:
The appropriate settling parameters are stored for every measurement function so that the settling
settings once selected and well tested are effective in a change of the function.
Settling:
Settling
EXPONENTIAL
sets a result comparison window with an exponential characteristic whose lock-in range is determined
by the setting ”tolerance”. This setting is ideal for measurements on test items with a normal exponential
transient response and usually covers most applications (cf. Fig. 2-9).
Settling
FLAT
sets a result comparison window with a fully flat characteristic (tolerance band) whose lock-in range is
determined by the setting ”tolerance”. With a very small tolerance entered, this setting only supplies a
measurement result if the test item has quasi completely settled. Due to this stricter settling condition,
the time until a valid measured value is recognized is usually longer than with the EXPONENTIAL
setting (cf. Fig. 2-9).
Settling
AVERAGE
causes an arithmetic averaging for the number of measured values set in samples. After a restart of the
measurement by pressing the SINGLE key at the UPL or a parameter entry which must result in a
restart of the measurement such as modifications of the generator signal or of the settling parameters
themselves, the average is only output when the number of measurements set by means of ”samples”
has been made. If the memory is full of measurement results, the most previous result is dismissed and
the average output with every new result. In this phase, an abrupt change of the signal results in a
creeping change of the average (low-pass properties).
Samples:
This value indicates the number of measured values used for tolerance and resolution comparison.
Samples = 6 means that the latest measured value is compared with the 5 last measured values.
Tolerance:
The tolerance value denotes the maximally permissible deviation from the previous measured value a
settled measured value may have in order to be classed as valid by the UPL. The value of the maximally
permissible deviation of the current measured value compared to the 2nd/3rd/4th and 5th last measured
value is determined by the EXPONENTIAL FLAT setting.
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UPL
Settling Process
Tolerance characteristic
Fig. 2-9 Tolerance characteristic
When the measured values are checked as to whether they satisfy the tolerance condition,
- volt is always used as a basis for the measurement result for level measurements RMS & S/N, RMS
SELECT, PEAK & S/N, Q PK & S/N and DC,
- % is used as a basis for the measurement result for intermodulation measurements THD,
THD+N/SINAD MOD DIST, DFD and WOW & FL, and
- Hz is used as a basis for the measurement result for frequency measurements, irrespective of the
unit in which the measurement result is displayed.
For a phase measurement, it is only possible to set the resolution (see resolution).
Examples:
In the following examples, Settling
EXPONENTIAL and samples = 6. If the tolerance is 1%, this
means that the current measured value must be identical to
- the
last measured value
±1%
(or ±0.086 dB)
- the 2nd
to the last measured value
±2%
(or ±0.172 dB)
- the 3rdto the last measured value
±4%
(or ±0.340 dB)
- the 4th
to the last measured value
±8%
(or ±0.668 dB)
- the 5th
to the last measured value
±16% (or ±1.289 dB).
Level measurement, tolerance 1 %:
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Settling Process
UPL
A measured value of 1 V is displayed as settled, when
- the
last measured value is between
- the 2nd
to the last measured value is between
- the 3rd
to the last measured value is between
- the 4th
to the last measured value is between
- the 5th
to the last measured value is between
0.99 and 1.01 V (±1%)
0.98 and 1.02 V (±2%)
0.96 and 1.04 V (±4%)
0.92 and 1.08 V (±8%)
0.84 and 1.16 V (±16%)
Intermodulation measurement, tolerance 1%:
A measured value of 0.01 % is displayed as settled, when
- the
last measured value is between
0.0099 and 0.0101 % (±1%)
- the 2nd
to the last measured value is between 0.0098 and 0.0102 % (±2%)
- the 3rd
to the last measured value is between 0.0096 and 0.0104 % (±4%)
- the 4th
to the last measured value is between 0.0092 and 0.0108 % (±8%)
- the 5th
to the last measured value is between 0.0084 and 0.0116 % (±16%)
Intermodulation measurement, tolerance 0.1 dB (1.16 %):
A measured value of -80 dB (0.01%) is displayed as settled, when
- the
last measured value is between
-80.1 and -79.9 dB
- the 2nd
to the last measured value is between -80.2 and -79.8 dB
- the 3rd
to the last measured value is between -80.4 and -79.6 dB
- the 4th
to the last measured value is between -80.8 and -79.2 dB
- the 5th
to the last measured value is between -81.7 and -78.5 dB
Frequency measurement, tolerance 1 %:
A measured value of 1000 Hz is displayed as settled, when
- the
last measured value is between
990 and 1010
- the 2nd
to the last measured value is between 980 and 1020
- the 3rd
to the last measured value is between 960 and 1040
- the 4th
to the last measured value is between 920 and 1080
- the 5th
to the last measured value is between 840 and 1160
1078.2008.02
2.44
(±1.16%)
(±2.32%)
(±4.63%)
(±9.26%)
(±18.53%)
Hz (±1%)
Hz (±2%)
Hz (±4%)
Hz (±8%)
Hz (±16%)
E-11
UPL
Settling Process
Resolution:
With very small measured values, especially at the lower measurement limit of the UPL, or in the case
of signals with superimposed noise, relatively large measuring errors may occur so that the measured
value often is no longer within the exponential tolerance characteristic. In this case, a minimum value of
the result resolution is considered, the ”resolution” value, which serves as the starting value for an
exponential resolution characteristic and which has exactly the same curve (EXPONENTIAL or FLAT)
as the exponential tolerance characteristic (see fig. 2-10).
A value outside the exponential tolerance characteristic which has been caused by superimposed noise
is not expressive with regard to the transient response of the test item. If the measured value satisfies
the resolution entered by the user, however, it is accepted as being valid nevertheless.
If, e.g., the current measured value is not within the tolerance limit required compared to the 4th last
result, the amount of the difference between the current measured value and the 4th last value is found
and compared to the resolution value no. 4. If this difference value is smaller than the resolution value,
the measurement result is considered to be valid.
The accuracy of the phase measurement results is the same throughout the entire range from 0 to 360°.
Observing the tolerance for phase measurement results would not be very useful, because the slightest
phase fluctuations about 0° would cause large tolerance jumps and thus continuously violate the
tolerance conditions. Therefore, only specification of the resolution is possible for the phase
measurement, i.e. the absolute offset of the current phase measurement result compared to the
previous phase measurement results in °.
Example:
Phase measurement with resolution 1° :
A phase result is indicated to be valid if the magnitude of the difference between the current measured
value and
- the
last measured value < = 1°
- the 2nd last measured value < = 2°
- the 3rd last measured value < = 4°
- the 4th last measured value < = 8°
- the 5th last measured value < = 16°
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Settling Process
UPL
Signal course
Example by means of the
following panel setting:
Fig. 2-10 Connection between tolerance and resolution
The EXPONENTIAL traces are always calculated to the basis 2. The sampling points of the exponential
tolerance characteristic, e.g. starting from tolerance 1%, are calculated to: 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%. The
sampling points of the resolution trace, e.g. starting from a resolution of 0.5 mV, are calculated to: 0.5
mV, 1 mV, 2 mV and 4 mV. The offset of the current measured value compared to the 3rd last
measured value is -7.91% and is therefore not within the desired tolerance. When the amount of the
difference between the current measured value (24 mV) and the 3rd last measured value (22.1 mV) is
smaller than or equal to the resolution value [S2] (2 mV), the current measured value is accepted as
being valid nevertheless.
24 mV - 22.1 mV = 1.9 mV
Since 1.9 mV < 2 mV, the current measured value is valid.
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UPL
Settling Process
Time-out:
Time-out denotes the time which may elapse from the start of a measurement until the settling
mechanism has recognized a settled measurement result. If the measured value does not stabilize
within this time, the measuring loop is aborted and the note ”Input - Press SHOW I/O” output instead of
a measured value. During a sweep with a graphical curve display, a gap in the curve trace indicates that
a measured value is missing. In the case of settling with an external sweep (cf. next paragraph) a timeout is not considered.
2.3.4.3
Settling Process with External Sweep:
For better understanding the following explanations, please read menu items
- "Min VOLT"
- "Start"
- "Stop"
- "Variation"
in Section 2.6.4, Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep
When the external sweep (START COND
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2 VOLT CH1 VOLT CH2) is
used together with the settling process, the following measurement procedure results (see fig. 2-11):
1. Check whether a level of at least the value indicated in "Min VOLT"is present at the measurement
input. (Only true of an external sweep with triggering on frequency changes (START COND
FREQ
CH1 FREQ CH2)
No: Execute step 1.
2. Wait for the stabilization of the frequency with setting:__ START COND
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2,
or
the stabilization of the level with setting: START COND
VOLT CH1 VOLT CH2
by means of the settling process.
3. Check whether the level or the frequency are in the range
indicated by "Start" and "Stop".
No: Execute step 1.
Yes:- Wait the time indicated under delay to permit a test item to settle.
- Execute function measurement (possibly including function settling)
- Proceed function result to the display
4. Check whether a change in level or frequency by at least the value
indicated in "Variation" has occurred.
No: Execute step 4
Yes: Execute step 1
Note on the delay:
A delay with an external sweep with settling process is useful when measurement is carried out on test
items showing a slow transient response of the level due to a change in frequency (e.g. hearing aids
with sound-level limiter or compander/expander circuits with fast level rise times and slow decay times).
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2). If
A frequency change has to be set as a trigger condition (START COND
the settling mechanism supplies quickly steadied values for the frequency results but the level is far from
having stabilized, the lapse of the level settling time can be waited for using delay.
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Settling Process
UPL
External trigger event:
Change of the frequency
by at least 10%.
Fig. 2-11
External sweep with settling process
2.3.4.4
SETTLING Check and Optimization
Settling check
If the SHOW I/O key is pressed during a fault-free measurement run with activated settling process, the
settling control characters "r", "t" or "-" appear in a suggested result window or after the text "Ext.
Sweep", indicating whether the result display or the trigger event were possible because of a fulfilled
tolerance or resolution condition. According to this display, the tolerance or resolution value can be
varied until the desired transient response is achieved.
Example of an indication in SHOW I/O display:
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E-11
UPL
Settling Process
Explanation:
"t": tolerance condition fulfilled
e.g., “t“ at the third position: tolerance condition of the current measurement result compared to the 3rd
last measurement result was fulfilled.
"r": resolution condition fulfilled, only
e.g., “r“ at the fifth position: the tolerance condition of the current measurement result compared to the
5th last measurement result was
n o t fulfilled, the resolution condition was fulfilled instead.
Exception:
Since no tolerance condition can be specified for the phase measurement, a settled phase
measurement result is always characterized by "r".
"-----": No settled measurement result.
Remedy:
- Increase tolerance and resolution value
- Reduce the number of samples
- Switch from FLAT to EXPONENTIAL.
"rrrrr" The measurement result is too unsteady or noisy for the selected tolerance condition.
Remedy:
Select greater tolerance value.
If a still smaller resolution value was selected, "-----" would be displayed.
"rttrt" The measurement result is still too unsteady or noisy for the selected tolerance
value.
Remedy:
The more unsteady this display, the greater the tolerance value to be selected.
"ttttt" The measurement results lie all inside the specified tolerance range.
The tolerance condition can be tightened by using a smaller tolerance value or the setting
Settling
FLAT until an "r" appears sporadically.
Note:
If varying or fluctuating measurement results are to be observed although the tolerance
condition is fulfilled, this may be due to the following reasons:
- Slowly rising or falling measured values (compared to the measurement rate)
- Sudden, but rare variation of the measured values compared to the measurement rate.
Optimizing the settling parameters:
In order to obtain maximal measurement rates in connection with the settling mechanism, the DELAY
time under START COND
AUTO (cf. 2.6.4) is to be observed. This is the time elapsing from the
setting of the generator until the restart of a measurement (and thus the start of the settling process) in
order to take into account possible dead times of a test item. The UPL automatically considers the
settling time of the generator and the analyzer. If the value 0.0 s is entered for DELAY, no additional
delay is effective and a maximum measurement rate is achieved.
As the settling process in the UPL can be used for individual measurements, the suitable settling
parameters can be easily determined by observing the measurement results and by trying.
Delay value if the UPL generator is used
Measurement of the DUT delay using the time-controlled measurement functions Timetick or Timechart
(START COND
TIME TICK or TIME CHART, cf. 2.6.4 Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep)
and graphical display. After a generator modification, determine the time until the sudden signal change.
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Settling Process
UPL
Delay value with external sweep
In the case of unknown signals, short dead times of the test item up to approx. 100 ms can be
determined using function WAVEFORM, for longer dead times we recommend to use a storage
oscilloscope. If test bands, test CDs etc. are used, possible manufacturer's instructions can be used.
Trying delay values for the external sweep is usually not successful since settled measured values might
occur, but possibly at an undesired point of time.
Sample value
A high value makes high demands on the transient response of the test item. No general statements
possible.
Tolerance value
Select bar display until the min/max values are within the desired limits. A tolerance indication of 1% is
suitable for most AF applications. In the case of noisy test bands with considerable level fluctuations,
e.g., the tolerance value must not be selected too small as otherwise settled measured values would
never be obtained. Tolerance values of approx. 5% with 3 samples can be useful.
If noisy signals are weighted via the settling process, a steadied readout can be achieved by suitably
setting ”tolerance”. However, the measurement rate decreases as possibly very many measured values
have to be rejected until the settling condition is satisfied. The settling process offers the possibility of
averaging (cf. AVERAGE).
Resolution value
Observe value displayed. The resolution value should always remain near the UPL resolution. If, e.g.,
the level result fluctuates by 2 mV, a value which is approx. 5 times higher, i.e. 10 mV, would be suitable
as resolution value.
Caution!
Two high a resolution value would permanently signal settled measured values although
the tolerance conditions would permanently be violated.
Time-out
The longest time the UPL takes to measure the test item can be determined by experimenting. If this
time is slightly increased, it can be used as time-out period and guarantees a maximal rate of the test
run in the case of time-out being exceeded.
Note:
For explanation of how to enter settling commands see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of
Analyzer Functions.
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UPL
2.3.5
Status Display
Status Display
The status information is always displayed in the top right section of the screen and contains information
on the current status of the generator, analyzer and sweep system as well as date and time.
Exception: In full-screen mode (see 2.10.9 Switching between Full-screen and Part-screen Mode), date
and time are displayed right-flush in the operator guidance line.
Status display GEN Status
GEN OFF:
GEN RUNNING:
GEN BUSY:
GEN HALTED:
GEN OVERRUN:
Both generator channels are off.
Generator outputs signal.
Generator-DSP is temporarily processing the waveform.
No generator output signal because of the setting not yet concluded or invalid.
The sample rate applied to the external input (see 2.5.3) is too high for the
selected digital generator.
Remedy: • Set a lower external sample rate. Recall the function.
Status display ANL Status
ANL WAIT FOR TRIG: The analyzer waits for the trigger condition set under START COND
(see 2.6.4).
Separate status information for analyzer channels 1
OFF:
OVER:
Channel OFF, no status messages
Overranges may occur when
• a measurement range has been fixed using FIX (see 2.6.2
Configuration of the Analog Analyzers)
• a signal with a level featuring a crest factor > 2 is applied to the
range limit
• DC control is applied to the input configuration BAL.
UNDR:
Unterranges may occur when a measurement range has been
fixed using FIX or LOWER (see 2.6.2 Configuration of the Analog
Analyzers)
Ranging. No measurements possible!
Single measurement running
Continuous measurement running
see 2.11 Starting and
Single measurement terminated
Stopping Measurements
Measurement stopped
or Sweeps
Cyclic internal DC offset calibration of A/D converter in the analog
analyzers or DC offset calibration of input levels in measurement
function DC. Calibration, see 2.15.6.
The sample rate applied to the external input (see 2.6.3) is too high
for the selected digital instrument.
Remedy:
• Set a lower external sample rate
Recall the function.
RANG:
SNGL:
CONT:
TERM:
STOP:
CAL:
ORUN:
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2:
2.51
E-11
Status Display
UPL
Status display SWP Status after modifications to the settings
SWP OFF:
SWP INVALID:
SWP TERMINATED:
SWP STOPPED:
SWP CONT RUNNING:
SWP SNGL RUNNING:
SWP MANU RUNNING:
SWP UNDERRANGE:
No sweep
Sweep invalid because not yet started or
parameter varied
Single sweep terminated
see 2.11 Starting and
Sweep was stopped and
Stopping of Measurements
can be continued
or Sweeps
Continuous sweep running
Single sweep running
Manual sweep running
On account of an underrange, valid, yet inaccurate measured values
occurred during a sweep.
Other status displays:
In the section where date and time is displayed, the following status messages are displayed. Data and
time are displayed again when the cause for the error has been removed.
PRINTER NOT
READY
• After the H COPY key has been pressed, the UPL recognizes that no printer is
connected.
• The connection to the printer has been interrupted while files or lists (see 2.14.1
and 2.14.5) are being printed.
CONVERTING
SETUP
The setup of a previous UPL program version is being converted to be loadable by
the latest UPL program version.
WAIT FOR CAL:
ANA OFFSET
The analyzer requires an offset calibration. It is currently not feasible because cyclic
DC-offset calibration has been switched off (see 2.15.6) or, due to a running sweep,
has been disabled.
The operator guidance line shows the following status message:
DUMP SCREEN TO TEMPORARY FILE
1078.2008.02
Pressing the H COPY key causes the screen contents to be
copied to a temporary file. While this status message is
being displayed, operation of the UPL is not possible.
2.52
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UPL
2.3.6
Error Message
Error Messages
Each error message in manual mode is displayed in a window in the center of the screen until it is
confirmed by the user. This can be done in three different ways:
1. By pressing the ENTER key of the UPL keyboard. This is recommended if the entry causing the
error message was made via the UPL keyboard.
2. By operating the rollkey of the UPL. This is recommended if the entry causing the error message
was also made via the rollkey. It is therefore not necessary to press the ENTER key while using the
rollkey.
3. By pressing the RETURN key of the external keyboard connected. This is recommended if the entry
causing the error message was made via the external keyboard.
The error message contains information about troubleshooting, if possible.
Error messages in measurement mode
In measurement mode, error messages may occur on account of inappropriate input signals or settings,
thus disabling the display of measured values. Instead, the following hint is displayed in the window:
Fulfilling this request by pressing the SHOW I/O key on the UPL front panel (or ALT + I on the keyboard)
sets a graphics to show the currently active inputs/outputs (see 2.12) and a text giving information about
why the display of measured values is not possible. If there are more than one message, the messages
can be called one after the other by repeatedly pressing the SHOW I/O key. Messages issued more
than 30 seconds ago are not displayed.
The UPL front-panel graphics is removed and the measurement mode is entered again when
• all messages have been read out and the SHOW I/O key is pressed again.
• CANCEL or ESC is pressed.
Fatal errors with error messages
Just in case an internal software error making it impossible for the UPL program to run should occur,
which is never to happen, the DOS operating system is branched to. The following error message will be
displayed.
"Save setup to C:\UPL\SETUP\UPL.SET and Exit to DOS!"
"Internal Error No. xxx -- press any key!" where xxx is the error number.
Before returning to the DOS operating system, the current setup and a fault diagnostics buffer including
the error number xxx is stored from the battery-backed RAM of the UPL to the hard disk under the name
C:\UPL\SETUP\UPL.SET.
You can facilitate troubleshooting for the R&S service personnel by including the UPL.SET file.
To this end, connect a keyboard to the UPL (see 1.1.6 Connecting an External Keyboard), insert a 3½”disk into the disk drive and enter the DOS command:
COPY C:\UPL\SETUP\UPL.SET A:
When the UPL is put into operation again after a fatal error, the power-up picture includes the hint
”Error in prev. run! CANCEL
default setting, ENTER
previous setting”
offering you the following possibilities
• CANCEL:
... booting the UPL with its default setting
• ENTER:
... booting the UPL with the previous setting which might be faulty.
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Error Messages
UPL
Fatal errors without error message
In the case of a fatal error without error message, the UPL was no longer capable of storing the
information which provides the above selection box when the UPL is put into operation again. Analogous
to the above selection box, you can select between two ways of starting the UPL.
Booting the UPL with the setup most recently stored in the CMOS-RAM
This setup may be correct despite the faulty response of the UPL. To avoid having to re-enter the
settings most recently input, try to start the UPL with this setup.
•
Switch power switch off and on (no further action necessary).
In case the above attempt fails,
boot the UPL
Enter the following and terminate with ENTER:
UPL -d
The setup ”DEFAULT.SET” supplied with the UPL in the directory C:\UPL\SETUP is
loaded.
UPL -s
The UPL is started with the setup given without space character following "-s".
The file name should be combined with a path name, e.g.:
-sA:\SETUP\MYSETUP.SET ODER
-sC:\UPL\USER\MYSETUP.SET
(The file names are given by way of example.)
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UPL
2.3.7
Help Function
Help Function
Calling the HELP function:
UPL front panel
External keyboard
A HELP information can be called for any input field in the panels (context-sensitive). It is displayed in a
window in the center of the screen. Depending on the size of the HELP information, waiting times of
several seconds may occasionally occur, which is indicated by the note
Just a moment please!
If the HELP information extends the range provided in the window, paging is possible by way of the
Page and Page keys. A scroll bar at the right margin of the window indicates the position of the
visible text section with respect to the complete HELP information. Highlighted fields within the HELP
information serve as cross-references for a more detailed description. Cross-reference information is
selected using the , , ,
keys and displayed using SELECT. The HELP window is used and
scrolled in the same way as is a panel (see 2.3.1 Panels).
Requesting a HELP information stops the output of graphics.
Measurement results can still be output.
Selection of the language
The help text can either be displayed in German or English language. The languages can be selected in
the OPTION panel under the menu item Language (cf. 2.15.4)
Help information on the graphics softkeys:
By calling the help function with active part or full display, the user obtains the help information on the
graphics softkeys.
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Help Function
UPL
2.3.8 Simplification of Panels
The UPL and UPD menu lines are arranged in the same way in all the panels. This means the UPL or
UPD user works in a familiar environment with any unit and in any setup.
However, this also has the effect that some menu lines – which are important for certain applications –
are located down at the bottom outside the visible window. Vice versa, menu lines that may not be
needed for the application on hand are located further up, taking up all the space in the visible range.
For this reason, the panels for particular UPL/UPD applications can be simplified by clearing the visible
range from menu lines that are momentarily not required. Every panel can be modified such that the 18
most important menu lines are arranged in the upper range which is visible in the panel window.
When a menu line is eliminated, a new section labelled "Hidden Commands" appears at the end of the
panel, which now contains the eliminated menu line. If several menu lines are eliminated, they will be
arranged in this section in the same order as in the upper range of the panel. Of course, the hidden
menu lines can still be used and may also be restored to their original positions whenever desired.
Each menu line can be hidden and restored via the associated check box.
Action
Key on UPL keyboard
Key on external keyboard
UPL response
Hiding
BACKSPACE
BACKSPACE or DEL
Menu line is moved to
"Hidden Commands"
section
Restoring
BACKSPACE
BACKSPACE or INS
Menu line is moved back
to original position
Note:
If all menu lines of a panel have been restored, the empty "Hidden Commands" section will
disappear.
If an external keyboard is connected, the "Hidden Commands" sections of the panels can be temporarily
"hidden" by pressing CTRL H. This is not stored in the device setup, ie when the unit is started anew,
the "Hidden Commands" are again visible. While the unit is on, the "Hidden Commands" are made
visible again by pressing CTRL H a second time.
Note:
The status panel does not contain a "Hidden Commands" section. By pressing the
BACKSPACE key, the menu lines in the original panel are hidden or restored. The status
panel is reduced by switching off the tick for the menu lines that are currently not needed.
1078.2008.02
2.56
E-11
UPL
Units
2.4
Units
There are two types of units available in the UPL:
• Units for the display of measurement results:
Select a display unit for every measurement function in the ANALYZER panel. The measurement
result will be displayed with this unit in the measured value window (see 2.3.3 Display of Measured
Values). The unit is selected under the menu item “UNIT“ of the respective measurement function
subsequent to opening the window.
• Units for the input of values (e.g. reference values, frequencies, level etc.). While data are entered, all
appropriate units are offered on the softkeys thus enabling termination of the value entry by selection
of the unit. Opening of the selection window is not required (cf. 2.3.2.2 Entry of Numerical Data).
2.4.1
Units for the Display of Measurement Results
To simplify the matter
• the data to be entered are designated in the conversion formulae below with their unit, only.
Example:
"dBu" means: value in dBu.
• the conversions into µ, m, k, M are omitted
Units for analog level measurement results:
Functions: RMS & S/N, RMS Select, PEAK, QPEAK, DC, Input-Disp: PEAK, Input Disp: RMS
Basic unit: Volt (V[V])
Table 2-2
Units for analog level measurement results
Conversion formula
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
V
V
dBV
DBV
20 * lg (V)
dBu
DBU
20 * lg (V/0.7745967)
dBm
DBM
10 * lg (V2*1000/RREF)
W
W
V2/RREF
%V
CPCTV
(V/UREF-1)*100
V
DV
V-UREF
V/Vr
VVR
V/UREF
%V/Vr
PCTVVR
100 * V/UREF
%W
DPCTW
(((V2/RREF)-PREF) * 100)/PREF
W
DW
(V2/RREF) - PREF
P/Pr
PPR
(V2/RREF)/PREF
%P/Pr
PCTPPR
(V2/RREF)/PREF * 100
dB
DBR
20 * lg (V/UREF)
RRef
VRef
=
=
PRef
=
Value of reference impedance from ANALYZER panel
Reference value from ANALYZER panel of functions RMS & S/N, RMS-SELECT, PEAK, QPEAK, DC or Input
PEAK/RMS measurement
(UREF ) 2/RREF
1078.2008.02
2.57
E-11
Units for the Display of Measurement Results
UPL
Units for digital level measurement results:
Functions: RMS & S/N, RMS-Select, PEAK, QPEAK Input-Disp: PEAK, Input Disp: RMS
Basic unit: Full Scale FS 0 to 1
Table 2-3
Units for digital level measurement results
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
FS
FS
%FS
PCTFS
FS×100
dBFS
DBFS
20 × log (FS)
Hex *)
HEX
FS×65535
DPCT
(FS/UREF-1) × 100
dBr
DBR
20 × log (FS/UREF)
LSBs
LSBS
FS × 2 audio bits-1
bits
BITS
ld (FS × 2 audio bits-1+ 1)
%
=
VRef
Conversion formula
Reference from the ANALYZER panel of the functions RMS & S/N, RMS-SELECT, PEAK, QPEAK, DC or InputPEAK/RMS measurement
*) Level measurement result in hex
The full-scale (FS) value measured at the digital interface as the result of a digital analyzer function is displayed as a 6-digit
hexadecimal number (6 digits= 24 bit = 23 bit mantissa +1 sign bit) in the measured value window, for example:
Table 2-4
Level measurement results FS/Hex
FS value
Hex display
1.0
7FFFFF Hex
0.9
733333 Hex
0.5
400000 Hex
0.0001
000347 Hex
0.0
000000 Hex
-0.0001
FFFCB9 Hex
-0.5
C00000 Hex
-0.9
8CCCCD Hex
-1.0
800000 Hex
All digital analyzer functions provide FS values in the range from 0 to 1. Exception: the peak
measurement functions PEAK & S/N and Q-PK & S/N may provide FS values < 0 or >1, depending on
the PEAK mode selected. All values < -1 and >1 are displayed as 80000 Hex and 7FFFFF Hex,
respectively.
FS values > 1 may occur
• with the function PEAK & S/N together with Meas Mode PK+, when applying a square signal. Being
band-limited, overshoots at the edges (Gibb's phenomenon) occur, which, with peak evaluation, are
included as part of the measurement result.
• with the measurement function PEAK & S/N together with Meas Mode PK to PK or PKabs.
FS values < 0 may occur
• with the function PEAK & S/N together with Meas Mode PK-.
1078.2008.02
2.58
E-11
UPL
Units
Units for analog and digital interference level measurement results:
Functions: THD, THD+N/SINAD, MOD DIST, DIM, DFD
Basic unit: %
Table 2-5
Units for analog and digital interference level measurement results
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
%
PCT
dB
DB
Conversion formula
20 * log ([%] * 100)
Unit for analog and digital S/N measurement results:
Functions: RMS, PEAK, QPEAK with S/N measurement on
Table 2-6
S:
N:
Unit for analog and digital S/N measurement result
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
Conversion formula
dB
DB
20 * log(S/N)
Measured level with generator on
Measured level with generator off
Units for analog and digital frequency measurement results:
Basic unit: Hz
Table 2-7
Units for analog and digital frequency measurement results
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
Conversion formula
Hz
HZ
Hz
DHZ
Hz-FREF
%Hz
DPCTHZ
100 * (Hz - FREF)/FREF
Toct *
TOCT
log (Hz/FREF) * 9.96578
Oct
OCT
log (Hz/FREF)/0.30103
Dec
DEC
log (Hz/FREF)
f/fr
FFR
Hz/FREF
*) Toct = Third Octave
FRef = Reference parameter from ANALYZER panel of frequency measurement
Units for phase measurement results:
Basic unit: degree
Table 2-8
DRef =
Units for phase measurement results
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
Conversion formula
°
DEG
RAD
RAD
P[°] * ( /180)
°
DDEG
P[°] - DREF
RAD
DRAD
(P[°] - DREF) * ( /180);
Reference parameter from ANALYZER panel of phase measurement
1078.2008.02
2.59
E-11
Units for the Display of Measurement Results
UPL
Units for group-delay measurement results:
Basics unit: s
Table 2-9
Units for group-delay measurement results
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
s
S
s
DREF =
Conversion formula
DS
[s] - DREF
Reference parameter from ANALYZER panel of phase measurement
Unit for analog and digital wow & flutter measurement results:
Basic unit: %
Table 2-10 Units for analog and digital wow & flutter measurement results
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
%
PCT
Conversion formula
Unit for digital jitter measurement results:
Basic unit:UI
Table 2-11 Unit for digital jitter measurement results
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
Conversion formula
UI
UI
%UI
PCTUI
100 × UI
dBUI
DBUI
20 × log (UI)
ppm
PPMUI
106 × UI
ns
NS
109 × UI /(128 × sample frequency)
dBr
DBR
20 × log (UI/UREF)
Unit for digital phase measurement results (PhaseToRef):
Basic unit: UI
Table 2-12 Unit for digital phase measurement results
Value in
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
UI
UI
Conversion formula
%FRM
PCTFRM
100 × UI / 128
°FRM
DEGFRM
360 × UI / 128
ns
NS
109 × UI /(128 × sample frequency)
Jitter and delay are usually stated in UI (unit interval). UI is defined as the smallest pulse width of the
digital audio signal (eye width) and is independent of the selected sampling rate. One UI corresponds to
the clock period of the digital signal (biphase clock). With digital audio signals, one UI corresponds to
the 128th of the sampling period; at 48 kHz one UI is approx. 163 ns.
1078.2008.02
2.60
E-11
UPL
Units
2.4.2
Units for the Entry of Values
To simplify the matter
• the input values are designated only by the unit in the following conversion formulas.
Example:
"dBu" actually means ”value in dBu”.
• the conversions into µ, m, k, M have been left out.
Table 2-13 Absolute analog level units (without reference voltage)
Conversion formulae
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
Vpp = depending on the generator function (see 2.5.4 for respective signal function)
dBu = 20 * log (V/0.7746)
V = 0.7746 * 10 (dBu/20)
dBV = 20 * log (V)
V = 10 (dBV/20)
dBm = 10 * log (V2 * 1000/RREF)
W
= V2/RREF
V = 10(dBm /10) * RREF / 1000
VPP, VPP, UVPP
DBU
DBV
DBM
W, mW, uW
V = ( W * RREF )
*) For the generator, the reference impedance is fixed to RREF = 600 ohm.
Table 2-14 Relative analog level units (with reference voltage)
Conversion formulae
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
DV, Dm,V, DuV
V = V-UREF
V = V+UREF
%V = (V/UREF-1) * 100
V = UREF * (1+ %V/100)
VVR
V/Vr= V/UREF
V = V/Vr * UREF
%V/Vr = V/UREF * 100
V = %V/Vr * UREF/100
W = (V2 - UREF2)/RREF
V = (dW * RREF ) + UREF
%W = (V2 - UREF2) * 100/UREF2
V = UREF
2
*(
DPCTV
PCTV/VR
2
DW
DPCTW
% W / 100 + 1)
P/PR
P/Pr = V2/UREF2
V = P / Pr * UREF
%P/Pr = V2/UREF2) * 100
V = %P / Pr * UREF / 100
dBr = 20 * log (V/UREF)
V = 10(dBr/20) * UREF
V/on= V/Burstamp[V]
%on = 100 * V/Burstamp[V]
dBon= 20 * log (V/Burstamp[V])
V = V/on * Burstamp[V]
V = %on * Burstamp[V]/100
V = 10 (dBon/20) * Burstamp[V]
2
PCTPPR
2
DBR
V/VON
PCTON
DBON
Table 2-15 Absolute digital level units (without reference)
Conversion formulae
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
2 bits 1
2 Audiobits 1
bits = - 3.322 * log (FS)
FS =
%FS = 100 * FS
dBFS = 20 * log (FS)
FS = %FS/100
FS = 10 (dBFS/20)
LSBS =FS * 2 Audio bits-1
1078.2008.02
FS =
LSBS
BITs
PCTFS
DBFS
LSBS
2 Audiobits-1
2.61
E-11
Units for the Entry of Values
UPL
Table 2-16 Relative digital-level units (with reference)
Conversion formulae
dBr = 20 × log (FS/UREF)
FS = 10 (dBr/20) × UREF
% = 100 × (FS/UREF - 1)
%on = 100 × FS/Burstamp[FS]
dBon= 20 × log (FS/Burstamp[FS])
FS = ( % / 100 + 1) × UREF
FS = %on × Burstamp[FS]/100
FS =10 (dBon/20) × Burstamp[FS]
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
DBR
DPCT
PCTON
DBON
Table 2-17 Absolute time units
Conversion formula
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
S, MS, US
s
min = 60 s
s = min / 60
cyc = s * signal frequency
s = cyc / signal frequency
Table 2-18
MIN
CYC, KCYC, MCYC
Relative time units
Conversion formula
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
s = s +TREF
DS, DMS, DUS
min = 60 s
s = min / 60
MIN
cyc = s * signal frequency
s = cyc / signal frequency
s = s -TREF
CYC, KCYC, MCYC
Table 2-19 Absolute frequency units
Conversion formula
Hz
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
HZ KHZ
Table 2-20 Relative frequency units (with reference)
Conversion formulae
Hz = Hz-FREF
f/fr= Hz/FREF
%Hz= 100 * (Hz-FREF)/FREF
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
Hz = Hz+FREF
DHZ, DKHZ
Hz = f/fr * FREF
FFR
Hz = %Hz * FREF/100+FREF
DPCTHZ
Toct*)= lg (Hz/FREF) * 9,96578
Hz = 2 (Toct/3) * FREF
Oct = lg (Hz/FREF) * 3,32193
Hz = 2 (Oct) * FREF
OCT
Dec = lg (Hz/FREF)
Hz = 10 (Dec) * FREF
DEC
TOCT
*) Toct = Third Octave = Terz
1078.2008.02
2.62
E-11
UPL
Units
Table 2-21 Absolute phase unit
Conversion formula
rad = ° * (PI/180)
° = rad * (180/PI)
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
RAD
Table 2-22 Relative phase unit
Conversion formula
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
° = ° -DREF
° = ° + DREF
DDEG
RAD = (° -DREF ) * ( / 180)
° = ( RAD * 180 / ) +DREF
DRAD
Table 2-23 Deviations (tolerance) compared to the previous measured values in the settling
function (see 2.3.4 and 2.6.5.1)
Conversion formula
% = (10 dB/20 -1) * 100
dB = 20 * lg (%/100 -1)
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
DB, PCT
Table 2-24 Step size of a logarithmic level sweep
Conversion formula
MLT = 10 dB/20
dB = 20 * log (MLT)
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
MLT, DB
Table 2-25 Absolute resistance unit
Conversion formula
IEC/IEEE-bus notation
OHM, KOHM
Legend:
FS:
UREF:
RREF:
FREF:
Burstamp:
Signal frequency:
DREF:
MLT:
1078.2008.02
Abbreviation for Full Scale = ratio 0 to 1
Level reference value in V or FS
*)
"Ref Imped" parameter from ANALYZER panel
Frequency reference value in Hz
High level of generator burst signal, see 2.5.4.5 SINE BURST
Frequency of generator burst signal or
pulse signal, see 2.5.4.5 BURST, 2.5.4.6 SINE2 BURST
Phase reference value in ×
Multiplication factor (marked by ”*” in the panel)
2.63
E-11
Generators
2.5
UPL
Generators (GENERATOR Panel)
Activating the GENERATOR panel:
• UPL front panel: GEN
• External keyboard: ALT + G
• Mouse: (repeated) clicking of the panel name, until the generator panel is displayed.
If the GENERATOR panel is already visible on the screen, it can be activated also by actuating one of
the TAB keys (repeatedly) or by mouse-click.
Advantage: The panel need not be established again.
• The GENERATOR panel is always displayed on the left side of the screen and consists of two
segments: configuration and function.
GENERATOR
DIGITAL
GENERATOR
CHANNEL(s)
CH1
:
:
:
:
FUNCTION
:
SINE
Select instrument (analog or digital).
Configuration segment for setting the outputs.
(output connectors, channel select, output impedance / sample
frequency, etc.)
see 2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator
see 2.5.3 Configuration of the Digital Generator
Functions (waveforms) of the Generator, see 2.5.4
When changing the function (generator signal)
• the current function is stored to the hard disk;
• the desired function is loaded from the hard disk, initialized and, if possible, started.
When changing the generator (e.g. DIGITAL instead of ANLG)
• the current generator with all settings and the current function is stored to the hard disk;
• the desired generator with the currently active function is loaded from the hard disk, initialized and,
if possible, started.
Note:
The “parameter link“ function which can be selected in the OPTION panel may be used to
influence the UPL with changes of function and instrument. As requested, existing settings in
the function and/or configuration segment of the generator panel are accepted for the new
function or instrument - if physically possible. A change of instrument from ANLG to DIGITAL
can be performed by way of example without the function and its frequency parameters
changing in the panel.
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UPL
Selecting the Generator
2.5.1
Selecting the Generator
GENERATOR
The GENERATOR panel contains the settings for the analog and the
optional digital generators.
Two-channel analog generator, frequency range:
• 2 Hz to 21.75 kHz with universal generator
• 10 Hz to 110 kHz low-distortion generator (UPL-B1 option) up to 110
kHz
ANLG
DIGITAL
Two-channel digital generator , frequency range:
• 2 Hz to 21.93 kHz with option UPL-B2 (digital audio I/O)
• 2 Hz to 43.86 kHz with option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz)
2 Hz to 21.904 kHz
The standard analog generator can be supplemented by the Low-distortion Generator option (UPL-B1)
for sinewave generation in the analog range, thus allowing for generating a particular low-distortion
sinewave signal with a frequency of up to 110 kHz.
• Frequency range of the digital GENERATOR
The maximum generator output frequency is given by:
fmax = sample frequency x 117 / 256
The sample frequency is set in the configuration segment of the GENERATOR panel using the menu
item Sample-Frq.
There are 3 states the active generator (visible in the panel) can assume (see 2.3.5 Status Display ):
• RUNNING:
The set function (generator signal) is output via the specified interface.
• BUSY:
Generator output signal is calculated.
• HALTED:
Generator is halted, no output signal; the outputs are terminated.
RUNNING, i.e. a signal is constantly output, is the normal status of the generator. It is automatically
restarted after a generator reset.
The generator can be manually restarted at all times by calling the generator or the function (open the
respective selection window and confirm using ENTER). This may be required with burst signals to
enable beginning of a new interval (with the burst phase).
The setting of some signals (e.g. specific noise signals) involves a lot of computations. During this time,
the generator does not produce any signal and is in the BUSY state. After having successfully
concluded the computations, the generator automatically re-enters the RUNNING state. If further
settings are made or keys are pressed during computation, the computation is aborted and
automatically restarted. The generator shortly assumes the HALTED state.
Other reasons for halting the generator (HALTED):
• Faulty setting (e.g. wrong file name for an equalization or sweep list).
Remedy: eliminate the cause of error; restart, if required.
• On the digital instrument:
Applying a too high external frequency (generator is ”overrun”).
Remedy: reduce the external clock frequency and restart.
1078.2008.02
2.65
E-11
Configuration of Analog Generator
2.5.2
UPL
Configuration of Analog Generator
The generator can be used as balanced or unbalanced source with one or two output channels. Various
internal resistors are selectable.
The complete generator is designed to be floating to frame potential.
The below overview of possible settings is followed by substitute circuit diagrams showing the three
balanced and unbalanced output.
Channel(s)
The deactivated channel is internally terminated with the internal
impedance set.
OFF
both channels off
1
channel 1 on, channel 2 off
2
channel 2 on, channel 1 off
2
identical signal on both channels
1
Output
The XLR connectors can be operated either balanced (BAL) or
unbalanced (UNBAL).
UNBAL
an unbalanced signal is generated at the XLR connector; the maximum
output level is 10 V.
BAL
a balanced signal is generated at the XLR connector; the maximum
output level is 20 V. The output impedance can be selected in 3 steps. I
Impedance
10
200
600
(150
Selection of generator source impedance with Output BAL selected.
)
The possibility for selecting a generator source impedance of 150 is
offered when the standard generator source impedance of 200 is
changed to 150 by means of Modification Analog Generator UPL-U3
(Order No. 1078.4900.02).
The output impedance of an unbalanced output is generally 5
1078.2008.02
2.66
.
E-11
UPL
Configuration of Analog Generator
Volt Range
AUTO
The selected voltage range determines the setting of the generator
source impedance.
The internal signal paths are driven at maximum level, the output voltage
is set with the aid of the output amplifier.
Advantage: optimum noise and THD values for measurements with
constant level, e.g. frequency sweep.
In the next menu line under "Max Volt" a maximum voltage can be
entered; voltages higher than those specified here are not permissible.
FIX:
The output amplifier is set to the specified maximum voltage. The actual
output voltage is obtained from small digital values on the D/A converter.
When the output voltage changes, setting the analog hardware is not
required. Advantages: no voltage drops on attenuator
switchover. Faster level changes and better transient response for
measurements with slight level variations, e.g. frequency sweep using an
equalization file. (This setting should be used for loudspeaker
measurements).
Enter the numeric value of the voltage range in the next menu line;
voltages higher than those specified here are not possible.
Note:
Max Volt
This setting is ignored when the low-distortion generator option
(UPL-B1) is used. Level control of the low-distortion generator is
always performed in line with the AUTO algorithm.
Limit value for the output voltage; prevents the inadvertent entry of
exceeded voltage values.
The RMS value for sinewave signals is entered, i.e. the peak value of
Max Volt is 2 times higher.
Ref Freq
Reference value for relative frequency units.
A change of the reference frequency causes all reference-related
frequency settings to be changed.
The relative frequency of the generator signal is retained.
For instance, by varying the reference frequency the fundamental of a
distortion spectrum set by means of a multisine signal may be shifted
without the harmonics having to be recalculated and reset by the user.
Note:
1078.2008.02
If a generator frequency sweep is active ("X-Axis FREQ"), and
AUTO scaling has been selected in the DISPLAY panel for the
X axis, the reference value will be used as the Y-axis reference
value in the DISPLAY panel when a new value is entered.
2.67
E-11
Configuration of Analog Generator
Ref Volt
UPL
Reference value for the relative voltage units.
A change of the reference level causes all reference-related voltage
inputs to change.
The relative voltage of the generator signal is retained.
Varying the reference voltage may, e.g., shift a level sweep defined by
relative start and stop levels by a constant “gain factor“.
Note:
2.5.2.1
If a generator level sweep is active (X-Axis VOLT) and
AUTO scaling has been selected in the DISPLAY panel, the
reference value will be used as the X-axis reference in the
DISPLAY panel when a new value is entered.
Unbalanced Output (Output UNBAL)
The unbalanced output signal is applied between pin 2 (hi) and pin 3 (lo) of the XLR connector.
5
2
120pF
U
XLR connector
3
25 nF
Fig. 2-12
120pF
Unbalanced output
Depending on the selected channel setting, the following output circuits are possible
(capacitances are omitted):
Channel(s)
1 or 2
5
U
1078.2008.02
2.68
E-11
UPL
Configuration of Analog Generator
Channel(s)
2 1
Channel 1
5
Channel 2
U
Fig. 2-13
Unbalanced output
2.5.2.2
Balanced Output (Output BAL)
The output signal is applied between contacts 2 and 3 of the XLR female connector. The source
impedance is presented by two equal resistors, one in each signal line.
/2 Ri
1
2
120 pF
XLR connector
2 nF
120 pF
/2 Ri
1
Fig. 2-14
3
Balanced output
Depending on channel and impedance, the following output circuits are obtained.
(Capacitances are not included in the figure):
Channel(s)
1 or 2
/2 Ri
1
2
/2 U
1
10
, 200
, 600
U
/2 U
1
1078.2008.02
1
/2 Ri
3
2.69
E-11
Configuration of Analog Generator
UPL
Channel(s)
2 1
5
R
R
R
5
Fig 2-15
2.5.2.3
R
2
Channel 1
200
600
10
3
2
( R = 95 )
( R = 295 )
( R=0 )
Channel 2
3
Balanced output
Output Power
The output amplifier, attenuator and all internal resistors are short-circuit proof. The peak current is
limited to about 200 mA. With a maximum rms value of the output voltage of 20 V balanced and 10 V
unbalanced, the maximum power loss in the load resistor (with a short-circuit in the internal resistor) is
2.8 W or 1.4 W.
Delicate devices under test might be damaged or even destroyed by an output voltage inadvertently
selected too high. For this reason, the maximum settable voltage can be limited (Max Volt).
1078.2008.02
2.70
E-11
UPL
Configuration of the Digital Generator
2.5.3
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Src Mode
(Source Mode); indicates what is to be generated at the digital interfaces.
AUDIO DATA
The function generator generates digital audio data. An analog jitter signal
produced by the auxiliary generator (AUX GEN) or a common signal can
added to the audio data stream. The audio signal is available at all digital
interfaces.
JITTER
The function generator generates an analog jitter signal. All frequency and
level settings refer to the jitter signal, the audio data remain constant. The
audio signal is available at all digital interfaces.
PHASE
Like AUDIO DATA, the frame phase of the audio data stream to the REF
output (rear of instrument) can be set. The user-defined phase depends
on the following conditions
Sync To:
GEN CLK only
Sync Out:
not SYNC PLL
Ref Out:
REF GEN only
Jitter Ref:
GEN CLK only (ANALYZER panel
Note:
COMMON ONLY
PhaseToRef
Unbal Out
Although an audio signal can also be generated under this
menu, PHASE should only be selected if the definable phase
reference is required.
A balanced analog signal is superimposed onto the audio data stream on
the two lines of the XLR connector. All frequency and level settings refer
to the analog common signal, the audio data remain constant. The
common-mode signal is available at the BAL digital interfaces only.
Displayed only, if PHASE has been selected as source mode.
Setting of the frame phase between the digital audio output and the REF
output (rear).
Specified range: -64 UI to +64 UI (corresponds to -180º to +180º).
Units:
UI | %FRM | ºFRM | ns
indicates what is applied to the UNBAL (BNC) output.
AUDIO OUT
The generated AUDIO data are present (also at BAL (XLR) and optical
output).
AUDIO IN
The digital AUDIO data received (at the UNBAL or BAL input) are present
(front panel), e.g., an oscilloscope for examining the input signal may be
connected here.
1078.2008.02
2.71
E-11
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Cable Sim
UPL
(Cable Simulation)
A cable length of approx. 100 m can be simulated at the UNBAL (BNC) or
BAL (XLR) outputs.
OFF
Cable simulation switched off.
LONG CABLE
Cable simulation switched on for both electrical outputs (BAL and
UNBAL).
Note:
Sync To
Cable simulation is effective even if the AUDIO IN signal is
applied to the UNBAL (BNC) output.
(Generator synchronized to)
indicates what the digital audio generator is synchronized to. Depending
on the "Src Mode", certain selections cannot be made.
AUDIO IN
Synchronization to the audio input signal;
not possible with JITTER ONLY or PHASE.
REF IN
Synchronization to the REF IN input signal
(XLR socket on the rear panel);
not possible with PHASE.
SYNC IN
Synchronization to the SYNC IN input signal
(BNC connector on the rear panel)
not possible with JITTER ONLY or PHASE.
GEN CLK
Synchronization to the internal clock generator
Sync Mode
is displayed only if the generator is synchronized to the SYNC IN input
(rear); indicates the synchronization mode used.
VIDEO 50
Sample frequency synchronized to a video frequency of 50 Hz. (Europe).
VIDEO 60
Sample frequency synchronized to a video frequency of 60 Hz (USA).
Note:
with VIDEO 50 and VIDEO 60, an appropriate composite video
signal must be applied to the SYNC input
UPL-B29: VIDEO 60 can only be operated with fixed frequencies of at
least 48 kHz.
1024 kHz
Sample frequency synchronized to a 1024-kHz reference signal.
WORD CLK
Sample frequency synchronized to the word-clock signal at the SYNC
input.
WRD CLK INV
Sample frequency synchronized to the inverted word-clock signal at the
SYNC input.
1078.2008.02
2.72
E-11
UPL
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Sample Frq
Setting the output clock rate.
Depending on the selected synchronization in the generator-menu line
"Sync To" the following information on the clock rates can be given:
32 kHz
44.1 kHz
48 kHz
88.2 kHz
96 kHz
with option UPL-B2 (digital audio I/O) only
with option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the high rate mode only
with option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the high rate mode only
UPL-B29:
For selecting the fixed frequencies 88.2 kHz and 96 kHz, the
menu line "Sample Mode" in the OPTIONS panel must be
set to HIGH RATE.
The fixed frequency 32 kHz is no longer supported.
The fixed frequency 44.1 kHz cannot be selected if the "Sync
Mode" is set to VIDEO 60.
VALUE
The fixed frequencies can be selected when the generator is internally
clocked or synchronized via the SYNC IN female connector. This is
specified in the menu line
"Sync To"
GEN CLK or SYNC IN
EXTERN
The generator must be clocked internally in order to enable a userdefinable value to be entered under "VALUE":
"Sync To"
GEN CLK
An external clock can be entered as a numeric value when the generator
is synchronized to a word-clock signal (inverted, if required) via the SYNC
IN or via the REF IN female connector:
"Sync To"
SYNC IN
"Sync Mode" WORD CLK or WORD CLK INV
Important: If the frequency entered does not correspond to the frequency
applied, the frequencies of the generated signals vary
correspondingly! The applied sample frequency must be in the
range between 27 kHz and 55 kHz (option UPL-B2) or 40 kHz
and 106 kHz (option UPL-B29. If these limits are exceeded the
synchronization may be lost and the processor of the generator
may be overloaded
Status display: GEN: ORUN;
Remedy: Reduce the external clock rate and restart the generator by
acknowledging the generator instrument.
SYNC TO ANL
If the generator is synchronized to the input signal of the analyzer, this
selection item is displayed; it cannot be modified. The synchronization to
the analyzer is defined in menu line
"Sync To"
AUDIO IN
The numeric value of the sample frequency is copied from the analyzer
panel and cannot be modified in the generator panel.
Note
1078.2008.02
The selected sample frequency can be copied automatically into
the Channel -Status Bits. The Channel status file or the
"Panelfile" used here has to contain appropriate keywords
2.73
E-11
Configuration of the Digital Generator
UPL
(see 2.5.3.2 AES/EBU protocol definition ). The example files with the
extensions *PGC and *PPC are already configurated. Using the panel file
the user can choose in the protocol menu of the generator panel whether
the automatism should be applied ("Rate GEN SMPLFRQ") or whether a
fixed sample rate should be entered into the Channel Status Bits.
Sync Out
specifies the clock signal applied to the SYNC OUT output (BNC female
connector on the rear of the instrument).
AUDIO IN
Digital AUDIO input signal (front panel)
REF IN
REF IN input signal (XLR female connector on the rear panel);
SYNC PLL
signal from the internal synchronization PLL (e.g., input signal with
eliminated jitter)
GEN CLK
internal generator clock
Type
indicates the type of SYNC OUT signal
WORD CLK
word-clock signal (sample frequency)
BIPHASE CLK
biphase clock signal (128 times the sample frequency)
Ref Out
specifies the signal applied to the REF OUT output (XLR female
connector on the rear).
AUDIO IN
(buffered) audio input signal;
AUD IN RCLK
audio input signal reclocked by the internal synchronization PLL
AUDIO OUT
generated audio signal (same as on the front panel)
REF GEN
generated reference signal, which can be defined constant low (ALL
ZERO) or constant high (ALL ONE) in the next menu line "Data".
Data
is displayed only, if REF GEN has been selected for REF OUT signal.
Defines the audio data which are output at the REF OUT output (XLR
female on the rear panel).
ALL ZERO
all data bits are reset (low level)
ALL ONE
all data bits are set (high level)
1078.2008.02
2.74
E-11
UPL
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Audio Bits
Displayed only when Src Mode AUDIO DATA is selected. Word width of
generated audio samples in bits.
Value range:
8 to 24
If the word width is reduced, the values of the audio samples are rounded
to the specified word width.
Unbal Vpp
Sets the output voltage of the digital signal at the UNBAL (BNC) interface.
Peak-to-peak voltage upon termination with nominal impedance (75 );
without termination the voltage is twice as high.
Setting range: 0 mV to 2.125 V; resolution 8.33 mV
This voltage is always ¼ of the voltage at the BAL (XLR) interface.
Bal Vpp
Sets the output voltage of the digital signal at the BAL (XLR) interface.
Peak-to-peak voltage upon termination with nominal impedance (110
without termination the voltage is twice as high.
);
Setting range: 0 mV to 8.5 V
This voltage is always 4 times as high as the voltage at the UNBAL (BNC)
interface.
Max Volt
Displayed only if Src Mode AUDIO DATA or phase has been selected.
Limit value for entry of the output; prevents inadvertent entry of
impermissibly high voltage values .
Ref Freq
Reference value for the relative frequency units.
A change of the reference frequency causes all reference-related
frequency inputs to change.
The relative frequency of the generator signal is retained.
By varying the reference frequency, the fundamental of a distortion
spectrum set by means of multisine can for example be shifted without
the harmonics having to be recalculated and set again by the user.
Note:
1078.2008.02
If a generator frequency sweep is active (X-Axis FREQ) and
AUTO scaling is selected for the X axis in the DISPLAY panel,
the reference value is used in the DISPLAY panel as the X-axis
reference when a (new) value is entered.
2.75
E-11
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Ref Volt
UPL
Reference value for the relative voltage units.
A change of the reference level causes all reference-related voltage
inputs to change. The relative voltage of the generator is retained.
By varying the reference voltage, a level sweep defined with relative start
and stop levels can for example be shifted by a constant gain factor.
Units (depending on source mode):
AUDIO DATA/PHASE: FS | %FS | dBFS | ∆% | LSBs | dBr | bits
JITTER ONLY :
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns | UIr | dBr
COMMON ONLY:
V | mV | µV | dBV | dBu
Note:
If the reference value is entered with a reference-related unit
(e.g. dBr), the entered value is converted to the basic unit in
relation to the previous reference value and then stored. This
new reference value is displayed in relation to the new
reference value (e.g. 0 dBr). Thus any reference value can be
varied by a desired factor or dB value.
Example:
Note:
1078.2008.02
0.174 FS - 10 dBr = 0.055 FS
If a generator frequency sweep is active (X-Axis FREQ) and
AUTO scaling is selected for the X axis in the DISPLAY panel,
the reference value is used in the DISPLAY panel as the Xaxis reference when a (new) value is entered.
2.76
E-11
UPL
2.5.3.1
Generating Jitter, Phase and Common Mode
Generating Jitter, Phase and Common Mode
With digital audio interfaces, there are two types of signals to be measured, e.g. within a quality check.
One is the digitally coded analog signal, and the other the digital signal. The latter too has analog
parameters such as peak-to-peak voltage, frequency etc. It may be subject to interference like an
analog signal. Noise or AC voltage may be superimposed, which may cause the signal slopes to be
shifted. This effect is called jitter and, if it is strong enough, the audio signal can no longer be decoded
or regenerated correctly. An exactly defined interference signal is to be generated by the UPL generator
to examine the compatibility to jitter.
The signal lines can be designed as balanced lines which is quite usual in analog technology. Thus,
injected interference, e.g. from grounded (hum) loops, would be ineffective. However, in practice this
attenuation is not always sufficient so that a common-mode voltage of sufficiently high magnitude may
prevent decoding and regeneration. The UPL can generate a common-mode voltage on the digital
signal in order to test instruments. Of course, a common-mode signal cannot be generated at the
unbalanced and the optical output.
The UPL can thus generate and simulate two different interferences of the digital audio signals: specific
shifting of the signal slopes (JITTER ONLY) and the superimposition of the digital lines (COMMON
ONLY) by a common-mode voltage. The sine and noise functions (arbitrary and random) are particularly
suited for practical applications.
For many applications, it would be useful to determine the audio content of the signal in addition to the
jitter or common-mode signal, i.e. to generate an audio signal impaired by jitter or a common-mode
voltage. Thus the influence of the disturbing signal on the audio signal can be measured with option
UPL-B1 fitted. UPL offers an operating mode for this case too. An additional sinewave generator (AUX
GEN) can be switched on in the source modes AUDIO DATA and PHASE where any digital audio signal
can be generated to superimpose either a jitter or a common-mode signal on the audio signal.
Jitter and delay are usually stated in UI (unit interval). UI is defined as the smallest pulse width of the
digital audio signal (eye width) and is independent of the selected sampling rate. One UI corresponds to
the clock period of the digital signal (biphase clock). With digital audio signals, one UI corresponds to
128th of the sampling period; at 48 kHz one UI is approx. 163 ns.
If several, digitally-coded signals have to be combined, as is commonly done in the studio, the signal
synchronization is also of importance. Associated frames containing the instantaneous values (samples)
of the left and right channels must not be delayed to such an extent that the timing tolerances of the
receiver are exceeded. The UPL can simulate this error by rendering the phase between the digital
output on the front panel and the independent reference generator with output on the rear panel
adjustable. This refers to the phase within a frame (or 64 bits or 128 UI).
Even if the clock frequency is precisely generated by the various instruments, the frequencies tend to
drift with respect to one another, which can be noticed as a phase offset (see above). This drift causes
omission or doubling of individual samples. This effect can be avoided by distributing a frame sync or
word clock to all instruments for synchronization, or by synchronizing them to a common clock
frequency (e.g. 1024 kHz or the video sync pulses). Hence, if the UPL is to behave like an ideal source
of digital signals, it must be integrated into this synchronization concept. It can, therefore, be
synchronized via the SYNC IN female on the rear panel to the signals selected by means of the Sync
Mode command.
In addition to the method described above, the generator can also be synchronized to the digital signal
at the analyzer input using a clock frequency. A differentiation has to be made between the input on the
front panel and the input of the reference receiver on the rear panel. Moreover, the generator can be
operated with an own crystal oscillator.
The mode set (phase, jitter or common mode), i.e. the superimposed interference voltage always refers
to the digital output on the front panel. The reference generator whose output is on the rear panel is
always used as reference. If the generator is operated with external synchronization, (‘Sync To’ does not
select GEN CLK), the reference corresponds to the synchronization. Besides, the synchronization output
(‘Sync Out’ on the rear panel) is always without jitter or phase shift.
1078.2008.02
2.77
E-11
AES/EBU Protocol Definition
2.5.3.2
UPL
AES/EBU Protocol Definition
Selection of the digital generator causes the additional section PROTOCOL to be displayed in the
GENERATOR panel. This section sums up the commands for definition of the protocol information
(channel status data, user data, validity, parity).
PROTOCOL
Determines the scope of the protocol information generated.
PANEL OFF
No possibility to enter channel status data. The state last defined is stored
statically in the setup and restored again when the UPL is switched on or
during setup loading. Same internal behaviour as STATIC.
If the generated channel status data is irrelevant, the menu lines not wanted
can be deleted from the generator panel.
STATIC
Only static channel status data - identical for both channels - can be
generated with or without a valid CRC. This operating mode is always
possible without any restrictions. The range of functions depends on
whether or not the UPL-B21 option (Digital Audio Protocol) is installed.
If the UPL-B21 is not installed, the bits can only be reset or defined via a file.
If the UPL-B21 option is installed, the audio bits can additionally be entered
in binary form or via a static protocol panel.
ENHANCED
Only selectable if the UPL-B21 option (Digital Audio Protocol) is installed.
The full scope of protocol data generation can be entered and is displayed in
the generator panel.
Besides the valid CRC, the local time code can also be generated which is
reset and a count started when the generator starts up.
In this mode, also the analyzer has to be set to protocol analysis. Therefore,
the following settings are automatically executed in the analyzer panel when
ENHANCED is switched on:
• INSTRUMENT
DIGITAL
• Anlr Mode
AUDIO DATA
• FUNCTION
PROTOCOL
As soon as one of the 3 analyzer menu lines mentioned is changed, the
ENHANCED mode is switched to PANEL OFF.
Validity
Set the validity identification within the AES/EBU data stream.
NONE
No validity bit set
1&2
Validity bit set in both channels
1078.2008.02
2.78
E-11
UPL
AES/EBU Protocol Definition
Ch Stat. L
defines the way in which channel status data LINKS are generated. This
includes the operating mode (AES3, CRC or RAW), which has to be
identical for the left and right. If left is selected for raw data generation, ie
if neither AES3 nor CRC are defined, the operating mode can be freely
selected via the menu line Ch Stat. R.
ZERO
All channel status data bits are 0. (The operating mode (AES3, CRC,
RAW) is defined with the command Ch Stat. R).
FILE + AES3
UPL generates local timecode and CRC, other channel status data are
defined using the following file.
PANEL + AES3
UPL generates local timecode and CRC, other channel data are set using
the panel defined by the ”Panelfile” file.
FILE + CRC
PANEL + CRC
As FILE + AES3 or PANEL + AES3, however UPL does not generate
local timecode, which is a fixed setting instead.
FILE
As FILE + AES3 or PANEL + AES3, however UPL generates neither local
timecode nor CRC (RAW mode).
PANEL
The setting that can be made under this menu item affects Ch Stat. R.
Any settings under Ch Stat. R. that are incompatible with the selection
made here causes a corresponding error message to be output and the
setting to be rejected.
The following restrictions apply:
• PANEL (= user-definable generator commands) can only be used with
Ch Stat L or Ch Stat R.
• The operating mode must be the same for both channels.
BINARY...
If this parameter is selected, a menu is displayed which allows for binary
entry of the individual channel-status bits. The data are copied in by
actuating the OK field. BIN ENTRY can be used once with CH Stat L or
Ch Stat R, only. The SELECT key (or space bar on the external keyboard)
causes the respective bit to change from 0 to 1 or vice versa.
Note:
1078.2008.02
Local Time Code is a counter defined in accordance with AES3
which indicates the time elapsed since the beginning of
transmission in samples. This counter is incremented by the
UPL in the PANEL+AES and/or FILE+AES modes by 192 per
frame. The value indicated in the file or panel is used as start
value.
2.79
E-11
AES/EBU Protocol Definition
Filename
UPL
Specifies a file containing the channel status data for LEFT.
Preset file type: *.pgc
Data are defined in single lines. Keywords in the file specify for which bits
and side (left, right or both) the data are intended.
With this command only the definitions containing information data for the
left or for both sides are considered. Thus the same file can be used for both
sides.
Syntax:
Side:
AES_CHAN_STAT or AES_CHAN_STAT_BOTH indicate the
beginning of data for both sides. Analogously,
AES_CHAN_STAT_RIGHT and AES_CHAN_STAT_LEFT
indicate the beginning of data for one side.
These keywords may be used in any order and as often as
desired.
Data:
Values in the file are entered with the following line:
Keyword BIT followed by a destination range and the respective
value.
Example:
BIT:12-15, 1
(bits 12-15 are assigned 0001)
The time of the UPL can be specified using the keyword TIME
instead of a value. To obtain the number of samples made since
midnight, the time is multiplied by the currently selected sample
rate (see section 2.5.3).
Example:
BIT:112-143, TIME
The sample rate selected in the configuration section of the UPL
generator (see section 0) can be entered automatically into the
specified bit position using keyword RATE_TRK. UPL. UPL
recognizes by means of the bit position whether the sample rate
has to be coded in the consumer or the professional format and
enters the respective values accordingly.
Example:
BIT:6-7, RATE_TRK
BIT:35-38,RATE_TRK
BIT:24-27, RATE_TRK
(professional format)
(enhanced rate for professional format)
(consumer format)
Example file: R&S_AES3.PGC (Professional format)
Notes:
The local time (bit #112 to #143) is set to 0 when the generator is
started and upcounted with the sample rate, i.e. it indicates the
number of samples made since the generator start. In protocol
analysis the time elapsed since the start of the generator can be
determined by considering the sample rate.
The absolute time (bit #144 to #175) ) with the number of samples
made since midnight is loaded when the generator is started and
remains unchanged. In protocol analysis the time of the generator
start can be determined by considering the sample rate.
Thus the actual time can be determined at any time by adding
Local and Time.
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2.80
E-11
UPL
AES/EBU Protocol Definition
Ch Stat. R
Specify how to generate the Channel Status data RIGHT.
The setting that can be made here is a function of Ch. Stat. L. The
PANEL can be assigned only once. The operating mode (AES3, CRC,
RAW) must be the same for both channels.
For more details on the individual commands, refer to Ch. Stat L.
ZERO
All channel status data bits are 0. (Operating Mode (AES3, CRC, RAW) is
defined by Ch. Stat L. When Left is also set to ZERO, the operating mode
is RAW).
EQUAL L
Both sides are the same. All definitions made for the left side are copied
to the right. The operating mode is defined by Ch. Stat L.
FILE+AES3
This selection is displayed only when ZERO,
PANEL+AES3 have been selected for Ch. Stat L.
PANEL+AES 3
This selection is displayed only when ZERO, FILE+AES3 have been
selected for Ch. Stat L.
FILE+CRC
This selection is displayed only when ZERO, FILE+CRC or PANEL+CRC
have been selected for Ch. Stat L.
PANEL+CRC
This selection is displayed only when ZERO or FILE+CRC have been
selected for Ch. Stat L.
FILE
This selection is displayed only when ZERO, PANEL or FILE have been
selected for Ch. Stat L.
PANEL
This selection is displayed only when ZERO or FILE have been selected
for Ch. Stat L.
BIN ENTRY
This selection is displayed only, if BIN ENTRY has not yet been selected
with Ch. Stat L.
Filename
FILE+AES3
or
Specify a file containing Channel Status data for RIGHT.
preset type of file: *.pgc
The data are each defined in a line. Keywords in the file specify for which
bits and side (left, right or both) the data are defined (see also
specifications for the left side).
When using this command, only those definitions containing data for the
right or for both sides are considered. This allows you to use the same file
for both sides.
Format:
1078.2008.02
see Ch. Stat. L
2.81
E-11
AES/EBU Protocol Definition
User Mode
UPL
Specify how to generate the user data.
ZERO
All user bits are initialized to be 0.
FILE DEF
User bits are output according to the definitions in the subsequent file.
Note:
Filename
Changing the user bits stops both the generator and the
analyzer for a short time.
Specify a file containing user data.
Preset type of file: *.pgu
The file contains both user data for the left and the right side. The
keyword AES_USER_DATA_LEFT is used to indicate the beginning of
data for the left side. Analogously, AES_USER_DATA_RIGHT is used for
the right side.
In the following lines, values must be entered as hexadecimal numbers
without any further designations . Each line contains 32 bits.
The UPL repeats block-synchronously user bits read in, the length of
each cycle being equal for both sides. 192 user bits can be read in on
each side. Reading in less bits on one side than on the other causes
zeros to be inserted. 6 (or a multiple thereof) result in correlated user data
from the beginning of the block.
The maximum permissible number of user bits is 4096 words = 16384
bytes = 131072 bits per side.
Example:
AES_USER_DATA_RIGHT
0x55504E20
# = ’UPL ’
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2.82
E-11
UPL
AES/EBU Protocol Definition
Panelfile
Specify a file which contains the definitions of the freely programmable
panel. This menu item is displayed only when a panel has been specified
for Ch. Stat L or Ch. Stat R.
Preset type of file:
*.PPC
This file allows you to define an input field tailored to meet the current
requirements. This file, thus, defines the screen display for entry of the
actual values. To this end, enter the respective command designations,
the permissible range of values and the destination of the setting into the
file. Sample files for the “professional“ and “consumer“ format according to
IEC 958 are contained in the “C:\UPL\USER“ file supplied with the
instrument (R&S_AES3.PPC and R&S_CONS.PPC). 4 types of
commands are permissible:
• Selection commands
Entering the keyword SELECTION or EXTSELECT followed by
parameters defines a selection command.
When the keyword RATE_TRK is entered with parameters specifying
the sample rate, a special selection command is defined which causes
item GEN SMPLFRQ to be additionally displayed in the panel.
RATE_TRK may only be used where the bits for the sample rate are
defined (in the consumer or professional format); otherwise this
keyword has the same effect as SELECTION.
xamples:
⇒ SELECTION " Use", BIT:0, 0="CONS", 1="PROF"
(Bit 0 of the channel status data can be switched between CONS and
PROF using the menu line 'Use'.)
⇒ SELECTION " Usermod", BIT:12-15, 0="not ind", 3="USER"
(The four bits 12 to 15 can be switched between not ind and USER
using the menu line 'Usermod'.)
⇒ RATE_TRK " Rate", BIT:6-7,
0="not ind", 1="44.1 kHz", 2="48 kHz", 3="32 kHz "
•
Bits 6 and 7 of the channel status data can be switched between
"ANLR TRACK", "not ind", "44.1 kHz", "48 kHz", "32 kHz" and "GEN
SMPLFRQ" using the menu line "Rate". By selecting GEN SMPLFRQ
the sample rate selected in the generator configuration section is
automatically transferred to the channel status data. Frequencies
above 48 kHz (with option UPL-B29) are shown as "not indicated",
according to standard AES3.
•
RATE_TRK " enh.Rate", BIT:35-38,
0="not ind",1="24 kHz",2="96 kHz",3="192 kHz",
9="22.05 kHz",10="88.2 kHz",11="176.4 kHz",15="User def"
Bits 35 to 38 of the channel status data can be switched between the
encoded sampling points and (in addition) GEN SMPLFRQ by means
of the menu line "enh. Rate". By selecting GEN SMPLFRQ, the
sampling rate selected in the configuration section of the generator is
automatically adopted for the channel status data. Frequencies below
88.2 kHz are encoded as "not indicated".
otes:
⇒ The channel status data are encoded according the AES3
recommendation of 1 November 98. Max. 12 normal selection
commands and 3 extended ones are permissible.
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E-11
AES/EBU Protocol Definition
UPL
⇒ The BIT interval must not be larger than 32.
⇒ Max. 8 selections per command (SELECTION) are permissible. Any
value within the specified range of bits can be assigned to the
selections.
⇒ In the case of overlapping bit ranges, the most recent setting
overwrites the bits defined before.
Up to 24 selection possibilities are permissible with EXTSELECT.
• Text commands
Entering the keyword TEXT followed by parameters defines a text
command.
Example:
⇒ TEXT " Origin", BIT:48-79
(The 32 bits 48 to 79 of the channel status data are filled with the text
characters to be entered here.)
Note:
⇒ Up to 4 selection commands are permissible.
⇒ The BIT interval must not be larger than 32, i.e. max. 4 text
characters (ASCII) per command are permissible.
• Value commands (normal)
Entering the keyword VALUE followed by parameters defines a value
command, which allows the specification of status bits as numbers.
These numbers can even be multiplied by a multiplier specified in the
file.
Example:
⇒ VALUE
" Abs.Hour", BIT:144-175, MULT:SET_RATE
⇒ MULT:3600 (The value defined here is entered into the 32 bits 144
to 175, the number after MULT (3600 * and SET_ RATE = set
sample rate) being multiplied by the value before it is entered.)
Note:
⇒ Max. 12 value commands are permissible.
⇒ The BIT interval must not be larger than 32, the entry is limited to 31
bits.
⇒ The two keywords MULT are optional. The keyword SET_RATE can
also be used as multiplier.
• Value commands (additive)
The entry of the keyword ADDVALUE followed by parameters defines a
value command, the value being added to already available values.
Example:
⇒ ADDVALUE " Abs.Min", BIT:144-175, MULT:2880000
⇒ (The value entered here is added to the 32 bits 144 to 175 of the
channel status data. Prior to the addition, the number after MULT
(2880000 = 60 * 48000) is multiplied by the value.)
Note: See under value command (normal).
Examples:
R&S_AES3.PPC for panel acc. to AES3 format
R&S_CONS.PPC for panel acc. to consumer format
In the panel, the UPL displays the commands in the order
1. SELECTION/EXTSELECT/RATE_TRK
2. VALUE / ADD VALUE
3. TEXT
In the file, any desired order is permissible.
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2.84
E-11
UPL
Generator Functions
2.5.4
Functions
FUNCTION
SINE
Single sine, dither may be included.
MULTISINE
Up to 17 sines
SINE BURST
Sine burst signal
SINE2 BURST
Asymmetrical sine burst
MOD DIST
Test signal for intermodulation distortions
DFD
Test signal for difference frequency distortions
RANDOM
Random noise
ARBITRARY
Arbitrary waveform and WAV file output
POLARITY
Test signal for polarity measurements
FSK
Frequency shift keying;, only if the UPL-B33 option is installed; only
required for ITU-T O.33 (line measurement). Not available in the digital
generator of the UPL16.
STEREO SINE
Stereo sine, digital only, only if the UPL-B6 option is installed. Not
available in the digital generator of the UPL16.
MODULATION
Frequency or amplitude modulation (sine signal).
DC
DC signal.
CODED AUDIO
Digitally coded audio data to IEC 61937. Only digital if the UPL-B23 option
is installed.
Note:
When the function is changed, the generator is briefly stopped. The output signal is then set to
0 V or 0 FS.
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2.5.4.1
UPL
Common Parameters for Generator Signals
2.5.4.1.1 Common Parameters for SINE, DFD, MOD DIST Signals
Frq Offset
+1000 ppm
Frequency offsets when entering frequencies.
Set the frequency with an offset of +0.1%
Note:
OFF
Dither
ON
If the generator frequency is referenced to per GENTRACK with
frequency offset switched on, the set frequency and not the
actually generated one is used as reference (see 2.6.5.1,
RefGen)
Set the frequency without offset
For the digital generator, only (DIG 48 kHz) option UPL-B2 or UPL-B29,
only
A noise component is superimposed on the signals. The amplitude of the
noise component can be entered in the next menu line. The power
density function (PDF) can be entered further down. It is recommended to
use only low noise amplitudes, eg the final 1 to 3 LSB.
UPL-B29: In the high rate mode, dither can only be generated for the
sinewave signal, whereas the base rate mode also enables
multitone signals.
OFF
No superimposed noise
PDF
Only for the digital generator (DIG 48 kHz), with activated dither
Select the amplitude distribution (probability distribution function) of the
superimposed noise signal.
GAUSS
Gaussian distribution
TRIANGLE
Triangular distribution from -peak to +peak
RECTANGLE
Equivalent distribution from -peak to +peak
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Generator Functions
2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions
DC Offset
permits the superposition of a settable direct voltage on the generator
output
ON
The signals are superimposed a DC voltage content. The amplitude of the
DC voltage content can be entered in the next menu line.
This selection is permitted for all functions of the function generator,
except for the (analog) low-distortion generator.
OFF
no DC voltage signal active
Note:
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for the analog generators, offset is limited on ± 5 V
(UNBAL) or ± 10 V (BAL)
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UPL
2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of the Signals SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM
Equalizer
Activate/Deactivate an equalizer table including frequency specifications
and appertaining voltage amplification factors. Depending on the
frequency, the set voltage can be multiplied by an equalizing factor (after
interpolation between the adjacent frequency points) before they are
switched to the outputs. The equalized voltage can be measured
internally by means of the analyzer.
Note:
When entering equalizing factors > 1 it may occur that the
equalized voltage exceeds the selected maximum voltage (entry
under menu item Max Volt) or the physically feasible voltage. If
this is the case, the voltage output is limited (to the smaller of
the two values).
Typical application:
Simulating the effects of a preemphasis; measurement with
constant power on DUTs with frequency response.
ON
Equalizer is switched on. Menu item ”Equal. file” is activated, i.e. the file
listed under this menu item is loaded.
Note: If the generator voltage is referenced to per GENTRACK with the
equalizer switched on, the set voltage and not the equalized one
is used as reference (cf. 2.6.5.1 Reference).
OFF
Equal. file
Output voltage is not affected.
(Equalizer file)
with Equalizer
ON only;
Menu item for entry of the equalizer file name. The file is opened and
saved in an internal buffer.
Entering an invalid name (disk drive not ready, file not found, invalid
format, etc.) leads to the output of an error message and the entry ”not
found” in the menu line.
For entering a file name, see 2.3.2.5;
For generation of an equalizer file, see 2.9.1.2 Loading and Storing of
Series of Measured Values and Block/List Data ("Store
EQUALIZATN").
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UPL
Generator Functions
2.5.4.1.4 Amplitude Variation of the Signals MULTISINE, RANDOM and
ARBITRARY
Ampl Var
Selection of type of modulation. In contrast to the classic modulation as it
is offered (for sine signals) by the MODULATION function, 2 different
methods of amplitude modulation are offered here. Besides, the signal is
not modulated with the set level, which is approximated by +/- 100%
maximum, but variated by 0 ... –100%. For distinction from modulation,
this procedure is referred to as "amplitude variation" and "variation"
instead of "amplitude modulation" and "modulation depth".
OFF
The amplitude variation is switched off, the generator signal is
not modulated.
SINE
The generator signal is amplitude-modulated from 0% - 100%
in the form of a sinewave.
BURST
The generator signal is switched on and off periodically.
Mod Freq
with "Ampl Var SINE", only: setting of the modulation frequency
Range of values:
Variation
generator;
with "Ampl Var SINE", only: setting of the variation in %.,which the signal
is reduced by, ie., is varied.
Range of values:
Example:
1078.2008.02
1UHz to fmax
fmax
depending
on
the
see 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator
-100 to 0 %
Output levels of 9.90 V to 10.0 V are obtained with a
carrier amplitude of 10 V and a variation of -1 %.
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ON TIME
UPL
with "Ampl Var BURST", only: entry of the burst duration, i.e., the time
while the sine is switched on.
Specified range:lower limit : (1 sample)
analog: tmin = 20.83 µs
digital: tmin = 1 / sample frequency
upper limit:
60 s – tmin
Units: s|ms | µs | min
Side effect:
If a burst duration is entered which exceeds the interval length, the latter is
increased to burst duration + tmin.
Remark on the unit:
In contrast to the SINE BURST function, the burst duration cannot be
entered in cycles, since the signal is not a single sine.
INTERVAL
with "Ampl Var BURST", only: entry of the burst interval length (burst
period), i.e., the sum of burst duration and break time.
Specified range: lower limit:
upper limit:
Units: s|ms | µs | min
set burst duration.
60 s
Remark on the unit:
In contrast to the SINE BURST function, the burst period cannot be
entered in cycles, since the signal is not a single sine.
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2.5.4.2
Sweeps
Sweeps
With many generator functions, it is useful to output signal parameters (level, frequency, in the case of
burst signals also switch-on time and length of intervals) not only statically but to vary them with respect
to time. A sweep system allowing 2 parameters to be varied simultaneously (two-dimensional sweep) is
available for these signals.
One-dimensional sweep: the parameter specified under X-axis is varied from start to stop or
according to the LIST file.
Two-dimensional sweep: the parameter specified under Z-axis is set to the start value or the first
entry in the 1st LIST file. The parameter defined under X-axis is varied from start to stop or in
accordance with the 2nd LIST file. The Z-parameter is then set to the next value and the sweep of the
X-parameter starts again from the beginning. The two-dimensional sweep is concluded when the Zparameter has assumed its final value. When a Z sweep is switched on, Scan count is set according
to the number of Z points.
The so-called ”LIST buffers”, with a length of 1024 entries each, serve as data source for the sweep
parameters. The total length of the LIST buffers is obtained by multiplying the lengths of X- and Z-buffer;
with one-dimensional sweeps, the length of the Z-buffer is to be defined as 1. If you specify too many
items, the last ones, i.e. those exceeding 1024 are ignored. Each buffer contains a table, which can
either be derived from user specifications (normal sweep) or is loaded from a file (list sweep; see
Sweep Ctrl).
With normal sweeps, tables with equidistant rising or falling values are generated depending on whether
the start value is lower or higher than the stop value. As soon as a “normal“ sweep is switched on or a
new start value is selected, the start value is set in the instrument hardware, in order to keep the settling
time with starting of sweep as short as possible.
With “list-controlled sweeps“, the values for the sweep parameters can be spaced as desired, however,
they must be consecutive (just as with “normal“ sweep) ( 2.9.3 Series of Measured Values (Sweeps and
Scans) and Block/List Data).
If a running sweep is stopped or switched off, the swept parameters will remain set on the current
numeric values.
If a running sweep is completed, the 1st sweep frequency of the next run is set so that the DUT does not
have to settle when the next sweep is started and the 1st measurement can be run without delay.
Alternatively, the generator can be muted at the end of the sweep. The R&S UPL software then has to
be started with the command line parameter "-tmute<xxx>". <xxx> specifies the settling time (in ms) of
the DUT. The first measurement is delayed by this time when the generator is switched on again. The
generator is switched on again automatically when a further sweep is started or when a sweep is
switched off.
Note: Sweeping from high to low frequencies allows the beginning of the sweep curve to be
displayed faster than its end because high frequencies require less measuring time.
For starting and stopping the sweep, see 2.11.
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UPL
Table 2-26 List of sweepable function parameters depending on the function selected:
Function
VOLTAGE
FREQUENCY
ON-TIME
INTERVAL
SINE
yes
yes
---
---
MULTISINE
no
no
---
---
SINE BURST
yes
yes
yes
yes
SINE2 BURST
yes
yes
yes
yes
MOD DIST
yes (total Volt)
yes (user frequency)
---
---
DFD
yes (total Volt)
yes (mean frequency)
---
---
RANDOM
no
---
---
---
RANDOM+ANLR
no
---
---
---
ARBITRARY
no
---
---
---
FSK
no
no
---
---
POLARITY
no
---
---
---
Remark:
In addition to the above generator sweeps, several analyzer sweeps can be performed:
• time-controlled analyzer sweeps are selected under menu item START COND in the ANALYZER
panel (for all measurement functions)
• external frequency or level sweeps are also selected in the ANALYZER panel under menu item
START COND (for all measurement functions)
• the bandpass mean frequency can be swept in the RMS SELECTIV measurement.
Only one generator or one analyzer sweep can be active at a time. If a 2nd sweep is selected, the first
sweep is switched off again and a warning is read out.
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UPL
Sweeps
SWEEP Ctrl
Activate/Deactivate the sweep system and specify the data source and
sweep run.
OFF
The sweep system is switched off; all parameters are entered directly into
the panel by the user.
AUTO SWEEP
The sweep runs automatically after having pressed the START or
SINGLE key (see 2.11 Starting and Stopping of Measurements or
Sweeps).
The data of the sweep parameters are obtained from user specifications
(start/stop value and step size or number of points); normal sweep
Sweep stepping can be synchronized with the analyzer in menu item Next
Step.
AUTO LIST
The sweep runs automatically after having pressed the START or
SINGLE key (see 2.11 Starting and Stopping of Measurements or
Sweeps).
The data of the sweep parameters are read from file; (list sweep) for
generation of lists, see 2.9.1.2, menu item STORE TRACE/LIST,
Store
X AXIS, Store
Z AXIS
Sweep stepping can be synchronized with the analyzer in menu item Next
Step.
MANU SWEEP
The sweep is controlled by means of the rotary knob and/or the cursor
keys. When you press the START key, the 1st measured value only is
recorded. Any further sweep point must be explicitly requested using the
rotary knob or by pressing a cursor key (see 2.11 Starting and Stopping
of Measurements or Sweeps.
The data of the sweep parameters are obtained from user specifications
(start/stop values and step size or number of points); normal sweep.
When sequencing the manual sweep, the result of the current
measurement is not waited for, i.e. the current measurement and possibly
a set analyzer delay are aborted.
MANU LIST
The sweep is controlled by means of the rotary knob and/or the cursor
keys. When you press the START key, the 1st measured value only is
recorded. Any further sweep point must be explicitly requested using the
rotary knob or by pressing a cursor key (see 2.11 Starting and Stopping
of Measurements or Sweeps).
The data of the sweep parameters are read from a file; list sweep.
For generation of lists, refer to 2.9.1.2, menu item STORE TRACE/LIST,
Store
X AXIS, Store
Z AXIS
When sequencing the manual list sweep, the result of the current
measurement is not waited for, i.e. the current measurement and possibly
a set analyzer delay are aborted.
Notes on manual sweep:
• In order to control manual sweeps using the rotary knob or the cursor keys, the graphics must be
active (full-screen or part-screen mode). When the sweep is started, the switchover to the graphics
panel occurs automatically.
• The feature ”manual sweep” can be used to vary generator parameters with a user-definable
increment. The increment is defined by a fixed “step“ (with MANU SWEEP) or by a variable step size
defined per file (with MANU LIST). In remote control mode, the command ”INIT:NEXT<n>” is used to
continue.
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Generator Functions
UPL
• Individual sweep points can be skipped by turning the rotary knob fast. Also, sweep points can be
repeated by turning the rotary knob back.
• The measured values are represented by means of crosses in the Curve Plot mode. With the
DISPLAY panel setting Scan count >1 selected, these crosses are not deleted before being updated
but remain on the screen. With strongly fluctuating measurement values, the representation
approximates the shape of a bar. If sweep steps are skipped or advanced too fast, a NAN (Not A
Number) value is entered. When reaching the end of sweep, the complete trace (with the latest
measured values) is obtained.
Next step
With automatic sweep stepping ("Sweep Ctrl
”Sweep Ctrl
AUTO LIST”) only.
Select the sweep synchronization.
AUTO SWEEP” or
ANLR SYNC
Analyzer synchronization:
The sweep continues after a valid measured value has been obtained;
recommended in generator/analyzer mode.
DWELL VALUE
Time synchronization with fixed time:
The sweep continues after a specified time has elapsed. The time is
defined in menu item ”Dwell”. Required for sweeps with external analyzer.
DWELL FILE
Time synchronization using times specified in a list:
The sweep continues after specified times which are read out of a list and
interpolated on the basis of the existing X-axis.
