Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite

Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
Virtualization and Private Cloud
with VMware Cloud Suite
http://taylorandfrancis.com
Virtualization and Private Cloud
with VMware Cloud Suite
Lee Chao
CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300
Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742
© 2017 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
No claim to original U.S. Government works
Printed on acid-free paper
Version Date: 20161025
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4987-8432-0 (Paperback)
This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and
information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors
and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may
rectify in any future reprint.
Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information
storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.
For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that
provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system
of payment has been arranged.
Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation
without intent to infringe.
Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data
Names: Chao, Lee, 1951- author.
Title: Virtualization and private cloud with VMware Cloud suite / Lee Chao.
Description: Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis, 2017.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016041874 | ISBN 9781498784320 (pb : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: VMware. | Virtual computer systems. | Cloud computing.
Classification: LCC QA76.9.V5 C425 2017 | DDC 005.4/3--dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016041874
Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at
http://www.taylorandfrancis.com
and the CRC Press Web site at
http://www.crcpress.com
Contents
Preface..................................................................................................................................................................................ix
Acknowledgments...............................................................................................................................................................xiii
Author................................................................................................................................................................................. xv
1 Introduction to Cloud Computing....................................................................................................................... 1
1.1Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................1
1.2 Cloud Architecture.............................................................................................................................................3
1.3 Cloud Development: Software and Hardware Overview....................................................................................5
1.3.1 Software Overview.................................................................................................................................5
1.3.2 Hardware Overview...............................................................................................................................8
1.3.3 Virtualized IT Infrastructure.................................................................................................................8
1.4 Process of Cloud-Based IT Infrastructure Development.....................................................................................9
1.4.1 Requirement Analysis............................................................................................................................9
1.4.2 System Design.....................................................................................................................................10
1.4.3 System Implementation........................................................................................................................12
1.5 Activity 1: Preparing Hands-On Practice.........................................................................................................14
1.6Summary..........................................................................................................................................................19
2 Domain Controller Installation and Configuration.......................................................................................... 21
2.1Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................21
2.2 AD DS.............................................................................................................................................................21
2.2.1 Storing Information of an IT Infrastructure........................................................................................21
2.2.2 Authentication and Authorization........................................................................................................23
2.2.3 Directory Services in Cloud-Based IT Infrastructure...........................................................................24
2.3 Implementation of Domain Controller.............................................................................................................24
2.3.1 AD DS Installation..............................................................................................................................24
2.3.2 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol................................................................................................28
2.3.3 Domain Name Service.........................................................................................................................28
2.3.4 Time Service........................................................................................................................................32
2.3.5 Network-Based Operating System Installation.....................................................................................33
2.4 Activity 1: Implementing Domain Controller..................................................................................................36
2.4.1 Task 1: Preparing Domain Controller Virtual Machine.......................................................................36
2.4.2 Task 2: Configuring Domain Controller.............................................................................................41
2.4.3 Task 3: Configuring DNS....................................................................................................................50
2.4.4 Task 4: Configuring DHCP.................................................................................................................50
2.4.5 Task 5: Configuring NTP Service........................................................................................................54
2.4.6 Task 6: Configuring PXE Service........................................................................................................58
2.5Summary..........................................................................................................................................................65
v
vi ◾ Contents
3 ESXi Installation and Configuration................................................................................................................. 67
3.1Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................67
3.2 ESXi Components............................................................................................................................................67
3.3 Virtualization with VMware ESXi...................................................................................................................70
3.4 Use of ESXi......................................................................................................................................................71
3.5 Activity 1: Installation and Configuration of ESXi...........................................................................................71
3.5.1 Task 1: ESXi Installation Preparation..................................................................................................72
3.5.2 Task 2: ESXi Installation.....................................................................................................................78
3.5.3 Task 3: ESXi Server Configuration......................................................................................................80
3.6Summary..........................................................................................................................................................94
4 vCenter Installation and Configuration............................................................................................................. 95
4.1Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................95
4.2 vCenter Components........................................................................................................................................95
4.3 Activity 1: Installing and Configuring vCenter Appliance 6...........................................................................105
4.3.1 Task 1: Installation Preparation.........................................................................................................105
4.3.2 Task 2: vCenter Server Installation.................................................................................................... 110
4.3.3 Task 3: Accessing vCenter Appliance with vSphere Web Client......................................................... 115
4.4Summary........................................................................................................................................................124
5 Virtual Networks.............................................................................................................................................. 125
5.1Introduction...................................................................................................................................................125
5.2 Virtual Network Components........................................................................................................................125
5.3 Networking with vSwitch...............................................................................................................................128
5.4 Networking with vDS....................................................................................................................................133
5.5 Activity 1: Creating Network to Connect Host Servers to Storage Device......................................................135
5.5.1 Task 1: Preparation............................................................................................................................135
5.5.2 Task 2: Network Configuration.........................................................................................................146
5.6Summary........................................................................................................................................................164
6 Network Shared Storage................................................................................................................................... 165
6.1Introduction...................................................................................................................................................165
6.2 Network Shared Storage Architecture.............................................................................................................165
6.3 Storage Array System......................................................................................................................................167
6.3.1 Description of Storage System............................................................................................................167
6.3.2 RAID Technology.............................................................................................................................169
6.3.3 Storage Array Technology..................................................................................................................171
6.3.4 Storage Network................................................................................................................................173
6.3.5Datastore...........................................................................................................................................177
6.4 Activity 1: Developing Storage Array..............................................................................................................179
6.4.1 Task 1: Installation Preparation.........................................................................................................180
6.4.2 Task 2: Storage Adapter and Target Creation..................................................................................... 181
6.4.3 Task 3: Initiator Configuration.......................................................................................................... 191
6.5Summary........................................................................................................................................................210
7 Virtual Machines, Templates, and vApps......................................................................................................... 211
7.1Introduction................................................................................................................................................... 211
7.2 Virtual Machines............................................................................................................................................ 211
7.3 Virtual Machine Templates............................................................................................................................ 215
7.3.1Templates........................................................................................................................................... 215
7.3.2 OVF and OVA...................................................................................................................................216
7.3.3 Content Libraries............................................................................................................................... 217
7.4vApps.............................................................................................................................................................. 218
Contents ◾ vii
7.5
Activity 1: Developing Virtual Machine, Template, and vApp....................................................................... 219
7.5.1 Task 1: Installing Guest OS on Virtual Machine............................................................................... 219
7.5.2 Task 2: Exporting and Importing OVF Template............................................................................. 234
7.5.3 Task 3: Creating and Transporting vApp...........................................................................................239
7.6Summary........................................................................................................................................................249
8 High Availability and Resource Balancing...................................................................................................... 251
8.1Introduction...................................................................................................................................................251
8.2Clustering.......................................................................................................................................................252
8.3 VMware HA..................................................................................................................................................256
8.4 VMware FT...................................................................................................................................................256
8.5vMotion..........................................................................................................................................................257
8.6DRS...............................................................................................................................................................259
8.7 Activity 1: Implementation of vMotion and FT..............................................................................................259
8.7.1 Task 1: Creating vMotion Network on LabESXi1 Host Server..........................................................259
8.7.2 Task 2: Creating vMotion Network on LabESXi2 Host Server..........................................................263
8.7.3 Task 3: Testing vMotion and HA..................................................................................................... 266
8.7.4 Task 4: Implementing FT..................................................................................................................267
8.8Summary........................................................................................................................................................282
9 Managing vSphere Security.............................................................................................................................. 287
9.1Introduction...................................................................................................................................................287
9.2 ESXi Host Security Management...................................................................................................................288
9.3 vCenter Security Management.......................................................................................................................290
9.4 VM Security Management.............................................................................................................................293
9.5 Virtual Network Security Management..........................................................................................................295
9.6 Activity 1: Securing ESXi Hosts and vCenter.................................................................................................296
9.6.1 Task 1: Introducing ESXi Shell and SSH...........................................................................................296
9.6.2 Task 2: Securing ESXi Hosts............................................................................................................ 304
9.6.3 Task 3: Securing vCenter...................................................................................................................309
9.6.4 Task 4: Managing Certificates...........................................................................................................320
9.7Summary........................................................................................................................................................324
10 vCloud Networking and Security..................................................................................................................... 327
10.1Introduction...................................................................................................................................................327
10.2 Applying vCNS..............................................................................................................................................327
10.3 vCNS Architecture.........................................................................................................................................328
10.4 vCNS Implementation...................................................................................................................................331
10.5 Activity 1: Implementing vCNS.....................................................................................................................333
10.5.1 Task 1: Installing VMware vShield Manager Appliance.....................................................................333
10.5.2 Task 2: Configuring vShield Manager...............................................................................................334
10.6Summary........................................................................................................................................................352
11 vCloud Director............................................................................................................................................... 355
11.1Introduction...................................................................................................................................................355
11.2 vCD Architecture...........................................................................................................................................356
11.3 vCD Configuration........................................................................................................................................358
11.4 vCD Implementation.....................................................................................................................................361
11.5 Activity 1: Private Cloud Development with vCD..........................................................................................368
11.5.1 Task 1: Installing and Configuring vCD...........................................................................................368
11.5.2 Task 2: Creating vCloud Components...............................................................................................374
11.5.3 Task 3: Implementing and Managing Cloud Services........................................................................392
11.6Summary........................................................................................................................................................403
viii ◾ Contents
Appendix A: IT Infrastructure Preparation for Supporting Business...................................................................... 405
Appendix B: SQL Server Database Installation and Configuration......................................................................... 409
Appendix C: Installing and Configuring vCenter Server with SQL Server Database.............................................. 421
Bibliography.............................................................................................................................................................. 447
Index......................................................................................................................................................................... 449
Preface
Cloud Computing with VMware
vCloud Suite
Cloud computing is a new platform for the current enterprise information technology (IT) infrastructure. The cloud
computing platform has the flexibility in delivering the IT
infrastructure based on demands. Cloud computing can
maximize the efficiency of IT infrastructure development.
For a forward-thinking enterprise, cloud computing is the
next big thing that can revolutionize the way the enterprise
runs its business.
E-commerce and education institutions can particularly
benefit from the cloud-based IT infrastructure. A company
or an education institution often requires some specifically
designed IT infrastructure to meet the computing requirements. It may not be easy for a company to rebuild its own IT
infrastructure to meet these requirements. Cloud computing
is particularly helpful for meeting this type of requirements.
Without constructing its own IT infrastructure, a company
or an education institution can subscribe the software, application development platform, or ready-built IT infrastructure from cloud providers. A cloud subscriber only needs to
pay for the usage of the software and hardware. In such a way,
the cloud subscriber can significantly reduce the time and
cost of the IT infrastructure development and management.
Another benefit of cloud computing is its scalability. In a
cloud computing environment, a company or an education
institution can easily upscale or downscale its IT requirements as needed. A cloud provider provides adequate computing resources to handle planned or unplanned spikes. As
an organization grows, the organization can subscribe more
computing resources from the cloud provider to accommodate the growing needs for computing.
Cloud providers also provide backup and recovery mechanisms for better reliability. In a cloud computing environment, multiple copies of data are stored in different storage
devices and at different locations. In case of an error, the IT
infrastructure can be migrated from one datacenter to another
datacenter. The fault tolerance mechanism can be used for
zero downtime operation. With fault tolerance, two servers
can be configured to run simultaneously. In case that one of
the servers goes down, the other one will continue to operate.
Motivation
As enterprises are moving from the traditional client–server
platform to the cloud computing platform, the IT industry
supports the transition by providing the cloud development
software and hardware. To support cloud-based e-commerce
or online teaching, VMware provides VMware vCloud Suite,
including vSphere used as a virtualization operating system,
vSphere Client used as a client application for vSphere management, vCenter used as a centralized management tool for
a vSphere cluster, vCloud Director used for cloud computing management, VMware Workstation used as a desktop
development and management tool of virtual machines, and
many other tools. VMware offers the VMware Academic
Program package, which includes all the above-mentioned
software and more. It also provides similar packages for
small businesses. VMware vCloud Suite is designed to run
on x86-compatible computers. Therefore, it is relatively easy
for education institutions and small businesses to create their
private clouds.
More and more companies and educational institutions
are planning to adopt the cloud-based IT infrastructure. The
market trend generates a huge demand for IT professionals with skills in the cloud technology. For many students
majoring in IT-related fields and entry-level IT professionals,
there are a handful of challenges on implementing the cloud
computing environment at the enterprise level. The best
way for them to master the cloud technology is to develop
a fully functioning cloud-based IT infrastructure with their
own hands. By understanding the needs, the author is motivated to write this book, which includes systematic coverage of the implementation of cloud-based IT infrastructure
on x86-platform personal computers (PCs) with VMware
vCloud Suite.
Objectives of the Book
With the above-mentioned motivation, this book is designed
with the following objectives. Firstly, it will provide the
knowledge of cloud computing. Through examples, it will
demonstrate how small businesses and education institutions
ix
x ◾ Preface
can benefit from the cloud-based IT infrastructure. Secondly,
the book will provide the necessary knowledge about the
components included in VMware vCloud Suite. It will
explain the functionalities provided by these components
and how each of these components works in a cloud environment. Thirdly, this book will help IT professionals to get a
quick start on developing a cloud-based IT infrastructure.
The book is designed to enhance readers’ hands-on skills
by providing hands-on lab activities. The book will lead the
readers to create a lab environment on x86-based PCs. In the
VMware vCloud Suite lab, a cloud-based IT infrastructure
will be developed to provide cloud services. These cloud services will be accessible from external networks.
Features of the Book
This book covers the implementation of a cloud-based IT
infrastructure with VMware vCloud Suite. The following are
the features that make the book valuable for readers who are
interested in learning about the cloud-based IT infrastructure:
◾◾ Lab-based learning environment: This book’s readers
will learn about the cloud technology and IT infrastructure through developing a cloud-based IT infrastructure that is built with VMware vCloud Suite.
◾◾ Real-world approach: The cloud-based IT infrastructure
built in this book can be used for a real-world business.
It is built with the hardware and software commonly
available in the current IT industry.
◾◾ Step-by-step approach: The step-by-step instruction and
the screenshots are used to guide the lab activities. The
comprehensive lab activities help readers make the
connection between theory and practice.
◾◾ Self-contained content: For readers’ convenience, the
book is self-contained. It includes some necessary
cloud computing, operating system, database, directory service, network shared storage device, and networking concepts. It also includes IT infrastructure
design strategies.
◾◾ Suitable for self-study: This book provides detailed
instructions that are suitable for self-study. It explains
the theory and concepts through examples, illustrations, and hands-on activities.
◾◾ Designed for VMware: The book is specially designed
for VMware, which is one of the popular packages
for developing cloud-based IT infrastructure on
x86-platform PCs. All the hands-on activities can be
carried out with VMware vCloud Suite.
◾◾ Instructional materials: To help with teaching and
learning, this book includes instructional materials
such as an instructor’s manual, PowerPoint presentations, and solutions.
With these features, readers can get a quick start on
implementing the cloud-based IT infrastructure. This book
focuses on its goal to make sure that readers can start quickly
with less difficulty.
Intended Audience
This book is suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate students who major in computing-related fields. The
content of the book is designed for teaching cloud computing–
related courses. This book is also suitable for IT professionals
who do self-study on cloud computing and those who are
interested in learning about VMware vCloud Suite.
Organization of the Book
This book has 11 chapters. Each chapter contains an introduction of the content to be covered by that chapter, the main
body of the chapter, the Summary section to summarize the
discussion in the chapter, and the Review Questions section
to help readers review the knowledge learned from the chapter. The chapters also include hands-on activities to help readers better understand the content covered in the chapters.
Chapter 1. Introduction to Cloud Computing: This chapter introduces cloud computing concepts and architecture.
It describes the process of setting up a cloud-based IT infrastructure. In the lab activity in this chapter, an IT infrastructure is built for hosting the VMware lab environment.
Chapter 2. Domain Controller Installation and Configuration:
This chapter discusses the domain controller, which is the
server with the directory service software installed. The
directory service will be used for the centralized authentication for the VMware lab environment. In the lab activity, Windows Server 2012 will be installed and configured
to provide the directory service. In this chapter, Windows
Server 2012 is also configured to be a server for the networkbased installation of the Elastic Sky X Integrated (ESXi) host
and the time server.
Chapter 3. ESXi Installation and Configuration: This
chapter covers the hypervisor ESXi. It explains the installation of ESXi, which will be used to create a virtualized
environment. In the lab activity, the readers will follow the
step-by-step instruction to install and configure ESXi.
Chapter 4. vCenter Installation and Configuration: This
chapter introduces the vCenter software, which will be used
to manage the VMware lab environment. In the lab activity, vCenter will be installed and configured so that it is
ready for the centralized management of the virtualized lab
environment.
Chapter 5. Virtual Networks: This chapter introduces virtual networks. In the VMware computing environment, the
Preface ◾ xi
domain controllers, ESXi host servers, vCenter Servers, network shared storage devices, and virtual machines communicate with each other through virtual networks. This chapter
explains how a virtual network works. It also shows how to
create a virtual network through the hands-on activity.
Chapter 6. Network Shared Storage: In this chapter, a network will be established to connect the ESXi hosts to the
network storage so that the ESXi hosts can share the network
storage device. In the lab activity, the ESXi hosts will be connected to the Internet Small Computer System Interface–
based network shared storage device through a specially
designed network.
Chapter 7. Virtual Machines, Templates, and vApps: In this
chapter, virtual machines, templates, and vApps will be created for various applications. In the lab activity, vApps will
be created with multiple virtual machines and vApp internal
networks.
Chapter 8. High Availability and Resource Balancing: This
chapter introduces the features related to high availability
and fault tolerance. These features are for the enterprise computing environment that requires high business continuity.
vMotion is also introduced in this chapter. In the lab activity, readers will get hands-on practice on the VMware tools
for high availability, fault tolerance, and distributed resource
scheduler. In the lab activity, a specially designed network is
established for migrating running virtual machines from one
ESXi host to another ESXi host.
Chapter 9. Managing vSphere Security: This chapter
introduces some security measures, such as the firewall, user
authentication, and server certificate, included in VMware
vCloud Suite. This chapter focuses on the subjects related to
user authentication and authorization. This chapter’s handson activity practices the configuration of some measures to
enhance the security of ESXi and vCenter. It also covers
the management of certificates for the ESXi and vCenter
Servers.