Required for sweeps with external analyzer, if the measuring or settling
time of the analyzer and/or the DUT depends on the respective sweep
point.
Dwell File
With automatic sweep ("Sweep Ctrl
AUTO LIST") and list-controlled
time synchronization ("Next step
DWELL FILE") only.
Specify a file containing the dwell times
The file is opened and loaded into an internal buffer.
If the name entered is not valid (drive not ready, file not found, invalid
format, etc.), an error message is output and the reason for the fault is
entered into the menu line.
For entry of file names, see 2.3.2.5; for generation of the list, see 2.9.1.2
Loading and Storing of Traces and Lists.
Dwell
Only with automatic sweep and list-controlled time synchronization ("Next
step
Dwell:value").
Enter a dwell time for all sweep points.
Specified range:
Units:
Resolution:
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0 to 1000 s.
s | ms | µs | min
1 ms
2.94
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UPL
Sweeps
X Axis
With an active sweep system only.
Select the sweep parameter (one-dimensional sweep) or the 1st sweep
parameter (two-dimensional sweep).
VOLT
Signal voltage (SINE, SINE BURST, SINE2 BURST) or total voltage
(MOD DIST, DFD) is swept.
FREQ
Signal frequency (SINE, SINE BURST, SINE2 BURST), useful frequency
(MOD DIST) or center frequency (DFD) is swept.
ON TIME
Time of high level with burst signals is swept.
INTERVAL
Interval time with burst signals is swept.
Z Axis
With active sweep system, only
Select the 2nd sweep parameter for a two-dimensional sweep.
OFF
Sweep is one-dimensional
VOLT
Sweep is two-dimensional, the 2nd. sweep parameter is the signal voltage
(SINE, SINE BURST, SINE2 BURST) or total voltage (MOD DIST, DFD).
FREQ
Sweep is two-dimensional, the 2nd sweep parameter is the signal
frequency (SINE, SINE BURST, SINE2 BURST, SQUARE), wanted
frequency (MOD DIST) or center frequency (DFD).
ON TIME
Sweep is two-dimensional, the 2nd sweep-parameter is the time of the
high level (only with burst signals).
INTERVAL
Sweep is two-dimensional, the 2nd sweep parameter is the interval time
(only with burst signals).
Note:
With two-dimensional sweeps of "ON TIME" and "INTERVAL", the minimum value of
"INTERVAL" must exceed the maximum "ON TIME" value. With normal sweep, this is ensured
by limitation and, if required, correction of the start and stop values with entry already.
However, with list sweep, the user should make sure that this condition is met in the lists used,
since a required, automatic correction is not carried out until the sweep is running - thus,
unexpected results may be obtained.
Note:
Theoretically, the same parameter may be entered for the X and Z axes (e.g., VOLT in both
directions) - and this is not prohibited in the operator surface. This does, however, not make
sense in normal practical use
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Generator Functions
Spacing
Note:
UPL
With normal sweep only
(Sweep Ctrl
AUTO SWEEP or Sweep Ctrl
Determine the sweep range spacing.
MANU SWEEP);
LIN POINTS
The sweep range is linearly divided by a number of points to be specified.
The number is entered under menu item "Points".
LIN STEPS
Beginning from "Start", the sweep range is divided into intervals using a
linear step size to be specified under menu item "Step".
LOG POINTS
The sweep range is logarithmically divided by a number of points to be
specified. The number is entered under menu item "Points".
LOG STEPS
Beginning from "Start", the sweep range is divided into intervals using a
logarithmic step size to be specified under menu item ”Step” (multiplier
without unit)
No conversion is performed when switching from ... POINTS to ...STEPS and vice versa; the
set values are retained in the back-ground. The numeric value for ”STEP” remains the same
when switching between LIN STEPS and LOG STEPS.
Start
With normal sweep only
(Sweep Ctrl
AUTO SWEEP or Sweep Ctrl
MANU SWEEP)
Enter the start value for the (above) sweep parameter.
Specified range, unit and resolution: as for the appertaining sweep
parameter.
If a start value is entered that is identical with the stop value, the stop
value is automatically loaded with the old start value.
In this way, the sweep direction can be easily reversed by means of a
single entry.
Note: The start value of the sweep parameter is set in the instrument
hardware with entry already (not with starting the sweep). The settling
time with starting the sweep can thus be minimized.
Stop
With normal sweep only
(Sweep Ctrl
AUTO SWEEP or Sweep Ctr
MANU SWEEP)
Enter the stop value for the (above) sweep parameter
Specified range, unit and resolution: as for the appertaining sweep
parameter.
If a stop value is entered that is identical with the start value, the start
value is automatically loaded with the old stop value.
In this way, the sweep direction can be easily reversed by means of a
single entry.
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UPL
Sweeps
Points
With normal sweep only
(Sweep
AUTO SWEEP or Sweep Ctrl
MANU SWEEP) and
Spacing
LIN POINTS or Spacing
LOG POINTS selected.
Specified range:
Units:
2 to 1024.
None (integer)
Enter the number of sweep points for the (above) sweep parameter. The
sweep range is divided into (points - 1) steps. 2 points at least (start and
stop value) are required.
Step
With normal sweep only
(Sweep Ctrl
AUTO SWEEP or Sweep Ctrl
MANU SWEEP) and
Spacing
LIN STEPS or Spacing
LOG STEPS selected.
Enter the step size for the (above) sweep parameter.
With linear step, the absolute step size is always entered, i.e., the number
value is positive even, if the start value exceeds the stop value.
With logarithmic step, the multiplication factor is entered, which is
required for each sweep point to obtain the next sweep point. If start and
stop value are interchanged (reversal of the sweep direction), the
reciprocal value is constituted.
Specified range: see operator guidance line. The step size is to be
selected as high as to result in not more than 1023 individual steps.
Unit and resolution: With linear spacing as for the appertaining sweep
parameter. With logarithmic spacing, no unit can be entered (factor
without unit).
Exception: In the case of voltage sweeps (x-axis Volt), the logarithmic
scaling can be entered either as a factor or in dB.
FREQ FILE
With list sweeps only (Sweep Ctrl
Sweep Ctrl
MANU LIST)
AUTO LIST or
Enter a file name for the frequency list. For the entry of file names see
2.3.2 Data Entry
The signal frequency (SINE, SINE BURST, SINE2 BURST), the useful
frequency (MOD DIST) or the center frequency (DFD) is swept.
VOLT FILE
With list sweeps only (Sweep Ctrl
Sweep Ctrl
MANU LIST)
AUTO LIST or
Enter a file name for the amplitude list. For the entry of file names see
2.3.2 Data Entry
The signal voltage (SINE, SINE BURST, SINE2 BURST) or the total
voltage (MOD DIST, DFD) is swept.
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Generator Functions
ONTIM FILE
UPL
With list sweeps only (Sweep Ctrl
Sweep Ctrl
MANU LIST)
AUTO LIST or
Enter a file name for the "ON-time" list of burst signals. For the entry of
file names see 2.3.2 Data Entry
The burst duration (SINE BURST, SINE2 BURST) is swept.
INTV FILE
With list sweeps only (Sweep Ctrl
Sweep Ctrl
MANU LIST)
AUTO LIST or
Enter a file name for the interval list of burst signals. For the entry of file
names see 2.3.2 Data Entry
The burst interval (SINE BURST, SINE2 BURST) is swept.
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UPL
Sine
2.5.4.3
SINE
Frq Offset
See 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals.
Dither
For digital generators only;
See 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals.
PDF
For digital generators only;
See 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals.
Low Dist
(Low-distortion generator) for the analog generator only.
Activating/Deactivating the low-distortion generator (see 2.5.1 Selecting the
Generator)
ON
(with UPL-B1 option only);
the sine is generated by the low-distortion generator.
OFF
The sine is generated by the universal generator.
DC Offset
SWEEP CTRL
see 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions.
see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps
Frequency
Entry of the sine frequency; can be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range: 10 Hz to fmax
fmax generator-dependent; cf. 2.5.1 Selecting
the Generator
Resolution:
1 MHz
Unit:
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Equalizer
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM
The sine voltage is corrected.
ON
OFF
Equal. file
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Equalizer switched on. Menu item "Equal. file" is activated, i.e. the file
indicated there is loaded.
Output voltage not affected.
(Equalizer file)
with Equalizer
ON only;
see2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM
2.99
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Voltage
UPL
Entry of the sinewave amplitude; can be used as sweep parameter;
see 2.3.2 Data Entry
Specified range:
digital:
0 to 1 FS (audio data or phase mode)
0 to 2.5 UI (jitter mode)
0 to 7.071 Vrms (common mode)
analog: 0 to 10 Vrms for UNBAL
0 to 20 Vrms for BAL
Note: Voltage limitation of the rms value by means of menu
item "Max Volt", see 2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator
/ 2.5.3 Configuration of the Digital Generator
Units:
digital (audio data or phase mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
digital (jitter mode):
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns | UIr | dBr
analog and digital common mode:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr |
dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
Peak-to-peak amplitude (analog): Vpp = Vrms x 2 x
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Multi Sine
2.5.4.4
MULTISINE
Up to 17 single sine voltages can be superposed on each other.
The phase angles of the single sine voltages are automatically optimized such that the maximum total
peak value is as low as possible. The resulting total peak value thus being frequency-dependent, the
voltage may increase when varying individual frequencies. The set maximum voltage (”Max volt”, see
2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator / 2.5.3 Configuration of the Digital Generator) is however
never exceeded since the worst case is taken as the basis for linear superposition when entering the
single voltages.
Further special multi-tone signals are selected using the functions
• MOD DIST (2 sinewave amplitudes with the ratios 1:1 to 10:1)
• DFD (2 equivalent sinewave amplitudes)
• SINE (1 sinewave with any amplitude)
• RANDOM, domain FREQ (7488 sinewave lines at fixed frequency offset with any amplitude)
With the first 3 functions, a “Frq Offset“ or (with digital generator), in addition, ”Dither” with ”PDF” can be
set.
Note:
• The generator is interrupted while calculating a new multi-tone signal. The output signal is definitely
set to 0 V or 0 FS.
DC Offset
Spacing
see 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions
Set the frequency spacing:
USER DEF
The value entered is corrected to the next settable value.
The specified range depends on the selected generator and its sample
rate (see 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator):
Lower limit:
• ANLG:
2.9 Hz
• DIG instruments: Int. sample frequency / 16384
Units: Hz, kHz
ANLR TRACK
The value for the FFT analysis frequency spacing is automatically
adopted. The value is also displayed in the ANALYZER panel under
"FFT:Resolution" (see 2.6.5.12 FFT). This setting is ideal for an analysis
using the rectangular window. With no FFT selected in the analyzer, the
setting is rejected (error message!).
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Generator Functions
Equalizer
UPL
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM
Each active frequency line is corrected.
ON
OFF
Equal. file
Mode
Equalizer switched on. Menu item "Equal. file" is activated, i.e. the file
indicated there is loaded.
The output voltage of all frequency lines is not affected.
(Equalizer file)
with Equalizer
ON;
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM
Select the input mode for the individual sine voltages:
EQUAL VOLT
The same amplitude applies for each single sine; it is entered as “Volt
No1“.
DEFINE VOLT
An individual amplitude can be defined for each single sine.
Crest Fact
Selects the algorithm for determining the phase of individual sinewaves
and thus of the crest factor of the complete signal.
This menu item is only displayed with option UPL-B6 installed.
OPTIMIZED
The crest factor is automatically minimized by internally optimizing the
individual phases.
VALUE:
Definition of desired crest factor. The phase of the individual sinewaves
are modified internally so that the resulting crest factor closely
approaches the desired value. The accuracy of this method depends on
the number of lines.
DEFINE PHAS
Entry of phases of all active sine lines.
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UPL
Multi Sine
No of sine
Specified range:
Units:
1 to 17
none
Entry of number of desired tones, i.e. the number of sines to be edited. In
EQUAL VOLT mode, the entry also influences the maximum amplitude
that can be entered for a single sine tone (see "Volt No (i) ").
For a better overview, settings for up to 17 frequencies and levels are not
made in the GENERATOR panel, but in a special dialog window, which is
opened automatically with selection of "No of sine" or command "Choice
..." below. In this window, the individual frequency, phase and level menu
items can be copied into the STATUS panel by ticking them off.
Subsequent to closing the window, they can be displayed and entered in
the STATUS panel.
Choice ...
Opens a special dialog window where the individual sine frequencies and
levels can be displayed and entered in a clearly arranged form.
All frequency and level items marked in the menu of this window are
transferred into the STATUS panel where they can be displayed and
entered even after this window has been closed.
Note:
Freq No (i)
The dialog window described here is also automatically opened
when "No of sine" is entered.
Enter the sinewave frequency i (i = 1 to 17)
Specified range: fmin to fmax (depending on generator)
fmin:
Value from spacing
fmax:
see 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator
Units:
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
The single frequencies may lie as close to each other as desired or may
even be superposed on each other (taking the resolution into account).
Phase No (i)
Entry of phase of individual sinewave i (i = 1 to 17)
This menu item is only displayed when software option UPL-B6 is
installed and DEF PHASE was selected as crest factor.
The reference point is the assumed time T0, where all sinewaves start
with the phase 0.
If sinewave No. 1 is to be used as reference frequency, it must be
assigned the phase 0.
Specified range:
Unit:
0 to 360°
° or RAD
If two or more individual lines have the same frequency, i.e. are
superimposed, the first of the two lines determines the (common) phase
which is assigned to all subsequent frequency lines.
1078.2008.02
2.103
E-11
Generator Functions
Volt No (i)
UPL
Enter the sinewave amplitude i (i = 1 to 17)
Specified range: t the total voltage Vmax reduced by the dc voltage is
available for each of n single sines (n = "No of sin", 1 to 17). To
avoid overranging the (phase-optimized) overall signal may be
reduced by reducing the post-amplification.
digital (audio data or phase mode):
Vmax = 1 FS
(jitter mode): Vmax = 2.5 UI
(comm mode): Vmax = 7.071 Vrms
analog:
Vmax = 10 Vrms for UNBAL
Vmax = 20 Vrms for BAL
Note: Voltage limitation of the rms value by menu item ”Max volt”, see
2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator / 2.5.3 Configuration
of the Digital Generator
Vmax is split up into the single sine voltages as follows:
• in EQUAL VOLT mode, any sine may be as large as (Vmax DC)/n
• in DEFINE VOLT mode, any sine may be as large as the difference
between (Vmax DC) and the sum of all other active single sines
Units:
digital (audio data or phase mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
digital (jitter mode):
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns | UIr | dBr
analog and digital common mode:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr | dBu | dBV|
dBr | dBm | %V | V | mV | µV
peak-to-peak amplitude (analog): Vpp = Vrms x 2 x
Total Gain
Entry of a gain factor (in dB), which allows to vary the rms value resulting
from superimposition of the individual voltages. To avoid overranging the
permitted range of values is varied such that the resulting overall signal
does not exceed the permitted (or possible) generator output level.
Unit:
TOTAL PEAK
2;
dB
Read only, no input field
Indicates total peak value of multi-tone signal. The value is usually below the sum
of the single peak values due to internal phase optimization
Units: digital (audio data or phase mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits
digital (jitter mode):
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns
analog and digital common mode:
V | mV | µV | dBu | dBV | dBm
1078.2008.02
2.104
E-11
UPL
Multi Sine
TOTAL RMS
Read only, no input field (only analog)
Indicates total rms value of multi-tone signal.
Units: V | mV | µV | dBu | dBV | dBr | V/Vr | %V | V | mV | µV
Ampl Var
Selection of the type of modulation, see 2.5.4.1.4 Amplitude Variation of
MULTISINE, RANDOM and ARBITRARY
OFF
The amplitude modulation is switched off, the generator signal is not
modulated.
SINE
The generator signal is amplitude-modulated in the form of a sinewave
from 0% to -100%.
BURST
The generator signal is switched on and off periodically;
Mod Freq
with "Ampl Var SINE", only: setting of the modulation frequency; see
2.5.4.1.4
Variation
with "Ampl Var SINE", only: setting of the variation in %, see 2.5.4.1.4.
ON TIME
with "Ampl Var BURST", only: entry of the burst duration, see 2.5.4.1.4.
INTERVAL
1078.2008.02
with "Ampl Var BURST", only: entry of the burst-interval length (burst
period) , see 2.5.4.1.4.
2.105
E-11
Generator Functions
2.5.4.5
UPL
SINE BURST
Sine periodically varying between high and low level. Like the normal sine, the signal can optionally be
equalized.
Equalizer
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM
ON
The sine voltage is equalized.
OFF
Equalizer is switched on. The menu ”Equal. file” is activated,
i.e., the file indicated there is loaded.
output voltage is not influenced
Equal. file
(Equalizer file) only, if equalizer
ON
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM.
DC Offset
see 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions
SWEEP CTRL
see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps.
FREQUENCY
Entry of the sine frequency; can be used as sweep parameter;
see 2.3.2 Data Entry
Specified range: 10 Hz to fmax
fmax depending on generator; see 2.5.1 Selecting the
Generator
Resolution:
1 MHz
Units:
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Side-effect:
1078.2008.02
ON TIME is adjusted, if required.
2.106
E-11
UPL
VOLTAGE
Sine Burst
Entry of the high-level sine amplitude, i.e. the amplitude during burst time;
can be used as sweep parameter; see 2.3.2.5.
Specified range: 0 to Vmax
digital: Vmax = 1 FS
analog: Vmax = 10 Vrms for UNBAL
Vmax = 20 Vrms for BAL
Note:
Voltage limitation of the rms value by menu item "Max volt", see
2.5.2
Configuration of the Analog Generator / 2.5.3
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Units: digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
analog:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr |
dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
peak-to-peak amplitude (analog): Vpp = Vrms x 2 x
Side effect: Low Level is adjusted, if required.
Low Level
2;
Enter the low-level sine amplitude, i.e. the amplitude during OFF time.
Specified range: 0 to high level (VOLTAGE)
Units:
digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr |
%on | dBon
analog:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr |
dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm | V/on | %on | dBon |
%V | V | mV | µV
As to the unit: In addition to the standard voltage specifications (absolute
or relative to the reference value), further relative units referring to high
level can be used. They are
%on, dBon; in the analog range also V/on
If a unit of this kind is selected, the ratio
"low level : high level"
is always kept constant when the high level is varied. This means that
changing VOLTAGE (also during a sweep) changes the low level, too.
With all other units, varying VOLTAGE affects the low level only when
VOLTAGE becomes smaller than the low level.
peak-to-peak amplitude (analog): Vpp = Vrms x 2 x 2 ;
1078.2008.02
2.107
E-11
Generator Functions
ON TIME
UPL
Entry of the burst duration, i.e. the time during which the sine has its
high level; can be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range:
Unit:
lower limit:
(1 sample)
analog:
digital:
upper limit:
tmin = 20.83 µs
tmin = 1 / sampleFrq
60 s -tmin
s | ms | µs | cyc | kcyc | Mcyc
Side effect: Entering a burst duration exceeding the length of an interval
causes the interval length to be increased to burst duration.
Note as to the unit: Apart from standard time specifications, the burst
duration can also be specified in cycles. The selection of this
unit, which is relative to frequency, results in the number of
cycles - and not the burst time - remaining constant when the
frequency is changed, i.e. increasing the frequency decreases
the duration of the burst signal. If INTERVAL is not specified in
cycles, the ratio ON_TIME : INTERVAL is reduced.
INTERVAL
Entry of the burst interval length; can be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range:
Units:
lower limit:
set burst duration.
upper limit:
60 s
s|ms|µs|cyc|kcyc|Mcyc|min
Note as to the unit: Apart from standard time specifications, the burst
interval can also be specified in cycles. The selection of this
unit, which is relative to frequency, results in the number of
cycles - and not the interval time - remaining constant when the
frequency is changed, i.e. increasing the frequency decreases
the interval of the burst signal, If the ON TIME is not specified in
cycles, the ratio ON_TIME : INTERVAL is increased.
Note:
If generator settings are modified or a measurement is (re-)started, the generator is
automatically restarted and starts the interval (considering the Burst On Delay) with ON TIME,
i.e. with High Level.
BurstOnDel
(Burst on delay)
When starting the generator (e.g., subsequent to changing or
acknowledging the function) or starting the measurement, the burst signal
normally adopts the “burst on“-state, i.e. the high level. Certain
applications, however, require the high level state to be delayed, e.g., in
order to trigger to the high level. The start delay of the burst signal is
intended to be used for these applications; the generator puts out the low
level.
Specified range:
1078.2008.02
0 to 60 s
2.108
E-11
UPL
2.5.4.6
Sine² Burst
SINE2 BURST
Sine2-wave signal which is periodically switched on and off. Either positive or negative pulses (also
partial pulses) can be generated (by entering a negative voltage). Typically, the signal is not DC-free.
DC Offset
see 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions
SWEEP CTRL
see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps
FREQUENCY
Entry of the sine2-wave frequency; can be used as sweep parameter;
see 2.3.2 Data Entry
Specified range:
10 Hz to fmax
fmax depending on generator;
see 2.3.2 Selecting the Generator
Units:
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Terz
Oct | Dec
Resolution:
1 MHz
Note: The period of this signal is defined as the time required for a pulse.
Side effect: ”ON TIME” is adjusted, if required.
VOLTAGE
Entry of the sine2-wave amplitude; can be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range: 0 to Vmax
digital: Vmax = 1 FS
analog: Vmax = 10 Vrms for UNBAL
Vmax = 20 Vrms for BAL
Units:
digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
analog:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr |
dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
Note:
Voltage limitation of the rms value by means of menu item ”Max
volt”, see 2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator / 2.5.3
Configuration of the Digital Generator
As to the unit: When entering negative voltages, the pulse is inverted.
Conversion into logarithmic units (dBFS, dBu, dBr, dBV) is not
possible in this case.
peak-to-peak amplitude (analog): Vpp = Vrms x 2 x 2 ;
Vrms is the rms value during pulse time, the level during OFF time is not
considered when calculating the rms value.
1078.2008.02
2.109
E-11
Generator Functions
ON TIME
UPL
Entry of the pulse duration, i.e. the time the sine2 is switched on; can be
used as sweep parameter; see 2.3.2 Data Entry
Specified range:
Units:
lower limit:
(1 sample)
analog:
digital:
upper limit:
tmin = 20.83 µs
tmin = 1 / samplefrq
60 s - tmin
s | ms | µs | cyc | kcyc | Mcyc |min
Side effect: Specifying a burst duration longer than the interval length
causes the latter to be increased to burst duration.
As to the unit: Apart from standard time specifications, the pulse
duration can also be specified in cycles. The selection of this
unit, which is relative to frequency, results in the number of
cycles - and not the pulse time - remaining constant when the
frequency is changed, i.e. increasing the frequency decreases
the pulse duration. If the INTERVAL is not entered in cycles, the
ratio ON_TIME : INTERVAL is reduced.
INTERVAL
Entry of the interval length; can be used as sweep parameter; see 2.3.2
Data Entry
Specified range:
lower limit:
upper limit:
set burst duration
60 s
Units:
s|ms|µs|cyc|kcyc|Mcyc|min
As to the unit: Apart from standard time specifications, the pulse interval
can also be specified in cycles. The selection of this unit, which
is relative to frequency, results in the number of cycles - and not
the pulse time - remaining constant when the frequency is
changed, i.e. increasing the frequency decreases the interval
length of the burst signal. If the ON TIME is not entered in
cycles, the ratio ON_TIME : INTERVAL increases.
Note:
If generator settings are modified or a measurement is (re-)started, the generator is
automatically restarted and starts the interval (considering the Burst On Delay) with ON TIME.
BurstOnDel
(Burst On Delay)
When starting the generator (e.g., subsequent to changing or
acknowledging the function) or starting the measurement, the burst signal
normally adopts the “burst on“-state, i.e. the high level. Certain
applications, however, require the high level state to be delayed, e.g., in
order to trigger to the high level. The start delay of the burst signal is
intended to be used for these applications; the generator puts out the low
level.
Specified range:
1078.2008.02
0 to 60 s
2.110
E-11
UPL
Modulation Distortion Signal
2.5.4.7
MOD DIST (Two-tone Signal to SMPTE)
Superposing 2 sinewave signals: low-frequency interfering signal and high-frequency useful signal;
interfering signal is 1 to 10 times stronger than useful signal.
For intermodulation measurements to SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) and
modulation distortion analysis to .
Frequencies
• Recommendation DIN 45403, sheet 4: or DIN-IEC 268-3:
interfering signal
f1 < = 1.4 x lower limit frequency of DUT
f1 > = 31.5 Hz
useful signal f2
f2 > = 0.7 x upper limit frequency of DUT
f2 > = 8 x f1
• SMPTE standard:
interfering signal:
useful signal:
f1 = 60 Hz
f2 = 7 kHz
Amplitude ratio interfering signal : useful signal:
4:1 (SMPTE); to DIN, 10:1 is also possible
With the LDG option fitted, the useful signal in the analog range can be generated by the universal
generator or, alternatively, by the low-distortion generator.
Notes:
• For intermodulation measurements to MOD DIST, an appropriate measurement function is to be set
in the ANALYZER panel (see 2.6.5.8).
Anl“ is ticked off in the OPTIONS panel under menu item
• If the selection “Function tracking Gen
“Param Link“, the measurement function MOD DIST is switched on in conjunction with the function
changeover of the generator to MOD DIST:
Frq Offset
See 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals
Dither
For digital generators only;
see 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals
UPL-B29:
The dither generator can be switched on in the base rate
mode only.
PDF
For digital generators only;
see 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals
DC Offset
see 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals
SWEEP CTRL
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see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps
2.111
E-11
Generator Functions
UPPER FREQ
UPL
Entry of the er the useful frequency; can be used as sweep parameter.
see
Specified range: 240 Hz to fmax
fmax depending on generator; see 2.5.1
LOWER FREQ
Units:
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Resolution:
1 MHz (50 Hz for DIG 768 kHz)
Entry of the interfering frequency; can be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range: 30 Hz to UPPER FREQ / 8
VOLT LF:UF
Units:
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Resolution:
1 MHz
Enter the ratio interfering level : useful level as a real number.
Specified range:1.0 to 10.0
In the analog range, this ratio affects the level of the total rms voltage
which can be input via "TOTAL VOLT".
Unit:
1078.2008.02
none
2.112
E-11
UPL
TOTAL VOLT
Modulation Distortion Signal
Entry of the total amplitude of both sinewave signals; can be used as
sweep parameter.
Specified range:
digital: 0 to 1 FS
analog: 0 to 10.964 Vrms for UNBAL
0 to 21.927 Vrms for BAL
The selectable analog voltage depends on the voltage ratio "Volt
Note:
LF:UF"; specifications refer to a voltage ratio of 10:1.
Note:
Voltage limitation of the rms value by means of menu item ”Max
volt”, see 2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator / 2.5.3
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Units:
digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
analog:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr |
dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
In the analog range, the maximum peak voltage is 2 x 10 V (UNBAL) or
2 x 20 V (BAL). Hence, the following restriction applies:
Vpp
28,284 Vpp (UNBAL) or
Vpp
56,569 Vpp (BAL)
Vpp = V1pp + V2pp
The total voltage is divided into useful signal and interfering signal in a
(selectable) ratio. The maximum total rms voltage, which is obtained from
the square sum of the single rms values, thus depends on the level ratio
interfering signal : useful signal. The specifications for the specified range
stated above are relative to the ratio 10 : 1. The closer the ratio comes to
the value 1 : 1, the lower the maximum obtainable total rms voltage. With
1 : 1, it is 7,0711 Vrms (UNBAL) or 14,142 Vrms (BAL).
As a rule, the relationship between total peak-to-peak voltage and total
rms voltage can be expressed as follows:
Vpp =
1078.2008.02
Veff × 2 × 2 × (k + 1)
(k + 1)
2
2.113
;
k = "VOLT LF:UF"
E-11
Generator Functions
2.5.4.8
UPL
DFD (Difference Frequency Distortion)
Two closely spaced sinewave signals of the same amplitude; for intermodulation measurements
(DFD method to DIN-IEC 268-3, former DIN 45403, Sheet 3).
With the LDG option fitted, the low-frequency sinewave in the analog range can be produced by the
function generator or, alternatively, the low-distortion generator.
Note:
For intermodulation measurements to DFD, an appropriate measurement function is to be set
in the ANALYZER panel (see 2.6.5.9).
Note:
Anl“ is ticked off in the OPTIONS panel under menu
If the selection “Function tracking Gen
item “Param Link“, the measurement function MOD DIST is switched on in conjunction with the
function changeover of the generator to MOD DIST:
Frq Offset
see 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals
Dither
For digital generators only;
see 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals
PDF
For digital generators only;
see 2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for the Generator Signals
DC Offset
see 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions
Equalizer
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM. Each of the two difference tone frequencies is corrected.
ON
Equalizer switched on. The menu item "Equal. file" is loaded, i.e. the
indicated file is loaded.
It may happen that the two (equal) sine voltages are weighted with
different correction factors so that they are no longer recognized as DFD
signal by the analyzer. If an error message of this kind is displayed, switch
to the IEC 118 measurement mode which is more tolerant to differences
of the DFD lines.
OFF
The output voltage of the two difference tone frequencies is not affected.
Equal. file
1078.2008.02
(Equalizer file)
with Equalizer
ON only;
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM.
2.114
E-11
UPL
Difference Frequency Distortion Signal
Mode
Selection of entry mode for DFD frequencies.
IEC 268
Entry of center frequency (MEAN FREQ) and difference frequency (DIFF
FREQ). If a frequency sweep is selected (for the X or Z axis), the center
frequency is swept.
IEC 118
Entry of upper DFD frequency (UPPER FREQ) and difference frequency
(DIFF FREQ). If a frequency sweep is selected (for the X or Z axis), the
UPPER FREQ is swept.
Note:
When measuring the DFD, one of the two standards can be
selected under the menu item "Meas Mode".
SWEEP CTRL
see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps
MEAN FREQ
Entry ofer the mean frequency; can be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range: 200 Hz to (fmax - 500 Hz)
fmax depending on generator;
see 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator
DIFF FREQ
Units:
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Resolution:
1 MHz;
Enter the frequency difference between both sines
Specified range:80 Hz to 0.55 * MEAN FREQ, max. 1 kHz
fmin depending on generator;
see 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator
Units:
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Resolution:
1 MHz
Rec. to DIN-IEC 268-3: 80 Hz
1078.2008.02
2.115
E-11
Generator Functions
TOTAL VOLT
UPL
Entry of the total amplitude of both sinewave signals; can be used as
sweep parameter, see 2.3.2.
Specified range: digital: 0 to 1 FS
analog: 0 to 8.485 Vrms for UNBAL (BNC)
0 to 16.971 Vrms for BAL (XLR)
Note:
Voltage limitation of the rms value by means of menu item ”Max
volt”, see 2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator / 2.5.3
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Units:
digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
analog:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr |
dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
The maximum peak-to-peak voltage in the analog range is 2 x 10 V
(UNBAL) or 2 x 20 V (BAL). Hence the following limitation applies:
Upp
28,284 Vpp (UNBAL) or
Upp
56,568 Vpp (BAL)
Upp = U1pp + U2pp
With two equivalent single voltages U1pp = U2pp, the maximum
permissible total rms voltage is:
Ueff =
1078.2008.02
( )
U1PP
2 2
2
2 =
U1pp
2
2.116
=
Upp
4
E-11
UPL
Random Noise
2.5.4.9
Random (Pseudo Noise)
Set generator signals which have the same or similar characteristics as noise (e.g. closely spaced sine
lines in the frequency domain). There are two ways of defining these signals:
• Specify the amplitude density distribution in the time domain (Domain: TIME)
• Specify the amplitude frequency distribution in the frequency domain (Domain: FREQ)
This function is available in all generators.
Note:
• The generator is interrupted while calculating a new noise signal. The output signal is definitely set to
0 V or 0 FS.
DC Offset
Domain
FREQ
see 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions
Selection of domain for definition of the noise signals
Sine lines with settable amplitudes are generated and superposed on
each other using defined frequency spacings to produce the output signal.
In order to minimize the resulting peak value of the signal, each line is
phase-optimized relative to the other lines. Minimum form factors
(=peak/rms) can thus be obtained. Depending on the selectivity of the
analyzer, the output signal is not displayed as a sequence of single lines,
but as a noise signal with continuous level above the frequency.
The frequency-defined noise allows for generating up to 7488 single tones
with any amplitude (multitone).
Special application:
When the frequency spacing of the sine lines generated here exactly
matches the analysis spacing used for the FFT, an FFT analysis is
feasible without leakage. A selectivity of one line can thus be obtained
with the square window. The setup consisting of this generator and
analyzer allows you to precisely determine the frequency response of a
device under test at one go. (see 2.6.7.3 Fast Frequency Response
Measurement
Note:
TIME
1078.2008.02
As the optimization is very compute-bound, a few seconds of
computing time before the output is started may be required by
the generator, especially with small frequency spacings and
wide noise band.
Status display: ”GEN: BUSY”.
Entering data while GEN: BUSY is being displayed aborts the
computations and the generator enters the GEN:HALTED state.
The generator restarts automatically.
In this mode, noise signal generation is effected by nested random
functions which have been optimized to produce evenly distributed noise.
Periodicity is the case only after a runtime of at least 1 day.
2.117
E-11
Generator Functions
Spacing
USER DEF
ANLR TRACK
Shape
UPL
Definition of frequency spacing, i.e. the spacing of individual frequency lines:
(is displayed only for domain FREQ)
Frequency spacing can be set manually. The value entered is corrected to
the next settable value. The limits and the settable frequency values depend
on the sampling rate (see 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator) and the selected
generator. The lower frequency limit for the digital instrument is the
coefficient
system clock rate / 16384
Units: Hz, kHz
The frequency spacing is optimized depending on the selected
measurement function. This is done to obtain a stable frequency response in
the analyzer function:
•
FFT or post-FFT: The value of the FFT analyzer grid is adopted
automatically. This value is also displayed in the analyzer panel under
"FFT:Resolution" (see 2.6.5.12 FFT). This is the optimum setting for an
analysis using the rectangular window.
•
Third analysis: the frequency spacing of the generator is optimized
taking the selected measurement time as well as sampling rates of the
generator and analyzer into consideration. This is done to ensure that
the analyzer integrates whole periods in all third-octave bands.
•
The setting is rejected for all other measurement functions (error
message).
(displayed with Domain = FREQ only)
Specify the function which is used to determine the amplitudes of the
single sine lines.
WHITE
All the sine lines between start value (see below) and stop value have the
same amplitude.
PINK
The amplitude of the sine lines between start and stop value is
proportional to 1/ f
THIRD OCT
As PINK, however band-limited to 1/3 octave = 1 third-octave (TOCT) with
settable mean frequency (“third-octave noise“).
FILE
The amplitudes of the single lines are set using floating numbers which
are read from a file.
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UPL
Random Noise
Shape File
There are two different file formats for Domain FREQ: the ASCII file with
the extension .FTF which is generally written by the user and the
equalization file with the extension VEQ! which is normally generated from
trace data (sweep or FFT). The latter is also offered in the basic setting in
the file panel. It can however be overwritten by the user. - For Domain
TIME, a file can't be loaded.
File format 1:
The file is a pure ASCII file where the amplitudes of the single frequency
lines starting from 0 Hz are entered as floating numbers; the space
between the lines is determined by ”Spacing” which can be entered in the
panel. The numbers specify only the amplitude ratio between the lines
and not the output amplitude (which is determined after phase
optimization using ”VOLTAGE PEAK”). The file must have a line with the
keyword 'FREQUENCY_FILE' before the numbers. Comment lines begin
with '#' and are allowed anywhere. No difference is made between uppercase and lower-case letters.
The preset type of file is '.FTF' (= frequency table file).
Example:
'r&s_exam.ftf' in directory C:\UPL\USER.
File format 2:
The EQUALIZATN file in the file panel which was generated with Store
Trace/List is used. The inverted form of a frequency response is generally
used (Invert 1/n ON) so that, using this "pre-distorted" spectrum, a flat
frequency response can be achieved after the DUT. Both of the formats
ASCII and REAL can be loaded, the standard file extension is: VEQ!
Using an equalization file which was obtained from an FFT:
Feed the noise signal from the generator into the DUT, set an FFT with a rectangular window such that
a closed trace (comparable with a sweep curve) results and save the FFT as an Equalization file.
The essential settings in detail from left to right:
GENERATOR Panel:
FUNCTION
RANDOM
Domain
FREQ
Spacing
Shape
ANALYZER Panel:
FUNCTION
FFT
Window
RECTANGULAR
ANLR TRACK
WHITE
FILE Panel
Store EQUALIZATN
Invert 1/n
ON
Filename
XXX.VEQ
To display the straightened trace, feed the noise signal including the shape file XXX.VEQ into the DUT.
GENERATOR Panel:
FUNCTION
RANDOM
Domain
FREQ
Spacing
ANLR TRACK
Shape
FILE
Shape File
XXX.VEQ
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Generator Functions
Equalizer
UPL
(displayed with FREQ domain only)
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM.
Each frequency line is corrected.
ON
Equalizer switched off. The menu item "Equal. file" is activated, i.e. the file
indicated there is loaded.
The set voltage (peak or RMS) and the calculated crest factor refer to the
non-equalized total signal (as is the case with single and multi-tone
signals). Therefore, the voltage measured at the outputs is not identical
with the values for VOLT PEAK and VOLT RMS indicated in the
GENERATOR panel.
OFF
Equal. file
The output voltage of all frequency components of the noise signal is not
affected.
(Equalizer file)
with Equalizer
ON only;
see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM.
Crest Fact
(displayed with Domain Freq only)
Selects the algorithm for determining the phase position of the individual
frequency lines and thus the crest factor of the complete signal.
OPTIMIZED
Automatic minimization of crest factor by internally optimizing the
individual phases.
VALUE:
Presetting a desired crest factor. The phase of the frequency lines is
modified internally so that the resulting crest factor closely approaches the
desired value. The accuracy of this method depends on the total number
of lines thus spacing and frequency range
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UPL
Lower Freq
Random Noise
(is displayed with Domain = FREQ, only)
Set the lower limit of the range for generated noise (with Shape WHITE
and PINK). The limits for this setting are
fugr = 1 x spacing
fogr =117/256 x sampling rate - 1 x spacing
The values entered are rounded to integer multiples of ”spacing”.
Upper Freq
(is displayed with Domain = FREQ, only)
Set the upper limit of the range for generated noise (with Shape WHITE
and PINK). The limits for this setting are
fugr = Lower freq + 1 x spacing
fogr =117/256 x sampling rate
The values entered are rounded to integer multiples of ”spacing”..
MEAN FREQ
(displayed with Domain = FREQ, Shape THIRD OCT))
Set the mean frequency at 1/3 octave. The output starts at the line next to
the mean frequency/ 1.12246 and ends with the line next to the mean
frequency x 1.12246.
VOLT PEAK
Set the peak output level.
VOLT PEAK and VOLT RMS are coupled via the crest factor (which is
constant for a specific signal). A change of VOLT PEAK therefore
immediately affects the figure for VOLT RMS. If the crest factor is
changed, RND PEAK will remain unchanged.
Specified range: 0 to Vmax
digital: Vmax = 1 FS
Vmax = 10 V (Mode Common)
Vmax = 2,5 UI (Mode Jitter)
analog: Vmax = 14,142 V für UNBAL
Vmax = 28,284 V für BAL
Units:
digital (audio data or phase mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
digital (jitter mode):
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns | UIr | dBr
analog and digital common mode:
V | mV | µV | V/Vr | dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
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Generator Functions
VOLT RMS
UPL
Setting of rms output voltage (in the analog generator only).
VOLT PEAK and VOLT RMS are coupled via the crest factor (which is
constant for a specific noise signal). A change of VOLT RMS therefore
affects the VOLT PEAK value.
Units:
V | mV | µV | V/Vr | dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
Note:
PDF
Entry of VOLT RMS is only possible when the generator is
RUNNING. Since the crest factor is not yet known during
calculation of the noise signal (GEN BUSY), the entry is at first
rejected and the voltage 0.0 is entered. To ensure that the
generator outputs a noise signal of correct (peak) amplitude
after the calculation, VOLT PEAK should be entered, which is
possible any time.
(displayed with domain = TIME)
(PDF = probability density function) Select the amplitude distribution
function of the output signal:
GAUSS
Normal (Gaussian) distribution which is cut off at triple the -value of the
Gaussian distribution curve.
TRIANGLE
Triangle distribution from -peak to +peak.
EQUIVALENT
Equivalent distribution from -peak to +peak.
Note:
Ampl Var
The Gaussian and triangle distributions are obtained by
calculation on the basis of equivalent distribution.
Selection of type of modulation; see 2.5.4.1.4
OFF
The amplitude modulation is switched off, the generator signal is not
modulated.
SINE
The generator signal is amplitude-modulated from 0% to 100% in the
form of a sinewave.
BURST
The generator signal is switched on and off periodically.
Mod Freq
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with "Ampl Var SINE", only: setting of the modulation frequency; see
2.5.4.1.4
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UPL
Random Noise
Variation
with "Ampl Var SINE": setting of the variation in %., see 2.5.4.1.4.
ON TIME
with "Ampl Var BURST", only: entry of the burst duration , see 2.5.4.1.4.
INTERVAL
with "Ampl Var BURST", only: entry of the burst-interval length (burst
period) , see 2.5.4.1.4.
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Generator Functions
2.5.4.10
UPL
Arbitrary (User-Programmable Signal)
Outputs a user-defined waveform. Five formats with different origins and lengths are supported:
1. TTF format: ASCII file with a maximum of 16384 samples. The individual samples are entered as a
sequence of numbers (FLOAT format). For the output, the maximum value is equivalent to the peak
voltage specified in the VOLTAGE PEAK field, while the other samples are levelled relative to the
maximum. The file must contain a line with the keyword TIMETAB_FILE before the numbers.
Comment lines begin with '#' and can be placed anywhere. No distinction is made between uppercase and lower-case letters. The recommended and preset file extension is '.TTF' (= time table file).
2. AWD format: Output file of arbitrary waveform designer. It may contain a maximum of 16384
samples. The recommended and preset file extension is .AWD.
3. WAV format: Supports 8-bit and 16-bit formats; 16-bit format requires models 06 or 66 (Pentium
CPU). WAV is a standardized waveform format that is widely used in the PC world (sound cards).
WAV files may be stored at any sampling rate. However, for use in UPL it should match the selected
sampling rate (48 kHz only for analog). If necessary, the WAV file can also be converted to 48 kHz which is supported by analog and digital applications - by means of a suitable sound-card tool. WAV
files of any length are accepted, so they are not restricted to 16384 samples. To load and display
large WAV files in 16-bit format, the RAM needs to be extended to enhance performance.
Option UPL-B29:
WAV files can be loaded in the base rate mode only.
4. CPR format: This is a special compressed waveform format which accepts any word width up to 16
bits and can therefore be adapted to the performance of a 486-based UPL. A tool is available for
generating CPR files by compressing WAV, TTF and AWD files to the required word width (13 bits
as standard, 4 to 16 bits can be selected). It is recommended to extend the RAM when working with
CPR files.
Option UPL-B29:
CPR files can be loaded in the base rate mode only.
5. ACC format: This is a special, compressed waveform format for WAV files containing AC3 or MPEG
data coded in line with IEC 61937. A tool is available for generating ACC files by compressing
specially coded WAV files such that the output of stereo signals is possible. It is recommended to
extend the RAM when working with ACC files. ACC files can only be output in the digital generator.
Option UPL-B29:
ACC files can be loaded in the base rate mode only.
Notes:
Arbitrary waveform designers are software packages for the generation of all types of waveforms, which
run on AT-compatible PCs (as on UPL, for example).
• The samples are output at the selected sampling rate. If the file was generated for a different
sampling rate, the output frequencies are changed accordingly.
• The entered waveform is continuously output (no gaps), independent of the actual number of
samples. The number of samples is determined by the number of waveform points in the file.
• The samples in the WAV, ACC and CPR files are sent online from the hard disk or the extended
memory to the DSP generator. A buffer of approx. 2 s is used in the process. If PC capacity is
simultaneously used for other tasks, eg the user interface, the buffer may get emptied. In this case
the generator will be muted, the buffer refilled and file is output from the start.
• If the RAM capacity for outputting the WAV, ACC or CPR files is insufficient, the file must be read
directly from the hard disk, which results in a slower transfer between CPU and DSP. As a result, the
generator will be more frequently switched-off (muted) and restarted. This can be remedied by
enhancing the extended memory by means of a RAM expansion
reducing the audio bits with the aid of the COMPRESS program (not for ACC files)
• The generator is briefly stopped while loading a new file. The output signal is definitely set to 0 V or 0
FS.
• Loading of ACC files is useful and practicable in the digital generator, only
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UPL
Arbitrary Waveform
DC Offset
see 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions
Filename
Name of file from which the waveform is to be loaded. All files are listed in
the above formats as default. The extensions for WAV, ACC and CPR
files are compulsory, while TTF and AWD formats also accept different
extensions, as these files also have an internal code.
Example: 'r&s_exam.ttf' in directory C:\UPL\USER.
VOLT PEAK
Setting of the peak output level; not for ACC files. Level setting is not
possible with ACC files, since all bits must be transferred unchanged
VOLT PEAK and VOLT RMS are coupled via the crest factor (which is
constant for a specific signal). A change of VOLT PEAK therefore
immediately affects the figure for VOLT RMS.
Specified range: 0 to Vmax
digital: Vmax = 1 FS
Vmax = 10 V (Mode Common)
Vmax = 2,5 UI (Mode Jitter)
analog: Vmax = 14,142 V für UNBAL
Vmax = 28,284 V für BAL
Units:
digital (audio data or phase mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
digital (jitter mode):
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns | UIr | dBr
analog and digital common mode:
V | mV | µV | V/Vr | dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
VOLT RMS
Only for format AWD und TTF; Setting of rms output voltage (in the
analog generator only).
VOLT PEAK and VOLT RMS are coupled via the crest factor (which is
constant for a specific noise signal). A change of VOLT RMS therefore
affects the VOLT PEAK value.
Units:
V | mV | µV | V/Vr | dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
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Generator Functions
UPL
Ampl Var
Selection of the type of modulation; see 2.5.4.1.4. Amplitude variation
cannot be performed with using WAV, ACC or CPR files.
OFF
The amplitude modulation is switched off, the generator signal is not
modulated.
SINE
The generator signal is amplitude-modulated in the form of a sinewave
from 0% to -100%;.
BURST
The generator signal is switched on and off periodically.
Mod Freq
with "Ampl Var SINE" only: setting of the modultion frequency, 2.5.4.1.4
Variation
with "Ampl Var SINE", only: setting of the variation %., see 2.5.4.1.4.
ON TIME
with "Ampl Var BURST", only: entry of the burst duration , see 2.5.4.1.4.
INTERVAL
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with "Ampl Var BURST", only: entry of the burst-interval length (burst
period) , see 2.5.4.1.4.
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UPL
Sine
2.5.4.11
POLARITY (Polarity Test Signal)
Specific SINE2 BURST signal with the following characteristics:
FREQUENCY: sample rate /80 (DIGITAL)
1.2 kHz (ANALOG)
ON-TIME:
1 cyc
2 cyc
INTERVAL:
The amplitude of the signal only can be selected by the user. The signal is not DC-free.
DC Offset
see 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions
VOLTAGE
Enter the SINE2 amplitude;
Specified range:
digital: 0 to 1 FS
analog: 0 to 10 Vrms for UNBAL (BNC)
0 to 20 Vrms for BAL (XLR)
Note: Voltage limitation of the rms value by means of menu item ”Max
volt”, see 2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator / 2.5.3
Configuration of the Digital Generator
Units:
digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
analog:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr |
dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm |
%V | V | mV | µV
peak-to-peak amplitude (analog): Vpp = Vrms x 2 x
2;
Vrms is the rms value during pulse time, the level during OFF time is not
considered in rms value calculation.
2.5.4.12
FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)
This item can only be selected with option UPL-B33 built-in (line measurements to ITU-T O33).
Frequency shift keying generates a sequence of two different sinewave frequencies where each is
output for 9 ms (baud rate 110). The data coded in this way can only be defined from option UPL-B33 or
UPL-B10.
Frequency #1: 1850 Hz, logic 0
Frequency #2: 1650 Hz, logic 1
Voltage
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Level of each frequency
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Generator Functions
2.5.4.13
UPL
STEREO SINE
Sine with different signals for the left and right channel. Available only in the digital generator (ADATA or
PHASE mode) and with option UPL-B6 installed.
The frequencies of the two channels can differ in phase or frequency.
The level in the two channels can be linked to each other by a fixed factor or be completely different.
Frq Offset
See 2.5.4.1.1 Common Parameters for SINE, DFD, MOD DIST
Dither
See 2.5.4.1.1 Common Parameters for SINE, DFD, MOD DIST
PDF
See 2.5.4.1.1 Common Parameters for SINE, DFD, MOD DIST
DC Offset
See 2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions.
Freq Mode
Determines the type of frequency entry in the left and right channel.
FREQ&PHASE
Left (CH1) and right channel (CH2) have the same frequency but a
selectable phase with a fixed delay. The phase delay between the two
channels remains constant during frequency sweep.
FREQ CH1&2
The frequency of the left (CH1) and right channel (CH2) can be entered
independently of each other. During frequency sweep, the frequency of
the left channel is swept while that of the right channel remains
unchanged.
Volt Mode
Determines the type of level entry in the left and right channel.
VOLT&RATIO
The levels of the left (CH1) and right channel (CH2) have a fixed offset.
The offset remains constant during level sweep.
VOLT CH1&2
The level of the left (CH1) and right channel (CH2) can be entered
independently of each other. During level sweep, the level of the left
channel is swept, that of the right channel remains unchanged.
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UPL
Sine
SWEEP CTRL
See 2.5.4.2 Sweeps
The setting of Freq Mode and Volt Mode decides about the parameter
changed during frequency or level sweep.
FREQ&PHASE: the (common) frequency is swept
FREQ CH1&2:
the frequency of the left channel (CH1) is swept
the level of the left channel (CH1) is swept; the offset
VOLT&RATIO:
between the right and left channel remains constant
the level of the left channel (CH1) is swept; the right
VOLT CH1&2:
channel (CH2) remains constant.
Frequency
(Freq Mode FREQ&PHASE only) Entry of common sine frequency for
both channels. Can be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range:
Resolution:
Units:
Freq Ch1
(Freq Mode FREQ CH1&2 only) Entry of sine frequency of left channel.
Can be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range:
Resolution:
Units:
Freq Ch2
2 Hz to fmax
fmax depending on generator;
See 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator
1 mHz
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct |
Oct |Dec
(Freq Mode FREQ CH1&2 only) Entry of sine frequency of left channel.
May be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range:
Resolution:
Units:
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2 Hz to fmax
fmax depending on generator;
See 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator
1 mHz
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct |
Oct |Dec
2 Hz to fmax
fmax depending on generator;
See 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator
1 mHz
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct |
Oct |Dec
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Generator Functions
Phase Ch2:1
UPL
(Freq Mode FREQ&PHASE only) Entry of phase delay between right and
left channel with the left channel (CH1) as reference channel. During the
sweep this phase remains constant and cannot be swept.
Specified range:
Unit:
Equalizer
ON
OFF
0 to 360°
° or RAD
See 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM
The sine voltage is equalized.
The equalizer is switched on. The menu item 'Equal. file' is activated, ie
the indicated file is loaded.
Unaffected output voltage
Equal. file
(Equalizer file) only with equalizer
ON
See 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST, DFD, MULTISINE,
RANDOM.
Volt Ch1
Entry of sine amplitude of left channel; may be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range:
Caution:
0 to 1 FS
Limiting of rms voltage with menu item 'Max Volt'
see 2.5.3 Configuration of the Digital Generator.
Units: FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
Volt Ch2
(Volt Mode VOLT CH1&2 only) Entry of sine amplitude of right channel.
Remains constant during sweep.
Specified range:
Caution:
0 to 1 FS
Limiting of rms voltage with menu item 'Max Volt',
see 2.5.3 Configuration of the Digital Generator
Units: FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
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UPL
Volt Ch2:1
Sine
(Volt Mode VOLT&RATIO only) Entry of level offset between channel 2
(right channel) and channel 1 (left channel) as numeric value.
The level of the right channel is reset upon each entry of 'Volt CH2:1' or
'Volt Ch1' and limited to 1.0 FS or 'Max Volt'.
Specified range:
Unit:
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0.0 to 100 k
none
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Generator Functions
2.5.4.14
UPL
MODULATION (modulated sine)
Setting a modulated sinewave signal. Either FM or AM can be used.
Mode
Determines the type of modulation.
FM
Frequency modulation; output of a frequency-modulated sinewave signal.
AM
Amplitude modulation; output of amplitude-modulated sinewave signal.
Mod Freq
Setting the modulation frequency
Specified range: 1 UHz to fmax
fmax
depending
on
See 2.5.1 Selecting the Generator
Carr Freq
Setting the carrier frequency
Deviation
(with Mode FM) Setting the deviation in %.
Specified range:
Example:
Mod Depth
(with Mode AM) Setting of modulation depth in %.
Example:
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0 to 100 %
Output frequencies of 3960 Hz to 4040 Hz are obtained
with 4 kHz carrier frequency and 1% deviation.
Specified range:
Carr Volt
generator;
0 to 100 %
Output levels of 9.90 V to 10.1 V are obtained at 10 V
carrier amplitude and 1% modulation depth.
Setting the carrier amplitude
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UPL
DC Voltage
2.5.4.15
DC Voltage
SWEEP CTRL
Voltage
See 2.5.4.2 Sweeps
Entry of DC amplitude; may be used as sweep parameter.
Specified range: digital (audio data mode):
0 to 1 FS
analog: 0 to 5 V for UNBAL (BNC)
0 to 10 V for BAL (XLR)
Caution:
Limiting of rms voltage with menu item 'Max Volt',
see 2.5.2 Configuration of the Analog Generator
Units:
digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
analog: V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp | V/Vr |
dBu | dBV | dBr | dBm | %V | V | mV | µV
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Generator Functions
2.5.4.16
UPL
Coded Audio (Coded Audio Signals)
This function allows digitally coded (and compressed) audio signals to IEC 61937 to be output.
Basically, all formats coded in the audio window of the AES-EBU data stream (MPEG, AC-3, AAC, DTS)
can be played.
The CODED AUDIO function uses a library of several thousand short WAV files generated for the
individually offered frequency/level combinations and containing a small number of frames. The WAV
files are loaded automatically and played repetitively when a (new) frequency or a (new) level is entered.
Since only those frequencies are set whose integer periods fit into such a package, the output signal
has no hops. When the frequency or level is changed, switchover to the first frame of the new file is
performed without any interruption at the end of the last frame of the old file. This ensures that the DUT
does not have to synchronize again. The exact characteristics of the library used depend on the
selected format and are explained there.
The user sets a new frequency or a new level in the same way as with a 'normal' sine. The UPL
software automatically activates the next suitable frequency/level pair. Frequency and level sweeps can
also be set as usual. Since the analyzer is synchronized to the generator and continuous sweep
stepping can be synchronized to the analyzer (next step ANLR SYNC), very fast sweeps can be
performed.
This function is available only in the digital generator and can be selected only if the two channels are
switched on and the UPL-B23 option (Coded Audio Signal Generation) is installed.
Presently, the UPL-B23 only contains the AC-3 digital format (Dolby Digital); other formats are in
preparation.
Notes:
• The digital generator is directly connected to the digital input of the (AC-3) decoder. The decoded and
D/A-converted output signal is measured with the analog analyzer of the UPL.
• For S/N measurements, the noise measurement is not performed using a pause frame but using a
very soft signal level (-120 dB). This prevents the DUT from muting.
• While this generator function only generates individual (single or multichannel) sounds, the
ARBITRARY function of the digital generator also allows any signals (e.g. multisine, noise) of any
length to be played. These signals must be generated by the user as coded WAV files and converted
into ACC files by means of the COMPRESS program. The ACC files are then output in the generator.
User-defined signal sequences can also be played this way. Synchronization of the analyzer is via
the external sweep.
Optimization for UPL 06/66 with at least 32 Mbyte RAM:
If sufficient RAM is available, it is recommended to activate a RAM drive to accelerate
downloading from the hard disk. If the UPL-B23 was installed in the service center or ordered
when the UPL was purchased, the RAM drive option is already available.
If a RAM drive is activated, the WAV files required for signal generation are automatically
cached on the RAM drive (if they are used more than once) and can be downloaded extremely
quickly from the RAM. If a generator sweep is set and started, for example, the first sweep takes
the normal and the following sweeps a far shorter measurement time.
To install a RAM drive (see section 1.2.3 Installation of Virtual Drive (RAMDRIVE))
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UPL
DC Voltage
The Option R&S UPL-B23 currently (version 2.0) contains digital formats AC-3 (Dolby Digital) and DTS
(Digital Theatre Sound).
Notes:
• In addition to predefined (individual sound) signals, further special signals can be loaded via menu
item "Chan Mode SPECIAL". Also user-defined signal files can be entered here.
The "dialog normalization" of predefined AC-3 signals is fixed to -27 dB, i.e. 4 dB under full-scale level.
To vary dialog normalization, a packet of SPECIAL files is available (for AC-3) with full-scale 997 Hz
sounds and – in 1 dB steps – variable dialog normalization from –1 to –31 dB.
Format
Coding format.
A separate library of WAV files is installed for each format. If the format
selection is extended, an upgraded Option R&S UPL-B23 has to be
installed.
AC-3
Dolby Digital: up to 6 sound channels; can be output either individually, as
5.1 multichannel signal or as stereo signal. Frequency and level can also
be selected. All other parameters for "Audio Service", "Bitstream
Information" and "Preprocessing" are invariable default settings. The
dialog normalization is -27 dB.
The AC-3 format is selectable only at a sampling rate of 48 kHz.
It contains frames with a length of 1536 samples. Each WAV file contains
1 to 6 frames. The frequency resolution per frame is therefore:
48000 Hz / 1536 = 31.25 Hz.
DTS
Digital Theatre Sound:
up to 6 sound channels; can be output either individually, as 5.1
multichannel signal or as stereo signal. Frequency and level can also be
selected. All other parameters are invariable default settings. The DTS
format is selectable only at a sampling rate of 48 kHz. It contains frames
with a length of 512 samples. Each WAV file has 3 to 18 frames to have
the same frequency resolution for DTS and AC-3.
Notes:
1. User-defined AC-3 or DTS signals of any length can be played with
the ARBITRARY function. The sequences have to be available as
WAV files and compressed to the R&S UPL-internal ACC format by
means of the COMPRESS.EXE utility program.
2. When measurements are carried out on AC-3 or DTS decoders, their
delay has to be taken into account in the analyzer panel.
The measurement should be performed with settling switched on to
avoid settling problems of the DUT.
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Generator Functions
Chan Mode
UPL
(Channel mode) selection of signal channels.
2/0
Stereo mode at 192 kb/s. Frequency and level variation or sweep is
possible. Coding of samples at 24 bits.
Uses: Frequency response and linearity measurements
5.1
Multichannel sound with all channels at 448 kb/s (AC-3) or 754 kb/s
(DTS). Frequency and level variation or sweep is possible.
Coding of samples at 24 bits.
Uses: Frequency response and linearity measurements
Single channels at 448 kb/s (AC-3) or 754 kb/s (DTS). Limited frequency
selection, fixed level (-20 dB). Coding of samples with 16 bits.
Uses: crosstalk measurements.
L: front left; C: front center; R: front right;
LS: rear left; RS: rear right;
LFE: low frequency enhancement
L
C
R
LS
RS
LFE
SPECIAL
Special signals available as WAV files can be loaded after setting this
selection parameter. This includes:
• full-scale 997 Hz signals with variable "dialog normalization"
(00997dxx.WAV where xx=01 to 31),
• full-scale 5.1 signal with 80 Hz on the LFE channel and 999 Hz on the
other channels; different dialog normalization of -27 dB
(80999000.WAV) to -21 dB (80999006.WAV),
• user-defined signals.
Notes:
1. For user-defined WAV files, these signals should not exceed a length
of 6 frames (AC-3) or 18 frames (DTS).
2. To load the SPECIAL files, it is recommended to set the "Working Dir"
to the directory containing these special files. For the predefined
special signals this is
• "C:\CODED\AC3\48000\SPEC" (for AC-3) or
• "C:\CODED\DTS\48000\SPEC" (for DTS).
Frequency
42
997
4
15
Hz
Hz
kHz
kHz
SWEEP CTRL
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Fixed frequency selection for crosstalk measurements and linearity (level)
sweeps. Displayed only in single channel modes or when level variation is
selected.
Exactly 41.7 Hz
Exactly 994.8 Hz
Exactly 4000.0 Hz
Exactly 15000.0 Hz
See 2.5.4.2 Sweeps
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UPL
DC Voltage
Vari Mode
(Variation mode) determines which parameter can be varied or swept.
Displayed only in multichannel modes (2/0 or 5.1).
VOLTAGE
Level can be varied in 24 steps of –5 dBFS between 0 dBFS and
-120 dBFS. One of 3 fixed settings can be selected as frequency.
Field of application: Linearity measurements
FREQUENCY
Frequency can be varied. The level is at -20 dB.
Field of application: Frequency response measurements
Notes:
3. When the sweep is switched on (SWEEP CTRL), the selected
variation mode is taken as the X axis. When the sweep is switched off
(SWEEP CTRL OFF), the X axis is taken as the variation mode.
4. A level sweep over more than 25 points is useless since only a
maximum of 25 different levels can be set.
FREQUENCY
Entry of sine frequency; may be used as sweep parameter. Displayed
only in multichannel modes (2/0 or 5.1) with frequency variation selected.
As described under "Format", the frequency resolution per frame is
31.25 Hz. The more frames are coded, the finer the frequency resolution
is. The frequency resolution required determines the number of frames
and the maximum length of the WAV files. The longer the WAV files, the
longer the download times and the total measurement time. To offer a
compromise between frequency resolution and measurement speed, the
length of the WAV files is limited to 6 frames (AC-3) or 18 frames (DTS).
This corresponds to a frequency resolution of 5.21 Hz.
This high frequency resolution is required only for low frequencies since a
logarithmic frequency division is normally performed for frequency
response sweeps. To avoid obtaining too many frequency values (and
WAV files), the frequency resolution towards higher frequencies is limited
so that fewer frames are required for coding. This increases the
measurement speed at higher frequencies.
Frequency range:
5 Hz to 1 kHz
Resolution
5.21 Hz
Number of AC-3 frames:1 to 6
Number of DTS frames: 3 to 18
Value range:
1 to 3 kHz
10.42 Hz
1 to 3
3 to 9
3 to 20 kHz
31.25 Hz
1
3
5.21 Hz to 20 kHz (sample rate only 48 kHz)
Units: Hz | kHz |
Hz |
Oct | Dec
kHz | f/fr |
%Hz | Toct |
Note:
To further increase the measurement speed during sweeps, as many
frequency points as possible should be an integer multiple of
31.25 Hz for frequencies below 3 kHz. This can be implemented by a
list sweep.
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Generator Functions
VOLTAGE
UPL
Entry of sine amplitude; may be used as sweep parameter. Displayed only
in multichannel modes (2/0 or 5.1) with level variation selected.
The level can be varied in 24 steps of -5 dBFS between 0 dBFS and –
120 dBFS.
Value range (only digital, audio data mode):
-120 dBFS to 0 dBFS
Units (only digital, audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
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UPL
Auxiliary Generator
2.5.5
Auxiliary Generator
With option UPL-B1 (low-distortion generator) fitted, an additional sinewave generator is available for
producing analog or noise signals up to 110 kHz in the source mode AUDIO DATA or PHASE. Thus,
• digital audio data of any signal shape and an analog sinewave signal or
• digital audio data of any signal shape and a superimposed noise signal (jitter or common mode
signal)
can be generated simultaneously.
The auxiliary generator has the same specifications as the low-distortion generator and its own
(1-dimensional) sweep system for sweeping either the level or frequency.
AUX GEN
Activation of auxiliary generator and selection of use.
OFF
Auxiliary generator switched off; audio data are generated without a noise
signal, analog outputs switched off (high-impedance).
ANALOG OUT
Audio data are generated without a noise signal. In addition to the digital
signal (at the BAL, UNBAL and optical outputs) an analog signal is
generated at the analog XLR connector.
Frequency and level of the analog signal can be set or swept.
COMMON MODE
JITTER
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A common mode signal is superimposed onto the audio data, the analog
outputs are switched off (high-impedance).
Frequency and level of the noise signal can be set or swept.
A jitter signal is added to the audio data, the analog outputs are switched
off (high-impedance).
Jitter frequency and level can be set or swept.
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Auxiliary Generator
2.5.5.1
UPL
Auxiliary Generator Used as Analog Generator
The generator can be used as a balanced or unbalanced source with one or two output channels.
Different source impedances can be selected. The low-distortion generator is used, level control is via
the output amplifier.
Channel(s)
Selection of output channel; disabled channels are terminated with the set
output impedance.
OFF
Both channels off
1
Channel 1 on, channel 2 off
2
Channel 2 on, channel 1 off
2
1
Output
Same signal on both channels
XLR connectors can be used as balanced (BAL) or unbalanced (UNBAL)
output.
UNBAL
An unbalanced signal is generated at the XLR connector; The maximum
output level is 10 V.
BAL
A balanced signal is generated at the XLR connector; the maximum
output level is 20 V. The output impedance can be selected in three
steps.
Impedance
Selection of output impedance, with BAL selected; the output impedance
of the unbalanced output is 5 .
10
200
600
Anlg Freq
Entry of sinewave frequency of analog signal
Specified range:2 Hz to 110 kHz
Units:
Anlg Ampl
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Entry of sinewave amplitude of analog signal
Specified range:0 to 10 Vrms for UNBAL
0 to 20 Vrms for BAL
Units:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp |dBu | dBV | dBm
Peak-to-peak amplitude: Vss = Vrms x 2 x
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E-11
UPL
Auxiliary Generator
2.5.5.2
Auxiliary Generator Used as Common Mode Generator
The auxiliary generator superimposes a common-mode sinewave signal on the digital output signal.
Note:
This common mode signal can also be generated by the function generator in the source
mode COMMON ONLY. Signal shapes other than sinusoidal are possible for the noise signal
(e.g. noise), but the audio data cannot be set.
Comm Freq
Entry of common mode frequency
Specified range:2 Hz to 110 kHz
Units:
Comm Ampl
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Entry of common mode amplitude
Specified range:0 to 7.071 Vrms
Units:
V | mV | µV | Vpp | mVpp | µVpp |dBu | dBV | dBm
Peak-to-peak amplitude: Vpp = Vrms x 2 x
2.5.5.3
2
Auxiliary Generator Used as Jitter Generator
The auxiliary generator superimposes a sinewave jitter signal on the digital output signal.
Note:
This jitter signal can also be generated by the function generator in the source mode JITTER
ONLY. Signal shapes other than sinusoidal are also possible for the jitter signal (e.g. noise),
but the audio data cannot be set.
Jitt Freq
Entry of jitter frequency
Specified range:2 Hz to 110 kHz
Units:
JittPkAmpl
Hz | kHz | Hz | kHz | f/fr | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec
Entry of jitter peak amplitude
Specified range:0 to 0,25 UI
Units:
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns
Note: For all applications for which the jitter peak amplitude of the
auxiliary generator is not sufficient, the jitter signal can also be generated
by the function generator in the source mode JITTER ONLY. Setting
audio data is not possible in this case.
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Auxiliary Generator
2.5.5.4
UPL
Auxiliary Generator Sweep
The sweep system of the auxiliary generator is similar to that of the function generator (see 2.5.4.2
Sweeps). A 2-dimensional sweep, i.e. simultaneous sweep of frequency and level, is not implemented.
SWEEP CTRL
FREQ FILE
see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps
Entry of a file name for the frequency list (list sweep).
For entering file names see 2.3.2 Data Entry
VOLT FILE
Entry of a file name for the amplitude list (list sweep).
For entering file names see 2.3.2 Data Entry
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UPL
2.6
Selecting the Analyzer
Analyzers (ANALYZER Panel)
Activate the ANALYZER panel:
UPL front panel:
ANLR key
External keyboard:
ALT + A
(repeated) click on the panel name, until the ANALYZER panel is displayed
Mouse:
If the ANALYZER panel is already visible on the screen, it can be activated also by actuating one of the
TAB keys (repeatedly) or by mouse-click.
Advantage: The panel need not be established again.
2.6.1
Selecting the Analyzer
The ANALYZER panel makes the settings for 2 analog and 1 digital analyzer instrument available.
The ANALYZER panel consists of the following segments:
ANALYZER
ANLG 22k Hz
ANALYZER
:
:
START COND
:
AUTO
INPUT DISP
:
ON
FUNCTION
:
FREQ & PHASE
(Input connectors, channel selection, input
impedance)
see 2.6.3 Configuration of the Digital Analyzer
see 2.6.2 Configuration of the Analog Analyzers
Ways of starting the analyzer, see 2.6.4
Input signal, see 2.6.5.18 INPUT
RMS & S/N
Functions
FREQ/PHASE
:
:
:
:
1
Configurations
2
Higher-level
functions
CHANNEL(s)
:
:
:
Selection of the analog or digital instrument,
reference impedance for power units, configuration
segment for setting the test inputs.
Combined frequency / phase measurement,
see 2.6.5.19
Analyzer functions, see 2.6.5.2 to 2.6.5.19
When switching from the analyzer instrument to the other, the data of all segments are stored for the
current instrument, the data of the new instrument are loaded and the panel contents can be entered
anew. When changing to the analyzer function, the settings in the configuration range are retained.
Note:
The “parameter link“ function which can be selected in the OPTION panel may be used to
influence the UPL with changes of function and instrument. As requested, existing settings in
the function and/or configuration segment of the GENERATOR panel are accepted for the new
function or instrument - if physically possible.
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Selecting the Analyzer
UPL
.-Measurement range limits of the ANALYZER instruments:
Table 2-27
Instrument
Lower limit
Upper limit
Sample rate
ANLG 22 kHz1)
DC/10 Hz
21.9 kHz
48 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz1)
DC/20 Hz
110 kHz
307.2 kHz
DIGITAL with UPL-B2
10 Hz
2)
DIGITAL with UPL-B29
10 Hz
2)
27 ... 55 kHz
35 ... 106 kHz
1) The frequency value refers to the upper limit of the analog analyzers
2) Limit depends on sampling rate (see below)
Lower limit:
DC:
10 Hz:
20 Hz:
Setting the DC function in one of the two analog analyzer instruments results in DC
coupling of the input unit
The menu item ”Min Freq” in the analyzer instruments ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL
indicates the lower limit.
The menu item ”Min Freq” in the “fast“ analyzer instruments (ANLG 110 kHz) indicates
the lower limit.
Upper limit:
Signals can be measured up to this limit.
Measurement range limits of the digital ANALYZER instrument:
The maximum measurement frequency is given by
fmax = sample frequency x 0.5 for RMS, otherwise sample frequency x 117 / 256
Set the sample frequency in the configuration segment of the ANALYZER panel using menu item
Sample-Frq.
For more details, refer to 2.6.3 Configuration of the Digital Analyzer.
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UPL
Selecting the Analyzer
Table 2-28
Availability of functions depending on the ANALYZER instrument:
Measurement functions
Instrument
RMS RMS PEAK QPEAK DC
sel
THD THD+ MOD DFD Wow
DIST
N
&FL
FFT Polar Filter- Cohe Rub&
1/3- WaveSim
ity
r
Buzz Octave form
ANLG 22 kHz
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes1)
yes
yes
ANLG 110 kHz
yes
yes
-
-
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
-
yes
yes
yes
-
yes1)
-
yes
-
yes1)
yes
DIGITAL
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
1) with built-in option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the base rate mode only
Higher-level functions:
The selected function can be complemented by higher-level supplementary functions.
INPUT-DISP measurement:
see 2.6.5.18
• PEAK Display of the peak value of the two input signals
• RMS Display of the rms value for the measurement functions THD, THD+N, FFT, MOD DIST and
DFD
• PHAS TO REF (with Jitter option UPL-B22 only in the analyzer mode JITTER/PHAS)
Display of phase between selected digital input and reference input
• DIG INP AMP (with Jitter option UPL-B22 only in the analyzer mode COMMON/INP)
Display digital signal amplitude
If INPUT DISP RMS is set and a measurement function is selected which does not allow for RMS
display or where it does not make sense, "-----" is displayed in the Input RMS window. INPUT PEAK
measurements can still be performed.
The availability of the INPUT RMS measurement related to the selected measurement function can be
looked up in the subsequent table.
Frequency and phase measurement
see 2.6.5.19
• FREQuency display on all channels switched on
Additionally, in the analyzers ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL
• FREQuency display on channel 1, PHASE display on channel 2; selectable only with two-channel
measurement
• FREQuency display on channel 1, GRPDEL group delay) display on channel 2, selectable only with
two-channel measurement
Additionally, in the analyzer DIGITAL
• SAMPLE FREQuency display on all channels switched on
If a measurement function has been selected which does not allow frequency or phase measurement or
where it does not make sense (such as DFD), "-----" is displayed in the "Freq & Phase“ window. Refer to
the table below for the availability of the frequency and phase measurement in dependence of the
selected measurement function.
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Selecting the Analyzer
UPL
Table 2-29 Availability of frequency and phase measurement depending on measurement functions
Measurement
function
INPUT DISP
FREQ/PHASE
PEAK
RMS
FREQ
PHASE
GRP DELAY
OFF
yes
yes
yes
ANLG
22kHz/DIGITAL
ANLG 22kHz/DIGITAL
RMS & S/N
yes
ANLG 110 kHz
yes
ANLG 22kHz/
DIGITAL3)
ANLG 22kHz/
DIGITAL3)
RMS select
yes
yes
yes
no
no
PEAK & S/N
yes
no
no
no
no
Q PK & S/N
yes
no
no
no
no
DC
yes
no
no
no
no
THD
yes
yes
yes
no
no
THD+N
yes
yes
yes
ANLG 22kHz/
DIGITAL2)
ANLG 22kHz/
DIGITAL2)
MOD DIST
yes
yes
no 1)
no
no
DFD
yes
yes
no1)
no
no
WOW & FL
yes
no
no
no
no
POLARITY
yes
no
no
no
no
FFT
yes
yes
yes
ANLG 22kHz/
DIGITAL
ANLG 22kHz/
DIGITAL
FILTSIM
no
no
no
no
no
WAVEFORM
yes
no
no
no
no
Coherence
yes
no
no
no
no
1/3-OCTAVE
yes
no
no
no
no
Rub & Buzz
yes
ANLG 110 kHz
yes
no
no
1) However, the individual frequencies of signal and interference are displayed in a histogram or spectrum list.
2) with built-in option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the base rate mode only
3) with built-in option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the base rate mode only; in the high rate mode with filter switched off
and 'Meas Time' GEN TRACK or VALUE.
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UPL
Configuration of Analog Analyzers
2.6.2
Configuration of Analog Analyzers
The two-channel analog analyzer features balanced XLR test inputs; unbalanced BNC cables can be
connected via an adapter plug UPL-Z1 which can be supplied separately. Both channels can be
configured individually. The configuration is explained by way of the below ANALYZER panel and its
menu items.
Min Freq
Display of the lower frequency range limit.
10 Hz
lower limit frequency 10 Hz with ANLG 22 kHz
20 Hz
lower limit frequency 20 Hz with ANLG 110 kHz
Ref Imped
(Reference Impedance)
Reference impedance as reference for computing the units dBm, W,
%W, W, P/Pr and %P/Pr (see 2.4 Units).
Specified range: 1 m
Channel(s)
to 100 k
Select the input channels.
1
2
The selected channel only is active, the other one is switched off.
The input impedance is retained at the XLR female connectors when the
channel is switched off (see ”Input” BAL XLR, ”Impedance”).
1&2
Both channels are active and can be configured individually.
2
1
Both channels are active and equally configured. When switching over to
this selection causes channel 2 to be set using the parameters of
channel 1.
1
2
Both channels are active and equally configured. When switching over to
this selection causes channel 1 to be set using the parameters of
channel 2.
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Configuration of Analog Analyzers
UPL
Coupling
Selection of input coupling.
AC or DC coupling may be selected to make use of the full frequency
range of the UPL (DC to 22/110 kHz) and to suppress the undesired DC
of the DUT. This selection can be made (with setting "1&2") independently
for both channels.
AC
AC coupling: a DC offset of the DUT will not be transmitted and does not
therefore affect the DUT.
The specifications of the UPL analyzer are with reference to this type of
coupling.
When the DC measurement function is selected, the setting "AC
coupling" is ignored, i.e. the measurement is always performed with DC
coupling. The input impedances with 300 and 600 are generally DCcoupled (see Impedance).
Note:
DC
DC coupling: test signals up to 0 Hz are picked up and considered in the
results of RMS, RMS selective, peak, quasi peak, DC, FFT and waveform
measurements.
Note:
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A procedure similar to AC coupling can be selected in the digital
analyzer for specific measurement functions. Selection is made
with menu item "DC Suppress ON" under the specific
measurement function.
Irrespective of the selection made here, "Min Freq" is used as
the limit frequency for automatic algorithms (e.g. "Range
AUTO", "Meas Time AUTO"). Signals below the specified "Min
Freq" can be detected but not reliably interpreted with these
automatic functions. In the event that very low-frequency signals
are to be measured (with DC coupling), it is recommended to
use the settings FIX or VALUE.
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UPL
Configuration of Analog Analyzers
Input
Select the input mode.
The current setting is displayed. (See also 2.12 Display of Selected Inputs /
Outputs). The input mode can be reset after having opened the selection
window.
BAL
GEN1
GEN2
GEN CROSSED
Impedance
Balanced to ground test inputs via XLR female connectors (see Fig. 2-18).
are
Deactivated inputs are floating, set input impedances 300
or 600
retained.
Unbalanced measurements can be performed via BNC/XLR adapter
(UPL-Z1 option).
Internal connection of the analyzer input or both analyzer inputs to the
generator output of the other channel, respectively. Allows the deviceinternal measurement of the voltages at the generator connectors as well as
crosstalk and two-port measurements. The generator output is loaded by
each analyzer channel by 2 x 100 k (see Figures 2-17, 2-18 and 2-19). The
input connectors (female) of the appertaining analyzer channels are inactive.
Note:
If both channels are configured equally (channels 2 1 or 1 2),
GEN CROSSED is displayed instead of GEN CH1 or GEN CH2.
Physically, this conjunction is identical.
Select the input impedance, only selectable in BAL mode.
300
Impedance 300
, input impedance is DC-coupled.
600
Impedance 600
, input impedance is DC-coupled.
200 k
Impedance 200 k
With impedances 300 and 600 , only voltages of up to 25 V may be
applied. With voltages > 25 V the input is protected against overloading.
The input impedance is temporarily switched to 200 k and the generator
output switched off, see 2.13 Fast Switch-off of Outputs. The overload
protection of the analyzer inputs is valid for analog board versions 4.00
and software version 1.0.
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Configuration of Analog Analyzers
Common
UPL
Common reference of potential of the XLR inputs, selectable in the BAL
mode only.
FLOAT
XLR pin floating against chassis ground.
Permissible voltage 30 V AC or 50 V DC against chassis ground.
GROUND
XLR pin 1 connected to frame ground (PE conductor).
Switchover to GEN mode at a later date or switching off the set balanced
channel renders the reference to ground ineffective.
Important:
Note:
Reference to measurement potential only, no safety
connection to VDE 0411!
When connecting a measurement source, a current of
2 A via the device-internal ground connection should
not be exceeded, otherwise the device may be
damaged.
When using a BNC/XLR adapter (UPL-Z1), the XLR pins 1
and 3 are connected via the adapter. The FLOT/GROUND
switchover then allows selection of the reference of potential
of the BNC external conductor.
Range
Select the measurement range.
Allows the optimum voltage range to be set depending on the
measurement sphere. After having opened the selection window, 3
modes are offered for selection.
AUTO
Automatic selection of the range.
FIX
The set range is retained in any case.
Note:
LOWER
When switching from AUTO
FIX, the currently valid channel
range is used. In the configuration Channels 2 1 or 1 2, the
less sensitive of the two ranges of channel 1 and 2 is
transferred.
The set range is kept as the lowest range. Overloads cause higher ranges
to be automatically switched over to.
After having chosen the FIX and LOWER modes, the rated value set for
the range is displayed in the subsequent line where a new range can be
set after having opened the selection window.
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UPL
Table 2-30
1)
Configuration of Analog Analyzers
Voltage measurement ranges of analog analyzers
Measurement
range
Measurement function
(Nominal
value)
DC
Others
18 mV
1)
yes
30 mV
1)
yes
60 mV
1)
yes
100 mV
yes
yes
180 mV
1)
yes
300 mV
yes
yes
600 mV
1)
yes
1.0 V
yes
yes
1.8 V
1)
yes
3.0 V
yes
yes
6.0 V
1)
yes
10.0 V
yes
yes
18.0 V
1)
yes
30.0 V
yes
yes
60.0 V
1)
yes
100.0V
yes
yes
Remarks
Ranges 60.0 V and 100.0 V are available for
analog board versions 4.00 and software
versions
1.0.
With the DC function, the next insensitive and valid range is internally set when selecting the range.
(see 2.6.5.5 DC)
An optimum dynamic range for the measurement of non-linear distortions is guaranteed by spacing the
range in 5-dB steps. Overranges or underranges in the current measurement range causes the
switchover to the next possible range provided that RANGE AUTO is selected. The same is true for
RANGE LOWER, however switchover to the next lower range is performed only when the range limit
selected in the menu is not violated.
The range values are rms values for sine or other waveforms with a crest factor of 2 or less.
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Configuration of Analog Analyzers
UPL
Equivalent circuit diagrams of test inputs:
Coupling
AC
DC
XLR connector
1mF
Pin2
»120pF
100kW
Impedance
Balanced
input amplifier
300/600W
200 kW
300W /600 W
»120pF
100kW
Pin3
F
1m
Pin1
Common
FLOAT
GND
Fig. 2-16
Balanced input (Input BAL, channel 1 or 2)
BNC connector
XLR connector
2
3
Analysator
XLR-Connector
1
Fig. 2-17
Unbalanced measurement via BNC/XLR adapter
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UPL
Configuration of Analog Analyzers
Generator
Analysator
Coupling
Output
ON
OFF
AC
DC
XLR connector
Pin2
1m
F
100 kW
»120pF
Pin3
»120pF
Balanced
Input
Amplifier
100 kW
F
1m
Fig. 2-18
Internal connection to generator output
Generator
Output
Analyzer-Panel
Analysator
Input
Channel 1
Channel 2
GEN CH2
GEN CROSSED
GEN CH1
GEN CROSSED
Channel 1
Channel 2
Fig. 2-19 Internal signal paths
1078.2008.02
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Configuration of Digital Analyzers
2.6.3
UPL
Configuration of Digital Analyzer
Notes:
• Prior to making the analyzer settings, the generator should be configured usefully. Otherwise,
undesired generator settings could cause superfluous restrictions in the analyzer panel.
• If the generator is not used as a signal source, it is advisable to switch over to analog mode in order
to avoid any interference of the generator settings.
Meas Mode
(measurement mode)
indicates what is to be measured at the digital interfaces.
AUDIO DATA
Measurement of digital audio data
JITTER/PHAS
Measurement of jitter at the selected digital audio input and of the phase
offset to the reference signal (REF IN at the rear of the instrument).
COMMON/INP
Measurement of COMMON signal (at XLR female connector) and digital
input amplitude.
Note:
Note:
A COMMON measurement is not possible at the unbalanced
digital input (BNC connector). Therefore, irrespective of the
selected input, the COMMON MODE measurement is always
performed at the balanced input (CLR connector).
Consequently, selection of the digital input only affects the
measurements of DIG INP AMP and SAMPLE FREQ.
Functions producing a level measurement result are the only appropriate with Jitter/Phas
Common/Inp modes which is why function selection is restricted to the level measurements
(RMS and PEAK) as well as the FFT and waveform display. With FFT selected, RMS values
are displayed.
Min Freq
10 Hz
Channel(s)
Is displayed only if AUDIO DATA has been selected as Meas Mode.
Display of the lower frequency range limit for measurement of the digital
audio data.
Is displayed only if AUDIO DATA has been selected for Meas Mode.
All other analyzer modes refer to the digital data stream and not to the
data content so that specifying a channel would be meaningless.
1
Measurement on channel 1, only; data of channel 2 are ignored.
2
Measurement on channel 2, only; data of channel 1 are ignored.
BOTH
Measurement on both channels
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UPL
Configuration of Digital Analyzers
Input
Selection of input interface:
BAL XLR
Balanced digital input (XLR)
UNBAL BNC
Unbalanced digital input (BNC)
Note:
In the measurement mode COMMON/INP (with Jitter option
UPL-B22 only) a warning is displayed that a COMMON
measurement is not possible at the unbalanced digital input.
The measurement of the COMMON MODE signal is always
performed at the BAL XLR connector, irrespective of the
selected digital input. Only the DIG INP AMP and SAMPLE
FREQ measurements are carried out at the UNBAL BNC
connector.
OPTICAL
Optical digital input (TOSLINK)
INTERN
Digital input for test and demonstration purposes
To avoid EMC problems the user should take care of proper shielding of
the XLR connector cables.
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Configuration of Digital Analyzers
Jitter Ref
UPL
(Jitter Reference)
Is displayed only, if JITTER/PHASE has been selected for Meas Mode.
Indicates the signal to which the jitter measurement is referred.
Note:
VARI (PLL)
The phase measurement is always referred to the REF input.
The reference signal is the sampling signal obtained from the
input signal via the internal sync PLL. Synchronization is performed
via the VCO in the maximum capture range. The capture range is:
• with option UPL-B2 (digital audio I/O)
27 kHz to 55 kHz
• with option UPL-B29 in the base rate mode 40 kHz to 55 kHz
• with option UPL-B29 in the high rate mode 40 kHz to 106 kHz
Not possible if the source mode JITTER/PHASE has been selected in the
generator, since the internal PLL is already required for phase generation
in this mode.
32.0 (PLL)
44.1 (PLL)
48.0 (PLL)
88.2 (PLL)
96.0 (PLL)
Only with option UPL-B2 (digital audio I/O)
Only with option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the high rate mode
Only with option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the high rate mode
The sample signal derived from the input signal via the internal
synchronization PLL is used as reference signal. Synchronization is made
via the fixed-frequency VCXO.