Chapter 10. vCloud Networking and Security: VMware
vCloud Networking and Security is the software used to
manage the networking and security of a vCloud environment. It includes components such as the virtual firewall,
virtual private network, load balancing, network address
translation, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, and virtual extensible local area network–extended networks. In the
lab activity, the software will be installed and configured to
link and secure the networks created for vCloud Director.
Chapter 11. vCloud Director: This chapter prepares the
installation of vCloud Director for providing the cloud
services for customers. It describes the features of vCloud
Director and shows what can be done with vCloud Director.
In the lab activity, vCloud Director will be installed and configured. The lab activity demonstrates how to control computing resources, how to set up organizations and catalogs,
and how to create templates and use the templates to develop
vApps to implement cloud-based services.
Appendix A. IT Infrastructure Preparation for Supporting
Business: In this section, a physical IT infrastructure is prepared for installing VMware vCloud Suite. The physical IT
infrastructure consists of physical server computers and network devices specified in Chapter 1. As an example, a basic
implementation that costs about $10,000 is demonstrated in
this section.
Appendix B. SQL Server Database Installation and
Configuration: This section establishes a database system that
is used to store user and machine information for the management of the VMware lab environment. In the lab activity,
Microsoft SQL Server is installed and configured for managing vCenter data.
Appendix C. Installing and Configuring vCenter Server
with SQL Server Database: In a production environment,
vCenter is often installed on a physical server for better
reliability and performance. This section illustrates how to
install and configure vCenter on a physical server.
As the cloud-based IT infrastructure will be built cumulatively through these hands-on activities, it is recommended
that readers complete the activity in each chapter before
starting the hands-on activity in the next chapter.
http://taylorandfrancis.com
Acknowledgments
I thank my family for their love and support, their patience,
and their understanding of my work.
My special gratitude goes to my students and Dr. Jenny
Huang for their participation in the book-proofreading process. They carefully reviewed the manuscript. Their suggestions and corrections significantly improved the quality of
the book.
I also thank the wonderful editorial staff and other personnel at Auerbach Publications of Taylor & Francis Group
for their support of this project. I sincerely appreciate the
collaboration of Mr. John Wyzalek, senior acquisitions editor, and all the other people who have been involved in this
book project. The book would not be possible without their
encouragement and great effort.
Lee Chao
xiii
http://taylorandfrancis.com
Author
Dr. Lee Chao is currently a professor of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics division at the University
of Houston–Victoria, Texas. He received his PhD from the
University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming. Dr. Chao has
been teaching information technology (IT) courses for over
20 years. His current research interests are IT infrastructure
development and cloud computing. Dr. Chao is also the author
of numerous research articles and books in various areas of IT.
xv
http://taylorandfrancis.com
Chapter 1
Introduction to Cloud Computing
Objectives
◾◾
◾◾
◾◾
◾◾
Comprehend cloud computing
Get familiar with VMware vCloud Suite
Analyze hardware and software requirements
Understand virtualized information technology
infra­structure
1.1 Introduction
The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the
cloud-based information technology (IT) infrastructure.
Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing platform.
In the cloud computing environment, instead of developing its own IT infrastructure and application development
platform, and supporting the software, an organization can
subscribe these services from a cloud provider. The cloud provider provides computing resources such as software, application development platform, and virtualized IT infrastructure
to cloud service subscribers. The cloud subscribers only pay
for the services and computing resources they use to reduce
cost. Without constructing an IT infrastructure to support
e-commerce or online teaching activities, there will be no
upfront expenditure on the IT infrastructure for the company or the education institution. Right after the computing
resources have been subscribed from the cloud provider, the
company or the education institution can get a quick start to
meet their computation needs. The physical IT infrastructure supporting the cloud services will be managed by the
cloud provider. This means that the subscriber can further
reduce cost on the maintenance of the IT infrastructure.
In addition, cloud computing is more efficient on the
usage of computing resources. As the business grows, the company or the education institution can subscribe more services
and computing resources. Cloud computing is a more flexible computing platform; it is relatively easy for a subscriber to
alter an application development platform or the virtualized
IT infrastructure to meet its needs. A public cloud is especially
useful for handling peak demands by scaling up the computing resources without delay. Another advantage of cloud
computing is the cloud services such as the software, the application development platform, or the virtualized IT infrastructure, which can be accessed through the Internet anywhere
and anytime. Subscribing cloud services from cloud providers
can be a great solution for small businesses that lack computing resources and skills to support their own IT infrastructure.
Cloud services can be subscribed from a public cloud provider, from a private cloud provider, or from a cloud provider
combining both public and private clouds. For a public cloud,
cloud subscribers can get computing resources and services
from a third-party cloud provider such as Amazon Elastic
Compute Cloud, IBM Blue Cloud, and Microsoft Windows
Azure. The cloud services can be categorized into three major
types: (1) software as a service (SaaS), (2) infrastructure as a
service (IaaS), and (3) platform as a service (PaaS).
Software as a service: SaaS provides application software
to subscribers. The application software provided by SaaS is
accessible through personal computing devices such as notebook computers or mobile devices anywhere and anytime.
Some of the well-known public SaaS services are available
for subscribers. Google provides cloud-based application
software such as Google Mail, Google Docs, Google Cloud
Print, and Google Calendar. Similarly, Microsoft also provides cloud-based applications such as Microsoft Office 365.
In addition to Web-based Office software such as Word,
Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote, Microsoft Office 365
includes software for cloud-based email, shared calendars,
personal computer (PC)–to-PC calling, videoconferencing,
and antivirus and antispam filters.
Platform as a service: PaaS provides a Web-based application development platform for cloud subscribers. The
application development platform includes software such
as server operating systems (OSs), databases, middleware,
1
2 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
Web servers, and project management tools. By subscribing to a PaaS service, subscribers do not have to construct
and maintain the application development platform and the
IT infrastructure that supports the application development
platform. They can then focus on designing, developing,
testing, deploying, and upgrading their application projects.
The PaaS service allows application developers to work collaboratively on a project through the Internet.
One of the publicly available PaaS services is Microsoft
Azure, which provides a platform that consists of data storage, network infrastructure, and application development
software. Microsoft Azure also provides tools for testing and
deploying application projects. With Microsoft Azure, application developers are able to create various Web-based applications, as well as mobile applications.
Infrastructure as a service: IaaS provides the virtualized IT
infrastructure that consists of networks, servers, data storage,
and client computers. With IaaS, subscribers can create their
own IT infrastructure such as their own networks and their
own client–server infrastructure. They can run their own
database servers, Web servers, domain controllers, Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service, and domain
name service.
Amazon is such a public cloud provider that provides IaaS
through Amazon Web Services (AWS). AWS IaaS provides
cloud subscribers with virtual network servers, virtual desktop
computers, data storage, and Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
The IaaS service provided by AWS allows the subscribers to
choose prebuilt virtual machines installed with various OSs
and application software. The cloud subscribers can also install
their own software on the virtual machines provided by AWS.
This means that a cloud subscriber is able to install free or opensource software such as the open-source database MySQL,
which runs on a Linux OS. AWS IaaS also provides the virtual
private cloud technology, which allows cloud subscribers to create their own private networks on the Amazon cloud. Once the
virtual machines provided by AWS IaaS service are properly
assigned IP addresses, these virtual machines will be accessible
through the Internet. The AWS IaaS service also allows cloud
subscribers to integrate a company’s own IT infrastructure with
the virtualized IT infrastructure provided by Amazon.
Subscribing computing resources from a public cloud
provider can greatly improve the flexibility and availability
on IT infrastructure development and management. On the
other hand, by subscribing cloud services from a public cloud
provider, a cloud subscriber has to pay monthly for the cloud
services. The subscription fee can be too costly for many small
businesses and education institutions. Also, cloud subscribers have no control over where their data are stored. Many
subscribers may share the same data storage. Sometimes, the
data may even be stored in a datacenter located in a foreign
country. This may cause some concerns about the public
cloud. For instance, as required by the federal government, an
educational institution is responsible for keeping its students’
privacy. It may violate state or federal government regulations
if the student data are stored in a foreign country.
To take advantage of the cloud computing platform meanwhile to meet the data safety requirements, a company or an
education institution can provide cloud services for private
use. A private cloud can be constructed on the existing IT
infrastructure owned by an organization. Cloud services and
computing resources can be provided by the organization’s IT
department. The private cloud allows the organization to have
total control of its own data, and the cloud subscribers are
authenticated by the organization. The private cloud allows
the subscribers to take advantage of the security, flexibility,
and availability provided by cloud computing without paying
subscription fees. The disadvantage of a private cloud is that
the company or the education institution has to develop and
manage the IT infrastructure, which requires capital expenditure, time, and a group of skilled technical personnel.
Software packages for developing a private cloud are
widely available. There are some well-known private cloud
development software, such as VMware vCloud Suite,
Microsoft Hyper-V and System Center Virtual Machine
Manager, and Xen Cloud Platform, to name a few. Among
them, Microsoft Hyper-V depends on the Windows OS
to interact with the hardware; Xen depends on the Linux
OS to interact with the hardware; and VMware is able to
directly interact with the hardware. However, VMware can
only work with certified hardware such as server computers,
storage devices, and network devices.
To take advantage of the public cloud and the private
cloud, a company or an education institution can integrate
them to form a hybrid cloud. The sensitive data will be saved
to the private datacenter; meanwhile, the users will enjoy the
scalability and availability of the public cloud. As many organizations already have their own IT infrastructure in place,
it is relatively easy to construct a private cloud on top of the
existing IT infrastructure. The private cloud can be used to
support the security-sensitive departments such as their financial and human resources departments. In the meantime,
they can use the public cloud to support the less sensitive
business processes such as the company’s Web applications.
On the other hand, the hybrid cloud has some disadvantages.
It has to deal with both the private cloud and public cloud. A
company or an education institution needs to maintain the
existing IT infrastructure on its private cloud and pay the
subscription fee for the third-party public cloud provider. It
takes more effort to manage both the public cloud and the
private cloud at the same time. If the hybrid cloud is too much
for a small business or an education institution to handle, a
private cloud can be considered as an alternative.
In addition to the public, private, and hybrid clouds, the
personal cloud has become available. A brief introduction of
this type of cloud services is given as follows.
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 3
Personal cloud: The personal cloud is designed for storing and managing personal data that are accessible through
the Internet. A personal cloud provider allows subscribers to
share their personal data such as photos, movies, contacts,
email, and documents with their friends, family, and coworkers online. By using the services provided by the personal
cloud provider, the subscribers are able to store, retrieve, and
organize their own data anywhere and anytime. They are
also able to update, back up, and replicate all the personal
data with their mobile devices.
iCloud is one of the well-known personal cloud providers.
More than an online storage service, iCloud does everything
for the subscriber to manage his or her personal data. iCloud
keeps a person’s email, contacts, and calendars up to date
across his or her devices. With iCloud, a person’s data content will be available on all of his or her computing devices,
including iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Mac, or PC.
Windows Live SkyDrive is the Microsoft version of the
personal cloud. It is also used to store, organize, and share
personal data anywhere and anytime through the Internet.
Subscribers can create a contact list and grant permissions
to access specific folders so that friends and family members
can share photos, videos, music, and other data content.
SkyDrive allows the subscribers to link the stored data to
their blogs or Web pages. In addition to the above two personal clouds, many other companies provide personal cloud
services for their customers.
As described above, cloud computing works well in
e-commerce and online education environments. The goal of
this book is to provide the knowledge and skills to develop
cloud services. The book provides an overview of cloud architecture and helps readers understand the software and hardware requirements of developing a cloud. Let us start with
the description of cloud architecture in the next section.
1.2 Cloud Architecture
In a client–server environment, the server hosts some of the
network-capable applications such as a database or email.
Multiple users can access these applications through client
computers from remote locations, as shown in Figure 1.1.
The advantage of a client–server solution is that the computing workload is distributed to both the server and the client
computers. For a large computing task, the workload may be
distributed to a group of servers and a group of client computers.
The distributed structure can significantly reduce the workload
of each individual computer. By placing the security-sensitive
Network
Email
server
Client machines
Remote access
management
Network
Client machines
Database
server
Network
Business logic
Client machines
Network
File
server
Client machines
Back end
Figure 1.1 Three-tier client–server architecture.
Mid tier
Front end
4 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
content to the server machine, the client–server solution is
more secure as the server is better protected. The client–server
architecture is more reliable when the data are replicated to
two or more servers. The client–server solution provides a flexible architecture. When a new version of application software
is available, it can be installed on a new server and make it
available to those client computers that need to access the newversion software. Meanwhile, keep the old-version software on
another server for those clients who still need the old-version
software. Also, the client–server architecture is suitable for
centralized authentication and user management. With these
advantages, the client–server architecture is adopted by most of
the e-commerce and education institutions.
In many ways, the client–server architecture resembles
SaaS in cloud computing. The clients at the front end work
like cloud subscribers, and the servers at the back end serve
the role of a cloud provider. The difference is that SaaS is no
longer enterprise centric in the case of the public cloud. The
back-end tier in the client–server architecture evolves to a
more scalable, reliable, and flexible datacenter that consists
of a cluster of servers and storage devices. In the case of the
public cloud, the datacenter can be managed by a third-party
cloud provider. The application software provided by the
cloud provider largely becomes Web enabled. The cloud subscribers connect to the application software mainly through
a Web browser. Unlike the client in the client–server architecture, the cloud subscribers only pay for the software and
computing resources they use. In addition to the SaaS services, the cloud provider can provide the PaaS and IaaS services by applying the virtualization technology.
A cloud provider constructs its server side on a set of
nodes, each of which includes data storage devices and a
number of server computers installed in a blade enclosure.
For reliability, each node has two or more backup nodes.
The data in each node are replicated to backup nodes. These
nodes are interconnected with high-speed wires and switches
and are controlled by a unit called fabric controller (FC). The
FC works with the load balancer to make sure that none of
the nodes is overworked. The cloud architecture is illustrated
in Figure 1.2.
Cloud
FC and load balancer
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Datacenter 1
Cloud subscribers
FC and load balancer
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Datacenter 2
Cloud subscribers
FC and load balancer
Node 1
Node 2
Datacenter 3
Figure 1.2 Cloud architecture.
Node 3
Cloud subscribers
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 5
Public cloud
FC and load balancer
Node 2
Node 1
Node 3
Datacenter 1
Private cloud
FC and load balancer
FC and load balancer
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Datacenter 2
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Private cloud datacenter
FC and load balancer
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Datacenter 3
Figure 1.3 Hybrid cloud.
The private cloud has a similar architecture to the one
shown in Figure 1.2, except that the datacenter is built on
an organization’s private network, and the cloud subscribers
are the employees who are authenticated by the organization.
In a hybrid cloud, the cloud subscribers can access the
cloud services from the public cloud provider, as well as
from the private cloud provider. The applications created on
the public cloud can access the datacenter constructed on
the private cloud or vice versa. Due to limited resources, the
private cloud may not be able to handle a large increase of
demand on computing resources. In such a case, the private
cloud can offload some of its workload to the integrated public cloud. The private cloud is connected to the public cloud
through two routers with the firewall built in. One router is
used to connect the private network to the Internet, and the
other one is used to connect the Internet to the public cloud
provider’s network. Figure 1.3 illustrates the architecture of
a hybrid cloud.
1.3 Cloud Development: Software
and Hardware Overview
This section provides an overview about the hardware and
software for cloud development. It also takes a look at virtualization and its application in providing cloud services. Let
us start with the overview of the software.
1.3.1 Software Overview
Many small businesses and education institutions have
their IT infrastructure built on computers with the x86
platform. VMware vCloud Suite is a widely deployed
software suite for virtualization and cloud computing on
x86-compatible computers. VMware vCloud Suite bundles a group of VMware products, including ESXi, vCenter, vRealize, and so on, to make it easier for creating a
cloud computing environment. With VMware, an enterprise can provide virtual machines and virtual networks to
form an IT infrastructure to replace many disparate, disorganized, and unproductive physical hardware devices. As
an enterprise-level software suite, VMware vCloud Suite
can be expensive for many small businesses and education institutions. To help those small businesses and education institutions, VMware provides low-cost packages
such as VMware vSphere Essentials Kit, VMware vSphere
Essentials Plus Kit, and the VMware Academic Program
(VMAP). VMware vSphere Essentials Kit is a starter kit
for small businesses to virtualize and centralize their physical hardware devices. The VMAP provides students and
faculty members with low-cost VMware software to implement cloud computing into their curriculum.
Low-cost packages, such as the VMAP, will be used to
support all the lab activities covered in this book. With a
systematic approach, readers will be able to build a cloud
computing environment for a small business or an education
6 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
institution. VMware vCloud Suite provided by the VMAP
includes components such as Elastic Sky X Integrated (ESXi)
Server, VMware vCenter Server, vSphere Client, VMware
vSphere Web Client, vSphere vMotion, vSphere High
Availability (HA), vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler
(DRS), and so on.
◾◾ ESXi: The core of vSphere is the hypervisor ESXi. It
is an OS-independent hypervisor that manages virtual machines and networks. As a special-purpose OS,
ESXi requires about 130 MB of memory to work properly. VMkernel is a component in ESXi that allocates
the central processing unit (CPU) time and memory
of the physical servers for virtual machines. It controls virtual machines so that each virtual machine
gets its computing resources in turn so that the virtual
machines would not interrupt each other. Two or more
identical copies of ESXi are usually installed on two or
more physical servers called hosts, which form a server
cluster. In case that one of the physical servers fails, the
computing tasks run by the failed server will be taken
over by the other servers in the same cluster. By doing
so, the virtualized IT infrastructure can significantly
reduce the system downtime.
◾◾ VMware vCenter Server: It is the software that provides centralized management of data storage, virtual
machines, and hosts. It controls services such as remote
access, performance monitoring, and alarm management. vCenter Server is used for the implementation of
enterprise features such as vMotion, VMware HA, and
VMware DRS. vCenter Server also provides directory
services and data storage for managing and storing the
information about ESXi hosts and virtual machines.
VMware offers a prebuilt vCenter appliance, which is
the vCenter Server installed on a virtual machine with
SUSE Linux as the guest OS.
◾◾ vSphere Client: It is the software used to remotely
access to the ESXi host or vCenter Server from any
Windows PC.