Not possible if the source mode JITTER/PHASE has been selected in the
generator, since the internal PLL is already required for phase generation
in this mode.
Note:
GEN CLK
The generator clock serves as reference signal.
Possible only, if the generator is also synchronized to the internal
generator clock (menu item Sync To GEN CLK in the GENERATOR
panel)
Note:
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Synchronization to the input signal by means of the internal PLL
should be selected only, if the jitter signal is generated by an
external device.
GEN CLK is only meaningful, if the jitter signal is generated
by an own generator.
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UPL
Configuration of Digital Analyzers
Sync To
(Analyzer synchronized to)
Is displayed only, if AUDIO DATA has been selected for Meas Mode; with
JITTER/PHASE, fixed settings are obtained (depending on "Jitter Ref"
and the synchronization of the generator).
Indicates the input signal to which the analyzer is synchronized.
AUDIO IN
Synchronization to the digital AUDIO input signal (front panel).
REF IN
Synchronization to the REF IN input signal (XLR female on the rear
panel).
Note:
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In Meas Mode JITTER/PHAS the analyzer automatically
synchronizes to the clock selected as "Jitter Ref"
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Configuration of Digital Analyzers
Sample Freq
UPL
Is displayed only if AUDIO DATA has been selected as Meas Mode.
Setting the signal clock rate.
The clock rate can be selected as desired only, if the analyzer does not
synchronize to the generator clock, otherwise - if in the JITTER/PHAS
Meas Mode the generator has been selected as Jitter Ref - Sample Freq
is automatically set (invisible to the user) to the generator clock rate.
32 kHz
44.1 kHz
48 kHz
88.2 kHz
96 kHz
with option UPL-B2 (digital audio I/O) only
VALUE:
Range for numerical input:
• with option UPL-B2 (digital audio I/O)
27 kHz to 55 kHz
• with option UPL-B29 in the base rate mode 35 kHz to 55 kHz
• with option UPL-B29 in the high rate mode 35 kHz to 106 kHz
only with option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the high rate mode
only with option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) in the high rate mode
The analyzer is informed on the sample frequency applied by means of
the (numerical or predefined) selection of the sample frequency in order
to enable correct measurement of the audio signal frequencies. This
information does not influence the synchronization of the analyzer.
AUTO
CHAN STATUS
For Sample Freq, the actually measured sampling rate is entered. The
sampling rate is updated once per second provided it has changed by at
least 0.01 %.
If no signal (clock) is applied, the previous sampling rate is retained in the
panel until a clock is applied again. No measurement can be performed
then; all measured-value displays indicate "Input? – press show I/O"
For determining the sample rate the corresponding channel status bits in
the AES/IBU protocol of the test signal are decoded. Depending on the
format (consumer or professional) different bits are interpreted (24 to 27
or 6 to 7 and 35 to 38). The sample rate is updated as soon as a different
sample rate is indicated by the channel status bits.
If the channel status bits do not forward any information ("not indicated"),
or if protocol analysis is switched off, the most recently set sampling rate
remains active.
Note:
If the frequency entered does not correspond to the frequency
applied, all filter and frequency measurements vary accordingly
in frequency! The frequency applied to the UPL (sample rate)
must not exceed 55 kHz (UPL-B2) and 106 kHz (UPL-B29).
Otherwise, incorrect measurements or abortion of the
measurement may occur.
The maximum measurement frequency of the digital analyzer is obtained from the sample frequency
and the (modified) "Nyquist" factor:
fmax = sample rate x 117 / 256
Audio Bits
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8 to 24
Reducing the word length causes the audio sample values to be cut to the
specified word length.
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UPL
2.6.3.1
Configuration of Digital Analyzers
Measurement of Jitter, Phase and Common Mode
With digital audio interfaces, there are two types of signals to be measured, e.g., within a quality check.
One is the digitally coded analog signal, and the other the digital signal. The latter toohas analog
parameters such as peak-to-peak voltage, frequency etc. It may be subject to interference like an
analog signal. Noise or AC voltage may be superimposed, which may cause the signal slopes to be
shifted. This effect is called jitter and, if it is strong enough, the audio signal can no longer be decoded
or regenerated correctly. The conventional decoders fail often even before reaching the theoretical limit
which is why information on the practically reached jitter in a facility is quite important.
The signal lines can be designed as balanced lines which is quite usual in analog technology. Thus,
injected interferences, e.g. from grounded (hum) loops would be ineffective. However, in practice, this
attenuation is not always sufficient so that a common-mode voltage of sufficiently high magnitude may
also prevent decoding and regeneration. The UPL can measure this common-mode voltage on the
digital signal. Of course, a common-mode signal cannot be generated at the unbalanced and the optical
output.
The UPL can thus measure two different types of interference of the digital audio signals: shifting of the
signal slopes (jitter) and a common-mode voltage superimposed on the digital lines. The analog
generator is available for measurement of the interference voltages. The RMS (&S/N) and peak
functions as well as the FFT analysis and the oscilloscope display (WAVEFORM) are particularly suited
for the practice. The spectrum analysis allows first conclusions to be made on the cause of the
interference (e.g., superimposed AC hum or switching power supply). The interference caused by the
common-mode voltage can be read off directly as voltage.
Jitter and delay are usually stated in UI (unit interval). UI is defined as the smallest pulse width of the
digital audio signal (eye width) and is independent of the selected sample frequency. One UI
corresponds to the clock period of the digital signal (biphase clock). With digital audio signals, one UI
corresponds to the 128th of the sample period; at 48 kHz one UI is approx. 163 ns.
For measuring the jitter, a reference clock must be available. For this purpose a high-stability internal
oscillator can be used or a PLL (phase locked loop), if the UPL is externally synchronized (via the "Sync
In" connector on the rear panel). The PLL integrates phase deviations as a function of time. Both the
internal oscillator and the PLL are also used for the digital generator, so that analyzer and generator
cannot be set completely independent of each other in this case.
If several, digitally-coded signals have to be interconnected, as commonly done in the studio, the signal
synchronization is also of importance. Associated frames, which contain the respective instantaneous
values (samples) of the left and right channels, must not be delayed such that the timing tolerances of
the receiver are exceeded. This can be noticed as omission or doubling of individual samples. The UPL
can measure this shift as phase between the digital input on the front panel and the reference channel
(‘Ref In’ connector on the rear panel).
In addition to the method described above which uses an external clock frequency (Sync PLL), the
analyzer as a decoder and measuring instrument for the data contents itself (i.e. not as a jitter/phase
meter or common-mode analyzer) can also be synchronized directly to the digital signal at the analyzer
input via the menu item "Sync To". A difference has to be made between the input on the front panel
(AUDIO IN) and the input of the reference receiver (REF IN) on the rear panel. Moreover, the analyzer
can be synchronized also to the internal digital generator (GEN CLK).
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Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep
2.6.4
UPL
Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep
Available for
all three ANALYZER instruments. No external sweeps are however possible in ANLG 110 kHz, i.e. in
addition to the AUTO measurement mode only the time-triggered measurements (TIME TICK and TIME
CHART) can be selected.
Theory of operation
"START COND" determines when, how often or the conditions which must prevail to trace measured
values.
Depending on the selection of START COND, the measured value is - when the conditions required for
tracing of measured values are met - triggered, displayed in a UPL trace buffer. The trace buffer may
contain up to 17 K (17408) measurement data depending on the application.
The measured value list can be displayed or represented in the form of graphics (see 2.10). If the
options UPL-B10 or UPL-B4 are fitted, it can also be read in via a self-controlled program or external
controller.
Depending on the selection of START COND, the measurement either starts immediately (AUTO) or
only when the desired trigger condition is fulfilled.
With START COND not AUTO, an external sweep (START COND
FREQ CH1/2, FRQ FST CH1/2,
VOLT CH1/2) or periodic measured value tracing (START COND
TIME TICK, TIME CHART) or
armed single (START COND
LEV TRG CH1/2, EDG TRG CH1/2) is started using the START or
SINGLE keys (see 2.11 Starting and Stopping of Measurements or Sweeps).
START COND
AUTO
1078.2008.02
(Start Condition) specifies an event triggering off a measurement.
Continuous measurement mode without trigger condition. The measured
values are stored in the trace buffer only, if the frequency sweep of the
selective RMS measurement or any generator sweep is active,
simultaneously.
The SINGLE or START keys allow you to switch between single and
continuous measurement when no sweep is active.
The AUTO mode must be activated to enable the sweep of the frequency
of the selective rms measurement (see 2.6.5.3 RMS SELECT) or of the
generator parameters (see 2.5.4.2). Several sweeps at the same time are
not permissible and can therefore not be set.
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UPL
Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep
START COND
TIME TICK
The measured values are triggered at regular intervals. The intervals for
starting measurements are determined by the distance between the
timeticks. The measured values are entered in the buffer and displayed in
the measurement result window.
The START key is used to start a sequence of periodic tracings of
measured values, which is restarted from the beginning when the number
of sweep points specified under ”Points” is reached.
If the timetick is greater than the measuring time, the next timetick is
waited for after each single measurement; no measurement is performed
during this period.
If the timetick is smaller than the measuring time, the next timetick is only
triggered after completion of the measurement. The sweep is then
indicated with corrected x-axis, i. e. the single measured values are
entered with correct timing.
The SINGLE key allows you to start a single sequence of periodic tracings
of measured values. The sweep enters the SWP TERMINATED state
when the number of sweep points specified under ”Points” is reached.
The analyzer state is then ”TERMINATED”.
TIME cannot be simultaneously active with the frequency sweep of the
selective rms measurement or any generator sweep!
TIME CHART
Measured values (of the running continuous measurement) are entered in
a time chart in the time pattern that can be entered under "Time".
Contrary to TIME TICK, where a new (single) measurement is started with
each tick and the result is only entered after completion of the
measurement, TIME CHART also permits to display intermediate results.
This is useful in particular in the case of quasi-peak measurements.
FREQ CH1
FREQ CH2
FRQ FST CH1
FRQ FST CH
Tracing of measured values because a change in frequency was noted at
ANALYZER input channel 1 or channel 2.
With the START or SINGLE key, an external frequency sweep is started,
which in turn starts a single measurement on the occurrence of a trigger
event or, as the case may be, after a delay to be entered. The
measurement result is entered in the measured value buffer.
Starting a continuous sweep using the START key causes the sweep to
be restarted after any change in frequency in the direction from stop to
start frequency (see 2.11).
A single sweep started by the SINGLE key is stopped by a measured
value beyond the stop frequency.
Changes of the frequency of STOP and START are ignored.
Note:
FRQ FST CH1/2 can be selected for especially fast frequency
sweeps with clean signals (e.g. from the CD). If however the
signal has a large noise component, the slower measurement
procedure FREQ CH1/2 must be used.
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2- FRQ FST CH1 FRQ FST CH2 cannot be
simultaneously active with the frequency sweep in the RMS Select
measurement or any generator sweep!
Note:
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By activating the associated settling, unwanted interfering
signals like voice can be made ineffective. It must be switched
off with floating sweep.
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Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep
UPL
START COND
VOLT CH1
VOLT CH2
A measurement result is recorded because a voltage change is detected
at the analyzer input channel 1 or 2.
With the START or SINGLE key an external voltage sweep is started,
which in turn starts a single measurement upon a trigger event (or after a
delay to be entered). The measurement result is stored in the buffer.
When a continuous sweep is started with the START key, the sweep is
restarted every time the voltage changes in the direction from the stop to
the start level.
If a single sweep is started with the SINGLE key, the sweep is stopped by
a measured value beyond the stop level. Changes of the STOP and
START voltages are ignored.
VOLT CH1 VOLT CH2 cannot be simultaneously active with the
frequency sweep of the selective RMS measurement or with any
generator sweep.
Note:
In most cases (e.g. sliding sweep) it is advisable to perform an
external voltage sweep with Settling switched on to prevent
individual test points to be triggered too early by voltage
transients. Two samples are sufficient for the settling
parameters; the resolution should be set to minimum.
LEV TRG CH1
LEV TRG CH2
Triggering (single shot) because of a level detected at analyzer input
channel 1 or 2. Measured values are not stored in the trace buffers and,
consequently, there is no graphical display via the X axis.
Using the START or SINGLE key, level monitoring is enabled. It waits for
the level to enter the range between Start and Stop for the first time. Then
a single measurement is started - possibly after the entered delay.
If the continuous trigger has been started with the START key, new
triggering in the specified range takes place only if the level had been out
of this range at the upper or lower end. Hence, level monitoring is only
reactivated when a level is detected outside the specified range.
EDG TRG CH1
EDG TRG CH2
Triggering (single shot) caused by a voltage edge detected at the analyzer
input channel 1 and 2. The measured value is neither stored in the buffers
nor graphically displayed via the X axis.
Level monitoring is started with the START or SINGLE key but it is only
activated when a level outside the start-stop interval is measured.
Triggering is performed when a level occurs for the first time in the range
between Start and Stop (edge trigger). A single measurement is then
started - possibly after the specified delay.
If continuous trigger has been started using the START key, new
triggering in the specified range only takes place when the level had been
out of the range at the upper or lower end. Hence, level monitoring is only
reactivated when a level is detected outside the specified range.
By pressing the STOP key, an external sweep is finished. By pressing the CONT key, the continuous
measurement mode is started again.
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UPL
Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep
Delay
The menu items START COND
AUTO FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2
FRQ FST CH1 FRQ FST CH2
VOLT CH1 VOLT CH2
LEV TRG CH1 LEV TRG CH2
EDG TRG CH1 EDG TRG CH2
allows the user to enter a delay time, which is useful for:
• Signal modifications at the generator (entry of values, variations via
rotary knob)
• Sweeps
• Actuation of STOP/CONT or START keys (continuous measurement)
• SINGLE key actuation (single measurement)
• Modifications in the ANALYZER panel
• Modifications in the GENERATOR panel
• Modifications in the FILTER panel
Delay determines the waiting time required from the events stated above
to the restart of a measurement in order to allow the device under test to
settle.
Specified range: 50 ms to 10 s
s | ms | µs | min
Units:
Note:
Time
Delay is considered in single measurements only, i.e. in single
measurements triggered by the SINGLE key or sweep
sequencing in the START COND
AUTO mode or on the
occurrence of a trigger event in the START COND
FREQ
CH1/2, VOLT CH1/2 modes.
During continuous measurements, delay is considered in the
first measurement only. The following measurements are made
without delay.
In the menu item START COND
TIME TICK TIME CHART the
intervals between the single tracings of measured values can be
specified.
A single measurement is started after every time tick. A new
measurement is only triggered when the last measurement has been
completed. If a time tick is selected which is smaller than the measuring
time, the time tick is adapted internally to the measuring time; i.e., it is
extended to be identical.
With the start condition TIME CHART, the current measured value is
entered upon expiry of the time entered, independent of the number of
measured values obtained in the meantime, if any. If a time is selected
which is smaller than the measuring time, the same result is traced
several times (with different x-values). If this effect is to be avoided,
“Time“ must be increased.
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Specified range:
10 ms to 2000 s
Units:
s | ms | µs | min
Resolution:
1 ms
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Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep
Points
UPL
The menu item START COND
TIME TICK TIME CHART allows the
number of entries in the measured value buffer to be entered.
Specified range: 2 to 1024
Note:
Min VOLT
A time-tick scan is terminated after (points x time tick) seconds.
If the individual measurements cannot be performed at the
selected time-tick rate - due to an exceeded time-tick set - the
trace buffer contains less than "points" measured values.
The menu items START COND
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2
FRQ FST CH1 FRQ FST CH2
allow the entry of a minimum voltage to be applied to the ANALYZER
input in order to trigger a measurement.
Specified range:
digital (audio data mode):
analog:
0.00001 to 1.0 FS
0.00001 to 30 V
Units:
digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits
analog:
V | mV | µV | dBu | dBV | dBm | W | mW | µW
Start
Stop
The menu items START COND
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2
FRQ FST CH1 FRQ FST CH2
VOLT CH1 VOLT CH2
LEV TRG CH1 LEV TRG CH2
EDG TRG CH1 EDG TRG CH2
allow the entry of the start and stop values. The frequency or level applied
to the ANALYZER input must not exceed the start/stop limits in order to
trigger the measurement.
By single sweeps, the STOP value is used to recognize the end of the
sweep. The STOP value should therefore be somewhat smaller than the
expected signal range.
Specified range
• FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2 FRQ FST CH1
total range permitted (see 2.6.1)
FRQ FST CH2:
• VOLT CH1 VOLT CH2:
analog:
10 µV to 30 V
V | mV | µV | dBu | dBV | dBm | W | mW | µW
digital:
LL to 1.0 FS
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits
LL:
The lower limit for the level start/stop values depends on the
number of audio bits (see 2.6.3), however must not be less than
1[FS. It can be calculated as follows:
LL = 2 -Audio Bits
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UPL
Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep
Variation
The menu items START COND
FREQ CH1 FREQ CH2
FRQ FST CH1 FRQ FST CH2
VOLT CH1 VOLT CH2
allow the entry of a value in percent - or in dB (for high power ramping) –
by which the input frequency or input voltage must be varied at least in
order to trigger a measurement.
Changing the frequency or voltage in the direction from stop to start by
this numeric value causes a restart of the sweep if continuous sweep has
been set.
Select the variation 5 % to 10 % smaller than the expected
change in order to guarantee reliable triggering on the one hand
and to prevent triggering on intermediate values on the other
hand.
Specified range:
for frequency sweeps: LL to 50%
for level sweeps:
LL to 900 % (= 20 dB)
Note:
Unit: % (for level sweeps also dB)
LL: The lower limit for the entry of variation is not less than 0.1% and is
output such that not more than 1024 measured values are
generated (depending on the spacing between start and stop
values).
Settling
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(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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Analyzer Functions
2.6.5
Functions
FUNCTION
OFF
Note:
The addition "&S/N" indicates that this function allows S/N
measurements.
No measurement function, measurement of Input RMS/PEAK and
frequency/phase, however, enabled
RMS & S/N
True RMS measurement of AC voltages see 2.6.5.2
RMS SELECT
Selective RMS measurement with narrow bandpass see 2.6.5.32
PEAK & S/N
Maximum peak value within a monitoring interval, see 2.6.5.4
Q PK & S/N
Peak value detection with subsequent defined rising and falling times,
see 2.6.5.4
DC
DC measurement, see 2.6.5.5
THD
Distortion measurement (without consideration of broadband noise),
see 2.6.5.6
THD+N/SINAD
Distortion or SINAD measurement (including broadband noise),
see 2.6.5.7
MOD DIST
Intermodulation measurement with high-frequency useful sinewave signal
and a low-frequency interfering sinewave signal, see 2.6.5.8
DFD
Difference Frequency Distortion measurement by two adjacent tones with
relatively high frequencies, see 2.6.5.9
WOW & FL
Wow and flutter measurement see 2.6.5.10
POLARITY
Polarity measurement to check for polarity reversal in a device under test,
see 2.6.5.11
FFT
Graphical display of spectrum, see 2.6.5.12
FILTER SIM.
Filter simulation see 2.6.5.13
WAVEFORM
Waveform display; see 2.6.5.14.
PROTOCOL
evaluation and display of AES protocol data Only in the digital analyzer
with measurement mode AUDIO DATA.
COHERENCE
Measurement of transfer function and coherence of two signals;
with installed option UPL-B6 only, see 2.6.5.22
RUB & BUZZ
Loudspeaker measurements (rub&buzz, frequency response, polarity);
with installed option UPL-B6 in the analog analyzers only, not available in
the high rate mode (with option UPL-B29 installed), see 2.6.5.23
1/3-OCTAVE
Note:
UPL
1/3-Octave measurement, with installed option UPL-B6 only, not available
in 110 kHz analyzer and in digital analyzer in the high rate mode (with
option UPL-B29 installed), see 2.6.5.24
The addition "&S/N" indicates that this function allows S/N measurements.
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UPL
Analyzer Functions
FUNCTION
(continued)
DIG INP AMP
Only with Jitter option (UPL-B22). This measurement function is selected
under menu item INPUT DISP; see 2.6.5.16.
PHAS TO REF
Only with Jitter option (UPL-B22) This measurement function is selected
under menu item INPUT/PHAS; see 2.6.5.17.
2.6.5.1
Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions
DC Suppress
(DC Suppress)
With the digital measurement functions RMS & S/N, RMS SEL, FFT and
Waveform, a DC component in the test signal can be suppressed so that
it is present neither in the measurement result nor in the graphics display.
To do so the actual DC value is determined for each measurement and
then considered in the measured value by calculation. This preliminary
measurement performed for FFT and Waveform requires additional
measurement time (approx. 200 ms), but because of the relatively slow
measurements this is in most cases not important. With RMS and RMS
SEL measurements, the DC component is measured in parallel with the
main measurement and does not therefore affect the measurement time.
Note:
This menu item is not offered with analog measurements, as in
this case the function is assumed by the selection of the input
coupling (which is superordinate to the functions).
ON
The DC component of the signal to be measured is suppressed (AC
coupling); only the AC component is considered in the measurement
result.
OFF
The DC content of the signal to be measured is not suppressed (DC
coupling) and contained in the measurement result.
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Analyzer Functions
S/N Sequ
UPL
(S/N sequence)
The functions RMS & S/N, PEAK & S/N, Q-PK & S/N offer the possibility
of S/N measurements (signal-to-noise). The generator signal at the
device under test is alternately switched on (signal) and off (noise) and a
measurement is performed in each case. During signal-on-phase the
selected filters are turned off in order to exclusively weight the noise
signal. The ratio of the two measured values in dB expresses the S/N
ratio of the device under test.
Any desired generator setting is permissible.
A deactivated generator means:
• with analog generator instruments, the output voltage is switched off
with the output resistance being constant
• with digital generator instruments, a level value of 0.0 full scale is
output with the clock rate being unvaried (all bits to 0)
ON
S/N measurement on
Notes:
• A filter with high-pass characteristic should be switched on in order to
avoid measurement errors due to superimposed dc in the analog
range. If this is not the case, a corresponding error message is
displayed when switching on S/N mode.
• Measurement at low frequencies where a highpass is not usable
should be performed using a file defined delay filter with about 1.5 s
delay. By this means the DC-level that appears when switching off the
generator can decay before noise measurement. is started.
• The selectable filters only affect the noise measurement. If they are to
affect the signal measurement, too, this can be achieved by using the
command line parameter "-o2".
OFF
S/N measurement off
Measurement function
selectable
analog units:
selectable
digital units:
Intermodulation measurements
MOD DIST DFD
% dB
% dB
% dB
% dB
V|dBV|dBu|dBm|W|
%V| V|V/Vr|%V/Vr|
%W| W|P/Pr|%P/Pr|dB
FS|%FS|dBFS|
%|dBr|LSBs
Distortion measurements THD
Meas Mode:
SELECT di
ALL even d
ALL odd di
ALL di
Meas Mode:
SEL di
LEV even di
LEV odd di
LEV di
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UPL
Analyzer Functions
Measurement function
selectable
analog units:
selectable
digital units:
Distortion measurements
THD+N
Meas Mode:
THD+N |
NOISE |
SINAD
% dB
% dB
Meas Mode:
LEVEL THDN |
LEVEL NOISE
V|dBV|dBu|dBm|W|
%V| V|V/Vr|%V/Vr|
%W| W|P/Pr|%P/Pr|dB
FS|%FS|dBFS|
%|dBr|LSBs
Wow and flutter measurements
WOF&FL
%
%
Transfer function (COHERENCE
Trace A, Ch1/Ch2)
% dB
% dB
Coherence measurement
(COHERENCE Trace B)
²
²
Unit Ch1
Selection of the units of measurement results for channel 1.
Unit Ch2
Selection of units of measurement results for channel 2.
With all level measurements, the (display) units for the two channels can
be selected independent of each other, e.g., in order to constitute one
channel as absolute quantity and the other channel with any reference.
Selectable analog units (also valid for Meas Mode COMMON/INP in
DIGITAL instrument):
V | dBV | dBu | dBm | W | %V | V | V/Vr | %V/Vr | %W |
W | P/Pr | %P/Pr | dB r
Selectable digital units (Meas Mode AUDIO DATA):
FS | %FS | dBFS | % | dBr | LSBs | bits
The measurement functions PEAK and QPEAK as well as the
INPUT DISP displays also allow the selection of the HEX unit.
Selectable jitter units (Meas Mode JITTER/PHAS):
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns | UIr | dBr
UI | %FRM | ºFRM | ns
(for jitter)
(for phase)
For conversion formulae and notation of the measured value display units
for IEC bus control, see 2.4 Units
Unit
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Selection of units for measurement results for both channels.
Measurements which usually have both channels with the same unit,
provide a common menu item for both channels for selection of the
(display) unit.
Basis of calculation see relevant measurement function.
Conversion formulas see 2.4 Units.
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Analyzer Functions
Reference
UPL
Reference values for the analyzer measurement function and the Input
Disp measurement.
All measurements which obtain dimensional results, can be displayed
either absolutely or referred to a reference. If a reference-related unit (to
be recognized by the addition “r“ or the prefix " ") is selected, the
displayed result takes into consideration the reference entered here.
Each measurement function and each of the superior functions provide
their own reference, which applies for both channels, respectively.
The selection made here is entered into the display panel per default, if an
appropriate trace (FUNC CH1/2 or IMP RMS CH1/2) and the selected
display reference is not FILE, HOLD or OTHER TRACE.
Value
Display and entry of a fixed reference value.
Per default, this entry is entered into the display panel if an appropriate
trace (FUNC CH1/2 or IMP RMS CH1/2) has been selected and the
display reference has been set to VALUE.
The specified range depends on the measurement function and the
instrument function (analog or digital):
Units:
digital (audio data mode):
FS | %FS | dBFS | LSBs | bits | % | dBr
digital (jitter mode):
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns | UIr | dBr
analog and digital common mode:
V | mV | µV | dBu | dBV | dBm |W | mW| µW
Specified range for
• DC measurement function:
digital (audio data mode):
-100 to 100 FS
analog:
-1000 to 1000 V
• other (level) measurement functions and INPUT DISP:
digital (audio data mode):
100 pFS to 100 FS
digital (jitter mode):
100 pUI to 100 UI
analog (and common mode): 100 pV to 1000 V
STORE CH1
STORE CH2
The level measurement result of channel 1 or channel 2 is stored on
pressing the ENTER key and displayed as new reference value. The
reference value does not change during the measurement. These
selection items are displayed with two-channel measurement, only.
STORE
The result of a one-channel measurement is stored on pressing the
ENTER key. The reference value does not change during the
measurement. This selection item is displayed with one-channel
measurement.
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UPL
Analyzer Functions
Reference
MEAS CH1
MEAS CH2
Each level measurement result of channel 1 or channel 2 is immediately
stored as the reference value and can then be used (by both channels)
for a referenced display. A referenced unit must be selected in this case.
These selection items are only available with 2-channel measurements.
DIG OUT AMP
Only for the display of the digital input amplitude (INPUT DISP: DIG INP
AMP). The measured value is referenced to the digital signal level set in
the digital generator (see 2.6.5.18, INPUT).
GEN TRACK
The current generator voltage and each newly set voltage of the function
generator are stored as the reference value and can then be used (by
both channels) for a referenced display. A referenced unit must be
selected in this case.
Exception: When the jitter is measured in the digital analyzer, the
generator of the jitter signal is used as a reference. So, if the
audio data come from the function generator and the jitter
signal from the auxiliary generator, the jitter amplitude of the
auxiliary generator is used as a reference.
If the measured value is RMS-weighted, the RMS value of the generator
voltage is used. If it is a peak value (INPUT DISP PEAK, PEAK function),
the peak value of the generator voltage is used.
If the instrument functions of generator and analyzer are different (analog
or digital), a conversion factor of
1 FS
1V
is calculated.
Note:
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The generator voltage selected in the panel is always used
as reference instead of the actually output generator voltage.
This applies, in particular, if equalization is switched on (cf.
2.5.4.3 SINE). If reference is to be made to the actually
output voltage, the latter must be measured (internally) (
CH1 Input GEN CH2) and the measurement result (of
channel 2) must be referred to the measured voltage
(Reference MEAS CH1).
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Analyzer Functions
Ref Freq
Value
UPL
Reference Frequency
Reference value for the frequency measurement.
Results of frequency measurements can be displayed either absolutely or
referred to a reference. If a reference-related unit (to be recognized by the
addition “r“ or the prefix " ") is selected, the displayed result takes into
consideration the reference entered here; it applies for both channels or
(with combined frequency/phase measurement or frequency/group-delay
measurement) for the frequency of channel 1.
The selection made here is entered into the display panel per default, if an
appropriate trace (FREQ CH1/2) and the selected display reference is not
FILE, HOLD or OTHER TRACE.
Display and entry of a fixed reference value.
Per default, this entry is entered into the display panel if an appropriate
trace (FREQ CH1/2) has been selected and the display reference is set to
VALUE.
Specified range:
Units:
1 mHz to 1 MHz
Hz | kHz
STORE CH1
STORE CH2
The frequency measurement result of channel 1 and/or channel 2 is
stored on pressing the ENTER key and displayed as new reference value.
The reference value does not change during the measurement. This
selection is provided with two-channel measurement, only.
STORE
The result of a one-channel frequency measurement or a combined
FREQ&PHASE measurement or FREQ&GRPDEL measurement is
stored on pressing the ENTER key. The reference value does not change
during the measurement. This selection is provided with one-channel
measurement, only.
MEAS CH1
MEAS CH2
Each frequency measurement result of channel 1 or channel 2 is
immediately stored as the reference value and can then be used (by both
channels) for a referenced display. A referenced unit must be selected in
this case. Not available for 1-channel or combined frequency-phase
measurements or frequency/group delay measurements.
GEN TRACK
The presently valid generator frequency and each newly set generator
frequency are stored as the reference value and can then be used (by
both channels) for a referenced display. A referenced unit must be
selected in this case.
Note:
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The generator voltage selected in the panel is always used as
reference instead of the actually output generator voltage. This
applies, in particular, if equalization is switched on (cf. 2.5.4.3
SINE). If reference is to be made to the actually output voltage,
the latter must be measured (internally) ( CH1 Input GEN CH2)
and the measurement result (of channel 2) must be referred to
the measured voltage (Reference MEAS CH1).
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UPL
Analyzer Functions
Ref Phase
(Reference Phase)
Reference value for the phase measurement.
This menu line is displayed only, if two-channel measurement and the
phase or group-delay measurement have been selected.
Results of phase and group-delay measurement can be displayed either
absolutely or referred to a reference. If a reference-related unit (to be
recognized by the prefix " ") the result is displayed taking into
consideration the reference entered here.
VALUE
Display and entry of a fixed reference value.
Per default, this entry is entered into the display panel if an appropriate
trace (FREQ CH1/2) has been selected and the display reference is set to
VALUE.
Specified range and units for:
• phase measurement:
Specified range: - 360° to +360° or -2 to +2
Units:
° | RAD
• group-delay measurement:
Specified range: - 10 s to +10 s
Units:
s | ms | µs | min.
STORE
FILTER
The results of phase or group-delay measurement are stored on
depression of the ENTER key and displayed as new reference value. The
reference value does not change during the measurement.
For the functions in the ANALYZER panel
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RMS & S/N (RMS measurement),
PEAK & S/N (peak measurement),
QPK & S/N (quasi-peak measurement),
THD+N/SINAD (distortion measurement)
RMSSEL (selective RMS measurement)
FILTSIM (filter simulation)
RUB & BUZZ (loudspeaker measurement)
WAVEFORM (DIGITAL or ANLG22kHz)
1/3-OCTAVE
FFT
3 filters
3 filters (*)
3 filters (*)
1 filter
1 filter
3 filters
2 filter
1 filter (*)
1 filter (*)
3 filter (*)
can be selected and assigned to the ANALYZER function (see 2.7
Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel)).
Note:
Apart from these filters of digital design, an analog notch filter
can be switched on additionally with the analog measurement
functions RMS, RMS SELECT, QPK and FFT for elimination of
individual frequency lines (see menu item Notch (Gain) in this
section).
UPL-B29: The functions marked (*) can be operated without filter only in
the high rate mode as well as in ANLG 110 kHz analyzer.
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Analyzer Functions
POST FFT
UPL
POST FFT is an FFT subsequent to the functions
• RMS & S/N
• THD+N/SINAD
• WOW & FL.
The input signal is sampled, the sampled values are stored and analyzed
according to the selected measurement function. Subsequent to
determination of the measurement result, an FFT is calculated and
graphically displayed. Then, the measurement of the selected function is
restarted and the activated filters, if any, begin to settle again.
For more details on the FFT including all its parameters, refer to Section
2.6.5.12.
ON
POST-FFT is calculated; however, it is displayed only, if the operation
SPECTRUM has been selected in the DISPLAY panel.
With generator sweep, the end of the POST FFT algorithm determines
the sweep stepping, thus reducing the sweep rate!
POST-FFT is switched on coercively, if the phase measurement is
selected for the measurement function RMS (with two-channel
measurement).
OFF
POST-FFT is not calculated.
This selection is made to achieve a maximum measurement speed.
POST-FFT is switched off coercively, if
• the S/N measurement or
• the special mode TRIGGERED FIX
is used for the RMS function.
FFT Size
Start
Enter the FFT size (256 to 8192), see 2.6.5.12 FFT.
Only display (no entries possible) of the frequency limits of the generated
spectrum.
Stop
Resolution
Window
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Only display (no entries possible) of frequency resolution.
Select the window function. Possible windows and their applications, see
2.6.5.12 FFT.
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UPL
Analyzer Functions
Notch (Gain)
For the functions RMS & S/N, RMS SELECT, Q PK & S/N and FFT, the
three analog analyzers offer an analog notch filter of 2nd order to be
activated for narrow-band suppression of interfering frequency lines. With
notch switched on, one of 3 gain factors can be selected:
OFF
Analog notch filter off
0 dB
Analog notch filter on; no gain effective
12 dB Auto
Analog notch filter on; gain 12 dB
30 dB Auto
Analog notch filter on; gain 30 dB
Note:
Notch Freq
If frequency components occur outside the analyzer frequency
range, the notch gain may cause the analyzer to be overdriven.
In this case, the notch gain is reduced step by step, which is to
be indicated by adding "Auto" in the items 12 dB and 30 dB.
Selection of the notch-filter center frequency.
AUTO
Center frequency of the notch filter tracks the measured frequency.
VALUE
Numerical entry of the notch filter center frequency
Specified range:
10 Hz to 22,5 kHz
Units:
Hz, kHz
Switching on VALUE causes the latest valid notch frequency to be
displayed. When switching over from AUTO to VALUE, e.g., and the
(external) test signal having a frequency of 117 kHz, the frequency
displayed is 110 kHz.
GEN TRACK
With the generator signal function set to SINE, BURST, SINE2 PULSE or
SQUARE, the current generator frequency specified under generator
menu item FREQUENCY is used as notch filter center frequency. Any
other signal function leads to an error message.
Fig. 2-20 Characteristic of analog notch filter
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Analyzer Functions
UPL
Application example: quantising noise measurement
The notch filter being subsequent to the input level stage, the fundamental wave level determines the
dynamic range of the input circuit. The measurement range in which the fundamental wave is measured
therefore determines the dynamic range of the quantising noise measurement.
Settling
Freq Settl
Phas Settl
Fnct Settl
Most measurements can be subceded by a settling or averaging
procedure in order to obtain settled measured values even with settling
DUTs.
Exceptions and special features:
• Settling cannot be realized with group-delay measurement, since the
measured value is defined with varying frequency, only.
• From the physical point of view, settling is not required with the
measuring functions POLARITY and FILTSIM
• The WAVEFORM function does not allow for selection of settling, but
averaging (menu item Interpol).
• The FFT function does not allow for selection of settling, but it provides
two different averaging modes (menu item Avg Mode NORMAL or
EXPONENTIAL).
• The 1/3-OCTAVE function does not allow for selection of settling;
averaging is provided by setting of the measurement time.
• In the measurement modes JITTER/PHAS and COMMON/INP Settling
cannot be selected, but with measurement functions FFT and
WAVEFORM the averaging modes described above.
OFF
Settling process switched off; measurement result available in the
shortest possible time. This setting should always be selected if maximum
measuring speed is required.
EXPONENTIAL
Settling with exponential course of the tolerance and resolution.
FLAT
Settling with horizontal course of tolerance and resolution.
AVERAGE
Arithmetic averaging of the results
For further information, cf. 2.3.4 Settling Process
Samples
To menu item Settling
EXPONENTIAL FLAT:
Number of subsequent measured values compared in the settling process.
If value 6 is entered here, this means that the latest measured value is
compared to 5 preceding measured values.
Specified range: 2 to 6
To menu item Settling
AVERAGE
Number of measured values used for arithmetic averaging.
Specified range: 2 to 100
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UPL
Tolerance
Analyzer Functions
To menu items Settling
EXPONENTIAL FLAT:
The tolerance value denotes the maximally permissible deviation from the
preceding measured value a settled measured value may have in order to
be classed as valid by the UPL.
The value of the maximally permissible deviation of the current measured
value compared to the 2nd/3rd/4th and 5th last measured value is
determined by the setting EXPONENTIAL FLAT .
For further information, cf. 2.3.3 "Settling Process"
Unit:
% or dB (not WOW & FL and frequency measurement)
Specified range:0.001 % to 10 % or
0.000087 dB to 0.828 dB
% and dB values can be converted into one another:
(
% value = 10
dB value
20
dB value = 20 * lg
Resolution
)
1 x 100
( % 100value + 1)
To menu items Settling
EXPONENTIAL FLAT:
Measured value resolution considered if the measured value does not
satisfy the tolerance limits.
For further information, cf. 2.3.4 Settling Process
Specified range and units depend on instrument and measurement
function:
• RMS & S/N RMS SELECT PEAK & S/N Q PK & S/N DC /
external level sweep:
analog: 0.1 YV to 10 V;
V|mV|µV|dBV|dBu|W|mW|µW|dBm
digital: Min. FS to 0.1 FS; FS |% FS |dBFS |LSBs |bits | % |dBr
• THD+N/SINAD THD MOD DIST DFD WOW & FL:
0.000001 % to 10 %;
% dB
• Frequency measurement / external frequency sweep:
100 µHz to 10 Hz;
Hz kHz
• Phase measurement:
0.0001 ° to 10 °
° RAD
Min. FS: 2 (-1 * audio bits)
however, not less than 1 µFS
Exception: a resolution of down to 1 nFS can be entered for the external
level sweep so that the setting procedure can also be used for very small
levels.
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Analyzer Functions
Time-out
UPL
If the settling mechanism does not recognize a stabilization of the
measured value within the time stated under ”time-out”, the test loop is
aborted and "Input - Press SHOW I/O" output instead of a measured
value. A gap points to the missing value in the graphical curve display of a
sweep.
For further information, cf. 2.3.4 Settling Process
Specified range: 0.001 to 10 s
Unit: s
Recommended Values:
For the majority of measurements on AF instruments, the following settings are suitable:
• Settling EXPONENTIAL
• Tolerance 1% (approx. 0.1 dB)
• Resolution:value of the last but one digit displayed in the result window, e.g., with a displayed value
of 10.0000 Hz, this is 1 MHz
• Time-out 1 s
SPEAKER
cf. 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output
Pre Gain
cf. 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output
Spk Volume
cf. 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output
Phone Out
cf. 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output
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UPL
RMS (incl. S/N)
2.6.5.2
RMS (incl. S/N)
Available in all analyzers.
Analog mode:
True rms measurements of AC voltages (frequency ranges of the analog ANALYZER instruments, see
2.6.1 Selecting the Analyzer) of any desired waveform up to 100 V. Depending on the selected
coupling, a superimposed dc is either measured (dc coupling) or not measured (ac coupling)
Digital mode:
The signal contents is indicated as true rms full-scale value from 0.0 to 1.0. A superimposed dc is either
measured or suppressed depending on the selection "DC Suppress":(OFF) or (ON).
Note: If all converter bits are set, 1.0 FS (= 0.0 dBFS) is displayed.
Frequency measurement:
Particularly fast frequency measurement is enabled with RMS (and RMS SELECT). To this end, the
frequency measurement must be switched on "Meas Time" must be set to FAST. Although this
frequency measurement only negligibly increases the total measuring time, it should be renounced for
extremely fast measurements, (GEN TRACK or very short VALUE) in particular with very weak
signals.
S/N Sequ
DC Suppres
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Selectable in the digital analyzer only;
corresponding setting required for analog analyzers: AC/DC coupling,
see 2.6.2 Configuration of the Analog Analyzers
Note:
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DC suppression is only effective for the measured RMS value.
With post-FFT a DC component is displayed even if DC
suppression is switched on. A DC-free FFT display can only be
obtained with the FFT measurement function.
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Analyzer Functions
Meas Time
UPL
(Measure Time)
The rms measurement time serves to match the measurement rate to the
signal frequency. It depends on the measurement requirements whether a
short measuring time or high accuracy will have priority.
AUTO FAST
AUTO
Automatic matching of the measuring time to the signal frequency with
consideration of the signal period. The measuring time is matched as far
as possible to the input signal; with AUTO FAST, a maximum algorithmic
error of 1% (with AUTO: 1‰) may arise. With very weak signals, the
measuring time is limited to 1 period according to Min Freq.
Notes:
1. In the case of very noisy or distorted signals or multitone signals, the
automatic measurement modes - particularly AUTO FAST - may not
be able to detect the signal period. To avoid measurement errors,
these signals should preferably be measured with GEN TRACK or - if
an external generator is used - with the measurement mode VALUE.
2. To allow automatic-mode measurement of the signals described under
1 with the advantage of high measurement speed, the minimum
measurement is optimized automatically. Only the first measurement –
without post-FFT – is performed using the high measurement speed.
For all other measurements the measurement time is increased to 100
ms or the measurement time of post-FFT, respectively, which enables
higher accuracy. This means that the first triggered measurement
result
(eg. when sweeping) is obtained very fast, while the
subsequent results are more accurate.
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UPL
RMS (incl. S/N)
Meas Time
VALUE
(Measure Time)
Numeric entry of desired measuring time. Since measurement errors may
occur when the measuring time is not matched to the period, this mode
should be selected only if the period of the signal is exactly known or no
other measuring mode can be used. The measurement time should be an
integral multiple of the period (to avoid errors due to termination of
measurements) or at least much longer than the period time (to minimize
such errors).
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz: 100 Ts to 10 s
ANLG 110 kHz: 100 Ts to 0.3 ms
DIGITAL:
100 Ts to 10 s
Units: s | ms | µs | min
TRIGGERED
Special measurement mode; a single measurement (with selectable
measuring time) is performed, as soon as the signal first exceeds a
trigger threshold (also selectable). This measurement mode, in
conjunction with a bursted generator signal, allows for measurement of
the first period of a signal.
Application: Anechoic measurements on loudspeakers, measurement of
short signal pulses.
Notes:
1. Only single-channel measurements should be performed.
2. A fixed voltage range should be set in the analog analyzer. Activation
of the auto ranger would delay the beginning of the measurement.
3. No filters and no settling can be selected.
4. Triggering on level thresholds can also be selected using "START
CONDition LEV TRG CH1/2". Any measurement function (e.g.
"WAVEFORM") can be selected. The measurement mode described
here can, however, be used for RMS measurements only. Advantage:
the measurement starts without delay.
GEN TRACK
Measurement over (at least) one whole period of the generator signal. If
required, the generator frequency is matched to the analyzer sampling
rate. In the case of high frequencies the measurement time is extended to
several periods to increase the measurement accuracy.
Particularly suitable for measuring very noisy or distorted signals and for
extremely fast sweeps.
The period length is calculated from the signal frequency entered in the
generator panel which is why this measuring mode should only be used
with use of the UPL function generator.
Notes:
1. If the MODDIST signal is used as generator signal, the measurement time
is referred to the LOWER Frequency, which normally dominates.
2. If CODED AUDIO is used as the generator signal, the generator
frequency cannot be adjusted due to the coarse frequency spacing. Slight
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Analyzer Functions
UPL
inaccuracies might occur which is why the measurement speed AUTO is
recommended.
3. If ARBITRARY is used as the generator signal, the measurement time is
synchronized to the number of samples in the file loaded. Thus, the
measurement always involves a full period of the ARB signal (which is
output repetitively).
When using the low-distortion generator, small frequency offsets may occur which may lead to a
reduction of the measuring accuracy if the measuring time is coupled to the rated frequency. The
measurement rate AUTO should be used in these cases.
The fixed integration time specified with VALUE (without consideration of the signal period) leads to the
following consequences depending on the meas. time/signal period ratio:
• Meas Time is integer multiple of signal period:
Optimum integration effect. Steady display!
• Meas Time larger than, yet no integer multiple of signal period:
Integration effect, however beats occur in the display.
• Meas Time smaller than signal period:
No integration effect. AC measurement result follows the signal waveform.
Unit Ch1/2
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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UPL
RMS (incl. S/N)
Sweep Mode
Displayed only in ANLG 22 kHz and DIG 48 kHz analyzers.
This menu item is provided to increase the speed of frequency sweeps
with the universal generator of the UPL.
UPL-B29:
In the high rate mode, the sweep can be operated at normal
speed only; the menu item Sweep Mode is therefore not
offered.
To increase the sweep speed the following conditions have to be fulfilled
by the generator:
NORMAL
•
•
•
•
•
BLOCK
Normal sweep trigger without additional speed optimization; may be used
for any kind of sweep.
This setting is used internally whenever one of the conditions for
optimized sweep synchronization is not met, e.g. in the "learn mode" (see
below).
Function
Low distortion
Sweep control
X axis
Z axis
SINE
OFF
AUTO ...
FREQ
OFF
Speed-optimized sweep:
The 1st sweep is always performed with the speed set under NORMAL.
During this sweep the generator parameters for the subsequent sweeps
are learned and stored (learn mode).
As long as no settings are done in the instrument, the BLOCK mode can
use the learned parameters as from the 2nd sweep (play mode) so that
setting times for the individual sweep points are considerable shortened.
For reasons of speed, measured values are not indicated. Traces are
displayed when the sweep is completed.
During a sweep the instrument cannot be operated. If one or several keys
are pressed during the sweep, the current sweep is terminated and the
unit returns to the learn mode where the functions of the pressed keys are
performed.
Note:
Notch (Gain)
Filter
Fnct Settl
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Settling cannot be switched on in the block mode.
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
(see 2.7 Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel))
Maximum 3 filters can be selected.
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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Analyzer Functions
Post FFT
UPL
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Switching on the POST FFT improves the digital frequency-measurement
result for frequencies above 4 times the FFT resolution. This can be
noticed in particular with high frequencies and/or noisy signals.
POST FFT is switched on coercively, if phase or group-delay
measurement is switched on - with two-channel measurement. Since
these measurements cannot be performed unless (POST) FFT is
selected, the latter cannot be switched off until frequency measurement is
set OFF or to FREQ again.
The POST FFT is switched off automatically with selecting TRIGGERED
measuring time or switching on S/N measurement.
Note:
Trig Level
With active Post-FFT a DC part that might exist is always
displayed in the FFT spectrum, e.g. even when DC suppressing
is switched off. A DC free FFT display can be achieved via
measurement function FFT.
(Trigger level); is displayed with Meas Time TRIGGERED, only.
Sets the trigger threshold which determines the start of the RMS
measurement. The trigger level applies in relation to the full-scale value
selected under menu item Ch1/2 Range as fixed voltage range.
Specified range: -240 to 0 dB
Unit:
% or dB
SPEAKER
1078.2008.02
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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UPL
2.6.5.3
RMS SELECT
RMS SELECT (Selective RMS Value)
Available in all analyzers. Selective RMS measurement with narrow bandpass or bandstop.
DC Suppres
Selectable in the digital analyzer only;
corresponding setting for analog analyzers:
"Coupling AC/DC", see 2.6.2 Configuration of the Analog Analyzers
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Analyzer Functions
Meas Time
AUTO FAST
AUTO
UPL
(Measure Time) serves to match the measurement rate to the signal
frequency. It depends on the measurement requirements whether a short
measuring time or high accuracy will have priority.
Automatic matching of the measuring time to the signal frequency with
consideration of the signal period. The measuring time is matched as far
as possible to the input signal; with AUTO FAST, a maximum algorithmic
error of 1% (with AUTO: 1‰) may arise. With very weak signals, the
measuring time is limited to 1 period according to Min Freq.
Notes:
1. In the case of very noisy or distorted signals or multitone signals, the
automatic measurement modes - particularly AUTO FAST - may not
be able to detect the signal period. To avoid measurement errors,
these signals should preferably be measured with GEN TRACK or - if
an external generator is used - with the measurement mode VALUE.
2. To allow automatic-mode measurement of the signals described
under 1 with the advantage of high measurement speed, the
minimum measurement is optimized automatically. Only the first
measurement is performed using the high measurement speed. For
the following measurements the measurement time is increased to
100 ms, which enables higher accuracy. This means that the first
triggered measurement result (eg. when sweeping) is obtained very
fast, while the subsequent results are more accurate.
VALUE
Numeric entry of desired measuring time. Since measurement errors may
occur when the measuring time is not matched to the signal period, this
mode should only be used if the signal period is exactly known or the
other measurement modes cannot be used. The measuring time should
be an integral multiple of the period (to avoid errors due to termination of
measurement) or be at least much longer than the period (to minimize
such errors).
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz: 100 Ts to 10 s
ANLG 110 kHz: 100 Ts to 0.3 ms
DIGITAL:
100 Ts to 10 s
Units: s | ms | µs| min
GEN TRACK
Measurement over (at least) one whole period of the generator signal. If
required, the generator frequency is matched to the analyzer sampling
rate. In the case of high frequencies the measuring time is extended to
several periods to increase the measurement accuracy. Particularly
suitable for measuring noisy or distorted signals and for very fast sweeps.
The period length is calculated from the signal frequency entered in the
generator panel which is why this measuring mode should only be used
with use of the UPL function generator.
Notes:
1. If the MODDIST signal is used as generator signal, the measurement
time is referred to the LOWER Frequency, which normally dominate
2. When using the low-distortion generator, small frequency offsets may
occur which may lead to a reduction of the measuring accuracy ift
the measuring time is coupled to the rated frequency. The
measurement rate AUTO should be used in these cases
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UPL
RMS SELECT
offsets may occur which can lead to a reduction of the measuring
accuracy if the measuring time is coupled to the rated frequency.
The measurement rate AUTO should be used in these cases.
Unit Ch1/2
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Bandwidth
Bandwidth of bandpass (BP) or bandstop (BS)
BP 1%
BS 1%
Geometrically symmetrical bandwidth 1%
BP 3%
BS 3%
Geometrically symmetrical bandwidth 3%
BP 1/3 OCT
BS 1/3 OCT
Geometrically symmetrical bandwidth
BP 1/12 OCT
BS 1/12 OCT
Geometrically symmetrical bandwidth
6
(obtained from
(obtained from
24
2
2
23%
1
= 0.2315 = 2315%
.
)
6
2
6%
1
= 0.0577 = 5.77% )
2
24
BP FAST
BS FAST
same as BP/BS 1/3 OCT, for 40 dB attenuation only
but with considerably shorter settling time.
BP FIX:
BS FIX:
Arithmetically symmetrical bandwidth using numerical entry
Analyzer
Range for bandwidth
ANLG 22 kHz
9.9 Hz to 16 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz
70.4 Hz to 113.8 kHz
DIGITAL
fcmin * 0.99...
sample freq.
3
sample freq.
(minimum center freq.)
4800
Units: Hz, kHz
fcmin =
Note:
For Third Octave filters the 0,1dB-bandwidth is reduced in order to obtain an attenuation of 3
dB at the cut-off frequencies. Hence the effective bandwidth is lower than the theoretical value.
Note:
It may occur in the analog analyzer 110 kHz that the selection filter cannot settle - due to low
frequencies and narrow passband or stopband. If this is the case,
• increase the passband or stopband, or
• increase the filter center frequency, or
• use the analyzer 22 kHz.
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Analyzer Functions
Fig. 2-21
UPL
Bandpass used for selective rms measurement
Frequency Sweep of Selective RMS Measurement
The band center frequency of the selective rms measurement can be swept using various procedures. A
table with a maximum of 1024 frequency entries is generated. As desired, the individual frequency
points can be
• calculated from user specifications (SWEEP CTRL
• loaded from file as list sweep (SWEEP CTRL
AUTO SWEEP
AUTO LIST
MANU SWEEP)
MANU LIST)
• derived from the individual frequencies of generator MULTISINE (SWEEP CTRL
SWEEP CTRL
GEN MLTSINE).
(Sweep Control)
is used to select whether and how to sweep the band center frequency.
The notch frequency of the switch-selectable analog notch filter is swept
additionally, with analog analyzers.
OFF
The sweep system is switched off. The band center frequency can be
selected via menu item FREQ MODE (see below).
Note:
AUTO SWEEP
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With this setting, the sweep system is available for generator or
analyzer sweeps. By selection of FREQ MODE and switching
on a generator frequency sweep or external frequency sweep
the band center frequency can be swept over the generator
frequency or over the frequency of an external generator.
Pressing the START or SINGLE key causes the sweep to run
automatically (see 2.11 Starting and Stopping of Measurements or
Sweeps).
The sweep parameter data are calculated from the user specifications
(start/stop values and step size or number of points); “normal“ sweep
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UPL
RMS SELECT
SWEEP CTRL
AUTO LIST
Pressing the START or SINGLE key causes the sweep to run
automatically (see 2.11 Starting and Stopping of Measurements or
Sweeps).
The sweep parameter data are read from a file (list sweep);
MANU SWEEP
The sweep is controlled by means of the rotary knob and/or cursor keys.
After pressing the START key, only the first frequency of the selective rms
measurement is set. Any further frequency is requested using the rotary
knob or by pressing a cursor key (see 2.11 Starting and Stopping of
Measurements or Sweeps).
When sequencing the manual sweep, the result of the current
measurement is not waited for, i.e., the current RMS SELECT
measurement and an analyzer delay, if set, are aborted.
As with AUTO SWEEP, the sweep parameter data are calculated from
the user specifications (start/stop values and step size or number of
points); “normal“ sweep
MANU LIST
The sweep sequence is similar to MANU SWEEP; the sweep parameter
data are, however, read from a file (similar to AUTO LIST); (List Sweep).
GEN MLTSINE
(Generator multisine)
The band center frequency of selective RMS measurement is
subsequently set to the multisine frequencies entered in the generator
panel (see 2.5.4.4 MULTISINE). The generator signal function is
assumed to be set to MULTISINE.
This setting is used for fast measurement of the frequency response. The
sweep runs automatically upon depression of the START or SINGLE key
(see 2.11 Starting and Stopping of Measurements or Sweeps).
Notes on manual sweep:
In order to control manual sweeps using the rotary knob or the cursor keys, the graphics panel must be
active (full-screen or part-screen mode). When the sweep is started, the switchover to the graphics
panel occurs automatically. The feature ”manual sweep” can be used to vary the band center frequency
with a user-definable increment. The increment is defined by a fixed STEP (with MANU SWEEP) or by a
variable step size defined in a file (with MANU LIST). With remote control, the command
”INIT:NEXT<n>” is used to continue.
Subsequent to setting a new sweep point, a continuous measurement is performed on this point. All
measured values thus obtained can be read off from the display or from the curve plot (in the form of
crosses). With sweep sequencing, the value last measured is stored.
By turning the rotary knob fast, individual sweep points can be skipped (to be recognized as gaps in the
graphical curve display), or repeated by turning the rotary knob back.
The measured values are indicated by crosses in the Curve Plot mode. If Scan count >1 has been
selected in the display panel, the crosses are not deleted prior to a new character, but remain on the
screen. With strongly fluctuating measured values, the representation approximately takes the shape of
a bar. If sweep steps are skipped or advanced too fast, a NAN value (Not A Number) is entered. When
reaching the end of the sweep, the complete trace (with the last measured values, respectively) is
obtained.
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Analyzer Functions
Spacing
UPL
Spacing of the sweep ranges for menu items
SWEEP CTRL
LIN POINTS
Stop[ Hz ]
Po int s 1
Stop[Hz] Start[Hz]
Step[Hz]
Note:
+1
The sweep range between Start and Stop is logarithmically spaced by a
number of points to be specified under menu item ”Step”.
The multiplier for the step size can be derived from the number of
logarithmic points:
Stop[Hz]
Step =
Start[Hz]
LOG STEPS
Start[ Hz ]
The sweep range between Start and Stop is spaced in frequency intervals
determined by the linear step size in Hz which is to be entered under
menu item "Step".
The number of points can be calculated from the linear step size in Hz:
Po int s =
LOG POINTS
MANU SWEEP
The sweep range between Start and Stop is linearly spaced by a number
of points which is to be entered under menu item "Points".
The step size in Hz can be derived from the number of linear points:
Step[ Hz ] =
LIN STEPS
AUTO SWEEP
1
Po int s 1
The sweep range between Start and Stop is spaced using a logarithmic
step size which is to be entered under menu item ”Step” as multiplier
without unit.
When switching from ...POINTS to ...STEPS, no conversion is performed. The set values are
retained in the background. When switching between LIN STEPS and LOG STEPS, the
numerical value specified for ”Steps” remains the same.
Start
Displayed with normal sweep only (SWEEP CTRL
MANU SWEEP).
Stop
Entry of the start and stop value for the sweep of the band center
frequency.
For the specified range and units, see FREQ MODE
FIX.
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AUTO SWEEP
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UPL
RMS SELECT
Points
Displayed with normal sweeps (SWEEP CTRL
AUTO SWEEP
MANU SWEEP) if the spacing LIN POINTS or LOG POINTS has been
selected.
Enter the number of points for the frequency sweep of the band center
frequency.
Specified range: 2 to 1024
Units:
integer value without unit
Step
Displayed with normal sweeps (SWEEP CTRL
AUTO SWEEP
MANU SWEEP) if LIN STEPS or LOG STEPS has been selected with
Spacing.
Enter the step size for the frequency sweep of the band center frequency.
Specified range:
The step size must be selected such that max. 1023 single steps (= 1024
sweep points) result. The step size must not be larger than the absolute
difference between Stop and Start.
For the valid specified range, see operator guidance line.
Units with
Filename
Spacing
spacing
LIN STEPS:
LOG STEPS:
Hz kHz
no unit, because
of multiplier
Displayed with list sweeps only (SWEEP CTRL
AUTO LIST
LIST) if LIN POINTS or LOG POINTS has been selected.
MANU
File containing the frequency values for the frequency sweep of the band
center frequency. (For the format of the sweep lists, see Appendix).
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Analyzer Functions
FREQ MODE
UPL
Displayed with bandpass center frequency switched off, only (SWEEP
CTRL
OFF).
Specification of the band center frequency.
With analog analyzers, this implies specification of the notch frequency of
the switch-selectable analog notch filter.
FIX
Numerical entry of a fixed bandpass center frequency, i.e., also notch
frequency, if notch switched on (menu line NOTCH (Gain) in the analog
analyzers).
The minimum and maximum possible center frequency is determined by
the instrument selected and the bandwidth specified and displayed in the
operator guidance line. (For table with values, see below.)
For other measurement spheres, the generator can be swept, however
does not cause any change in frequency of the selective rms
measurement.
GEN TRACK
(Generator tracking)
The bandpass center frequency - and also the notch frequency (menu line
Notch(Gain) in the analog analyzers), if switched on - tracks the generator
frequency. This can be varied by the user (entry of value, rotary knob in
menu item “FREQUENCY“ of the generator) or by a generator frequency
sweep.
By means of the factor entered in the next menu line it can be determined
whether the center frequency should directly track the generator
frequency (factor = 1) or be a multiple thereof. If the factor is an integral
multiple, it may be used for measuring single harmonics.
The bandpass center frequency can be tracked to the generator signal
functions SINE, MULTISINE, BURST or SINE2 PULSE“, only; any other
signal function causes an error message.
Note:
FREQ CH1
FREQ CH2
The bandpass center frequency - and also the notch frequency (menu line
Notch(Gain) in the analog analyzers), if switched on, tracks the frequency
measured on channel 1 or 2.
Note:
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When using the low-distortion generator, small frequency offsets
may occur which may lead to incorrect measurements if the
band center frequency is coupled to the rated frequency and the
actual frequency is out of the selected passband or stopband.
The measured frequency should be used in these cases (FREQ
MODE MEAS CH1/2).
Switching over the input channels 1 2 causes the frequency
mode FRQ CH1
FRQ CH2 to be switched over, too.
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UPL
RMS SELECT
Factor
Displayed only with FREQ MODE
GEN TRACK.
Specifies the factor by which the center frequency of the bandpass or
bandstop filter is higher than the generator frequency. An integral factor
>1 allows a single harmonic to be measured. With the factor 1 the
fundamental can be selected.
Specified range:
Note:
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1 to 20
The factor does not affect the notch filter frequency. With GEN
TRACK selected, the notch filter is set exactly to the generator
frequency without considering the "factor" so that a wider
dynamic range can be obtained through the suppression of the
fundamental irrespective of the measurement task.
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Analyzer Functions
Sweep Mode
UPL
Displayed only with FREQ MODE
and DIG 48 kHz analyzers.
GEN TRACK in the ANLG 22 kHz
This menu item is used to increase the speed of frequency sweeps using
the built-in universal generator.
UPL-B29:
In the high rate mode, the sweep can be operated at normal
speed only; the menu item Sweep Mode is therefore not
offered.
To increase the sweep speed the following generator conditions must
be fulfilled:
• Function
SINE
• Low distortion
OFF
• Sweep control
AUTO to
• X axis
FREQ
• Z axis
OFF
In addition, the following settings have to be made in the ANALYZER
panel:
• Freq Mode
GEN TRACK
• Notch (Gain)
OFF (recommended)
Description:
The 1st sweep is always performed with the speed set under NORMAL.
During this sweep the filter and generator parameters for the subsequent
sweeps are learned and stored (learn mode).
As long as no new settings are made in the instrument, the FAST and
BLOCK mode can use the learned parameters as from the 2nd sweep
(play mode) so that setting times for the individual sweep points are
considerable shortened.
If the start key is pressed or a instrument setting made, the (slower) learn
mode is selected.
Note:
In the play mode, measured values are not indicated in the
result display for reasons of speed.
NORMAL
Normal sweep without additional speed optimization; may be used for any
kind of sweep. This setting is used internally whenever one of the
conditions for optimized sweep synchronization is not met, e.g. in the
learn mode (see below).
FAST
Speed-optimized sweep without any operational restrictions. Measured
values are not indicated for reason of speed.
BLOCK
Further speed optimization of sweep but in this case the instrument
cannot be operated during the sweep. If one or several keys are pressed,
the sweep is terminated and the FAST mode is selected where the
functions of the pressed keys are executed. Measured values are not
indicated for reasons of speed; traces are displayed upon completion of
the sweep.
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UPL
RMS SELECT
Notch (Gain)
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
An analog notch can be switched on additionally in the analog analyzers
to improve the stopband attenuation.
The notch frequency is coupled directly to the band center frequency of
the selective filter, i.e., it is selected via the menu FREQ MODE.
Filter
(see 2.7 Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel))
In addition to the selective filter and the analog notch, another (digital)
filter can be selected.
Application: Highpass filter for DC suppression.
Fnct Settl
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output)
Specified range for the bandpass center frequency:
The minimum and maximum possible center frequency is determined by the instrument selected and the
bandwidth specified and is displayed in the operator guidance line.
Analyzer
fc with bandwidth fc with bandwidth
1%
3%
ANLG 22 kHz
fc with
bandwidth
1/3 OCT
fc with bandwidth
1/12 OCT
10 Hz to 21.83 kHz 10 Hz to 21.61 kHz 10 Hz to 19.54 kHz 10 Hz to 21.31 kHz
fc with bandwidth
FIX:
bw fix
... fN1
2
bw fix
2
ANLG 110 kHz 64 Hz to 119.4 kHz 64 Hz to 118.2 kHz 64 Hz to 106.2 kHz 64 Hz to 116.6 kHz 35,91 Hz + bw fix ... f
N2
2
bw fix
2
DIGITAL
fc =
fcmin =
f
N
f c min ... 1005
,
f
N
f c min ... 1015
,
f
N
f c min ... 112246
,
Bandpass center frequency
Int. sample freq.
(minimum center frequency)
4800
117
256
fN=
Int. sample freq.*
bwfix =
bandwidth entered in numerical form
f
N
f c min ... 10293
,
5,05 Hz +
Sample freq. * 0.1052E-3 +
bw fix
bw fix
... fN
2
2
fN1=21.94 kHz
fN2=125 kHz
(useful frequency)
Notes on aural monitoring of residual signal:
Aural monitoring of the residual signal with the RMS selective measurement switched on is possible with
the frequency-controlled universal generator (Low Dist = OFF), with setting FREQ MODE = GEN
TRACK and the narrow bandstop filter Bandwidth = BS 1%. When the generator frequency is varied,
the fundamental is suppressed by the bandstop filter.
If the low-distortion generator is used (Low Dist = ON), which offers a purer spectrum but not quite
the frequency accuracy of the universal generator, the generator frequency may be slightly outside the
range of the BS 1% bandstop filter. Thus the fundamental is not completely suppressed.
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Analyzer Functions
UPL
Remedy:
Select a wide bandstop filter (BS 3%, BS 1/3 OCT, 1/12 OCT) or set FREQ MODE = FIX with the
desired center frequency for the RMS selective measurement and vary the frequency of the lowdistortion generator in the GENERATOR panel by a few Hz to adjust the generator frequency exactly to
the bandwidth of the bandstop filter.
To be able to continuously monitor the residual signal, a frequency measurement must not be selected
in the ANALYZER panel, as for a frequency measurement all filters in the UPL have to be switched off
for a brief period of time, i.e. also the RMS-selective bandpass or bandstop filter:
FREQ/PHASE = OFF,
FREQ MODE not FREQ CH1 | FREQ CH2.
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UPL
Peak / Quasi-Peak
2.6.5.4
PEAK, Q-PEAK (Peak and Quasi-peak Weighting incl. S/N)
Available in the analyzers ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL.
PEAK measurement
Peak value detector follows the waveform without delay.
Quasi-PEAK measurement
Peak value detection with subsequent and defined rising and falling times. This measurement is used
for interference voltage measurements to CCIR 468-4 and DIN 45405.
In the peak and quasi-peak measurement, the maximum peak value of the input signal is determined
and displayed within the monitoring interval selected under menu time ”Intv Time”. Subsequently, the
peak value memory is cleared and the next peak value is searched for. The principle of operation is
comparable to that of a maximum pointer instrument.
As to the measurement:
• With the use of the analog analyzer an internal DC offset is also part of the measured value. The DC
offset can be minimized using the CALIBRAT function in the OPTION panel.
• When applying a squarewave signal, it is bandlimited by the upper limit of the selected analyzer,
leading to overshoots at the edges (Gibb's phenomenon). The overshoots are also measured during
peak weighting, which may lead to a measured value exceeding the input peak. Particularly in the
digital range, full-scale values > 1 may be measured (see 2.4 Units).
S/N Sequ
(S/N Sequence)
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Meas Mode
(Measurement Mode)
of PEAK measurement (see 2.4 Units).
PK +
The peak positive voltage is measured
PK -
The (absolute) peak negative voltage is measured
PK to PK
The peak-to-peak voltage is measured
PK abs
The absolute peak voltage (positive or negative) is measured
Fig. 2-22
Signal with the measurement modes
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Analyzer Functions
Intv Time
UPL
(Interval Time)
Monitoring interval for peak value detection
Selection depends on the type of input signal and measurement sphere.
Universal specifications cannot be made.
FIX 50 MS
50 ms PEAK only
FIX 200 MS
200 ms PEAK only
FIX 1000 MS
1000 ms PEAK only
FIX 3 SEC
3000 ms PEAK only
VALUE
Numerical entry.
Range of value: 20 ms to 100 s,
Units:
s | ms | µs | min
Notes on quasi-peak measurement:
In order to obtain settled measured values, the measuring time
should not drop below 3 s with triggered measurements and
sweeps.
Unit Ch1/2
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Notch (Gain)
quasi peak only
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Filter
(see 2.7 Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel)
Maximum 3 filters can be selected.
UPL-B29:
No filters can be switched on in the high rate mode.
Fnct Settl
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output)
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UPL
DC
2.6.5.5
DC
Principle of measurement
DC voltages can be measured from 0 to ±30 V. The DC reference point is the connecting point 3 of the
XLR female connectors (see 2.6.2). For selecting the measurement range for DC measurements, see
2.6.2, Range Table.
During a DC measurement, overloading of the measurement path caused by a superposed AC voltage
causes a less sensitive range to be automatically set, which however means less measuring accuracy.
Meas Time
If the DC voltage is superposed by an AC voltage, specifying the Meas
Time as integration time relative to the signal period of the AC voltage has
different effects:
Meas Time is an integer multiple of signal period:
An integration effect results. The AC voltage is not included as part of the
DC measurement result. Steady display!
Meas Time larger than, yet no integer multiple of signal period:
As above, yet beats occur in the display
Meas Time smaller than signal period:
No integration effect. The AC voltage is included as part of the DC
measurement result. The DC measurement result follows the course of
the AC voltage.
FIX 200 MS
Measuring time 200 ms
VALUE
Numerical entry.
Specified range:
Units:
100 µs to 1.5 s
s | ms | µs | min
Unit Ch1/2
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Fnct Settl
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output)
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Analyzer Functions
2.6.5.6
UPL
THD Measurement
Available in all analyzers.
For distortion measurements, apply an extremely pure sinewave signal to the device under test. Select
the signal frequency such that the significant components of the distortion spectrum are still below the
upper range limit (see 2.6.1, 2.6.2, 2.6.3) of the selected ANALYZER instrument.
A signal not meeting the requirements leads to a SHOW I/O message (see 2.3.5):
The signal has no zero crossings and is not suitable for distortion measurements:
”Can't find zero crossing in Signal”
With the signal function SINE (see 2.5.4.3) in combination with the low-distortion generator (UPL-B1
option), the generator in the UPL offers a sinewave signal meeting the high demands on its spectral
purity.
Principle of measurement
The UPL offers the possibility of distortion measurements over single harmonics or combinations
thereof (d2 to d9), the amplitudes of the single harmonics being selectively measured and their square
sum put in relation to the total rms value. As against the THD+N measurement (see 2.6.5.7
THD+N/SINAD measurement), broadband noise is not considered in the THD measurement due to the
selective harmonics measurement.
UTHD [ dB] = 20xlog
Ud22 +...+Ud92
Ud22 +...+Ud92
total rms value
:
square sum of selected harmonics
Display of the measurement result:
Apart from displaying the THD in the result display, an additional graphical (histogram) or numerical
display of the fundamental and the individual harmonics can be switched on. This is effected by
selection of OPERATION SPECTRUM or SPECTR LIST in the DISPLAY panel. All harmonics in the
frequency range are indicated in the histogram. The selected harmonics which are contained in the
result are marked by wide bars, the other ones by narrow bars, so that they can be distinguished.
Note:
If the fundamentals applied to the two measuring inputs have different frequencies, the
frequencies indicated in the graphics refer to the channel which is displayed in trace A.
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UPL
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Meas Mode
(Measurement Mode)
Select the harmonics to be measured and the way of display. The
harmonics are then displayed above the measured value window. "THD
2_4_6_8”, for example, means that the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th harmonics
are measured.
SELECT di
Any combination of harmonic distortions d2 to d9. The measurement
result is the root from the square sum of the selected harmonic distortion
referred to the total RMS value. Display in % or dB.
All even di
Like SELECT di, all even harmonics distortions (d2, d4, d6, d8) being
selected.
All odd di
Like SELECT di, all odd harmonic distortions (d3, d5, d7, d9) being
selected.
All di
Like SELECT di, all harmonic distortions (d2 to d9) being selected.
LEV SEL di
Any combination of harmonic distortions d2 to d9. The measurement
result is the root from the square sum of the selected harmonic distortion,
display as RMS value (with any level unit).
LEV even di
Like LEV SEL di, all even harmonics distortions (d2, d4, d6, d8) being
selected.
LEV odd di
Like LEV SEL di, all odd harmonic distortions (d3, d5, d7, d9) being
selected.
LEV all di
Like LEV SEL di, all harmonic distortions (d2 to d9) being selected.
di 2 4 6 8
is displayed only, if either SELECT di or LEV SEL di has been selected
with Meas Mode.
d2
d3
d4
d5
d6
d7
d8
d9
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Upon selection of the desired harmonic distortions using the and keys,
the harmonic distortion measurement can be selected ( ) or disabled by
pressing the SELECT key.
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Analyzer Functions
Dyn Mode
UPL
(Dynamic Mode) only with analog analyzers,
determines the possible dynamic of the measurement result and thus the
measurement rate.
FAST
A fast measurement with less dynamic is performed.
PRECISION
The measurement is performed with higher dynamic and with the analog
notch filter cut in. The notch filter is suitable for measurements up to 22.5
kHz - i.e. there are no restrictions in the ANLG 22-kHz instrument. Signals
with a fundamental 22.5 kHz can be measured in the ANLG 110-kHz
instrument. Signals with a fundamental > 22.5 kHz cause the error
message "Frequency exceeds notch range" to be output.
The measuring time is longer in the PRECISION mode.
Unit
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(See 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
only available in level measurement modes (LEV...).
This value may be entered manually if desired. Otherwise, the current
RMS value will be automatically entered, if the reference value of INPUT
DISP RMS is stored with the STORE (or STORE CH1 or STORE CH2)
function.
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UPL
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Fundamental
Specifies how the fundamental is to be determined.
AUTO
UPL automatically determines the fundamental (during a THD
measurement).
VALUE
AUTO should always be used when the signal is derived from a lowdistortion generator or an external generator and the signal has not an
extremely high harmonic content.
Numerical entry of fundamental
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz:
6 Hz to 21.9 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz:
38 Hz to 125 kHz
DIGITAL:
sample frequency/8192 to useful bandwidth
Useful bandwidth = sample frequency * 117/256
VALUE should be preferred for signals with a high harmonic content
derived from an external generator.
GEN TRACK
UPL takes the fundamental from the frequency setting of the generator.
This improves the setting accuracy for signals with a high harmonic
content.
GEN TRACK should be used when the signal is derived from the internal
universal generator.
Note:
When the internal low-distortion generator is used, the generator
frequency is accurately measured and the fundamental
corrected, if required. Thus the measurement result is not
influenced by the frequency inaccuracy of the generator (e.g.
temperature drift).
Graphical presentation of THD measurement
results
in the form of a histogram see 2.10.1 and
2.10.2
Fnct Settl
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output)
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Analyzer Functions
2.6.5.7
UPL
THD+N/SINAD Measurement (Total Harmonic Distortion+ Noise)
Available in all analyzers.
For THD or SINAD measurements, apply a highly pure sinewave signal to the device under test. Select
the signal frequency such that the significant components of the THD spectrum are still below the upper
measurement limit (see 2.6.1, 2.6.2, 2.6.3) of the used ANALYZER instrument.
If the signal offered does not meet the requirements, a SHOW I/O message is output (see 2.3.5):
• In the frequency range, the fundamental wave cannot be found:
"Can't find fundamental"
• The frequency of the found fundamental wave is less than the lower limit value (for its calculation,
see below, Fundamental VALUE):
”Fundamental too low”
With the signal function SINE (see 2.5.4.3) in combination with the low-distortion generator (UPL-B1
option), the generator in the UPL offers a sinewave signal meeting the high demands on its spectral
purity.
Principle of measurement
The fundamental is filtered out and the remaining energy consisting of harmonics and broadband noise
within the band limits specified under "FrqLim Low" and "FrqLim Upp" is calculated in one or several
FFT procedures. The user can select the size of the first FFT for starting the calculation,
• implicitly by selecting measurement time (with post FFT switched off)
• explicitly by selecting FFT size (with post FFT switched on).
A compromise has to be made between measurement speed and measurement accuracy. If the FFT
size is not sufficient to measure the fundamental of the measurement signal, the FFT size and if
required the zoom factor can be increased in steps.
The energy of the noise and harmonics can either be displayed as an rms value or related to the total
rms value, the total rms value being bandlimited to "FrqLim Upp". The selection is made under the menu
item "Meas Mode". Depending on the selected measurement mode, different units are used:
• V or FS for rms display
• % or dB for the ratio display
In the measurement modes NOISE and LEVEL NOISE, all harmonics are filtered out in addition to the
fundamental. With every harmonic also the noise energy of the respective sideband is filtered out. In the
case of very low frequencies - and theoretically a great number of harmonics - a considerable amount of
the noise energy is thus lost. These measurement modes should therefore only be used for higher
frequencies (> 100 FFT resolution) and large FFT size.
Measurement limits
The lower frequency limit for the signal is 10 Hz (or 20 Hz in the ANLG 110 kHz). The frequency of the
fundamental must be limited at the upper end so that the harmonic to be measured is still below the limit
frequency of the analyzer used or below the selected "FrqLim Upp". For measurements in the dynamic
mode PRECISION, the fundamental (in the ANLG 110 kHz analyzer) should not be higher than 22.5 kHz
(upper frequency limit of built-in analog notch filter).
For noise measurements (in the measurement modes NOISE and LEVEL NOISE, with harmonics not
being taken into account) the fundamental must be at least 36 times the minimum resolution (displayed
under Post FFT). In the ANLG 22-kHz analyzer and at a sampling rate of 48 kHz in the digital analyzer,
a lower limit of 105.6875 Hz is obtained, in the ANLG 110 kHz analyzer 675 Hz.
THDN Post FFT is only possible if the fundamental of the measurement signal is by a multiple
(depending on the selected analyzer) above the resolution selected under Post FFT (see FFT size). To
reduce the resolution and thus the lower frequency limit, the FFT size may have to be increased.
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UPL
THD+N/SINAD
Measurement speed
The measurement speed depends on the (selected) FFT size and the required dynamic measurement
range.
The required FFT size is obtained from the frequency of the signal to be measured and the desired
accuracy. The wider the FFT, the finer the frequency resolution and the lower the lower frequency limit.
Consequently, a wide FFT has to be used for low frequencies or high accuracy requirements so that a
longer measurement time has to be accepted.
For measuring particularly low-distortion signals, the measurement range can be extended by selecting
the Precision mode with the result that the measurement time is doubled.
To obtain the highest possible measurement speed, two parameters can be optimized:
• Select smallest FFT size or adapt the FFT size to the fundamental of the measurement signal. The
FFT size should be large enough so that the fundamental to be measured is at least 10 times greater
(8.5 times in the ANLG 110, 12 times in the digital analyzer) as the resolution displayed under Post
FFT. Only then can be total signal be measured with one single FFT. If the UPL generator is used as
a signal source, Fundamental GEN TRACK and FFT Size 512 ("Meas Time SUPERFAST".) should
be selected.
• Select Dynamic Mode FAST if the signal does not require the full dynamic measurement range.
Display of measurement result:
In addition to the total harmonic distortion (in the result display), its frequency spectrum can also be
represented graphically or numerically as POST FFT. This is effected by selection of OPERATION
SPECTRUM or SPECTR LIST in the DISPLAY panel.
U
Grundwelle
2 x N x Auflösung der FFT
d2
d3
d4
d5
f
Frq Lim Upp
Frq Lim Low
=
Ud22 + Ud32 + ... + UNoise2
=
Gesamteffektivwert
(Grundwelle ausgefiltert)
Fig. 2-23
N=
12 for digital analyzer
10 for ANLG 22 kHz
8.5 for ANLG 110 kHz
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Analyzer Functions
UTHD+N [ dB] = 20 * log
UPL
2
U 2 +U 2 +...+U
d2
d3
noise
total rms value
THD+N measurements provide negative dB-values, SINAD measurements result in positive dB-values.
The magnitudes of the values are identical.
Ud22 + Ud32 +...+ U noise2
=
Square sum of all harmonic distortions+ noise within the
frequency range specified under FrqLim Low and FrqLim Upp.
Meas Mode
(Measurement mode)
Selection of the measurement and display modes. The measurement
mode selected is displayed above the measured value window.
THD+N
The THD including noise is measured, the result is the root from the
square sum of the selected harmonic and the noise voltage, referred to
the total RMS value, display in % or dB.
SINAD
Like THD+N, however, displayed as reciprocal value; display only
(positive) dB.
NOISE
The noise is measured, only; the noise voltage referred to the total RMS
value is obtained as result, display in % or dB.
LEVEL THDN
The THD including noise is measured, the result is the root from the
square sum of the selected harmonic and the noise voltage, display of the
rms value (in any level unit).
LEVEL NOISE
The noise is measured, only; the noise is obtained as result, display of the
rms value in % or dB.
Dyn Mode
(Dynamic Mode) only in the analog analyzers
Determines the possible dynamic of the measurement result and thus the
measurement rate.
FAST
A fast measurement with low dynamic is performed.
PRECISION
The measurement is performed with higher dynamic and with the analog
notch filter cut in; the measuring time increases, correspondingly.
The notch filter is laid out for measurements up to 22.5 kHz - i.e. there are
no restrictions in the ANLG 22-kHz instrument. Signals with a
fundamental
22.5 kHz can be measured in the ANLG 110-kHz
instrument. Signals with a fundamental > 22.5 kHz cause the error
message "Frequency exceeds notch range" to be output.
The measuring time is longer in the PRECISION mode.
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UPL
THD+N/SINAD
Rejection
Displayed only in the analog instruments with the Dyn Mode FAST.
NARROW
The fundamental is suppressed extremely narrowband. Thus,
interference components can be recognized which are very close to the
carrier.
WIDE
To suppress the fundamental, a notch filter is used with a characteristic
which was in the past commonly used in analog measuring instruments.
The measured values are improved due to the broadband filtering, since
harmonic components close to the carrier are also suppressed.
This mode should be used if the measurement results are to be
comparable to those of analog instruments.
Meas Time
(Measurement time)
The measurement time is used to adapt the measurement speed to the
required accuracy. To obtain a higher measurement speed the (initial)
FFT size is reduced.
SLOW
Measurements are performed with the greatest FFT size (8k zoom FFT).
Additional FFTs (with a higher zoom factor) are only required for
extremely low frequencies. This setting should be selected in particular
when only the noise (NOISE or LEVEL NOISE) is measured so that
harmonics are suppressed with a bandwidth as narrow as possible.
FAST
The initial FFT is measured with reduced FFT size (2 k). With low
frequencies, additional FFTs (with more points and a higher zoom factor)
are required.
SUPERFAST
The initial FFT is measured with the smallest FFT size (0.5 k). Additional
FFTs (with more points and a higher zoom factor) may be required. This
setting should only be selected if the measurement result need not be too
accurate and the frequency of the signal to be measured is not very low.
Note:
With post-FFT switched on, the FFT size can be set as required
irrespective of the settings made here, i.e. the selected
measurement speed is ignored.
Unit
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(See 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
only available in level measurement modes (LEV...).
This value may be entered manually if desired. Otherwise, the current
RMS value will be automatically entered, if the reference value of INPUT
DISP RMS is stored with the STORE (or STORE CH1 or STORE CH2)
function.
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Analyzer Functions
Fundamental
UPL
Determines how to obtain the fundamental frequency.
AUTO
UPL determines the fundamental frequency automatically (while the
THD+N measurement is being performed)
VALUE
Numerical entry of fundamental frequency.
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz:
10.0 Hz
to
21.9 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz:
20 Hz
to
120 kHz
DIGITAL:
12 * sample freq. /8 * 8192 to sample
freq. * 117/256
The setting VALUE should preferably be used for signals with a high
harmonic content when an external generator is used as a signal source.
GEN TRACK
UPL takes the fundamental from the frequency setting of the generator.
This increases the setting accuracy for signals with high harmonic content
and increases the measurement speed.
If the frequency of a fundamental cannot be measured with the set FFT
size, the FFT size is increased such that the measurement can be
performed with a single FFT (or 2 FFTs in the precision mode). Thus the
highest possible measurement speed can be obtained for any generator
frequency with the setting FFT Size 512.
Setting GEN TRACK is to be used when the signal is derived from the
internal generator.
Note:
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When the internal low-distortion generator is used, the generator
frequency is accurately measured in the measurement modes
NOISE or LEVEL NOISE and the dynamic mode PRECISION
and the fundamental is corrected, if required. Thus the
measurement result is not influenced by the frequency
inaccuracy of the generator (e.g. temperature drift). This does not
affect the measurement speed, however.
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UPL
THD+N/SINAD
Filter
OFF
A weighting
C MESSAGE
CCITT
CCIR wtd
CCIR unwtd
DEEM 50/15
DEEMPH 50
DEEMPH 75
DEEMPH J.17
RUMBLE WTD
RUMBLE UNW
DC NOISE HP
CCIR ARM
IEC TUNER
The THD+N measurement result can be weighted using one of 14 filters
(see 2.7.1). User definable filters are available, too.
CCIR unwtd is not available in the ANLG 110-kHz instrument.
FrqLim Low
Lower band limit of THD+N / SINAD measurement function. This limit
does not influence calculation of the total RMS value.
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz:
10.0 Hz to 21.93 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz:
20.0 Hz to (120 kHz - 62.5 Hz)
DIGITAL:
sample freq./ (2 * 8192) to (sample freq. * 0.45294)
FrqLim Upp
Upper band limit of THD+N / SINAD measurement function
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz:
(FrqLim Low + 8.79 Hz) to 21.94 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz:
(FrqLim Low + 62.5 Hz) to 120 kHz
(FrqLim Low + sample freq. / 5461.3) to sample
DIGITAL:
freq. * 117/256
Note:
If the fundamental of the measurement signal is above "FrqLim
Upp", relative measurements (THDN, SINAD and NOISE) are not
useful because the energy of the fundamental has been filtered
out in the reference signal. In this case an error message is
output.
Only harmonic distortions and noise components within the band limits are used in the calculation.
Only frequencies below FrqLim Upp are considered in the calculation of the total RMS value.
Fnct Settl
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(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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Analyzer Functions
POST FFT
UPL
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
OFF
There is no post-processing of measuring data for POST FFT, the
measurement can thus be terminated faster.
ON
After obtaining the result of the THD+N measurement, the measured data
are prepared for POST FFT display. The display can be selected in the
DISPLAY panel. Only FFT Size of the following five FFT setting
parameters can be modified, all others are displayed.
Note:
FFT Size
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
If the selected FFT size is too small, the POST FFT cannot be
displayed.
FFT size used for THDN calculation and post-FFT display, adjustable
between 512 and 8192 in steps of 2.
A larger FFT size (i.e. more calculated points) yields a finer frequency
resolution and thus a lower frequency limit and higher accuracy but longer
measurement times.
The FFT size selected determines the display of the post FFT and the
original zoom FFT used for THDN calculation. If the FFT size is not
sufficient to resolve the fundamental, the following results are obtained
has the following consequences:
• The post FFT cannot be displayed; an error message is indicated in
the graphics display.