◾◾ VMware vSphere Web Client: It is the software used to
remotely access vCenter Server from a Web browser.
◾◾ vSphere vMotion: It is used to manually migrate running virtual machines from one ESXi host to another
ESXi host.
◾◾ vSphere High Availability: It is the software used to
detect hardware and guest OS failures. During a power
outage or if a failure is detected, the HA utility can
automatically restart a virtual machine from a different
ESXi host. In a virtualized IT environment, HA provides uniform, cost-effective failover protection against
a hardware or OS breakdown.
◾◾ vSphere Fault Tolerance (FT): Like vSphere HA, FT
is also used against system failures. However, by
restarting failed virtual machines, HA has a short
downtime. vSphere FT eliminates any downtime by
running a pair of mirrored virtual machines simultaneously. When the primary machine fails, the secondary machine will step in to take over the workload with
zero downtime. As the secondary machine becomes
the new primary machine, a new secondary machine
will be automatically created and mirror the new primary machine.
◾◾ vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler: It leverages
vMotion to live-migrate virtual machines from one
host to another host according to the needs of load
balancing. During a load-balancing process, it automatically optimizes hardware utilization. It prioritizes
resources to highly valued applications and distributes
computing workloads to available hardware resources
in a virtualized environment.
◾◾ VSAN: It turns the local solid-state drive (SSD) storage on the ESXi host servers into a virtual storage area
network (VSAN), which is a network interconnecting
shared storage devices. It requires at least three ESXi
hosts to be involved. VSAN can be used to create a
datastore across multiple ESXi hosts. It can improve
input/output (I/O) performance.
To support cloud computing, VMware vCloud Suite
provided by the VMAP includes VMware vCloud Director
(vCD) used to create and manage cloud services and vCloud
Networking and Security (vCNS), which provides security
service such as VPN and firewall. vCNS can also be used
to isolate one cloud subscriber’s virtual IT infrastructure
from another cloud subscriber’s virtual IT infrastructure.
Currently, VMware has replaced vDC and vCNS with
vRealize and NSX in the commercial VMware vCloud
Suite package. However, at the time of writing, VMware
still keeps vCD and vCNS in the VMAP. VMware also
provides vCD for cloud service providers. Figure 1.4 shows
the design diagram of the VMware setup for a small business
or for a cloud-based teaching environment.
In Figure 1.4, vCD can be built to provide multi­tenant
cloud services. In vCD, a VMware administrator can create multiple organizations, each of which can be used to
support a small business (the cloud service subscriber).
For online teaching, an organization can represent the IT
infrastructure to support a class taught online. The organizations are separated from each other and are completely
secure. Through vCD, the VMware administrator can
allocate computing resources for each organization and
configure virtual organization networks. An organization
network can be configured to connect to a private network, such as a private classroom network, so that it can
communicate with other computing devices on the private
network. Through vCNS, the organization network can be
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 7
Internet
Home computers and mobile devices
Remote accessing
Organization:
networking
vCloud Director
Organization:
app development
Organization:
database system
vCenter Server
Hypervisor
management
Network
management
Resource
management
Private physical network
Classroom switch
ESXi host 1
Directory Service
SQL Server
ESXi host 2
Storage switch
Private virtual network
Network storage
Virtual machines
vApps
VMware Private Cloud
Figure 1.4 VMware setup diagram.
configured to communicate with the Internet. By doing so,
a client in a remote location can access the cloud services
provided by vCD through the Internet.
A vApp consists of virtual machines, virtual networks,
and applications for the users. Through the vApp, one can
deliver IaaS, which provides the IT infrastructure, PaaS,
which provides an application development platform, or
SaaS, which provides application software for the cloud subscribers. The vApp is portable so that it can be transferred
from one VMware computing environment to another
VMware computing environment. For an online class, the
vApp can be cloned so that each group of students can work
on a similar IT infrastructure for their hands-on practice.
On the other end, vCD is connected to vCenter, which
is a server installed with the vCenter software. Through
vCenter, the VMware administrator can manage vCD, ESXi
hosts, the Directory Services server, the database server, network storage, and the virtual and physical networks such as
the classroom network and storage network. vCenter can
also be used to create and manage virtual machines created
on ESXi hosts. However, vCenter does not directly create
cloud services as vCD does.
8 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
1.3.2 Hardware Overview
When dealing with an urgent request for the IT infrastructure to support a new project, instead of purchasing,
Hardware devices include server computers, storage devices, installing, and networking the IT infrastructure, we can crepower supplies, and network devices. First, we need to select ate virtualized servers and networks in a short time to meet
the hardware on the VMware compatibility list from the fol- the needs. We can make a virtualized IT infrastructure as a
lowing Web site:
template and clone it when needed. We can take a snapshot
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility/search​ of the virtualized IT infrastructure. When the IT infrastruc.php
ture crashes due to power failure or other reasons, the IT
For example, suppose that we are interested to purchase infrastructure can be quickly recovered by using the snaprack or tower computers from Dell to install VMware ESXi shots. The virtualized IT infrastructure can be easily moved
6.0 or a later version. The server computer selection is based from one server to another server or from one storage device
on the functionality and affordability. The selection depends to another storage device without any downtime.
on many factors such as CPU, random access memory
In VMware vCloud Suite, the software ESXi can be used
(RAM), NIC, storage, and compatibility with other hard- to simulate an IT infrastructure. The virtualization technolware devices.
ogy can be used to generate virtual machines and virtual
ESXi hosts are connected to vCenter, as well as network networks. These virtual machines and virtual networks will
storage. An ESXi host is an x86 server with the ESXi software be stored on the network storage and will run on an ESXi
installed. Usually, two or more ESXi hosts are installed for host. Depending on the computing resources available on
redundancy. Multiple ESXi hosts share one or more network the ESXi host, a number of virtual machines can run on the
storage devices so that virtual machines can be easily moved ESXi host simultaneously. ESXi keeps each virtual machine
between two ESXi hosts. ESXi works with hardware such as completely independent. Each virtual machine is capable of
CPU and memory directly for resource allocation to virtual running its own OS and application software and will not
machines. It works with network interface cards (NICs) and be interrupted by the other virtual machines running on the
the device connection bus. It manages drivers that are used physical machine.
for the communication between hardware and software.
ESXi supports network virtualization. It provides vNetESXi also includes drivers to work with network storage work Standard Switch (vSS) and vNetwork Distributed
devices. Virtual NICs and virtual switches can be created Switch (vDS) for constructing networks. vSS can be used
within ESXi to connect the virtual machines running inside to connect the virtual machines managed by the ESXi host
the ESXi hosts. There are two versions of virtual switches: and the physical network so that the virtual machines can
(1) the standard vSwitch and (2) the distributed vSwitch. communicate with each other on a virtual network, as well
Through the standard vSwitch, several virtual machines on as with physical machines on a company’s network. For beta single ESXi host can share a physical NIC. Through the ter resource management of large, complicated physical netdistributed vSwitch, the vSwitches on each ESXi host can works, both vSS and vDS can be used to connect and manage
form a single logical network switch.
multiple virtual local area networks (VLANs). A VLAN can
The amount of memory required for the ESXi server is be used to divide a large physical network into a few smaller
based on the number of virtual machines running simulta- logical networks. Each logical network can be configured so
neously. VMware with the OverCommit feature allows vir- that it is isolated from other logical networks. For example, a
tual machines to run when the total required memory size network built for a finance department is often isolated from
exceeds the memory available on the ESXi server. If virtual other networks in a company. It is much easier to reconfigure
machines consume all the ESXi server’s memory, then the a VLAN without physically relocating the connected comESXi server will reclaim memory from virtual machines and puters. The VLAN technology also provides better network
redistribute the ESXi memory, in an efficient and fair man- security and manageability. vSS and vDS also support NIC
ner, to all virtual machines so that the memory resource is teaming, which is a technology that integrates multiple netbest utilized.
work adapters on a host to form a team for bandwidth aggregation and preventing the loss of connection.
In addition, vDS provides centralized management of
1.3.3 Virtualized IT Infrastructure
virtual networks. That is, it connects and monitors the virCloud computing can greatly benefit from a virtualized IT tual machines managed by multiple ESXi hosts. vDS supinfrastructure. For better flexibility and scalability, cloud ports private virtual local area networks (PVLANs), which
services can be provided through the virtualized IT infra- can achieve port isolation. That is, a VLAN contains switch
structure. The following describes how the virtualized IT ports that can only communicate with a given uplink port.
infrastructure works and how it can be used to provide cloud vDS is able to handle load balancing and is therefore able
to support vMotion, which migrates the running virtual
services.
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 9
Standard switch 1
ESXi
host 1
ESXi
host 3
Standard switch 2
Distributed switch
ESXi
host 2
ESXi
host 1
ESXi
host 2
ESXi
host 3
Standard switch 3
Standard
switch
Distributed
switch
Figure 1.5 Standard switch and distributed switch.
machines from one ESXi host to another with zero downtime. vDS also supports the collecting, monitoring, and
analyzing of IP traffic information. Figure 1.5 illustrates the
architecture of vSS and vDS.
Even though the standard switch lacks some features, it is
adequate for developing the virtualized IT infrastructure for
many medium and small businesses. The distributed switch
offers some features for task automation and for large network management.
according to the blueprint, the hardware and software will
be purchased, and the construction of the IT infrastructure
can take off. Once the proposed IT infrastructure is implemented, the next phase is to deploy the IT infrastructure to
the customers. The last phase of the development process is
collecting users’ feedback and summarizing the experience
gained from the project development. The last phase will
help the development team to further improve the underlying project. Let us take a brief look at each IT infrastructure
development phase.
1.4 Process of Cloud-Based IT
Infrastructure Development
1.4.1 Requirement Analysis
The development of a cloud-based IT infrastructure can be
complicated. It requires careful planning. The development
process starts with the phase of requirement analysis that
investigates the requirements for the to-be-built IT infrastructure in order to meet the project’s goal. The next phase
is to draft a blueprint to lay out the details of about the future
IT infrastructure on paper. Based on the requirements, specify the hardware and software that will be used to build the
IT infrastructure. Make sure that the hardware and software
specified in the blueprint can achieve the design goal. Once
confirmed, the implementation phase begins. In this phase,
The first task is to investigate the requirements for the IT
infrastructure to be developed. A well-designed IT infrastructure stems from a thorough requirement analysis. The
designers need to find out what business processes will be
supported by the IT infrastructure, the number of users to
work on the IT infrastructure, the number of computers to
be installed, the requirements for the network capacity, the
security measure to be enforced, and the rules and limitations to be imposed on the future IT infrastructure. To collect the needed information, the design team should conduct
interviews with the key players of the business process. The
team can also collect the needed information by observing
10 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
the current business activities and examining the company’s
mission and long-term planning. As an example, let us consider the following scenario.
The computer information systems (CIS) department is
looking at developing an IT infrastructure for the hands-on
practice in many CIS courses. It is desired if the IT infrastructure can be used to support courses such as programming, database, networking, Web development, security,
system administration, and so on. Often, the IT infrastructure
designed to support one type of the CIS course may not be suitable for other types of CIS courses. For example, the IT infrastructure designed for a networking course is not suitable for
teaching Web development. Students in the networking class
often change the network configuration. Once the network
configuration is altered, the students in the Web development
class may not be able to connect to the Web server. Therefore,
some of the CIS courses require their own IT infrastructure.
As the CIS students may get the administrator’s privilege
so that they can perform the system management tasks on
the server side, these students must be prevented from accessing the university’s private network. It is required that the
IT infrastructure created for the teaching of CIS courses be
isolated from the university’s network.
The IT infrastructure should provide an application development platform to allow collaboration by groups of students.
In some CIS courses, students are grouped and are working on
a software engineering project. For example, a group member
may be responsible for developing the billing system; another
member may be responsible for developing a database system
and other server side applications; yet another member is to
develop client applications; and so on. Ideally, the students
should be aware of the activities performed by their peers.
Therefore, the application development platform should be
constructed to support all the collaboration activities.
The IT infrastructure should be designed to help the
CIS department to catch up with the fast-moving trend of
the IT industry. Frequently upgrading the IT infrastructure
can be a financial burden on an education institution. It also
requires well-trained technicians to carry out the reconstruction work. Therefore, the proposed cloud-based IT infrastructure should be easily upgraded and able to keep the
reconstruction cost affordable.
1.4.2 System Design
Once the design team figures out the requirements, it is time
to design the logical IT infrastructure that serves as a blueprint for the future IT infrastructure. Without designing and
planning, one may encounter problems with compatibility,
availability, meeting the deadline, budgeting, and achieving
the project goal. Based on the requirements, the IT infrastructure should be flexible enough for different courses. It
should be isolated from a university’s network, should be
suitable for collaboration, and should be less expensive. A
cloud-based IT infrastructure can meet all these requirements. The cloud-based IT infrastructure can provide SaaS,
PaaS, or IaaS specially designed to support each type of CIS
courses. SaaS can be used to support the courses that require
network-based software. PaaS can be used to support collaboration. IaaS can be used to support courses that require their
own IT infrastructure. The virtual networks can be easily
isolated from the university’s private network and allow students to remotely access, create, and manage their own virtual machines and virtual networks. To provide SaaS, PaaS,
and IaaS, a private cloud can be built to accomplish the tasks.
At this phase, hardware and software should be specified
to run the private cloud. In this case study, the selected software is VMware vCloud Suite for implementing virtualization and cloud services, and Active Directory for the user and
computer management. To host the software, hardware must
be selected from the list of hardware provided by VMware
Compatibility Guide. The hardware may include servers,
network equipment, and storage devices. The hardware must
be powerful enough to support the software. For example,
to support multiple courses in a CIS program, the system
should be designed to meet the following requirements:
◾◾ The future cloud-based IT infrastructure needs to
support at least 60 virtual machines with lightweight
workloads.
◾◾ It requires a multitenant environment so that each CIS
class can have a workplace for its own use.
◾◾ It requires the IT infrastructure to provide the IaaS
service, which allows students to design and construct
their own vApps.
Some of the CIS classes may need just a few virtual
machines. However, in some cases, a CIS class may require
40–60 virtual machines running the Linux OS. Each student has two virtual machines; one is the server, and the
other one is the client. The virtual machines have the following configuration (Table 1.1).
For hands-on practice, these virtual machines have fairly
light resource requirements and will be shut down soon after
the lab assignment is completed. The VMAP entitles ESXi
to use four physical CPUs. Suppose that each CPU has four
cores. Each core can support 8–10 virtual machines if the
requirement on the computing resources is light. Assume
that each ESXi host server has two CPUs; then each ESXi
Table 1.1 Virtual Machine Requirements
Operating System
Hard Disk
Memory
NIC
Ubuntu Server
20 GB
1 GB
2
Ubuntu Desktop
20 GB
1 GB
2
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 11
server has eight cores that can support up to 64–80 virtual
machines if the requirement on the computing resource is
light. If two such ESXi servers are installed, we should be
able to handle up to 160 virtual machines. As each virtual
machine requires 1-GB memory, to run 80 virtual machines
on an ESXi server, it will be enough to have 84-GB RAM
installed on the ESXi server. In fact, the 80 virtual machines
can run simultaneously with much less RAM on the ESXi
server with the OverCommit feature.
As each virtual machine requires 20-GB hard disk storage space, 80 virtual machines will require at least 1.6-TB
hard disk storage space. ESXi itself needs 4-GB hard disk
storage space. Later, as the demand for memory and storage increases, more memory and storage space can be added.
Table 1.2 summarizes the specifications of an ESXi server.
The two-port NIC is used for redundancy to prevent NIC
failure. The specified requirements are more than what we
need to meet the requirements for our case study. On the other
hand, more computing resources will be needed if we consider
supporting multiple CIS courses concurrently. For the servers
to host Domain Controller, Database, vCenter, vCNS, and
vCD, we have the following specifications shown in Table 1.3.
The specified requirements in Table 1.3 are more than the
minimum requirements. Lightweight tasks can be carried out
with much less computing resources than what is listed in Table
1.3. VMware also provides the ready-made vCenter Appliance,
vCD Appliance, or vCNS Appliance built on a virtual
machine. With the appliances, servers can be directly installed
on an ESXi host server. In that case, the memory and storage
requirements in Table 1.2 should be modified accordingly.
The use of appliances is more proper for small projects.
The deployment of appliances is straightforward. Many useful tools such as Auto Deploy Server are already installed on
the appliances. An appliance can be directly uploaded to the
ESXi server. After a few configurations, the appliance is ready
to run. As the IT infrastructure is designed for hands-on
practice, students can get a quick start with these appliances.
Often, the bottleneck of a system is the I/O of the storage device. The I/O bottleneck can be resolved by using SSD
Table 1.2 ESXi Server Requirements
Item
Description
Quantity
CPU
Intel Xeon E52643, 6 Core, 3.4 GHz
2
RAM
16-GB registered dual in-line
memory module (RDIMM),
2,133 MT/s, Dual Rank
12
Hard
drive
300-GB 15K-rpm Serial-Attached SCS
(SAS) 6 Gbps 2.5 in, redundant array
of independent disks (RAID) 1
2
NIC
Intel I350 QP—Gigabit Ethernet ×
2 Ports
4
Table 1.3 Other Server Requirements
Server
Processor
Memory
Disk
Storage
NIC
DC
Intel x64,
2 Core,
2 GHz
2 GB
60 GB
2 × 1 Gb
SQL
Server
Intel x64,
2 Core,
2 GHz
4 GB
60 GB
2 × 1 Gb
vCenter
Intel x64,
4 Core,
2 GHz
8 GB
140 GB
2 × 1 Gb
vCNS
Intel x64,
2 Core,
2 GHz
8 GB
60 GB
2 × 1 Gb
vCD
Intel x64,
2 Core,
2 GHz
2 GB
8 GB
2 × 1 Gb
hard disks that may get 10 times faster in I/O performance
than that of a traditional SAS hard drive. For better reliability, we may consider using RAID 1, which requires twice as
many SSD hard disks as no RAID 1. For better reliability,
as well as better performance, we may consider using RAID
5 or RAID 10, which requires three or four times as many
SSD hard disks. The summary of network storage devices is
given in Table 1.4.
Again, the configuration is more than what we need for
our case study. The extra storage space will be reserved for
more CIS courses.