• Additional FFTs with an increased number of points are automatically
calculated; the measurement time is extended accordingly.
To be able to perform a Post FFT, the fundamental must be above the
displayed resolution (see below) by a defined factor. This factor is as
follows:
•
•
•
•
12 for (LEVEL) THDN and SINAD in the digital analyzer,
10 for (LEVEL) THDN and SINAD in the ANLG 22 kHz analyzer,
8,5 for (LEVEL) THDN and SINAD in the ANLG 110 kHz analyzer,
36 for all (LEVEL) NOISE measurements.
If required, the FFT size has to be increased or the ANLG 22 kHz
instrument has to be selected.
To avoid additional FFTs (because the FFT size is too small) without
having to switch to a larger and thus slower FFT, "Fundamental GEN
TRACK" should be selected when the internal generator is used. With this
setting the fundamental is known before the 1st FFT so that the
calculation can be started with the smallest possible FFT ( FFT size).
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UPL
THD+N/SINAD
Window
Always RIFE VINC 2 (analog) or RIFE VINC 3 (digital)
Note:
For special applications the FFT window may be selected
arbitrarily with the THD+N measurment using the command
line parameter "-tthdnwin" ; the "-tthdn" parameter which can
be used up to software version 2.02 has no function any
more with 2.03.
Start
Display value, not identical with FrqLim Low
Stop
Display value, (useful bandwidth), not identical with FrqLim High
Resolution
The display value determines the lower limit frequency for the
measurement.
Equalizer
Activation/deactivation of an equalizer table consisting of frequency
information and associated voltage gain factors.
The frequency response of a transmission link can be equalized, for
example, and the measurement point can be transformed to a different
reference point.
The FFT bins of the spectrum recorded are multiplied by a frequencydependent equalizer factor which may be calculated by interpolating the
two adjacent frequency reference points of the equalizer table. The FFT
spectrum thus equalized can be used as a basis for the calculation of the
THD+N or level value and can be displayed.
The equalization of the FFT spectrum is an interesting alternative to
filtering the input signal since the equalizer file can be easily generated
from the frequency response to be equalized (see 2.9.1.2) and does not
have to be available as coefficient or pole/zero file.
Typical application for acoustic measurements (e.g. mobile phones):
compensation of transfer function ERP (ear reference point) to
DRP (drum reference point) for measurements on artificial ears
of type 3.2 or higher. The THD+N measurement of the sound
waves by the microphone applied to the "eardrum" can thus be
referred to the required measurement point (at the auricle).
ON
The equalizer is switched on. The menu item 'Equal. file' is activated, i.e.
the indicated file is loaded. The THD+N value is calculated from the
equalized FFT spectrum.
OFF
The equalizer is switched off. The THD+N value is calculated from the
original FFT spectrum.
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Analyzer Functions
Equal. file
UPL
(Equalizer file) only if equalizer
ON
Menu item for entering the name of the equalizer file. The file is opened
and loaded into an internal buffer.
If the name entered is not valid (drive not ready, file not found, invalid
format etc), an error message is displayed and "not found" is entered into
the menu line.
For entering file names see 2.3.2.5
For generating an equalizer file see 2.9.1.2 Loading and Storing of Series
of Measured Values and Block/List Data ("Store
EQUALIZATN").
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Aural monitoring of the residual THD+N signal is described in section
2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output; Example of application: Monitoring the
distortion component of a signal.
UPL-B29: Aural monitoring of the residual signal is not possible in the
high rate mode.
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UPL
Modulation Distortion (MOD DIST)
2.6.5.8
MOD DIST (Modulation Distortion)
Available in all analyzers.
For modulation distortion measurements, apply a frequency mixture consisting of a low-frequency
interfering sinewave signal (e.g. 60 Hz) and a high-frequency useful sinewave signal (e.g. 7 kHz) to the
device under test. The amplitude of the interfering signal should be equal or higher than that of the
useful signal. According to DIN IEC 268 Part 3, a peak amplitude ratio of interfering : useful signal = 4 :
1 should preferably be selected.
When the signal offered does not meet the requirements, a SHOW I/O message (see 2.5.3) is output:
• Useful signal is not in the frequency range from 2 kHz to 110 kHz:
”Cannot find high tone in the range from 2 to 110 kHz.”
• Interfering signal is not in the frequency range from 0 Hz to 1100 Hz:
”Cannot find low tone in the range from 0 to 1100 Hz.”
With the signal function MOD DIST (see 2.5.4.7), the UPL generator offers by the above frequency
mixture, allowing the frequencies and amplitude ratio of interfering and useful signal as well as the level
to be specified. Total level and useful frequency can be swept.
Principle of measurement
Unaffected by noise due to selective measurement, the UPL measures the intermodulation products of
2nd and 3rd order in line with DIN IEC 268 Part 3 and does the square sum of the intermodulation
products. (Contrary to the DIN IEC 268 Part 3 Recommendation, the total modulation distortion is
measured to permit comparisons with the hitherto commonly used SMPTE measurement procedures).
f1 (interfering signal)
f2 (useful signal)
d2
d2
d3
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
8,7
8,8
d3
8,9
9,0
9,1
9,2
9,3
Frequency in kHz
d2 = Intermodulation product of 2nd order
d3 = Intermodulation product of 3rd order
Fig. 2-24
Modulation distortion of 2nd order
dm2 =
U( f1+ f 2 ) + U( f 2
U( f 2 )
f1)
Modulation distortion of 3rd order
dm3 =
U( f 2
+ U( f 2 + 2 f1)
U( f 2 )
2 f1)
Square sum:
dm(2 + 3) = dm2 2 + dm32
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MOD DIST [dB] = 20 * lg (dm(2 + 3))
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Analyzer Functions
UPL
Display of the measurement result:
In addition to displaying the total intermodulation distortion in the result display, an additional graphical
(histogram) or numerical display of the useful frequency and the signal frequency and of the individual
intermodulation products can be switched on. This is effected by selection of OPERATION SPECTRUM
or SPECTR LIST in the DISPLAY panel.
Note:
If the intermodulation signals applied to the two measuring inputs have different frequencies,
the frequencies indicated in the graphics refer to the channel which is displayed in trace A.
Dyn Mode
(Dynamic Mode), with analog analyzers, only.
Determines the possible dynamic of the measurement result and thus the
measurement rate.
FAST
A fast measurement with less dynamic is performed.
PRECISION
If the measured value is better than 55 dB (analog 22 kHz) or 40 dB
(analog 110 kHz), the measurement is performed with higher dynamic
range and analog notch filter cut in. The measuring time increases,
correspondingly. If the intermodulation value of the signal drops below 50
to 55 dB, the measurement is performed in FAST mode.
Unit
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Fnct Settl
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Graphical presentation of MOD DIST measurement
results in the form of a histogram see 2.10.1 and 2.10.2
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UPL
2.6.5.9
Difference Frequency Distortion (DFD)
DFD (Difference Frequency Distortion)
Available in all analyzers.
To measure the difference frequency distortion of 2nd or 3rd order, apply a frequency mixture to the
device under test. The frequency mixture is to consist of two sinewave signals of the same amplitude
with, to DIN IEC 268 part 3, an arithmetic mean frequency out of the one-third octave band (5, 6.3, 8,
10, 12.5, 16, 20 kHz). A frequency offset of 80 Hz is to be selected, preferably.
Frequency limits for d2- and d3-measurements:
2f2-f1 must still be within the frequency range of the instrument set (see 2.6.1).
When the signal offered does not meet the requirements, a SHOW I/O message is output (see 2.3.5):
• The frequency difference is higher than 1100 Hz:
”Frequency difference of IMD tones seems to be too large; (> 2100.0 Hz)”
• The frequency difference is less than 70 Hz:
”Frequency difference of IMD tones seems to be too small; (<70.0 Hz)”
• The levels of the two sinewave signals differ by more than 20 %:
”Level of IMD tones seems to be too different; (more than 20 %)”
Note:
A level check of IMD tones is not performed in the measurement modes to IEC 118. A DFD
measurement can therefore be carried out even in the case of strongly distorted IMD signals
(e.g. because of the frequency response of the DUT or the transmission path).
With the signal function DFD (see 2.5.4.8), the UPL generator offers the above frequency mixture. The
mean frequency, frequency difference and total amplitude can be specified by the user.
Principle of measurement
With the Meas Mode d2 or d3 selected, the UPL measures selectively. Thus being unaffected by noise,
the intermodulation products of 2nd or 3rd order are measured in accordance with DIN IEC 268 part 3.
Fig. 2-25
Difference frequency distortion of 2nd order:
d2 [dB] = 20 x lg
U(f2
d3 [dB] = 20 x lg
2xU(f2 )
d 2 [dB] = 20 x lg
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f1 )
U ( f2
U ( f2 )
Difference frequency distortion of 3rd order:
f1 )
U( 2f2
d3 [dB] = 20 x lg
2.215
f1)
+ U( 2f1
2xU(f2 )
U (2 f1
U( f2 )
f2 )
f2 )
to IEC 268
to IEC 118
E-11
Analyzer Functions
UPL
Display of measurement result:
In addition to displaying the difference frequency distortion (d2 or d3) in the result display, an additional
graphical (histogram) or numerical display of the center frequency and the difference frequency
(according to the meas. mode selected) and of the individual intermodulation products can be switched
on. This is effected by selection of OPERATION SPECTRUM or SPECTR LIST in the DISPLAY panel.
Note:
If the intermodulation signals applied to the two measuring inputs have different frequencies,
the frequencies indicated in the graphics refer to the channel which is displayed in trace A.
Meas Mode
Measurement mode for selecting the order of the intermodulation product
and the measurement standard used.
d2 (IEC 268)
Measurement and display of 2nd order intermodulation products referred
to twice the "upper frequency" (to IEC 268).
d3 (IEC 268)
Measurement and display of 3rd order intermodulation products referred
to twice the "upper frequency" (to IEC 268).
d2 (IEC 118)
Measurement and display of 2nd order intermodulation products referred
to the "upper frequency" (to IEC 118).
d3 (IEC 118)
Measurement and display of 3rd order intermodulation products referred
to the "upper frequency" (to IEC 118).
Note:
Dyn Mode
Measurements to IEC 118 are mainly used for hearing aids. Due
to the different formulae, the d2 measurement to IEC 268 yields
a result better by 6 dB.
Dynamic Mode, only for analog Meas Mode
d2;
determines the possible dynamic of the measurement result and thus the
measurement rate.
FAST
A fast measurement with less dynamic is performed.
PRECISION
If the measured value is better than 50 dB, the measurement is made
with higher dynamic. The measuring time increases, correspondingly. If
the intermodulation value of the signal is below 50 dB, the measurement
is performed in FAST mode.
Unit
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Fnct Settl
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
1078.2008.02
2.216
E-11
UPL
1078.2008.02
Difference Frequency Distortion (DFD)
2.217
E-11
Wow & Flutter
2.6.5.10
UPL
Wow & Flutter
Available only in the instruments ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL.
Measurement of the frequency deviation of a recording device (wow & flutter). To this end, a sine tone
with fixed frequency (usually 3.15 kHz or 3.00 kHz) is reproduced by a reference sound carrier. During
its reproduction, frequency errors occur because of cyclic variations. Frequency distortion is specified in
percent of the carrier frequency. These deviations are determined using different weighting filters and
methods depending on which standard is applied.
Principle of measurement
The input signal is limited symmetrically to the test frequency (3 kHz to NAB and JIS, 3.15 kHz to DIN)
using a bandpass filter (passband width 1000 Hz, attenuation 80 dB, Bessel characteristic), and is
subsequently subjected to FM demodulation. The demodulator output is sampled at 1/16 of the original
sampling frequency and stored for POST FFT. A higher sampling rate is not useful because the signal is
band-limited. Following a bandpass which can be cut in, the respective weighting is selected depending
on the standard.
Standard
DIN/IEC
Set the standard applying to the measurement:
Standards:
Reference frequency:
Weighting filters:
Weighting method:
NAB
Standards:
Reference frequency:
Weighting filters:
Weighting method:
JIS
Standards:
Reference frequency:
Weighting filters:
Weighting method:
2 Sigma 5 s
2 Sigma 10 s
DIN 45507 / IEC 386 / CCIR 409-2
3150 Hz
weighted:
bandpass, center frequency 4 Hz
unweighted:
highpass, 0.5 Hz
quasi-peak,
time constants: rising time:
30.8 ms,
falling time:
606 ms
NAB Rec.
3000 Hz
weighted:
bandpass, center frequency 4 Hz
unweighted:
highpass, 0.5 Hz
averaging the detected
frequency error signal,
time constant: 300 ms
Japan Industry Standard
3000 Hz
weighted:
bandpass, center frequency 4 Hz
unweighted:
highpass, 0.5 Hz
rms weighting, integration time 2 sec
The 2-sigma weighting to IEC 386/1988 is implemented in the UPL. Its
purpose is to determine a threshold for the wow and flutter value at which
5 % of the measured values have a magnitude that is higher than this
threshold, ensuring that sporadically occurring outliers do not affect the
measurement result.
The integration time is selectable: 5 or 10 seconds.
Weighting
ON
The measurement is weighted using a weighting filter, bandpass 4 Hz.
OFF
Weighting filter off, highpass 0.5 Hz.
Maximum weighting bandwidth in both cases: 200 Hz
1078.2008.02
2.218
E-11
UPL
Wow & Flutter
Frequency response of weighting filter (to DIN 45507, IEC 386, CCIR Rec. 409-2):
Fig. 2-26 Frequency response of weighting filter
Unit
(cf. 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
The W&F measurement result can be indicated in %, only.
Fnct Settl
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Post FFT
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
ON
Display of the frequency spectrum of the data which have been FMdemodulated and weighted with the weighting filter. The wow and flutter
measurement is aborted after about 2 seconds with POST FFT selected.
The demodulated data are subsequently used for calculation of an FFT.
OFF
No POST FFT (thus no interruption of the measurement).
FFT Size
Enter FFT size (256 to 8192). (see 2.6.5.12 FFT).
Window
Select the window function; possible windows and their applications, see
2.6.5.12 FFT.
Start
Display of the frequency limits of the generated spectrum (no entry).
Since the demodulator stage samples by the factor 16, the upper limit of
the spectrum is
127/256 * sampling rate / 16
(For sampling rate, cf. 2.6.1 Selecting the Analyzer).
Stop
Resolution
Display of frequency resolution (no editing).
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
1078.2008.02
2.219
E-11
Polarity
2.6.5.11
UPL
POLARITY (Polarity Test)
Available in all analyzers.
The POLARITY measurement serves to check whether a device under test passes on an applied signal
with the same polarity or with reversed polarity. To this end, set the POLARITY function on the
generator (see 2.5.4.11) and apply the generator test signal (SINE2 BURST signal) to the DUT.
Principle of measurement:
The analyzer weights and displays the polarity of the DUT output signal. In order for the convention
without polarity reversal =
with polarity reversal
=
"+1 Pol" is displayed
” -1 Pol ” is displayed
to be true, a positive SINE2 BURST signal must be applied to the DUT. The UPL generator provides a
suitable signal function (POLARITY) for this purpose.
An external signal can also be applied to the DUT provided that a suitable SINE2 BURST signal is used.
Display
+1 POL
DUT
without
polarity reversal
CH 1
-1 POL
DUT
with
polarity reversal
CH 2
Fig. 2-27
SPEAKER
1078.2008.02
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
2.220
E-11
UPL
2.6.5.12
FFT (Spectrum)
FFT (Spectrum)
Available in all analyzers.
Spectrum display of the input signal, transforming into the frequency range being effected by way of the
so-called fast Fourier transform (FFT). The graphical or numerical display of the FFT can be selected in
the DISPLAY panel (menu item OPERATION). The graphical display is in line with the parameters set in
the DISPLAY panel. The section to be displayed (in the x and y directions) can be selected independent
of the frequency range and zoomed zone selected in the ANALYZER panel. If, due to inappropriate
settings in both panels, a result is outside the visible screen , this can be remedied quickly by selection
of the AUTO scaling for the X and the Y-axis (see also 2.10 Graphical Data Presentation (DISPLAY and
GRAPHICS Panels)).
Note:
In the ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL analyzers the input signal can be filtered with up to 3
filters. Filters cannot be used in the ANLG 110 kHz analyzer but spectrum display of a
filtered input signal is possible by means of menu item Post-FFT of the RSM & S/N
function.
DC Suppres
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Selectable in the digital analyzer only; corresponding setting for analog
analyzers:
"Coupling AC/DC", see 2.6.2 Configuration of the Analog Analyzers
Note:
Unit Ch1/2
With DC suppression switched on, the measurement time for
FFT is approx. 200 ms longer.
Selection of the unit for the display of the RMS value for channel 1 or 2,
respectively.
(cf. 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Functions)
The selection entered here is referred to for display of the spectrum in
the DISPLAY panel, as standard. However, it may be overwritten in the
DISPLAY panel (by entry under menu item Unit of TRACE A or B).
Reference
Chan Delay
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
(Interchannel delay)
Delay compensation of the DUT by entering the time by which channel 1
is to be delayed with respect to channel 2. If channel 2 has a shorter delay
than channel 1, this can be compensated for by entering a negative value.
Delay compensation is of relevance to phase measurements, as time
discrepancies between the two test signals result in a phase shift
dependent on the current frequency, which may corrupt the phasemeasurement result.
Specified range: -10 s to +10 s
Note:
1078.2008.02
If zoom FFT is switched on, interchannel delay cannot be
selected; it is set to 0 internally.
2.221
E-11
FFT (Spectrum)
Filter
UPL
(See 2.7 Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel))
In analyzers ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL, up to three filters can be
selected in Meas Mode AUDIO DATA.
Option UPL-B29:
mode.
Notch (Gain)
FFT Size
256
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
FFT size, settable from 256 to 8192 in binary steps.
The larger the FFT size (more calculated points), the better the frequency
resolution, however the longer the measuring time. The number of
displayable lines as a function of FFT Size and ZOOMing is given below:
Zooming ON: maximum
Zooming OFF: analog:
digital:
Note:
1078.2008.02
No filter can be switched on in the high rate
FFT Size x 117/256 x 2
FFT Size x 117/256
FFT Size x 127/256
The number of displayable lines may be reduced with the
"Zooming ON" setting - part of the frequency lines may fall
within the negative frequency range due to eccentric “Center“
setting.
2.222
E-11
UPL
FFT (Spectrum)
Window
Selection of the window function:
In system theory, the FFT treats a block of data (finite-length signal
sequence) as though it were an infinite periodic sequence. In practice,
however, discontinuities usually occur at the ends of the block. The
discontinuities would be weighted as pulses (with white spectrum). This
pulse spectrum masks the actual (useful) signal spectrum (leakage).
Remedy: The ends of the finite-length signal sequence for the FFT are
smoothly tapered to zero by windowing the data. The FFT then treats the
signal as a continuous periodic sequence. Window functions thus help to
minimize the leakage (at the expense of selectivity).
HANN
Range of applications of the windows:
The HANN window combines selectivity with good leakage suppression
for distant interferences, yet has a relatively wide bell-shaped curve
around the signal lines.
RECTANGULAR
Window function switched off. When the signal fits exactly with an integer
number of periods into the block windowed for the FFT, there will be no
discontinuities at the block ends. In this case, a window is not necessary
and maximum frequency resolution can be obtained. This characteristic is
advantageous for fast and frequency-precise measurements of frequency
responses in the case of the generator signals RANDOM / Domain: FRQ
(so-called FFT noise, see 2.5.4.9 RANDOM, Domain = Frequency) and
MULTISINE (see 2.5.4.4).
(See 2.6.7.3 Fast Frequency Response Measurement)
BLACKMAN-H
The bell-shaped curve falls off very steeply to about 80 dB; however
below this point, this window has considerable leakage.
RIFE-VINC 1
RIFE-VINC 2
RIFE-VINC 3
Suppression of distant interferences is excellent with all 3 windows. With
increasing order of the windows, the width of the bell-shaped curve
decreases at the bottom of the single lines and increases at the top.
Various trade-offs between frequency resolution and suppression of close
interferences can thus be made.
HAMMING
Offers no significant advantages, has been implemented for the sake of
completeness.
FLAT_TOP
The top of the bell-shaped curve (which is caused only by a single sine
line) is as flat as to include always two adjacent lines with approximately
the same height.
Advantage: The amplitude can be precisely read from the graphs as
against with other window functions.
Disadvantage: Poor frequency selectivity.
KAISER
The trade-off between selectivity, close interference suppression and
distant interference suppression determines the selection of parameter ß
(from 1.5 to 20). With ß = 8, selectivity is good but distant interference
suppression is only about 90 dB. With ß = 16, distant interference
suppression is excellent, however the bell is relatively wide.
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
1078.2008.02
2.223
E-11
FFT (Spectrum)
Avg Mode
UPL
Selection of the averaging method in the FFT
NORMAL
The entered number of FFTs is executed, the partial results added and
then divided by this number.
With swept waterfall (OPERATION mode WATERFALL), the waterfall is
displayed with respect to all sweeps points.
EXPONENTIAL
Averaging is executed continuously. The current result is calculated to:
AVG (n ) = 1 FFT (n ) + k 1 AVG (n 1)
k
k
With swept waterfall (OPERATION mode WATERFALL), a waterfall of
the intermediate results is displayed for every sweep point; then the
waterfall is cleared (for the next sweep point).
Notes:
After a restart of the measurement (e.g. caused by SWEEP,
calibration or cursor movement), averaging is started anew.
Average is not executed if the display mode is set to MAX
HOLD.
Avg Count
Number of averagings (with Avg Mode NORMAL) or k (Avg Mode
EXPONENTIAL, see AVG(n) formula.
Zooming
Determines, whether the FFT is calculated from the entire frequency
range or from a section only.
OFF
"Normal" FFT, frequency range from 0 to range limit.
Range limit:
• analog:
117/256 * (internal) sampling rate
• digital:
127/256 * sampling rate.
(For the sampling rates of the individual instruments, refer to 2.6.1
Selecting the Analyzer.)
ON (2...512)
Zoom the frequency range about the center frequency (Center) by
processing the signal in the time domain before the FFT (see notes
below). Zooming is effected with a factor of 2, 4, 8, ... up to 512 (16 in
ANLG 110 kHz). The factor is determined by the span. The measuring
time is doubled with each zoom step. The maximum zoom factor depends
on the selected instrument (see below).
Zoom Fact
Start
1078.2008.02
(Read only, can't be changed)
Display of the zoom factor.
(Read only, can't be changed)
Display of the lower measurement limit:
with normal FFT:
0 Hz
with ZOOM-FFT:
frequency of the 1st line which lies in
the positive frequency range
2.224
E-11
UPL
FFT (Spectrum)
Stop
Center
(Read only, can't be changed)
Display of the upper measurement limit in Hz or kHz
See table 20.
This menu item is displayed only with Zooming ON. Center of the zoomed
zone, continuously variable within the useful range of the respective
instrument.
With the center frequency set closer to the lower range limits (0 Hz) than
span /2, part of the frequency lines are allotted to the negative frequency
range. These lines are not calculated, they are, however, not available for
the frequency resolution.
If the center frequency is set closer to the upper range limits than span
/2, part of the frequency lines exceed the frequency range. These lines
contribute to the calculation and are displayed in order to enable
evaluation of the behaviours at the range limits. For normal applications,
this setting should be avoided, since the measured rms value may
become incorrect due to aliasing components.
Span
This menu item is displayed only with Zooming ON. You can select out of
7 (with DIGITAL and ANLG 25) or 4 (with ANLG 110) possible zooming
zones. SPAN is the entire range displayed, except for the event that
Center was selected such that part of the FFT is below 0 Hz (see Center).
The selection list for span is calculated depending on the current
sampling rate and labeled.
Resolution
(Read only, can't be changed)
Spacings between the FFT lines in Hz or kHz. Line spacings down to the
mHz range can be obtained by selecting a high zoom factor (very small
span) and a long FFT (large FFT size).
Specified range:
normal FFT
ANLG 22 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz
DIGITAL
5.8598 x 8192 / FFT Size
37.5 x 8192 / FFT Size
sample frq / FFT Size
Zoom FFT:
Value of the normal FFT /zoom factor
Meas Time
1078.2008.02
(Measurement Time)
(Read only, can't be changed)
Time required by the analyzer for signal
2.225
E-11
FFT (Spectrum)
Equalizer
UPL
Activation/deactivation of an equalizer table consisting of frequency
information and associated voltage gain factors.
The frequency response of a transmission link can be equalized, for
example, and the measurement point can be transformed to a different
reference point.
The calculated FFT bins are multiplied by a frequency-dependent
equalizer factor which may be calculated by interpolating the two adjacent
frequency reference points of the equalizer table. The FFT spectrum thus
equalized is then displayed and used as a basis for calculating the total
RMS value.
The equalization of the FFT spectrum is an interesting alternative to
filtering the input signal since the equalizer file can easily be generated
from the frequency response to be equalized (see 2.9.1.2) and does not
have to be available as coefficient or pole/zero file.
Typical application for acoustic measurements (e.g. mobile phones):
compensation of transfer function ERP (ear reference point) to
DRP (drum reference point) for measurements on artificial ears
of type 3.2 or higher. The measurement of the sound waves by
the microphone applied to the "eardrum" can thus be referred to
the required measurement point (at the auricle).
ON
The equalizer is switched on. The menu item 'Equal. file' is activated, i.e.
the indicated file is loaded.
OFF
The equalizer is switched off; the FFT spectrum remains unchanged.
Equal. file
(Equalizer file) only if equalizer
ON
Menu item for entering the name of the equalizer file. The file is opened
and loaded into an internal buffer.
If the name entered is not valid (drive not ready, file not found, invalid
format etc), an error message is displayed and "not found" is entered into
the menu line.
For entering file names see 2.3.2.5;
For generating an equalizer file see 2.9.1.2 Loading and Storing of
Series of Measured Values and Block/List Data
("Store
EQUALIZATN").
SPEAKER
1078.2008.02
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
2.226
E-11
UPL
FFT (Spectrum)
Table 2-31: Upper range limit for the FFT as a function of the analyzer instrument and zooming
Instrument
upper range limit for FFT
with normal FFT
with Zoom-FFT (depending on "Center"; maximum)
ANLG 22 kHz
21.938 kHz
21.938 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz
12o kHz
120 kHz
DIGITAL
127/256 * Sample Frq
117/256 * Sample Frq
Note:
The antialiasing filter in the analyzer ANLG 110 kHz is effective before reaching the upper
range limit, already
Additional information on FFT:
Width of bell-shaped curve (worst case) in lines:
Table 2-32
FFT window
Window
-20 dB
-40 dB
-60 dB
-80 dB
-100 dB
Hann
4
7
14.5
29
64
Rectangular
6.7
68
Blackman-Harris
4.5
6
7
8
21.5
Rife-Vinc 1
4
6
9
14
21
Rife-Vinc 2
5.5
7
9
11
16
Rife-Vinc 3
6.5
8.2
10
12
14,5
Hamming
3
4
29
Flat_Top
7.5
9
11
14
19
Kaiser (ß=8)
3.5
4.2
6
11.5
Kaiser (ß=16)
4.5
6
8
11
15
this suppression will never be attained or far off only.
Frequency measurement
with FFT:
With FFT, the spectral line with the highest signal amplitude in the with FFT:
spectrum is entered as frequency value in the respective display field. With the
exception of the Kaiser window, the adjacent lines are included as part of the
frequency calculation, thus increasing the accuracy (on the assumption of
single sine lines). In particular with the windows HANN, RIFE VINC 1 to 3,
high accuracies can be obtained.
Amplitude accuracy:
1078.2008.02
Depending on the window and position of the single signal lines relative to the
FFT lines, system-related display read errors of up to -3 dB occur. The error is
worst when the selected window is narrow at its top, the input signal falling on
the center between two FFT lines (e.g. in rectangular windows).
Using the cursor function IMAX (interpolated maximum) for reading the peak
values in the display causes the interpolation to be made on the actual peak
value, the windows HANN, RIFE-VINC 1-3 providing accuracies of more than
1 % (on the assumption of single sine lines, only).
2.227
E-11
FFT (Spectrum)
Implementing the FFT:
UPL
The FFT has been implemented as decimation-in-frequency-FFT in complex
presentation with 32-bit floating numbers. For coding, in particular the
rounding noise has been optimized, reducing the errors due to FFT processing
to less than -130 dB. The data are input to the analyzer at a time, the FFT
being computed subsequently. Thus, the measurement is not continuous,
which does however not adversely affect the measurement (with usually
stationary signals).
With ZOOM-FFT, the input signal is shifted by way of convolution with a Dirac
pulse at the center frequency so that the selected range falls on frequency
values around zero. After lowpass filtering and subsequent undersampling, the
range can be displayed with a better resolution.
A ZOOM is always implemented in three stages (up to the factor of 8).
Zooming up to the factor 256 is feasible when using the ”slow” instruments
ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL. The input signal for the FFT will be complex
when shifting the input signal using a single Dirac pulse. For this reason, 7488
(analog) or 4064 (digital, without zoom) points are displayable with an FFT of
8192 points! With ZOOM, the center frequency is visible in the display at
about -140 dB (on technical grounds).
Resolution, measurement time and span
Example: ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL: (sampling rate = 48 kHz, 8192 FFT points)
Table 2-33
FFT
Resolution, measurement time and span with FFT
max. SPAN [Hz]
max. resolution [Hz]
Measurement time
[ms]
23807
5.8593
170.71
ZOOM
2:1
21938
2.9296
348.12
ZOOM
4:1
10969
1.4648
696.25
ZOOM
8:1
5485
0.7324
1392.5
ZOOM
16:1
2742
0.3662
2785
ZOOM
32:1
1371
0.1831
5570
ZOOM
64:1
686
0.0915
11140
ZOOM
128:1
343
0,0457
22280
ZOOM
256:1
171
0,0229
44560
ZOOM
512:1
86
0,0114
89120
SPAN and resolution are proportional to, measuring time is reciprocal to the sampling rate.
1078.2008.02
2.228
E-11
UPL
FFT (Spectrum)
Window functions:
All window functions (except for Kaiser) are computed according to the following formula:
Window(i) =
A(n) x cos
2 ni
FFT Size
where A(n) is the respective amplitude factor of line n.
Table 2-34
Window functions with FFT, Coefficients A(n)
A(0)
A(1)
A(2)
A(3)
A(4)
HANN
0.50000
-0.50000
0.0
0.0
0.0
RIFE-VINC 1
0.37500
-0.50000
0.12500
0.0
0.0
RIFE-VINC 2
0.31250
-0.46875
0.18750
-0.03125
0.0
RIFE-VINC 3
0.2734375
-0.43750
0.21875
-0.06250
0.0078125
BLACKMAN-H
0.35875
-0.48829
0.14128
-0.01168
0.0
HAMMING
0.54000
-0.46000
0.0
0.0
0.0
FLAT_TOP
0.18810
-0.36923
0.28702
-0.13077
0.02488
RECT
1.00000
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
The KAISER window is given by:
Window(i ) =
BESSEL ( ß* 1
BESSEL ( ß )
4n 2
)
N2
where BESSEL (i) is the modified Bessel function of 1st order.
1078.2008.02
2.229
E-11
FFT (Spectrum)
2.6.5.13
UPL
FILTER SIM
Available in all analyzers.
The function FILTER SIM. is not used for measurements, but serves to check a selectable
combination of filters or user-defined filters for their sum frequency response. For this purpose, filters
can be selected as with the functions RMS, PEAK and QUASI-PEAK.
The filter simulation takes place with a fixed pattern in the frequency domain. This pattern results in
system clock /8192; (e.g. a sampling rate of 48 kHz results in 5.86 Hz). The range from 0 Hz to half
the sampling rate is simulated, producing 4096 output points in the graphics.
Functioning of the simulation:
The filters used in the UPL are IIR (infinite impulse response) filters. These filters are defined by
poles and zeroes in the complex Z-level, conjugated complex poles and zeroes being combined to a
real biquad.
These biquads feature the following transfer function:
2
H ( z ) = b0 × zz2 +ab1zz +ba2
1
2
4 biquads constitute an UPL filter, the coefficients b0 of the single biquads being multiplied so that a
common gain is obtained. Up to 4 of such 8-pole UPL filters can be used in measurement functions.
This sum transfer function (sum of all single transfer functions) is evaluated for
z = exp(jw)
with w = (0 toi * / 4096)
and i = 0 to 4096
the denominator and numerator polynomials and the filter gain being calculated at the simulation
points. Hence, the filter simulation features only a fixed resolution, extremely sharp filters (e.g. very
narrow-band notch filters) cannot be simulated in this way. Actually, such filters should not be used at
all, because, in the case of pole and zero positions near the unit circle, numerical accuracy problems
occur or these filters have a tendency to show so-called limit cycles (i.e. signals at the filter output
without a corresponding signal at the filter input).
The above frequency pattern does not apply to the use of the filters in measurements (RMS, PEAK,
QUASI-PEAK), since the filters are calculated in the time domain in this case.
Filter
SPEAKER
1078.2008.02
(see 2.7 Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel))
Up to 3 filters can be simulated.
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
2.230
E-11
UPL
2.6.5.14
Waveform
Waveform (Display in the Time Domain)
Available in all analyzers.
This function is used to display the input signal in the time domain. The trigger state being displayed in
the result window, the signal in the graphics window. Level values can be read from the graphics window
using the cursors. A filter selection can be made similar to the functions RMS, PEAK and QUASI PEAK.
Two-channel measurement:
• In the slow instruments (ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL), the two input channels are measured
simultaneously. One of them may be selected as trigger channel; as soon as it has exceeded the
trigger level, the two channels are triggered such that they are graphically displayed with correct
time.
• In the 110-kHz analyzer, the two channels are measured sequentially, which is why no time
reference between the two channels is specified. With continuous measurement (CONTINUOUS,
see below) the switchover to the other channel is initiated even without a trigger event occurring
upon reaching 10 times the memory depth at the latest. Trigger events may thus get lost. Onechannel measurement is therefore required to guarantee continuous monitoring.
Triggering:
The UPL waits for the specified slope at the defined level.
The user may select between 2 trigger modes in order to provide for continuous monitoring on the one
hand and also obtain a display even with non-triggering signals (which are too weak) on the other hand:
• CONTINUOUS (by pressing the START key) starts a continuous measurement which initiates a
trigger automatically upon reaching 10 times the memory depth (trace length) at the latest.
'not triggered' is indicated in the result display. Signal monitoring is continued.
• SINGLE (by pressing the SINGLE key) starts a single measurement. The signal is only monitored
until the trigger threshold is exceeded or the STOP key is actuated. The measured signal is
displayed only, if a trigger event occurs. Monitoring is not interrupted in this mode. This applies also
for remote or sequence control.
Representation:
• In the slow analyzers (ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL), both channels have the same time axis which
applies in relation to the trigger point of the selected trigger channel.
• In the 110-kHz analyzer, the time axis of each (individual) channel applies in relation to the trigger
point of the respective channel.
Settings:
In the analyzer panel, the mode, the trigger condition and the memory depth are set, only; in the slow
analyzers, the trigger channel is set, too. Scaling of the picture (X and Y axis) is set in the display panel
(see Section 2.10).
DC Suppres
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Selectable in the digital analyzer only;
corresponding setting for analog analyzers:
"Coupling AC/DC", see 2.6.2 Configuration of the Analog Analyzers
Note:
1078.2008.02
With DC suppression switched on, the time required for each
measurement is approx. 200 ms longer.
2.231
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Waveform
Meas Mode
UPL
Determines the memory depth and processing mode
STANDARD
Usual display of the samples, max. TRACE length is 7488 samples.
For smoothing of the curve display (with periodic signals), the "Interpol"
measurement mode can be switched on.
Recommended for short recording and with periodic signals.
COMPRESSED
Only for the analyzers ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL.
In the COMPRESSED mode, the input signal is first fed to a peak-value
detector (absolute value generation). Following this, the number of
samples set under Comp Fact are combined. This peak value is then
used as the input signal of the waveform function. Thus the x-axis is so to
speak compressed, which allows long times to be acquired.
Interpol can't be switched on.
Recommended if long recording times are required and only the peak
value characteristic is of interest.
Note:
When settings are made in the display panel, the compressed
WAVEFORM can also be logarithmically displayed. This can be
either directly specified (Spacing LOG) or indirectly by selecting
a logarithmic unit. Power units (e.g. W, %P/Pr) may also be
used.
Application: Investigation of switch-on/off transients, e.g. of AGC circuits
(automatic gain control)
UNDERSAMPLE
Comp Fact
For ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL analyzers only.
The input signal is "undersampled", i.e. the samples specified under
Comp Fact are arithmetically averaged and then used as input sample for
the waveform function. As a result the X axis is compressed similar to the
compressed mode and long periods can be recorded.
"Interpol" cannot be switched on.
Recommended if long recording times are required and the time
template of the signal is of interest.
(Only for Meas Mode COMPRESSED or UNDERSAMPLE)
Selection of the compression ratio for the compressed waveform display.
Number of samples which are comprised to one sample for the
waveform.
Specified range 2 to 1024
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UPL
Waveform
Unit
Selecting the unit for waveform display.
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
The unit entered here is also used as standard for the waveform display
in the DISPLAY panel. However, it can be overwritten in the DISPLAY
panel (by an entry made under the menu item Unit of TRACE A or B).
Note:
Contrary to an entry in the DISPLAY panel, the unit entered
here is stored when the function or instrument is changed
making it available again when the function is switched back to
waveform display.
Selectable analog units (applies also to Meas Mode COMMON/INP in
the DIGITAL instrument):
V | dBV | dBu | dBm | W | %V| V | V/Vr | %V/Vr | %W | W
| P/Pr | %P | Pr | dBr
Selectable digital units (Meas Mode AUDIO DATA):
FS | %FS | dBFS | % | dBr | LSBs | bits
Selectable jitter units (Meas Mode JITTER/PHAS):
UI | %UI | dBUI | ppm | ns | UIr | dBr
Note:
Logarithmic units are only possible in the Meas Mode
COMPRESSED.
Ref Volt
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
In the case of waveform display the reference value can only be entered
as a numeric value; this menu item corresponds to the value entered
under „Reference VALUE“.
Filter
One filter each can be selected in the ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL
analyzers under Meas Mode AUDIO DATA.
UPL-B29:
Trig Level
No filter can be switched on in the high rate mode.
Set the trigger threshold. The threshold is entered as a fixed voltage, i.e.
independent of the measurement range (which is set either fixed or using
AUTO RANGE).
Specified range:
digital (audio data mode):
digital (jitter mode):
analog and digital common mode:
Trig Slope
Specifies the edge to which should be triggered.
RISING
Rising edge
FALLING
Falling edge
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± 1 FS
± 10 UI
± 200 V
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Waveform
Interpol
UPL
(Only Meas Mode STANDARD)
Selects the number of interpolation steps used for the display of the
traced waveform.
1
No interpolation
2
4
8
16
32
Interpol > 1 causes switch-on of the interpolation algorithm
This setting can be used to obtain a smoothed display in the case of few
samples per period of the input signal. The maximum permissible trace
length is however reduced with this setting.
Recommended with high frequencies, which allow for recording of few
samples per period, only.
Trace Len
The maximum settable Trace Len is a function of the sampling rate, the
interpolation value and the selected measurement mode.
1 µs to max. Trace Len
Specified range:
The following is true:
max. Trace Len =
sampling rate x Comp Fact
_______________________
sampling rate x Interpol
The memory depth is 7488 samples.
Trig Src
(Trigger channel);
only provided in analyzers ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL.
Selects the source which has to trigger recording when the trigger level is
exceeded. Both measurement channels - designated “coupled“ in the
result window - are started synchronously so that the graphical display of
the two channels is made with correct time reference.
CHAN 1
Channel 1 triggers the measurement; if channel 2 is also measured,
"coupled" is displayed in the result window.
CHAN 2
Channel 2 triggers the measurement; if channel 1 is also measured,
"coupled" is displayed in the result window.
GEN BURST
The generator signal triggers the measurement at the beginning of the
"Burst On" phase, if an appropriate generator function has been selected.
(If not, no waveform is generated, the graphical display is deleted and a
corresponding "press show I/O" message is displayed,
This setting ensures that the measurement starts time-synchronously with
the generator burst; internal group delays are considered automatically.
Thus, the selection of GEN BURST allows for determining group delays of
DUTs from the graphical representation of the waveform.
Note: Switching over from one-channel to two-channel measurement
causes the channel which has been measured last to become
the trigger channel.
SPEAKER
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(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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UPL
2.6.5.15
Special Digital Measurements
Protocol Analysis
This measurement function is only available with option UPL-B21 (Digital Audio Protocol) installed.
The protocol function is no conventional measurement function but allows for display of the channel
status and user data for the AES/EBU interface. The setting is made in the DISPLAY panel (cf. 2.10.8).
2.6.5.16
Measurement of Digital Input Amplitude
In the UPL the measurement of the digital input amplitude is not selected as a measurement function
but as an input display (INPUT DISP). To do so the measurement mode COMMON/INP has to be set
(see 2.6.5.18 INPUT).
This has the advantage that the input amplitude can be indicated simultaneously with the display of the
common measurement function.
2.6.5.17
Measurement of Phase between Digital Input and Reference Signal
In the UPL the phase measurement between DIG IN and REF IN is not selected as a measurement
function but as an input display (INPUT/PHAS). To do so the measurement mode JITTER/PHASE has
to be set (see 2.6.5.18 INPUT).
This has the advantage that the phase is displayed simultaneously with the measured jitter value.
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Analyzer: Functions
2.6.5.18
UPL
INPUT Display
Available in all three analyzers.
INPUT DISP
Not provided in the digital analyzer in Meas Mode JITTER/PHAS.
OFF
Input display switched off
PEAK
Display of the input peak value as a numeric value
In the digital analyzer, the input signal is sampled with the rate specified by
the user (see 2.6.3).
In the analog analyzers, the input signal is, after the input level stage,
sampled with the following sample rates:
• ANLG 22 kHz
• ANLG 110 kHz
with
48 kHz
with 307.2 kHz
The input peak measurements mainly serve for checking the maximum
input, indicating the peak values of the AC-coupled input signal before the
filters.
Exception: With the analog notch filter switched on in the analog
measurement functions RMS, RMS SELECT, QPEAK or FFT,
the input peak value is detected after the notch filter.
RMS
Display of the analog RMS value. Only provided in the analog analyzers and
only effective with the measurement functions THD, TDH+N/SINAD,
MODDIST, DFD and FFT; can also be displayed as sweep curve (DISPLAY
TRACE A
INP RMS CH1/2).
DIG INP AMP
Provided only with Jitter option (UPL-B22) in Meas Mode COMMON/INP.
Display of digital input amplitude at selected digital input (XLR or BNC) This
measurement can be performed simultaneously with any measurement
function of the COMMON signal.
INPUT/PHAS
Provided only with Jitter option (UPL-B22) in Meas Mode JITTER/PHAS.
OFF
Input display switched off.
PEAK
Display of input peak value (see INPUT DISP).
PHAS TO REF
Display of the frame phase of the jittered signal between AUDIO and REF
input. This measurement can be performed simultaneously with any
measurement function of the JITTER signal.
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UPL
Input Display
INPUT DISP
PEAK or RMS
Unit Ch1/2
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
INPUT DISP
DIG INP AMP
Unit Ch1/2
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
DIG OUT AMP
INPUT/PHAS
Unit Ch1/2
The measured value is referenced to the digital signal level set in the
digital generator, i.e. to
- Unbal Vpp, if the UNBAL input is selected,
- Bal Vpp, if the BAL input is selected.
PHAS TO REF
Units: UI | %FRM | ºFRM | ns
Since no relative units are used, a reference command is not offered.
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Analyzer: Functions
2.6.5.19
UPL
Frequency Measurement
With the menu item FREQ/PHASE, which is part of the superordinate functions of the ANALYZER
panel, five measurement modes can be selected:
OFF
FREQ
FREQ&PHASE
FREQ&GRPDEL
SAMPLE FREQ
No frequency measurement, therefore faster function measurement
Frequency measurement on both channels
Frequency measurement on channel 1, phase measurement between channel 2
and 1
Frequency measurement on channel 2, measurement of group-delay or
continuous phase between channel 2 and 1
Display of input sampling frequency (on both channels)
Table 2-35 Frequency measurement
Functions in combination with frequency measurement
Instrument
n
RMS RMSsel PEAK QPEAK DC THD THD MOD DFD Wow FFT Polarity Filter Cohe Rub& 1/3- WAVE
&FL
simul
Buzz Octave
+N DIST
r
FORM
ANLG 22 kHz
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
ANLG 110 kHz
-
-
n
n-
n
-
n
n
-
-
n
DIGITAL
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
-
valid frequency-measurement result
function measurement not possible (function not available in this instrument)
no frequency measurement result possible or useful (Display ”-----”)
The measuring time cannot be selected for the frequency measurement; if possible, the frequency
information is obtained by the selected function measurement using various methods:
1. With the two RMS measurements (without POST FFT), it is derived from the number of zero
crossings.
2. With other measurements (even OFF function) it is derived from the FFT.
The 1st procedure offers the advantage of high measuring speed, while the 2nd method supplies
accurate measured values even with very poor signal-to-noise ratio and/or high frequencies. Thus, the
user may optimize frequency measurement for his test signal by selecting the appropriate function unless a specified function has to be measured, simultaneously:
1. RMS function (without POST FFT) for signals with high signal-to-noise ratio with low to medium
frequencies.
2. FFT function or RMS with POST FFT or Function OFF for signals with low signal-to-noise ratio and
without low frequencies.
The RMS function allows for increasing the accuracy of frequency measurement by switching on the
POST FFT. With POST FFT switched on the frequency measurement result is derived from the FFT if
the frequency drops below a lower cut-off frequency - irrespective of an optional spectrum display
(menu item "OPERATION" in the DISPLAY panel). This lower cut-off frequency of the FFT is 4 times
the FFT resolution and can thus be modified by the user via the FFT size (see 2.6.5.2 RMS).
The measuring accuracy of the FFT-based frequency measurement depends on the following
parameters
• Window function: The RIFE VINCent windows 1 or 2 are suited best.
• FFT-Size: as high as possible, best 8192
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UPL
Frequency Measurement
• Zoom-FFT: although switching on Zoom-FFT increases the measuring time (just like a big FFT size),
the resolution and accuracy are improved (particularly with low frequencies).
• Zoom factor: set by selection of "Span". The smaller the span, the larger the zoom factor and the
better the frequency resolution and accuracy.
Note: "Span" and "Center" must be selected such that the desired measurement range from Start to
Stop is covered.
Recommendation: Excellent measurement accuracy can already be obtained with a zoom factor of 2
without the need for limiting the frequency range of the instrument. To this end, "Center" must be set
to "Span / 2".
Example: Configure the FFT as indicated below in the measuring range ANLG 22 kHz:
FFT Size
Window
Avg Count
Zooming
Center
Span
8192
RIFE VINC 2
1
ON ( 2 to 128)
11.975 kHz
21.94 kHz
Thus, measurement range and resolution are obtained:
Zoom Factor 2
Start
6.25 Hz
Stop
21.938 kHz
Resolution
2.9297 Hz
Note:
With Function OFF, the frequency measurement is performed according to the FFT settings
described in the example.
Meas Time
Definition of measurement time and precision of the frequency
measurement for the measurement functions OFF and RMS. Does not
influence the other measurement functions.
FAST
The frequency measurement (for the measurement function OFF also the
phase measurement) is set to attain optimum speed:
RMS: The measurement may be performed without post FFT; the
frequency is determined on the basis of the number of zero crossings,
unless the user actually switches on post FFT.
OFF: The measurement is performed at reduced FFT size (4 k FFT) and
without zooming, which makes it around four times faster than the
PRECISION measurement.
PRECISION
The frequency measurement (for the measurement function OFF also the
phase measurement) is set to attain optimum precision:
RMS: Post FFT (8 k FFT, without zoom) is switched on automatically to
obtain a more precise measurement result.
OFF: The measurement is performed at maximum FFT size and with
zoom (factor 2) switched on. For low frequencies an additional
measurement is performed using an increased zom factor.
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Analyzer: Functions
Unit Ch1/2
UPL
Selection of the result units for channel 1/2.
With frequency measurement, the (display) units for both channels can be
selected individually, in order to display one channel as absolute quantity
and the other one with any reference, by way of example.
Selectable units:
Hz | Hz | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec | f/fr
Refer to Section 2.4 Units, for conversion formulae and the notation of the
measurement result display for IEC/IEEE-bus control.
Ref Freq
Freq Settl
1078.2008.02
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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UPL
Frequency, Phase and Group Delay Measurement
2.6.5.20 Combined Frequency, Phase and Group Delay Measurement
Only for the analyzers ANLG 22 kHz and DIGITAL in two-channel mode
(Channel(s) 1&2 1 2 2 1 BOTH )
Table 2-36 Availability of phase/group-delay measurement
Functions in combination with phase measurement
Instrument
RMS RMSsel PEAK QPEAK DC THD THD MOD DFD Wow FFT Polarity Filter Cohe Rub& 1/3- WAVE
&FL
simul
Buzz Octave
+N DIST
r
FORM
ANLG 22 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz
n
DIGITAL
n
(BRM)
(HRM)
(1)
(2)
n
n
n
n
n
n
-
-
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
-
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
-
n
-
n
n
n
n
-
n
n
valid result of phase and group-delay measurement
function measurement not possible (function not available in this instrument
no result of phase or group-delay measurement possible or useful (display ”-----”)
base rate mode: standard in option UPL-B2, selectable in option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz)
high rate mode selectable in option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) only
only possible if no filters are selected and 'Meas Time' is set to VALUE or GEN TRACK
only with zooming switched off
The phase difference is obtained in the phase measurement from the signals of channels 1 and 2. The
phase-measurement results are in the 0 to 360° and -180 to +180° ranges. With frequency sweep
running, however, the phase may be continuously measured, ie outside the 360° and -180° limits
(continuous phase measurement), provided certain conditions are fulfilled (see group-delay
measurement).
For continuous phase measurement select GROUP DELAY and a phase unit.
The signal of channel 1 is used as reference signal.
Note:
The result of the phase measurement is derived from the FFT or POST FFT. If phase or
group-delay measurements are performed in conjunction with RMS function, switch-on of the
POST FFT is forced, therefore; the frequency-measurement result is derived from the POST
FFT, also, provided that the frequency is above the lower cut-off frequency of the FFT (4-fold
resolution due to bell-shaped DC offset). The POST FFT may be displayed as spectrum but
this is not a must (menu item OPERATION in the DISPLAY panel).
For group delay measurements, the phase is differentiated with respect to the frequency, ie the
differential quotient is evaluated:
2
=
/ (2 x f)
=
2meas -
1meas
For continuous phase measurements, the difference of two consecutive phase-measurement results
is added to the first phase-measurement result:
2
=
1078.2008.02
+
1
=
2meas -
1meas
2.241
E-11
Analyzer: Functions
UPL
Both measurements are available in the GROUP DELAY menu item. They are only defined for changes
in the frequency and therefore only make sense in conjunction with frequency sweeping. If they are
attempted at a constant frequency, an error message will be issued.
If a frequency sweep is to be set for measuring group delay or continuous phase, the following should
be noted:
• Select the frequency step size and/or the number of sweep points such that phase shifts exceeding
180° between 2 subsequent sweep points cannot occur.
• Spacing should be linear, since, with logarithmic spacing, the frequency increments could be too
small with low frequencies and the phase shift could be too large with high frequencies.
When measuring the group-delay versus frequency (e.g., by means of a generator frequency sweep),
the first sweep point is not defined, respectively, since a reference point for calculation of the delta
values of frequency and phase is not available before obtaining the 2nd frequency value.
Unit Ch1/2
Selection of units for the measurement for channel 1 and 2.
Selectable units for the frequency measurement (channel 1):
Hz | Hz | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec | f/fr
Selectable units for the phase measurement (channel 2):
° | RAD | ° | RAD
Selectable units for group-delay measurement (channel 2):
s| s
Note:
Continuous phase is obtained by selecting ° or RAD under
GROUP DELAY.
Refer to section 2.4, Units, for conversion formulae and notation of the
measurement result display units for IEC/IEEE-bus control
Ref Freq
Format Pha
(See 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
(Format phase) Displayed range of phase values:
0 ... 360°
from 0 to 360°; selectable, if UNIT CH2 ° | °
-180 ... + 180°
from -180° to +180°; selectable, if UNIT CH2 ° | °
-360 ... 0°
from -360 to 0°; selectable, if UNIT CH2 °| °
0 ... 2
from 0 to 2 ; selectable, if UNIT CH2 RAD
-
- to + ; selectable, if UNIT CH2 RAD
-2
... +
... 0
RAD
from -2 to 0; selectable, if UNIT CH2 RAD
Note:
1078.2008.02
RAD
RAD
Continuous phase representation (- to + ) is possible under
GROUP DELAY if a phase unit is selected instead of the usual
time unit.
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UPL
Frequency, Phase and Group Delay Measurement
Ref Phase
(See 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Freq Settl
(See 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Phas Settl
(See 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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Analyzer: Functions
UPL
2.6.5.21 Measurement and display of analyzer sampling frequency
Only available in the digital analyzer.
When selecting SAMPLE FREQ, the measured sampling frequency is displayed on the channels
switched on (or in the frequency window of the JITTER/PHAS or COMMON MODE measurement).
Irrespective of the selection of menu item FREQ/PHASE, the sampling frequency is always measured
internally and can also be displayed in the PROTOCOL panel (provided that option UPL-B21 is fitted).
Unit Ch1/2
Selection of the result units for channel 1 and 2.
Selectable units for the sampling rate:
Hz | Hz | %Hz | Toct | Oct | Dec | f/fr
Refer to Section 2.4 Units for conversion formulae and notation of the
measurement result display units for the IEC/IEEE-bus control.
Ref Freq
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Freq Settl
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
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UPL
Coherence Measurement and Transfer Function
2.6.5.22 Coherence Measurement and Transfer Function
This function can only be selected with built-in option UPL-B6 (Extended Analysis Functions).
It is limited to the DIGITAL and ANLG 22 kHz instruments.
The analyzer calculates the transfer function CH1/CH2 (Trace A) and the coherence function (similarity,
Trace B) of two signals. In the DISPLAY panel graphical or numerical display of the coherence can be
switched on (under menu item OPERATION). The graphics display is in accordance with the
parameters set in the DISPLAY panel. The section to be displayed (X and Y direction) can be selected
independent of the frequency range selected in the ANALYZER panel.
Measurement method:
The complex FFT is calculated for each channel, the two channels being measured at exactly the same
time. The cross-correlation between the two FFTs is formed and averaged. The square of the crosscorrelation is divided by the averaged size of the individual FFTs; the coherence result is thus
independent of the selected measurement ranges.
2
=
Kanal1
Kanal2
FFT(Kanal1)
FFT(Kanal2)
where
0
2
1
² = 1 means that at this frequency channel 2 is linearly dependent on channel 1. The accuracy of the
measurement increases with the number of averaging performed.
The transfer function is calculated as follows:
H( z) =
FFT ( Kanal1)
FFT ( Kanal 2)
relevant standard: ANSI S3.42-1992
Application:
The coherence measurement function uses test signals which cover the entire audio spectrum; it is
therefore recommended to set the generator to noise (both in terms of time and frequency).
The generator signal should be applied simultaneously to the input of the DUT and the analyzer channel
2 (reference channel). The output of the DUT is connected to analyzer channel 1 (measurement
channel).
Note:
The coherence measurement performs complex calculations and requires synchronous twochannel input signals. This brings about some limitations:
• The coherence function is only available for the instruments DIGITAL and ANLG 22kHz.
• Since the coherence measurement is a comparative measurement between channel 1 and
channel 2, both channels must be active.
In contrast to other measurements, no test result is computed in this case but two permanently assigned
curves are drawn which can only be stored and loaded together (as "DUAL FILE" in the DISPLAY panel.
• Trace A (menu item FUNC CH1): transfer function CH1/CH2
• Trace B (menu item FUNC CH2): coherence result ²
The number of averagings performed n is displayed in relation to the number of averagings desired m.
averaging
n of m
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Analyzer: Functions
UPL
Unit
Selects the display unit for the transfer function; % or dB can be selected.
The selected unit is also used as standard for the spectrum in the DISPLAY
panel, but it can be overwritten by an entry in the menu item "Unit" of
TRACE A in the DISPLAY panel.
Chan Delay
(Interchannel delay)
Delay compensation of the DUT by entering the time by which channel 1 is
to be delayed with respect to channel 2. If channel 2 has a shorter delay
than channel 1, this can be compensated for by entering a negative value.
Specified range: -10 s to +10 s
FFT Size
256
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
Window
HANN
Size of FFT, settable in steps of 2 between 256 and 8192.
A larger FFT size (i.e. more calculated points) implies a finer frequency
resolution but also correspondingly longer measurement times.
Selects the window function
Same as with FFT
RECTANGULAR
BLACKMAN-H
RIFE-VINC 1
RIFE-VINC 2
RIFE-VINC 3
HAMMING
FLAT TOP
KAISER
Avg Count
Start
(Display only, no changes possible)
Display of lower measurement limit in Hz or kHz; since no zoom FFT is to
be performed here, the lower limit is always 0 Hz.
Stop
(Display only; no changes possible)
Display of upper measurement limit in Hz or kHz.
Resolution
Note:
Number of averaging operations; the coherence function requires a great
number of averaging procedures to obtain accurate results. Averaging
numbers above 30 are recommended.
(Display only; no changes possible)
Display of spacing between FFT lines in Hz or kHz.
Specified range: 5.8598 × 8192 / FFT Size
A normalization factor can be entered for Trace A (transfer function) in the DISPLAY panel (or
transferred from the cursor position). Thus the transfer function can be set to 0 dB at any
position.
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UPL
Rub & Buzz Measurement
2.6.5.23 Loudspeaker Measurements (RUB & BUZZ)
This item can only be selected with built-in option UPL-B6 (extended analysis functions) and is offered in
the analog analyzers only.
UPL-B29:
In the high rate mode, the RUB&BUZZ measurement is not available.
Loudspeaker measurements can only be performed with the internal universal sinewave generator.
When the RUB & BUZZ item is selected, suitable generator setting is automatically performed, if
applicable.
INSTRUMENT
FUNCTION
Low Dist
ANALOG
SINE
OFF
Loudspeaker measurements are made up of different measurements some of which can be performed
simultaneously. Measurements performed:
• RUB & BUZZ measurement with fixed or tracking highpass filter or a combination of the two,
• simultaneous frequency response measurement,
• polarity measurement of the loudspeaker at the end of a sweep or single measurement.
Connecting the test equipment:
The UPL generator is connected to the loudspeaker or - in the case of high signal levels - to a power
amplifier.
The precision microphone is connected to one or both test inputs of the UPL analyzer - possibly via an
amplifier - depending on the measurement range (see below).
The RUB & BUZZ measurement is always performed in channel 1, the measurement result is available
as the result of channel 1 (SENS1:DATA1)
The (unfiltered) frequency response measurement result is available
• in the 22 kHz analyzer as measurement result in channel 2 (SENS1:DATA2)
• in the 110 kHz analyzer as input RMS value in channel 1 (SENS2:DATA1).
The polarity measurement result is displayed as a phase value (SENS4:DATA).
The mentioned measurements can be performed in both analog analyzers, but there are certain
differences with a view to operation and connections:
ANLG 22 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz
Connection of precision microphone:
To both measurement channels in parallel
to measurement channel 1
Channel selection
One or two channels;
single-channel only
any selection is possible
CH1 only
Activation of
Activation of channel 1:
Permanently active
RUB&BUZZ measurement:
Channel(s) 1, 1&2, 1 2 or 2 1
Activation of
Activation of channel 2:
Activation of
frequency response measurement:
Channel(s) 2, 1&2, 1 2 or 2 1
Input Disp RMS
Activation of
FREQ/PHASE
FREQ&PHASE
FREQ/PHASE
FREQ
polarity measurement:
FREQ/PHASE
FREQ&GRPDEL
Deactivation of
FREQ/PHASE
OFF
FREQ/PHASE
OFF
polarity measurement:
FREQ/PHASE
FREQ
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Analyzer: Functions
UPL
RUB & BUZZ measurement
This measurement is used to detect manufacturing faults in loudspeakers, which are audible as nonharmonic noise or high harmonics. Since even a properly functioning loudspeaker produces k2 and K3
harmonics, THD+N measurements are not suitable in this case. A measurement function is required
instead, which not only suppresses the fundamental but also the next higher harmonics and measures
only the residual signal.
The method used here measures the RMS value after a highpass which filters out all "legal" harmonics.
Depending on the application, the passband frequency
• is set to a fixed frequency,
• tracks the n-fold generator frequency,
• fulfills a combination of both.
Frequency response measurement:
The frequency response measurement corresponds to an RMS measurement without filter. In the ANLG
110 kHz instrument the accuracy of the RMS measurement is however not fully attained because the
measurement time of the input RMS result is not matched to the signal period.
Polarity measurement:
This polarity measurement is tailored to measurements of the loudspeaker chassis. It is not suitable for
measuring loudspeaker systems and should not be confused with the POLARITY function for measuring
electrical systems such as frequency filters.
The polarity measurement is switched on via the FREQ/PHASE menu item, which is at a higher level
than the measurement function (see table further up).
Same as with the POLARITY measurement function, the measured value is indicated with "+ Pol" for
correct polarity and "- Pol" for incorrect polarity. In the case of remote or automatic sequence control, a
positive numeral is read out for correct polarity and a negative one for incorrect polarity. This numeral
also yields a measure for the reliability of the measurement result. The higher the magnitude of the
measured value, the more reliable the correct/incorrect polarity criterion. With values between -1.5 and
+1.5 the test setup and device settings (e.g. delay) should be checked.
Optimizing the measurement speed:
This measurement function was implemented especially for production tests, i.e. for the purpose of high
measurement speed. To ensure the full use of all capabilities the following should be observed:
ANALYZER panel:
Range
FIX
FREQ/PHASE
OFF
Meas Time
GENTRACK
Sweep Mode
FAST or BLOCK
OPTIONS panel:
Beeper
OFF
Meas Disp
OFF
Switch off graphics cursor
Switch off graphics display (3-panel display)
(if a polarity measurement is not required)
(if a generator sweep is performed)
(if only results are required)
The settling time of the filters can also be shortened, but this reduces the measurement accuracy. This
is done via the call parameter when the UPL is started:
-tfilxx.yy
xx and yy are factors for modifying the settling time
11 to 99:
Settling time shortened to 0.9 to 0.1
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UPL
Rub & Buzz Measurement
1 to 9
Settling time extended by 10 to 1.1
xx: reduces the settling time of an optional lowpass filter
yy: reduces the settling time of the standard highpass filter
Example: if UPL is started with
UPL -tfil99.30,
(standard value), the settling time of the optional lowpass filter is reduced to 10% and that of the
standard highpass filters to 25% of the theoretical value.
Meas Time
(Measurement time)
The measurement time of the RUB & BUZZ measurement is used to
adapt the measurement speed to the signal frequency. In most cases particularly in the case of sweeps - the selection of GEN TRACK is
recommended since RUB & BUZZ assumes the use of the internal
function generator.
AUTO FAST
AUTO
Automatic matching of the measurement time to the signal frequency
taking into account the signal period. This is only useful when an unknown
signal frequency is used or the generator frequency modification cannot
be accepted, which is unavoidable in the case of GEN TRACK. (see
2.6.5.2 RMS)
VALUE
Numerical entry of desired measurement time. This is only useful when
an unknown signal frequency is used or a very weak signal is to be
measured. (see 2.6.5.2 RMS)
GEN TRACK
Measurement taking up (at least) one whole generator signal period. If
required, the generator frequency can be adapted to the analyzer sample
rate. To increase the measurement accuracy in the case of high
frequencies, the measurement time is extended to several periods.
This mode guarantees maximum accuracy at a minimum measurement
time and should be given preference. (see 2.6.5.2 RMS)
Unit Ch1/2
Selects the units for the RUB & BUZZ measurement results in channel 1
and channel 2.
Reference
Reference values for the RUB & BUZZ measurement.
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Analyzer: Functions
FREQ MODE
UPL
Determines the highpass filter type
FIX
A fixed highpass filter is used; the numeric value of the passband
frequency is entered in the menu line below.
GEN TRACK
(Generator tracking)
A tracking highpass filter is used which should preferably be tuned to
about the 5th harmonic of the generator frequency. The multiple by which
the passband frequency should be higher than the generator frequency
can be entered under "Factor" in the next menu line.
The frequency limits, within which tracking of the filter frequency should
be performed, can be selected in addition. When a limit is reached
(FrqLim Low or Upp) the filter frequency is held at this frequency. Thus a
tracking highpass filter can be produced which becomes a fixedfrequency highpass filter below FrqLim Low and/or above FrqLim Upp.
If tracking should be performed over the entire frequency range, the
frequency limits should be set to the minimum and maximum value.
Factor
Specifies the factor by which the passband frequency should be higher
than the generator frequency. For the Rub & Buzz measurement a factor
of approx. 5 would be appropriate.
Specified range:
2 to 20
When the product of generator frequency and factor reaches
• the FrqLim Upp value, the highpass filter is held at this frequency
• the upper frequency limit of the analyzer, Rub & Buzz is not carried out
and an error message ("Input? Press Show IO") is displayed instead.
The remaining measurement (transfer function in the other channel or
below Input Disp) is performed at a higher speed.
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UPL
Rub & Buzz Measurement
Sweep Mode
This menu item is used to increase the speed of frequency sweeps
performed with the built-in universal generator.
To increase the sweep speed the following conditions have to be met by
the Generator:
•
•
•
•
•
Function
Low Distortion
Sweep control
X axis
Z axis
SINE
OFF
AUTO ...
FREQ
OFF
Operation:
The 1st sweep is performed at the speed of the NORMAL setting. During
this sweep the filter and generator parameters to be used for the
subsequent sweeps are learned and stored (learn mode).
As long as no new settings are made on the instrument, the FAST and
BLOCK mode selected as from the 2nd sweep (play mode) can use the
learned parameters. This considerably shortens the setting times for the
individual sweep points.
If the start key is pressed or a setting is made on the instrument, the
(slower) learn mode is selected again.
Note:
In the play mode, measured values are not indicated on the
result display for reasons of speed. Exception: polarity
measured at the sweep end.
NORMAL
Normal sweep trigger without additional speed optimization; can be used
for any kind of sweep.
This setting is used internally whenever one of the conditions for
optimized sweep synchronization is not met, likewise in the learn mode
(see below).
FAST
In 22 kHz analyzer only; speed optimization of sweep without operational
restrictions. Measured values are not displayed for reasons of speed.
BLOCK
The sweep sequence is further optimized, however, the instrument cannot
be operated with sweeping. Pressing one or more keys stops the current
sweep run; the key reactions are then made up for.
If no setting was made on the instrument, a stopped sweep may be
continued without being switched to the LEARN mode anew by means of
pressing the START or the CONT key (continuous sweep) or SINGLE
(single sweep).
The measured values are not displayed in order not to reduce speed; the
traces are not displayed until the end of sweep.
Note:
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Settling cannot be switched on in the block mode.
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Analyzer: Functions
Filter
FrqLim Low
UPL
(See 2.7 Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel))
Two (digital) filters can be selected in addition to the standard highpass
filter.
Use:
Lowpass filter for band limiting (particularly in the ANLG 110 kHz
instrument), delay filter for extending the settling time, bandstop
filter for eliminating interfering lines, etc.
Note:
Same as the standard highpass filter, the filters selected here are
only active for measurement channel 1. Channel 2 (in 22 kHz
analyzer) and the input RMS of channel 1 (in 110 kHz analyzer)
are measured without filter.
With FREQ MODE
GEN TRACK only; lower band limit for tracking the
frequency of the highpass filter.
If the product of generator frequency and factor drops below the value
specified here, the passband frequency of the highpass filter is held at
this value.
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz: 10.0 Hz to 21.938 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz: 20.0 Hz to 120 kHz
FrqLim Upp
With FREQ MODE
GEN TRACK only; upper band limit for tracking the
highpass filter frequency.
If the product of generator and factor exceeds the value specified here,
the passband frequency of the highpass filter is held at this value.
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz:
ANLG 110 kHz:
SPEAKER
FrqLim Low to 21.938 kHz
FrqLim Low to 120 kHz
(see 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output)
In the 22 kHz analyzer, the (residual) Rub & Buzz signal in channel 1 and
the unfiltered signal in channel 2 can be monitored. This is done by
selecting FUNCT CH1 or CH2 provided the selected channel is also
active as a measurement channel.
If the Rub & Buzz signal exceeds the bandwidth of the employed
analyzer, the monitoring output FUNCT CH1 is muted to avoid noise
during sweeps, which would degrade the measurement of Rub & Buzz.
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UPL
Third Analysis
2.6.5.24 Third Analysis (1/3 OCTAVE)
This selection is only available in combination with Option UPL-B6 (Extended Analysis Functions). It is
generally not available with the 110 kHz analyzer.
UPL-B29:
In the high rate mode (see 2.15.9 Selecting the Sampling Mode), 1/3-octave analysis is
available in the analog analyzer only.
With the third analysis, the levels in up to 32 third-octave bands are measured simultaneously. The
analysis is performed according to standard IEC 1260 of 1995 with level accuracy of class 0
(± 1,0 dB).
The bandwidth of a third-octave band relative to the band center is
6
2
6
1
( = 1/3 octave). The third2
octave filters are designed as 4th-order Chebychev filters. The reference frequency of 1 kHz is used as
a basis for calculating all the other center frequencies of the band.
The third-octave bands to be measured are selected by entering lower and upper frequency limits. A
separate RMS value is determined for each third-octave band and displayed either graphically or
numerically. The total RMS value for all the selected third-octave bands is displayed. If necessary, it can
also be displayed as a bar graph or (for specialist applications with frequency sweep) a curve plot.
The precisely calculated third-octave bands are used as a basis for the measurement. The nominal
band center frequencies are rounded to two or three significant digits and used for the numeric
representation of the thirds (operation SPECTR LIST). With the graphic representation (operation
SPECTRUM), only the octaves are labelled as space is limited.
The measurement range of the third analysis begins at the nominal band center frequency of 16 Hz
(15.87 Hz) and ends at 20 kHz. The total bandwidth ranges from 14.1 to 22449.2 Hz, that is the total
audible range.
Third analysis in UPL is performed for one channel only. Dual-channel measurements should normally
be avoided, as the multiplexing that is required makes continuous measurement of both channels
impossible and the channels therefore have to settle to steady state each time a single measurement
has been performed. However this measurement mode may be suitable for single measurements with
long measurement times. Of course both traces may also be used also for single-channel
measurements, eg trace B for displaying a comparison spectrum. If two traces are used, the thirds are
superimposed, which gives a very clear picture on a colour display: the overlaying portions of the two
traces are displayed, as in other measurements, a mix of the colours used.
The pink noise of the generator function "Random", which can also be generated by the R&S UPL, is
recommended as the trigger signal for the third analysis. Unlike white noise, its level roll-off
1/ f
compensates for the apparent level increase encountered with third analysis, which results from the
absolute bandwidth increasing as the frequency increases.
To display a stable frequency response, the spacing of the random signal should be set to "ANLR
TRACK". In this setting, the frequency resolution of the generator is optimized taking the selected
measurement time as well as sampling rates of the generator and analyzer into consideration. This is
done to ensure that the analyzer integrates whole periods in all third-octave bands.
The single measurement is rated such that the actual measurement is started only if the internal
third-octave filters have fully been settled. Nothing is displayed during internal settling and subsequent
measurement time. The displayed spectrum exclusively represents the transmission characteristic of
the DUT. This operating mode is suitable for all signals (i.e. also stationary individual sounds or noise)
but results in an obvious dead period of the instrument, especially when low-frequency third octaves are
detected.
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Analyzer: Functions
UPL
To get a coarse overview of the DUT transmission characteristic immediately after the start of the
measurement, i.e. during settling of the internal third-octave filter, the continuous measurement displays
intermediate results with a high update rate immediately after pressing the START key (or the
corresponding IEC/IEEE-bus command) irrespective of the selected measurement time. During the next
few seconds this result will become more stable since the internal filters settle and the integration time
becomes longer. This operating mode is especially recommended for dynamic test signals.
If unsettled spectrums are undesired even if running in continuous measurement intermediate results
can be suppressed by using the command line parameter "-o16". This will recover the behaviour prior to
version 3.03.
Line Count
30
32
Meas Time
VALUE
Determines the number of thirds which can be measured and displayed.
The number was 30 up to software 2.02. A (continuous) reduction of
thirds is also possible without this menu item by simply entering
"FrqLimLow" and "FrqLimUpp". This menu item is prinicipally provided to
maintain compatibility.
Maximum 30 thirds can be calculated and displayed. The lowest third
which can be measured has a nominal center frequency of 25 Hz
"30" is mainly required to maintain compatibility with earlier written remote
and sequence control programs.
In addition, 2 low-frequency thirds, i.e., maximum 32 thirds, can be
calculated and displayed. The lowest third which can be measured has a
nominal center frequency of 16 Hz.
"32" should be set with writing any new remote and sequence control
programs and setups.
(Measurement Time)
The only parameter determining the measurement speed is the
measurement time, which is entered as a numeric value. To minimize
measurement uncertainties, the selected measurement time is rounded to
integer multiples of 512 samples, which corresponds to a step width of
approx. 10.6 ms for the analog analyzer (internal sampling rate 48 kHz).
For long-time measurements, measurement times of up to 12 hours can
be selected.
The measurement time also determines the update rate of the third
analysis. Shorter measurement times lead to results being displayed
faster but for shorter times. Each time the selected measurement time
elapses, the third results are updated. No intermediate results are
displayed. The update rate of the measurement result can be reduced by
entering the "reading rate" in the OPTIONS panel. If the selected
measurement time is too short, the lower third measurement results
become inaccurate ("noisy"). If the measurement results are of
considerably more interest than the graphic representation, the selected
measurement time should be long enough to yield sufficiently accurate
measurement results for even the lowest third that is required.
Specified range:
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UPL
Third Analysis
Max Hold
Hold function for the maximum result of each third. The function can be
turned off. Reset by pressing the START key. Just like the measurement
results of the thirds, the max-hold values can be displayed either
graphically as horizontal markers in the spectrum or numerically in a
spectrum list. They are available via auto and remote control. To present
numerical results, switch on Scan #2 (PgUp or PgDn key). Graphically the
maximum values are indicated by narrow horizontal lines at the top of the
associated third bars.
OFF
Max-hold function switched off; only the third bars are displayed.
FOREVER
Max-hold function switched on; the markers lie on the maximum values;
reset only by starting the measurement (START key).
SLOW DECAY
Max-hold function switched on; the markers lie on the maximum values
for the "hold time" to be set in the following line and then decay
exponentially (time constant 0.5 s).
FAST DECAY
Max-hold function switched on; the markers remain on the maximum
values for the "hold time" to be set in the following line and then go back
to the current measurement value for the third.
Note:
Hold Time
The counter for the hold time is reset and restarted whenever a
new maximum value occurs. Each third has its own counter, so
each marker can move independently.
Only for Max Hold --> SLOW / FAST DECAY
Setting of the time for which the maximum value of a third is held before
the marker returns to the measured value. The selected hold time does
not influence the decay time.
Unit Ch1/2
(See 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(See 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
GEN TRACK is not available for third analysis, as this analysis is usually
triggered by noise signals (eg pink noise), for which generator tracking is
not defined.
Filter
(See 2.7 Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel))
One standard or user-defineable filter can be selected.
UPL-B29:
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No filter can be switched on in the high rate mode.
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Analyzer: Functions
FrqLim Low
UPL
Lower band limit for third analysis. The representation and calculation of
the third bands start with the band containing the lower limit frequency.
Any signals below the lowest third band will not be included in the
calculation of the total RMS value. The higher the lower limit frequency,
the faster the signal will settle and the shorter the time for first
measurement.
Specified range: depends on "Line Count" (values in brackets apply for 30
lines)
ANLG 22 kHz: 14.254 Hz (22.627 Hz) to 21.938 kHz
DIGITAL:
14.254 Hz (22.627 Hz) to fmax
fmax depends on the sampling rate and does not exceed
22 449 Hz
Note:
FrqLim Upp
SPEAKER
In single measurement mode (e.g. frequency sweep), all third
octave filters must have settled prior to starting the
measurement. Thus the measurement time for each single
measurement is increased by the the filter delay. In order to
reduce filter delay only as many low-frequency thirds should be
measured as required by the measuring task. FrqLim Low
should be set as high as possible
Upper band limit for third analysis. The representation and calculation of
the third bands ends with the band containing the upper limit frequency.
Any signals above the top third band will not be included in the calculation
of the total RMS value. Frequency limit upper does not affect the
measurement time.
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz:
FrqLim Low to 21.938 kHz
ANLG 110 kHz: FrqLim Low to fmax fmax depends on the sampling rate
and does not exceed 22 449 Hz
(See 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output)
The input signals of channel 1 or channel 2 (without filter) can be
monitored.
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UPL
Third Analysis
2.6.5.25 12th OCTAVE Analysis (12th OCTAVE)
This selection is only available in combination with Option UPL-B6 (Extended Analysis Functions). It is
generally not available with the 110 kHz analyzer.
th
In the high rate mode (see 2.15.9 Selecting the Sampling Mode, 12
available in the analog analyzer (ANLG 22 kHz),only.
UPL-B29:
octave analysis is
th
With the 12 octave analysis, the levels in up to 125 frequency bands can be measured simultaneously.
In contrast to the third analysis, the levels of the individual frequency bands are not measured using
narrow-band bandpass filters but by means of a special zoom FFT integrating the FFT bins in the
individual bands (frequency lines).
The advantages compared to the third analysis are a higher resolution and the dual-channel
measurement which allows for considering a reference signal in additition to the measurement signal at
the same time.
The disadvantage compared to the third analysis is the rough stepped measurement time which is
an integer multiple of the FFT measurement time. Moreover, monitoring without gaps cannot be
guaranteed. However the monitoring gaps are not critical with most applications, in particular, if a
reference signal is determined simultaneously on the 2nd channel.
th
The bandwidth of a 12 octave band relative to the band center is
24
2
1
24
2
( = 5.77%).
The reference frequency of 1 kHz is used as basis for calculating all the other center frequencies of the
band by multiplication or division
DIN 323.
12
2 . The nominal band center frequencies are derived from standard
The frequency bands to be measured are selected by entering lower and upper frequency limits. A
separate RMS value is determined for each selected frequency band by integrating all FFT bins of this
band and is then displayed either graphically or numerically. The total RMS value for all the selected
frequency bands is displayed. If necessary, it can also be displayed as a BAR GRAPH or (for specialist
applications with frequency sweep) a CURVE PLOT.
The measurement range of the third analysis begins at the nominal band center frequency of 16 Hz
(15.87 Hz) and ends at 20 kHz. The total bandwidth ranges from 15.4 to 20586 Hz, that is the total
audible range.
The precisely calculated frequency bands are used as a basis for the measurement. The nominal band
th
center frequencies are used for the numeric representation of the 12 octaves (operation SPECTR
LIST). With the graphic representation (operation SPECTRUM), only the octaves are labelled as space
is limited.
As an alternative to the spectrum representation of the discrete frequency bands (operation
th
SPEKTRUM) the 12 octave analysis may also be represented as curve plot (operation CURVE PLOT),
if no sweep is activated. This representation provides the advantage of scaling the graphics into both
directions as desired such that even small sections of the frequency range can be clearly arranged. With
remote or sequence control the first measured frequency line may preferably assume the index 0 in the
trace data set, whereas index 0 always refers to the frequency line 16 Hz with the spectrum
representation independent of being measured or not.
Pink noise, which can also be generated by the UPL, is recommended as trigger signal for the third
analysis. Unlike white noise, its level roll-off of
th
encountered with 12
frequency increases.
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1 / f compensates for the apparent level increase
octave analysis, which results from the absolute bandwidth increasing as the
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Analyzer: Functions
Meas Time
VALUE
UPL
(Measure Time)
The only parameter determining the measurement speed is the
measurement time, which is entered as a numeric value. It is always
rounded to an integer multiple of the measurement time of the used zoom
FFT.
The minimum measurement time depends on the lower frequency limit
selected. The lower it is set, the longer the measurement will take.
If a measurement time is entered which is longer than the minimum
measurement time, several FFTs are averaged internally. Measurement
inaccuracies are thus determined, on the other hand, short-time
monitoring gaps occur which are usually not critical.
For long-time measurements, measurement times of up to 12 hours can
be selected.
th
The measurement time also determines the update rate of the12 octave
analysis. Each time the selected measurement time elapses, the results
are updated; no intermediate results are displayed.
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz: tmeasFFT ... 720 min (12 h)
DIGITAL:
tmeasFFT ... 720 min
tmeasFFT = measurement time for a zoom FFT,
depending on the lower frequency limit
Units:
Max Hold
s | ms | µs | min
th
Hold function for the maximum result of each 12 octave. The function
can be turned off. Reset by pressing the START key. Just like the
measurement results of the individual frequency bands, the max-hold
values can be displayed either graphically as horizontal markers in the
spectrum or numerically in a spectrum list. They are available via auto
and remote control. To present numerical results, switch on Scan #2
(PgUp or PgDn key). Graphically the maximum values are indicated by
narrow horizontal lines at the top of the associated bars of the frequency
bands.
OFF
Max-hold function switched off; only the bars of the bands are displayed.
ON
Max-hold function switched on; the markers lie on the maximum values;
corresponds to the "FOREVER" setting with third analysis. Reset only by
starting the measurement (START key).
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UPL
Third Analysis
Unit Ch1/2
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
Reference
(see 2.6.5.1 Common Parameters of Analyzer Functions)
th
octave analysis, since
GEN TRACK cannot be selected with 12
triggering is usually initiated by noise signals (e.g., pink noise), which
generator tracking is not defined for.
Filter
(see 2.7 Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel))
Any standard or user-defined filter may be selected.
UPL-B29:
FrqLim Low
No filter may be switched on in high rate (see 2.15.9
Selecting the Sampling Mode.
th
Lower band limit for 12
octave analysis. The representation and
calculation of the frequency bands start with the band containing the lower
limit frequency. Any signals below the lowest frequency band will not be
included in the calculation of the total rms value.
The lower the lower limit frequency, the narrower the frequency bands
which will have to be measured. In order not to fall below a minimum
amount of bins per band, the FFT resolution and thus the zoom factor of
the FFT will have to be increased with narrower frequency bands
A zoom factor higher than 2 means on the other hand, that a single
measurement will not be sufficient to cover the complete frequency range.
In this case, 2 measurements are performed internally for the lower and
the upper frequency range and the measured values of the single
measurements are combined.
The lower limit frequency thus considerably influences the measurement
speed which is why it should not be selected lower than required for the
measurement task.
Optimum settings for the frequency range are, e.g (analog analyzer or
DIGITAL 48 kHz)
• 410 Hz to any frequency
• 205 Hz to 11172 Hz
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz: 15.4 Hz to 20586 Hz
DIG 48 kHz:
15.4 Hz to fmax
fmax depends on the sampling rate and does not exceed
20586 Hz
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Analyzer: Functions
FrqLim Upp
UPL
th
Upper band limit for 12
octave analysis. The representation and
calculation of the frequency bands end with the band containing the upper
limit frequency. Any signals above the top frequency band will not be
included in the calculation of the total rms value.
FrqLim Upp conditionally affects the measurement speed (analog or
DIGITAL 48 kHz):
• If the lower limit frequency is above 409 Hz, FrqLim Upp does not
affect the measurement speed.
• If the lower limit frequency is below 409 Hz, the measurement speed
is lower, if FrqLim Upp is higher than
FrqLim Low + 10.97 kHz
Specified range:
ANLG 22 kHz: FrqLim Low to 20586 Hz
DIGITAL:
FrqLim Low to fmax
fmax depends on the sampling rate and does not exceed
20586 Hz
SPEAKER
(see 2.6.6 Headphone/Speaker Output)
The input signals of channel 1 and/or channel 2 (without filter) can be
monitored.
Meas Mode
NARROW
WIDE
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available only if command line parameter "-twin12oct" had been provided;
allows measurement without windowing input data.
input data are weighted by using the HANN-window. This setting
corresponce to the default behaviour of the UPLs without command line
parameter "-twin12oct".
input data are not weighted (no window used)
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UPL
Headphone/Speaker Output
2.6.6
Headphone/Speaker Output
The Headphone/Speaker Output UPL-B5 permits to monitor both analog and digital measuring and test
signals during the measurement. For this purpose, the built-in loudspeaker or the externally connected
headphones are used. The impedance of the headphones should be 600 so that a distortion-free
operation is guaranteed even with full volume. When connecting headphones with lower impedance,
distortions have to be taken into account depending on the power level. The maximum peak voltage at
the headphones is 8 volts.
Principle of operation:
Analoge Eingänge
Ch1
Ch2
XLR
XLR
Digitale Eingänge
Ch1 und Ch2
DSP
ANLG
22 kHz
110 kHz
Range
A/D
Meas Mode
JITTER/PHAS
COMMON/INP
Speaker INPUT Ch1|2|1&2
Speaker INPUT COMM
Digital
Option
UPL-B2/-B29
BAL (XLR)
UNBAL (BNC)
OPTICAL
D/A
LCDisplay
Pre Gain
Speaker INPUT JITT
+/- 120 dB
Speaker FUNCT CH1|2|1&2
600 Ohm
DSP
Speaker
DIG IN CH1|2|1&2
D/A
Speaker DIG IN CH1|2|1&2 (high rate mode)
Fig. 2-28
Meas
Mode
Filter
ANLG
22kHz
Spk
Volume
0...100 %
Phone
= SPEAKER
PERMANENT
Principle of operation of the headphones/speaker output
The input signals of all analog analyzers (INPUT) and the output signals of all analyzer level functions
may serve as signal sources for the monitor output, in addition monitoring of THDN and Rub&Buzz
residual signal can be switched on.
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Headphone/Speaker Output
UPL
UPL-B29: Aural monitoring of residual signals is possible in the base rate mode only In the case of
option UPL-B29 in high rate mode, UPL-B5 variant 03 is necessary for aural monitoring.
If high rate mode is active, aural monitoring is fundamentally possible at inputs, also with
Analog Analyzer 22 kHz.
Table 2-37 Monitoring realized for the analyzer functions
Functions
Monitoring possible
Output signal =
RMS, RMS Sel, PEAK, Quasi PEAK
yes (not in the high rate
mode)
Filtered or unfiltered input signal
THD+N, RUB&BUZZ
yes (not in the high rate
mode)
Residual signal or unfiltered input signal
no
Input signal
DC, THD, MOD DIST, DFD, WOW & FL,
FILTER SIM, COHER
FFT, POLARITY, WAVEFORM,
1/3-Octave
Pre Gain permits a signal variation of +/- 120 dB. This permits to boost even weak residual signals such
that they can be monitored. If the AES/ EBU option is installed, the AES/EBU signal can also be
monitored at the input (AES).