Assume that the ESXi servers are rack mounted. Each of
the servers has four built-in 1-Gb network adapters. The network should be designed to support a management network,
a vMotion network, a remote access network, and a network
for storage devices and virtual machines. The management
network will be used to monitor and manage the host servers and virtual machines. The storage network connects the
network storage devices that store the virtual machines.
The vMotion network is for moving virtual machines and
other failover activities. The remote access network allows
Table 1.4 Network Storage Requirements
Item
Description
Quantity
Network-attached
storage (NAS)
12 Bay 2U Rackmount
NAS
1
SSD
1-TB 2.5-in. SATA III
Internal SSD
12
Switch
16-Port Gigabit
Ethernet Switch
2
12 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
ESXi
host 1
Internet
Router
vCenter
Server
vShield
Server
Network switch
Network switch
Lab network
Domain
controller
SQL
Server
Network
storage
vCloud
Director
ESXi
host 2
Figure 1.6 Suggested IT infrastructure design.
communication between users and virtual machines. It also
allows the communication between two virtual machines
running on two different host servers. When four 1-Gb
NICs, each with two ports, are installed on each ESXi server,
we may assign two NICs for the shared storage: one NIC for
vMotion and one for management; virtual machine activities
can be distributed to all four NICs, and one of them is connected to the public network for remote access.
The IT infrastructure should be designed so that it is adequate to meet the requirements on the number of users and
computers. It should be designed to comply with the security
requirements and the organization’s rules and limitations. For
example, the cost of hardware and software should be within the
budget limit. The blueprint will be verified by the design team
and the customers to make sure that the design goal has been
achieved. It may take several rounds of modifications before the
blueprint can be finalized. In summary, the suggested logical
IT infrastructure may look like the one in Figure 1.6.
1.4.3 System Implementation
Once the blueprint is finalized, the implementation phase
begins. During this phase, hardware and software will be
purchased, installed, and configured according to the blueprint. As an example, the following describes how the software and hardware are purchased and installed.
Hardware specification and installation: Server computers
will be selected so that they can meet the requirements listed
in Tables 1.2 and 1.3. Among many choices, we may choose
the rack mount PowerEdge R730 Intel Xeon E5-2600-v3
Series server or the older mini tower PowerEdge T710 Intel
Xeon 55xx Series server. For example, the PowerEdge R730
can be configured, as shown in Table 1.5.
At the time of writing, each server costs about $10,000. If
the price is too high for some small businesses, one may also
consider the older PowerEdge T710 server with the specifications shown in Table 1.6.
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 13
Table 1.5 Quotation of Two PowerEdge R730 Servers
Quantity
Description
2
PowerEdge R730 Server (210-ACXU)
4
Intel Xeon E5-2637 v3 3.5 GHz,15M Cache,
9.60 GT/s
8
Intel i350AM2 Dual-Port 1-Gb NIC
2
RAID 1 for H330/H730/H730P (2 HDDs or SSDs)
32
16-GB RDIMM, 2,133 MT/s, Dual Rank, x4
Data Width
4
300-GB 10K rpm SAS 6-Gbps 2.5-in Hot-plug
Hard Drive
2
DVD-ROM, SATA, INTERNAL
2
Dual, Hot-plug, Redundant Power Supply
(1 + 1), 750 W
Table 1.6 Quotation of Two PowerEdge T710 Servers
Quantity
Description
2
PowerEdge T710
4
Intel Xeon E5-2640 2.50 GHz, 15M Cache,
7.2 GT/s QuickPath Interconnect
8
Broadcom 5720 DP 1-Gb NIC
24
8-GB RDIMM, 1333 MHz, Low Volt, Single
Rank, x4
4
300-GB 7.2K-rpm SATA 3.5-in Hot-plug Hard
Drive
2
DVD-ROM, SATA, INTERNAL
2
Dual, Hot-plug, Redundant Power Supply
(1 + 1), 750 W
The price of this type of server is about $3,000 each.
Used servers may cost significantly lower.
The selection of storage is also a critical decision. ESXi
supports three types of storage devices: (1) Fibre Channel–
based storage or Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) storage,
(2) Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI)–based
storage, and (3) Network File System (NFS)–based storage.
The selection may be based on the following factors:
◾◾ The storage should be compatible with the existing
ESXi servers and network devices.
◾◾ The IT staff members should be knowledgeable about
the selected storage technology.
◾◾ The performance of the storage device should meet the
requirements of the proposed IT infrastructure.
To match the servers specified in Table 1.5, one may consider the storage device Dell PowerVault MD3220i iSCSI
SAN Storage Array. It is a cost-effective Ethernet-based storage array with the following features:
◾◾ It supports up to 24 2.5-in. SAS, Near-Line SAS, and
SSD drives. With an optional Premium Feature Key, it
can be expanded to support 120 hard drives.
◾◾ With a single controller, 4 servers can be directly connected to the device. With a double controller, 8 servers can be directly connected to the device. Through
an Ethernet switch, 32 servers can be connected to the
device.
◾◾ The device supports RAID levels 0, 1, 10, 5, and 6.
◾◾ It provides failover management of redundant data
paths between the server and storage array.
◾◾ For each controller, it provides four RJ-45 1-Gb
Ethernet network cards.
If the PowerVault MD3220i is too big for a small business, one may consider Synology Disk Station DS1815+,
which has the following specifications:
◾◾ The device has eight SATA II hard disk drive (HDD)/
SSD drive bays and supports up to 48-TB data storage
capacity.
◾◾ It supports RAID levels 0, 1, 10, 5, and 6 and just a
bunch of disks (JBOD).
◾◾ The device includes a 2.4-GHz Intel Atom Quad-Core
CPU, 2-GB DDR3 Memory, and 4 x USB 3.0/2 x
eSATA Ports.
◾◾ It provides 4 x Gigabit LAN/Wake on LAN/WAN.
The selection of NICs and physical switches should meet
the requirements by the ESXi servers and storage devices.
For example, for tasks such as ESXi management, vMotion, FT, communication between ESXi servers and storage
devices, and communication among virtual machines, the
gigabit NICs or even the 10-Gb NICs should be considered.
For instance, an NIC may be assigned to ESXi management,
and another NIC should be assigned to vMotion. The NIC
assigned to vMotion can be used as a standby NIC for ESXi
management, or vice versa. For redundancy, a pair of NICs
will be assigned for FT. If available, a pair of 10-Gb NICs
should be considered. Another pair of NICs should be used
for the communication between ESXi servers and storage
devices. Also, a pair of NICs should be used for the communication among virtual machines. If there is a busy traffic
among virtual machines, 10-Gb NICs should be considered.
To connect the servers and storage devices, we need some
network devices such as network switches and routers. To
be compatible with VMware, we may select PowerConnect
6224 Managed Switch (Table 1.7).
14 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
Table 1.7 Specifications of Dell PowerConnect 6224
Managed Switch
Name
Description
Ports
24 10/100/1000BASE-T auto-sensing
Gigabit Ethernet switching ports;
4 SFP combo ports for fiber media
support
Authentication
RADIUS, Secure Shell v.2 (SSH2),
TACACS+
Encryption
SSL, SSL 2.0, SSL 3.0
Cabling type
Ethernet 1000Base-T, Ethernet
100Base-TX, Ethernet 10Base-T
Management
protocol
HTTP, HTTPS, RMON, SNMP 1, SNMP
2c, SNMP 3, Telnet
Switching
protocol
Ethernet
Routing
protocol
DVMRP, OSPF, OSPFv2, OSPFv3, RIP-1,
RIP-2, VRRP, static IP routing
Support
ARP, BOOTP, Broadcast Storm Control,
DHCP, DoS attack prevention, IGMP
snooping, IPv6, Syslog, VLAN,
auto-negotiation, auto-uplink, flow
control, port mirroring
In addition, we may need three lower-cost eight-port
gigabit desktop switches and a digital subscriber line router
for accessing the Internet. Although the Category 5 (Cat 5)
cable works with the gigabit switches, it is better to use Cat 5e
or Cat 6 cables to minimize the electromagnetic interference.
For the software specification and installation, one needs
to install the software provided by VMware vCloud Suite
including ESXi, vCenter, vSphere Client, vCNS, and vCD.
The software can be installed on separate physical server
computers for better performance and FT, or installed on a
cluster of virtual machines hosted by the ESXi host server for
convenience. Windows Server 2012 should also be installed
on a server computer to provide services such as DHCP for
automatic IP address assignment, domain name system for
computer name resolution, and Active Directory for user
authentication. If a separate database server is required, a
server computer installed with Microsoft SQL Server 2012
can be considered. In later chapters, there will be some
hands-on activities to illustrate software installation and
configuration.
Once the hardware and software are installed, before the
newly developed IT infrastructure can be used in the business process, it needs to be tested to see if the IT infrastructure is able to meet all the requirements. Based on the testing
results, the IT infrastructure will be modified and tested
again until it meets all the requirements.
In the above, you have gone through the main steps in
the development of IT infrastructure to support a private
cloud.
Once the IT infrastructure is implemented, the next
phase is to provide technical support, prepare documentation, and collect feedback from the users. As the IT infrastructure is deployed, maintenance and troubleshooting are
the main tasks to be accomplished by the IT department.