A level control (volume) permits setting of the volume. In the case of Phone SPEAKER, the internal
loudspeaker is automatically switched off by connecting the headphones. In the case of Phone
PERMANENT, only the loudspeaker is switched on and off using the Speaker-off key.
The Speaker menu is located at the end of the ANALYZER panel and linked to the measurement
function, i.e. it is stored and loaded together with the function. Thus the monitoring output can be
configured separately for each measurement function. For instance, a high preamplification is required
for monitoring residual signals (THD+N, Rub&Buzz, RMS SEL with tracking bandstop filter) while a
considerably lower preamplification is sufficient for (filtered or unfiltered) RMS measurements to avoid
overdriving and excessive volumes.
To protect the user against excessive volumes (particularly when headphones are connected), the
monitoring output is automatically switched off when SETUP settings are loaded, the analyzer
instrument or a function is changed or the Speaker command is given. In this case the monitoring output
has to be switched on again with the Speaker-off key (LOCAL key). If headphones are used, the
Speaker menu should be checked prior to switching on to avoid excessive volumes increased through
inadvertent gain setting ("Spk Volume", "Pre Gain").
Note: The monitor output is designed as
• control output for monitoring the input signal by means of headphones or loudspeaker or for
• monitoring the signal using an oscilloscope, since analog signals from 20 Hz to 110 kHz can be
monitored with a frequency response of ±0.2 dB and digital output signals. Due to noise sidebands of
the internal PLL of option UPL-B5, a THD + N measurement does not provide the excellent data
usually supplied by the measuring path of the UPL (distortion -60 dB above the frequency range
from 20 Hz to 110 kHz). However, these non-harmonic interfering signals are inaudible due to the
psychoacoustic masking effect of the human ear.
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Headphone/Speaker Output
Example: Use of headphone/speaker output as DC source
The headphone/speaker output can be used as a DC source as an alternative to outputting the
measured analog or digital input signal. The R&S UPL therefore has to be equipped with a special
command line parameter. The headphone/speaker output can be activated again by omitting the
command line parameter.
"–tdcl" generates a DC voltage in the range of +/- 2 V,
"–tdch" generates a DC voltage in the range of +/- 6 V.
This voltage is available at the headphone output and can be levelled in the OPTIONS panel under the
menu item "SPK DC VOLTAGE".
The offset and the linearity accuracy of this DC source can be calibrated manually for especially
accurate DC levels. This is also done under the menu item “Device CAL DC OUT” in the
"DIAGNOSTIC" menu in the OPTIONS panel.
•
The zero offset is entered under "address 0".
•
The linearity factor is entered under "address 1".
The actual value of the voltage can be performed with the DC measurement function of the R&S UPL.
The following is recommended:
1. Reset the calibration values:
•
Zero offset ("address 0") to 0.000
•
Linearity factor ("address 1") to 1.000
2. Set 0 V in menu item "DC Volt"
3. Measure the offset voltage Voffs and enter – Voffs (in volt) as offset calibration value under "Address 0".
4. Set the nominal voltage Vnom = 2 V (for "–tdcl") or 6 V (for "–tdch") in the menu item "DC Volt".
5. Measure the actual voltage Vact and enter the coefficient of Vnom / Vact as linearity factor under
"Address 1".
Headphone/speaker output as low-impedance DC source:
The internal impedance of the headphone/speaker output is normally approx. 10 ? per channel. This
internal impedance can be bypassed on the headphone/speaker output if a voltage source with a low
internal impedance is required. This can be ordered or carried out at a later time in a service center.
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Headphone/Speaker Output
UPL
ANALYZER panel
SPEAKER
Monitor output
OFF
Monitor output is switched off
INPUT Ch1
Monitoring the input signals of the analog analyzers ANLG 22 kHz and
ANLG 110 kHz on channel 1.
The signal is applied to both output channels.
INPUT Ch2
... on channel 2
INPUT Ch1&2
Monitoring the input signals of the analog analyzers ANLG 22 kHz and
ANLG 110 kHz on channel 1 and channel 2 (stereo operation). If channel
1 or channel 2 are selected as analyzer input, only the left-hand or righthand phones output can be monitored correspondingly.
DIG IN Ch1
Monitoring of the left channel of the digital audio interface of the digital
analyzer DIGITAL (Digital Audio I/O Option UPL-B2 or UPL-B29)
DIG IN Ch2
... of the right channel.
DIG Ch1&2
... of both channels.
Note:
Monitoring of the digital audio signals is only possible if the
Digital Audio I/O Option UPL-B2 or UPL-B29 is installed.
Bei eingebauter UPL-B29 ist zum Mithören im High Rate Mode
(siehe 2.15.9 Selecting the Sampling Mode) die Mithöroption
UPL-B5 Variante 03 notwendig.
If the high rate mode is switched on, monitoring is possible
via the inputs only. This also applies to the 22 kHz analog
analyzer.
FUNCT Ch1
FUNCT Ch2
FUNCT Ch1&2
Monitoring of the measurement function output of the analog analyzer
ANLG 22 kHz for channel 1. If filters are switched on for the
measurement function, the filtered signal (or the residual signal for
THD+N, Rub&Buzz or RMS SEL) can also be monitored here.
... channel 2.
INPUT JITT
... both channels (stereo operation).
INPUT COMM
Available only in the DIGITAL analyzer with Digital Audio I/O option (UPLB2 + UPL-B22) in Meas Mode JITTER/PHAS.
The demodulated jitter signal is applied to the ANLG 110 kHz analyzer
and can be listened to.
Available only in the DIGITAL analyzer with Digital Audio I/O option (UPLB2 + UPL-B22) in Meas Mode COMMON/INP.
The superimposed common-mode signal at the digital inputs is applied to
the ANLG 110 kHz analyzer and can be listened to.
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UPL
Headphone/Speaker Output
Pre Gain
Spk Volume
Phone
For the menu items SPEAKER FUNCT CH1/2/1&2 a gain or attenuation
of the function output can be set in the range ± 120 dB. If the gain is set
too high, the signal is limited at the monitor output.
Volume for the monitor output, settable from 0 to 100%
Configuration of the monitor output at the phones connector.
= SPEAKER
When connecting the headphones, the internal loudspeaker is
automatically switched off.
Phones output is operated in conformance with the loudspeaker, i.e. the
Speaker-off key (LOCAL key) switches off the internal loudspeaker or
phones output. The monitor signal sounds either from the built-in
loudspeaker or from the connected headphones.
PERMANENT
Phones output is permanently switched on. Speaker-off key only acts on
the internal loudspeaker irrespective of whether the headphones are
connected up. In this case, the internal loudspeaker also remains active
with the headphones inserted.
Keys for speaker control:
LOCAL key
This key is used to switch on/off the internal loudspeaker in local mode of
the UPL (Speaker-off key). In remote mode, the first keystroke switches
to the local mode.
+ / key
This key opens a box for faster setting of the monitoring volume (Spk
Volume).
Example of application: Monitoring the distortion of a signal
In the UPL, the signal distortion can be monitored either directly when a THD+N measurement is
performed or by switching on a narrow bandstop filter in the case of an RMS SELECT measurement.
When a THD+N measurement is performed, the signal to be monitored is routed via a digital filter or a
second (analog) notch filter. The frequency of the signal is permanently monitored and the notch filter
immediately fine-tuned, if required. In this case the monitoring output is briefly muted.
Depending on the selected generator and the quality of the test signal, a different setting is required for
menu items "Fundamental" and "Dyn Mode":
• Internal universal generator (Low Dist
OFF)
Select Fundamental
GEN TRACK; the dynamic mode is arbitrary. When the generator frequency
is changed, the internal notch filters are automatically tuned to the new fundamental.
• Internal low-distortion generator (Low Dist
ON)
Select Fundamental
AUTO. (When the low-distortion generator is switched on, GEN TRACK is
ignored and handled internally in the same way as AUTO.) This is to avoid the generator frequency
being slightly outside the stopband range of the two notch filters. The dynamic mode PRECISION
may be selected if the signals to be measured are only slightly distorted or noisy.
• External generator:
Select Fundamental
AUTO. The signal frequency is permanently monitored and the internal notch
filter fine-tuned, if required. Select the dynamic mode PRECISION or FAST depending on the signal
quality.
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Headphone/Speaker Output
UPL
Note on monitoring the residual signal during the THD+N measurement:
• The monitoring output is muted for approx. 1 s every time a change is made in the GENERATOR or
ANALYZER panel before the THD+N measurement is (re)started or when the notch filter is internally
tuned. This is not a malfunction but should protect the listener against clicks and noise while the
settings are made, which would be very disturbing because of the high gain of the residual signal.
• If external signal sources are used, it cannot be avoided for the fundamental to go outside the
stopband range of the notch filter and being applied with high level to the monitoring output whenever
the frequency is changed. As soon as the THD+N measurement routine identifies a new
fundamental, the monitoring output is muted and the notch filter adjusted.
Remedy:
This effect can be avoided through the use of an internal generator.
If an external generator has to be used, the following procedure is recommended:
Stop or abort the current (permanent) measurement using the STOP or SINGLE key, then set the
external generator and restart the measurement with the START key.
If the time of the generator switchover cannot be predicted, a short measurement time should be
selected to minimize the period before the signal is muted.
1. Reduce Meas Time SUPERFAST or the FFT size (with post-FFT switched on).
2. Switch post-FFT OFF.
3. Switch result display off.
• If the loudspeaker is not switched on again after muting although Speaker was neither switched off
by means of the PHONE OFF key nor via the Speaker menu, it could be that the measurement
routine cannot find a reliable and sufficiently strong signal.
Remedy:
Switch off the analog notch filter by selecting the dynamic mode FAST or
Fundamental GEN TRACK, provided the internal universal generator is used.
• If the signal to be measured contains considerable noise or strong harmonics, it could happen that
the fundamental after the analog notch filter cannot be detected.
Remedy: as above
• Any kind of DC (DUT, DC offset of notch filter ) may cause the monitoring output to be overdriven
and muted.
Remedy:
Perform or switch on a DC offset calibration in the OPTIONS panel.
Switch on the highpass filter (Filter HP...),
Switch on AC coupling (Couple CHx AC).
If an RMS SELECT measurement is performed, the distortion can be monitored by cutting in a narrow
bandstop filter. The frequency of the bandstop filter can be permanently set or automatically adjusted
when the frequency is changed in the GENERATOR panel.
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UPL
Headphone/Speaker Output
The DUT is connected, for instance, between analog generator input 1 and analog analyzer input 1.
Settings on the UPL:
Load the UPL default setting in the FILE panel.
LOAD INSTRUMENT STATE
Mode
DEF SETUP
Settings in the UPL ANALYZER panel:
With FREQ MODE GEN TRACK, the bandstop center frequency follows the frequency setting in
the GENERATOR panel.
FREQ MODE FIX holds the bandstop frequency irrespective of the generator frequency.
With NOTCH(Gain) 0 dB, an analog notch filter is switched on which increases the stopband
attenuation by another 40 dB (in addition to the 100 dB attenuation of the bandstop filter).
Switch on loudspeaker: press Speaker off key (LOCAL key) or open volume box
(+/- key) and adjust the desired volume.
By setting Pre Gain, the residual signal can now be boosted above the audible level.
Depending on the distortion of the DUT, the harmonics of the test frequency can be clearly distinguished
from the noise.
Depending on the selected generator, menu items Bandwidth and FREQ MODE can be set in different
ways:
• Internal universal generator (Low Dist
OFF)
Select FREQ MODE
GEN TRACK; the set bandwidth may be as narrow as desired (Bandwidth
BS 1%) because the universal generator features a very high frequency stability. When the generator
frequency is varied, the fundamental is automatically suppressed by the tracking bandstop filter.
• Internal low-distortion generator (Low Dist
ON)
When the low-distortion generator is used, which features a high spectral purity but a slightly reduced
frequency stability, it may happen that the generator frequency is slightly outside the bandstop filter
range BS 1% and the fundamental is not completely suppressed. Remedy: Select
a wider bandstop filter (bandwidth
BS 3%, BS 1/3 OCT, BS 1/12 OCT) or
FREQ MODE
FIX and tune the center frequency manually to the generator frequency or, the
other way round, vary the generator frequency by a few Hz so that the fundamental is optimally
suppressed.
• External generator:
Select FREQ MODE
FIX and tune the center frequency as accurately as possible to the generator
frequency. For generators with a non-stabilized frequency, a wideband bandstop filter should be
selected in addition (bandwidth
BS 3%, BS 1/3 OCT, BS 1/12 OCT).
Note on monitoring the residual signal during the RMS selective measurement:
Any kind of DC (DUT, DC offset of notch filter) may cause the monitoring output to be overdriven and
muted.
Possible remedies:
Perform or switch on a DC offset calibration in the OPTIONS panel.
Switch on highpass filter (Filter HP...),
Switch on AC coupling (Couple CHx
AC).
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Applications
2.6.7
Applications
2.6.7.1
Crosstalk Measurement
UPL
Crosstalk means the -undesired- coupling of signals of one channel to another communication channel.
It is usually indicated as a function of the frequency. It is measured by modulating one channel by
means of measuring the amplitude in the unmodulated channel. Since the coupled signals are normally
low and may correspond to the signal-to-noise ratio, the full dynamic range should be used. The values
are indicated in dB, the output amplitude of the modulated channel being used as reference.
• Basic setting
The generator is set to SINE and a frequency sweep is activated. Since crosstalk normally does not
reveal steep variations over the frequency, approx. 20 to 30 test points with logarithmic spacing are
sufficient in the range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. VOLTAGE is set such that the maximum voltage is
reached at the DUT output.
The RMS & S/N (with S/N Seq OFF) function is used in the analyzer to measure the level with AUTO or
AUTOFAST mode. This is a two-channel measurement, i.e., Channels(s) is set to 2=1. Range AUTO
matches the different levels automatically. INPUT DISP and FREQ/PHASE measurements should be
switched OFF to increase the measurement speed.
Since the measurement is to be displayed as CURVE PLOT, operation is set accordingly in the
DISPLAY panel. Scan count is set 1. Scale B is selected NOT EQUAL A. Unit should be set to dBr in
both channels and the normalize value to 1.0 * or 0 dB.
• Measuring crosstalk from CH2 to CH1
The generator setting is "Channel(s) 2“ in order to switch on channel 2.
In the DISPLAY panel, Trace A is set to FUNC CH1 and reference to MEAS CH2.
Trace B is OFF. -Pressing the SINGLE key starts the first measurement sequence.
• Holding the measurement
Since the same display shall contain crosstalk of the other channel, the first measurement must be
“held“ by selection of the setting Trace A HOLD. If AUTO ONCE has not yet been selected for Scale, the
automatic scaling can now be initiated.
• Measuring crosstalk from CH1 to CH2
In the GENERATOR panel, Channel(s) 1 is selected in order to switch on the other channel.
Trace B is set to FUNC CH2 and MEAS CH1 is selected as reference.
Pressing the SINGLE key starts the 2nd sweep.
• Post-processing/storage
Since the crosstalk values of the individual channels do normally not deviate considerably from each
other, the scaling of TRACE A can be copied using Scale B EQUAL A.
The complete measurement can then be stored in a file by entering Store TRACE A+B and a file name
in the FILE panel. Besides, a screen hard copy can be selected for documentation purposes and output
by pressing the HCOPY key in the OPTIONS panel.
• Copying the functions to be executed in the STATUS panel
This measurement is a typical application for the STATUS panel. The few command lines to be
executed can be copied into the common STATUS panel by marking them in order to avoid manifold
switchover between GENERATOR and DISPLAY panels (cf. 2.8 STATUS panel). Assuming that nothing
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Applications
has been marked, the Channel(s) command is ticked off in the GENERATOR panel and the lines
TRACE A, Reference (A), TRACE B, Reference (B) and Scale B, if required, are ticked off in the
DISPLAY panel.
Fig. 2-29
STATUS and GRAPHICS panels with crosstalk measurement
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Applications
2.6.7.2
UPL
Linearity Measurements
In linearity measurements the output level is plotted versus the input level. The unit normally used is dBr
but V/Vr can also be selected. If a fixed reference value is used, a straight rising line is obtained. To
accentuate departures from linearity, a straight horizontal line would be desirable. This line is obtained
when the measured values are not referenced to a fixed value but to the input frequency.
The UPL does not offer a separate function for linearity measurements. Such measurements are
defined as a special reference of the level measurement. This offers the following advantages:
1. Linearity measurement not confined to one single measurement function. All level measurements
(RMS, RMS select, quasi-peak and all peak measurements) can be used for linearity measurements.
2. Switchover between linearity measurement and (absolute) level measurement is effected by
selecting the unit (menu line "Unit 1" or "Unit 2"). It is thus possible to display the linearity
measurement in one channel and the absolute level in the other.
3. By selecting the reference (menu line "Reference"), a switchover is made between a fixed or a
floating reference (linearity measurement). Thus the linearity measurement can be displayed in one
channel and the level referenced to a fixed value in the other.
Note:
The reference used for linearity measurements is defined as "floating reference value" in
this manual. In contrast to the commonly used fixed reference, each measured value has a
reference value of its own.
The linearity measurement can be performed by means of a sweep. Measured values can be
numerically or graphically displayed in the GRAPHICS panel and normalized. Moreover, the nonlinearity
of each measured (level) value can be directly read from the result window without a sweep being set
and performed.
Either the internal generator (GEN TRACK) or - when both channels are switched on - one of the two
measurement channels (MEAS CH 1/2) can be selected as a reference for the linearity measurement. A
measurement channel has to be selected as a reference when an external generator is used or if
reference is to be made to a specific point in the test setup.
Note:
A two-channel linearity measurement assumes that neither of the measurement channels is
needed as a reference. With MEAS CH1 or MEAS CH2 selected as a reference, the linearity
measurement can be performed in one channel only. Being referenced to itself, the other
channel yields 0 dBr.
More possibilities are available when the measurement is carried out in the form of a sweep with the
result displayed in a graphics window:
1. When stored as a trace file, the level curve of a reference item (golden unit) can be selected as a
reference under FILE in the DISPLAY panel. Thus departures from linearity can be displayed with a
reference to this golden unit without the latter being available for the measurement.
2. The level curve measured in the other trace (or loaded from a file) can be directly selected as a
reference in the DISPLAY panel (OTHER TRACE). Thus it is possible to subsequently reference the
absolute level curves of the two channels to each other.
3. The sweep shows the linearity deviation (e.g. in dBr) from the selected reference curve. This
deviation is not necessarily around 0 dBr. If the DUT has a gain or loss, the deviation may be above
or below this value. The gain factor of the DUT can be compensated for by a scaling factor which can
be entered either numerically or by means of an automatic 0-dB scaling to the current cursor
position.
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UPL
Applications
Note:
When measuring D/A or A/D converters using the internal UPL generator, the linearity
measurement (with GEN TRACK) leads to the physical problem of referencing an analog
voltage to a digital one (or vice versa). UPL internally calculates with a conversion factor of
1V / 1FS or 1FS / 1V
Same as the gain factor, this conversion factor can also be compensated for by the scaling
factor.
1-channel linearity measurement referenced to measurement channel 1:
1. Select analyzer (ANLG 22 kHz or ANLG 110 kHz) according to the required frequency.
2. Select a level measurement (RMS, RMS select, quasi-peak or peak) and, if necessary, the
measurement mode suitable for the measurement task.
3. If a curve is to be swept, further settings have to be made in the DISPLAY panel: Operation must be
set to Curve Plot, FUNCT CH2 should be selected for trace A and trace B should be OFF.
4. Select dBr or V/Vr for channel 2 and trace A (in the ANALYZER and, if required, the DISPLAY panel).
5. Select MEAS CH1 as a reference (menu line REFERENCE in the ANALYZER and, if required, in the
DISPLAY panel). The measurement result of channel 2 is then referenced to the input of channel 1.
6. The linearity deviation is displayed in the result display of channel 2 with the selected unit. On
triggering a (SINGLE) sweep, the linearity characteristic is graphically displayed versus the input
level.
Fig. 2-30
Configuration of UPL for linearity measurement referenced to channel 1, the linearity
characteristic being displayed on trace B, the absolute reference channel on trace A.
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Applications
UPL
2-channel linearity measurement referenced to internal generator:
1. First configure and set the internal generator (sinewave signal, level sweep, signal frequency, etc.).
2. Select analyzer (ANLG 22 kHz or ANLG 110 kHz) according to the required frequency.
3. Select a level measurement (RMS, RMS select, quasi-peak or peak) and, if necessary, the
measurement mode suitable for the measurement task.
4. Further settings are to be made in the DISPLAY panel: Operation must be set to "Curve Plot",
FUNCT CH1 should be selected for trace A and FUNCT CH2 for trace B.
5. Select the unit dBr or V/Vr for both channels and both traces (in the ANALYZER and DISPLAY
panels).
6. Select GEN TRACK as a reference (menu line REFERENCE in the ANALYZER and DISPLAY
panel). Both measurement inputs are now referenced to the set generator level.
7. The linearity deviation is shown in the result displays with the selected unit. On triggering a (SINGLE)
sweep, the linearity characteristics of both channels are displayed versus the generator level.
Fig. 2-31
Configuration of UPL for 2-channel linearity measurement referenced to the internal
generator; display of linearity curve of both channels
After termination of the sweep, the swept curves can be normalized to one (or two different) points (e.g.
1 V). In this case the curve is vertically shifted so that it crosses the 0-dBr line at the selected reference
points:
1. Switch over to the GRAPHICS panel (GRAPH key or ALT+R). Activate one or both graphics cursors,
if required.
2. Move the cursor(s) to the desired reference point(s).
3. Return to the DISPLAY panel (DISP key or ALT+D).
4. Open the menu item Normalize of Trace A, select O-Cursor or - cursor, depending on which one
was used for marking the reference point.
5. If required, repeat step 4 for Trace B.
Note:
If the linearity characteristic is to be determined at various frequencies, this can be realized by
means of the two-dimensional sweep (with frequency on the Z axis). The individual curves
overlap in the display and yield a set of curves.
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UPL
2.6.7.3
Applications
Fast Frequency-Response Measurements
Usually, frequency-response measurements are performed using (generator) frequency sweeps and
RMS measurement. Although the UPL offers a very high RMS measurement speed (approx. 15 ms per
measured value), such a sweep may lead to a total measuring time, which is unacceptable due to the
large number of sweep steps to be performed. In other words faster modes are called for.
A combination of the FFT function and the generator signal RANDOM, Domain FREQ would be an
alternative. The generator can be synchronized to the spacing of the analyzer, i.e. each generated
frequency line of the (pseudo) random signal is assigned exactly one line of the FFT. Thus FFT
windowing can be omitted and a maximum frequency and level accuracy is obtained.
After outputting the generator random signal, all measurements can be performed at the speed of a
single FFT. Thus, the measurement speed only depends on the FFT size, which should be selected so
that the desired (linear) frequency resolution is just obtained.
Note:
Fig. 2-32
Logarithmic spacing is not possible with FFT; irrespective of this, logarithmic scaling of the X
axis can be selected in the DISPLAY panel.
Configuration and result of fast frequency-response measurement
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Optimizing the Measurement Speed
2.6.8
UPL
Optimizing the Measurement Speed
A high measurement speed is of particular importance for remote control as the measurement time
directly influences the program run time. For this reason program sequences are given in Section
3.15.10 Tuning - Setup for Maximum Measurement Speed, to optimize the measurement speed in the
case of remote control.
Short measurement times are also desirable in manual operation, particularly for sweeps and FFT, in
order to obtain a real-time characteristic (e.g. for tuning procedures). For this reason a few general hints
will be given below on how to cut down on the available measurement time. Optimization measures can
be classified in 4 groups:
1. Speed optimization without affecting the measurement accuracy
2. Compromise between measurement time and accuracy or dynamic
3. Speed optimization through use of internal generator,
4. Optimizing the sweep speed
5. Optimales Ausnutzen der DSP-Performance abhängig von der Taktrate
A brief form of these hints is available in the UPL online help functions (see 2.3.7 Help Function) under
the item "Optimization".
1. Speed Optimization without Affecting Measurement Results
• Selecting a suitable analyzer instrument (analog measurement signals only)
In the ANLG 22-kHz instrument, the two channels can be measured in parallel (synchronously)
already during sampling. This analyzer also offers a wider conversion range and a lower frequency
limit and should therefore be used in all cases where an upper measurement limit of 22 kHz is
sufficient.
• Switching off unused measurement inputs
An unused measurement input may considerably extend the measurement time as a measurement
is only terminated when a measured value is available for the unused input too. Some measurement
functions (e.g. RMS with automatic measurement time, THD+N) require a much longer time for
measuring low signal levels (noise) but even if a signal is present on channel 2, the measurement
time is certainly longer than in the case of 1-channel operation, as also the 2nd channel has to be
completely evaluated and displayed. In the ANLG 110-kHz instrument the two channels are
measured sequentially so that the measurement time is at least twice as long.
• Switching off the "Beeper"
In the setting "Beeper ON" there is a short sound of several 100 ms duration after each (single)
sweep which indicates the sweep ending. During this time no device activities are possible.
Especially with short sweeps this dead time is disturbing. Therefore the Beeper function should be
switched off while sweeps are running - especially under remote/automatic control - if no acoustic
reply of sweep end is required.
• Switching off unused result displays
If the result displays for FREQUENCY and INPUT DISP are not required they should be switched off.
In addition to saving the time required for evaluation and display of these values, some measurement
functions (e.g. RMS) can be terminated more quickly.
• Switching off settling functions
For most signals the settling function is not required. If the DUT provides a stable signal, the UPL
yields settled values even without the settling function. Settling (or averaging) multiplies the
measurement time by at least the number of the set samples (see 2.3.4 Settling Process).
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Optimizing the Measurement Speed
• Switching off filters that are not required
Each (digital) filter increases the total measuring time because of its settling time. Unused filters
should therefore be switched off in the ANALYZER panel.
• Switching off the measurement delay function ("Delay" under START CONDITION)
With the aid of this function DUT delays can be corrected. The start of the 1st measurement and
consequently of each sweep point are delayed for a defined period each time the generator or
analyzer setting is changed. If a start delay is not required, this time should be set to 0.0 (see 2.6.4
Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep).
• Manual selection of analyzer level range (analog measurement signals only)
If the level of the signal to be measured is known and a limited measurement range can be
accepted, the analyzer level range should be manually selected (Range FIX). A range corresponding
to the highest expected level should be set, an UNDERRANGE being taken into account. This
prevents a new measurement with a corrected range setting to be performed. To ensure that the
measurement will not be falsified by a higher signal level, "Range LOWER" may be selected. With
this mode selected the measurement function is able to correct the measurement range in the case
of OVERRANGE (see 2.6.2 Configuration of the Analog Analyzers).
2. Compromise between Measurement Time and Accuracy or Dynamic
The methods below can only be used with certain measurement functions.
• Selection of low measurement dynamic (dynamic mode FAST, for analog measurement functions
THD, THD+N/SINAD, DFD, MODDIST only).
If signals not making full use of the UPL dynamic range are to be measured, e.g. distortion above
0.1%, precision measurements are not required. Consequently, the measurement time can be
reduced by about a factor of 2 without any loss in accuracy.
• Reducing the FFT size for FFT and THD+N
Halving the FFT size also halves the measurement time required for FFT. This also applies to FFTsupported measurement functions like THD+N and SINAD.
In the case of THD+N/SINAD measurements, reducing the FFT size does not only reduce the time
required for (post)-FFT but also the THD+N/SINAD measurement time, irrespective of whether postFFT is activate or not. This however is at the expense of the measurement accuracy.
(see 2.6.5.7 THD+N/SINAD).
• Reducing the numeric value of "Measure Time" for RMS, RMSSEL, PEAK, QPEAK and DC
If a fixed measurement time is used, the desired time can be directly entered as a numeric value.
Entering a shorter measurement time reduces the measurement accuracy. The measurement time is
defined for each single measurement. With AUTO ranging selected, a new measurement performed
because of an unfavorable (UNDERRANGE) or incorrect (OVERRANGE) level range leads to a total
measurement time which exceeds the desired one.
• Selecting AUTO FAST for RMS and RMSSEL
Automatic selection of the measurement time in the case of RMS measurements ensures that the
shortest possible measurement time is selected for the desired accuracy (AUTO or AUTO FAST) in
the case of unknown signals irrespective of the test frequency. If an accuracy of 1% is sufficient,
AUTO FAST should be used (see 2.6.5.2 RMS).
• Extending the span for zoomed FFT
The span for zoomed FFT should not be smaller than that required by the necessary frequency
resolution. Doubling the span halves the frequency resolution and the measurement time (see
2.6.5.12 FFT).
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• Increasing the bandwidth for RMSSEL
The larger the band of the digital bandpass or bandstop filter, the shorter the measurement time. The
measurement can be speeded up if a reduced selectivity is sufficient for the signal frequency (see
2.6.5.3 RMS SELECT).
• Reducing the attenuation and/or the edge steepness of user-defined filters
Both measures reduce the settling time of the filters and thus the measurement time (see 2.7.2
Creating the User-definable Filters).
• Reducing the order of user defined high and low passes
By this measurement too the response time of the filter and consequently the measurement time is
reduced (see 2.7.2 Creating the User-definable Filters).
•
Deactivating the analyzer frequency response calibration with frequency response measurements
When using the measurement function rms ("Meas Time" not GEN TRACK) the frequency response
calibration can be switched off thus reducing the linearity accuracy. This is implied when switching
off the frequency measurement
•
Deactivating the generator frequency response measurement
The generator frequency response calibration can be switched off by means of deleting and
renaming the "C:\UPL\REF\FLAT_GEN.CAL" file and restarting the UPL, subsequently. This
procedure is more convenient if UPL-B10 option is installed by means of calling the BASIC macro
FLAT_GEN.BAS (in C:\UPL\USER.
3. Speed Optimization Through Use of Internal Generator
• Selection of GEN TRACK modes, if available (RSM, RMSSEL, THD, THD+N/SINAD).
With "Meas Time GEN TRACK" selected for RMS and RMSSEL, the measurement time can be
exactly set to integral periods of the set generator frequency. The generator frequency can then be
slightly modified (see 2.6.5.2 RMS).
With "Fundamental GEN TRACK" selected for RMSSEL, a preliminary measurement for determining
the frequency is not required. (see 2.6.5.3 RMS SELECT).
With "Fundamental GEN TRACK" selected for THD+N/SINAD, the 1st FFT is performed with the
correct resolution even if the selected FFT size is too small. In the case of low frequencies and a
small FFT size, the measurement speed is almost doubled (see 2.6.5.7 THD+N/SINAD).
Selecting "Fundamental GEN TRACK" for a pure THD measurement does not noticeably increase
the measurement speed. Since an accurately defined fundamental is required for the THD
measurement, "Fundamental AUTO" should be used.
• Fast frequency-response measurement possible
If the harmonics generator ("Domain FREQ", "Shape FILE") is synchronized to the FFT analyzer, a
highly accurate real-time frequency analysis can be performed. (see 2.6.7.3 Fast Frequency
Response Measurement).
4. Optimizing the Speed of Generator Sweeps
• To perform a frequency sweep 'Sweep Mode' (in analyzer panel) should be set to FAST or BLOCK if available.
On certain conditions sweep velocity can be considerably increased:
Selection of generator function SINE
Use of universal generator, that is Low Dist OFF
automatic frequency sweep without Z-sweep, that is X-Axis FREQ, Z-Axis OFF
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Optimizing the Measurement Speed
• Selecting the universal generator instead of the low-distortion or analog auxiliary generator
Since the universal generator is superior regarding frequency setting time and frequency accuracy
than the low-distortion generator it should preferably be used as a sweep generator. The lowdistortion generator should only be used if its wide frequency range and excellent distortion and S/N
ratio are required.
• Deactivating equalization of generator signal (SINE and DFD)
With activated signal equalization the level has to be reset each time the frequency is changed. This
extends the total setting time and thus the sweep time. For this reason equalization should be
switched OFF in the case of very fast sweeps (see 2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of SINE, SINE BURST,
DFD, MULTISINE, RANDOM).
• Synchronizing the generator to the analyzer (next step ANLR SYNC)
When the UPL generator and analyzer are used together, a generator sweep should always be
synchronized to the analyzer. Thus it is ensured that the generator is switched exactly at the time
when all measurement results are available (i.e. also frequency and input on the active channels, if
required).
DWELL should only be used together with an external analyzer (see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps).
• Manual selection of generator level range (only for analog level sweeps using the universal
generator)
When a reduced dynamic range can be accepted for the generator, selection of the fixed generator
level range and generator setting time as well as the settling time can be shortened (see 2.5.2
Configuration of the Analog Generator).
• Reducing the measurements at low frequencies (particularly for RMS, RMSSEL and THD+N)
==> linear instead of logarithmic spacing,
==> increasing the start or (in the case of a sweep "from top to bottom") the stop frequency.
Low frequencies require longer measurement times. For this reason too many unnecessary sweep
points should be avoided in the lower frequency range.
• Reducing the sweep points or increasing the spacing, list sweep
The time required for a sweep increases linearly with the number of sweep points. Unnecessary
sweep points should be avoided. In the case of a list sweep the individual sweep points can be
spaced as required and sweep points may be concentrated at positions of interest without
substantially increasing the total number of sweep points (see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps).
• Switching off the result display and the status information
In the case of sweeps, the output of individual results in the result display is mostly unnecessary or
even useless particularly when the results are indicated with a high update rate. The same applies to
the status information. For this reason the two displays can be switched off (together). This
elimination of the output time - irrespective of the required measurement time - is particularly
noticeable in the case of very fast sweeps (see 2.15.5 Display Settings). The measurements can still
be followed by means of the sweep curve or the bargraph display. The complete sweep list can be
displayed in the graphics panel whenever required. (see 2.10.4 Display of Lists).
• Switching off the graphic cursor
For most applications display and update of the cursor values are not required while running sweep.
Only the terminated sweep is analyzed by means of graphic cursors. Therefore the graphic cursors
can be switched off during the sweep run and so the sweep time can be reduced (see 2.10.2 Trace
and Spectrum Display).
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5. Optimized Utilization of DSP Performance with the Clock Rate
The higher the clock rate of the test signal or the signal to be generated, the smaller is the performance
margin of the DSPs in UPL. This may have three different effects:
1. The DSP cannot cope with the high clock rate and samples are lost.
2. The DSP cannot complete all its jobs in realtime, so subsequent processing becomes necessary.
3. The DSP cannot process the two measurement channels in parallel, so multiplex operation becomes
necessary.
The effect under 1 must be avoided under all circumstances. The UPL analyzer and generator ensure
clock rates up to 55 kHz in the BRM (base rate mode) and clock rates up to 106 kHz in the HRM (high
rate mode). If an external digital signal is applied, the user must ensure the signal clock frequency to be
within the specifications of the sample mode used.
The selection of HRM leads to a higher performance margin allowing the processing of higher clock
rates. In HRM, measurement functions involving high computation effort therefore have to be performed
offline (as under 2) or sequentially (as under 3).
Multiplexing reduces the measurement speed of the following functions (group 1) for two-channel
measurements:
•
•
•
•
Selective RMS
RMS with filter with AUTO/AUTO FAST as measurement time
Peak
Quasi peak
The following measurement functions (group 2) require longer time for the subsequent processing in
two-channel operation:
•
•
•
•
Zoom FFT
THD+N/SINAD
MDIST
DFD
All other measurement functions (group 3) are performed with the same speed in HRM as in BRM.
From the above, the following guidelines for using base rate mode and high rate mode may be
derived:
• For exclusively analog measurements (AA), BRM should be used.
• For measuring / generating digital signals with clock rates above 55 kHz, HRM must be activated.
• Digital signal above 55 kHz or with an unknown clock rate should only be applied with HRM switched
on.
• If HRM is switched on, longer measurement times are needed for two-channel measurements in
group 2 and especially in group 1. Two-channel operation should therefore be switched on only if
both channels actually have to be measured.
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2.6.9
Optimizing the Measurement Speed
Improving the Frequency Response
The analyzer of the UPL is generally equipped with a frequency response calibration for rms
measurements which compensates for the systematic frequency response errors of the internal
components. To activate the calibration it is required that the frequency measurement is switched on
with rms measurements or "Meas Time" set to GEN TRACK.
If – for measurements with built-in universal generator - the frequency response is to be further
improved, the remaining frequency response of the analyzer in conjunction with the generator frequency
response can be smoothed additionally by means of an instrument-specific equalization file.
To create this equalization file ("FLAT_GEN.CAL" under C:\UPL\REF), a BASIC program
FLAT_GEN.BAS is supplied on the "SETUP/EXAMPLES" disk and loaded into the directory
"C:\UPL\USER" with installation. It may be started as a macro, if the UPL-B10 option is installed. The
equalization file can also be created manually using the "FLAT_GEN.SAC" setup.
The generator frequency response correction should not be used in the following situations:
•
whenever a maximum setting speed of the generator is required. The correction increases the time
for setting a new generator frequency since the frequency and the level, in addition, have to be set.
The time for a frequency response measurement with generator sweep increases with correction
switched on by less than 10 %.
•
if the generator is to be operated together with an external analyzer. Since the created equalization
file also contains the inverted residual frequency response of the analyzer, the generator frequency
response could be limited in the worst case. Verschlechterung des reinen Generatorfrequenzgang
kommen.
The generator frequency response correction can be switched off again for the reasons described
above. This is effected by the macro FLAT_GEN.BAS or manually by deleting or renaming
"C:\UPL\REF\FLAT_GEN.CAL" file and subsequently restarting the UPL.
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Analyzer Filter (FILTER Panel)
2.7
UPL
Analyzer Filters (FILTER Panel)
The FILTER panel has been devised for definition of the filters which can then be used in the
ANALYZER panel. Before you can select a user-definable filter in the analyzer, you must, of course,
create it in the FILTER panel.
Activating the FILTER panel:
UPL front panel: FILTER
External keyboard: ALT + T
Mouse: (repeated) click on the right panel name, until the FILTER panel is displayed.
If the FILTER panel is already visible on the screen, it can be activated also by actuating one of the TAB
keys (repeatedly) or by mouse-click.
Advantage: The panel need not be established again.
Filter
For the functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RMS & S/N (rms measurement)
PEAK & S/N (peak measurement),
Q-PK & S/N (quasi-peak meas.)
THD+N/SINAD (distortion measurement)
RMSSEL (selective RMS measurement)
FILTSIM (filter simulation)
RUB & BUZZ (loudspeaker measurement)
WAVEFORM
1/3-OCTAVE
FFT
3 filters possible
3 filters possible(*)
3 filters possible(*)
1 filter possible
1 filter possible
3 filters possible
2 filters possible
1 filter possible(*)
1 filter possible(*)
3 filters possible (*)
any desired filters from the filter selection window can be set in the
ANALYZER panel. This window contains user-definable filters (the first 9)
and weighting filters, which are referred to by their short names in the
FILTER panel or by a name complying to the standard. You can select
any desired filter (also several times) and assign to the ANALYZER
measurement function.
The sum frequency response of all selected filters can be graphically
displayed using the analyzer function FILTSIM (see 2.6.5.13).
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For the functions marked (*), no digital filter can be switched
on in the high rate mode or in the ANLG 110 kHz analyzer.
When switching from base rate mode to high rate mode with
these functions being active, all filters are switched to OFF
and the filter menu lines removed from the analyzer panel.
When switching back to the base rate mode, the menu lines
are displayed again while the filters remain switched off.
Note:
In the digital analyzer, the bandwidth of the filters depends
on the selected sampling rate. If the sampling rate is
reduced, the upper frequency limit may be set as low as the
Nyquist limit.
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2.7.1
Weighting Filters
Weighting Filters
The user-definable filters in the UPL (see 2.7.2 Creating the User-definable Filters) are complemented
by 13 pre-defined weighting filters, which are automatically matched to the current sample rate. Due to
the digital realization, the frequency response absolutely complies with the standard. With a very small
sample rate (e.g. 32 kHz in the DIGITAL instrument), some sections of the filter functions are close to
the measurement range limit, resulting in distortions in these sections (with e.g. a sample rate of 32 kHz,
distortions may occur in the range over 13.5 kHz). Yet, the filter is still within the permissible tolerances.
For this reason, it is not possible to set weighting filters in combination with sample rates smaller than 30
kHz.
Note:
The weighting filters cannot be set in the filter panel, but are automatically available with the
filter command of the respective measuring function.
Filter:
A Weighting
Standard(s):
DIN 45412
Application:
Weighting for interference
voltage measurements
Filter:
C Message
Standard(s):
IEEE 743-84
Application:
Transmission measurements
Filter:
CCITT
Standard(s):
CCITT 0.41
IEEE Rec. 743-84
CISPR 6-76
CCITT Rec. P.53
Application:
Psophometric
measurements
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Weighting Filters
Filter:
CCIR wtd
Normen:
CCIR Rec. 468-4
DIN 45405
CCITT Rec. N21
CISPR 6-76
Application:
Weighting for interference
voltage measurements
Filter:
CCIR unwtd
Standard(s):
CCIR Rec. 468-4
Application:
Bandpass from 20 Hz to
20 kHz for band-limited,
unweighted measurement to
CCIR.
Note:
Not available in analyzer
110 kHz
Filter:
DEEM 50/15
Standard(s):
CCIR Rec. 651
Application:
Compact discs
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Weighting Filters
Filter:
Deemph 50
Standard(s):
ARD Pfl.Heft 5/3.1
Application:
Unweighted and weighted
S/N measurements to
DIN 45405
Filter:
Deemph 75
Standard(s):
same as Deemph 50
Application:
Unweighted and weighted
S/N measurements to
DIN 45405
Filter:
Deemph J.17
Standard(s):
CCITT J.17
Application:
Unweighted and weighted
S/N measurements to
DIN 45405
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Weighting Filters
Filter:
RUMBLE wtd
Standard(s):
DIN 45539
Application:
Testing of record players
Weighted S/N
measurements
Filter:
RUMBLE unwtd
Standard(s):
DIN 368.3
DIN 45539
Application:
Testing of record players
Unweighted S/N
measurements
Filter:
DC noise HP
Standard(s):
ARD Pfl. Heft 3/4
ARD Pfl. Heft 12/2
Application:
Highpass for DC noise
measurements (tape
machines)
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Weighting Filters
Filter:
CCIR ARM
Standard(s):
CCIR
DOLBY
NAB Standard
Filter:
Standard:
IEC Tuner
DIN/IEC 315
Application:
Measurement on tuners
Filter
Norm:
JITTER wtd
AES 3
Application:
Weighting of jitter
transfer function
1st order highpass filter
-3 dB at 700 Hz
-20 dB at 70 Hz
The filter shown corresponds to the
predecessor (prior to UPL 3.0) and can be
activated with the call parameter '-o15'.
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Creating the User-definable Filters
2.7.2
UPL
Creating the User-definable Filters
The FILTER panel is made up of 9 filter positions designated as FILTER 01 ... FILTER 09. Each filter
position can be assigned a filter of type LOW-PASS, HIGH-PASS, BAND-PASS, BAND-STOP, NOTCH,
1/3 OCT FLT, OCTAVE FLT, FILE-DEF, which are referred to below. Each filter type is predefined by its
cutoff frequencies and the desired filter attenuation. After the filter has been calculated, further filter data
(settling time, actual attenuation, stopband range, which are displayed in a different color) are available
in the FILTER panel.
There is also the possibility of reading in any desired filter by selecting ”FILE DEF”.
Any filter defined in the FILTER panel is provided with a short name, which is then used to call the filter
in the ANALYZER panel. The short name refers to type and cutoff frequency of the filter.
The filters have been implemented as recursive filters (=IIR filters) with 8 poles.
The filters are defined in terms of their frequency limits, which is why the contents of the FILTER panel
is independent of the selected ANALYZER instrument ANLG 22 kHz, ANLG 110kHz or DIGITAL. Filter
parameters which used to make sense for a certain instrument may be futile in combination with another
instrument.
Example:
A lowpass with a cutoff frequency of 50 kHz is a commonly used filter with the ANALYZER instrument
ANLG 110kHz, however ineffective in the instrument DIGITAL or ANLG 110kHz.
For this reason, proceed in the following order when setting the filters:
1. Switch all filters in the ANALYZER panel off:
Enter any desired filter parameters in the FILTER panel. The filter parameters are neither checked
nor updated.
2. In the ANALYZER panel, select a filter from the FILTER panel: now, the parameters of the filters are
checked:
a) Valid filter parameters:
filter is set
b) Invalid filter parameters:
error message on the screen, filter remains OFF
3. Try to modify in the FILTER panel filter parameters of a filter selected in the ANALYZER panel:
A dialog window appears where you can enter the new filter parameters. When you press the O.K.
key in the dialog window the filter parameters are checked.
a) Valid filter parameters:
filter is set
b) Invalid filter parameters:
error message on the screen, the dialog window remains open for
further entry of filter parameters.
Exiting the filter dialog window using CANCEL or ESC causes
the filter in the ANALYZER panel to be switched OFF.
the most recently valid filter parameters to remain unchanged in the FILTER panel.
Note:
A certain type of filter can be repeatedly assigned with the same or different filter
parameters to the 9 filter positions!
The sum frequency response of the set filters can be displayed with the help of the
simulation (see FILTSIM function).
You can select the filters in the ANALYZER panel in any desired order. For reasons of
stability, it is however useful to select the filter with the ”hardest” characteristics (e.g. very
narrow bandstop filters) as the last one (below in the panel).
It is possible to superpose several filters of the same type and with equal filter parameters
for one measurement function. To give an example, a very steep 80-dB lowpass (in this
case, with 16 poles, yet double ripple in the passband range) can be realized by
superposing two 40-dB lowpasses.
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Creating the User-definable Filters
2.7.2.1
Common Parameters of All Filters
Atten
(=Attenuation). Specify the desired filter attenuation in dB (example: 40
dB). After the filter has been checked and set, the actually realized
attenuation (usually higher) is entered. Filter attenuations can be
implemented about every 10 dB.
Exception: The filter calculation file (see 2.7.2.6 Internal Calculation of
Filters) has been modified.
Delay
(Read only)
Enter the estimated settling time of the filter in seconds.
This value is updated only when the filter is checked.
Exception: File-defined filters. Subsequent to entry of the coefficients,
the software calculates a delay and enters it in the menu line
where it can be modified manually.
Shortname
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(Read only)
Specify a short name used later to call the filter in the ANALYZER panel.
The short name is made up of an abbreviation (2 letters) for the filter type
and the frequency (LP = lowpass, HP = highpass, BP = bandpass, BS =
bandstop, TZ = third-octave filter, OC = octave filter, NO = notch filter).
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2.7.2.2
UPL
Lowpass / Highpass
Filter
Select a lowpass or highpass.
LOW PASS
HIGH PASS
Order
4
8
Specifies the filter order
By reducing the filter order from 8 (standard) to 4, faster but less steep
filters can be created. The order can be determined separately for each
highpass or lowpass filter.
Passband
Specify the cutoff frequency of the passband range.
Stopband
(Read only). Display of the cutoff frequency of the stopband range, which
is determined by the selected attenuation and passband range. This value
is updated only when the filter is checked.
The basic filters used have eight poles, 'elliptic c'-type to /SAAL 88/ with a ripple of 0.1 dB in the
passband range.
Fig. 2-33 LOWPASS and HIGHPASS frequency response together with filter parameters
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Creating the User-definable Filters
2.7.2.3
Bandpass / Bandstop
Filter
BAND PASS
BAND STOP
Passb Low
Enter the lower cutoff frequency of the passband range.
Passb Upp
Enter the upper cutoff frequency of the passband range.
Stopb Low
(Read only)
Display of the lower cutoff frequency of the stopband range, which is
determined by the selection of attenuation and passband range. This
value is updated only when the filter is checked.
Stopb Upp
(Read only)
Display of the upper cutoff frequency of the stopband range, which is
determined by the selection of attenuation and passband range. This
value is updated only when the filter is checked.
The basic filters used have 4 poles, 'elliptic C'-type to /SAAL 88/ where one basic filter is used for the
upper and one for the lower filter edge. As 'elliptic C' has a pole at infinity, a bandstop of this type
features a pole in the center between the two passband frequencies.
Values for Passbd low and Passbd upp which are close to each other cause long settling times during
realization and the danger of limit cycles (oscillations of the filter on account of self-excitation induced by
rounding noise). In this case, it is useful to simulate the filters before the measurement (see analyzer
function FILTSIM).
Fig. 2-34 BANDPASS frequency response together with filter parameters
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Fig. 2-35 BANDSTOP frequency response together with filter parameters
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Creating the User-definable Filters
2.7.2.4
Notch
Filter
NOTCH FLT
Center Freq
Enter the center frequency of the bandstop.
Width
Enter the difference between upper and lower cutoff frequency of the
passband range.
Stopb Low
(Read only)
Display of the lower cutoff frequency of the stopband range, which is
determined by the selection of attenuation and passband range. This
value is updated only when the filter is checked.
Stopb Upp
(Read only)
Display of the upper cutoff frequency of the stopband range, which is
determined by the selection of attenuation and passband range. This
value is updated only when the filter is checked.
The basic filters used have 4 poles, 'elliptic C'-type to /SAAL 88/ where one basic filter is used for the
upper and one for the lower filter edge. As 'elliptic C' has a pole at infinity, a bandstop of this type
features an attenuation pole at the center frequency.
Use:
Attenuation of single frequencies in the signal.
Small values for ”width” cause long settling times during realization and the danger of limit cycles
(oscillations of the filter on account of self-excitation induced by rounding noise). In this case, it is useful
to simulate the filters before the measurement (see analyzer function FILTSIM).
Fig. 2-36 Notch filter frequency response together with filter parameters
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2.7.2.5
UPL
Third-octave / Octave
FILTER
1/3 OCT FLT
(1/3 OCT FLT = third-octave filter)
OCTAVE FLT
Center Freq
Width
Enter the center frequency of the bandstop.
(Read only)
Enter the difference between upper and lower cutoff frequency of the
passband range.
These filters have been implemented as bandpasses (see 2.7.2.3 Bandpass / Bandstop) which are
geometrically symmetrical to the center frequency, thus allowing the passband cutoff frequencies to be
calculated from the center frequency:
1/3 octave filter: Passbd low
= Center Freq / 1.12246
Passbd upp
= Center Freq x 1.12246
Octave filter:
Note:
Passbd low
Passbd upp
= Center Freq / 1.41421
= Center Freq x 1.41421
For these filters the 0,1dB-bandwidth is reduced in order to obtain an attenuation of 3 dB at the
cut-off frequencies. Hence the effective bandwidth is lower than the theoretical values of third
octave and octave filters.
theoretical bandwidth third octave:
6
theoretical bandwidth octave:
2
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2
2
2.292
1
= 0.2315 = 2315%
.
2
1
1
=
= 0.7071 = 70,71%
2
2
2
6
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UPL
Creating the User-definable Filters
2.7.2.6
Internal Calculation of Filters
All filter parameters are transformed from the Z range (digital, sampled) to the s range (analog,
continuous) using the sample rate valid for the respective instrument. In the s range, the filter
parameters are normalized to a passband limit of 1.0. The filter suitable for this transformed filter with
respect to the type (i.e., elliptic c and eight-pole for highpasses and lowpasses and four-pole for
bandpasses) and minimum desired attenuation is searched for in the filter data base. This filter is then
denormalized and retransformed while the actual stopband and actual attenuation are being calculated.
This transformation is performed with the currently effective sample rate. The predefined cutoff
frequencies are maintained, however different stopband frequencies will be obtained (depending on the
selected sample rate). When the sample rate on which the calculation is based does not match the
actual clock rate (e.g. in the case of a wrong entry), both passband frequency and stopband frequency
are shifted.
After the start of the measurement (e.g. through a new setting, pressing of the START key or in the
case of SWEEP), UPL waits for a certain settling time per filter before the actual signal integration. This
settling time is calculated on the basis of the desired attenuation and the filter coefficients. If (in
exceptional cases) the time calculated is too small, the filters have not completely settled at the start of
the measurement.
To remedy this, the following trick is possible:
If the FILE-DEF filter ”DELAY.COE” is selected, a settling time can be entered there which is considered
in addition to the normal settling time in the measurement. Filter DELAY.COE has no function otherwise.
The filter data base is filled with the filters in the 'ref_lp.rlp' file in the C:\UPL\REF directory on start of the
system software.
The filters contained in this file are derived from /SAAL 88/. Their ripple in the passband range is
0.1 dB.
Note:
For the ANLG 110 kHz analyzer a reference lowpass filter of 74 dB and with 0.03 dB ripple is
used for the RMS selective measurement.
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Creating the User-definable Filters
2.7.2.7
UPL
File-defined Filter ("FILE-DEF")
For applications requiring additional filters which are not offered by the instrument, any desired filter can
be read in from a file. The filter in the file must be an IIR filter with 8 poles/zeros. The filter must be
designed (in the Z range, i.e. digital, sampled) with reference to the sample rate used in the respective
ANALYZER instrument. Two data formats are supported:
a) Coefficient output file of FDAS, version 2.1 and 2.2. FDAS is a filter design program from the
company of Momentum Data Systems. Select a cascade of biquads with 32-bit float number
representation as implementation for generation of the filter with the help of FDAS.
Example: see R&S_EXAM.COE file in the C:\UPL\USER directory
b) ASCII file where the poles and zeros (in the z level) must be entered as floating numbers. 8 poles
and zero positions (4 pairs) only are permissible. Unused poles and zeros must be shifted to the
origin of the z level.
File format:
1st line:
2nd line:
following lines:
Identification: 'pole zero file'
Key word 'gain' followed by a float number: specification of filter gain
Key word 'pole' or 'zero' followed by real and imaginary part. Complex
conjugate pairs must be consecutive and be at the 1st, 3rd, 5th or 7th position,
respectively.
The transfer function is given by:
3
S ( z ) = gain
(z
zoi ) ( z
zoi*)
(z
zpi ) ( z
zpi*)
i=0
3
i=0
where S(z) is the normalized transfer function, z0 are zeros and zp are poles.
The filter should be checked using the simulation.
Comment lines should begin with '#' and are permissible anywhere; no difference is made between
upper-case and lower-case letters.
Example: see R&S_EXAM.ZPZ file in the C:\UPL\USER directory
The coefficient file (*.COE) is valid only for the sampling rate defined when the filter was designed.
Pole/zero files (*.NPZ) can be converted to the current sampling rate, their frequency response being
maintained.
Both types are offered in the file box for the file-defined filters.
Literature:
/SAAL88/: Rudolf Saal, Handbook of Filter Design, 2nd edition, Hüthig 1988
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UPL
2.8
STATUS Panel
STATUS Panel
Activating the STATUS panel:
UPL front panel:
External keyboard:
STATUS
ALT + S
The STATUS panel can be activated only in part-screen graphics mode (see 2.10.9 Switching between
Full-screen and Part-screen Mode) and is always on the left side of the screen.
The STATUS panel displays only those command lines of a panel which have been ticked (select the
position before the line using the tab
keys, press SELECT, the tick is switched on and off (toggle
function). The UPL thus offers the possibility of displaying a clearly structured excerpt from all settings
on the left side of the screen.
Instead of using the other panels, the UPL can also be operated from the STATUS panel, allowing you
to carry out constantly recurring operator sequences from one panel only. Use of the STATUS panel is
especially advantageous for display and, if required, printout (see 2.14) of graphics on the right side
together with the essential UPL settings on the left side of the screen.
Empty STATUS panel.
No command lines have
been ticked off.
Command lines in the GENERATOR,
ANALYZER and DISPLAY panel
have been ticked off.
STATUS
»
»
»
»
»
GENERATOR
Channel (s)
Output
FUNCTION FREQUENCY
VOLTAGE
PANEL
1
BAL
SINE
10.000 Hz
3.0000 V
»
»
»
»
ANALYZER PANEL
Channel (s)
1
CH1 Input
BAL
RMS & S/N
FUNCTION Meas Time
AUTO FAST
DISPLAY PANEL
» OPERATION
BARGRAPH
» Unit
V
» Spacing
LIN
Fig. 2-37
Status panel
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Loading and Storing
2.9
UPL
Series of Measured Values, Files and Loadable Instrument
Settings (FILE Panel)
The FILE panel is activated by pressing the FILE key (UPL front panel) or the key combination ”ALT F”
(external keyboard). The FILE panel is always displayed on the left side of the screen.
2.9.1
Loading and Storing
Files can be stored to hard disk (drive ”C:”) or floppy disk (drive ”A:”). All system files are available on
hard disk and, in the default setting, the user files too. The user files can also be written to or read from
diskette.
UPL system software updates are also loaded from diskette (see 1.2.1 Enabling Software Options). For
storing files on diskette, DOS- formatted 3.5” diskettes are required. Unformatted diskettes can be
formatted on operating system level using the command
FORMAT A:
An external keyboard is required for this purpose.
Insert the diskettes into the drive with the metal slider pointing to the front and the label to the left. The
diskette is ejected by pressing the eject key.
On the left side of the diskette, there is a lockable write protection; the disk is write-protected when the
hole is free.
The individual types of files are characterized by reserved file types (file extensions), which are listed in
the table below. It also provides information on where, i.e. in which panel, the file is loaded.
Table 2-35 Meaning of file extensions
Extension
Meaning
.AES
Report information AES/EBU+S/P DIF
.BAT
Batch file for automatic execution of several programs; reserved (DOS)
.BPZ
Binary file with poles-zeros
.CAL
Calibration file; reserved for calibration factors
.COE
Coefficient file for filters (see 2.7.2.7)
.COM
Executable programs; (e.g. BIOSW.COM); reserved (DOS)
.DWL
Dwell time for automatic generator sweeps:
loaded in the GENERATOR panel, menu item ”Dwell List”
.ERR
Error file for limit violations
loaded in the DISPLAY panel by selecting Trace A/B
FILE; OPERATION
LIM REPORT;
.LOG
Prolog and epilog for HPGL (see 2.14 Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents (OPTIONS
Panel))
.PLT
Colour palette information for PCX and printer (see 2.14 Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen
Contents (OPTIONS Panel))
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UPL
Loading and Storing
Extension
Note:
Meaning
.EXE
Executable programs; (e.g. UPL_Ul.EXE); reserved (DOS)
.FTF
Amplitude/frequency table for generation of noise in the frequency domain (see 2.5.4.11)
.GL
Screen hard copy (Destin HPGL file) is generated in the UPL for subsequent output to a HPGL printer
.HLP
Help file
.LLW
Limit curve (LOWER) loaded in the DISPLAY panel under the heading LIMIT CHECK, ”Lim, Lower”
menu item ”File name”
.LUP
Limit curve (UPPER) loaded in the DISPLAY panel under the heading LIMIT CHECK, ”Lim, Upper”
menu item ”File name”
.NPZ
reserved for filters
.NRM
Normalization file reserved for filters
.OUT
DSP files reserved for programs to be down-loaded to the DSPs
.PAC
Protocol analysis (AES/EBU, SP DIF), screen control file for channel status data
.PAU
Protocol analysis (AES/EBU, SP DIF), screen control file for channel status data
.PCX
Screen Hard Copy (Destin PCX file) generated in the UPL to be copied to other programs
.PGC
Protocol generation (AES/EBU, SP DIF), user data, file for channel status data
.PGU
Protocol generation (AES/EBU, SP DIF), user data, file for channel status data
.PPC
Protocol generation (AES/EBU, SP DIF), user data, file for user-definable PROTOCOL panel
.RLP
Reference lowpass (reserved for filters, see 2.7.2.7)
.SAC
Partial setup; loaded in the file panel under the heading LOAD INSTRUMENT, menu item Mode
SETUP
.SCO
Setup; loaded in the FILE panel under the heading LOAD INSTRUMENT, menu item Mode
SETUP
.SPV
Sweep list for generator voltage loaded in the GENERATOR panel, menu item ”VOLTAGE” or ”TOTAL
VOLT” (depending on the function) for X- or Z-axis sweep
.SPF
Sweep list for frequency of the generator or selective rms measurement; loaded in the GENERATOR
panel, menu item ”FREQUENCY”, ”MEAN FREQ” or in the ANALYZER panel, menu item ”File name”
for X- or Z-axis sweep
.SPO
Sweep list for burst duration
loaded in the GENERATOR panel, menu item ”ON-TIME” for X- or Z-axis sweep
.SPI
Sweep list for burst interval
loaded in the GENERATOR panel, menu item ”INTERVAL” for X- or Z-axis sweep
.TRC
Trace lists for recording of measured values
loaded in the DISPLAY panel by selecting Trace A/B
ACT
COMPL
FILE
.TTF
Time table for generation of arbitrary signals (see 2.5.4.10)
.VEQ
Equalizer file
loaded in the GENERATOR panel, menu item ”Equal File” or as RANDOM Freq-File
.ZPZ
Pole-zero file reserved for filters
.CFG
File with control instructions for working directories
Reserved files must not be changed or renamed.
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Loading and Storing
2.9.1.1
UPL
Loading and Storing of Instrument Setups and Complete Setups
Setups are loaded and stored by entering a file name in menu item ”Filename”. If the desired file name
is already in the menu line, one simply has to open and close the appertaining selection box. (see 2.3.2
Data Entry).
LOAD INSTRUMENT STATE
Loading an instrument setup
An instrument state can be loaded either user-defined or with reference to an application. The untrained
user is advised to start with the application level which provides a great number of predefined
measurement setups. The default setup or user-defined setups can only be loaded via USER DEF.
The working directory of the setup is loaded together with the instrument setup, i.e., the current working
directory is modified. This is usually useful in order for the file names in the setup to be referred to
correctly (if they were stored without path name).
When loading a setup from the application level the current working directory is entered in the
application setup and, thus, remains valid. It is therefore easier to use the application setups. (Pathless)
file names are not used in the application setups.
The working directory entered in the application setup will, however, preferably not be overwritten for
preconfiguring the application setups (once) when the setups are to be stored at their original location
and the original working directory is to be retained. This can be achieved using two methods:
•
Do not load the application setups from the application level but directly via USER DEF.
•
Start the UPL using the command line parameter "-tappl"; the application setups will not be
modified even when being loaded from the application level, then.
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UPL
Loading and Storing
Applicat
USER DEF
Permits the instrument to be preset according to the application.
Instrument setup according to user-defined measurement or instrument
presettings.
Setups stored under a user-defined name can be explicitly loaded by
selecting the respective item.
Note:
ANLG – ANLG
ANLG – DIGI
DIGI – ANLG
DIGI – DIGI
USER DEF must also be selected when the default setup is
loaded or a PCX picture should be displayed. (See next menu
line).
Instrument setup depending on the domain (analog or digital) selected for
generator and analyzer and on the measurement to be performed. The
first word denotes the generator domain, the second the analyzer domain.
After selecting one of these items, the application can be selected in a
special dialog box of the next menu line (Measuring).
ACTUAL setups are used for these measurements, which are stored in
the UPL directories SETEXAM \ AA to SETEXAM \ DD and assigned a
40-character info text describing the application. The setups are sorted in
alphabetical order according to this info text.
The setups can of course also be directly accessed (under USER DEF).
The experienced user is free to adapt the files and/or their info text to
specific requirements or to extend the directories by adding own SAC
setups.
Note:
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•
To use this application level the EXAMPLE/SETUP floppy must be
installed.
•
Upon new installation of the EXAMPLE/SETUP floppy, all
application setups are updated. For this reason modified setups
should be stored under another file name.
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Loading and Storing
Mode
DEFAULT
UPL
(available only when Applicat USER DEF is selected) Determines what
should be loaded and displayed.
(Default setup)
The Rohde & Schwarz default setup (see 3.5 is to be loaded.
This includes all presently inactive functions and instruments. A change of
this setup is not recommended but possible by overwriting the DEFAULT
SETUP file with a setup stored under the COMPL SETUP mode.
(Complete setup)
COMPLETE
The complete instrument setup is to be loaded.
This includes all presently inactive functions and instruments as well as
the comments that can be entered for a hardcopy (see 2.14 Printing /
Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents (OPTIONS Panel)).
Under this item only complete setups (with any file extension, for
instance *.SET) can be loaded.
ACTUAL
(Actual setup)
The actual instrument setup (with or without measured values or traces)
is to be loaded. Loading a current setup does not affect inactive
instruments and functions.
Under this item only actual setups and actual+data setups (with any file
extension) can be loaded. The latter contain in addition measured values
and traces and therefore require a longer total loading time especially
when the traces are to be displayed.
SETUP
An instrument setup is to be loaded. The type of setup (actual or
complete) is identified by means of the type extension.
Under this item any setup with the file extensions *.SAC or *.SCO can be
loaded; other extensions are not permissible.
VIEW PCX
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This item allows the display of 4-bit) PCX pictures at a 1:1 scale. PCX
files recorded in the UPL can thus be subsequently displayed on the UPL.
The PCX picture is displayed until any key is pressed.
The PCX image can be output to a connected printer by pressing the
HCOPY key, if PRINTER/SPC is set under Hardcopy Destination in the
OPTIONS panel.
Note:
The PCX pictures do not contain softkeys. The current
(unlabelled) softkeys are therefore displayed.
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UPL
Loading and Storing
Measuring
(available only when Applicat USER DEF is not selected). Opens a dialog
box where the measurements pertaining to the selected application are
listed in alphabetical order. The name of the (SAC) file loaded when a
measurement is selected is indicated in addition. From this information
the experienced user can see the files to be modified to suit his specific
requirements.
When loading a setup from the application level the current working
directory is entered in the application setup and, thus, remains valid. It is
therefore easier to use the application setups.
Refer to the notes at the beginning of this section for modification of the
application setups.
STORE INSTRUMENT STATE
Mode
COMPLETE
Storing an instrument setup
Selection of what is to be stored.
(Complete setup)
The complete instrument setup is to be stored .
This includes all currently inactive functions and instruments and all
comments that can be entered for a hardcopy (see 2.14 Printing / Plotting
/ Storing the Screen Contents (OPTIONS Panel)). A file with the
extension .SCO occupies about 80 Kbytes of mass storage.
ACTUAL
(Actual setup)
The actual instrument setup is to be stored. This includes all currently
active instruments and functions. A file with the extension .SAC occupies
about 8 Kbytes of mass storage.
ACTUAL+DATA
(Actual setup including data)
The current instrument setup including measured values and curves is to
be stored. The required storage capacity depends on the size of the
active traces.
The measurement or sweep should be TERMINATED prior to storage to
make sure that valid measured data are available.
If only measured values (without curves) are to be stored, the traces in
the display panel must be switched OFF.
Note:
If valid measured curves are available, this type of setup
requires considerably more memory capacity (up to 100 Kbyte)
and longer loading times than the actual setup. For this reason,
this type should only be used when the curves are really
needed.
When loading a new instrument setup, the previous setting is overwritten. All lists (equalizer, limits, etc.)
are filled with files the names of which are contained in the new setup. If a file cannot be loaded (e.g. the
specified equalizer file has been cleared), an error message is generated and the file name is entered
into the menu line as the error source.
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Loading and Storing
Note:
UPL
When loading setups, their file names may not exist (e.g. because they have been deleted or
the setup has been adopted from another UPL). In such cases, the cause of error (usually ”not
found”) is stated below the respective entry (e.g. ”File name”).
Attrib
(Attributes); For storing only.
READ ONLY
The stored file is write-protected.
READ/WRITE
The stored file can be deleted or overwritten.
Deleting a write-protected file requires the R attribute to be deleted using
the DOS command ATTRIB at the operating system level.
Syntax: ATTRIB -R file name
The use of an external keyboard is necessary for this purpose. It is
therefore recommended that the write protection be used only when a
setup is not to be changed.
Info Disp
(Info display), is displayed
INSTRUMENT STATE).
when
the
setup
is
loaded
(LOAD
A comment with a maximum of 39 characters can be entered in each
setup in the FILE panel under the menu item "Info Text" for a more
detailed description of the measurement task or the like. When loading a
setup, this comment can be displayed via the file selection window so that
the purpose of the setup is known before it is actually loaded.
OFF
The "Info text" of a selected setup is not displayed, scrolling in the file
selection window is possible at maximum speed.
Note:
ON
Info Text
When a floppy is to be accessed (drive A:), the info display
should preferably be switched off as otherwise scrolling in the
file selection window would be considerably slowed down
because of the long access times required for opening floppy
files.
The info text for the selected setup is displayed in the user info line. Since
the info text has to be read out of every setup, scrolling in the file selection
window is slightly slowed down.
Indicated when a setup is stored (STORE INSTRUMENT STATE).
Entry of a comment of maximum 39 characters for a more detailed
description of the measurement to be performed, the DUT or the like.
When a setup is loaded, this comment can be displayed via the file
selection window (see "Info Disp").
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UPL
Loading and Storing
Filename
Causes a file with the specified name to be loaded or stored.
If the file cannot be opened, an error message and ”not found” is entered
in the menu line.
For entering file names, see 2.3.2.5.
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Loading and Storing
2.9.1.2
UPL
Loading and Storing of Series of Measured Values and Block/List Data
Series of data from recorded sweeps and/or FFTs, waveform data or filter simulation data can be
stored in a file for several purposes:
To load them at a later date as a record, for the purpose of comparison or subsequent processing.
The series of measured values are loaded using the DISPLAY panel commands and are displayed in
the form they were stored. They can however be provided with a different scaling or converted into
other units.
The files can be called from other programs and their data further processed. This is best be done
using the EXPORT or ASCII format. The structure of an ASCII file is shown in some examples
(R&S_EXAM.TRC in the C:\UPL\USER directory) which are provided with detailed comments. For
more detailed descriptions refer to section 2.9.1.3 Format of Block/Listen Data. The EXPORT
format has neither a header nor a supplement and can therefore be directly imported into other
programs. Since it has no additional information it cannot be loaded in UPL / UPD.
Stored traces can be used in the UPL for several purposes: As reference traces for other traces if the
results are displayed in relative units. For this, the stored traces are loaded by means of FILE under
Reference in the DISPLAY panel. Moreover, the trace files can be used to provide equalization data
for the generator.
The data are stored in files using commands in the FILE panel (also see 2.3.2.5 Entry of File Names). A
series of measured values (Y or Y2) and its associated X-axis values are stored by means of Store
TRACE A or TRACE B. If a variable reference value (i.e. a reference value as a function of the X-axis)
and a relative unit (i.e. a unit needing a reference) are active, the reference values too are stored in the
file. If a Z-axis sweep is selected in the generator, the Z-axis values too are stored. The entire scaling
information as well as the function labeling are appended in coded form. If User Label is switched to on
in the DISPLAY panel, user-defined function labels and units are also stored.
With command Store TRACE A + B, the data of the second series (trace B with the scaling of Y2) are
stored, too, with their associated reference values. The corresponding format can be loaded as a dual
trace by means of DUAL FILE in the DISPLAY panel. If Scan count >1 in the DISPLAY panel is active,
which is always the case with Z-axis sweeps, the above series of measured values are stored not as
one but as several scans. Scan groups too can be loaded from the DISPLAY panel as a unit (see
2.9.3.3 Scan Count >1).
The files are loaded for the functions they are needed. In the GENERATOR panel, for example, the
sweep, dwell, and equalization files are loaded. Sweep and dwell files are also used in the analyzer
mode for selective rms measurements. In the DISPLAY panel, traces (from sweeps or FFTs), reference
traces (for sweeps) and limit-value files (limit files) are loaded.
All measured values are stored with their basic units: levels in V, frequencies in Hz, times in s, phases in
degrees, related quantities in %. Notice that S/N data - such as S/N levels - have to be indicated in
positive dB values, i.e. 0 dB is 100%, 20 dB means 1000%, the numerical value being 1000.
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UPL
Loading and Storing
Store traces and sweep lists
Store
TRACE/LIST
During a sweep, various buffers are created for sweep parameters,
measured values, limit exceedings and waiting times, if any. This menu
item serves to select which one of these buffers is to be stored.
TRACE A
TRACE B
Store the TRACE A or the TRACE B buffer; (specify in the DISPLAY
panel which measured values are to be collected in which trace buffer)
(see 2.10.1 Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra). In addition to
the trace data, the values of the appropriate X-axis as well as the values
for scaling from the display panel are stored to permit the curve to be
displayed as it was scaled in storing.
If a variable reference and a relative unit are used, the corresponding
reference trace is stored too. If Scan count >1 is selected in the DISPLAY
panel, a group of traces, or pair of traces, determined by Scan count is
stored in the file (with reference traces, if applicable).
TRACE A+B
A pair of traces (or a group of pairs of traces if Scan count is set to >1) is
stored in a file. The pair(s) of traces can be loaded as a unit by means of
DUAL FILE under TRACE A.
Note:
X AXIS
When storing traces, also the X axis and in the case of a 2dimensional sweep the Z axis are stored.
For an assignment to the sweep parameter see X Axis and Z
Axis in the GENERATOR panel (see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps ). The list
formats (file types) can be seen from the table in section 2.9.1.
Store the list with the sweep points for the sweep parameter lying on the
X-axis (for generation of lists used in the list sweep).
For the generation of a sweep list, proceed as follows:
GENERATOR panel
Activate the sweep system (”Sweep Ctrl
AUTO SWEEP”)
Set the X-axis to the desired parameter (e.g. FREQ for the frequency
sweep list)
Select the start and stop values as well as spacing of the desired
parameter (recommended: LIN POINTS or LOG POINTS)
Enter the number of sweep points, which determine the number of
entries in the sweep list generated later.
Start the sweep by pressing the START key. When the sweep enters the
SWP ... RUNNING state, the sweep list is available; the sweep can be
aborted.
Generating or modifying sweep lists is also possible using a text editor
(e.g. EDIT from DOS).
Z AXIS
Store the list with the sweep points for the sweep parameter lying on the
Z-axis (with two-dimensional sweep only, for generation of lists used in
the list sweep).
For generation of the Z-sweep list, it is advisable to proceed as described
under generation of the above-mentioned X-list, however, set the values
for the Z-axis in the GENERATOR panel.
Generating or modifying sweep lists is also possible using a text editor
(e.g. EDIT from DOS).
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Loading and Storing
UPL
Store
DWELL VALUE
For sweeps with time synchronization only; store the buffer for the dwell
time. The time data are obtained either from a file (with list sweep) or they
are all equal (with Next Step DWELL). The dwell time or the file name for
the active dwell list is entered in menu item ”Dwell” or ”Dwell List” in the
GENERATOR panel (see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps).
LIM UPPER
LIM LOWER
The upper or lower limit curve (tolerance mask) is stored to file.
When a limit curve is loaded as is described in Section 2.10.7 Limit
Check, a list of all interpolated X-Y pairs is output.
EQUALIZATN
Equalization)
Special case: store the frequency response of a device under test, e.g.,
as equalization file, which can then be read in for frequency-response
compensation purposes
• in a sweep with a generator sinewave signal under menu item ”Equal.
file” in the GENERATOR panel
• or as generator RANDOM function with Domain FREQ and Equaliz
FILE.
For this purpose, the inverse frequency response normalized at any
frequency can be stored (see menu item Norm Freq or Invert 1/n). The
measurement data (frequency response) must be provided in one of the
trace buffers, which can be selected under menu item ”Volt sourc”.
For generation of an equalization file, proceed as follows:
Connect the DUT to channel 1 and select this input/output in the
generator and the analyzer. The generator is set to a frequency sweep
using „FUNCTION
SINE“ (cf. 2.5.4.2 Sweeps). In the analyzer, the
swept voltage of the DUT is determined using the function RMS & S/N.
Entry of TRACE A
FUNC CH1 in the DISPLAY panel fills the trace
buffer A, which is then referred to as data source for the equalization file
using the command Voltsource
TRACE A described below. Prior to
storing the equalization file by entry of file name, the user should enter a
standard frequency (e.g., 1 kHz) and Invert 1/n ON.
Data obtained by filter simulation can also be converted into an
equalization file. To this end select the function
FILTERSIM and set
TRACE A
FUNC CH1 in the DISPLAY panel. In contrast to the abovementioned file-generation, neither a sweep must be performed nor the
DUT connected.
LIM REPORT
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(Limit report)
Stores the list of limit violations. With sweeps and FFT, 0, 1, 2 or 3 is
entered into this error-report block. Information on how to interpret this
code is given below. The limits or limit curves are indicated in the
DISPLAY panel under menu items LIM UPPER and LIM LOWER (cf.
2.10.7 Limit Check).
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Format
REAL
Selection of file format used for storing. (The format need not be specified
for loading as UPL / UPD automatically identifies the stored format).
Data are stored in binary form and assigned the basic unit. (File
extension: .TRC)
Advantage:
fast access when loading the data into UPL / UPD, short
files.
Disadvantage: this format cannot be read by the user.
ASCII
Data are stored in ASCII format and assigned the basic unit. (File
extension: .TRC)
Advantage: data can be read and processed by UPL / UPD and by any
text editor or other program.
Disadvantage: when reading data into external programs, the auxiliary
information has to be removed and numeric results may have to
be converted from the basic unit to the required unit.
EXPORT
Data are stored as plain text in tabulated form without auxiliary
information. (File extension: .EXP)
Trace data are displayed with the unit used in the graphics display
(display: numeric value with unit), reference data with the basic unit
(display: numeric value without unit). The columns are separated by tab
stops; headers (before each new scan) always start with '#'.
the data can be read and processed without any problem
Advantage:
by any text editor or other program. Data need not be
converted.
Disadvantage: EXP files cannot be read by UPL / UPD because the
auxiliary information has been removed.
Voltsource
TRACE A
TRACE B
For Store
EQUALIZATN only.
The trace buffer specified here must be the one containing the
measurement data; the ANALYZER and DISPLAY panels must be
appropriately configured (see "Store
EQUALIZATN").
The voltage data are read from the trace buffer A/B.
Normfreq
For Store
EQUALIZATN only.
Specify the frequency on the voltage value of which is normalized.
Selecting the frequency at which the frequency response curve has its
maximum means that the equalization file contains values from 0 to 1
only. If any other frequency is selected, factors higher than 1 occur.
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Invert1/n
UPL
For Store
EQUALIZATN only.
Inverting the frequency response causes, with the equalizer switched on,
the device under test to get an equalized frequency response. Application:
constant (independent of frequency response) outgoing power, pre-/
deemphasis
ON
The equalization curve is stored in inverted form.
OFF
The equalization file is not inverted.
Filename
Causes the trace or list to be stored under the specified file name.
If the file cannot be opened, an error message and ”not found” is
displayed in the menu line.
For entering file names, see 2.3.2.5.
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2.9.1.3 Format of Block/List Files
Overview
The following text describes the format of the trace/list files, as it is used internally for storage of
measured values and sweep, dwell, equalization and limit lists. This is of interest for the user only, if he
wants to copy values into other programs, edit files or create new files for internal use. The subsequent
description is intended to offer support in this case. You may additionally refer to the supplied example
files (R&S_EXAM.*) in the directory \UPL\USER. These ASCII files contain comments and some of
them are even available in various versions (e.g., R&S_EXAM.TRC, R&S_E209.TRC, R&S_E212.TRC).
Numeric data formats (ASCII and REAL)
All values are stored with their basic units. Physically useful values have an exponent between E 6 (120
dB or mega) and E-12 (-240 dB or pico). (They are converted with the units set for curve
representation).
In contrast, numbers are interpreted as factors to the reference value for limit files (cf. 2.10.7 Limit
Check).
Notice in advance the description of the differences between the REAL format (binary according to 4byte IEEE Standard) and the readable ASCII notation. The advantage of the first format is the compact
setup and fast access, since the numbers do not have to be converted. However, the user normally
prefers using the ASCII format which is easier to handle.
In the REAL format, the numbers are not separated by a separator and they are arranged in successive
blocks, e.g., all X-values first, succeeded by the Y-values. With multiscan data (cf. 2.9.3.3 Group of
Curves) the X-values then come again, followed by the Y-values etc.
In the ASCII format, all data of an index are arranged in a printable line, the data are separated by a
space character and the line is terminated by carriage return / line feed (called CR/LF in the following).
Multiscan data are also arranged successively, in this format.
Up to version 211 of the file format, the ASCII numbers like the REAL numbers were arranged in blocks
and all numbers were separated by CR/LF. If the previous format is continued to be used for reasons of
compatibility, it can be generated by setting a call parameter. This parameter is -o8 and must be
inserted in the AUTOEXEC.BAT subsequent to the line containing the UPL(bat) call using an editor on
the DOS level.
Setup
Explanation of the file setup can be most clearly arranged in simplified Backus-Nauer form. The
meaning of each individual line is explained in detail in the following.
file := header_struct, trace [,info_struct]
trace := scan | multiscan | fft_scan
fft_scan := y_block, x_def [, y2_block]
multiscan := scan 0, count 1, scan 1 [, count n, scan n]....
scan := ascii_scan | real_scan
ascii_scan := ascii_sample 0, [, ascii_sample n ]...
ascii_sample := x, [, y [, ref] [, y2 [, ref2] ] ], „CR/LF“
real_scan := y_block [, x_block [, ref_block] [, y2_block [, ref2_block] ] ]
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UPL
x_block, y_block, ref_block, y2_block and ref2_block are blocks of REAL (IEEE 4- byte float). With
fft_scan, y_block and y2_block may also be ASCII numbers separated by CR/LF.
x, y, ref, y2, ref2 are numbers in the ASCII notation, separated by spaces. CR/LF is appended to
ascii_sample.
The ASCII format allows for inserting comments. They begin with ‘#’ character and are terminated by
subsequent CR/LF. Maximum 80 characters are permitted.
File
The first line explains that a trace/list file always consists of a header_struct and a trace of numbers,
followed by an info structure, if desired. In the following, an individual chapter is dedicated to each of the
above-mentioned key-words.
File header (header_struct)
The header is always stored in the ASCII notation and contains 7 integers (16-bit integer) with the
following meaning:
######
#
213 #
0
#
#
#
1131 #
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
3
#
5
#
1
#
0
#
#
#-----
beginning of header
version of fileformat this file is built with
format: 0 for ASCII, first all y values then all x values
1 for binary (ieee float), successive blocks like format 0
2 for ASCII, pairs of values, first y then x values
mode:
16 bit integer consisting of
3 bits (LSBits) comb: 1 for y only, 2 for x+y, 3 for x+y+z,
DSP data: 4 for fft, 5 for waveform, 6 for filtsim
1 bit new: true since sw vers 2.09
2 bits dual: 0:for mono, 1:dual with equal scale,
2:dual with 2 scales
2 bits multi: 0:single, 1:multi scan (2, 3 unused)
2 bits ref_trc_a: 0 no reference or value
1: reference trace on file
2, 3 unused
2 bits ref_trc_b: like ref_trc_a
4 bits (MSBits) reserved
scan count (of first scan if multi scan)
count of entries for scan 1
x scale: 0 for lin, 1 for log
y scale: 0 for lin, 1 for log
beginning of scan 1
• The first number contains the version number of the file format. All previous formats can be read
from an updated software version but not vice versa, which is why an update of the instrument
software is advisable.
• The second number indicates the format. 0 means an earlier ASCII format, which contained the
figures in successive blocks similar to the sequence used by the REAL format. No further details will
be given here. - 1 means that the following numbers are given in the REAL format. 2 stands for the
previously described ASCII format with y and x values arranged in pairs.
• With the third number, the individual bits are assigned a meaning, each:
Bits 0 to 2 explain the data structure. Value
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1 stands for one-dimensional row (e.g. sweep-list),
2 for two dimensions (e.g. x- and y-data),
3 for three dimensions (generally multiscan data with Z axis),
4 indicates two-dimensional data with fixed x-values (given by start and delta values), generally FFT
data
5 like 4, but waveform data and
6 for filter simulation data.
Bit 3 is always set to one starting with version 209 and indicates that the subsequent data are also
defined in the data structure described here.
Bits 4 and 5 indicate whether the trace is a mono trace (0) or a dual trace (1).
Bits 6 and 7 indicate single scan(0), multiscan (1), or multiscan with z-sweep (2).
Bits 8 and 9 indicate whether the y-axis contains a reference value (1) (thus, a y-data consists of 2
numbers) or not. If not, these bits are set 0.
Bits 10 and 11 have a similar meaning as bits 8 and 9, however, they refer to the second y-value (y2)
with dual trace.
The remaining four bits have been reserved for extensions.
• The fourth number indicates Scan Count, the number of scans contained in this file.
• The fifth number represents the maximum index + 1, i.e., the number of x (or y, ref , y2, ref2)
samples of a scan.
Note that, with multiscan, each scan may consist of a different amount of x/y-data (e.g., with external
sweep) which is why the current number of the following values is indicated before each new scan.
• The sixth number is a 0, if the X axis is linear, 1 stands for logarithmic scaling. For an interpolation of
intermediate values of limit curves that are neither horizontal nor vertical, these values are used in the
x and y direction. For a correct graphics display it is important for the file entries and the actual
scaling to be in agreement, as the measurement points in the display are connected by a straight line.
If the data do not match, bent curve sections (elliptic segments) are obtained in the calculation which
are not drawn in the display and therefore not visible.
• The seventh number is similar to the sixth but refers to the Y axis.
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UPL
Trace
The header, especially the third number specifies how to interpret the subsequent trace.
• One-dimensional
The group of one-dimensional traces/lists (e.g., frequency list of a sweep) is simply a sequence of
numbers, which is separated in the ASCII notation by CR/LF and directly successive in the REAL
format. Bits 0 to 2 of the third number in the header are assigned the value 1.
• Two-dimensional
The significant group of two-dimensional data (e.g., dwell, equalization, limit) contains pairs of
numbers in the ASCII format
x0 y0 CR/LF
x1 y1 CR/LF
x2 y2 CR/LF etc.,
x being the independent and y the dependent value.
The sequence in the REAL format is x0 x1 x2 .... y0 y1 y2....This pattern applies always which is why it is
not indicated with each of the subsequent items.
Bits 0 to 2 of the third number of the header assume the value 2, i.e., sample and scan are defined as
follows:
ascii_sample = x, y
scan = sample0 [, samplen]...
real_scan = x_block, y_block
• Two-dimensional with reference value
Mono traces (one-channel measurements) may contain a reference value or not; it is therefore put in
brackets in the following notation:
ascii_sample = x, y [, ref]
This means that the numbers are arranged as follows:
x0 y0 [ ref0] CR/LF
x1 y1 [ref1] CR/LF
x2 y2 [ref2] CR/LF etc.
A dual sample (two measured values for the same x-value) is obtained by:
ascii_sample = x, y [,ref] , y2 [, ref2 ]
Generalized, a sample is defined as follows:
ascii_sample = x, [, y [, ref] [, y2 [, ref2] ] ]
An ASCII scan is obtained by a number of samples:
ascii_scan = Sample0 [ Samplen ]...
A REAL scan consists of a number of blocks:
real_scan = y_block [, x_block [, ref_block] [, y2_block [, ref2_block] ] ]
the x-block being defined as
x_block .= x0, x1, [ xn]...
• Three-dimensional (multiscans)
Multiscans are obtained by successive series of scans:
multiscan = scan0, count1, scan1 [,countn , scann ]....
Notice that the number of data of scan0 has been defined in the header, whereas the subsequent ones
are indicated prior to the subsequent traces.
If a multiscan has been obtained by a z-sweep, a one-dimensional field of z-values is added to the
multiscan. Bits 0 to 2 of the third number of the header are set to 3.
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• One-dimensional with steady X axis
The above-mentioned applies only for trace data which have been obtained by (internal or external)
sweeps. FFT data, waveform data and filter-simulation data are characterized by a steady x-axis, i.e.,
the x-axis is defined by two values in this case. These values are the start value and difference value
and named x_def; the structure is defined as fft_scan under Setup earlier in this section.
Multiscan, reference values and z-sweep are skipped, however, dual trace is possible. The different
values of the bits 0 to 3 are selected for plausibility check with loading traces and do not imply different
data structures.
Info Structure (info_struct)
This data field contains values which appear in the DISPLAY panel and guarantee that a stored trace
which is loaded corresponds exactly to its appearance prior to storage. Therefore, the scaling values,
e.g., have to be included in the file. This structure is used with storage of trace A, trace B or dual trace,
only.
It is reserved and should not be modified, since error could lead to undefined program states. The
reason is that all error possibilities are eliminated with user entry and that this structure is considered to
be consistent with use. Besides, it contains data which cannot be described here since they would go
beyond the scope of this section. It is advisable, if required, to have a file created by the UPL by means
of storing a trace variable/variable trace. All settings can be made in the DISPLAY panel and the
structure described is completely inserted.
info_struct := trace_no, trace_group, x_info, y_info, y2_info, strings, norm_y1, norm_y2
trace_no indicates trace A (0), trace B (1) or dual trace (3).
trace_group indicates the type of x-axis, in order not to mix frequency and time axes.
x_info := unit, ref_val, ref_unit, log_flag, upper_val, upper_unit, lower_val, lower_unit
y_info and y2_info are set up like x_info.
strings .= x_string, y_string and y2_string are the user-defined axis labels.
norm_y1 and norm_y2 stand for the normalization factors.
unit consists of code (16 bits) and group (16 bits) and specifies the unit of the axis;
ref_val is the reference value used;
ref_unit is the unit assigned to the reference value (expressed again by means of code and
group);
log_flag is 0 with linear scale (not zero with log);
upper_val is the top or right limit of the axis;
upper_unit indicates code and group of the assigned unit;
lower_val and lower_unit mean the values for the bottom or left limit of scale.
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2.9.1.4
UPL
Editing Limit Files
Limit files can be edited at the MS-DOS level using any editor capable of generating text files. The
sample files R&S_EXAM.LLW (LLW = Limit LoWer) and R&S_EXAM.LUP (LUP = Limit UPper) used
for demonstrating the file structure are stored in the directory C:\UPL\USER.
Each file consists of a header followed by the actual data. Important information can be stored in
addition with the aid of comment lines.
The significance of the 7 header values can be looked up in section 2.9.1.3 Format of Block/Listen
Data/ File header.
Example:
A limit file is to be edited with the aid of which the FFT curve of a DUT can checked for limit violations.
The limit value curve should have the following characteristic:
The 7 header values are determined as described in section 2.9.1.3 Format of Block/Listen Data/ File
header:
1st number = 213 Number of file format for UPL version 1.0.
The number for UPL versions > 1.0 can be determined by storing a trace file (see
2.9.1.2 Loading and Storing of Series of Measured Values and Block/List Data) and
entering TYPE xxx.TRC | MORE at the DOS level.
The first number displayed is the number of the file format.
2nd number = 2
The data of this limit file are in the ASCII format, X and Y display next to each other.
3rd number = 10 10 is the decimal equivalent of 1010:
d15
4th number = 1
5th number = 6
6th number = 0
7th number = 0
d0
<0 0 0 0<0 0<0 0<0 0<0 0<1<0 1 0<.
=>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>?>@
two-dimensional (X and Y values)
always 1
Number of data sets. 1 for limit files.
Number of following X-Y pairs. Six values are required for the desired characteristic
in the example.
Linear interpretation of X axis. Irrelevant for the example using only horizontal and
vertical lines.
Linear interpretation of Y axis. Ditto
The interpolation of intermediate values of the limit curves, which are neither horizontal nor
vertical, uses these data in the x and y direction. For a correct display of the graphic, the file entries
must be in agreement with the actual scaling selected in the DISPLAY panel, as in the diagram the
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measured values are always connected by straight lines. If the data do not match, bent curve sections
(elliptic segments) are obtained in the calculation which are not displayed and therefore not detected.
Y values entered in the limit file must be multiplication factors which, together with the value specified in
the DISPLAY panel under
A>>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>>B
<TRACE A
FUNCT CH1 <
<Limit Ref
VALUE
<
<
1.0000 V <
form the level value used for the limit value check.
Note:
The use of multiplication factors in the limit file permits limit curves to be shifted in the
display as required by a change of the Limit Ref value. Thus the curves can be adapted to
a modified generator level or another DUT.
Thus, the value 0.00001 (1 V • 0.00001 = 0.00001 V = -100 dBV) is calculated as the multiplication
factor for the desired Y value -100 dBV.
X values
Desired Y
values in the
graphics
display
Multiplication
factors to be
entered in the limit
files
20 Hz
-100 dBV
0.00001
9500 Hz
-100 dBV
0.00001
9500 Hz
0 dBV
1.0
10500 Hz
0 dBV
1.0
10500 Hz
-100 dBV
0.00001
20000 Hz
-100 dBV
0.00001
Content of the desired limit file:
213
2
10
1
6
0
0
#----X-----Y--20
0.00001
9500
0.00001
9500
1.0
10500
1.0
10500
0.00001
20000
0.00001
This file is stored at the MS-DOS level for instance under C:\UPL\USER\MYLIM.LUP and loaded for a
display on the UPL screen as described in section 2.10.7 Limit Check.
A>>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>>B
<LIMIT CHECK ------------<
< Lim Upper
FILE
<
< Filename
MYLIM.LUP <
Note:
Additional information on the use of limit files is given in the Application Note 1GA33_1E
(English) or 1GA33_1L (American), which can be obtained from local Rohde & Schwarz sales
organizations.
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2.9.1.5
UPL
Generating a Limit file from a Trace File
Example:
The passband range of a DUT with a C MESSAGE characteristic is to be checked with the aid of an
upper and lower limit curve for compliance with a specified tolerance.
The simplest way to generate the two limit files is to create them from a trace file obtained by means of
a sweep via a C MESSAGE filter. This ensures that the measured values of the limit curve correspond
exactly to the x values of the sweep (provided they are not manually changed) so that the y values need
not be interpolated for the detection of limit violations.
In this example the UPL-internal C MESSAGE filter is used.
Creating the trace file:
• Load the default setup:
A>>>>>>>> FILE >>>>>>>>>B
<LOAD INSTRUMENT STATE <
<Mode
DEF SETUP <
• Establish an internal connection to the generator, set the C MESSAGE filter for the
RMS measurement and select dBV as display unit.
A>>>>>>> ANALYZER >>>>>>B
<Ch1 Input...GEN CH1
<
<Filter
C MESSAGE <
<Unit Ch1
dBV
<
• Set an auto sweep with 10 sweep points (to obtain a manageable number of limit values later on)
and an output level of 0 dBV:
A>>>>>>> GENERATOR >>>>>B
<SWEEP CTRL AUTO SWEEP <
<Points
10
<
<VOLTAGE
0.0000 dBV <
• Switch to curve display and select a logarithmic scale for the X axis:
A>>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>B
<OPERATION
CURVE PLOT<
<X AXIS
<
<Spacing
LOG
<
key or ALT Z)
Switch to graphics windows (
• The sweep is triggered with the SINGLE key and the curve of the C MESSAGE filter is displayed.
• This curve is now stored as TRACE file under the filename CMESS.TRC:
A>>>>>>>> FILE >>>>>>>>>B
<STORE TRACE/LIST ---- <
<Format
ASCII
<
<Filename
CMESS.TRC <
The file is now available under C:\UPL\USER\CMESS.TRC with frequency values in Hz and levels
in V.
• Quit the UPL (SYSTEM key or CTRL F9).
Creating limit files from the trace file
Files CMESS.LUP (upper limit curve) and CMESS.LLW (lower limit curve) are generated from the
CMESS.TRC file at the DOS level using any editor available by modifying the level values in V derived
from the TRACE file so that the desired tolerance mask is obtained.
The Y values to be entered in a limit file are multiplication factors which, together with the value
entered in the DISPLAY panel under
A>>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>B
<TRACE A
FUNCT CH1<
<Limit Ref
VALUE
<
<
1.0000 V <
form the level value used for the limit check. The curve can be shifted by varying the Limit Ref.
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Content of
C:\UPL\USER\CMESS.TRC:
213
2
10
1
10
1
0
#--X---------Y------20000
0.000251874
9283.18
0.00154384
4308.87
0.109695
2000
0.879042
928.318
0.978155
430.887
0.317451
200
0.0551856
92.8318
0.00598586
43.0887
0.000624106
20
7.48084e-05
The data following in this list are of
no importance for the generation of
limit files and are therefore left out.
Loading and Storing
Content of
C:\UPL\USER\CMESS.LUP:
213
2
10
1
Unchanged from CMESS.TRC
10
1)
1
2)
0
3)
#--X---------Y--20000
0.0004
9283.18
0.01
4308.87
0.5
2000
1.2
928.318
1.1
430.887
0.5
200
0.08
92.8318
0.009
43.0887
0.0009
20
0.0004
Content of
C:\UPL\USER\CMESS.LLW:
213
2
10
1
Unchanged from CMESS.TRC
10
1)
1
2)
0
3)
#--X--------Y---20000
0.00001
9283.18
0.0008
4308.87
0.03
2000
0.7
928.318
0.9
430.887
0.16
200
0.03
92.8318
0.003
43.0887
0.0001
20
0.00001
Multiplication factors used for determining the limit values together with the
Limit Ref value in the DISPLAY panel.
1) Number of limit values
2) Interpretation of X axis: 0 = linear, 1 = logarithmic
3) Interpretation of Y axis: 0 = linear, 1 = logarithmic
See 2.9.1.3 Format of Block/Listen Data / File header
Loading limit files and detecting limit violations:
After starting the UPL again, the two limit files
A>>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>B
<LIMIT CHECK --------- <
<Lim Upper
FILE
<
<Filename
CMESS.LUP <
<Lim Lower
FILE
<
<Filename
CMESS.LLW <
are entered and the desired tolerance mask is displayed.
If a sweep is triggered now with the SINGLE key, the curve of the C MESSAGE filter is within the
tolerance mask as expected, and no limit violation is signaled.
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To test the limit check, a limit violation can be produced by increasing the 0-dBV sweep level in the
GENERATOR panel to for instance 1 dBV or changing the Limit Ref value so that the limit curve is
shifted.
In the top left-hand corner of the graphics display the icon
is displayed indicating with an arrow pointing upwards that a limit has been exceeded.
To find out the exact reason for the limit violation,
A>>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>B
<OPERATION
SWEEP LIST<
can be set in the DISPLAY panel. A list of all sweep parameters is displayed in which the limit violation is
marked at the left by an arrow pointing upwards.
followed by GRAPH or ALT Z and then ALT R) an
When selecting full-screen display (key
extended list of sweep parameters is displayed with measured values of both limit curves.
Note:
If the x values from the trace file are read into the limit file unchanged, columns 3 and 4
display the product of the multiplication factor in the limit file and of the Limit Ref value in
the DISPLAY panel. If the x values have been changed, the interpolated limit values for the
frequencies in column 2 are displayed in columns 3 and 4.
Measured level
Sweep frequency
A>>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>>B
<OPERATION
SWP LIM REP<
Measured values
of upper
limit curve acc. to
CMESS.LUP
Measured values
of lower
limit curve acc. to
CMESS.LLW
shows a list of limit violations. In this example there is only one entry:
Note:
Further information on the use of limit files can be obtained from the Application Note
1GA33_1E (English) or 1GA33_1L (American) which can be obtained from local Rohde &
Schwarz sales organizations.
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2.9.1.6
Loading and Storing
Generating a Limit File using an Application Program
Application Note 1GA33_1E (English) or 1GA33_1L (American) and the application program
LIMIT.BAS are available for convenient generation of limit files for use in frequency response
measurements. The application program can be obtained from local Rohde & Schwarz sales
organizations.
The Universal Sequence Controller UPL-B10 must be installed in order to use the program. With the aid
of this option, complete measurement sequences can be run under program control on the audio
analyzer.
To be able to run the application program LIMIT.BAS under the Universal Sequence Controller UPLB10, an Audio Analyzer UPL of version 1.0 or higher is required. An external keyboard must also be
connected.
2.9.1.7
Limit Report
The limit report list is organized like the content of a limit file (see 2.9.1.4 Editing Limit Files) and
includes the information 0, 1, 2 or 3 for each frequency value.
0: No limit violation
1: A value or curve defined as MODE = LIM UPPER in the DISPLAY panel was exceeded by a sweep
or FFT curve.
If more than one sweep or FFT curve is displayed, e.g.
- one curve on trace A and one on trace B with CHECK = TRACE A+B selected in the DISPLAY
panel,
- or several sweep scans are set in the DISPLAY panel,
then one of the curves has exceeded the upper limit.
2: A value or curve defined as MODE = LIM LOWER was below this limit.
If more than one sweep or FFT curve is displayed, one of the curves is below the lower limit.
3: If the Lim Lower and Lim Upper values or curves are simultaneously displayed in the Mode = LIM
LOW&UP and more than one sweep curve is displayed, e.g.
- one curve on trace A and one on trace B with CHECK = TRACE A+B selected in the DISPLAY
panel,
- or several sweep scans are set in the DISPLAY panel,
3 indicates that one of the sweep curves is below the lower limit and that at the same time another
sweep curve has exceeded the upper limit.
Code 3 cannot be assigned in the case of FFT curves as the limit check for TRACE A+B cannot be
made simultaneously.
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Loading and Storing
0
0
UPL
2
0
2
2
Lim Upper
Lim Lower
Trace A oder
Trace B
0
1
0
1
2
3
Trace A oder
Trace B
2
0
0
2
Lim Upper
Lim Lower
Trace A oder
Trace B
Trace A oder
Trace B
0
2
2
2
Lim Upper
Lim Lower
Trace A
Trace B
Trace A
Trace B
2
Lim Upper
Lim Lower
Trace A
Trace B
Fig. 2-38
Examples of limit violations and codes
When
Format = ASCII has been selected in the FILE panel under
A>>>>>>>>> FILE >>>>>>>>B
<STORE TRACE/LIST
<
<Store
LIM REPORT<
<Format
ASCII
< or REAL,
codes 0, 1, 2 or 3 are stored as ASCII values, for
Format = REAL these values are stored in binary form (4 bytes each) to IEEE standard.
The X values for which a limit violation has been detected can be seen in a comparison of the traces
files and the LIM REPORT file (SCPI does not offer a more convenient solution):
Limit report for sweep curves:
The sweep curve used for a limit check can be selected as follows in the DISPLAY panel:
A>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>>B
<LIMIT CHECK -----------<
<CHECK
TRACE A
< or TRACE B or TRACE A+B
Note:
CHECK = TRACE A+B with a view to limit violations can only be set for sweep curves (not for
FFT curves) if Scale B = EQUAL A has been selected for TRACE B (the scale of trace A is
also assigned to scale B).
To view limit violations on the screen, set
A>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>>B
< OPERATION SWP LIM REP <.
Only limit violations will be displayed.
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UPL
Loading and Storing
To determine the X values for which a limit violation has been detected, the trace file has to be
generated for a comparison with the LIM REPORT file:
A>>>>>>>> FILE >>>>>>>>>B
< STORE TRACE/LIST
<
< Store
TRACE A
< or TRACE B
XXX.TRC
<
< Filename
In contrast to the screen display, where only limit violations are displayed under the setting OPERATION
= SWP LIM REP, the trace file contains all sweep points.
Example:
Content of
trace file
213
2
10
see 2.9.1.3 File header
1
10
0
0
#--X---------Y-----
Content of
LIM REPORT file
213
2
9
1
see 2.9.1.3 File header
10
0
0
100
166.81
278.265
464.159
774.264
1291.55
2154.44
3593.81
5994.84
10000
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0.1138
0.2326
0.4104
0.6457
0.8959
1.0891
1.1521
1.1058
0.9271
0.6069
Limit report
Subsequent data are of no
relevance for a check of the
LIM REPORT file and are
therefore left out.
Lim report for FFT curves:
The FFT curve used for a limit check can be selected as follows in the DISPLAY panel:
A>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>>B
<LIMIT CHECK -----------<
<CHECK
TRACE A
< or TRACE B
Note:
Limit violations of FFT curves can only be checked for TRACE A or TRACE B. Selection of
TRACE A+B is not possible.
To view limit violations on the screen, set
A>>>>>>> DISPLAY >>>>>>>B
< OPERATION SPC LIM REP <
Only limit violations are displayed on the screen.
To determine the X values for which a limit violation has been detected, the trace file has to be
generated for a comparison with the LIM REPORT file:
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Loading and Storing
UPL
A>>>>>>>> FILE >>>>>>>>>B
< STORE TRACE/LIST
<
< Store
TRACE A
< or TRACE B
< Filename
XXX.TRC
<
Note:
In contrast to a sweep trace, only the limit violations are stored in the trace file for the FFT
trace. Therefore, when a suitable upper limit value is selected, the noise floor of the FFT can
be suppressed and the quantity of data reduced.
Example:
Content of
trace file
213
2
76
see 2.9.1.3 File header
1
3
0
0
#--X---------Y----9984.38
0.5991
9996.09
0.9714
10007.8
0.8815
Content of
LIM REPORT file
213
2
9
1
see 2.9.1.3 File header
3
0
0
1
1
1
Limit report
Subsequent data are of no
relevance for a check of the
LIM REPORT file and are
therefore left out.
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UPL
Editing Files and Directories
2.9.2
Editing Files and Directories
The following files are available under the heading UTILS in the FILE panel, which is called by pressing
the FILE key.
The UPL software is supported by the DOS operating system and uses its file manager, which is
normally not of importance for the user. It however provides extended capabilities, which you can make
use of, if desired. For reasons of internal management, the UPL software assigns a fixed data type
(extension) to each file type depending on its function, allowing the identification of the file type. The
extension consists of up to three letters after the point in the file name and is usually not available to the
user in other menu items (the extension used is specified in the menu items concerning files as well as
in the list given in Section 2.9.1).
Delete
A file can be deleted using this command. All menu commands used to
store files overwrite an existing file with the same name or create a new
file.
Work dir
(Working directory)
If a directory is specified under "Work dir" that exists in the UPL, the specified directory is selected as
working directory. If such a directory does not exist in the UPL, the entry is interpreted as a file name
indicating a control file in which working directories can be specified for various types of file (with file
extensions .SCO, .SAC, etch). If the control file cannot be found either, the user is offered three
possibilities in a dialog box.
1. "Create": the entry is interpreted as the name of a new working directory which is opened and
activated.
2. "Work Dir unaffected": this entry is stored under Work Dir without the previous work directory being
changed. When a setup is loaded holding an entry generated in this way under Work Dir, the current
working directory remains unchanged. This means that by entering a non-existing working directory,
setups can be generated which do not change the current working directory when loaded.
3. "Back to filebox": an entry error has occurred, another working directory can be selected in the
filebox.
Specifying a directory:
Files can be arranged in directories allowing classification depending on, for example, the user or the
project. The working directory, which precedes all file names and path names (unless they begin with a
"\" in the main directory) is thus selected. Independent of the working directory, there are also directories
which are used by the UPL-internal software.
Example: Work Dir C:\UPL\DUT04
No.
Data input
Data access to
1
SWEEP.SCO
C:\UPL\DUT04\SWEEP.SCO
2
\SWEEP.SCO
C:\SWEEP.SCO
3
\UPL\DUT05\SWEEP.SCO
C:\UPL\DUT05\SWEEP.SCO
Storing files in the main directory (example 2) or in the UPL system directories
(\UPL,\UPL\REF,\UPL\DRIVER, etc.) should be avoided.
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Editing Files and Directories
UPL
Entry of a file with control statements:
The specified file contains control statements by which a working directory is defined for various types of
file.
All file names entered into the file box without a path being specified are searched for in, and taken
from, the working directory defined in the control file. The working directory shown in the file box under
the specified file name can be checked against the file name displayed on the UPL.
(Control file (ASCII text):
#Comment 1
.SCO C:\EXAMPLE\SETUP
.SAC C:\EXAMPLE\SETUP
.TRC C:\EXAMPLE\TRACE
#Comment 2
.PPC C:\UPL\USER
.PAC C:\UPL\USER
.PAU C:\UPL\USER
.*
C:\UPL\USER
Meaning:
Any comment, marked with #
Loading and storing of setups
according to \EXAMPLE\SETUP
Loading and storing of traces
Protocol definitions
Preset directory
The control file can be created at the DOS level using any type of editor capable of generating
unformatted ASCII text.
.* Designates the working directory that is set if a type of file not included in the control file is entered
(default directory).
# Marks comment lines.
Leading and filling blanks are ignored. Entries can be made in any order.
If no appropriate entry is found for a specified file type, the directory specified after ".*" is used as
working directory. If no entry exists for ".*", the path information (e.g. C:\UPL\USER) is extracted from
the file name designating the control file (e.g. C:\UPL\USER\EXTDIR:CFG) and entered as working
directory. If in the control file a working directory is specified that does not exist, an error message is
output.
Note:
Several users can use setups jointly and store the results separately by using the same path
for the setups and different paths for the data to be stored.
Example:
Mr. MILLER, Mr. BAKER and Mr. SMITH are sharing an UPL. Each user wants a working directory of
his own with the corresponding setups using the .SCO and .SAC file types and each one establishes a
path named SETUP.
Mr. MILLER
mainly works with .TRC trace files and therefore
needs a path named TRACE.
Mr. BAKER
mainly works with .COE filter coefficient files and
therefore needs a path named COEFF.
Mr. SMITH
mainly works with .FFT arbitrary waveform files and
therefore needs a path named ARBIT.
All files of a type other than mentioned above are to be directly written to/read from the paths
C:\UPL\USER\MILLER, C:\UPL\USER\BAKER or C:\UPL\USER\SMITH.
The above requirements can be fulfilled by structuring the working directories as follows (at the DOS
operating system level):
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UPL
C:
UPL
Editing Files and Directories
USER
MILLER
BAKER
SMITH
SETUP (C:\UPL\USER\MILLER\SETUP)
TRACE (C:\UPL\USER\MILLER\TRACE)
SETUP (C:\UPL\USER\BAKER\SETUP)
COEFF (C:\UPL\USER\BAKER\COEFF)
SETUP (C:\UPL\USER\SMITH\SETUP)
ARBIT (C:\UPL\USER\SMITH\ARBIT)
The assignment of file types to working directories is made in separate control files which are best
stored under C:\UPL\USER:
MILLER .CFG
# Working directories, depending on file type
.SCO C:\UPL\USER\MILLER\SETUP
.SAC C:\UPL\USER\MILLER\SETUP
.TRC C:\UPL\USER\MILLER\TRACE
# Default working directory
.*
C:\UPL\USER\MILLER
BAKER.CFG
# Working directories, depending on file type
.SCO C:\UPL\USER\BAKER\SETUP
.SAC C:\UPL\USER\BAKER\SETUP
.COE C:\UPL\USER\BAKER\COEFF
# Default working directory
.*
C:\UPL\USER\BAKER
SMITH.CFG
# Working directories, depending on file type
.SCO C:\UPL\USER\SMITH\SETUP
.SAC C:\UPL\USER\SMITH\SETUP
.TTF C:\UPL\USER\SMITH\ARBIT
# Default working directory
.*
C:\UPL\USER\SMITH
After switching on the UPL, each user enters, under "Work Dir" in the FILE panel, the path and name of
his control file, or loads a setup in which the path and name of his control file are already entered.
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Series of Measured Values and Block/List Data
2.9.3
UPL
Series of Measured Values (Sweeps and Scans) and Block/List Data
With sweeps, values measured as a function of a variable input quantity are recorded and can be
represented in various ways graphically or as numbers. UPL can simultaneously record two traces
(Trace A and Trace B). These are in the following referred to as 1 scan.
The variable input quantity, which is usually entered along the X-axis, is determined by the sweep
parameters. There are three sweep modes, of which only one can be active at a time:
generator, analyzer and external/time-controlled sweep.
In the generator sweep, the frequency or the output voltage can be automatically varied (in steps).
For sine burst measurements, the ON time and the length of intervals (see 2.5.4.2 Sweeps) can be
varied in addition.
In analyzer sweeps, the "receive" frequency can be automatically stepped in (frequency-) selective
rms measurements, with sweep parameter settings similar to those used in generator sweeps (see
2.6.5.3 RMS SELECT). If the multisine function (with up to 17 simultaneous frequencies) is active in
the generator, a sweep list can be generated with UPL set to SWEEP CTRL GEN MLTSIN. With this
list, the analyzer is automatically tuned to all generator frequencies in consecutive order.
The third group of sweeps are external sweeps that are likewise set in the analyzer mode. With
external sweeps, time-varying signals are analyzed that are not stepped by one of the UPL sweep
systems but by external control. The analyzer picks up measurement values after a frequency or level
change and interprets the frequency or level as X-axis parameters. Furthermore, measured values
can be collected at certain intervals. In this case, time will be taken as the X-axis parameter.
In the DISPLAY panel, the set sweep parameters are always used for the X-axis. The units used
depend on the physical quantity measured. The right-hand and the left-hand limit are determined by the
start and the stop values of the sweep parameters and set using the X-axis autoscaling function.
2.9.3.1
Scan count =1
From the six values simultaneously measured, two can be used for the two independent Y-axes (trace A
and trace B). These values may be the distortion factors of the left-hand and right-hand channel, for
example, but also different physical quantities such as voltage and phase. The quantities to be
measured are set in the ANALYZER panel; the values to be recorded as a trace are selected in the
DISPLAY panel even if a trace is not to be displayed but stored in a file.
Measured values frequently have to be referenced to other values (the measured values being
expressed in relative units). If a reference value is constant (e.g. 1 mW), it can be taken into account
immediately. If the reference value is a function of the X-axis, a reference trace will result. With UPL,
such traces can also be formed from a series of measured values, for example, or from the generator
voltage or frequency, or may be loaded from a file (e.g. as reference traces).
In all, the following is stored for one scan: two traces, two reference traces and the X-axis data since, in
the case of external sweeps, the latter are also obtained through measurements values and cannot be
calculated.
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UPL
2.9.3.2
Series of Measured Values and Block/List Data
Interpolation to a Common X Axis
To allow any traces to be used as reference traces or to be displayed simultaneously for the purpose of
comparison, and measured by means of the movable cursors, all traces would have to have the same X
values. However, any X divisions can be used on the UPL as the values of the traces and reference
traces are interpolated to the set X-axis. The interpolated values are displayed as traces or numerals.
The original X and Y values are displayed only if no sweep is selected (and thus no X-axis is set).
(Excepted are all limit traces; they are displayed using the original and not the interpolated values (see
2.10.7 Limit Check).
For interpolation, the X and Y values of the four traces and reference traces are stored in the UPL,
yielding a total of eight series of numbers plus the four interpolated series plus the current X-axis values.
This results in 13 series of 1024 values each.
UPL also interpolates further series of numbers: the limit traces for the upper and lower ranges, the
equalization trace for the generator voltage, and the dwell trace for sweep stepping. Thus, only a few
measured values are required for each trace. In interpolation, linear or logarithmic scaling of the X and Y
axes is taken into account as, when switching from linear to logarithmic scaling, segments of an ellipse
would be displayed instead of a straight line.
All traces are interpolated once at the start of a sweep to make for enhanced measurement speed. In
the case of external sweeps, the X values are unknown at the start of the sweep. In this case,
interpolation cannot be made prior to the sweep but must be performed during the sweep.
2.9.3.3
Scan Count >1
The number of sweeps performed by UPL is not limited to one X sweep but can be increased to n
sweeps by means of the setting Scan count <n> (in the DISPLAY panel). A group of traces will be
obtained as graphical representation. All traces are stored (in the UPL and also as a file, if desired) and
can be displayed as one unit, rescaled and recalled. In the Scan GROUP mode, the 13 series of
numbers mentioned above are multiplied by the number of scans.
In the generator mode, a second sweep can be made in addition to the X sweep. The second sweep is
referred to as Z sweep as it is usually represented along the Z axis. When Z sweep is selected, the
number n of the scans is automatically set to the number of the Z points (Scan count is set according to
the number of Z points).
In the Scan count >1 mode, a series of traces (or a series of pairs of traces) is usually displayed. In
autoscaling of the Y axes, all available traces are included. Any other operations, e.g. setting the cursor
to the min. or max. values, only apply to the current scan. For out-of-tolerance checks (limit checks), all
traces are checked against the same two limit traces, the out-of-tolerance symbol applies to the current
pair of traces.
The current scan (with one or two traces) is selected with the PAGE UP/PAGE DOWN keys on the
keyboard. The current value, i.e. the scan index, is indicated by a number between the out-of- tolerance
field and the left-hand cursor-value field. The scan index is set by remote control with command
DISPlay:TRACe:INDex <n>.
The point of intersection of the cursor with the current trace (or pair of traces) is visually emphasized by
means of a circle. It is thus possible to allocate the cursor values indicated in the windows
unambiguously to the current scan.
The most recently recorded scan is displayed with a number (”#n”) in the upper left corner providing the
space is not occupied by the out-of-tolerance field.
If one of the list modes (SWEEP LIST, SPECTR LIST, SWeeP LIMit REPort or SPeCtrum LIMit REPort)
is selected, the corresponding lists are generated anew after a change of the scan index (with the PAGE
UP/ PAGE DOWN keys), since only one scan (pair of traces with X axis) can be displayed at a time.
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Series of Measured Values and Block/List Data
UPL
With FFT, a large amount of numbers (up to 7424) is obtained, although no more than one scan is
available. For this reason, the scan index is used for organizing the number in 1-k blocks and selecting
them accordingly. This is not only useful for the screen display but also for reading the block data via
remote control or the universal scan control with BASIC (UPL-K1). With remote-control command
DISPlay:TRACe:INDex, a 1-k block is selected to which the subsequent inputs and outputs with FFTs
refer. With sweeps, the command serves for selecting a desired scan from a group (or to select the Z
index). The index runs from 0 to Scan count -1.
Another way of reducing the numbers transferred with FFTs is by using the out-of-tolerance function.
Only values above the limit value defined by UPPER LIMIT are accepted as measurement values and
can be read with LIST1 and TRAC1 or TRAC2 if OPERATION SPC LIM REP is set in the DISPLAY
panel. In this case, the error report block which is read in with "CALC:LIM:REP?" is meaningless, since
all values would have to be marked as being out-of-tolerance (i.e. by 1) (see 3.10.10 Commands for
Input/Output of Block Data).
In the case of sweeps, "0" is entered in the trace index in the error report block if no sweep values are
out of tolerance. If the limit in channel 1 is exceeded, 1 is entered, with channel 2, 2 is entered; if limit
violations occur in both channels, 3 is entered. The X and Y values belonging to this index will be found
under the same index in the LIST1 and TRAC1 or TRAC2 blocks.
If no group of traces is selected (Scan count =1), the measurement currently being taken is indicated by
means of a gap moving along the trace. If several traces are displayed on the screen (Scan count >1),
the gap may no longer be visible; instead, the set sweep value is marked by an arrow on the X axis.
With time-controlled measurements, which are selected by means of START COND TIME TICK or
TIME CHART in the ANALYZER panel, the time is entered along the X axis. With these measurements,
the X axis can be extended using the scan group mode. The stop value results, for example, from time
= 1 s and points = 100 to yield 100 s. With scan count = 5, the monitoring period is extended to 500 s.
The cursor value always indicates the total time; with scan index = 5, 400 to 500 s would be obtained in
this case. As for the traces, however, the X-axis values would be in the range 0 to 99 in this example.
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UPL
2.10
Graphical Data Presentation
Graphical Data Presentation
(DISPLAY and GRAPHICS Panels)
The DISPLAY panel is used to set how the measurement results are graphically presented. Important:
what (and how) is measured is set in the ANALYZER panel, or, with sweeps, in the GENERATOR
panel. How the measurement is displayed can be changed at a later date, too. Also, curves can be
retrieved from files and redrawn.
The DISPLAY panel is built up using the front-panel key DISPLAY or key combination Alt-D on the
external keyboard. The menu items in the DISPLAY panel affect the GRAPHICS panel which occupies
either 2/3 of the screen (part-screen graphics mode) or the complete screen (full-screen graphics)
key or key combination ALT-Z).
(selectable by the
OPERATION
CURVE PLOT
The results of a sweep, function of time (waveform) or FFT are entered
as line diagram in the Cartesian coordinate system. As a rule, two
dependent variables (TRACE A and TRACE B) can be displayed above
an independent variable (X AXIS). With LIMIT check activated, the
tolerance masks are also included. The extensive command menu
provided on the softkeys allows you to scale and zoom the display and to
dimension the display using the Cursors (see 2.10.1 and 2.10.2 Trace
and Spectrum Display).
SWEEP LIST
SPECTR LIST
The measurement results of a sweep or (post) FFT are output in the form
of digits. The three columns (TRACE A, TRACE B and X AXIS) are
complemented by a fourth column where violations of the UPPER or
LOWER LIMIT curve are marked. In full-screen graphics mode, two
additional columns indicate the LIMITS (interpolated between
intermediate values!) (see 2.10.3 and 2.10.4) if LIMIT CHECK has been
activated (see 2.10.7).
SWP LIM REP
SPC LIM REP
As opposed to TRACE LIST, the digit lines with measured values
exceeding the tolerances only are displayed (see 2.10.3 and 2.10.4),
which is possible only with LIMIT CHECK activated (see 2.10.7).
BARGRAPH
The current measured values are displayed in analog form as bars
('signal level meter'). This type of indication is ideally suited for
measurements where the relative size or change in size - and not the
exact value - is desired. Max. 3 BARGRAPHS are displayed. The extreme
values are marked by trailing pointers (see 2.10.5 and 2.10.6).
The bargraphs #1 and #2 are freely selectable, the bargraph #3 is
automatically assigned the following functions (in the order of their
priority):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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with activated sweep: swept parameter
(x-axis or sweep curve)
with activated phase measurement: phase
with activated frequency measurement: frequency channel 1 or 2
Generator frequency (if selected generator function permits frequency
to be entered)
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Graphical Data Presentation
UPL
OPERATION
SPECTRUM
With FUNCTION FFT or POST FFT selected in the ANALYZER panel,
the frequency spectrum calculated by the DSP is displayed (SPECTRUM
is automatically set with FFT or FILTER SIM selected in the ANALYZER
panel).
With FUNCTION MOD DIST, DFD or THD selected in the ANALYZER
panel, the spectrum components of the stimulae and interference
products can be displayed in the form of a histogram (see 2.10.1 and
2.10.2).
PROTOCOL
PROTO AUTO
Mode
In the GRAPH window, the protocol data of the digital interface are
displayed. Evaluation of the protocol is made simultaneously with the
respective function (see 2.10.8).
PROTO AUTO enables the automatic decoding of the channel status bits
irrespective of the professional bit value (see 2.10.8 PROTOCOL
Analysis).
(With FFT spectrum only)
DEL BEF WR
This is to select a trace, or pair of traces (trace A and trace B). Each new
trace will overwrite the previous trace(s).
MAX HOLD
This key is used to switch on the MAXimum HOLD function. FFT
AVERAGE cannot be set unequal to 1 in the ANALYZER panel with
OVERL/MAX H selected, see 2.6.5.12.
Note:
WATERFALL
Shifts the single curves in the z-axis to obtain a spatial impression. One
channel only can be traced at a time, which is why 1 or 2 must be
selected under ”Channel(s)” in the ANALYZER panel. To obtain a useful
display, scaling is to be set as follows:
1. TRACE Top is to be set such that the upper half (or 3/5) of the
coordinate system is empty (i.e. is not occupied by the first trace).
2. X-AXIS Right such that about half of the coordinate system is free.
3. TRACE Bottom is to be set above the noise limit, making noise
invisible by clipping and emphasizing significant spectral components.
Note:
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MAX Hold can only be selected if the display is switched off
(Avg count 1).
Waterfall can only be selected with one-channel analyzer.
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UPL
Graphical Data Presentation
Scan count
(With CURVEPLOT, SWEEP LIST, SWP LIM REP and BARGRAPH
operation only, not with spectrum displays)
Defines the number of single traces or trace pairs to be measured and
displayed. If a Z sweep is selected in the generator, the number of Z
values is automatically entered in Scan Count.
1
A single trace or a trace pair (Trace A and B) should be measured or
loaded. Each new curve overwrites the previous one. With this setting a
continuous sweep (without Z axis) is performed repeatedly but only the
last one is stored.
If a single-scan trace is loaded from the file, the file overwrites the current
contents of the trace buffer.
If a multiscan trace is loaded from the file, only the 1st scan is loaded into
the trace buffer, all others are ignored.
>1
With this setting, not only one measurement sequence (sweep run, scan)
is measured and displayed but as many as required. However, only the
selected number, but not more than 17, are internally stored in or read
from a file. Non-stored scans are only displayed in the curve plot and lost
during rescaling, storing/loading of trace files or upon storing/loading of
ACTUAL+DATA setups.
A continuous sweep (without Z axis) is terminated after the specified
number of sweeps but only the last 17 sweeps are stored.
If a single-scan trace is loaded from a file, this scan is appended to the
existing scans.
If a multiscan trace is loaded from the file, the trace buffer is cleared and
the number of scans specified here is loaded into the trace buffer, all
other scans of the file are ignored.
If more than the specified number of scans are performed, only the last
(max. 17) scans are stored.
If more than 17 scans are specified, only the last 17 are stored.
For more details refer to section (see 2.9.3.3 Scan Count >1)
Note:
Scan Count can be increased any time for storing more scans in
the trace buffer. Reducing the Scan Count clears the trace buffer
and provides an empty display again.
User Label
OFF
The units and function labeling in the graphical display are automatically
generated by UPL.
ON
The user can assign his own units and function labels. This is of interest
in particular for remote control if measured values were converted. The
labeling is entered in UNIT/Label under Trace A/B or X axis. When User
Label is switched from OFF to ON, the labeling assigned by UPL appears
in the input fields and can be overwritten by the user.
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Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra
2.10.1
UPL
Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra (DISPLAY Panel)
TRACE A
Is used to select which measurement results are to be collected and
graphically represented as TRACE A (or TRACE B) e.g. in the case of a
sweep.
TRACE B
Note:
Display of the trace can be switched OFF (invisible) by means
of a softkey.
OFF
No measured values are collected and hence, nothing can be displayed
under this TRACE.
FUNC CH1
(Function Channel 1)
The results of the measurement of channel 1 currently selected in the
ANALYZER panel by way of FUNCTION are used. Possible only when
FUNCTION in the ANALYZER panel is not OFF.
FUNC CH2
As above, however for channel 2.
(Frequency Channel 2)
FREQ CH1
Frequency meter channel 1. Possible only with FREQ/PHASE in the
ANALYZER panel not OFF and OPERATION not SPECTRUM.
FREQ CH2
Frequency meter channel 2. Possible only with FREQ/PHASE in the
ANALYZER panel set to FREQ and OPERATION not SPECTRUM.
PHASE
Phase meter between channel 1 and 2. Possible only with FREQ/PHASE
in the ANALYZER panel set to FREQ&PHASE and OPERATION not
SPECTRUM.
INP RMS CH1
RMS measurement results channel 1. Only possible if measuring function
THD or THD + N/SINAD and channel 1 are set.
INP RMS CH2
RMS measurement results channel 2. Only possible if measuring function
THD or THD + N/SINAD and channel 2 are set.
HOLD
Does not collect new values but continues to display the old trace.
HOLD is only accepted as input if valid trace data or FFT data are
provided.
A sweep stored in a file in the FILE panel (TRACE LIST) can be recalled
and displayed, e.g. for comparison purposes, using this option.
Sweep lists can be stored as a group of traces (Scan count >1 in the
DISPLAY panel) in a file. To recall this group of traces, Scan count must
also be set to this number, otherwise an error message is output. (See
2.9.1.2 Loading and Storing of Series of Measured Values and Block/List
Data, and 2.9.3.3 Scan Count >1).
If a pair of traces is stored in a file (with Store TRACE A + B in the FILE
panel) and if this pair is loaded by means of FILE, only trace A is used
and trace B is ignored. To load the pair of traces, the parameter DUAL
FILE should be used.
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Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra
TRACE A/B
FILE
(continued)
Sweep lists and FFT files can be loaded.
The following basic conditions must be satisfied to load a sweep list.
The display OPERATION must be set to CURVE PLOT, SWEEP LIST
or SWP LIM REP.
All sweeps must be switched to OFF (or START COND to AUTO) or
the sweep parameter (FREQ, VOLT, TIME) must be identical to the Xaxis of the trace file to be loaded.
The following condition must be satisfied to load an FFT or FILTER SIM
file.
The display OPERATION must be set to SPECTRUM, SPECTR LIST
or SPC LIM REP.
For loading a waveform file
the WAVEFORM function must be set in the ANALYZER panel (this
causes CURVEPLOT to be set automatically in the display).
When loading the trace file, TRACE A has the function of a ”master”
trace; trace B is the ”slave” trace:
The ”master” trace can always be loaded as soon as the above basic
conditions are satisfied. In addition to the trace data, the stored display
settings including the complete X-axis are also loaded (cf. Section
2.9.1.2, menu item STORE
TRACE A/B). If a sweep has been
selected, the loaded trace is interpolated on the X list specified by the
sweep.
When trace A is switched off, TRACE B becomes the ”master” trace.
Being the ”slave” trace, TRACE B must conform to the X-scale of the
”master” trace; i.e., only the trace data and the appropriate Y-scale are
loaded. The curve is interpolated on the X-axis already specified. If this
X-axis is incompatible, the ”slave” trace is switched off.
DUAL FILE
In the FILE panel, a pair of traces can be stored as a unit in a file by
means of TRACE A + B under STORE. The pair of traces can be recalled
by means of DUAL FILE (under TRACE A). The parameter of trace B,
too, is set to dual trace and the scaling of both traces as well as any
reference values or reference traces are loaded from the file.
GROUP DELAY
GROUP DELAY can be switched on only, if FREQ/PHASE has been set
to FRQ&GRPDEL in the ANALYZER panel (this is possible with twochannel measurement, only). The group delay calculated from the phase
measurement is displayed).
Filename
(Displayed with TRACE A/B FILE only)
The name of the file with a sweep or FFT to be displayed is entered. If an
error occurs during loading, ”NOT FOUND” is output in this line.
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Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra
UPL
Scale B
EQUAL A
The second (dependent) measured value is displayed using the same
scaling as for Trace A. Any values for UNIT, REFERENCE, SCALE,
SPACING, TOP and BOTTOM need not be entered for the second axis.
This requires however that the same function is selected for TRACE A
and B (only the channel may be different).
NOT EQUAL A
Different scaling for the second sweep.
Unit
Is used to specify the unit with which the results are to be displayed (see
2.4 Units). Recorded sweeps can be redisplayed with other units at any
time. Traces loaded using TRACE A/B FILE therefore need not be drawn
in the same way as they have been stored.
Unit/Label
Entry of a string which specifies a freely definable unit and axis label. The
string consists of 5 characters for the unit which are centered and if need
be padded with blanks, and 12 characters for the axis label which are also
centered and if need be padded with blanks. There is a separate
”Unit/Label” command for each trace and the x-axis.
Reference
Displayed only if a relative unit is selected in the menu item "Unit".
Selection of reference. This may be a single numeric value or a data
record (reference trace). It applies to all numeric values of the trace, i.e.
top, bottom, measured and limit values.
MAX
The maximum value of the sweep is adopted once as reference value.
* CURSOR
o CURSOR
The value on which the cursor is placed is adopted once
(not with BARGRAPH)
VALUE:
A numeral with unit is entered.
FILE
The reference trace is loaded from the file. The file name is entered in the
following line.
If a pair of traces is stored in a file, trace A is loaded. If a reference trace
is assigned to trace A, the reference is ignored. If Scans GROUP is
selected, a group of traces is loaded. If the number of traces stored does
not coincide with the Scan count number, an error message is output.
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Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra
Reference
OTHER TRACE
MEAS CH1
MEAS CH2
GEN TRACK
The reference trace is loaded with the trace data of the other trace. Every
new measured value of the other trace is simultaneously entered in this
reference trace and is then immediately available for representation of the
new test point. If the other trace is OFF or inactive (e.g. because an
invalid file name has been entered), a corresponding warning is output. If
the other trace is incompatible (e.g. TRACE A FREQ CH1 and TRACE B
INP RMS CH1), a corresponding warning is output. If the other trace is
set to FILE or HOLD, the compatibility is not checked.
The reference trace is cleared and then loaded with the measured values
of channel 1. These are
function measurement results of channel 1 if trace ”FUNC CH1” or
”FUNC CH2” is selected
frequency measurement results of channel 1 if trace ”FREQ CH1” or
”FREQ CH2” is selected
input rms measurement results of channel 1 if trace ”INP RMS CH1” or
”INP RMS CH2” is selected
This choice is only offered if both channels are activated and TRACE
(with activated phase measurement) is not set to FREQ CH1 or PHASE.
The reference trace is cleared and then loaded with the measured values
of channel 2 (as above, applying for channel 2).
The reference trace is cleared and loaded with the currently valid generator setting
in every measurement. This is
the generator rms value valid at the respective test point if trace ”FUNC
CH1” or ”FUNC CH2” is selected,
the generator frequency valid at the respective test point if trace ”FREQ
CH1” or ”FREQ CH2” is selected,
the generator rms value valid at the respective test point if trace ”INP
RMS CH1” or ”INP RMS CH2” is selected.
HOLD
The reference trace is not changed any more. If HOLD is selected without
valid reference trace data being provided, a warning is output and the last
valid reference is set again.
FILE INTERN
This option can be selected only if a reference trace was stored in the file.
FILE INTERN is set automatically if a trace loaded from a file has a
reference trace assigned to it.
REF 997 Hz
REF 1000 Hz
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The value measured at 997 Hz or 1 kHz is taken once as a reference
value for a single sweep run. With FFT traces, the nearest bin (actually
measured frequency line) is taken, with frequency sweeps interpolation is
made between the two neighbouring points.
If the X axis is not the frequency axis (for example in the case of level
sweeps or waveform traces), an error message is output and the
reference value remains unchanged.
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Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra
Limit Ref
UPL
Selection of reference for calculating limit curves if the selected unit is not
a relative unit.
Note:
Limit files consist of dimensionless numerals and become a
physical unit only by a multiplication with the reference value.
For this reason a reference value is also required for nonreferenced values in the display.
MAX
The maximum value of the measurements is taken as a reference value.
CURSOR
o CURSOR
The value marked by the - or o-cursor is used as a reference (not in the
case of BARGRAPH).
VALUE:
A numeral with unit is entered.
Normalize
Normalizes the displayed trace, if a related (e.g., dBr or V/Vr) and a
floating reference value - like OTHER TRACE, MEAS CH1, MEAS CH2 or
GEN TRACK- are used. A defined value can be specified to be 0 dBr or
V/Vr = 1 by shifting the complete trace (multiplying it with the
normalization value).
VALUE
The normalization factor is entered as a numeric value.
o CURSOR
The required normalization value is calculated by means of normalizing
the y-value of the current o-cursor position. This is usually the value with 1
kHz, which implies that the cursor has been set to 1 kHz before. By
acknowledging this selection, the value is entered under VALUE.
CURSOR
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Parameters for Display of Traces and Spectra
Scale
AUTO ONCE
Uses the minimum and maximum values of the current sweep for scaling
of TRACE A and B (once) and rescales after changing the function using
FUNCTION in the ANALYZER panel or TRACE A/B in the DISPLAY
panel. The sweep or FFT start/stop values of the GENERATOR or
ANALYZER panel are adopted for the X-axis. The following menu items
TOP and BOTTOM or LEFT and RIGHT are no longer displayed because
they have been set in doing so.
If there are not yet any measured values available, preset range limits are
used for the time being and rescaled after the end of the sweep. When
changing the measurement function (using TRACE A/B or FUNCTION in
the ANALYZER panel with FUNC CH1/2 or GRAPH ON/ OFF with
SMPTE, THD and DFD) an automatic rescaling is performed after the first
measurement in the SCALE AUTO ONCE state. (Re-) START does not
initiate a new scaling.
If Scan count >1 is selected, AUTO ONCE is executed only when all
scans have ended (e.g. z-sweep).
The full-scale values of the new scaling are determined about 5 % lower
or higher than the exact values. Using an intelligent algorithm, 'even'
values appropriate for the scale are selected.
MANUAL
Leaves the scaling to the user.
With a new scaling the image is deleted and redrawn after the rescaling.
This applies also to an FFT started by the Single key. With FFT in
Continuous mode (started by Start key), however, the running FFT is still
drawn, the new scaling being considered only in the next FFT.
Note:
If scale AUTO ONCE is selected, autoscaling is performed
when switching between LIN and LOG.
Spacing
LIN
Divides the Y-axis linearly.
LOG
Divides the Y-axis logarithmically. With logarithmic units (dB) selected,
LIN only can be selected.
Notes:
If Scale
AUTO ONCE is selected, autoscaling is performed
when switching between LIN
LOG.
Top
The menu item is displayed only with TRACE A/B SCALE MANUAL. The
item serves to set the upper value of the Y-axis (of the scale for the
measured values). Negative or 0 values are not permissible with
SPACING LOG and logarithmic (dB-) units.
Bottom
(With TRACE A/B SCALE MANUAL), the menu item serves to set the
lower value of the y-axis (of the scale for the measured values). The value
must be smaller than that of TOP. Negative or 0-values are not
permissible with SPACING LOG and logarithmic (dB) units.
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UPL
Notes on scaling the Y axis:
• A newly selected display unit is assigned to all values from top to bottom but other units may be
subsequently selected. Thus it is possible, for instance, to select a logarithmic scale (e.g. dBr) as a
unit and to enter absolute units for the top and bottom values (e.g. in Volt).
• Exception: If a reference trace is active, entering an absolute unit for the top and bottom values is
physically meaningless. For this reason no unit is offered in this case, the numeric values are
assigned the unit selected under "Unit".
• If a referenced unit is set for the top or bottom value, the trace is vertically shifted when the reference
value is changed.
Left
(With X AXIS SCALE MANUAL), the menu item sets the left value of the
X-axis (of the independent value). Negative or 0 values are not
permissible with SPACING LOG and logarithmic (dB) units.
Right
(With X AXIS SCALE MANUAL), the menu item sets the right value of the
X-axis (of the independent value). The value must be selected higher than
that for LEFT. Negative or 0-values are not permissible with SPACING
LOG and logarithmic (dB) units.
COMMENT
Allows the entry of a comment with a length of max. 27 characters, which
is output together with the curve in the case of OPERATION CURVE
PLOT.
X Pos
(X Position)
Defines the X-position of the comment. X is the relative distance to the 0point (bottom, left) in % (0 to 100) of the coordinate system.
Y Pos
(Y Position)
Defines the Y-position of the comment. Y is the relative distance to the 0point in % (0 to 100) of the coordinate system. 0-point is on the left side at
the bottom. The reference point for the text is the first letter (bottom, left).
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UPL
2.10.2
Trace and Spectrum Display
Trace and Spectrum Display (GRAPH panel)
Basically, two dependent values (TRACE A and TRACE B) can be displayed above an independent
value (X AXIS), the scales for TRACE A and TRACE B being displayed on the left-hand and right-hand
margin, respectively (unless the same scaling has been selected by way of TRACE B, SCALE B:
EQUAL A). The measurement functions selected for display are faded in on the upper margin in the
form of letters.
Overrange values are not displayed (the curve is interrupted). Underrange values are indicated in the
status line SWEEP INFO in the top, right corner. Measured values not fitting into the selected coordinate
system are displayed as horizontal line at the top or bottom.
With THD, MOD DIST and DFD measurements, the measured values can be displayed in the form of a
histogram above the frequency axis (with OPERATION SPECTRUM), the frequency axis being not true
to scale and invariable.
To allow any traces to be used as reference traces or to be displayed simultaneously for the purpose of
comparison, and measured by means of the movable cursors, all traces would have to have the same
X-values. However, any X divisions can be used on the UPL as the values of the traces and reference
traces are interpolated to the set X-axis. The interpolated values are displayed as traces or numerals.
The original X and Y values are displayed only if no sweep is selected (and thus no X-axis is set).
(Excepted are all limit traces; they are displayed using the original and not the interpolated values (see
2.10.7 Limit Check).)
There are two cursors marked by * and o, respectively. They can be moved across the display using the
rotary knob or the direction keys. The measured values below the cursor positions are displayed in three
windows (depending on the function set, also difference values). The cursor jumps from measured
value to measured value. If there are more measured values than can be displayed as points (e.g. with
FFT), the maximum out of the measured values displayed on one point is displayed. Here, the cursor
jumps from line to line.
Also, the cursor can be moved outside the coordinate system and indicate the appertaining values. In
this case, its symbol is placed in the top corners.
If no group of traces is selected (Scan count =1), the measurement currently being taken is indicated by
means of a gap moving along the trace. If several traces are displayed on the screen (Scan count >1),
the gap may no longer be visible; instead, the set sweep value is marked by an arrow on the X-axis.
The current scan (with one or two traces) is selected with the PAGE UP/PAGE DOWN keys on the
keyboard. The current value, i.e. the scan index, is indicated by a number between the out-of- tolerance
field and the left-hand cursor-value field. The point of intersection of the cursor with the current trace (or
pair of traces) is visually emphasized by means of a circle. It is thus possible to allocate the cursor
values indicated in the windows unambiguously to the current scan.
With LIMIT check switched on (see 2.10.7 Limit Check), the tolerance masks are displayed, too.
An extensive command menu on the softkeys allows you to scale, zoom the display, select the cursor
functions and to set markers on the single frequency lines or the harmonics of the FFT.
The cursor can be moved and the softkeys can be operated only after the GRAPHICS panel has been
selected using the front-panel key GRAPH or the key combination ALT-R.
The softkey menus have max. 3 levels. The extremely left key (labeled with ”BACK”) always returns to
the preceding menu level. Its designation is indicated above the BACK softkey and constitutes together
with the text displayed in center above the remaining 7 softkeys the heading of the current menu.
Some softkeys indicate ON or OFF states, where
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for ON.
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Trace and Spectrum Display
UPL
Fig. 2-39
The first two levels of the softkey menu tree are dealt with below. A third level, if any, is explained
subsequently.
switches the display of curves or lines on or off (toggle key). Display only
is affected. (With TRACE A/B in the DISPLAY panel OFF, nothing can be
displayed. Changing a function (using TRACE A/B in the DISPLAY panel)
switches A and B to ON.)
Rescales the X- and Y-axes using the present measured values of a
sweep or the FFT. If there are no measured values, the preset range
limits are used and scaled after the end of the sweep. The present display
including the axes are deleted and subsequently redrawn (see also
AUTOSCALE).
The left-hand trace-A axis only is rescaled, the trace A curve is redrawn.
The right-hand trace-B axis only is rescaled, the trace B curve is redrawn.
Is ignored with SCALE B set to EQUAL A.
The X-axis only is rescaled (not with SPECTRUM and Analyzer
FUNCTION THD, MOD DIST or DFD).
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UPL
Trace and Spectrum Display
Switches alternately the *-cursor or the o-cursor active. Only the active
cursor can be moved using the rotary knob or the direction keys and can
display the measured values. The softkeys pressed subsequently (HLINE,
SET TO and ON/OFF) refer to the active cursor. The inactive cursor is
displayed in short dashes.
The o-cursor is used for the ZOOM function and as reference for the
*-cursor and horizontal cursor. The *-cursor can be switched over to
horizontal line (not with SPECTRUM).
The subsequent softkeys serve to select the various cursor functions. The
units of the numerical values are determined by the axis scaling.
Display of the measured values of curves A and B at the cursor position
as well as the appertaining X-value.
Graphics
Labeling of display
field
Selected softkey
oCURSOR A,B
oA
oB
oX
*CURSOR A,B
*A
*B
*X
Display of the difference value between curves A and B at the position of
the cursor and of the X-value (useful only with identical physical
variables).
Graphics
Labeling of display
field
Selected softkey
oCURSOR A-B
oA-oB (unit of A !)
oX
*CURSOR A-B
*A-*B (unit of B !)
*X
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Trace and Spectrum Display
UPL
(With active *-cursor only). Display of the difference between the values at
the positions of the *- and o-cursor on curve A (or curve B) and the
difference between the X-values.
Graphics
Labeling of display
field
Selected softkey
*-o
*A-oA
*B-oB
*X-oX
(With active *-cursor and Operation Curve Plot only). Switchover of *cursor to horizontal cursor. The subsequent command level is described
further below.
Sets the active cursor to specific values. The subsequent softkey
command level is described further below.
Switches alternately the cursor on and off. A deactivated cursor is no
longer displayed.
Zooms the display in X-direction. The ZOOM function is not active with
histogram indication (OPERATION SPECTRUM and simultaneously
Analyzer FUNCTION THD, MODDIST or DFD).
Zooms the display on the X-axis by the factor 2 (repeated activation is
possible). The center used is the o-cursor which is then also placed in the
center. Changes the LEFT and RIGHT parameters of the X-axis in the
DISPLAY panel.
Compresses the display on the X-axis to half the size (can be activated
repeatedly). The o-cursor is the center, which afterwards is in the middle.
Changes the LEFT and RIGHT parameters of the X-axis in the DISPLAY
panel.
Sets the center of the X-axis of the new coordinate system to the value of
the o-cursor without zooming. Changes the LEFT and RIGHT parameters
of the X-axis in the DISPLAY panel.
The end values of the new (zoomed) X-axis are predefined by the Xvalues of the two cursors which will subsequently be placed on these
cursor values. Changes the LEFT and RIGHT parameters of the X-axis in
the DISPLAY panel. In order to obtain a scrolling effect, the cursors can
be shifted to X-values outside the displayed range; the values continue to
be displayed.
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Trace and Spectrum Display
Restores the original X-axis, defined by X AXIS LEFT and RIGHT.
UNZOOM is also performed internally when modifying and setting a
parameter which changes the X-axis. Restores the original LEFT and
RIGHT parameters of the X-axis in the DISPLAY panel.
Cancels the last ZOOM action (one-time).
(With FFT only). Switches the display of markers in the form of triangulars
above the marked measured value on trace A (or B) ON. The functions
are on the next softkey level and described below.
The functions of the third (and last) level of the softkey menu is referred to in the following:
(With Operation Curve Plot (not with FFT) only)
The *-cursor is switched over to horizontal line. Its Y-value and the Xvalues of its intersections with trace A (or B) are displayed, if available. If
there are several intersections, the extreme, right-hand and the extreme,
left-hand intersections are used. When changing its position via rotary
knob or direction keys the cursor jumps from measured value to
measured value, usually meeting exactly only 1 intersection (left or right).
The other (last) intersection is no longer valid and therefore marked by an
"i" in the display. With softkey B, the intersections with trace B are
displayed.
Graphics
Labeling of display
field
Selected softkey
HLINE A
*Y
*XAL
*XAR
HLINE B
*Y
*XBL
*XBR
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UPL
The *-cursor is switched over to horizontal line. The difference between its
Y-value and that of the o-cursor is displayed. The intersections with trace
A or, as the case may be, trace B are displayed (see above). Application:
e.g. simple measurement of the -3-dB points.
Graphics
Labeling of display
field
oA-*Y
*XAL
*XAR
oB-*Y
*XBL
*XBR
Selected softkey
HLINE A
HLINE B
With FFT only; sets the first marker (triangle marked by ”X”) to the
maximum value of trace A (or B).
With FFT only; sets the first marker to the value defined by the o-cursor.
Trace A (or B) is used.
With FFT only; deletes the first marker on trace A (or B) and the
harmonics.
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Trace and Spectrum Display
(Harmonics) with FFT only; sets or deletes alternately the markers 2 to 9
of the harmonics (frequency multiples) of the first marker. The values of
trace A (or B) are marked. With the first marker (triangle marked by ”X”)
being on the fundamental wave, k2 to k9, for example, are marked.
(Not with FFT). The active cursor is set to the minimum value of the
sweep (in the displayed section). It is also displayed as the cursor value.
The measured values of trace A (or trace B) are used.
(With FFT only). The active cursor is placed on the interpolated
maximum, which may be higher than the values displayed (see 2.6.5.12
FFT). This value is displayed as a cursor value, too.
The active cursor is placed on the maximum value of the sweep (in the
displayed section). It is also displayed as the cursor value. The Y-values
of trace A (or trace B) are used.
(With FFT only). The active cursor is placed on marker 1 of the FFT. Its
value is then displayed as a cursor value.
(With FFT only). The active cursor is placed on the next marker of the
FFT. Its value is then displayed as a cursor value.
(Set Reference)
Sets the reference value TRACE A REFERENCE in the DISPLAY panel
to the current value of the *-cursor. In this case, the cursor must not have
HLINE function. Effective only with relative scaling units and causes trace
A to be redrawn. Applies analogously to TRACE B, where SCALE B must
not be set to EQUAL A.
Sets the reference value TRACE A REFERENCE to the current value of
the o-cursor. In this case, the cursor must not have HLINE function.
Effective only with relative scaling units and causes trace A to be redrawn.
Applies analogously to TRACE B, where SCALE B must not be set to
EQUAL A.
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Parameters for the Display of Lists
2.10.3
UPL
Parameters for the Display of Lists
TRACE A
Used to select the measurement results that are to be collected during a
sweep as TRACE A (or TRACE B) and which are then displayed as a list
of numbers in the GRAPHICS panel (graphics window).
TRACE B
FUNC CH1
(Function channel 1)
The results of the current measurement of channel 1, which has been
selected in the ANALYZER panel by way of FUNCTION, are used.
Possible only when FUNCTION in the ANALYZER panel is not OFF.
FUNC CH2
As above, however of channel 2.
FREQ CH1
(Frequency Channel 1) Frequency meter channel 1. Possible only when
FREQ/PHASE in the ANALYZER panel is not set to OFF.
FREQ CH2
Frequency meter channel 2. Possible only when FREQ/PHASE in the
ANALYZER panel is set to FREQ.
PHASE
Phase meter between channel 1 and 2. Possible only when FREQ/
PHASE in the ANALYZER is set to FREQ&PHASE.
HOLD
Does not collect any new values but holds the old ones.
HOLD is only accepted as input if valid trace data or FFT data are
provided.
OFF
Switches the display in the form of a list off.
FILE
A sweep stored to file in the FILE panel (STORE TRACE/LIST) can be
recalled and displayed, e.g. for comparison purposes, using this option.
The subsequent menu line is required for this purpose.
Also see 2.10.1, Trace A/B FILE and DUAL FILE.
DUAL FILE
GROUP DELAY
The group delay calculated from the phase is used.
FILE NAME
(Displayed with TRACE A/B FILE only). Enter the name of the file with a
sweep or FFT to be displayed. If any error occurs during loading, ”NOT
FOUND” is output in this line.
UNIT
Determines the unit with which the results are to be displayed (see also
Section 2.4 Units). Recorded sweeps can be reprinted at any time using
any other unit.
When, after selection of a new function or a new instrument, the present
unit can no longer be used, the units set for the measurement in the
ANALYZER or GENERATOR panels are automatically adopted for the
new function.
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Parameters for the Display of Lists
REFERENCE
The reference value is required for the relative units and the limit curves.
MAX
The maximum value of the sweep is adopted once as reference value.
o CURSOR
The value the cursor is placed on is adopted once.
VALUE:
A numeric value with unit is entered.
Further settings see under 2.10.1 Reference ...
...
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Display of Lists
2.10.4
UPL
Display (GRAPH) of Lists
The results of an FFT or a sweep are output as numeric values using SPECTR LIST or SWEEP LIST.
TRACE A, TRACE B and X AXIS are displayed in 3 columns which are complemented by a fourth
column in which measurement results exceeding the UPPER or LOWER LIMIT curve are indicated by
way of arrows (triangles) pointing upward or downward. To this end, LIMIT CHECK must be activated in
the FILE panel. In full-screen graphics mode, the LIMITS, if active (LIMIT CHECK not OFF), are
indicated in additional two columns (interpolated in the case of intermediate values).
The symbol for the o-cursor is displayed in the left edge of the screen in the line with the value on which
the cursor is placed (also with trace presentation). After a new picture has been set up the cursor is
placed in the center and can be moved using the rotary knob or the direction keys. When the cursor
reaches the edge of the picture, the display is scrolled line for line. Any new sweep deletes an old line
replacing it by a new line.
As opposed to SWEEP OR SPECTR LIST, LIM REPORT displays only those measured values
exceeding the upper tolerance mask (LIMIT UP) or the lower tolerance mask (LIMIT LOW). LIMIT
CHECK must be activated in the FILE panel for this purpose. Any new sweep deletes the old display
completely and sets it up anew from top to bottom. If there are more lines than can be displayed on the
screen, the picture segment can be shifted using the rotary knob or the direction keys.
Fig. 2-40 Page/ up/down : scan select
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Parameters for BARGRAPH Display
2.10.5
Parameters for BARGRAPH Display
BARGRAPH1
Used to select the measurement results that are to be indicated as
bargraph.
BARGRAPH2
FUNC CH1
(Function channel 1)
The results of the current measurement of channel 1, which has been
selected in the ANALYZER panel by way of FUNCTION, are used.
Possible only when FUNCTION in the ANALYZER panel is not OFF.
FUNC CH2
As above, however of channel 2.
FREQ CH1
Frequency meter channel 1. Possible only when FREQ/PHASE in the
ANALYZER panel is not set to OFF.
FREQ CH2
Frequency meter channel 2. Possible only when FREQ/PHASE in the
ANALYZER panel is set to FREQ.
PHASE
Phase meter between channel 1 and 2. Possible only when FREQ/
PHASE in the ANALYZER is set to FREQ&PHASE.
OFF
Switches the display off
GROUP DELAY
The group delay calculated from the phase is used.
BARGRAPH X
UNIT
REFERENCE
Displays the x-value of the current sweep. If no sweep is active, the
display contains, if possible
the phase, if phase measurement is switched on
frequency of channel 1 or channel 2 or generator frequency (if selected
generator function allows for frequency input),
if frequency measurement is switched on
Determines the unit with which the results are to be displayed (see also
Section 2.4 Units).
The reference value is required for the relative units.
MAX
The maximum value is adopted once as reference value.
VALUE
A numeric value with unit is entered.
...
Refer to Section 2.10.1 Reference ... for further settings.
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Parameters for BARGRAPH Display
UPL
Scale
AUTO ONCE
Uses the minimum and maximum values for scaling (once) and rescales
after changing the function using FUNCTION in the ANALYZER panel or
TRACE A/B in the DISPLAY panel. The menu items LEFT and RIGHT
are no longer displayed because they have been set in doing so. For BAR
3, the sweep start/stop values are adopted from the GENERATOR or
ANALYZER panel.
MANUAL
Leaves the subsequent scaling to the user.
SPACING
LIN
Linear spacing of the display axis.
LOG
Logarithmic spacing of the display axis. With logarithmic units (dB)
selected in UNIT, LIN only can be selected.
LEFT/BOTTOM
(With SCALE MANUAL,) sets the bottom left value of the display.
Negative or 0-values are not permissible in combination with SPACING
LOG or logarithmic (dB) units.
RIGHT/TOP
(With SCALE MANUAL,) sets the top right value of the display. The value
must be higher than that of LEFT. Negative or 0-values are not
permissible in combination with SPACING LOG or logarithmic (dB) units.
Rescales the axes of BAR1 and BAR2 using the current maximum values
of the measurement and BAR3 using the sweep start/stop values.
If there are no measured values, the range limits are used.
Only BAR1 is rescaled (otherwise as ALL).
Only BAR2 is rescaled (otherwise as ALL).
Only BAR3 is rescaled (otherwise as ALL).
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2.10.6
BARGRAPH Display
BARGRAPH Display (GRAPHICS Panel)
BARGRAPH indication is used to display the current measured values in analog form as bars. Bargraph
display is suited for applications in which the relative magnitude or changes in magnitude are significant
and not the exact value. A maximum of 3 bargraphs can be displayed. Values exceeding the displayable
range are indicated by a triangular arrow on the left or right side.
The peak values measured in the monitoring interval (after Start) are marked by a pointer, identifiable by
the thin line, its left end marking the minimum value, the right end the maximum value. The pointer can
be reset using the Start key.
With limit check activated in the FILE panel (LIMIT not OFF), also the limit values (interpolated in the
case of intermediate values) are displayed in the form of brackets. When changing the independent axis
(e.g. the frequency with sweeps), the brackets are automatically set to the appropriate values. The
bargraph changes its colour when the limits are exceeded.
The minimum and maximum values during the monitoring interval are displayed as numeric values
above the bargraphs. In full-screen mode, the difference between maximum and minimum value is
indicated, too.
BARGRAPH3 represents the current X-value of the set sweep, the measured frequency or phase or the
generator frequency. The field remains empty when no sweep is started.
Fig. 2-41 Bargraph display
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Limit Check
2.10.7
UPL
Limit Check
The following commands are available under the heading LIMIT CHECK in the DISPLAY panel which is
called by pressing the DISPLAY key or the key combination Alt-D on the external keyboard.
A lower and an upper limit or, as the case may be, a limit curve can be defined for the measurement,
each measured value of a sweep or an FFT being compared with the limits. With trace display, they are
included in the coordinate system; with bargraph indication, they are marked by lines (varying in
position). With SWEEP LIST, lines containing measured values out-of-tolerance are marked by a
triangle. With LIM REPORT active, measured values violating the limits are indicated or stored. (See
also OPERATION command in the DISPLAY panel in Section 2.10 and STORE TRACE/LIST in the
FILE panel in Section 2.9.1.2.)
With CURVE PLOT, exceeding of limits is marked in the top, left edge by an arrow pointing downwards
(lower limit is violated) or by an arrow pointing upwards (upper limit or limit line is exceeded). A single
exceeded limit marks the whole sweep as out-of-tolerance. Unlike underrange values, overrange values
(measured with overdriving) are out-of-tolerance values.
When relative units are used, the limits are converted using the reference value in the DISPLAY panel.
Check
TRACE A
Determines which trace (or bargraph) is checked.
Either trace A (or BARGRAPH 1) or trace B (or BARGRAPH 2) can be
checked.
TRACE B
TRACE A + B
Both curves are checked together for a limit violation. As there is only one
tolerance band, this is only useful if the measured physical quantity is the
same. To ensure that this is the case, this selection item is only be
available when "Trace B EQUAL A" is selected. The reference value of
trace A is used.
Mode
LIM LOWER
The lower limit is checked.
LIM UPPER
The upper limit is checked.
LIM LOW&UP
The lower and upper limits are checked.
OFF
Limit check is OFF.
Lim Upper
Lim Lower
VALUE
OFF
Determines how the lower/upper limit value is defined.
A value with unit which is constant for all X values is entered for the
upper/lower limit. If a relative unit is entered, the appertaining reference
value is taken from the DISPLAY panel (TRACE A/B REFERENCE).
A lower/upper limit curve is defined below.
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UPL
Limit Check
Filename
This serves to load the file with the limit curve. If mode LIM LOWER or
LIM LOW&UP is switched on, the curve for the lower limit can be loaded,
which contains the extension .LLW to the file name. In mode UPPER or
LIM LOW&UP, this is the file with extension .LUP.
These files contain x-y pairs, with the y-value being a factor which is
multiplied with the set reference value (TRACE A (or B) REFERENCE
VALUE from the DISPLAY panel) to obtain an absolute value. By
changing the reference value, the tolerance band on the y-scale can be
offset. The following measurements are relative measurements, which is
why there is no reference value and only the units % and dB: THD,
THD+N, MOD DIST, DFD, WOW&FL.
The limit value must be entered in %, e.g. 5 for 5% for the upper limit
value, a lower limit (LIM LOWER) being not required.
Only a few sampling points are required. The intermediate values
necessary for tolerance monitoring of a sweep or an FFT are interpolated
at the start of a sweep. This requires an indication whether the axes for x
and y are linear or log, to ensure that correct values are calculated for
segments not running horizontally or vertically (slanted segments). These
lines become elliptical in the other division. If points are required before or
after the last sampling point, the last slopes of the interpolation are
continued.
In the case of full-screen mode, the interpolated limit values are indicated
for every measured value in the graphics window with OPERATION
SWEEP/SPECTR LIST or SWP/SPC LIM Report.
Note:
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The file format is described in the example data
R&S_EXAM.LLW and R&S_EXAM.LUP in the form of
comments. The parameters of the measured points are
arranged in blocks one after the other, i.e. first the y-values then
the x-values. In the files R&S_E212.LLW and R&S_E212.LUP
the parameters of the measured points are arranged in pairs,
i.e. y- and x-values in one line.
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PROTOCOL Analysis
2.10.8
UPL
PROTOCOL Analysis
When a digital analyzer is used, the audio data contents can be monitored and displayed as well as the
transmitted information analyzed. The latter is the channel status and user data, the meaning of which
depends on their application and protocol. Additionally, this protocol analysis includes display of other
(transmission) errors. To activate the protocol analysis, PROTOCOL measurement function must be
selected in the ANALYZER panel (see 2.6.5.15).
Screen display:
The screen (consisting of 16 lines of 50 characters each) is divided into two sections:
TOP:
Fixed protocol elements:
Validity:
shows the state of the validity bit in the respective channel. If the two
channels are equal, L=R is indicated in addition.
Parity errors: indicates the error status (yes/no).
Errors:
BOTTOM:
indicates the errors that have occurred:
LOCK:
PLL not locked
CONFIDEN: cannot be decoded (eye opening less than half a bit)
CODING:
coding error detected
NONE:
no error
These 13 lines can be matched to the currently used protocol with the aid of a
protocol control file.
Changing status bits are displayed and output in red.
Bits that have not changed since the latest output are displayed in green.
Comments (PRINT command) are displayed in yellow.
The colours for the protocol can be changed in the OPTIONS panel under TRACES COLOR/LINE (see
2.15.5.4 Graphics Display with Selectable Colours)
OPERATION
PROTOCOL
In what form the channel status or user data are displayed depends on
which protocol file (Proto File) is selected.
PROTO AUTO
The channel status data are visualized by automatic decoding of the
professional bits:
• If bit #0 is set (professional mode), the protocol file for the professional
mode R&S_AES3.PAC will be loaded. The remaining bits will be
decoded in the professional mode.
• If bit #0 is reset (professional mode), the protocol file for the consumer
mode R&S_CONS.PAC will be loaded. The remaining bits will be
decoded in the consumer mode.
Note:
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For the user data, the protocol file must always be explicitly
named, ie if display of the user data is selected ('Source USER
L' or 'USER R'), PROTO AUTO has the same effect as
PROTOCOL.
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PROTOCOL Analysis
Protocol Analysis: Channel Status Left
Validity: L=R
1=Y
Parity errors: ___________
Errors: NONE
Byte:
0:
= = = = = = = AES3 = = = == = =
Format:
professional
Mode:
Emph:
J.17
Source:
Rate:
not ind
1:
Chanmod: stereo
Usermod:
2:
Auxmod: 20 no
Length:
3-4:
Vector:
12
Grade:
enh. Rate 96 kHz
Scaling:
6-13: Origin:
UPL _
Destin:
14-21: Local:
01234567
Time:
22:
Reliabty: 0-5:1 6-13:0
14-17:0
23:
CRC L:
___________
CRC R:
Measured sample rate: 96000.2
linear PCM
unlocked
Text entered
by UPL
as
of
user-defined
here:
AES18
23/19 R:0
2
1/1.001
R&S _
12:45:00
18-21:0
___________
This example was generated with the protocol file R&S_aes3.pac.
Note:
Channel status data are decoded in the professional mode (and encoded in the GENERATOR
panel) according to the AES3 recommendation of 1 November 98, which has preliminary
status.
Source
Select the data to be displayed.
CHAN STAT L
Channel status data left are displayed.
CHAN STAT R
Channel status data right are displayed.
USER L
User data left are displayed.
USER R
User data right are displayed.
With CHAN STAT L or R, the following line is read out on the screen (for OPERATION PROTOCOL):
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PROTOCOL Analysis
Proto File
UPL
Proto File selects the interpretation file for channel status data.
Selection from: file name, preset type of file: *.pac
Upon entering a file name, one of the following actions is performed on
the channel status data:
•decoding in the consumer or professional mode (R&S_CONS.PAC or
R&S_AES3.PAC),
•displaying in binary code (R&S_BIN.PAC),
•displaying in hexadecimal code (4 bit grouped together to a hex figure
each) (R&S_HEX.PAC),
•displaying in ASCII mode ((R&S_ASC.PAC)).
Description:
The protocol information is displayed in two sections; the two
upper lines are displayed in a fixed format and contain information
on validity, parity, other errors and differences between the two
channels. The other lines are formatted using the specifications in
the file, the individual bits being assigned any output text you
desire. This file can be modified to suit any protocol you desire.
Example: see R&S_AES3.PAC
File format: same as with USER L or USER R, see below
Note: This line does not appear in OPERATION PROTO AUTO; the correct protocol file is loaded
instead.
With USER x, the following lines are displayed:
FORMAT
Format selects the interpretation mode.
BINARY
User data are represented in a 01010 sequence.
Representation is block aligned.
HEX
User data are represented as a hexadecimal, numerical sequence.
Representation is block aligned.
ASCII
User data are represented as text.
Representation is block aligned.
FILE
Interpretation, block aligned
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PROTOCOL Analysis
With FILE, the following line is displayed:
Proto File
Proto File selects the interpretation file for user data.
Selection from: file name, preset type of file: *.PAU
File format:
The protocol file has the following structure:
One line for each operation, followed by parameters which are
separated by commas. The parameters allow the representation
of any bits (1 to 32) from the selected data, the output position
being freely selectable. Each line must not contain more than 255
characters.
Operations:
PRINT:
Text output (independent of data)
Example:
PRINT 26, 5, "Usermod:"
(in column 26, line 5 the text ”Usermod:” is entered)
VALUE:
Output of values, either as hex number (default)
or as text provided that an assignment is present.
Example:
VALUE 17, 3, BIT:2-4, 0="not ind", 4="no empf",
6="50/15 "
(in column 17, line 3, the contents of the three bits
(2,3,4) are represented as hex (or text, in case the
value is 0, 4 or 6)
VALUE 17,11, CRC _ L _ ERR
(in column 17, line 11, the contents of the CRC left
frequency counter is represented)
Note as to the output width:
If there are text assignments, the longest text
determines the output width; In case there are no text
assignments, the number of bits to be represented
determines the output width.
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PROTOCOL Analysis
UPL
As a data source, the following specifications are permissible:
• 'BIT' followed by ':' and definition of the bits:
- a number from 0 to 191: single bit
- an interval (e.g. 4-9): combined sequence of bits, max. 32
bits permissible
• 'CRC_L_ERR': error indication of CRC_error left.
• 'CRC_R_ERR': error indication of CRC_error right.
• 'MEASURED_RATE': measured sample rate (represented as
a 5.1-digit floating number
(e.g. '48001.2')
BINARY: same as VALUE, however default output as bit pattern
TEXT:
Text output (in ASCII) using a number of letters determined by
the number of selected bits; each TEXT operation allows only
32 bits to be represented; for longer text outputs, several
subsequent text lines are to be used.
Example:
TEXT 17, 8, BIT:48-79
(in column 17, line 8, the contents of the 32 bits is represented
as text)
Characters that cannot be printed are replaced by '?' or, if '0', by
'.' .
TIME:
Time output (in the form of 12:45:56) of the selected number
divided by the specified rate. Number/rate are interpreted as
seconds since midnight.
Examples:
TIME 35, 9, BIT:144-175, RATE:48000.0
TIME 35, 9, BIT:144-175, RATE:SET _ RATE
(in column 35, line 9, the contents of the 32 bits are represented
as time (e.g. 12:34:45)
'RATE:' Should correspond to the sample rate, can be
specified as floating number.
As an alternative, the following specifications are also
possible:
MEASURED _ RATE: measured clock rate
SET _ RATE:
clock rate set in the panel
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2.10.9
Switching the Window Size
Switching between Full-screen and Part-screen Mode
Part-screen graphics mode offers the possibility of complementing the graphical representation with
another panel. The large measured value display on the upper screen edge is maintained, too. In fullscreen graphics mode, the graphics has been scaled up to occupy the complete screen. The only
differences between part-screen and full-screen mode are the two additional columns with the limits for
the output of lists (SWEEP/SPECTR LIST and SWP/SPC LIM REPORT) and the display of the
difference between minimum and maximum value with BARGRAPH, which are offered in full-screen
mode only.
After having selected the GRAPHICS panel using the GRAPH key (or key combination Alt-R), you can
(or key combination
choose between full-screen and part-screen mode using the front-panel key
Alt-Z) or by clicking the mouse (see also 2.3 General Instructions for Use and 2.3.1 Panels).
Fig. 2-42 Full-screen display
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Overview of Measurement and Sweeps
2.11
Starting and Stopping Measurements or Sweeps
2.11.1
Overview of Measurement and Sweep Systems
UPL
Basically, a differentiation is made between measurements and sweeps:
Measurements, in the narrower sense, are understood to be single or continuous measurements of
frequency, phase, input peak, or one of the measurement functions. The latter include S/N
measurements, which can be activated during the AC level measurement functions (RMS, peak and
quasi-peak), and in which the measurement is first performed with and then without a generator
signal and the two results are then referenced to each other. The FFT function, too, is handled as a
measurement, and so is the post-FFT function, which can be activated for some measurement
functions although the relevant frequency lines are represented graphically or in the form of tables
(similarly to sweeps).
Sweeps are test runs in which the individual measurements are triggered by predefined generator or
analyzer settings or by external events. Generator and analyzer sweeps are defined either by entering
the start and stop values, the spacing and the points/step or by means of a sweep list. With both
methods, a list of settings (along the X axis) is defined, which is executed after the sweep is started.
In the case of generator sweeps, the list may be two-dimensional, i.e. include two variable generator
parameters. This is referred to as Z sweep because the Z axis is swept in addition to the X axis.
External sweeps (adjustable in the ANALYZER panel under "Start Cond"), on the other hand, have no
fixed X axis. Instead, the X axis is defined by an external voltage or frequency or by a time tick. The
sweep system will be activated when a sweep is switched on.
Measurements and sweeps are controlled by means of control keys START (Ctrl F5), SINGLE (Ctrl F6)
and STOP/CONT (Ctrl F7), an by specific events referred to as abort events. The control keys and abort
events control the measurement system when the sweep system is inactive (no sweep switched on).
When the sweep system is active (generator, analyzer or external sweep switched on), the selected
sweep is controlled by the control keys and abort events, and the sweep in turn controls the
measurement system.
Abort event:
Definition:
Any event that renders a current measurement or sweep invalid. Occurs, if settings in the
GENERATOR, ANALYZER or FILTER panels and in the relevant sections of the STATUS panel, which
influence the measurement or sweep, have been modified.
Effects:
The current measurement or sweep is aborted and restarted.
A completed (single) measurement is restarted.
(Note: This is valid only for manual control, no restart is done under remote or automatic control.)
A completed (single) sweep is set "invalid" (upper right of status display).
A completed (single) sweep normally remains unaffected in order to make it possible for the user to
draw the single scans of a multiscan trace with changed UPL settings. Only if sweep settings are
changed by the "abort event" (e.g. changing of start/stop, number of sweep points) the sweep is set
"invalid" (status display upper right in display).
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UPL
2.11.2
Overview of Measurement and Sweep Systems
Switching Measurement Modes On and Off
UPL can measure up to six parameters simultaneously and display them numerically or graphically.
These parameters are:
Measurement functions of channels 1 and 2
Input peak or rms of channels 1 and 2
Frequency of channels 1 and 2, or frequency of channel 1 and phase difference between channels 1
and 2
Measurement modes can be switched off
directly by user entries (channel selection, switching off of "Input Disp", "Frequency" or "Function" in
the ANALYZER panel); this will be indicated by "OFF" in the window for the corresponding measured
value,
indirectly by selecting a test function, an analyzer instrument or an input that is not compatible with the
selected measurement mode (measurement modes selected in the ANALYZER panel but not
physically feasible, e.g. frequency measurement with the DC measurement function on, are marked
by "------" in the window for the corresponding measured value).
In the (single) measurement mode, all measurement functions that are switched on and active are
performed. A measurement is completed when all relevant results (including a settling period, if
applicable) are available. Only then can a sweep be stepped or a triggered result be fetched in the
remote control mode. This also means that the measurement speed of the UPL as a whole is
determined by the speed of the slowest measurement mode or function. To achieve maximum
measurement speed, it is recommended that only the measurement modes really needed be switched
on.
Note:
In analyzer 110 kHz channels 1 and 2 are measured sequentially by which the measured time
nearly doubles for 2 channel operation compared to 1 channel measurement.
The display of measured values can be switched off completely irrespective of the selected
measurement mode. In this case, the status displays, too, are switched off. Switch-off is effected by
selecting the "Meas Disp" menu item in the OPTIONS panel or by pressing the Ctrl D hotkey on the
external keyboard. Switch-off of the display results means a substantial reduction of measurement time.
This mode is useful, for example, if only the generation and representation of sweep traces and spectra
is of interest and not the output of individual measured values.
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Operating States of Measurement System
2.11.3
UPL
Operating States of Measurement System (No Sweep Active)
The operating states of the measurement system are displayed in the upper right corner of the
ANL WAIT FOR TRIG: The analyzer waits for the trigger condition set with START COND (cf. 2.6.4).
Status information separate for analyzer channel 1
2:
OFF:
channel switched off, no status information
SNGL:
CONT:
TERM:
STOP:
single measurement running
continuous measurement running
single measurement terminated
measurement interrupted
There are further messages indicating, for example, operating states relating to running measurements
(e.g. RANG) or to terminated measurements (e. g. OVER in case no valid result was obtained due to
OVERRANGE).
See section 2.3.4 for further details on these status displays.
Continuous measurement:
The system operates with continuous measurements as the default mode. The UPL is set to this mode
after switch-on. The UPL goes through all active measurement functions asynchronously until one of the
following events occurs:
SINGLE key is pressed: Switch over to single measurements is made. A measurement already
started will always be completed. When all measurements are completed, the system stops in the
TERMinated status. To reactivate the continuous measurement mode, press START or
STOP/CONT.
STOP/CONT key is pressed: The current measurement is stopped and the system is brought to the
STOP status. To reactivate the continuous measurement mode, press START key or press STOP/
CONT key again.
START key is pressed: The current measurement is aborted, the non-return pointers and the
min./max. values of the BARGRAPH as well as FFT averaging are reset, and the continuous
measurement is restarted.
Occurrence of an abort event (see 2.11.1): The current measurement is aborted and continuous
measurement is restarted.
Single measurement:
Each type of measurement is performed only once, then the system stops in the TERMinated status.
This status does not necessarily mean that a valid result was obtained. If an error occurs during a
measurement, the message "Input? Press Show-IO" appears in the window for the corresponding
measured value, and an NAN value (Not A Number, 9.97e37) is read via remote and automatic control.
A single measurement will be restarted, after completion of the previous measurement, by pressing the
SINGLE key or by the occurrence of an abort event.
Fig. 2-43
Status diagram of measurement system (no sweep active)
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UPL
2.11.4
Operating States of Sweep Systems
Overview of Sweep Modes
The UPL features a variety of sweep modes which are briefly described in the following:
Predefinable sweeps:
Generator sweeps
Time-synchronous sweeps (DWELL sweeps)
Sweeps synchronized with the analyzer (AUTO sweeps)
Manual sweeps (MANU sweeps)
Analyzer sweeps
Sweeps synchronized with the analyzer (AUTO sweeps)
External sweeps:
Time-tick sweeps
Time-chart sweeps
External frequency sweeps
External level sweeps
External level trigger
All of the above sweeps can be performed as single or as continuous sweeps. All predefinable sweeps
can be performed as parameter sweeps with a constant increment or as list sweeps.
All generator sweeps can be performed as one- or two-dimensional sweeps (X or Z sweeps) provided
that there is more than one sweepable parameter for the selected generator function.
External sweeps have no fixed X-axis. The X value for each measurement point is determined during
the sweep.
One-dimensional sweeps can be performed as single sweep or as group of traces, two-dimensional
sweeps can be performed as group of traces only. Single or group traces can be selected under menu
item "Scan count" in the DISPLAY panel:
With count = 1, only one trace is shown for every sweep; the old trace is successively erased as the
new trace is drawn.
With count >1, all traces recorded as from START are superimposed on top of each other. The last
17 traces are internally stored and can be rescaled if required.
With manual sweeps, the GRAPHICS panel will be activated automatically when a sweep is started.
After starting a sweep, each sweep point must be triggered separately by means of the rotary knob or
the cursor keys. Sweep stepping has priority over the current measurement being performed, i.e. the
generator will be set to the sweep point next selected even if the previous measurement is not yet
completed.
External level trigger can be regarded as an intermediate between a sweep and a measurement. On the
one hand, this function behaves like an external one-point level sweep, on the other hand, the measured
value is not stored in the trace buffers and therefore cannot be represented as a sweep curve or list.
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Overview of Sweep Modes
2.11.5
UPL
Switching Sweeps On and Off
The various sweep modes are selected directly in the associated panels of UPL:
Generator sweeps under SWEEP CTRL in the GENERATOR panel
Sweeps of the tracking filters of the RMS SEL function under SWEEP CTRL in the ANALYZER panel
External sweeps under START COND in the upper section of the ANALYZER panel
Before a sweep is switched on, it must be ensured that no other sweep is active.
If another sweep is active, an error message is output prompting the user to switch the sweep off that is
not needed.
After switching a sweep mode on, the measurement system will continue to perform continuous or
single measurement; only by starting the sweep will the sweep system take over and control the
measurement system.
When switch-off is made during a running sweep, the system will return to the continuous measurement
mode.
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Operating States of Sweep System
2.11.6
Operating States of Sweep System
The operating states of the sweep system are displayed in the upper right of screen:
SWP OFF
SWP INVALID
SWP
SWP
SWP
SWP
SWP
CONT RUNNING
SNGL RUNNING
MANU RUNNING
TERMINATED
STOPPED
sweep system switched off
sweep invalid due to changes of parameters or because sweep is not
yet started
continuous sweep running
single sweep running
manual sweep running
single sweep terminated
sweep was stopped, can be continued.
Continuous sweeps:
Continuous sweeps are started by pressing the START key. When the stop value of a sweep is attained,
restart is made from the start value. This is continued until one of the following events occurs:
In continuous sweeps with Scan count >1: when the number of sweep runs defined in "Scan count" is
completed, the sweep system goes to the SWP TERMINATED" status.
With Z sweeps, the number of Z-axis points is transferred to the DISPLAY panel as
Note:
the lower limit of "Scans".
SINGLE key is pressed: switchover to single sweep is made. The trace currently drawn is completed,
then the system goes to the "SWP TERMINATED" status. To reactivate the continuous sweep mode,
press START key. To activate the continuous measurement mode, press STOP/CONT key.
STOP/CONT key is pressed: the current sweep, and the system, are stopped ("SWP STOPPED
status). To reactivate the continuous sweep mode, press START key (sweep is restarted), or press
STOP/CONT key again (sweep is continued). To activate the continuous measurement mode, switch
the sweep mode off.
START key is pressed: the current sweep is aborted, the non-return pointers and the min./max.
values of the BARGRAPH as well as FFT averaging are reset, and the continuous sweep is
restarted.
Occurrence of an abort event (see 2.11.1): the current sweep is aborted and continuous sweep is
restarted.
The sweep mode is switched off: switchover is made to the continuous measurement mode.
Exceptions:
Level- or frequency-triggered external sweeps: trigger values that are closer to the start value by
more than the difference relative to the latest measured value are detected as a retrace and the
sweep is restarted.
Level-triggered external sweeps: the level must fall below the start value after each externally
triggered measurement for the level trigger to be ready for the next measurement.
All external sweeps: when the STOP/CONT key is pressed, the current sweep is terminated (SWP
TERMINATED status). Continuation of that sweep is not possible. (cf. 2.11.7 Operating Modes of
External Frequency and Level Sweeps and 2.6.4 Starting the Analyzer).
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Operating States of Sweep System
UPL
Fig. 2-44 State diagram of sweep system
Single sweeps:
Single sweeps are started by pressing the SINGLE key and are performed only once. When the stop
value (of the X axis) is attained, the system goes to the SWP TERMINATED status. With Z sweeps,
therefore, each new Z point (and the corresponding X-axis sweep) must be triggered separately.
A running single sweep is stopped or aborted by one of the following events:
SINGLE key is pressed: the current single sweep is aborted and then restarted.
STOP/CONT key is pressed: the current measurement and the sweep system are stopped (SWP
STOPPED status). To reactivate the single sweep, press SINGLE key (sweep is restarted), or press
STOP/CONT key again (sweep is continued).
START key is pressed: the current sweep is aborted, the non-return pointers and the min./max.
values of the BARGRAPH as well as FFT averaging are reset, and continuous sweep is started.
Occurrence of an abort event (see 2.11.1): the current single sweep is aborted and then restarted.
The sweep mode is switched off: switchover is made to the continuous measurement mode.
After termination of a single sweep, the following can happen:
SINGLE key is pressed: the single sweep is restarted.
STOP/CONT key is pressed: switchover is made to the continuous measurement mode.
To reactivate the single sweep, press SINGLE.
START key is pressed: the non-return pointers and the min./max. values of the BARGRAPH as well
as FFT averaging are reset, and continuous sweep is started.
Occurrence of an abort event: the sweep system goes to the SWP INVALID status.
The sweep mode is switched off: switchover is made to the continuous measurement mode.
Deviating from these general status transitions, there are the following special conditions for some
sweep modes:
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UPL
Operating States of Sweep System
Level- or frequency-triggered external sweeps: trigger values closer to the start value than the last
measured value are ignored. Trigger values beyond the stop value cause the current single sweep to
be terminated (resulting in SWP TERMINATED status).
Level-triggered external sweeps: a single sweep is considered terminated following the first externally
triggered measurement (resulting in SWP TERMINATED status). Pressing the SINGLE key makes
the level trigger ready for the next trigger event.
All external sweeps: when the STOP/CONT key is pressed, the current sweep is terminated (SWP
TERMINATED status). Continuation of that sweep is not possible.
Summary: key functions
Start continuous or manual sweep (only with active sweep system, see
2.5.5.2 Sweeps) and active measurements.
Digital analyzer: AES/EBU receivers are reset if a lock error has occurred.
Sweep system active:
Resets sweeps (peak-, average values and non-return pointers are reset
and graphical representation deleted) and starts sweeps; new state:
RUNNING
With manual sweep selected, any new sweep setting must be triggered
using the rotary knob.
While the sweep is running, any entries in the GENERATOR, ANALYZER
or FILTER panel or in the corresponding sections in the STATUS panel
cause the sweep to be aborted. Permissible keys (not changing the
state):
softkeys
rotary knob
Sweep system inactive (sweep state OFF):
Resets measurements (averaging, peak-, average values and non-return
pointers are reset) and (re)starts continuous measurement.
Sweep system active:
In the sweep states SNGL RUNNING, MANU RUNNING, STOPPED,
TERMINATED or INVALID:
Starts a single or manual sweep
In the sweep state CONT RUNNING:
Switches from continuous to single sweep
Sweep system inactive (sweep state OFF):
Key refers to single/continuous measurement:
Analyzer state SNGL RUNNING, STOPPED or TERMINATED: starts a
single measurement
Analyzer state CONT RUNNING: switches from continuous to single
measurement.
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Operating States of Sweep System
UPL
Sweep system active:
In the sweep state CONT RUNNING or SNGL RUNNING
Aborts the sweep; new state: STOPPED
Analyzer is switched to ”wait for trigger”.
In the sweep state STOPPED:
Continues the sweep without reset; new state: SNGL RUNNING or
CONT RUNNING
In the sweep state INVALID or TERMINATED:
Continuous measurement is started.
Sweep system inactive (sweep state OFF):
Key refers to single /continuous measurement
Analyzer state ...RUNNING: aborts the measurement immediately
Analyzer state STOPPED or TERMINATED: starts continuous
measurement.
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UPL
2.11.7
Operating Modes of External Frequency and Level Sweeps
Operating Modes of External Frequency and Level Sweeps
With external sweep, the analyzer has to decide independently, whether a new measured value is
applied, which is to be recorded and displayed. It is important that the x-axis is continuously rising or
falling. A reversal of the sweep direction must be interpreted as retrace or ignored. The question is:
when does a new sweep begin and what are "outliers" which can be ignored.
The following settings are of importance for an answer:
Start condition
Stop condition
Possibly settling
Starting the measurement using the START key
Terminating the measurement using the STOP key
• An external sweep which is started using the SINGLE key starts as soon as the start condition is
reached and terminates after the stop condition has been reached. TERMINATED is then displayed, i.e.,
the sweep is terminated. In order that the end of an external sweep will be recognized, the stop
condition must be set such that it can be recognized with certainty. For example, by a frequency sweep
up to 20 kHz, the stop condition must be set a little before 20 kHz, which means that the entire length of
the sweep cannot be acquired. With a single measurement, measured values are only plotted in
ascending order. Stray measurement values which would lead to a backward signal are ignored. In this
operating mode, it is recommended to set Scan count to 1 in the DISPLAY panel.
• An external sweep which is started using the START key starts as soon as the start condition is
reached and is not terminated automatically. Every discontinuity in the measurement sequence or the
reaching of the stop condition causes the actual sweep to be aborted. If the start condition is again
satisfied, the trace up to this point is completely deleted and a new sweep is plotted. In this operating
mode it is thus not allowed that an external sweep contains any stray measurement values which would
lead to a backward signal. If the stop condition is set such that it is never reached (e. g. to 25 kHz when
the sweep only goes up to 20 kHz), the external sweep is actually plotted up to the last measured point.
If several external sweeps should be measured in a quasi-continuous operating mode and displayed,
the display mode Scan count >1 must be selected in the DISPLAY panel. Each new sweep start then
increments the scan index, all sweeps are simultaneously displayed and can be evaluated.
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Fast Switch off of Outputs
2.11.8
UPL
Several Sweep Traces Displayed in a Diagram
To be able to compare different sweeps, it is useful to display them in a single diagram. This can be
done in different ways in the DISPLAY panel:
Note:
Unless specified otherwise, a generator frequency sweep without Z sweep is assumed for all
examples:
SWEEP CTRL
X axis
Z axis
AUTO SWEEP
FREQ
OFF
1. Two separate traces can be displayed with an identical or different Y axes. Each trace may contain
up to 17 single scan curves. Provided they contain dimensioned values, the traces may be
referenced to each other so that the deviation of each sweep point can be directly read (e.g. in dB).
TRACE A
FUNCT CH1
Unit
dBr
Reference
OTHER TRACE
TRACE B
FUNCT CH2
Unit
V
Reference
VALUE
Trace B is displayed in V, Trace A is referenced to Trace B and displayed in dBr.
2. A trace file containing the sweep trace or a trace group of a previous (reference) measurement can
be loaded into each of the two traces. Thus it is possible to compare
a currently measured sweep trace to a reference trace, or
TRACE A
TRACE B
Filename
FUNCT CH1
FILE
ref2trcb.trc
(contains 1 mono scan, for instance) )
two previously measured and stored sweep traces.
TRACE A
Filename
TRACE B
Filename
FILE
ref2trca.trc
FILE
ref2trcb.trc
(contains 1 mono scan, for instance)
(contains 1 mono scan, for instance)
3. Each trace can be referred to a reference trace. In this case the trace is displayed with the selected
relative unit. Two traces of this kind can be simultaneously displayed in one diagram.
TRACE A
FUNCT CH1
Reference
FILE
Filename
ref3trca.trc
(contains 1 mono scan, for instance)
TRACE B
FUNCT CH2
Reference
FILE
Filename
ref3trcb.trc
(contains 1 mono scan, for instance)
The SINGLE key starts a 2-channel sweep measurement
4. Within one trace, a group of up to 17 scans can be processed, i.e. rescaled and stored. Any number
of scans can be displayed; the number can be specified under Scan Count. Each scan can be
triggered using the SINGLE key. After each scan (TERMINATED is indicated as sweep status), the
user may not only change settings on the DUT but also any parameter on the UPL (except sweep
parameters). Thus it is possible, for instance, to record a scan in another measurement mode (THD
all even, THD all odd) or with another measurement function (THD, THD+N), provided the basic unit
of the measurement function is not changed. (It is not possible, for instance, to make up a trace with
scans of RMS measurements and THD measurements.) The measured curves can also be stored
as a single trace.
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UPL
Fast Switch-off of Outputs
Scan Count
3
FUNCTION
THD
ALL EVEN
Meas Mode
SINGLE key starts scan #1
Meas Mode
ALL ODD
SINGLE key starts scan #2
FUNCTION
THD+N/SINAD
Meas Mode
THD+N
SINGLE key starts scan #3
Notes:
If Scan Count > 17 is selected, only the last 17 of the recorded scans can be processed. Previous
scans are only visible on the screen and lost during rescaling or storing..
Pressing the START key clears all previously recorded or loaded scans.
To clear previous scans and to record a single one, press the START and then the SINGLE key
5. Using the SINGLE key, scans may be added to a multiscan trace or individual scans can be
replaced, provided a valid sweep is set. By loading a stored (reference) multiscan trace (dual traces
are also possible), a new sweep measurement can be added to the curves of a reference trace (and
stored).
Scan Count
10
TRACE A
DUAL FILE
Filename
ref5trc.trc
(contains 5 stereo scans, for instance)
TRACE A
FUNCT CH1
SINGLE key starts scan #6
Note: Pressing the START key clears all previously recorded or loaded scans.
6. Single scans can be loaded together with a measured or loaded multi- or single-scan trace provided
the X and Y axes are compatible.
Scan Count
TRACE A
Filename
Filename
Filename
Filename
Filename
Filename
10
DUAL FILE
ref5trc.trc
ref61trc.trc
ref62trc.trc
ref63trc.trc
ref64trc.trc
ref65trc.trc
(contains 5 stereo scans, for instance)
(contains 1 stereo scan, for instance)
(contains 1 stereo scan, for instance)
(contains 1 stereo scan, for instance)
(contains 1 stereo scan, for instance)
(contains 1 stereo scan, for instance)
This (stereo) multiscan made up to 10 stereo scans can be stored again under a new file name
(under STORE TRACE A+B in the FILE panel).
Note:
When combining a multiscan and several single scans, the multiscan must be loaded first.
Combining two or more multiscans is not possible.
7. Single scans can be loaded or recorded together with an existing Z sweep. For this purpose Z sweep
must be switched off in the GENERATOR panel after completion and Scan Count be increased by
the number of additional scans.
Z axis
POINTS
Scan Count
TRACE A
TRACE B
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VOLT
(in GENERATOR panel)
10
(in GENERATOR panel)
10
(display only)
FUNCT CH1
FUNCT CH2
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Fast Switch off of Outputs
UPL
The START key triggers the Z sweep. When the sweep is terminated:
Z axis
Scan Count
TRACE A
Filename
Filename
OFF
12
DUAL FILE
ref71trc.trc
ref72trc.trc
(in GENERATOR panel)
(contains 1 stereo scan)
(contains 1 stereo scan)
Note:
Only single scans (mono or stereo) can be recorded or loaded with a recorded or loaded multiscan.
8. When a setup stored as ACTUAL+DATA contains a complete sweep, the setup is loaded with all its
recorded sweep traces. The sweep can be continued with the SINGLE key provided a sufficiently
high Scan Count has been set.
Thus an ACTUAL+DATA reference setup can be created, for instance, to which the sweep trace of
the DUT can be added. This new trace group can of course be stored again as an ACTUAL+DATA
setup or as a multiscan trace file.
Note:
The START key clears all previous sweep traces.
2.12
Display of Selected Inputs / Outputs
Shows a picture of the UPL front panel; the active inputs and outputs are
marked by arrows.
The LC display shown indicates which inputs and outputs have been
selected on the UPL rear panel.
Pressing the key while the message ”Input? Press SHOW I/O” is being
output in (at least) one of the measured value displays causes the
messages on measurement errors, which may have occurred, to be
displayed, too (see Section 2.3.6 Error Messages).
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UPL
2.13
Fast Switch-off of Outputs
Fast Switch-off of Outputs
Switches off all outputs (incl. the clock lines of the digital interfaces).
To protect the analyzer input after overloading (input voltage into 300
and 600
higher than 25 V), the generator output is automatically
switched off and the OUTPUT OFF LED lights as if the OUTPUT OFF
had been pressed..
States:
The level of the digital outputs is set to 0 V; no clock.
Analog outputs are terminated (impedance is retained);
output level = 0 V.
Digital inputs supply no clock.
When switched off, the lines can be reactivated only by pressing the
OUTPUT OFF key again. After an overload of analyzer inputs,
measurements can be continued if the overload has been eliminated and
the input impedance switched to 200 k .
An LED indicates the state of the key. LED on signifies OUTPUT OFF.
Additionally the generator status display indicates "Output Off", so this
state is noticable in case of using an external monitor and no attention is
payed to the UPL .
2.14
Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents
Use the H COPY (hardcopy) key on the front panel to initiate printing, plotting or storing to file of the
screen contents displayed at the instant the key is pressed.
The following menu items are available in the OPTIONS panel under the heading SCREEN HARD
COPY.
Destin
PRINTR/SPC
(Destination) indicates where and in which format the printout should be
performed. The printout is triggered with the H COPY key (see below):
Graphics are output in the form of pixel data to a printer using its special
print format (abbreviation SPeCial). Printing is performed in the
background while the UPL is accomplishing other tasks.
Note:
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Printing is in progress in the background while the UPL is
performing further measurements. This output can be
accelerated by stopping the measured value output or the
sweep using the STOP/CONT key.
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Destin
UPL
(continued)
PLOTTR/HPGL
Control characters are output in HP-GL format, a language specifically
defined for plotters, yet also supported by some printers (see Destin =
PRINTR/HPLG below). HP-GL format offers the advantage of the
resolution being determined by the output unit instead of by the UPL
screen (slashes without disturbing stages). The size of the output is
defined by the configuration of e.g. the plotter as all vectors are plotted
relative to the configuration (see under P1, P2 ”point” and ”size/rotate” in
the plotter manual).
FILE/PCX
Screen hard copy to a file using PCX format.
The PCX format (pixel format) was defined by the ZSoft company for PC
Paintbrush and is accepted by most programs capable of loading
graphics (MS WINDOWS programs and others).
FILE/HPGL
Screen hard copy to a file using HP-GL format.
Apart from most plotters (eg R&S DOP 2), some laser printers and some
programs with graphics import capabilities also understand the HP-GL
format. It is vector-oriented and offers the advantage of the resolution
being determined by the output unit instead of by the UPL screen (slashes
without disturbing stages). In addition, the size of the output is defined by
the configuration of eg the plotter as all vectors are drawn relative to the
configuration (see also plotter manual).
Note:
If HPGL data are to be used as a drawing in other programs, the
result obtained is not always optimal. A few widespread
(Windows) programs ignore e.g. the text format instructions or
do not properly present the colour and the dashed lines.
Therefore, programs are available on the market for matching
and printing purposes.
PRINTR/HPGL
Screen hard copy to a printer using HP-GL format.
Control characters are output in HP-GL format, a language specifically
defined for plotters, yet also supported by some printers.
In most cases printers have to be enabled to interpret HPGL information
by a sequence. This prolog is provided in a prolog file with the name
GL_PRO.LOG. There is also a file with the name GL_EPI.LOG for the
epilog. These files are located in the UPL\REF directory and may be
changed by the user. For each character to be sent the files contain 1 - 3
(ASCII-) characters with following space interpreted as 1 Byte in decimal
notation. As example the files HPLJ3_P.LOG and HPLJ3_E.LOG are
delivered which initialize and reset the printer laserjet3 as desired.
All files mentioned can be found in the subdirectory \UPL\REF.
PRINTR/PS
Screen hard copy to a printer using PostScript format.
FILE/PS
Screen hard copy to a file using PostScript format.
FILE/EPS
Screen hard copy to a file using encapsulated PostScript format.
Colors and line styles for PostScript Outputs see 2.14.4.1 PostScript
Configuration File PS.CFG
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UPL
Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents
Copy
(With Destin PLOTTR/HPGL, FILE/HPGL, PRINTR/HPGL, PRINTR/PS,
SCREEN
The complete screen contents is output, including all labels and cursor
displays as well as the curves/bargraphs with scales. In part-screen
graphics mode, the display of the current measured values and a panel
are additionally included. The softkeys and operator guidance line are
masked out and replaced by date, time and R&S logo.
CURVE/GRID
The curves/bargraphs including the scales and scale labels are output,
however not the cursors and other labels.
CURVE
The curve(s) displayed on the screen are transmitted only, thus reducing
the time required for output.
FILE/PS and FILE/EPS only)
Note:
If the 3-panel display is selected, an UPL PostScript copy is not
prepared for CURVE/GRID and CURVE (empty space) as this
display does not contain a trace.
Default: SCREEN
Printname
drivername
(With Destin PRINTR/SPC only)
For most laser and ink-jet printers as well as for dot-matrix printers with 9
or 24 pins, a printer driver can be selected as described below which
converts the internal graphics (pixel-) format into control characters for
the connected printer with graphics capabilities.
To print out in colour, select the appropriate colour printer (colour).
Otherwise select the type (B/W). The R&S PDN printer corresponds to
the type Fujitsu DL 2000 series.
If the new printer drivers, version 2.11 and later are used, it is possible
that the size of figures printed out will be different than they previously
were. The size of the print-out can be set by selecting a different
resolution with the new command Prn Resol and the commands X
Scaling and Y Scaling. The size of the print-out can be read out in cm with
Prn Width and Prn Height. Because it is possible that a changed
resolution Prn Resol can change the background colour of the frame of
the GRAPH panel and of the measurement result display field such that
any text no longer stands out enough, the colour of the background can
be switched to white using the new command Frame Col.
Printer 0 (default printer) has a particular meaning. It represents the
printer which the user selected last. Loading a setting from file (SETUP)
does not overwrite the type selected by the user, if this printer 0 is set in
the setup.
Note:
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Printing is performed in the background while the UPL is already
carrying out further measurements. To speed up the output,
stop the measured value output or the sweep using the
STOP/CONT key.
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FrameCol
UPL
(Only with Destin = PRINTR/SPC, FILE/PCX, PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS,
FILE/EPS)
Selecting the background colour of a GRAPH panel frame and the
measurement result display for printing out the display contents or
copying them to a file.
WHITE
WHITE should be selected if a grey background is too dark for easy
reading.
FILE DEF
Colour defined in files.
Destin = PRINTR/SPC, FILE/PCX
Colour No. 2 (backgrnd frames) defined in files
UPL\REF\PRN_BW.PLT (BW printer) or \UPL\REF\PRN_CL.PLT
(colour printer) is used.
Destin = PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS, FILE/EPS
The colour information for the frames of the GRAPH panel is taken
from the PostScript configuration file \UPL\REF\PS.CFG, key word
"Background Frame Color" .
Default: WHITE
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UPL
Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents
Comment
(Only with Destin PRINTR/SPC, PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS, FILE/EPS)
Defines if a comment is to be printed together with the screen contents.
ON
Destin = PRINTR/SPC:
After pressing H COPY (CTRL F8), a selection box appears with the
following options: create comment, edit comment, and generate
screen hardcopy.
Destin = PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS, FILE/EPS
Pressing the HCOPY key causes a window to be opened, where text
can be entered or edited and a selection can be made whether the text
should be inserted as a headline (TITLE) above the UPL plot or as a
comment (SUPPLEMENT) below:
Hardcopy / Comment
Edit Comment
New Comment
Comment
As TITLE
As SUPPLEMENT
CANCEL
Choose with ENTER!
TITLE and SUPPLEMENT cannot be entered simultaneously.
Two text lines in Times New Roman Bold are reserved for the TITLE.
A variable number of text lines (5 to 28) in Times New Roman can be
entered as a SUPPLEMENT, depending on the orientation (PORTRAIT
|LANDSCAPE) and the selected number of plots per page
(Plots/Page). (See gray areas in the drawing under plots/page
further down).
OFF
After pressing H COPY, a screen hardcopy is generated without a
comment.
Default: ON
Left Mrgn
(Only with Destin PRINTR/SPC)
Margin of a hard copy
Specified range:
Note:
0 to 80 characters
Not all printers support the positioning of the graphics printout!
Default: 10
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Prn Resol
UPL
(Only with Destin PRINTR/SPC)
Whether a resolution can be set and which one depends on the printer
used. The resolution affects the size of the printing format. The actual
size of the printing format is shown in the lines Prn Width and Prn Height.
LOW
Low resolution
(e.g. 75 dpi)
MEDIUM
Medium resolution
(e.g. 150 dpi)
HIGH
High resolution
(e.g. 300 dpi)
Default: HIGH
X Scaling
Y Scaling
(Only with Destin PRINTR/SPC)
Each printer has a specific resolution in dots/inch of the X and Y axes
which, in conjunction with the screen resolution, may not always yield a
suitable print format. To obtain a well-balanced ratio for the X and Y axes
and to make optimum use of the available sheet area, some printers
require scaling of the X and Y axes (preferably in integer multiples), as
well as the assignment of a suitable print format (landscape or portrait).
Note:
When using non-integer multiples, pixels are suppressed or
printed several times, which may degrade the quality of the
hardcopy.
The actual size of the printing format is shown in the lines Prn Width and
Prn Height. For an orthomorphic projection, a width/height ratio of
640/435 = 1.47 must be set.
Specified range: 0.1 to 10 for X and Y axes
Orientatn
(Only with Destin PRINTR/ SPC, PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS and FILE/EPS)
LANDSCAPE
= Horizontal format
PORTRAIT
= Vertical format
Note:
PostScript printouts (up to 6 pictures/page) are automatically
placed
optimal with no regard to selected orientation; see
Plots/Page below!
Default: LANDSCAPE
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UPL
Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents
Color
ON
(Only with Destin PLOTTR/HPGL,
PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS and FILE/EPS)
FILE/HPGL,
PRINTR/HPGL,
Destin = FILE/HPGL:
Information is stored in colours in the file referred to as "Filename".
Destin = PLOTTR/HPGL, PRINTR/HPGL:
Relation of colors to color pens see 2.14.2 Output in HP-GL Format
Destin = PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS and FILE/EPS
Information, which scan or which line will be painted in which color, in
which line style and in which line width, is taken from file
C:\UPL\REF\PS.CFG (see 2.14.4.1 PostScript Configuration File
PS.CFG).
OFF
Destin = FILE/HPGL:
Information is stored in black-and-white mode in the file referred to as
"Filename".
Destin = PLOTTR/HPGL, PRINTR/HPGL:
Only one color pen is used.
Destin = PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS and FILE/EPS:
Curves, bargraphs and linegraphs in gray shades. Information, which
scan or which line will be painted in which shades of gray, in which
line style and in which line width, is taken from file
C:\UPL\REF\PS.CFG (see 2.14.4.1 PostScript Configuration File
PS.CFG).
Default: OFF
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Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents
Filename
UPL
(with destinations FILE/PCX, FILE/HPGL, FILE/PS and FILE/EPSonly)
Filename under which the PCX, HPGL or PostScript information is stored.
Destin = FILE/PCX
A PCX file with the extension *.PCX is created under the specified file
name.
Destin = FILE/HPGL
A HPGL file with the extension *.GL is created under the specified file
name.
Destin = FILE /PS:
A PostScript file with the extension *.PS is created under the specified
file name. This file can be sent in DOS (e.g. copy TEST.PS PRN:) to
a PostScript printer.
Destin = FILE /EPS:
An Encapsulated PostScript-File with the extension *.EPS is created
under the specified file name. It differs from a *.PS file only in the first
and second line (printed in bold in the example below):
Example:
%!PS-Adobe-3.0 EPSF-3.0
%%BoundingBox: 45 205 559 733
The BoundingBox contains information about dimensions and position
of the image in the PostScript default coordinate system in pixels (one
pixel = 1/72 inch = 0.35 mm) and informs the program executing the
image integration on the size and position of the plot.
Data 45 205 559 733 from the above example specify the
X and Y coordinates of the bottom left-hand and top right-hand corner
of the plot in the PostScript default coordinate system.
To avoid this name having to be entered in the OPTIONS panel every
time a printout is triggered, the user is queried on storing a file under the
name of an already existing file, whether
• this file should be overwritten as from now (without any further query),
• the file should not be stored (and therefore not overwritten),
• a new file name should be generated by an automatic increment of the
(end) number of the file name displayed in the OPTIONS panel.
Notes on automatic increment:
• If the name does not contain a number, one number is added (starting
with 1).
• If the filename contains at least one number, the numbers are
considered spacers and incremented as long as there is no filename
overflow (new filename contains more characters than the original
one).
• When the last possible number is exceeded, an error message is
output.
Examples for automatic increment:
SCREEN.PCX
SC1BW.PCX
SC06COL.PCX
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SCREEN1.PCX
SC2BW.PCX
SC07COL.PCX
2.380
...
...
...
SCREEN9.PCX
SC9BW.PCX
SC99COL.PCX
E-11
UPL
Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents
Plot on
(With Destin PLOTTR/HPGL, PRINTR/HPGL and PRINTR/PS only)
Select the interface for HP-GL output.
COM2
The printer is connected to the serial COM2 interface (RS-232). Data
transmission parameters for transmitter (UPL) and receiver (printer) must
be identical. The parameters are set in the UPL with the COM2
PARAMETER commands in the OPTIONS panel and on the printer
normally by means of slide switches.
LPT1
Some plotters and most of all printers can also be operated using the
(parallel) printer interface. This setting is required especially for laser
printers with HP-GL interpreter or PostScript printer.
IEC BUS
Some plotters and printers offer an IEEE-Bus interface. The bus address
of the plotter/printer is set with the subsequent menu line
'IEC Adr.'
Default: COM2
IEC Adr
(With Destin PLOTTR/HPGL or PRINTR/HPGL only, if 'Plot on = IEC Bus'
is selected)
IEEE-Bus address of plotter or printer connected.
Prn Width
(Only with Destin PRINTR/SPC, display function only)
Width of the printing format in cm.
An orthomorphic projection of the printing format results when the
width/height ratio is 640/435 = 1.47 (435 is the height of the printing
format in pixels without the softkey row).
Prn Height
(With Destin PRINTR/SPC, display function only)
Height of the printing format in cm.
Paper Size
(With Destin = PRINTR/PS, FILE/PS or FILE/EPS only)
Paper format
A4
LETTER
The UPL plots are optimally positioned for paper format A4 (21 cm * 29.6
cm) and made up of 600 * 845 pixels (one pixel = 1/72 inch = 0.35 mm) in
the PostScript default coordinate system.
The UPL plots are optimally positioned for paper format LETTER (21.6
cm * 27.9 cm) and made up of 617 * 797 pixels.
Default: A4
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Printing / Plotting / Storing the Screen Contents
Plots/Page
UPL
Number of UPL plots to be positioned on a PostScript page.
When two or more UPL plots (Plots/Page 2) are printed on a page, the
HCOPY key opens up a window where the page to be printed and the
positions of the UPL plots are displayed:
Collecting images to file
The requested number of images is not
yet reached.
How to proceed?
CONTINUE
FINISH
CANCEL
Filled-out box: the image has been already positioned
Hatched box: this image is being processed
Empty box: these images remain to be positioned
This window also allows the PostScript output to a printer or file to be
aborted. Already positioned images are retained.
Automatic positioning, depending on paper orientation:
Orientatn = PORTRAIT
1
2
3
4 5
6
Orientatn = LANDSCAPE
Specified range:
Default:
(CTRL F8)
1 to 6
1
If Comment OFF is selected, pressing H COPY triggers a hardcopy
without comments.
If Comment ON is selected, a dialog box opens after H COPY has been
pressed. It is then possible to create a new comment for the printout, to
edit an existing one or to actually trigger the hardcopy. In this box it can
also be decided whether the hardcopy should be printed
• with or without comment
• with or without form feed.
With form feed suppressed, several screen copies may be
printed on the same page.
While a print procedure is in progress, pressing H COPY opens a dialog
box where the printer output can be stopped or continued. A new screen
copy can only be started after the previous one has been either
terminated or aborted.
Note:
There are 4 kinds of outputs available; the user can determine the colour representation in different
ways:
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UPL
2.14.1
Screen Copy to Printer
Screen Copy to Printer (pixel-oriented)
If dialog or selection boxes are active on the screen, their content is printed too. Thus particularly error
messages or help texts can be printed.
Besides, an additional comment of max. 1500 characters can be entered via a dialog box and also
printed out. This comment is also stored as additional file under the same name but with the extension
".CTX" when a COMPL SETUP is stored and loaded, too, when this setup is loaded. The comment file
can be edited using a text editor.
Specify the type of device used for printout of the hard copy in the OPTIONS panel. Activate this panel
by pressing the OPTIONS key or key combination ALT-O on the external keyboard.
If display of the cursors and their associated values in the display fields is not desired, the pointers can
be switched off. Select OFF in the softkey menu under *-cursor and o-cursor.
Starting a screen copy:
Press the H COPY key (or CTRL-F8 on the external keyboard) if no printout is in progress. UPL
requires a few seconds to prepare the screen copy and then continues with the measurements while
printing is taking place in the background.
Different dialog boxes may be displayed when the hardcopy key is pressed:
• "Printer not ready" (error message):
The connected printer is not switched on, it is OFF-LINE or the printer is not connected at all. After
eliminating the fault, hardcopy can be restarted.
• "Hardcopy already in progress!":
A screen copy is being made. Prior to starting a hardcopy the previous procedure must be
terminated or interrupted.
• "Hardcopy / Comment".
A comment or form feed can be added to the screen copy. If this is not desired, the dialog box can
be blanked by selecting "Comment OFF" in the OPTIONS panel.
Speeding up a screen copy:
A hardcopy is in progress in the background while the UPL continues with the measurements. Copying
can be speeded up by stopping the result output or sweep with the STOP/CONT key.
The print command can be output via remote control using the HCOPy:WAIT command. In this case
printing is performed in the foreground and the time required for printing only depends on the speed and
the buffer size of the printer. The program is continued when the printing procedure is terminated. This
mode is recommended when several copies are to be made in succession as in this case it can be
ensured that a new copy is only started after the previous one has been completed.
Aborting a screen copy:
A stroke of the H COPY key during printing opens a dialog box with the aid of which the current copy
procedure can be stopped. Printing is stopped while the dialog box is displayed on the screen.
• If the procedure is aborted before the actual printout is started, i.e. during its preparation, the printer
output is not started.
• If the procedure is aborted while the printout is in progress, all characters sent to the printer before
the stop will be printed. The printout of these characters, which are already in the printer buffer, can
only be stopped at the printer itself, i.e. by switching the printer off.
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Screen Copy to Printer
UPL
Colour handling
Pixel-oriented data on printer via printer driver for ,e.g., a hard copy of screen
Colour printers use another colour system than the screen (additive colour system red, green, blue with
screen in contrast to subtractive colour system, e.g., cyan, magenta, yellow and black with printers).
Also, the print-out of a yellow curve on a black background on white paper leaves something to be
desired. Therefore, the colours are converted and can be adapted to user requirements. The desired
colour for each of the 16 possible colours is read from the file PRN_CL.PLT, which can be edited by the
user.
The only way to utilize shades of gray for differentiation purposes on black and white printers is to leave
out individual points. This process, which is called dithering, is controlled by the file PRN_BW.PLT. The
file contains cells of 8 x 4 points for each "gray" pen and can also be changed by the user to meet his
needs. The colour 10 (Trace B) is dithered only, if the printer resolution exceeds one printer point per
screen pixel.
Both files described above are located in the directory \UPL\REF and contain a description of their
contents in the form of comments.
The colour No. 2 is used for the background of the frames and is drawn light-gray on the screen. If the
black inscription does not contrast enough with this background, the latter can be set to WHITE using
the command FrameCol. The colour specified in the file is no longer used, as is the case with selection
of FILE DEF.
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UPL
Output in PCX Format
2.14.2
Output in HP-GL Format
Vector-oriented outputs in HP-GL format are usually output to plotters (Destin = PLOTTR/HPGL),
however some laser printers also support the HP-GL format (Destin = PRINTR/HPGL), e.g. for plotting
measurement traces. The output data can be filed, too (Destin = FILE/HPGL).
The colours for screen output and the assignment of the plotter pens can be looked up in the table
below:
Table 2-38
Colours of screen output and assignment of plotter pens
Function/ type
UPL-LCD
UPL colour monitor
Plotter pen
Recommended colour
Panel
black
black
1
black
Trace A
black
green
2
green
Trace B
grey
yellow
3
blue
Axes B
grey
yellow
3
blue
Scales
grey
red
4
light red (thin line)
Prior to output of the HPGL data and vectors an initialization sequence is transmitted to the drawing
device at the selected interface or to the file. With plotters, this sequence may be the information about
P1/P2 points (sheet or drawing size) or on the sheet format (portrait/ landscape). Printers usually require
an initialization sequence to be able to interpret HPGL information. If Destin = PRINTR/HPGL is
selected this sequence is loaded in a prologue file designated GL_PRO.LOG. There is also an epilogue
sequence, which is designated GL_EPI.LOG. These files are stored in the UPL/REF directory and can
be modified by the user as required. They contain, for each character to be sent, 1 to 3 (ASCII)
characters followed by a blank. This sequence is interpreted as 1 byte in decimal notation.
HPLJ3_P.LOG and HPLJ3_E.LOG are supplied as sample files for initialization and reset of Laserjet3
printer. All files referred to are included in the \UPL\REF directory.
2.14.3
Output in PCX Format
Outputs in PCX format to file for further processing in other programs (Destin = FILE/PCX).
The PCX file format contains a palette information. In this version used by UPL it consists of 16 entries,
which assign the 16 colour types one colour, each, by means of indicating the respective red, green and
blue portions. With black/white printout (Color OFF), only 16 black/gray/white hues are assigned. These
palettes are filed in the UPL\REF directories under the names PCX_BW.PLT and PCX_CO.PLT. They
can be edited by the user if other colours are required. The files contain comments indicating which pen
is used for which colour.
The colour No. 2 is used for the background of the frames and is drawn light-gray on the screen. If the
black inscription does not contrast enough with this background, the latter can be set to WHITE using
the command FrameCol. The colour specified in the file is no longer used, as is the case with selection
of FILE DEF.
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Output in PostScript Format
2.14.4
UPL
Output in PostScript Format
Outputs in vector orientated PostScript format on a PostScript capable printer (Destin = PRINTR/PS) or
on file for further processing (Destin = FILE/PS) or integration into other programs (Destin = FILE/EPS).
PostScript is a frequently used graphics format for use with high-quality terminals, e.g. laser printers.
The PostScript format implies a complete programming language with commands permitting a highquality graphics hardcopy to be made irrespective of the printer type, provided the printer is equipped
with a PostScript option.
Upon a stoke of the HCOPY key, UPL generates a plot of the screen content or of parts thereof with the
aid of suitable PostScript commands. These commands are sent to the PostScript printer either directly
or via the LPT1 or COM2 interface, or they are stored in a file (*.PS) which may be processed by users
familiar with PostScript and viewed on the screen of a PC with the aid of a previewer.
This procedure should be adopted in the development phase of the PostScript copy to save paper and
toner.
An Encapsulated PostScript file (*.EPS) can also be created. This file allows the UPL plots to be
integrated into another PostScript file, document or graphics representation (see section 2.14.4.2
Integrating and Output of PostScript Files).
Frequently used previewers are GhostScript, GhostView and GSview. They are available as free-ware
on the Internet under the address http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost/.
Up to 6 different UPL plots including head line or comments can be stored in a PostScript file according
to a fixed pattern, format A4 or LETTER, PORTRAIT or LANDSCAPE, colour or monochrome print and
the desired screen section being selectable.
PostScript settings are done in the OPTIONS panel:
Information about traces and lines to be printed and colour/shade of gray, line pattern and line width to
be used can be seen in the PostScript configuration file PS.CFG (see section 2.14.4.1 PostScript
Configuration File PS.CFG).
Overview of PostScript commands in the OPTIONS panel:
SCREEN HARD COPY ---Destin
PRINTR/PS
FILE /PS
FILE /EPS
Color
ON | OFF
Copy
SCREEN
Comment
ON
Paper Size A4
Orientatn LANDSCAPE
Plot on
COM2
Plots/Page 1...6
Filename
A:\UPL.PS
A:\UPL.EPS
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Output of PostScript format to printer
Output of PostScript format to file (*.PS)
Output of Encapsulated PostScript format to file (*.EPS)
|
|
|
|
|
CURVE/GRID | CURVE
OFF
LETTER
PORTRAIT
LPT1
For Destin PRINTR/PS only
For Destin FILE /PS only
For Destin FILE /EPS only
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UPL
2.14.4 1
Output in PostScript Format
PostScript Configuration File PS.CFG
The PostScript configuration file C:\UPL\REF\PS.CFG is a text file which contains all information about
colour, gray level, line width and line pattern for
• curves of TRACE A (Scan 1 to 17),
• curves of TRACE B (Scan 1 to 17),
• limit curves (upper, lower)
• Y grid (low, medium and high priority)
• X grid (low, medium and high priority)
With logarithmic scales the grid line priority
"high"
has the values ..., 0.1, 1, 10, ...,
"medium" the values ..., 0.5, 5, 50, ... and
"low"
is used for all other lines.
With linear scales the assigned grid line priority depends on the start and end value of the scale and is
therefore difficult to predict.
The file has to be edited with an ASCII editor in the DOS operating system.
Several comment lines in the header of file PS.CFG inform on permissible line patterns, colours, gray
shades and line widths.
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Output in PostScript Format
UPL
Example of a PostScript configuration file PS.CFG
# The following linestyle strings are available:
# ------ or ______, ------, ......, .-.-.#
# The following color strings are available:
# red, green, blue, yellow, magenta, cyan,
# black, gray9, gray8, gray7, gray6, gray5,
# gray4, gray3, gray2, gray1, white
#
# The following gray levels are available:
# 0.0 (black) ... 1.0 (white)
#
# The following width values are available:
# Values > 0.0
#
#
#
----------- Line --------#
Style
Color
Gray Width
TRAC A
Scan1:
______ red
0.1 1.0
Scan2:
------ green
0.2 1.0
Scan3:
...... blue
0.3 1.0
Scan4:
.-.-.- cyan
0.4 1.0
Scan5:
------ magenta 0.5 1.0
TRAC B
Scan1:
Scan2:
Scan3:
Scan4:
Scan5:
----------......
.-.-.------
LIMIT LINE
Upper:
......
Lower:
......
green
gray1
gray2
gray3
gray4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
yellow
yellow
0.4
0.4
2.5
2.5
GRID Y
Priority low:
......
Priority medium: ......
Priority high:
.-.-.-
blue
blue
blue
0.4
0.4
0.4
1.0
1.0
1.0
GRID X
Priority low:
......
Priority medium: ......
Priority high:
......
red
red
red
0.4
0.4
0.4
1.0
1.0
1.0
#
color
#
r g b
BACKGROUND COLOR
Frame: 0.7 0.7 0.7
Plane: 1.0 1.0 1.0
gray
0.7
1.0
The expressions printed in bold are keywords required by the UPL for the search of parameters under
Style, Color, Gray and Width. The parameters must be in the same line as the keyword and separated
by at least one blank. Only the lines required for creating the PostScript format must be available. Faulty
or missing entries are recognized when the file is accessed and in this case an error message is output
on the UPL screen.
The following can be selected:
Style: 4 line patterns
Color: 17 colours and shades of gray for a colour PostScript copy (Color = ON)
Gray: Any number of gray shades for a monochrome PostScript copy (Color = OFF)
Width: Any number of line widths
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UPL
2.14.4 2
Output in PostScript Format
Integrating and Output of PostScript Files
Integrating PostScript files in word processing and design programs
The EPS files created by the UPL are particularly suitable for integrating PostScript files in word
processing and design programs. Most of these programs cannot interpret the contents of an EPS file.
As a rule they show a frame with or without diagonal lines, or a light-gray rectangular with the name of
the EPS picture is displayed instead of the drawing. However, the EPS file is completely and correctly
printed out.
To get an idea of the picture content in word processing or design programs, a coarsely rastered bit
map can be inserted in the EPS file. The bit map can be evaluated and displayed by some user
programs without interpretation of the EPS file.
For this purpose a bit map has to be inserted into the EPS file generated in the UPL. The picture in the
EPS file is in the form of a hexdump. The free-ware program GSview mentioned before is particularly
suitable in this case.
Example:
After the start of GSview, the name of the EPS file into which the bit map should be integrated is
entered under File - Open. Under Bearbeiten - EPS Vorschau einfügen (Edit - Insert EPS preview)
a selection of graphics formats for creating the bit map is displayed, e.g. Windows Metafile.
Subsequently the name of the EPS file with bit map is specified.
An EPS file with a bit map thus generated can be integrated in Microsoft Word 6.0, for instance, where
the bit map is displayed in the Word document.
Example:
After starting the Windows program Microsoft Word 6.0, a window is opened with Einfügen Grafik (Insert - Graphics), where the file type Encapsulated Postscript (*.EPS) and the file name
of the EPS file to be inserted are selected.
The bit map is now displayed in the document. With File Print... the PostScript picture (not the bit
map) is printed with the highest possible resolution, provided the correct PostScript printer driver is
installed (see "Printout of PostScript files").
The Windows graphics program CorelDRAW 5.0 is able to directly interpret and display an EPS file of
the UPL:
Example:
File - Import - Aufzulistender Dateityp (file type listed) - PostScript (Interpreted) (*.eps, *.ps)
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Output in PostScript Format
UPL
Printing PostScript files:
If a PostScript printer is available, EPS files can be directly printed, e.g. with command "copy
SCREEN.EPS prn:" in DOS. Under Windows a printout at this low level is not possible. Here it is
advisable to integrate the EPS file as described in a word processing or design program, a graphics
program or in GSview with subsequent printout.
For printing EPS files that have been integrated in a word processing or design program, or *.PS or
*.EPS files loaded with GSview, an appropriate PostScript printer driver should be installed.
It is not sufficient to just connect a PostScript printer; a suitable PostScript printer driver should also be
available.
Without an adequate printer driver being installed, Windows does not know that a PostScript printer is
available and only an empty frame or, if a bit map is integrated in the EPS file, a coarsely rastered bit
map is printed.
To obtain a true PostScript hardcopy, a Postscript printer driver is indispensable, e.g. printer driver "HP
LaserJet 4/4M PostScript" for HP laser printer LaserJet 4 Plus.
Only in this case the original EPS file will be printed with the highest possible resolution.
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UPL
2.14.5
Output of Measurement Traces and Lists
Output of Measurement Traces and Lists
The following menu item is available in the OPTIONS panel under the heading PRINT.
The measured values and other block data are output to printer as numbers (in ASCII code) using this
key (immediately executed, the H COPY key need not be pressed).
Type
The first column contains the data selected in the following. The values
which would be on the X-axis with Curve Plot, usually the swept values,
are contained in the second column.
OFF
Function is off.
TRACE A
TRACE B
Prints the measured values selected for TRACE A (or TRACE B) in the
DISPLAY panel. Also, units (and reference values, if any) are taken over
from the DISPLAY panel.
EQUALIZATN
Prints the values of the equalization table.
LIM REPORT
Prints only values exceeding the limits. Limit check must be activated.
DWELL VALUE
Prints the values for the sweep dwell time.
LIM UPPER
Prints the upper limit curve.
LIM LOWER
Prints the lower limit curve.
X AXIS
Prints the values of the X-axis only.
Z AXIS
Prints the values of the Z-axis only.
TRACE A + B
Prints both traces next to one another. The X-axis is output in the 3rd
column.
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Selecting the Remote-Control Interface
2.15
UPL
Setting and Displaying Auxiliary Parameters
(OPTIONS Panel)
Activate the OPTIONS panel by pressing the OPTIONS key (UPL front panel) or key combination
ALT-O (external keyboard). The panel is displayed on the right side of the screen.
2.15.1
Selecting the Remote-Control Interface (IEC/IEEE Bus/COM2)
Remote via
Defining the interface for the R&S UPL remote control.
The selection only affects the talker/listener mode but not the controller
mode (e.g. via Automatic Sequence Controller R&S UPL-B10).
IEC BUS
Remote control via the built-in IEC/IEEE-bus interface.
COM2
Remote control via the built-in COM2 interface. Interface parameters are
defined further down in the COM2 PARAMETER menu.
Note:
UPL IEC adr
The R&S UPL uses 2 serial interfaces (9-pin). They may be
used by the instrument software, if required:
• COM1 is used to control the switcher (R&S UPZ).
• In addition to serial remote control, COM2 is also used for
plotter control.
If an interface is required for user-specific applications (e.g.
mouse), make sure to use the other unused interface. Make
also sure that the interface is not defined as switcher or remotecontrol or plotter interface by a device setting, not even for a
short period of time.
Defining the IEC/IEEE-bus address for the UPL to an IEC/IEEE bus.
Displayed only when "Remote via IEC BUS" has been selected.
Application: see 2.17 Connecting External Devices
Note:
The IEC/IEEE-bus address set or selected on UPL start-up
remains unchanged when a setup or a default setup is loaded.
Specified range 0 to 31
Default:
20
Unit :
none
COM2 PARAMETER
Defining the parameters for the serial COM2 interface. The parameters set here apply to remote
control and hardcopy printout on a plotter on which the COM2 interface is selected. The parameters
determined here have to comply with those of the connected instrument (host computer or plotter).
The following interface parameters are standard settings of the R&S UPL COM2 interface:
9600 baud, even parity, 7 data bits, 1 stop bit
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UPL
Selecting the Remote-Control Interface
These standard parameters are set upon R&S UPL switch-on when the BACKSPACE key is pressed
(loading the DEFAULT setup), UPL -d is entered at the DOS level or after (re)installation of a R&S UPL
software.
The COM2 parameters set upon R&S UPL start-up or selected by the user remain unchanged when
a setup or the default setup is loaded thus ensuring that interface parameters having to comply with
those of the connected instrument are not inadvertently overwritten.
9600 baud, even parity, 7 data bits, 1 stop bit
These standard parameters are set upon R&S UPL switch-on when the BACKSPACE key is pressed
(loading the DEFAULT setup), UPL -d is entered at the DOS level or after (re)installation of a R&S UPL
software.
The COM2 parameters set upon R&S UPL start-up or selected by the user remain unchanged when
a setup or the default setup is loaded thus ensuring that interface parameters having to comply with
those of the connected instrument are not inadvertently overwritten.
Note:
• Interface parameters should not be changed via the COM2 remote control.
• COM1 parameters - if not used by the Switcher R&S UPZ - can only be changed with the DOS
command MODE at the operating system level. This can be done:
- by changing the AUTOEXEC.BAT file (after quitting the R&S UPL via the SYSTEM key)
- after execution of the SHELL command in the automatic sequence controller (R&S UPL-B10)
• If the Switcher R&S UPZ is used, the COM1 interface will be reconfigured by the instrument
software..
Further information on baud rate, parity, data bits and stop bits can be obtained from the UPL online
help or the DOS help at the operating system level with command HELP MODE under section
"Configure Serial Port".
Baud Rate
2400 Baud
3600 Baud
4800 Baud
7200 Baud
9600 Baud
19200 Baud
38400 Baud
56000 Baud
115000 Baud
Transmission rate in baud (bits/sec).
Default setting: 9600 baud
Further information on baud rate, parity, data bits and stop bits can be
obtained from the R&S UPL online help or the DOS help at the operating
system level with command HELP MODE under section "Configure Serial
Port".
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Selecting the Remote-Control Interface
Parity
Parity check
NONE
Switching off the parity check
EVEN
Check for even parity (default setting)
ODD
Check for odd parity
Data Bits
Number of data bits
7
8
Stop Bits
1
2
Handshake
UPL
Default setting: 7
Number of stop bits
Default setting: 1
Type of synchronization
RTS/CTS
Handshake between UPL and controller via RTS and CTS lines (default
setting).
This is the simplest handshake procedure and probably the most used
one in practical applications. The intelligence for a proper communication
between controller and UPL is provided in the RS-232 interface ICs and
the driver programs so that the user need not prepare a respective
software.
Suitable RS232 connection cable for RTS/CTS handshake between
controller and UPL see 3.17 Remote Control via RS-232 Interface
XON/XOFF
Software handshake between UPL and controller. This procedures uses
the control characters XON and XOFF (ASCII character DC1 = 11 hex
and DC3 = 13 hex). If the UPL is temporarily unable to receive control
commands or data (trace data), it sends the XOFF code. When ready
again to receive, it sends the XON code. By providing an adequate
software the user has to ensure that the controller does not send data
when the UPL has signaled with XOFF that it is unable to process data. If
the UPL sends data to the controller (measurement results, trace data,
query responses) and the controller is temporarily unable to receive them,
it sends XOFF. The UPL stops data transmission which is continued only
after the controller has sent an XON.
Suitable RS232 connection cable for XON/XOFF handshake between
controller and UPL see 3.17 Remote Control via RS-232 Interface
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UPL
Selecting the Remote-Control Interface
2.15.2
Beeper On/Off
Beeper
2.15.3
ON
A brief audible warning is output in the case of error messages, when
specified ranges or limits are exceeded and at the end of sweeps.
OFF
Beeper switched off.
Keyboard Settings
The settings refer to both the UPL front panel and the external keyboard (if available).
Rep rate
(Repetition rate)
Number of generated key codes per second (unit: Hz) with repetitive
triggering.
Specified range:
Default:
Rep delay
0 (no repetitive triggering) to 50 Hz
10 Hz
(Repetition delay)
Time delay until repetitive triggering responds
(Unit: s).
Specified range:
Default:
2.15.4
0.25 to 1.0 s
0.5 s
Language of Help Texts
Language
Selecting the language used for online help. Key functions of the external
keyboard remain unchanged but they can be changed for instance via the
auxiliary program BOOTSET.BAT.
Note:
The selected language is not changed when a setup or default
setup is loaded.
ENGLISH
Help texts are displayed in English
GERMAN
Help texts are displayed in German
The external keyboard functions are assigned with the aid of various
AUTOEXEC.BAT files generated through copying with the auxiliary
program BOOTSET.BAT.
For UK, AUTOEX_E.BAT and for GR, AUTOEX_D.BAT is copied to
C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT. These files then call up the configuration file
C:\UPL\USERKEYB.BAT where the standard keyboard assignment can
be overwritten or further user-defined actions performed.
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Display Settings
2.15.5
Display Settings
Extern disp
(External Display)
INTERN ONLY
Display on the built-in LCD screen only.
Note:
With model UPL-66 this menu item is ignored and COLOR set
instead. Otherwise there would be a risk of (inadvertently)
selecting (eg by loading a setup with this setting) and switching
off the external monitor switched off. In this case UPL could only
be operated "blind".
BOTH COLOR
Additional display on the external VGA monitor (see 2.17 Connecting
External Devices); use a colour monitor for colour output. The display
has been optimized for colour display, thus leading to reduced contrast
quality on the built-in LCD screen.
BOTH AUTO
Additional display on the external VGA monitor (see 2.17 Connecting
External Devices); the display mode (colour or monochrome) is adapted
to the built-in LCD screen. Since the display has been optimized for the
built-in LCD, the contrast quality is not reduced.
BOTH BW
Additional display on the external VGA monitor (see 2.17 Connecting
External Devices), however only monochrome. The contrast quality on the
built-in monochrome LCD screen is not reduced in this mode.
2.15.5.1
Switching the Measurement Display ON/OFF
Meas Disp
Note:
UPL
(Measurement Display)
OFF
Measured value and status displays are switched off. This increases the
performance of the measurement routines. Sweeps are up to 15% faster.
To be recommended for sweeps and FFTs if maximum performance is
required. The status display reads the message
"MEAS DISPLAY OFF"
"Ctrl D to resume"
ON
The measured value displays are switched on, measured value and
status display are activated.
The MEAS DISP OFF/ON states can be switched via an external keyboard using the key
combination Ctrl D.
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UPL
Display Settings
2.15.5.2
Reading Rate of Measurement Results
Read Rate
Note:
MAX SPEED
Maximum output speed of measurement results
6/S
6 measurement results / second
3/S
3 measurement results / second
1/S
1 measurement result / second
The setting is only effective in the measurement mode Continuous. With sweeps, start
condition timechart and single triggered measurements, the measurement results are always
output at maximum speed.
The output speed over the IEC/IEEE bus is not influenced, and is always at a maximum.
2.15.5.3
Resolution of Measurement Results
Read Resol
CHOICE ...
2.15.5.4
A selection box appears after the SELECT key is pressed, in which the
resolution of the measured value in trailing decimal places can be
inputted for each measurement result window.
0:
automatic display of the trailing decimal places
1 to 4: 1 to 4 trailing decimal places, whereby the result may be filled out
with zeros
Graphics Display with Selectable Colours
When individual traces, trace groups (see section 2.9.3.3 Scan Count >1) and bars are displayed, a
specific colour or shade of gray can be assigned to each trace or bar for easy distinction. Colour or
shade of gray depends on the colour or monochrome representation selected under the menu item
Extrn Disp (see section 2.15.5 Display Settings).
In addition a line pattern and line width can be assigned to sweep traces and trace groups.
Settings for colour/shade of gray, line pattern, line width are made in the OPTIONS panel under
DISPLAY
TRACES COLOR/LINE
The settings for colour and line pattern for max. 17 scans in channel A and channel B are stored in the
self-explanatory text file C:\UPL\REF\TRCCOL.CFG.
In exceptional cases this file can be edited using an ASCII editor in the DOS operating system, on the
condition that positions and length (correct number of trailing blanks) of the text are not changed.
Note:
If the file has been destroyed by mistake, it can be newly created using commands
Scan conf = DEFAULT with a default setting.
All scans of TRACE A are green (uninterrupted, narrow line), and all scans of TRACE B yellow
(dotted, narrow line).
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Display Settings
UPL
The colour and line-pattern settings stored in this file are setup-independent and remain unchanged
when a setup or the default setup is loaded.
Trace groups:
For trace group display (see 2.9.3.3 Scan Count >1) a colour/shade of gray and a line pattern can be
assigned to max. 17 scans in channel A and channel B (DISPLAY panel: Scan count
2).
If more than 17 scans are displayed on the UPL, the 18th scan is assigned the colour and line pattern of
the 1st scan, etc.
Single sweep traces:
If only one sweep trace is displayed in channel 1 and channel 2
(DISPLAY panel: Scan count = 1), the colour/shade of gray and the line pattern specified under
Scannr.A = 1 and Scannr.B = 1 will be assigned. Settings for Scannr.A/B = 2...17 are
meaningless.
Display of FFT, waveform and filter simulation:
ANALYZER panel:
FUNCTION = FFT | WAVEFORM | FILTER SIM
For displaying the traces in channel 1 and channel 2 for the above-mentioned measurement functions
the colour/shade of gray specified under Scannr.A = 1 and Scannr.B = 1 is assigned. Assigning a
line pattern is not useful and not performed.
Settings for Scannr.A/B = 2...17 are meaningless.
Bargraph for DFD, THIRD OCT and MOD DIST measurement:
ANALYZER panel:
FUNCTION = DFD | THIRD OCT | MOD DIST
For a vertical bar display of channel 1 or channel 2 for these measurement functions, the colour/shade
of gray specified under Scannr.A = 1 and Scannr.B = 1 is assigned. Assigning a line pattern is not
useful and not performed.
Settings for Scannr.A/B = 2...17 are meaningless.
Bargraph display:
The horizontal bars for BarA, BarB and BarX are displayed in the colour/shade of gray specified under
Scannr.A = 1. If a limit violation occurs for one the bars (DISPLAY panel: LIMIT CHECK...) the
colour/shade of gray changes as specified under Scannr.B = 1 . Settings for Scannr.A/B =
2...17 are meaningless.
PROTOCOL panel:
Parameters are displayed in the colour/shade of gray specified under Scannr.A = 1, comments are
printed as specified under Scannr.B = 1. Variable parameters are always printed in red.
Result display:
The six measured values in the result display are represented in the colour/shade of gray specified
under Scannr.A = 1, if no display of trace groups has been selected (DISPLAY panel: Scan count
2).
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UPL
Display Settings
Scan conf
MANUAL
Colour/shade of gray and line pattern for each scan number entered with
commands Scannr.(A) and Scannr.(B) can be separately changed.
DEFAULT
Automatic assignment of colour and line pattern to 17 scans of Trace A
and Trace B. All scans of Trace A are green (uninterrupted), those of
Trace B yellow (dotted), thin lines.
AUTO COLOR
Automatic assignment of colours to 17 scans of Trace A and Trace B,
GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE, CYAN, MAGENTA and WHITE being
assigned repeatedly in exactly this order. BLACK, DARK GRAY and
LIGHT GRAY are assigned to the monochrome display.
Traces A and B are distinguished by the type of lines used,
trace A and ...... for trace B.
Note:
AUTO LINE
for
If WHITE proves to be unfavourable for a scan because the limit
lines are (normally) drawn in white, different colours can be
assigned to these scans using the following commands.
Automatic assignment of line patters to 17 scans of Trace A and Trace B,
with the 4 thin line patterns
, ------, ...... and .-.-.being assigned repeatedly in this order.
To distinguish the traces, trace A is shown in green and trace B in yellow
Scannr.(A)
Scannr.(B)
Scan number 1 to 17, to which a colour/shade of gray or a line pattern is
to be assigned using commands Color(A/B) and Line(A/B).
If the scan number 0 is entered, all 17 scans are assigned the same
colour/shade of gray and the same line pattern, when command
Color(A/B)
or
Line(A/B)
is entered.
Specified range:
Default:
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0 to 17
0
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Display Settings
Color (A)
Color (B)
UPL
Assignment of colour/shade of gray to individual scans
GREEN
YELLOW
BLUE
CYAN
MAGENTA
WHITE
Colour of scan number specified with command
Scannr.(A)
or
Scannr.(B),
if colour display is selected using command Extrn Disp = BOTH COLOR.
BLACK
DARK GRAY
LIGHT GRAY
Shades of gray specified with command
Scannr.(A)
or
Scannr.(B),
if monochrome display is selected using command Extrn Disp
Note:
Line (A)
Line (B)
If colour/shade of gray is selected while Scannr.(A/B) = 0, all
17 scans will be assigned the same colour. To avoid this being
done inadvertently, a query has to be confirmed before the
command is executed.
Line pattern for scan number specified with
or
Scannr.(A)
Scannr.(B).
Normal line width
-----......
.-.-.Triple line width
======
::::::
:=:=:=
Note:
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If line pattern is selected while Scannr.(A/B) = 0, all 17
scans will be assigned the same pattern. To avoid this being
done inadvertently, a query has to be confirmed before the
command is executed.
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UPL
Calibration
2.15.6
Calibration
Calibration ANL
Zero Auto
Dynamic offset calibration.
OFF
The DC offset calibration of the A/D converter or the analog board is
switched off. The calibration factors valid last are used.
Note:
Calibration should be switched off for short periods only (e.g.
for performing a sweep), as otherwise major measurement
errors may occur.
If autorange is used for the measurement, "Zero Auto
ONCE" should be called prior to switching calibration off to
make sure that all ranges that may be required are
calibrated.
ON
The DC offset of the A/D converter or the analog board are cyclically
calibrated for each voltage range. The length of the calibration intervals is
10 minutes at operating temperature; the intervals are shorter when the
R&S UPL warms up.
Notes:
A cyclic calibration is not performed while a sweep is
running; it is delayed until the sweep is terminated or
stopped. This does not apply to precision measurements
(Dynamic Mode PRECISION) since the measurement
accuracy has priority over the sweep speed.
A cyclic calibration is not performed while a single
measurement is running; it is delayed until the measurement
is terminated or stopped. Single measurements with very
long measurement times can thus be carried out without
having to switch the calibration off.
ONCE
An immediate offset calibration of the A/D converter or of the analog
board of all ranges takes place. The setting then returns to the menu item
previously selected.
Note:
Only the currently selected analyzer is calibrated.
Calibration GEN
Low Dist
Displayed only when the low-distortion generator is fitted.Permits
automatic calibration of low-distortion generator.
OFF
Calibration of low-distortion generator inactive.
ONCE
Automatic calibration of low-distortion generator. Then the setting
changes to OFF.
Allowed only after an operating time of at least one hour.
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Calibration
UPL
Calibration DIG
PhaseToRef
Displayed only with Jitter option UPL-B22 installed.
Permits automatic calibration of digital Phase To Ref measurement and
generation.
OFF
Calibration of digital Phase To Ref measurement inactive.
ONCE
Automatic calibration of digital Phase To Ref measurement. Then the
setting changes to OFF.
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UPL
2.15.7
Versionsanzeige und Service-Funktion
Version Display and Service Functions
The version numbers of software, analog and digital hardware and of options are displayed in the
OPTIONS panel. Released software options are marked by INST (installed). As these menu items
cannot be edited, they cannot be selected by the cursor.
VERSIONS
SOFTWARE --------------------------------------Software
<version number>
Setup
<version number>
CPU board
<processor type>
Anlg board
<version number>
Dig. board
<version number>
OPTIONS ------------------------------------------B1 Low Dist
< version number >
B4 Rem Ctrl
INST/-NAB2 DigAudio
<version number>
B29 Dig96
<version number>
U8 GSM DAI <version number>
B5 Speaker
<version number>
B21 DA Prot
INST/-NAB22 DA Jitt
INST/-NAB23 Coded
INST/-NAB10 SeqCtrl
INST/-NAB6 Coher
INST/-NAB33 ITU O33 INST/-NAB8 PhoneTst INST/-NAB9 3G Tests
INST/-NA-
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Version Display and Service Functions
UPL
Any software, hardware or option which is not installed is marked by the letters -NA- (Not Available).
Otherwise the version number is displayed for an installed hardware option or INST (installed) for a
released software option.
Software options are released by entering the instrument-specific installation key under the menu item
"InstallKey"; the installation key comes with a detailed description.
The service functions are also contained in the OPTIONS panel. They are given under menu item
DIAGNOSTIC, protected by a password and not accessible to the user.
Only one of hardware options B2, B29 and U8 can be installed.
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UPL
2.15.8
Transfer of Parameters
Transfer of Parameters (Parameter Link Function)
Param. Link
CHOICE...
"Parameter Link" offers the possibility of transferring generator and
analyzer settings to another signal or test function or to another
instrument. The corresponding selection box is opened by pressing the
SELECT key. The selected options are marked by a tick, see next page.
If a setting is made in UPL that enables the transfer of parameters in accordance with the options
selected (marked with a tick), the user is prompted to confirm the transfer:
If YES is entered, the parameter setting is transferred to the new signal function when the signal
function is changed. For the transfer, a corresponding command line must exist and the setting to be
transferred must be selectable for the old and the new function.
Example:
Parameter Link with switchover from
RMS measurement function to DC measurement function
Meas Time
Meas Time
AUTOFAST
AUTO
TRIGGERED
VALUE:
FIX 3 SEC
VALUE:
When switching from RMS to DC measurement mode, the setting VALUE: can be transferred.
Transfer of the settings AUTO FAST, AUTO and TRIGGERED is not possible as these are not
available for the DC measurement function.
Numerical values are transferred only if a corresponding command line exists and if the unit for a value
in question is available for the new function or instrument. Transferring values from an analog to a
digital instrument and vice versa is therefore not possible, nor is it useful. If the range of values of the
new function or instrument is limited so that it does not allow transfer of the value despite appropriate
unit, the value to be transferred is set to the upper or lower limit value of this range.
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Transfer of Parameters
UPL
Explanation of menu items of parameter link box
Changing Gen Function keeps
FUNCTION parameters
When the signal function is changed, the settings of the old function are transferred to the new
function.
Changing Gen Instrument keeps
Output Config.
When an instrument is changed, the configuration settings (those relating to the generator
outputs) are transferred to the new instrument. No settings will be transferred for changeovers
made between analog and digital instruments.
Changing Gen Instrument keeps
FUNCTION + Parameters
When an instrument is changed, the signal function and associated settings are transferred to
the new instrument provided the signal function and settings are permissible for the new
instrument.
Changing Anl Instrument keeps
FUNCTION parameters
When the measurement function is changed, the settings of the old function are transferred to
the new function.
Changing Anl Instrument keeps
Input Config.
When an instrument is changed, the configuration settings (settings relating to the analyzer
inputs) are transferred to the new instrument. No settings will be transferred for changeovers
made between analog and digital instruments.
Changing Anl Instrument keeps
START COND
When an instrument is changed, the START COND settings are transferred to the new
instrument.
Changing Anl Instrument keeps
INPUT DISP
When an instrument is changed, the INPUT DISP settings are transferred to the new
instrument.
Changing Anl Instrument keeps
FREQ/PHASE
When an instrument is changed, the FREQ/PHASE settings are transferred to the new
instrument provided that the function can be applied in the new instrument.
Changing Anl Instrument keeps
FUNCTION + Parameters
When an instrument is changed, the measurement functions and associated settings are
transferred to the new instrument provided the measurement function and settings are
permissible for the new instrument.
Function tracking Gen
Anl
MDIST, DFD, POL, FM
W&F
When the signal function of the generator is changed, the appropriate measurement function
for the analyzer is set.
If any signal functions, measurement functions or configuration settings cannot be transferred, a
warning will be output.
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UPL
2.15.9
Transfer of Parameters
Selecting the Sampling Mode
With option UPL-B29 (digital audio 96 kHz) only
If the new hardware option UPL-B29 is used, UPL can be operated in two different sampling modes to
be selected under DIGITAL AUDIO I/O in the OPTIONS panel or via hotkeys on the external keyboard.
The selection of the sampling mode influences the generator as well as the analyzer and is therefore
all performed in the OPTIONS panel.
Sample Mode
BASE RATE
Sampling mode
In the base rate mode (BRM), option UPL-B29 performs basically as
UPL-B2.
Clock frequencies up to 55 kHz can be generated and analyzed.
Maximum performance of UPL without reduction of functions.
Hotkey (external keyboard):
HIGH RATE
In the high rate mode (HRM), UPL can generate and analyze clock
frequencies up to 106 kHz. Some measurement functions in two-channel
operation are performed at lower speed. Analyzer functions are slightly
reduced:
• no RUB&BUZZ measurement
• THIRD OCT measurement only analog
• THIRD OCT, WAVEFORM, PEAK and QPEAK measurements only
without filter
• digital phase measurement not possible with all measurement
functions
Hotkey (external keyboard):
Note:
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ALT B
ALT H
In the HRM, the performance and the number of analog
measurements are also reduced. This mode should therefore
only be selected if the higher sampling rate is required for the
generator or analyzer.
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Makro-Operation
2.16
UPL
Macro-Operation
With the UPL, setting and measurement sequences can be written as BASIC programs or else
recorded via the built-in program generator (see 3.16.4.3 Logging Mode - UPL-B10). Option UPL-B10
(Automatic Sequence Control) is required to do this. The generated BASIC programs can be stored
(preferred file extension: .BAS) and called and used in various ways:
1. Call from BASIC user interface:
Once the BASIC user interface has been activated by pressing F3 (on the external keyboard) or
BACKSP (on the UPL keyboard), the program can be loaded with LOAD (softkey or F11) and then
started with RUN (softkey or F6). The program name needs to be typed during loading. After the
program has been quit, the UPL user interface is reactivated with F3 or the LOCAL key.
2. Automatic start of a BASIC program on switch-on:
The UPL can be configured to load and execute (once) a particular program at switch-on. After the
program has been quit, the UPL user interface is reactivated with F3 or the LOCAL key. The BASIC
program can be either of the following:
• the program INIT.BAS under C:\UPL\USER\, if the power-up mode has been set to 2 with the aid
of utility programs BASSET or UPLSET.
• any program whose name is entered with "-bn<filename>" as a call parameter when UPL is
started.
3. Call from UPL user interface:
Via the menu item "Exec Macro" on the OPTIONS panel, a BASIC file name can be selected with
the aid of the standard file box. In the file box, all files with the extension .BAS are listed as
standard. The selected BASIC program is loaded and started automatically. After the program has
been quit, the UPL user interface is automatically reactivated.
Advantages of this method:
• All BAS files (macros) available in the selected directory are displayed in the file box.
• Faster and more convenient file handling: the file can be selected directly from the UPL file box
and does not need to be typed (possibly plus path) after activating the BASIC user interface.
• As no file name needs to be typed, a macro of this type can also be started without an external
keyboard (which is required for typing text into a BASIC user interface).
4. Call from an external control program via IEC/IEEE-bus interface:
Any BASIC program can be loaded and started with the IEC/IEEE-bus command
SYST:PROG:EXEC. After the program has been quit, a 1->0 transition is generated in the RUN bit
(#14) of the operation register. This is communicated to the controller via SRQ or serial poll so that
it can fetch the measurement results. Data exchange between the external control program and the
BASIC program can be performed via the measurement-result displays and the measurementresult buffers.
Advantages of this method:
• Modular measurement tasks; the controller is not directly involved with how the measurement is
executed in UPL.
• Reduction of controller workload; once the macro has been started, the controller can handle
other tasks.
• The measurement algorithms implemented in the BASIC programs of UPL-B10 also be called
with a single keystroke in manual mode (see above).
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UPL
Exec Macro
Makro-Operation
The file bearing the name shown here is loaded and executed as a
BASIC file. It is essential this file was generated with the Rohde&Schwarz
BASIC, eg in the autocontrol option of either UPD or UPL (UPD-K1 or
UPL-B10).
Recommended file extension: .BAS
If the file cannot be opened or if it contains invalid BASIC lines, a BASIC
error message is issued.
For infor about entering file names, see 2.3.2.5
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Connecting External Devices
2.17
UPL
Connecting External Devices
Important:
It is recommended to use shielded cables for connection of external devices!
Otherwise spurious emissions may slightly increase, adversely affecting a very sensitive device under
test.
All connectors below are located on the UPL rear panel (see 2.1.2 Rear-panel View).
IEC/IEEE bus
Option: UPL-B4 (IEC-625/IEEE-488 interface)
Applications:
• Remote control of UPL from a host computer; select the address in the OPTIONS panel: "UPL
IECadr" (see 2.15.1 IEC/IEEE-bus Address).
• SCREEN HARD COPY on a plotter connected to the IEC/IEEE bus; settings in the OPTIONS panel:
"Destin
PLOTTER", "Plot on
IEC BUS", "IEC-Adr" (see 2.14 Printing / Plotting / Storing the
Screen Contents (OPTIONS Panel)).
For IEC/IEEE-bus operation, see 3 Remote Control
RS-232 (COM1, COM2)
2 serial interfaces
The serial interfaces COM1 ad COM2 have the following standard configuration:
transmission rate 9600 baud
even parity,
7 data bits,
1 stop bit,
none retry.
Use of COM1 (free for user-defined instruments):
• Connection of mouse or rollkey; permits alternative operation of panels and softkeys (see 1.1.7
Connecting a Mouse, 2.3 General Instructions for Use).
Use of COM COM2 (reserved for instrument software):
• Remote control of UPL from a host computer. For remote-control operation see 3 Remote Control.
• SCREEN HARD COPY on a plotter connected to COM2; settings in the OPTIONS panel: "Destin
PLOTTER", "Plot on
COM2" (see 2.14.1 Screen copy to printer (pixel-oriented)).
The interfaces can be reconfigured
• at operating system level using the DOS command MODE (changing to DOS with the SYSTEM key),
• automatically on power up of the UPL by making an appropriate entry into the AUTOEXEC.BAT file,
• when using the Universal Sequence Controller UPL-B10.
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UPL
Connecting External Devices
SYNTAX
mode comm [:] [b[,b[,d[,s[,r]]]]]
mode comm [:] [baud=b] [parity=p] [data=d] [stop=s] [retry=r]
Parameter
comm
Denotes the number of the pin for asynchronous data transmissions (COM). Valid values for m
are 1 or 2.
If one of the following five parameters is omitted, mode uses the last setting of the omitted
parameter. If the short form of the syntax is used (without the words baud =, parity =, data
etc.), the mode command identifies the parameters by their position. If no value is entered for a
particular parameter, the comma preceding the next parameter must be entered.
baud=b
Denotes the first two positions of the transmission rate in bits per second. The following list
contains the valid values for b and the corresponding transmission rates:
11
15
30
60
12
24
48
96
110 baud
150 baud
300 baud
600 baud
1200 baud
2400 baud
4800 baud
9600 baud
This parameter can be abbreviated by omitting baud = and entering a value for b.
parity =p
Determines how the parity bit is used by the system to check transmission errors. p may
assume one of the following values: n (none), e (even) or o (odd). The standard value is e. This
parameter can be abbreviated by simply omitting parity = and specifying a value p.
data =d
Denotes the number of data bits per character: Valid values for d are 7 or 8. The standard value
is 7 data bits. This parameter can be abbreviated by simply omitting data = and specifying a
value for d.
stop =s
Denotes the number of stop bits defining the end of a character: 1 or 2. If the transmission rate
110 has been set, 2 stop bits are used as standard. Otherwise, the standard value is 1. This
parameter can be abbreviated by simply omitting stop = and entering a value for s.
1078.2008.02
2.411
E-11
Connecting External Devices
UPL
retry =r
Determines what is to happen in the case of a time exceeded error if mode attempts to send an
output to a serial printer. The option causes a part of mode to remain resident in the working
memory. The following list contains the valid values for r and a short description of their
meaning.
e
Output an error following a status check of a busy pin
b
Indicate "busy" following a status check of a busy pin
p
Try until the interface accepts the output.
r
Indicate "ready" following a status check of a busy pin
n
Do not try again (standard). none can also be indicated for this value.
This parameter can be abbreviated by omitting retry = and specifying a value for r.
Serial interface:
Typical connections to external device with 9-pin connector (PC) using the acknowledge signal lines.
Fig. 2-44
9-pin serial interface
Typical connections to external device with 25-pin serial connector using the acknowledge signal lines.
UPD (9 pin)
(25 pin) ext.
CD
1
1
FG
RXD
2
2
TXD
TXD
3
3
RXD
DTR
4
4
RTS
SG
5
5
CTS
DSR
6
6
DSR
RTS
7
7
SG
8
8
CD
9
20
DTR
CTS
Fig. 2-45
1078.2008.02
25-pin serial interface
2.412
E-11
UPL
Connecting External Devices
25-pin serial interface without acknowledge signal lines
FG: Frame Ground,
TXD: Transmitted Data,
RXD: Received Data,
RTS: Request to Send,
CTS: Clear to Send,
DSR: Data Set Ready,
SG: Signal Ground,
CD: Carrier Detect,
DTR: Data Terminal Ready.
Fig. 2-46 25-pin serial interface without acknowledge signal lines
Note:
The connection cable between UPL (9-pin connector) and the external device (e.g. plotter)
should be configured as described in the instrument manual (of the plotter, for instance). The
UPL side can be connected up as in the case of connection of an ISA (IBM-PC)-compatible
computer.
Centronics
Parallel interface for connection of a printer (see 2.14.5 Output of Measurement Traces and Lists)
VGA (external VGA monitor)
CRT interface for connection of a (colour or monochrome) VGA monitor
Advantages:
• Larger screen size
• Colour trace representation possible even for an UPL with monochrome screen
Switchover to the external monitor in the OPTIONS panel using the menu item "Extrn disp
(see 2.15.5 Display Settings)
Note:
BOTH..."
When connecting an external monochrome VGA monitor, the file C:CONFIG.SYS must be
changed (for more detailed explanation see comment in this file).
1078.2008.02
2.413
E-11
UPL
Index
Index
3
-
30 dB Auto......................................................................2.175
32 kHz ..............................................................................2.73
32.0 (PLL).......................................................................2.156
3-panel display.........................................................2.29, 2.32
... +............................................................................ 2.242
#
CURSOR..................................................................... 2.336
4
4 kHz ..............................................................................2.136
42 Hz ..............................................................................2.136
44,1 kHz ...........................................................................2.73
44.1 (PLL).......................................................................2.156
48 kHz ..............................................................................2.73
48.0 (PLL).......................................................................2.156
*
* CURSOR ...........................................................2.334, 2.336
*CURSOR ............................................................2.329, 2.343
´
5
´Calibration
DC offset.................................................................. 2.401
5.1 ..................................................................................2.136
+
+1000 ppm ....................................................................... 2.86
9
997 Hz ............................................................................2.136
=
= SPEAKER................................................................... 2.265
A
0
A weighting .....................................................................2.209
A WITH * .......................................................................2.345
A WITH o ........................................................................2.345
Abort...............................................................................2.366
Abort event .......................................................... 2.360, 2.365
AC coupling ....................................................................2.148
AC coupling input unit .....................................................2.152
AC supply network..............................................................1.1
AC supply voltages .............................................................1.1
AC-3 ...............................................................................2.135
Activating
STATUS panel..........................................................2.295
Activation panels...............................................................2.31
ACTUAL .............................................................. 2.300, 2.301
Actual instrument setup ....................................... 2.300, 2.301
Actual setup......................................................... 2.300, 2.301
Actual setup and data .....................................................2.301
ACTUAL+DATA ..............................................................2.301
Address
IEC/IEEE bus ...............................................................3.4
Addressed commands ....................................................3.295
AES Ch1.........................................................................2.264
AES Ch1&2 ....................................................................2.264
AES Ch2.........................................................................2.264
AES/EBU protocol definition .............................................2.78
AES/EBU receivers
reset .........................................................................2.367
ALL .................................................................................2.350
0 dB ............................................................................... 2.175
1
1/12 OCTAVE ................................................................ 2.257
1/3 OCT FLT .................................................................. 2.292
1/3 OCTAVE ........................................................2.166, 2.253
1024 kHz.......................................................................... 2.72
12 dB Auto ..................................................................... 2.175
12th OCTAVE ................................................................. 2.257
15 kHz............................................................................ 2.136
1-k block......................................................................... 2.328
2
2 Sigma.......................................................................... 2.218
2/0.................................................................................. 2.136
2Sigma weighting ........................................................... 2.218
1078.2008.02
I.1
E-11
Index
UPL
All di ............................................................................... 2.201
All even di ...................................................................... 2.201
All odd di ........................................................................ 2.201
ALL ONE.......................................................................... 2.74
ALL ZERO........................................................................ 2.74
AM ................................................................................. 2.132
Ampl Var ............................................................... 2.89, 2.105
Amplitude
distribution ................................................................. 2.86
ratio (MOD DIST)
generator ........................................................... 2.111
Amplitude accuracy ........................................................ 2.227
Amplitude entry
FM ........................................................................... 2.132
Amplitude list (list sweep)............................................... 2.142
Amplitude modulation ..................................................... 2.132
Amplitude ratio (MOD DIST)
analyzer ................................................................... 2.213
Amplitude Variation .......................................................... 2.89
Analog
analyzer ................................................................... 2.147
Analog Ampl................................................................... 2.140
Analog Freq.................................................................... 2.140
Analog generator.............................................................. 2.66
Analog interfaces
Input connectors .......................................................... 2.9
Analog notch filter .....................................2.202, 2.206, 2.214
ANALOG OUT................................................................ 2.139
Analyzer
availability of functions ............................................. 2.145
configuration ............................................................ 2.147
Filters....................................................................... 2.280
input peak measurements ..............................2.145, 2.236
instruments .............................................................. 2.143
measurement functions ............................................ 2.166
measurement range limits ........................................ 2.144
reference value ..............................................2.170, 2.173
Settings...................................................................... 2.16
synchronization .......................................................... 2.94
ways of starting........................................................ 2.160
ANALYZER panel .......................................................... 2.143
Analyzers
reference values ...................................................... 2.173
ANLG - ANLG ................................................................ 2.299
ANLG – DIGI .................................................................. 2.299
ANLG 25 kHz ................................................................... 2.65
ANLR key................................................................ 2.3, 2.280
ANLR SYNC..................................................................... 2.94
ANLR TRACK ......................................................2.101, 2.118
Application ..................................................................... 2.299
application setups .......................................................... 2.299
ARBITRARY .................................................................... 2.85
ARBITRARY signals
measuring on ........................................................... 2.182
Arbitrary waveform ........................................................... 2.85
Arith. symm. bandwidth RMS sel.................................... 2.187
Arithmetic averaging, settling ................................ 2.42, 2.176
ASCII ...................................................................2.307, 2.356
ASCII format .................................................................. 2.307
Asterisk ............................................................................ 3.15
Asymmetrical sine burst ................................................... 2.85
AT o DOWN ................................................................... 2.342
AT o UP ......................................................................... 2.342
Atten .............................................................................. 2.287
Attenuation..................................................................... 2.286
Attrib .............................................................................. 2.302
Attribute.......................................................................... 2.302
AUD IN RCLK .................................................................. 2.74
Audio Bits.............................................................. 2.75, 2.158
AUDIO DATA ........................................................ 2.71, 2.154
AUDIO IN .............................................2.71, 2.72, 2.74, 2.157
AUDIO OUT ............................................................ 2.71, 2.74
1078.2008.02
AUTO . 2.158, 2.160, 2.175, 2.180, 2.186, 2.203, 2.208, 2.249
AUTO COLOR ................................................................2.399
AUTO FAST ............................................. 2.180, 2.186, 2.249
AUTO LINE.....................................................................2.399
AUTO LIST
Generator-Sweep .......................................................2.93
AUTO ONCE ....................................................... 2.337, 2.350
AUTO Range
Analyzer ...................................................................2.150
generator ....................................................................2.67
AUTO SCALE ........................................... 2.337, 2.340, 2.350
AUTO SCALE .................................................................2.337
AUTO SWEEP
analyzer....................................................................2.188
Generator ...................................................................2.93
Automatic
sweep.......................................................................2.188
sweep.........................................................................2.93
Automatic control, size of data memory ..........................3.356
Automatic range selection...............................................2.150
AUX GEN .......................................................................2.139
Availability
phase measurement .................................................2.241
sweep parameters ......................................................2.92
AVERAGE ......................................................................2.176
AVERAGE, settling ...........................................................2.42
Averaging
FFT...........................................................................2.224
measurement results ..................................................2.42
Averaging method in the FFT..........................................2.224
Avg Count............................................................ 2.224, 2.246
Avg Mode .......................................................................2.224
B
B WITH * ........................................................................2.345
B WITH o ........................................................................2.345
BACK softkey .................................................................2.339
BACKSP .............................................................................2.5
BAL
Generator .................................................................2.140
BAL XLR
analyzer......................................................... 2.149, 2.155
Generator ........................................................ 2.66, 2.140
Balanced Output ...............................................................2.69
Band limit
THD+N / SINAD .......................................................2.209
Band limits
analyzer instruments.................................................2.144
BAND PASS ...................................................................2.289
BAND STOP...................................................................2.289
Bandpass........................................................................2.185
center frequency.......................................................2.195
RMS sel....................................................................2.185
Bandpass........................................................................2.289
Bandstop ........................................................................2.289
bandwidth
third octave...............................................................2.253
twelfth octave ...........................................................2.257
Bandwidth
analyzer....................................................................2.187
RMS Select ..............................................................2.187
Bandwidth bandpass RMS sel. .......................................2.187
BAR 1 .............................................................................2.350
BAR 2 .............................................................................2.350
BAR 3 .............................................................................2.350
Bar chart
MOD DIST................................................................2.214
I.2
E-11
UPL
Index
BARGRAPH................................................................... 2.329
BARGRAPH display .............................................2.349, 2.351
BARGRAPH display parameters .................................... 2.349
BARGRAPH X................................................................ 2.349
BARGRAPH1 ................................................................. 2.349
BARGRAPH2 ................................................................. 2.349
BASIC-Macro ................................................................. 3.329
Battery replacement ........................................................... 4.8
baud............................................................................... 2.411
Baud Rate ...................................................................... 2.393
Beats
DC measurement ..................................................... 2.199
RMS measurement .................................................. 2.182
Beeper ........................................................................... 2.395
Beeper On/Off ................................................................ 2.395
BIN ENTRY............................................................. 2.81, 2.83
BINARY.......................................................................... 2.356
Binary block data............................................................ 3.364
Binary data blocks............................................................ 3.12
Binary form..................................................................... 2.307
BIOS-SETUP ..................................................................... 4.2
BIPHASE CLK ................................................................. 2.74
Biquads .......................................................................... 2.230
BLACKMAN-HARRIS...........................................2.223, 2.246
BLOCK......................................................2.183, 2.194, 2.251
Boards replacement ........................................................... 4.7
Boolean parameter (command) ........................................ 3.13
BOTH............................................................................. 2.154
BOTH AUTO .................................................................. 2.396
BOTH BW ...................................................................... 2.396
BOTH COLOR ............................................................... 2.396
Bottom............................................................................ 2.337
Bounding Box................................................................. 2.380
BP 1%............................................................................ 2.187
BP 1/12 OCT.................................................................. 2.187
BP 1/3 OCT.................................................................... 2.187
BP 3%............................................................................ 2.187
BP FAST ........................................................................ 2.187
BP FIX\: ......................................................................... 2.187
Broadband noise ............................................................ 2.200
BS 1%............................................................................ 2.187
BS 1/12 OCT.................................................................. 2.187
BS 1/3 OCT.................................................................... 2.187
BS 3%............................................................................ 2.187
BS FAST ........................................................................ 2.187
BS FIX\: ......................................................................... 2.187
BURST........................................................2.89, 2.105, 2.126
burst duration ................................... 2.90, 2.105, 2.123, 2.126
Burst duration SINE BURST........................................... 2.108
Burst on Del .........................................................2.108, 2.110
Burst signal SINE ........................................................... 2.106
CCIR unwtd ....................................................................2.209
CCIR wtd ........................................................................2.209
CCIT ARM ......................................................................2.209
CCITT 0.41 .....................................................................2.209
CEN TO o .......................................................................2.342
Center.............................................................................2.225
Center Freq.......................................................... 2.291, 2.292
Center frequency
bandpass RMS sel. ..................................................2.195
DFD..........................................................................2.115
notch filter.................................................................2.175
Center frequency ............................................................2.292
Centronics ......................................................................2.413
Ch Stat. L..........................................................................2.81
Ch. Stat. R ........................................................................2.83
Chan delay .......................................................... 2.221, 2.246
Chan Mode .....................................................................2.136
CHAN STAT L ................................................................2.355
CHAN STAT R................................................................2.355
CHAN STATUS ..............................................................2.158
Changing
an instrument..............................................................2.33
functions .....................................................................2.34
the panels................................................. 2.29, 2.30, 2.31
Changing a function
parameter link.............................................................2.34
Changing an instrument
parameter link.............................................................2.33
Changing between the instruments...................................2.34
Changing the unit at a later date .......................................2.35
Channel
sequence..................................................................2.354
Channel delay.................................................................2.221
Channel Mode ................................................................2.136
Channel status..................................................................2.86
Channel status data, user data, validity, parity..................2.78
Channel(s)
analyzer......................................................... 2.147, 2.154
generator ....................................................................2.66
Generator .................................................................2.140
Character
data (command)..........................................................3.13
string (command)........................................................3.14
Characteristic notch ........................................................2.175
Check .............................................................................2.352
CHECKSUM ERROR .........................................................4.5
CHOICE..........................................................................2.405
Clock rate generator ........................................................2.73
Clock rate error ...............................................................2.354
CMOS CHECKSUM ERROR..............................................4.5
Coded Audio ...................................................................2.134
CODED AUDIO ................................................................2.85
Coded Audio Signal Generation......................................2.134
COHERENCE.................................................................2.166
Coherence Measurement................................................2.245
Colon ................................................................................3.15
Color...................................................................... 2.27, 2.400
Color palette information .................................................2.296
Colour .............................................................................2.379
Colour display .................................................................2.396
Colour display PROTOCOL analysis ..............................2.354
Colour monitor ................................................................2.396
Colour monitor ................................................................2.396
COM2 .................................................................. 2.381, 2.392
COM2 interface...............................................................2.392
COM2 PARAMETER ......................................................2.392
Comma .............................................................................3.15
Command
addressed.................................................................3.295
Common ...................................................................3.295
common commands ...................................................3.39
header ..........................................................................3.7
C
C MESSAGE.................................................................. 2.209
Cable Sim ........................................................................ 2.72
Cable Simulation .............................................................. 2.72
calculation of filters......................................................... 2.293
Calculation of filters........................................................ 2.287
Calibration ...................................................................... 2.401
DIG .......................................................................... 2.402
Calibration ANL .............................................................. 2.401
Calibration GEN ............................................................. 2.401
Calibration of low-distortion generator ............................ 2.401
CANCEL ..................................................2.5, 2.13, 2.34, 2.35
Carr Freq........................................................................ 2.132
Carr Volt......................................................................... 2.132
Carrier frequency
FM ........................................................................... 2.132
CCIR 409-J standard W&F............................................. 2.218
1078.2008.02
I.3
E-11
Index
UPL
hierarchy ...................................................................... 3.7
keyword ....................................................................... 3.7
line
delimiter ................................................................. 3.9
structure................................................................. 3.9
numeric suffix............................................................... 3.8
parameters................................................................. 3.13
permissibility .............................................................. 3.19
processing ................................................................. 3.18
structure....................................................................... 3.7
synchronization .......................................................... 3.21
syntax elements ......................................................... 3.15
command line option
-tappl........................................................................ 2.298
command line parameter
-tthdnwin .................................................................. 2.211
COMMENT .................................................................... 2.338
Comments for hardcopy ................................................. 2.301
Comments on hardcopy ................................................. 2.300
Common
analyzer ................................................................... 2.150
Common Ampl................................................................ 2.141
Common commands ............................................. 3.39, 3.295
form ............................................................................. 3.7
Common Freq ................................................................ 2.141
COMMON MODE........................................................... 2.139
COMMON ONLY.............................................................. 2.71
Common parameters
all analyzer functions................................................ 2.167
all filters ................................................................... 2.287
all generator functions................................................ 2.87
generator signals ....................................................... 2.86
SINE, DFD, MOD DIST signals.................................. 2.86
COMMON/INP ............................................................... 2.154
Comp ............................................................................. 2.232
COMPLETE .........................................................2.300, 2.301
Complete setup ....................................................2.300, 2.301
COMPRESSED.............................................................. 2.232
Computer operation of UPL ............................................ 2.414
CONDition register ........................................................... 3.25
Conditional tracing of measured values.......................... 2.160
Configuration
analog analyzer........................................................ 2.147
analog generator ........................ 2.66, 2.140, 2.141, 2.142
digital analyzers ....................................................... 2.154
digital generator ......................................................... 2.71
Configuration File PS.CFG ............................................. 2.387
Connecting
external devices ....................................................... 2.410
external VGA monitor................................................. 2.11
CONT............................................................................. 2.360
CONT key ...................................................................... 2.162
Continuous measurement .............................................. 2.362
Continuous measurement without trigger condition ........ 2.160
Contrast ............................................................................. 1.3
Control file...................................................................... 2.323
Control panel
CONTROL ............................................................ 2.5, 2.7
CURSOR / VARIATION ............................................... 2.7
EDIT ............................................................................ 2.5
Front-panel................................................................... 2.3
conversion factor............................................................ 2.171
Conversion factor ........................................................... 2.271
Conversion formula of units.............................................. 2.57
Copy .............................................................................. 2.375
COPY............................................................................... 2.27
coupling
AC............................................................................ 2.179
DC ........................................................................... 2.179
Coupling
analyzer inputs ......................................................... 2.148
Crest Fact ...................................................................... 2.102
1078.2008.02
Crosstalk.........................................................................2.268
CRT monitor ...................................................................2.413
Ctrl D ..............................................................................2.396
Cursor
graphics......................................................... 2.339, 2.345
panel ..........................................................................2.31
Cursor IMAX A................................................................2.345
Cursor IMAX B................................................................2.345
CURVE ................................................................ 2.340, 2.375
Curve plot
cursor .......................................................................2.339
overrange .................................................................2.339
underrange ...............................................................2.339
CURVE PLOT.................................................................2.329
CURVE/GRID .................................................................2.375
D
d2 (IEC 118) ...................................................................2.216
d2 (IEC 268) ...................................................................2.216
d3 (IEC 118) ...................................................................2.216
d3 (IEC 268) ...................................................................2.216
Dangerous contact voltages................................................2.1
data ................................................................................2.411
Data Bits .........................................................................2.394
Data entry .........................................................................2.34
Data input or output during measurements .......................2.39
Data strings (command)....................................................3.14
DC ......................................................................... 2.85, 2.166
component..................................................................2.87
coupling ....................................................................2.144
measurement................................................. 2.166, 2.199
noise HP...................................................................2.209
offset ..........................................................................2.87
voltage......................................................................2.199
DC coupling ....................................................................2.148
DC coupling input unit.....................................................2.152
DC Offset......................................... 2.99, 2.101, 2.106, 2.109
.................................2.111, 2.114, 2.117, 2.125, 2.127, 2.128
DC Suppres .............................................. 2.179, 2.185, 2.221
DC Suppress ..................................................................2.167
Decimal point ....................................................................3.15
DEEM 50/15 ...................................................................2.209
Deemph 50 .....................................................................2.209
Deemph 75 .....................................................................2.209
Deemph J.17 ..................................................................2.209
DEFAULT ............................................................ 2.300, 2.399
Default setup ..................................................................2.300
DEFAULT.SET ...............................................................2.298
DEFINE PHASE .............................................................2.102
DEFINE VOLT ................................................................2.102
DEL BEF WR....................................................... 2.330, 2.332
Delay
filter ..........................................................................2.287
restart of measurement.............................................2.163
Delay value with external sweep.......................................2.50
Delete .............................................................................2.323
DELete BEFore WRite ....................................................2.332
Delimiter
command line ...............................................................3.9
response to query.......................................................3.11
Destin .................................................................. 2.373, 2.374
Deviation.........................................................................2.132
FM ............................................................................2.132
Deviation settling ............................................................2.177
DFD
analyzer....................................................................2.166
Generator ...................................................................2.85
I.4
E-11
UPL
Index
Dialog window
multisine................................................................... 2.103
DIFF FREQ .................................................................... 2.115
Difference frequency distortion.............................2.114, 2.215
measurement .................................................2.166, 2.215
Difference value curves.................................................. 2.341
Differences to IEC/IEEE-Bus Remote Control (B10) ...... 3.341
Differences to remote control via IEC/IEEE bus (RS-232)
....................................................................................... 3.364
DIG INP AMP.......................................................2.167, 2.236
DIG OUT AMP ............................................................... 2.171
DIGI – ANLG .................................................................. 2.299
DIGI – DIGI .................................................................... 2.299
DIGITAL ........................................................................... 2.65
Digital generator ............................................................... 2.71
DIN 45403 ...................................................................... 2.114
DIN 45507 standard W&F .............................................. 2.218
DIN/IEC.......................................................................... 2.218
DIN-IEC 268-3................................................................ 2.114
Directories........................................................................ 2.37
Directory structure.............................................................. 1.9
Display .................................................................... 2.7, 2.329
DISPLAY key ..................................................................... 2.3
Display modes
Switchover using the mouse ...................................... 2.29
Display of lists ................................................................ 2.346
Display of lists parameters ............................................. 2.346
Display of traces and spectra ......................................... 2.339
Display of traces and spectra ......................................... 2.332
Distant interferences suppression .................................. 2.223
Distortion measurement ................................................. 2.166
Distortion measurement THD+N/SINAD......................... 2.204
Distortion measurements THD ....................................... 2.200
Distribution
function ...................................................................... 2.86
noise ........................................................................ 2.122
Dither .................. 2.85, 2.86, 2.99, 2.101, 2.111, 2.114, 2.128
Domain........................................................................... 2.117
DOS operating system ..................................................... 2.53
Double cross .................................................................... 3.15
Drive ................................................................................ 2.38
drivername ..................................................................... 2.375
DTS................................................................................ 2.135
DUAL FILE...........................................................2.333, 2.346
DUAL FILE...........................................................2.304, 2.332
Dual trac......................................................................... 2.304
Dwell ..................................................................... 2.94, 2.391
file .............................................................................. 2.94
time............................................................................ 2.94
value .......................................................................... 2.94
DWELL FILE .................................................................... 2.94
Dwell time ...................................................................... 2.306
Dwell time printout.......................................................... 2.391
DWELL VALUE ..................................................... 2.94, 2.306
Dyn Mode............................ 2.202, 2.206, 2.207, 2.214, 2.216
Dynamic ....................................................2.202, 2.206, 2.216
Dynamic Mode ............................................................... 2.214
ENTER .............................................................................2.34
Entering a new file name ..................................................2.37
Entering file names ..................................................2.36, 2.37
Entry of amplitude
RANDOM (noise)......................................................2.125
SINE.........................................................................2.142
Entry of data .....................................................................2.34
Entry of figures .................................................................2.31
Entry of values
brief introduction .........................................................2.14
Epilog for HPGL..............................................................2.296
EQUAL A ........................................................................2.334
EQUAL L ..........................................................................2.83
EQUAL VOLT .................................................................2.102
Equal. file................................ 2.88, 2.99, 2.102, 2.106, 2.114
...................................................... 2.120, 2.130, 2.212, 2.226
Equalization ....................................................................2.306
Equalization ....................................................................2.391
Equalization data ............................................................2.304
Equalization file...............................................................2.306
equalization of analyzer signal ............................. 2.211, 2.226
equalization of generator signals.......................................2.88
EQUALIZATN .................................................................2.391
EQUALIZATN .................................................................2.306
Equalizer................................. 2.88, 2.99, 2.102, 2.106, 2.114
...................................................... 2.120, 2.130, 2.211, 2.226
equalizer file, generation ...................................... 2.212, 2.226
Equalizer file, generator ....................................................2.88
Equalizer table printout ...................................................2.391
Equivalent............................................................ 2.122, 2.126
Error messages .......................................................2.51, 2.53
DFD measurement ...................................................2.215
during program run .....................................................2.53
Fatal ...........................................................................2.54
MOD DIST measurement .........................................2.213
THD+N/SINAD measurement ...................................2.204
Error Messages
IEC/IEEE bus ...........................................................3.296
Error messages during measurement ...............................2.53
Error queue.......................................................................3.35
ESE (event status enable register) ...................................3.29
ESR (event status register)...............................................3.29
EVENt register..................................................................3.26
Examples of application
external sweep with settling process ..........................2.48
quantising noise measurement .................................2.176
Settling by arithmetic averaging..................................2.42
Exec macro.....................................................................2.409
Explanations of Front- and Rearpanel Views ......................2.3
EXPONENTIAL........................................... 2.42, 2.176, 2.224
EXPORT.........................................................................2.307
Extension of file names...................................................2.296
Extern disp......................................................................2.396
External
sweep.......................................................................2.160
external clock....................................................................2.73
External Keyboard ..............................................................2.3
E
F
EDG TRG CH1............................................................... 2.162
EDG TRG CH2............................................................... 2.162
Editing files and directories ............................................ 2.323
EMC problems ............................................................... 2.155
ENABle register................................................................ 3.26
ENHANCED ..................................................................... 2.79
ENTER..............................................................2.5, 2.16, 2.35
ENTER............................................................................. 2.13
Factor .................................................................. 2.193, 2.250
FALLING.........................................................................2.233
FAST ............................................. 2.194, 2.207, 2.239, 2.251
analyzer................................... 2.202, 2.206, 2.214, 2.216
FAST DECAY .................................................................2.255
Fast Fourier Transformation............................................2.221
Fast frequency response measurement ..........................2.273
Fatal error
1078.2008.02
I.5
E-11
Index
UPL
with error message..................................................... 2.53
without error message................................................ 2.54
FDAS ............................................................................. 2.294
FFT ................................................ 2.101, 2.166, 2.221, 2.280
amplitude accuracy .................................................. 2.227
frequency measurement........................................... 2.227
implementation......................................................... 2.228
POST FFT ............................................................... 2.173
Resolution................................................................ 2.174
Round noise............................................................. 2.227
Size................................................................2.174, 2.210
undersampling ......................................................... 2.227
Window .................................................................... 2.174
FFT .................................................................................. 2.15
FFT Size ...................................................2.219, 2.222, 2.246
File
short form................................................................. 2.286
FILE ...................... 2.3, 2.81, 2.83, 2.333, 2.334, 2.346, 2.356
FILE + AES3 ........................................................... 2.81, 2.83
FILE + CRC............................................................. 2.81, 2.83
File attributes ................................................................. 2.302
FILE DEF .............................................................. 2.84, 2.376
File extensions ............................................................... 2.296
File extensions ............................................................... 2.323
FILE INTERN ................................................................. 2.335
FILE NAME .................................................................... 2.346
FILE panel...................................................................... 2.296
File selection .................................................................... 2.37
FILE/EPS ....................................................................... 2.374
FILE/HPGL..................................................................... 2.374
FILE/PCX ....................................................................... 2.374
FILE/PS ......................................................................... 2.374
File-defined filter............................................................. 2.294
Filename ................................... 2.82, 2.83, 2.84, 2.125, 2.191
............................................ 2.303, 2.308, 2.333, 2.353, 2.380
Filename .......................................................................... 2.36
FILENAME RMS-sel. sweep .......................................... 2.192
Filter.................................... 2.183, 2.195, 2.198, 2.209, 2.222
............................................ 2.230, 2.233, 2.252, 2.255, 2.259
....................................................... 2.280, 2.288, 2.289, 2.291
attenuation ............................................................... 2.286
parameters............................................................... 2.293
FILTER.................................................................2.173, 2.292
FILTER key ........................................................................ 2.3
Filter simulation .............................................................. 2.230
FILTER SIMULATION. ................................................... 2.166
First steps (readout of measurement results) ................. 3.340
First steps (readout of measurement results) (RS-232) .. 3.358
FIX 1000 MS .................................................................. 2.198
FIX 200 MS ..........................................................2.198, 2.199
FIX 3 SEC ...................................................................... 2.198
FIX 50 MS ...................................................................... 2.198
FIX Range
Analyzer ................................................................... 2.150
generator ................................................................... 2.67
FIX\: ............................................................................... 2.192
FLAT ..................................................................... 2.42, 2.176
FLAT TOP...................................................................... 2.246
FLAT_TOP..................................................................... 2.223
FLOAT ........................................................................... 2.150
Floating inputs................................................................ 2.152
Floating reference values ............................................... 2.270
FM.................................................................................. 2.132
FNCT Ch1 ...................................................................... 2.264
FNCT Ch1&2.................................................................. 2.264
FNCT Ch2 ...................................................................... 2.264
Fnct Settl........................................ 2.176, 2.183, 2.195, 2.198
................................. 2.199, 2.203, 2.209, 2.214, 2.216, 2.219
FOREVER...................................................................... 2.255
Format.......................................................2.135, 2.307, 2.356
Format Pha .................................................................... 2.242
FrameCol ....................................................................... 2.376
1078.2008.02
FREQ .................................................................... 2.95, 2.117
Freq Ch1.........................................................................2.129
FREQ CH1 ..........................2.161, 2.192, 2.332, 2.346, 2.349
FREQ Ch1&2..................................................................2.128
Freq Ch2.........................................................................2.129
FREQ CH2 ..........................2.161, 2.192, 2.332, 2.346, 2.349
FREQ FILE ............................................................ 2.97, 2.142
Freq Mode ......................................................................2.128
FREQ MODE ....................................................... 2.192, 2.250
FREQ MODE RMS sel. Sweep.......................................2.192
Freq No (i) ......................................................................2.103
Freq Settl ....................................... 2.176, 2.240, 2.243, 2.244
FREQ&PHASE ...............................................................2.128
Frequency.................2.106, 2.109, 2.129, 2.136, 2.140, 2.141
difference..................................................................2.115
generator ....................................................................2.99
Offset........................................................................2.111
results.........................................................................2.59
units............................................................................2.59
FREQUENCY .................................................................2.137
Frequency and phase measurement...............................2.238
Frequency entry
SINE................................................... 2.129, 2.140, 2.141
Frequency input
SINE...........................................................................2.99
frequency measurement
fast ...........................................................................2.179
Frequency measurement ................................................2.238
Frequency measurement time.........................................2.239
Frequency measurement with FFT .................................2.227
Frequency modulation ....................................................2.132
Frequency response measurement
fast ...........................................................................2.273
Frequency response measurement...................................2.15
Frequency shift keying ......................................................2.85
Frequency Sweep RMS sel. ...........................................2.188
Frequency units
reference value..................................................2.67, 2.75
Frequency, Phase and Group Delay ...............................2.241
Frequenzeingabe
SINE.........................................................................2.129
Front-panel .........................................................................2.3
FRQ FST CH1 ................................................................2.161
FRQ FST CH2 ................................................................2.161
Frq lim Low .....................................................................2.256
Frq Lim Low ....................................................................2.259
Frq lim Upp .....................................................................2.256
Frq Lim Upp ....................................................................2.260
Frq Offset................................ 2.86, 2.99, 2.111, 2.114, 2.128
FrqLim Low .......................................................... 2.209, 2.252
FrqLim Upp .......................................................... 2.209, 2.252
FSK ..................................................................................2.85
Full scale value .................................................................2.58
Full screen mode .....................................................2.29, 2.30
Full-screen mode ..............................................................2.32
full-screen mode 3-panel display key ................................2.32
FUNC CH1................................................ 2.332, 2.346, 2.349
FUNC CH2................................................ 2.332, 2.346, 2.349
Function
analyzer......................................................... 2.166, 2.167
generator ....................................................................2.85
FUNCTION
Generator ...................................................................2.85
Functions
changing of.................................................................2.34
Functions of softkey........................................................2.343
Fundamental...................................................................2.204
Fundamental frequency ..................................................2.204
Fundamentl.......................................................... 2.203, 2.208
Fuses..................................................................................1.2
I.6
E-11
UPL
Index
G
H
Gain factor ..................................................................... 2.175
for notch filters ......................................................... 2.175
MULTISINE.............................................................. 2.104
GAUSS .......................................................................... 2.122
Gaussian distribution........................................................ 2.86
GEN CLK ......................................................2.72, 2.74, 2.156
GEN CROSSED............................................................. 2.149
GEN key........................................................................... 2.64
GEN key............................................................................. 2.3
GEN MLTSINE............................................................... 2.189
GEN TRACK .................................. 2.171, 2.172, 2.175, 2.192
............................................ 2.203, 2.208, 2.249, 2.250, 2.335
GEN1 ............................................................................. 2.149
GEN2 ............................................................................. 2.149
General Instructions for Use............................................. 2.29
Generating a
sweep list ................................................................. 2.305
Generation of a sweep list.............................................. 2.305
Generation of an
sweep list ................................................................. 2.176
Generator
analog ...................................................................... 2.140
channels .................................................................... 2.66
common parameters .................................................. 2.86
configuration .............................................................. 2.66
frequency offset ......................................................... 2.86
functions .................................................................... 2.85
instuments ................................................................. 2.65
settings ...................................................................... 2.17
signal functions .......................................................... 2.85
sweeps ...................................................................... 2.91
GENERATOR .................................................................. 2.64
Generator source impedance ........................................... 2.66
Generator sweep
linear step size ........................................................... 2.96
Generator tracking
fundamental THD ..................................................... 2.203
linearity measurement .............................................. 2.270
Notch filter frequency ............................................... 2.175
GENTRACK
RMS measurement speed........................................ 2.186
RMS measuring speed............................................. 2.181
Gibb's phenomenon ....................................................... 2.197
GRAPH .............................................................................. 2.3
GRAPH ............................................................................ 2.32
Graphic Display
Colour Selection....................................................... 2.397
Graphic window................................................................ 2.31
Graphical data presentation ........................................... 2.329
Graphical display
MOD DIST measurement......................................... 2.214
THD measurement................................................... 2.203
GROUND
analyzer ................................................................... 2.150
Group delay.................................................................... 2.145
GROUP DELAY ........................................2.333, 2.346, 2.349
Group of scans............................................................... 2.328
Group of traces ....................................................2.305, 2.332
group-delay measurement.............................................. 2.234
H COPY key ............................................................2.5, 2.373
HAMMING ........................................................... 2.223, 2.246
Handshake .....................................................................2.394
HANN .................................................................. 2.223, 2.246
Hard copy .......................................................................2.373
Hard copy of screen............................................................2.5
Hardcopy
PCX Images .............................................................2.300
hardware options ............................................................2.403
HARM .............................................................................2.345
Harmonics ......................................................................2.201
HCOPY key ....................................................................2.300
Header................................................................................3.7
Headphone/Speaker output ............................................2.261
Headphones ...................................................................2.261
help...................................................................................2.15
Help ..................................................................................2.15
functions .....................................................................2.55
texts............................................................................2.55
Help during entry ..............................................................2.36
Help for graphics softkeys.................................................2.55
Help functions .................................................................2.395
HELP key............................................................................2.7
HEX ................................................................................2.356
Hex display of measurement results .................................2.58
High level time for SINE BURST.....................................2.108
HIGH PASS ....................................................................2.288
Highpass filter.................................................................2.288
Histogram
DFD..........................................................................2.216
MODDIST.................................................................2.214
THD..........................................................................2.200
HLINE .................................................................. 2.342, 2.343
HOLD........................................................ 2.332, 2.335, 2.346
Hold time ........................................................................2.255
HPGL data......................................................................2.374
1078.2008.02
I
IEC 118...........................................................................2.115
IEC 268...........................................................................2.115
IEC 386 standard W&F ...................................................2.218
IEC 61937.......................................................................2.134
IEC Adr...........................................................................2.381
IEC BUS .............................................................. 2.381, 2.392
IEC TUNER ....................................................................2.209
IEC/IEEE bus
address.........................................................................3.4
connection ................................................................2.410
interface....................................................................3.293
functions.............................................................3.294
messages...........................................................3.295
IEC/IEEE-bus
address.....................................................................2.392
IEC/IEEE-bus control......................................................3.345
IEC/IEEE-bus interface ...................................................2.392
IMAX A ...........................................................................2.345
IMAX B ...........................................................................2.345
Impedance
analyzer....................................................................2.149
Implementing the FFT.....................................................2.228
Info Disp .........................................................................2.302
Info Text .........................................................................2.302
I.7
E-11
Index
UPL
INP RMS CH1 ................................................................ 2.332
INP RMS CH2 ................................................................ 2.332
Input.....................................................................2.149, 2.155
analyzer ................................................................... 2.149
channels .................................................................. 2.147
generator ................................................................... 2.66
impedance ............................................................... 2.149
INPUT Ch1..................................................................... 2.264
INPUT Ch1&2 ................................................................ 2.264
INPUT Ch2..................................................................... 2.264
INPUT COMMON........................................................... 2.264
Input connectors of analyzers
analog .......................................................................... 2.9
digital ........................................................................... 2.9
INPUT DISP................................................................... 2.236
DIGital INPut AMPlitude........................................... 2.237
PEAK ....................................................................... 2.237
PHASE .................................................................... 2.236
PHASe TO REF ....................................................... 2.237
RMS......................................................................... 2.237
Input during a measurement, data output ......................... 2.39
Input interface ................................................................ 2.155
INPUT JITTER ............................................................... 2.264
input peak value ............................................................. 2.236
Input unit (IEC/IEEE-bus) ................................................. 3.18
INPUT/PHAS ................................................................. 2.236
PHASE .................................................................... 2.236
INPUT? - Press SHOW I/O .............................................. 2.53
Installation
hardware options ......................................................... 1.5
MS-DOS operating system........................................... 1.8
software options........................................................... 1.5
UPL operating and measurement software .................. 1.8
UPL software ............................................................... 1.8
Installation der UPL-Bedien- und Meßsoftware .................. 1.9
Instructions for Use, General............................................ 2.29
Instrument
change ....................................................................... 2.33
Instrument model (IEC/IEEE-bus) .................................... 3.18
Instrument status, loading and storing............................ 2.298
Integration effect ............................................................ 2.199
Integration time .............................................................. 2.182
Interchannel delay .......................................................... 2.221
Interface functions.......................................................... 3.294
Interface message
DCL ........................................................................... 3.18
GET ........................................................................... 3.19
LLO.............................................................................. 3.5
Interface messages ........................................................ 3.295
Interfaces
COM1, COM2 .......................................................... 2.410
RS-232..................................................................... 2.410
Interference level
measurement results.................................................. 2.59
units ........................................................................... 2.59
Interfering
frequency ................................................................. 2.112
signal ....................................................................... 2.111
sinewave signal........................................................ 2.213
Intermodulation
components ............................................................. 2.215
Intermodulation measurement
DFD ......................................................................... 2.215
MOD DIST ............................................................... 2.213
Intermodulation product.................................................. 2.213
INTERN.......................................................................... 2.155
INTERN ONLY ............................................................... 2.396
Internal
signal connection analyzer - generator ..................... 2.149
Internal signal paths ....................................................... 2.152
Interpol ........................................................................... 2.234
Interpolated maximum .................................................... 2.345
1078.2008.02
Interpolated values .........................................................2.339
Interpolation steps ..........................................................2.234
Interpolation to a common X Axis ...................................2.327
Interpretation file for channel status data ........................2.356
Interpretation file for user data ........................................2.357
Interpretation mode.........................................................2.356
INTERVAL ......... 2.90, 2.95, 2.105, 2.108, 2.110, 2.123, 2.126
Interval for SINE BURST
monitoring interval ....................................................2.197
Monitoring interval for peak value detection..............2.198
interval length ...................................................................2.90
Interval time ........................................................... 2.95, 2.198
Interval time ......................................................................2.95
Introduction
operation UPL.............................................................2.15
INTV FILE.........................................................................2.98
Intv Time.........................................................................2.198
Invert1/n..........................................................................2.308
IST flag .............................................................................3.29
J
JIS standard W&F...........................................................2.218
JITTER .................................................................. 2.71, 2.139
Jitter Freq .......................................................................2.141
Jitter Peak Ampl..............................................................2.141
Jitter Ref .........................................................................2.156
JITTER/PHAS........................................................ 2.71, 2.154
K
KAISER ..........................................................................2.223
KEEP..............................................................................2.343
Key
[LOCAL]
lock.........................................................................3.5
DISPLAY ..................................................................2.329
FILE..........................................................................2.296
GRAPH.......................................................................2.32
H COPY....................................................................2.373
OFF LCD ..................................................................2.396
OPTIONS .................................................................2.383
OUTPUT OFF...........................................................2.373
SHOW I/O ................................................................2.372
STATUS ...................................................................2.295
STOP CONT ............................................................2.372
Key combinations
ALT.............................................................................2.31
Ctrl D ........................................................................2.396
of external keyboard ............................................2.3, 2.32
Keyboard settings ...........................................................2.395
Keys of the front panel ........................................................2.5
Keys of the front-panel......................................................2.31
Keys, front panel
ANLR........................................................................2.280
GEN ...........................................................................2.64
TAB ...................................................... 2.64, 2.143, 2.280
Keyword
form ..............................................................................3.8
Keywords of the protocol file...........................................2.356
I.8
E-11
UPL
Index
LIN POINTS
Analysator ................................................................2.190
generator ....................................................................2.96
LIN Spacing ....................................................................2.337
LIN STEPS .....................................................................2.190
generator ....................................................................2.96
Line.................................................................................2.400
Line Count ......................................................................2.254
Line diagram ...................................................................2.329
Linear step size
generator sweep.........................................................2.96
Linearity Measurements..................................................2.270
List sweep.........................................................................2.91
buffers ........................................................................2.91
generator ....................................................................2.91
generator ....................................................................2.93
storing ......................................................................2.305
LLO.....................................................................................3.5
LOAD INSTRUMENT......................................................2.298
Loading
and Storing ...............................................................2.296
files...........................................................................2.296
instrument setups .....................................................2.298
Loading of setups ...........................................................2.301
Loading the default setup..................................................2.15
LOCAL................................................................................2.7
Local timecode and CRC ..................................................2.81
lock error.........................................................................2.367
LOG................................................................................2.350
LOG POINTS
analyzer....................................................................2.190
generator ....................................................................2.96
LOG Spacing ..................................................................2.337
LOG STEPS
analyzer....................................................................2.190
generator ....................................................................2.96
Logarithmic step size
generator sweep.........................................................2.96
RMS sel. sweep .......................................................2.190
LONG CABLE...................................................................2.72
Long form (command).........................................................3.8
Loudspeaker ...................................................................2.261
Loudspeaker Measurements...........................................2.247
Low Dist................................................................. 2.99, 2.401
Low Level .......................................................................2.107
Low level time for SINE BURST......................................2.107
LOW PASS.....................................................................2.288
Low-distortion generator .................................................2.109
Low-distortion generator .................................................2.204
Lower case (command).....................................................3.37
Lower Freq .....................................................................2.121
LOWER FREQ................................................................2.112
Lower frequency limit ......................................................2.154
Lower frequency range limit ............................................2.147
LOWER\: ........................................................................2.150
Lowpass filter..................................................................2.288
LPT1...............................................................................2.381
LS ...................................................................................2.136
L
L..................................................................................... 2.136
LANDSCAPE ................................................................. 2.378
Language ....................................................................... 2.395
Language of help texts ................................................... 2.395
LCD.................................................................................... 2.7
Contrast ................................................................... 2.396
LED
REM............................................................................. 3.4
Left................................................................................. 2.338
Left Mrgn........................................................................ 2.377
LEFT/BOTTOM .............................................................. 2.350
Legend of graphic symbols................................................. 2.1
LEV all di........................................................................ 2.201
LEV even di.................................................................... 2.201
LEV odd di ..................................................................... 2.201
LEV SEL di..................................................................... 2.201
LEV TRG CH1................................................................ 2.162
LEV TRG CH2................................................................ 2.162
Level
ratio.......................................................................... 2.113
Level control monitor output ........................................... 2.261
Level entry
Coded Audio ............................................................ 2.138
Level measurement
DC ........................................................................... 2.199
PEAK ....................................................................... 2.197
QUASI-PEAK........................................................... 2.197
RMS......................................................................... 2.179
RMS SELECT .......................................................... 2.185
LEVEL NOISE................................................................ 2.206
LEVEL THDN ................................................................. 2.206
Level units........................................................................ 2.58
LFE ................................................................................ 2.136
LIM LOW&UP ................................................................ 2.352
LIM LOWER................................................................... 2.391
Lim Lower ...................................................................... 2.352
LIM LOWER.........................................................2.306, 2.352
LIM REPORT ................................................................. 2.391
Lim Upper....................................................................... 2.352
LIM UPPER...............................................2.306, 2.352, 2.391
Limit
check ....................................................................... 2.321
Check ...................................................................... 2.320
curve........................................................................ 2.352
over/underrange....................................................... 2.319
violation.................................................................... 2.320
Limit check ...........................................................2.339, 2.352
Limit check ..................................................................... 2.351
Limit curve
printing ..................................................................... 2.391
storing...................................................................... 2.306
value ........................................................................ 2.328
Limit curve...................................................................... 2.352
Limit exceeded ............................................................... 2.352
Limit exceeded, printout ................................................. 2.391
Limit files
editing ...................................................................... 2.314
generated from trace file .......................................... 2.316
generation by means of application program............ 2.319
header...................................................................... 2.314
measured values...................................................... 2.314
Limit frequency of analyzer instruments ......................... 2.144
Limit frequency/cutoff frequency
FFT frequency measurement ................................... 2.238
Limit report list................................................................ 2.319
Limit value...................................................................... 2.353
LIN ................................................................................. 2.350
1078.2008.02
M
Mainlobe .........................................................................2.223
MANU LIST
Generator-Sweep .......................................................2.93
MANU LIST ....................................................................2.189
MANU SWEEP
analyzer....................................................................2.189
Generator-Sweep .......................................................2.93
MANUAL................................................... 2.337, 2.350, 2.399
Manual control ....................................................................3.5
I.9
E-11
Index
UPL
Manual Operation............................................................... 2.1
Manual sweeps
generator ................................................................... 2.93
operation.................................................................. 2.362
MARKER...................................................2.343, 2.344, 2.345
Marks comment lines ..................................................... 2.324
MAX ............................................... 2.334, 2.336, 2.347, 2.349
Max hold ...................................................2.330, 2.255, 2.258
Max Volt .................................................................. 2.67, 2.75
Maximum of measurement series................................... 2.345
Maximum peak value ..................................................... 2.166
Maximum values bargraph ............................................. 2.351
MD5-Signaturverfahren (RS232) .................................... 3.364
MEAN FREQ........................................................2.115, 2.121
MEAS CH1................................................2.171, 2.172, 2.335
MEAS CH2................................................2.171, 2.172, 2.335
Meas Disp ...................................................................... 2.396
Meas Mode .............. 2.154, 2.197, 2.201, 2.206, 2.216, 2.260
Meas time ............................................................2.239, 2.249
Meas Time .....2.180, 2.181, 2.186, 2.199, 2.207, 2.225, 2.258
RMS measurement .................................................. 2.180
RMS SELECT measurement ................................... 2.186
Measured value
buffer ....................................................................... 2.161
stabilization .............................................2.41, 2.47, 2.178
Measured value and status displays............................... 2.396
Measured value resolution .................................... 2.45, 2.177
Measurement
range selection......................................................... 2.150
Measurement Display
ON/OFF ................................................................... 2.396
Readin Rate ............................................................. 2.397
Reading Resolution.................................................. 2.397
Measurement function
reference values ...................................................... 2.170
Measurement range ....................................................... 2.151
Measurement range limit
analyzer instruments ................................................ 2.144
lower ........................................................................ 2.147
upper........................................................................ 2.144
Measurement rate ................................................2.180, 2.186
Measurement results, display window .............................. 2.40
Measurement time................................................2.254, 2.258
Measurement valid/invalid ................................................ 2.39
Measurement, input during............................................... 2.39
Measurements ............................................................... 2.360
Measuring ...................................................................... 2.301
Measuring time.....................................................2.180, 2.186
Measuring time FFT ....................................................... 2.228
Memory expansion ...................................................... 4.4, 4.5
Messages on operating state ........................................... 2.51
Meßzeit .......................................................................... 2.258
Min Freq...............................................................2.147, 2.154
Min VOLT....................................................................... 2.164
Minimum value of resulution during settling ...................... 2.45
Minimum voltage ............................................................ 2.164
Mod Depth ..................................................................... 2.132
MOD DIST
analyzer .........................................................2.166, 2.213
generator ................................................................. 2.111
Generator................................................................... 2.85
Mod Freq............................... 2.89, 2.105, 2.122, 2.126, 2.132
MODDIST signal
measuring on ........................................................... 2.181
Mode ................................... 2.115, 2.300, 2.301, 2.332, 2.352
LOCAL ......................................................................... 3.4
REMOTE ..................................................................... 3.4
Modulation
factor analysis.......................................................... 2.109
MODULATION ...................................................... 2.85, 2.132
modulation deviation
AM ........................................................2.89, 2.105, 2.123
1078.2008.02
Modulation deviation
AM............................................................................2.126
Modulation distortion.........................................................2.85
measurement............................................................2.213
modulation frequency
AM..............................................................................2.89
AM............................................................................2.122
Modulation frequency
AM............................................................................2.126
FM ............................................................................2.132
MODULATION function ....................................................2.89
Modulationshub
AM............................................................................2.126
FM ............................................................................2.132
Monitor output.................................................................2.262
MORE.............................................................................2.343
mouse
scrolling in the panel ...................................................2.32
mouse...............................................................................2.36
Mouse
connection of ............................................................2.410
numeric entry..............................................................2.35
mouse functions.......................................... 2.64, 2.143, 2.280
Mouse Operation ..............................................................2.29
Multisine
dialog window ...........................................................2.103
MULTISINE ........................................................... 2.85, 2.101
N
NAB ................................................................................2.218
NAB standard W&F ........................................................2.218
NARROW ............................................................ 2.207, 2.260
Next step ..........................................................................2.94
NEXTHARM ...................................................................2.345
No of sine .......................................................................2.103
Noise
distribution ................................................................2.122
spacings ...................................................................2.117
suppression (THD)....................................................2.200
weighting (THD+N/SINAD) .......................................2.204
Noise ..............................................................................2.117
NOISE ............................................................................2.206
Noise component ..............................................................2.86
Nominal AC supply voltage .................................................1.1
NONE ...............................................................................2.80
NORMAL ....................................... 2.183, 2.194, 2.224, 2.251
Normalize........................................................................2.336
Normalized frequency response......................................2.307
Normfreq.........................................................................2.307
NOT EQUAL A................................................................2.334
Notch ..............................................................................2.291
analog filter...............................................................2.175
characteristic ............................................................2.175
freq ...........................................................................2.175
gain ..........................................................................2.175
Notch (Gain) ........................2.175, 2.183, 2.195, 2.198, 2.222
NOTCH FLT....................................................................2.291
Notch Freq......................................................................2.175
Note on delay....................................................................2.47
NTRansition register .........................................................3.26
number of thirds..............................................................2.254
Numeric values (command) ..............................................3.13
I.10
E-11
UPL
Index
O
o CURSOR..................................................................... 2.336
o CURSOR..................................................................... 2.334
o CURSOR..................................................................... 2.344
o CURSOR..................................................................... 2.347
o TO * ............................................................................ 2.342
Octave ........................................................................... 2.292
Octave ........................................................................... 2.292
Octave filter.................................................................... 2.292
Octave Filter................................................................... 2.292
OCTAVE FLT ................................................................. 2.292
OFF LCD key ................................................................. 2.396
Offset calibration ............................................................ 2.401
ON TIME ........... 2.90, 2.95, 2.105, 2.108, 2.110, 2.123, 2.126
one-dimensional sweep.................................................... 2.95
ONTIM FILE..................................................................... 2.98
Opening the instrument ...................................................... 4.7
Operating mode (IEC/IEEE)
LOCAL ..................................................................... 3.358
REMOTE ................................................................. 3.358
Operating states of sweep system ................................. 2.365
Operating system level................................................... 2.296
OPERATION.............................................2.329, 2.330, 2.354
OPTICAL........................................................................ 2.155
OPTIMIZED .........................................................2.102, 2.120
Optimizing
Frequency Response ............................................... 2.279
measurement speed ................................................ 2.274
settling parameters..................................................... 2.49
Option
Universal Sequence Controller (UPL B10) ............... 3.337
Options
enabling ....................................................................... 1.5
.................................................................................... 1.7
OPTIONS key .................................................................... 2.5
Order of a Filter .............................................................. 2.288
Orientation ..................................................................... 2.378
OTHER TRACE ............................................................. 2.335
Output .............................................................2.7, 2.66, 2.140
Impedance ................................................................. 2.66
power ......................................................................... 2.70
Output BAL ...................................................................... 2.69
output clock rate............................................................... 2.73
Output clock rate ............................................................ 2.158
Output impedance .......................................................... 2.140
Output of block data (B10) ............................................. 3.342
Output of commands
Output of commands................................................ 3.341
Output of commands (B10) ............................................ 3.341
OUTPUT OFF key.......................................................... 2.373
output UNBAL .................................................................. 2.68
output voltage
bal.............................................................................. 2.75
unbal .......................................................................... 2.75
Output voltage
limit value.......................................................... 2.67, 2.75
limitation..................................................................... 2.75
Overlapping execution...................................................... 3.19
OVERlay/Max Hold ........................................................ 2.332
Overloading DC measurement ....................................... 2.199
Overshoots..................................................................... 2.197
Overview of measurement and sweep systems.............. 2.360
Pair of traces ..................................................................2.332
Pair of traces ..................................................................2.334
Pairs of traces.................................................................2.305
Panel ..................................................... 2.31, 2.39, 2.81, 2.83
ANALYZER ..............................................................2.143
DISPLAY ....................................................... 2.332, 2.349
DISPLAY ..................................................................2.329
FILE..........................................................................2.296
FILTER.....................................................................2.280
OPTIONS .................................................................2.392
scrolling ......................................................................2.32
STATUS ...................................................................2.295
Panel ..............................................................................2.329
PANEL..............................................................................2.83
PANEL + AES 3................................................................2.83
PANEL + AES3.................................................................2.81
PANEL + CRC .........................................................2.81, 2.83
PANEL OFF......................................................................2.79
Panel selection .................................................................2.31
Panelfile............................................................................2.85
Panels
changing............................................................2.29, 2.30
changing between ......................................................2.31
changing using the keyboard ......................................2.31
changing using the mouse ..........................................2.31
position on the screen.................................................2.32
Paper Size ......................................................................2.381
Parallel poll .......................................................................3.34
Param. Link ....................................................................2.405
Parameter (command) ......................................................3.13
Parameter link.................................................................2.405
Parameter Link ........................................................2.33, 2.34
Parameters
changing.....................................................................2.34
display panel ................................................. 2.332, 2.349
list display.................................................................2.346
selection .....................................................................2.34
Parity ................................................................... 2.394, 2.411
Parser...............................................................................3.19
Partial setup, loading and storing ....................................2.298
Part-screen graphics.......................................................2.359
Passb Low ......................................................................2.289
Passb Upp ......................................................................2.289
Passband........................................................................2.288
Password protection .......................................................2.404
Path ..................................................................................2.36
PDF ................... 2.86, 2.99, 2.111, 2.114, 2.122, 2.126, 2.128
PEAK..............................................................................2.236
PEAK & S/N....................................................................2.166
PEAK measurement .......................................................2.197
Peak value detector ............................................. 2.166, 2.197
Peak weighting ...............................................................2.197
Peak-to-peak amplitude
MOD DIST................................................................2.113
MULTISINE ..............................................................2.104
POLARITY................................................................2.127
SINE................................................... 2.100, 2.140, 2.141
SINE BURST............................................................2.107
SINE2 BURST ..........................................................2.109
Periodic tracings of measured values .............................2.161
PERMANENT .................................................................2.265
Permissible range of values ..............................................2.36
Phas Ch2
1 ...............................................................................2.130
Phas Settl ............................................................ 2.176, 2.243
PHAS TO REF................................................................2.236
Phase
P
PAGE............................................................................... 2.13
Pair of traces.................................................................. 2.327
1078.2008.02
I.11
E-11
Index
UPL
digital ......................................................................... 2.71
frame (jitter).............................................................. 2.236
measurement results.................................................. 2.59
optimization.............................................................. 2.117
position sine voltage with MULTISINE ..................... 2.101
reference value ........................................................ 2.173
units ........................................................................... 2.59
PHASE......................................................2.332, 2.346, 2.349
Frame Phase ........................................................... 2.236
Phase difference ............................................................ 2.241
phase measurement....................................................... 2.145
Phase No (i) ................................................................... 2.103
Phase Reference value .................................................. 2.173
PHASE TO REF............................................................. 2.167
PhaseToRef ................................................................... 2.402
Phone............................................................................. 2.265
Phone Out...................................................................... 2.178
PINK .............................................................................. 2.118
Pink noise ...................................................................... 2.118
Plot on............................................................................ 2.381
Plots/Page...................................................................... 2.382
PLOTTR/HPGL .............................................................. 2.374
Points
analyzer .........................................................2.164, 2.191
generator ................................................................... 2.97
Polarity
measurement ........................................................... 2.220
Polarity measurement ................................................ 2.85
test........................................................................... 2.127
Test.......................................................................... 2.220
POLARITY ....................................................................... 2.85
analizer .................................................................... 2.127
generator ................................................................. 2.166
Polarity reversal ............................................................. 2.220
Polarity Test ................................................................... 2.220
Poles.............................................................................. 2.294
PORTRAIT..................................................................... 2.378
Post FFT ........................................................................ 2.184
POST FFT............................................................2.174, 2.210
Post FFT RMS measurement......................................... 2.184
Post-FFT ........................................................................ 2.219
Potential reference ......................................................... 2.150
Power supply ..................................................................... 1.1
PPE (parallel poll enable register) .................................... 3.29
Pre Gain...............................................................2.178, 2.265
PRECISION ................................................................... 2.239
analyzer ................................... 2.202, 2.206, 2.214, 2.216
Precision of frequency measurement ............................. 2.239
Preparation for use (RS232)........................................... 3.357
Print
format....................................................................... 2.378
Printer
output....................................................................... 2.391
PRINTER ....................................................................... 2.373
Printing traces and lists .................................................. 2.391
Printname....................................................................... 2.375
Printout........................................................................... 2.378
PRINTR/HPGL ............................................................... 2.374
PRINTR/PS.................................................................... 2.374
Prn Hight ........................................................................ 2.381
Prn Resol ....................................................................... 2.378
Prn Width ....................................................................... 2.381
Program example
Readout of results in R&S BASIC ............................ 3.360
Program examples
Readout of Measurement results (B-10)................... 3.340
Readout of measurement results in Borland-C 3.0 ... 3.361
Result readout in QuickBASIC ................................. 3.359
Programming examples.................................................. 3.300
Programming model
UPL analyzer ............................................................. 3.17
UPL generator............................................................ 3.16
1078.2008.02
Prolog for HPGL .............................................................2.296
PROTO AUTO ................................................................2.354
Proto File ............................................................. 2.356, 2.357
protocol.............................................................................2.79
PROTOCOL..................................... 2.79, 2.166, 2.330, 2.354
PROTOCOL analysis......................................................2.354
PTRansition register .........................................................3.25
Pulse duration SINE2 BURST.........................................2.110
Pulse spectrum ...............................................................2.223
Q
Q PK & S/N.....................................................................2.166
Quantising noise measurement.......................................2.176
Quasi-PEAK measurement .............................................2.197
Quasi-peak weighting .....................................................2.192
Query
form ..............................................................................3.7
response.....................................................................3.11
Question mark ..................................................................3.15
R
R.....................................................................................2.136
Rackmounting.....................................................................1.1
RAM drive................................................................1.7, 2.134
RANDOM..........................................................................2.85
Range .............................................................................2.150
overranges .................................................................2.51
rated value..................................................... 2.150, 2.151
spacing .....................................................................2.151
unterranges ................................................................2.51
Ranges ...........................................................................2.151
READ ONLY ...................................................................2.302
Read Rate ......................................................................2.397
Read Resol .....................................................................2.397
READ.ME ...........................................................................1.9
READ/WRITE .................................................................2.302
Reading in responses (B10)............................................3.341
Reading out block data (B10)..........................................3.342
Readout of measurement results
in Borland-C 3.0........................................................3.361
in R&S BASIC ..........................................................3.360
Univ. Sequence Controller UPL-B10.........................3.340
Readout of Measurement Results
in QuickBASIC..........................................................3.359
REAL ..............................................................................2.307
Rear view.................................................................2.10, 2.11
RECTANGLE....................................................................2.86
RECTANGULAR.................................................... 2.223, 2.246
Ref Freq............................................................................2.67
Analysator ................................................................2.244
analyzer.............................................. 2.172, 2.240, 2.242
Ref Frq..............................................................................2.75
REF GEN..........................................................................2.74
Ref Imped .......................................................................2.147
REF IN.......................................................... 2.72, 2.74, 2.157
Ref Out
Data............................................................................2.74
Source ........................................................................2.74
Ref Phase............................................................ 2.173, 2.243
Ref Volt......................................................... 2.68, 2.76, 2.233
Reference ...... 2.170, 2.171, 2.182, 2.187, 2.198, 2.199, 2.202
............................... 2.207, 2.221, 2.237, 2.249, 2.255, 2.259,
...................................................... 2.334, 2.335, 2.347, 2.349
impedance ................................................................2.147
point DC measurement .............................................2.199
trace was stored in the file ........................................2.335
traces .......................................................................2.334
I.12
E-11
UPL
Index
traces.............................................................2.304, 2.326
value depend ........................................................... 2.337
variable .................................................................... 2.304
Reference measurement potential.................................. 2.150
Reference value
storage on key stroke............................................... 2.173
Reference values
floating ..................................................................... 2.270
group-delay measurement........................................ 2.173
phase measurement ................................................ 2.173
Rejection ........................................................................ 2.207
Release control .............................................................. 3.345
Remote control................................................................... 3.1
Remote control via RS-232 interface .............................. 3.357
Remote via..................................................................... 2.392
Rep delay....................................................................... 2.395
Rep rate ......................................................................... 2.395
Repetition delay ............................................................. 2.395
Repetition rate................................................................ 2.395
Repetitive triggering ....................................................... 2.395
Replace
the SETUP battery ....................................................... 4.8
Resolution
FFT .................... 2.174, 2.211, 2.219, 2.225, 2.228, 2.246
Settling............................................................ 2.50, 2.177
Resolution value............................................................... 2.50
Restart
of a measurement .................................................... 2.361
of sweep .................................................................. 2.161
of the last valid setting ............................................... 2.53
of the UPL.................................................................. 2.54
of the UPL with default setting ................................... 2.54
retry................................................................................ 2.412
Return to manual operation (RS-232) ............................. 3.358
RIFE-VINC 1 ........................................................2.223, 2.246
RIFE-VINC 2 ........................................................2.223, 2.246
RIFE-VINC 3 ........................................................2.223, 2.246
Right .............................................................................. 2.338
RIGHT/TOP ................................................................... 2.350
Ripple............................................................................. 2.289
RISING........................................................................... 2.233
RMS............................................................................... 2.236
RMS............................................................................... 2.179
RMS & S/N..................................................................... 2.166
RMS S/N ........................................................................ 2.179
RMS SELECT ......................................................2.166, 2.185
RMS value incl. S/N ....................................................... 2.179
rollkey .............................................................................. 2.53
Rotary knob........................................................................ 2.7
Rounding noise .............................................................. 2.228
RS.................................................................................. 2.136
RS- 232 interface ........................................................... 2.392
RS-232 (COM1, COM2) ................................................. 2.410
RS-232 interface
Differences to the IEC/IEEE bus .............................. 3.364
First steps (readout of measurement results) ........... 3.358
Preparation for use................................................... 3.357
Return to manual operation ...................................... 3.358
RS-232 Interface
Switchover to Remote Control.................................. 3.358
RTS/CTS........................................................................ 2.394
RUB & BUZZ.................................................................. 2.166
Rub & Buzz Measurements ............................................ 2.247
Rub&Buzz ...................................................................... 2.280
RUMBLE UNW............................................................... 2.209
RUMBLE WTD ............................................................... 2.209
1078.2008.02
S
S/N measurement ...........................................................2.168
S/N Sequ .................................................. 2.168, 2.179, 2.197
Sample .............................................................................2.42
Sample .............................................................................2.50
Sample frequency
maximum..................................................................2.158
Sample Frequency
analyzer....................................................................2.158
generator ....................................................................2.73
Sample Frq
Analyzer ...................................................................2.158
Generator ...................................................................2.73
Sample Mode..................................................................2.407
Sample rate
filter ..........................................................................2.293
Samples..........................................................................2.176
Sampling Frequency
Measurement............................................................2.244
Scale ................................................................... 2.337, 2.350
Scale B ...........................................................................2.334
Scan conf........................................................................2.399
Scan Count.....................................................................2.331
Scan count =1.................................................................2.326
Scan count >1.................................................................2.327
Scan index......................................................................2.339
Scan index...............................................................2.7, 2.327
Scannr ............................................................................2.399
SCPI
introduction...................................................................3.7
keywords ......................................................................3.8
SCREEN.........................................................................2.375
Screen copies
plotting......................................................................2.383
printing......................................................................2.383
storing ......................................................................2.383
Scrolling in the panel.........................................................2.32
SELECT.....................................................................2.5, 2.16
SELECT............................................................................2.34
SELECT di......................................................................2.201
Selection
commands ..................................................................2.85
file...............................................................................2.37
of a Parameter............................................................2.34
Selection of analyzer.......................................................2.143
Selection of function
brief introduction .........................................................2.14
Selection of generator.......................................................2.65
Selective rms measurement............................................2.166
Selective rms value.........................................................2.185
SELECTP .......................................................................2.381
Selftest ...............................................................................1.3
Semicolon.........................................................................3.15
Sequence Control (opt. UPL B10)...................................3.337
Sequence of operation in the panels........................2.29, 2.30
Serial poll..........................................................................3.34
Series of data .................................................................2.304
Series of measured values..............................................2.326
Service functions ............................................................2.403
Service request.................................................................3.33
SET TO ..........................................................................2.342
SETREF .............................................................. 2.343, 2.345
Setting and displaying auxiliary.......................................2.392
Setting parameters............................................................2.13
Setting the Display Parameters.........................................2.18
Setting, switching off the displays ...................................2.396
I.13
E-11
Index
UPL
Settling .................................................................2.165, 2.176
delay with external sweep
control.................................................................. 2.45
resolution ............................................................. 2.45
introduction ................................................................ 2.41
optimizing the parameters .......................................... 2.48
process
measurement run with external sweep................. 2.47
Settling ............................................................................. 2.41
SETTLING
check ......................................................................... 2.48
Settling by arithmetic averaging ....................................... 2.42
Settling condition.............................................................. 2.42
Settling delay with external sweep ................................... 2.50
Settling parameter
optimizing................................................................... 2.49
Settling parameters .......................................................... 2.42
settling process
combination................................................................ 2.41
Settling process.............................................................. 2.176
possible combinations................................................ 2.41
Settling process................................................................ 2.41
Settling time
filter.......................................................................... 2.286
Settling tolerance ............................................................. 2.42
SETUP .................................................................... 1.3, 2.300
Shape............................................................................. 2.118
Shape file ....................................................................... 2.119
Shielded cables.............................................................. 2.410
Short circuit
generator output......................................................... 2.70
Short form (command)........................................................ 3.8
Short name of filters ....................................................... 2.286
Shortname...................................................................... 2.287
SHOW I/O ............................................................... 2.5, 2.372
key ........................................................................... 2.372
messages .................................................................. 2.53
SHOW I/O ........................................................................ 2.40
Signal amplification ........................................................ 2.262
Signal period matching .........................................2.180, 2.186
Signal spectrum ............................................................. 2.223
Signal-to-noise measurement......................................... 2.168
Signaturverfahren MD5 (RS232) .................................... 3.364
Simulation ............................................................2.173, 2.280
Simulation ...................................................................... 2.230
SINAD............................................................................ 2.206
Sine.................................................................................. 2.85
SINE ....................................... 2.85, 2.89, 2.105, 2.122, 2.126
SINE ................................................................................ 2.99
SINE BURST ................................................................... 2.85
Sine burst signal............................................................... 2.85
SINE2 BURST.................................................................. 2.85
SINE2 BURST................................................................ 2.127
SINE2 BURST signal ..................................................... 2.220
Sinewave amplitude
MULTISINE.............................................................. 2.104
SINE ........................................................................ 2.100
SINE BURST ........................................................... 2.107
SINE2 BURST ......................................................... 2.109
Sinewave amplitude SINE ....................................2.140, 2.141
Sinewave frequency
MULTISINE.............................................................. 2.103
SINE BURST ........................................................... 2.106
SINE2 BURST .............. 2.109, 2.110, 2.112, 2.113, 2.115
Sinewave signal ............................................................. 2.139
Single
key ........................................................................... 2.161
SINGLE...........................................................2.5, 2.365, .366
SINGLE key ................................................................... 2.362
Single measurement ............................................... 2.5, 2.161
Single measurement at fixed intervals ............................ 2.164
Single measurements..................................................... 2.360
1078.2008.02
Single sine ......................................................................2.101
Sinusamplitude SINE ......................................................2.130
SLOW .............................................................................2.207
SLOW DECAY................................................................2.255
Smoothed display ...........................................................2.234
SMPTE ...........................................................................2.111
SMPTE measurement procedure....................................2.213
Softkey menus ................................................................2.339
Softkeys.....................................................................2.9, 2.35
Softkeys..........................................................................2.341
software options..............................................................2.403
installing .......................................................................1.5
Software options
enabling.................................................................1.5, 1.7
installation .............................................................1.5, 1.7
new installation of ..................................................1.5, 1.7
Software Options
enabling........................................................................1.5
Source ........................................................ 2.140, 2.66, 2.355
Source impedance ................................................. 2.66, 2.140
Source impedance ............................................................2.66
Space ...............................................................................3.15
Spacing..................................2.96, 2.101, 2.190, 2.337, 2.350
Generator .................................................................2.118
Span ...............................................................................2.225
Span FFT........................................................................2.228
SPC LIM REP.................................................................2.329
SPEAKER............................2.178, 2.184, 2.195, 2.198, 2.199
...................... 2.203, 2.214, 2.216, 2.219, 2.226, 2.230, 2.234
...................................................... 2.252, 2.256, 2.260, 2.264
Speaker off .....................................................................2.261
SPECIAL ........................................................................2.136
SPECTR LIST ................................................................2.329
SPECTRUM ...................................................................2.330
Spectrum Analysis ..........................................................2.221
SPEKER.........................................................................2.220
Spk Volume ......................................................... 2.178, 2.265
Spurious emissions.........................................................2.410
SRE (service request enable register) ..............................3.28
SRQ (service request) ......................................................3.33
Standard .........................................................................2.218
STANDARD....................................................................2.232
Standard W&F ................................................................2.218
Start............... 2.164, 2.174, 2.190, 2.211, 2.219, 2.224, 2.246
generator sweep.........................................................2.96
START................................................................................2.5
START COND ............................................ 2.39, 2.160, 2.161
Start condition.................................................................2.160
START key ............................................... 2.161, 2.365, 2.366
Start of arithmetic averaging .............................................2.42
Start Options.....................................................................1.10
Start/stop limits for triggering ..........................................2.164
Starting and stopping of measurements or sweeps.........2.360
State diagram
measurement............................................................2.361
sweep.......................................................................2.362
STATIC.............................................................................2.79
Status
display ......................................................................2.117
Status byte........................................................................3.28
Status diagram
sweep.......................................................................2.362
Status display
ANL status..................................................................2.51
GEN ORUN ................................................................2.73
GEN status .................................................................2.51
SWP status ................................................................2.52
Status display ...................................................................2.51
Status display ...................................................................2.52
Status displays ...............................................................2.360
Status information.............................................................2.40
STATUS key.......................................................................2.3
I.14
E-11
UPL
Index
Status operation register .................................................. 3.30
Status panel ..................................................................... 2.32
STATUS panel ............................................................... 2.295
Status questionable register ............................................. 3.31
Status register
condition part ............................................................. 3.25
enable part ................................................................. 3.26
error queue ................................................................ 3.35
event part................................................................... 3.26
event status enable register ....................................... 3.29
event status register................................................... 3.29
IST flag ...................................................................... 3.29
ntransition part ........................................................... 3.26
overview..................................................................... 3.27
parallel poll enable register ........................................ 3.29
ptransition part ........................................................... 3.25
service request enable register .................................. 3.28
status byte ................................................................. 3.28
status operation register............................................. 3.30
status questionable register ....................................... 3.31
structure..................................................................... 3.25
summary bit ............................................................... 3.26
Status reporting system.................................................... 3.24
resetting ..................................................................... 3.36
use............................................................................. 3.33
steady readout by settling ................................................ 2.41
Step
generator ................................................................... 2.97
RMS sel. sweep ....................................................... 2.191
Step size
linear generator sweep............................................... 2.96
logorithmic generator sweep ...................................... 2.96
STEREO SINE ...................................................... 2.85, 2.128
Stop ...............2.164, 2.174, 2.211, 2.219, 2.225, 2.246, 2.411
generator sweep ........................................................ 2.96
Stop ................................................................................... 2.5
STOP ............................................................................. 2.360
Stop Bits ........................................................................ 2.394
STOP CONT key............................................................ 2.372
STOP key....................................................................... 2.162
STOP/CONT ...................................................................... 2.5
STOP/CONT .................................................................. 2.365
STOP/CONT .................................................................. 2.366
Stopb Low ............................................................2.289, 2.291
Stopb Upp ............................................................2.289, 2.291
Stopband........................................................................ 2.288
STORE........................................... 2.170, 2.172, 2.173, 2.305
STORE CH1.........................................................2.170, 2.172
STORE CH2.........................................................2.170, 2.172
STORE INSTRUMENT .................................................. 2.301
STORE TRACE/LIST ..................................................... 2.305
Store traces and sweep lists .......................................... 2.305
Storing complete instrument setup ................................. 2.301
Storing of setups ............................................................ 2.301
Strings.............................................................................. 3.14
Suffix, numeric ................................................................... 3.8
Sum transfer function ..................................................... 2.230
Summary bit ..................................................................... 3.26
SUPERFAST ................................................................. 2.207
Superimposed sinewave voltages .................................. 2.101
supplementary software
installation.................................................................... 1.6
sweep
External.................................................................... 2.363
frequency sweeps.............................................. 2.363
level sweeps ...................................................... 2.363
level trigger ........................................................ 2.363
Time-chart................................................................ 2.363
Time-tick .................................................................. 2.363
Sweep
automatic lists- ......................................................... 2.189
direction ..................................................................... 2.96
1078.2008.02
frequency of selective rms measurement..................2.188
lists RMS sel. sweep ................................................2.192
manual lists ..............................................................2.189
one-dimensional .........................................................2.91
steps are skipped .......................................................2.94
stop ..............................................................................2.5
two-dimensional..........................................................2.91
Sweep ............................................................................2.360
Sweep Control ..................................................................2.93
SWEEP CTRL ................................. 2.99, 2.106, 2.109, 2.111
...................... 2.115, 2.129, 2.133, 2.136, 2.142, 2.188, 2.189
sweep direction.................................................................2.96
SWEEP LIST ....................................................... 2.329, 2.332
Sweep Mode............................................. 2.183, 2.194, 2.251
Sweep parameter
X axis) ........................................................................2.95
Sweeps
analyzer....................................................................2.188
generator ....................................................................2.91
Switching off .......................................................................1.4
Switching on .......................................................................1.3
Switching on the UPL .......................................................2.13
Switching sweeps on and off ..........................................2.364
Switchover to Remote Control (RS232) ..........................3.358
Switchover to UPL user interface....................................3.343
SWP CONT RUNNING...................................................2.365
SWP INVALID ................................................................2.365
SWP LIM REP ................................................................2.329
SWP MANU RUNNING ..................................................2.365
SWP OFF .......................................................................2.365
SWP SNGL RUNNING ...................................................2.365
SWP STOPPED .............................................................2.365
SWP TERMINATED .......................................................2.365
SYNC IN ...........................................................................2.72
Sync Mode........................................................................2.72
Sync Out
Source ........................................................................2.74
Type ...........................................................................2.74
SYNC PLL ........................................................................2.74
Sync To
analyzer....................................................................2.157
generator ....................................................................2.72
SYNC TO ANaLyzer .........................................................2.73
Synchronization (command)..............................................3.21
Syntax elements (command) ............................................3.15
SYSTEM..................................................................2.5, 2.414
System files ....................................................................2.296
SYSTEM key ..................................................................2.234
T
Test signal
intermodulation measurement........................ 2.111, 2.114
polarity measurement ...............................................2.127
Text commands ................................................................2.86
THD ................................................................................2.166
THD measurement..........................................................2.200
THD+N ...........................................................................2.206
THD+N / SINAD measurement .......................................2.209
THD+N/SINAD................................................................2.166
THD+N/SINAD measurement .........................................2.204
third analysis
lower band limit.........................................................2.256
upper band limit ........................................................2.256
Third analysis .................................................................3.333
Third Analysis .................................................................2.253
THIRD OCT ....................................................................2.118
Third Octave ...................................................................2.280
Third-octave....................................................................2.292
Third-octave Filter...........................................................2.292
I.15
E-11
Index
UPL
Third-octave noise.......................................................... 2.118
Time.....................................................................2.117, 2.163
TIME CHART ................................................................. 2.161
Time domain display ...................................................... 2.231
TIME TICK ..................................................................... 2.161
Timeout ................................................................. 2.50, 2.178
Tolerance ....................................................................... 2.177
Tolerance ......................................................................... 2.50
Tolerance band ................................................................ 2.42
TOP ............................................................................... 2.337
TOSLINK........................................................................ 2.155
Total Gain factor............................................................. 2.104
Total Peak...................................................................... 2.104
Total RMS ...................................................................... 2.105
TOTAL VOLT .......................................................2.113, 2.116
TRACE A ................. 2.305, 2.307, 2.332, 2.346, 2.352, 2.391
TRACE A + B .......................................................2.352, 2.391
Trace and spectrum display ........................................... 2.339
TRACE B ................. 2.305, 2.307, 2.332, 2.346, 2.352, 2.391
Trace data storing .......................................................... 2.305
Trace Len....................................................................... 2.234
Trace length ................................................................... 2.234
Trace length of the signal ............................................... 2.234
Trace printout ................................................................. 2.391
TRACEA ........................................................................ 2.343
TRACEB ........................................................................ 2.343
Traces ............................................................................ 2.304
Traces to be used .......................................................... 2.339
Tracing of measured values
continuous ............................................................... 2.161
due to frequency change.......................................... 2.161
due to voltage change.............................................. 2.161
fixed number ............................................................ 2.164
fixed time interval ..................................................... 2.164
Tracing of measured values at regular intervals ............. 2.161
Transfer function ............................................................ 2.294
Transfer Function ........................................................... 2.245
Transfer of parameters ................................................... 2.405
Triangle ................................................................. 2.86, 2.122
Triangular distribution....................................................... 2.86
Trig Chan ....................................................................... 2.234
Trig Level .............................................................2.184, 2.233
Trig Slope....................................................................... 2.233
Trigger
Waveform ................................................................ 2.231
Trigger............................................................................ 2.160
Trigger condition for tracing measured values ................ 2.160
Trigger event .................................................................. 2.161
trigger source ................................................................. 2.234
TRIGGERED
RMS measurement .................................................. 2.181
True rms measurement ........................................2.166, 2.179
twelfth analysis
lower band limit ........................................................ 2.259
upper band limit ....................................................... 2.260
Twelfth Analysis ............................................................. 2.257
two-dimensional sweep .................................................... 2.95
Two-tone signal to SMPTE............................................. 2.111
Type............................................................................... 2.391
Undersampling FFT ........................................................2.227
UNDO .............................................................................2.343
Unit .... 2.169, 2.202, 2.207, 2.214, 2.216, 2.219, 2.233, 2.246,
2.334
UNIT .................................................................... 2.346, 2.349
Unit Ch1...............................2.169, 2.182, 2.187, 2.198, 2.199
........... 2.221, 2.237, 2.240, 2.242, 2.244, 2.249, 2.255, 2.259
Unit Ch2...............................2.169, 2.182, 2.187, 2.198, 2.199
........... 2.221, 2.237, 2.240, 2.242, 2.244, 2.249, 2.255, 2.259
Unit/Label .......................................................................2.334
Units
conversion formulas for entry of values ................2.61
conversion formulas....................................................2.57
display of measurement results ..................................2.57
for measurement results .............................................2.57
for value inputs ...........................................................2.57
function labelling.......................................................2.331
IEC-bus notation.........................................................2.59
list of all ......................................................................2.57
measurement result output .......................................2.169
of measurement results ............................................2.169
output of measurement result ...................................2.240
result display ............................................................2.242
Universal Sequence Controller
Switchover to UPL ....................................................3.343
Universal Sequence Controller (UPL B10) ......................3.337
Universal Sequence Controller UPL-B10 ........................3.337
Differences to IEC/IEEE-bus Control ........................3.341
First steps (readout of measurement results)............3.340
Output of block data .................................................3.342
Reading in responses ...............................................3.341
Reading out Block data.............................................3.342
UNZOOM........................................................................2.343
UPL IEC adr ...................................................................2.392
UPL software
command line parameters at power-up .......................1.14
integration of programs ...............................................1.10
restarting ....................................................................1.10
UPL-B1 ...........................................................................2.403
UPL-B10 ..................................................................1.5, 2.403
UPL-B10 Universal sequence controller..........................3.337
UPL-B2 ...........................................................................2.403
UPL-B21 ......................................................... 1.5, 2.79, 2.403
UPL-B22 ..................................................................1.5, 2.403
UPL-B23 ....................................... 1.5, 1.7, 2.85, 2.134, 2.403
UPL-B29 .........................................................................2.403
UPL-B33 ..................................................................1.5, 2.403
UPL-B4 ....................................................................1.5, 2.403
UPL-B5 ...........................................................................2.403
UPL-B6 ....................................................................1.5, 2.403
UPL-B8 ....................................................................1.5, 2.403
UPL-B9 ....................................................................1.5, 2.403
UPLCFG ...........................................................................1.14
Upper case (command).....................................................3.37
Upper Freq......................................................................2.121
UPPER FREQ ................................................................2.112
Useful signal ...................................................................2.111
Useful sinewave signal ...................................................2.213
User data ..........................................................................2.84
USER DEF ............................................... 2.101, 2.118, 2.299
User files.........................................................................2.296
USER L...........................................................................2.355
User Label ......................................................................2.331
User Mode ........................................................................2.84
USER R ..........................................................................2.355
User-definable filter.........................................................2.286
USERKEYB.BAT .....................................................1.10, 1.14
U
UNBAL
Generator........................................................ 2.66, 2.140
UNBAL BNC
analyzer ................................................................... 2.155
Unbal Out......................................................................... 2.71
Unbalanced output ........................................................... 2.68
Unbalanced output (Output UNBAL, BNC) ....................... 2.69
UNDERSAMPLE............................................................ 2.232
1078.2008.02
I.16
E-11
UPL
Index
Window..................................................... 2.211, 2.219, 2.223
FFT...........................................................................2.174
Window functions............................................................2.223
Window functions of FFT ................................................2.229
WORD CLK .............................................................2.72, 2.74
Word width
digital generator..........................................................2.75
Work dir ..........................................................................2.323
working directory.............................................................2.298
Working Directory .............................................................2.38
WOW & FL .....................................................................2.166
Wow & Flutter .................................................................2.218
Wow&Flutter ...................................................................2.166
WRD CLK INV ..................................................................2.72
Write protection...............................................................2.302
V
Valid Chan ....................................................................... 2.80
Validity bit....................................................................... 2.354
VALUE ............................................................................. 2.73
Value commands.............................................................. 2.86
Value entry, rotary knob, numeric keypad ........................ 2.35
Value of axes, printout.................................................... 2.391
VARI (PLL)..................................................................... 2.156
Vari Mode....................................................................... 2.137
Variation................................ 2.89, 2.105, 2.123, 2.126, 2.165
Variation mode ............................................................... 2.137
Variation Mode ............................................................... 2.137
Version display............................................................... 2.403
VGA
interface ................................................................... 2.413
monitor..................................................................... 2.396
monitor connector 15-contact..................................... 2.11
VGA monitor................................................................... 2.396
VIDEO 50......................................................................... 2.72
VIDEO 60......................................................................... 2.72
VIEW OFF...................................................................... 2.344
VIEW PCX ..................................................................... 2.300
Virtual Drive
installation.................................................................... 1.7
VOLT ............................................................................... 2.95
Volt Ch1 ......................................................................... 2.130
VOLT CH1 ..................................................................... 2.162
VOLT CH1&2 ................................................................. 2.128
Volt Ch2 ......................................................................... 2.130
1............................................................................... 2.131
VOLT CH2 ..................................................................... 2.162
VOLT FILE ............................................................ 2.97, 2.142
VOLT LF\:UF.................................................................. 2.112
Volt Mode....................................................................... 2.128
Volt No (i) ....................................................................... 2.104
Volt Range ....................................................................... 2.67
VOLT RMS...........................................................2.122, 2.125
VOLT&RATIO ................................................................ 2.128
Voltage...........2.107, 2.109, 2.127, 2.130, 2.133, 2.140, 2.141
generator ................................................................. 2.100
increase ................................................................... 2.101
range........................................................................ 2.150
sweeps ...................................................................... 2.97
VOLTAGE ............................................................2.137, 2.138
voltage check ................................................................... 2.67
voltage limitation .............................................................. 2.67
VOLTAGE PEAK..................................................2.121, 2.125
Voltage selector ................................................................. 1.1
Voltsource ...................................................................... 2.307
Volume........................................................................... 2.262
X
X AXIS................................................................. 2.305, 2.391
X Axis (sweep)..................................................................2.95
X Pos..............................................................................2.338
X scaling .........................................................................2.378
X-axis (sweep)..................................................................2.91
XLR output......................................................................2.140
XON/XOFF .....................................................................2.394
Y
Y Pos..............................................................................2.338
Y scaling .........................................................................2.378
Z
Z Axis .................................................................... 2.95, 2.391
Z AXIS ............................................................................2.305
Z sweep ............................................................................2.91
Z-axis................................................................................2.91
ZERO ............................................................. 2.81, 2.83, 2.84
Zero Auto........................................................................2.401
Zeros ..............................................................................2.294
ZOOM.............................................................................2.342
Zoom Fact ......................................................................2.224
Zoom factor ....................................................................2.224
Zooming frequency range FFT........................................2.224
Zooming zone .................................................................2.225
Z-parameter ......................................................................2.91
W
W&F............................................................................... 2.166
Waterfall......................................................................... 2.224
WATERFALL ................................................................. 2.330
Waveform....................................................................... 2.166
WAVEFORM.................................................................. 2.166
Waveform display........................................................... 2.231
Ways of presentation ....................................................... 2.15
Ways of Starting the Analyzer, Ext. Sweep .................... 2.160
Weighting ....................................................................... 2.218
Weighting filters.............................................................. 2.281
WHITE .................................................................2.118, 2.376
White noise .................................................................... 2.118
WIDE ...................................................................2.207, 2.260
Width.............................................................................. 2.292
Width of a Filter .............................................................. 2.291
Windoe........................................................................... 2.246
1078.2008.02
I.17
E-11
Test and Measurement
Division
Operating Manual
AUDIO ANALYZER
R&S UPL/UPL16/UPL66
DC to 110 kHz
1078.2008.06/16/66
Software version UPL 3.00
Volume 2
Operating manual consists of 2 volumes
Printed in the Federal
Republic of Germany
1078.2089.12-11-
2
Dear Customer,
The Audio Analyzer R&S UPL is abbreviated as UPL.
UPL
Tabbed Divider Overview
Tabbed Divider Overview
Contents
Data Sheets
Safety Instructions
Certificate of quality
EU Certificate of Conformity
List of R & S Representatives
VOLUME 1
Tabbed Divider
1
Chapter 1:
Preparation for Use
2
Chapter 2:
Manual Operation
3
Index
VOLUME 2
Contents
Tabbed Divider
1078.2089.12
4
Chapter 3:
Remote Control
5
Chapter 4:
Maintenance
6
Annex A
UPL Default Setup
7
Index
RE
E-11
UPL
Contents
Contents
1 Preparation for Use
1.1
Putting into Operation ...........................................................................................................1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.6
1.1.7
1.2
Setting up the Audio Analyzer ........................................................................................1.1
Rackmounting ................................................................................................................1.1
Power Supply .................................................................................................................1.1
Switching On ..................................................................................................................1.3
Connecting an External Keyboard .................................................................................1.4
Connecting a Mouse ......................................................................................................1.4
Fitting Options.......................................................................................................................1.5
1.2.1 Enabling Software Options.............................................................................................1.5
1.2.2 Installation of Supplementary Software..........................................................................1.6
1.2.3 Installation of Virtual Drive (RAMDRIVE).......................................................................1.7
1.3
Software Installation .............................................................................................................1.8
1.4
UPL Start Options ................................................................................................................1.10
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
Restarting the UPL Software........................................................................................1.10
Integration of Supplementary Programs ......................................................................1.10
Command line Parameters of R&S UPL Software .....................................................1.11
Immediate Effect of Command line Parameters at Power-Up....................................1.14
2 Manual Operation
2.1
Explanations of Front- and Rearpanel Views incl. Key Combinations on the External
Keyboard.................................................................................................................................2.3
2.1.1 Front-panel View ............................................................................................................2.3
2.1.2 Rear-panel View...........................................................................................................2.11
2.1.3 Block Diagram .............................................................................................................2.12
2.2
Operating Instructions.........................................................................................................2.13
2.2.1 Brief Introduction ..........................................................................................................2.13
2.2.2 Introductory Examples .................................................................................................2.15
2.3
General Instructions for Use...............................................................................................2.29
2.3.1 Panels ..........................................................................................................................2.31
2.3.2 Data Entry ....................................................................................................................2.34
2.3.2.1 Selecting a Parameter.....................................................................................2.34
2.3.2.2 Entry of Numeric Data.....................................................................................2.35
2.3.2.3 Using the Softkeys ..........................................................................................2.36
2.3.2.4 Help Line .........................................................................................................2.36
2.3.2.5 Entry of File Names.........................................................................................2.36
2.3.2.6 Data Input or Output during Measurements....................................................2.39
1078.2089.02
3
E-11
Contents
UPL
2.3.3 Display of Measured Values ........................................................................................2.40
2.3.4 Settling Process ...........................................................................................................2.41
2.3.4.1 Introduction......................................................................................................2.41
2.3.4.2 The Settling Parameters: ................................................................................2.42
2.3.4.3 Settling Process with External Sweep:............................................................2.47
2.3.4.4 SETTLING Check and Optimization ...............................................................2.48
2.3.5 Status Display ..............................................................................................................2.51
2.3.6 Error Messages............................................................................................................2.53
2.3.7 Help Function ...............................................................................................................2.55
2.3.8 Simplification of Panels .................................................................................................2.56
2.4
Units ......................................................................................................................................2.57
2.4.1 Units for the Display of Measurement Results.............................................................2.57
2.4.2 Units for the Entry of Values ........................................................................................2.61
2.5
Generators (GENERATOR Panel) .......................................................................................2.64
2.5.1 Selecting the Generator ...............................................................................................2.65
2.5.2 Configuration of Analog Generator ..............................................................................2.66
2.5.2.1 Unbalanced Output (Output UNBAL) ..............................................................2.68
2.5.2.2 Balanced Output (Output BAL) .......................................................................2.69
2.5.2.3 Output Power ..................................................................................................2.70
2.5.3 Configuration of the Digital Generator .........................................................................2.71
2.5.3.1 Generating Jitter, Phase and Common Mode................................................2.77
2.5.3.2 AES/EBU Protocol Definition...........................................................................2.78
2.5.4 Functions......................................................................................................................2.85
2.5.4.1 Common Parameters for Generator Signals...................................................2.86
2.5.4.1.1 Common Parameters for SINE, DFD, MOD DIST Signals ...........2.86
2.5.4.1.2 Common Parameters for All Generator Functions........................2.87
2.5.4.1.3 Equalization of the Signals SINE, SINE BURST, DFD,
MULTISINE, RANDOM .................................................................2.88
2.5.4.1.4 Amplitude Variation of the Signals MULTISINE, RANDOM and
ARBITRARY..................................................................................2.89
2.5.4.2 Sweeps.........................................................................................................2.91
2.5.4.3 SINE .............................................................................................................2.99
2.5.4.4 MULTISINE ................................................................................................2.101
2.5.4.5 SINE BURST ..............................................................................................2.106
2.5.4.6 SINE2 BURST ............................................................................................2.109
2.5.4.7
MOD DIST (Two-tone Signal to SMPTE) ..................................................2.111
2.5.4.8 DFD (Difference Frequency Distortion) .....................................................2.114
2.5.4.9 Random (Pseudo Noise) ............................................................................2.117
2.5.4.10 Arbitrary (User-Programmable Signal) .......................................................2.124
2.5.4.11 POLARITY (Polarity Test Signal) .............................................................2.127
2.5.4.12 FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) ....................................................................2.127
2.5.4.13 STEREO SINE ..........................................................................