When the IT infrastructure is ready to use, the users are
encouraged to verify if they can log on to the IT infrastructure and are able to use it. In our case, the instructors are
encouraged to develop teaching materials such as lab instructions for their classes. Successful deployment of the IT infrastructure requires training and technical support. The users
should be trained on how to use the IT infrastructure. There
should be some operation instructions written for the users.
The technical support team should be organized to help the
users with troubleshooting.
For the improvement of the IT infrastructure, we need
to collect the users’ experience. Data can be collected from
the troubleshooting reports, system failure reports, users’
feedback, and the expenditure report on the system maintenance. In our case, the teaching and learning practice on
the IT infrastructure will be closely observed and modified to achieve better impact on learning and teaching. The
instructors’ and students’ opinions and suggestions will be
collected. The data about the engagement of the instructors
and students with the IT infrastructure will be documented
for future improvement.
1.5 Activity 1: Preparing
Hands-On Practice
In this lab activity, you will create an environment for handson practice. The physical PC used to implement the project
can be either a gaming computer or a workstation. As an
example, the physical PC can be configured, as shown in
Table 1.8.
Although one can run the virtual machines on a PC with
less than 16-GB RAM, a PC with 32-GB RAM has much
better performance. It is not too difficult to find a PC with
32-GB RAM. For example, most of the gaming computers
can meet the requirements. Some of the workstation computers can also meet the requirements. For instance, the Dell
Precision M6500 or later laptop computer can have 32-GB
RAM installed. The Dell Precision T1700 Minitower or later
can also have 32-GB RAM installed.
This activity illustrates how to install the software
VMware Workstation on a PC specified in Table 1.8. In later
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 15
Table 1.8 Configuration of PC Hosting VMware
vCloud Suite
Name
Description
CPU
Intel core_i7 Processor 2.3 GHz. The
virtualized Intel VT-x/EPT or AMD-v/RVI
feature needs to be enabled on the CPU.
RAM
Minimum 16-GB DDR3
Hard disk
750 GB 7200 rpm with 8-GB ExpressCache
SSD
NIC
Integrated 10/100/1000 Network Card and
802.11 abg/n Wireless LAN
Screen
17.3″ Full HD 1080P LED
DVD
SuperMulti Double Layer DVD with
Blu-ray
OS
Windows 8.1 64 Bit Professional or later
Hypervisor
VMware Workstation 9 or later
chapters, VMware Workstation will be used to create virtual
machines used as server computers to install ESXi, vCenter,
vCNS, vCD, storage, and Windows Server 2012.
For the hands-on practice, the network storage is not
necessary. The SSD hard disk specified in Table 1.8 is good
enough. In fact, it is even OK to use a 500-GB SATA 7200rpm hard drive, which has slower performance. Assume that
the PC is installed with the OS Windows Server 2012. The
Figure 1.7 VMware Workstation.
first task is to install VMware Workstation with the following steps:
1.Download VMware Workstation from the following
Web site. On the Web site, search for the latest version
of VMware Workstation:
https://my.vmware.com/web/vmware/downloads
2.Once the installation exe file is downloaded, doubleclick the download file to start the installation wizard.
3. On the Setup Type page, select the option Typical and
click Next.
4.On the Ready to Perform the Requested Operations
page, click Continue.
5.On the Enter a license key page, enter the license key
or skip the license key for 30-day evaluation. (Students
may ask the instructor for the license key.)
6.Click Finish to complete the installation. The installed
VMware Workstation is shown in Figure 1.7.
7.Click the Edit menu and select Preferences to open
the Preferences dialog shown in Figure 1.8. You may
change the preferences setting to meet your needs.
8.One needs to reserve the memory for the virtual
machines. Windows 10 OS needs about 2.5-GB
memory. Subtracting 2.5 GB from the total available
memory, we have the amount of memory reserved for
the virtual machines. For example, for a computer with
16-GB memory, about 13.8 GB is reserved for the virtual
machines, as shown in Figure 1.9. When the memory is
running out, the option Allow some virtual machine
16 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
Figure 1.8 Location of virtual machines.
Figure 1.9 Reserved memory.
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 17
memory to be swapped allows the virtual machines to
use part of SSD or HDD as the virtual memory.
9.Click OK to complete the configuration of performance.
Network preparation: After VMware Workstation is
installed, one needs to create a private network to connect
virtual machines used as server machines for the hands-on
practice. VMware Workstation offers three types of virtual
networks:
1.
Bridged virtual network: This type of virtual network
allows virtual machines to access the physical network.
The virtual machines can communicate directly with the
computers and network devices on the physical network.
2.
NAT virtual network: This type of virtual network
allows virtual machines on the same host to communicate with each other. The virtual machines can
also directly communicate with the host machine.
When communicating with other computers on the
Figure 1.10 VMnet2 configuration.
physical network where the host computer is connected, this virtual network translates the IP address
of a virtual machine to the host’s IP address and vice
versa.
3.
Host-only virtual network: This type of network is
isolated from the host and physical network. It only
allows the virtual machines on the same host to communicate with each other. When an isolated network
is required, this kind of network is created for keeping
the virtual machines disconnected from the external
network.
The following steps illustrate how to get started:
1.Start VMware Workstation and click the Home tab.
2.Click the Edit menu and select Virtual Network
Editor. Then, click the Change Settings button.
3.Click the Add Network button and select VMnet2 on
the dropdown list. Then, click OK.
18 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
Figure 1.11 Subnet configuration.
4.Configure the network VMnet2, as shown in Figure
1.10. VMnet2 is specified as a host-only network that
connects the virtual machines on a private network.
VMnet2 is assigned a private network ID 10.0.0.0
with the network mask 255.0.0.0. Then, click OK.
Uncheck the option Connect a host virtual adapter
to this network and uncheck the option Use local
DHCP service to distribute IP address to VMs.
Then, click Apply.
5.As shown in Figure 1.6, for vMotion, failover, and network storage, multiple networks are required. At this
stage, let us create the subnets VMnet3, VMnet4, and
VMnet5, as shown in Figure 1.11.
6.Table 1.9 lists the configurations for the subnets
VMnet3, VMnet4, and VMnet5.
7.To configure the DHCP service for VMnet5, click the
DHCP button. The DHCP service is configured, as
shown in Figure 1.12. Then, click OK.
8.Later, a more detailed description of these subnets will
be given when we use these subnets in lab development.
9.At this step, the infrastructure is ready for the handson practice in this book. In VMware Workstation,
click the File menu and select Exit.
In the steps above, you have created a lab environment for the hands-on practice. For supporting a business
or supporting cloud-based IT education, one may want to
Table 1.9 Subnet Configurations
Network
Network ID
Subnet Mask
DHCP Service
VMnet3
10.0.1.0
255.255.255.0
Not required
VMnet4
10.0.2.0
255.255.255.0
Not required
VMnet5
10.0.3.0
255.255.255.0
Required
Introduction to Cloud Computing ◾ 19
Figure 1.12 DHCP service configuration.
implement the IT infrastructure on a set of physical servers.
Details about the implementation on a set of physical servers
are included in Appendix A.
1.6 Summary
This chapter provides an overview of cloud-based IT infrastructure. It introduces cloud computing concepts such
as public cloud, private cloud, and hybrid cloud. Also, it
explains cloud services such as IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS. This
chapter describes the cloud architecture, which illustrates
how the cloud is constructed and how the hardware and
software are used in supporting cloud computing. For better flexibility and scalability, cloud services are provided
through the virtualized IT infrastructure. This chapter also
describes how the virtualized IT infrastructure works and
how it can be used to provide cloud services. As an overview, this chapter goes through the development process to
create a cloud infrastructure. It explains how to conduct the
requirement analysis, how to select the hardware and software, and how to specify the hardware and software to support the IT infrastructure to implement cloud services. The
software used in this book is VMware vCloud Suite, which
is used for developing an enterprise-level private cloud. The
hardware includes servers and network equipment used for
supporting VMware vCloud Suite. The hands-on activity in
this chapter gives instruction on creating an environment
for the hands-on practice for the rest of the book. With
the environment established, the next task is to develop a
domain controller, which will be used for user authentication and for managing the components of VMware vCloud
Suite. The topics of domain controller will be covered in
Chapter 2.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.What is the software often provided by SaaS?
2.What components are included in the PaaS provided
by Microsoft Windows Azure?
3.What do you do with IaaS?
4.What are the advantages and disadvantages of a public
cloud?
5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a private
cloud?
6.Describe how a hybrid cloud works.
7.What is ESXi, and how does it work?
8.What is VMware vCenter Server, and what do you do
with it?
9.What do you do with vSphere vMotion?
10.Describe how vSphere HA works.
11.Describe how vSphere FT works.
12.Describe how vSphere DRS works.
13.What do you do with VSAN?
20 ◾ Virtualization and Private Cloud with VMware Cloud Suite
14.What is a vApp, and how do you use it?
15.How does the virtualized IT infrastructure work?
16.Describe the phases of developing the cloud-based IT
infrastructure.
17.What types of storage devices are used in implementing the cloud-based IT infrastructure?
18.What are the challenges for the IT infrastructure used
to support the hands-on practice required by an information systems department?
19.How can appliances be deployed?
20.How do you improve the performance and reliability
of a storage device?
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising