ROEVER ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CS1254 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TWO MARKS: UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS 1. Define database manage ment system. Database management system (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access those data. 2. List any eight applications of DBMS. a) Banking b) Airlines c) Universities d) Credit card transactions e) Tele communication f) Finance g) Sales h) Manufacturing i) Human resources 3. What are the disadvantages of file processing system? The disadvantages of file processing systems are a) Data redundancy and inconsistency b) Difficulty in accessing data c) Data isolation d) Integrity problems e) Atomicity problems f) Concurrent access anomalies 4. What are the advantages of using a DBMS? The advantages of using a DBMS are a) Controlling redundancy b) Restricting unauthorized access c) Providing multiple user interfaces d) Enforcing integrity constraints. e) Providing back up and recovery 5. Give the levels of data abstraction? a) Physical level b) logical level c) view level 6. Define instance and schema? Instance: Collection of data stored in the data base at a particular moment is called an Instance of the database. Schema: The overall design of the data base is called the data base schema. 7. Define the terms 1) physical schema 2) logical schema Physical sche ma: The physical schema describes the database design at the physical level, which is the lowest level of abstraction describing how the data are actually stored. Logical schema: The logical schema describes the database design at the logical level, which describes what data are stored in the database and what relations hip exists among the data. 8. What is conceptual schema? The schemas at the view level are called subschemas that describe different views of the database. 9. Define data model? A data model is a collection of conceptual tools for describing data, data relationships, data semantics and consistency constraints. 10. What is storage manager? A storage manager is a program module that provides the interface between the low level data stored in a database and the application programs and queries submitted to the system. 11. What are the components of storage manager? The storage manager components include a) Authorization and integrity manager b) Transaction manager c) File manager d) Buffer manager 12. What is the purpose of storage manager? The storage manager is responsible for the following a) Interaction with he file manager b) Translation of DML commands in to low level file system commands c) Storing, retrieving and updating data in the database 13. List the data structures implemented by the storage manager The storage manager implements the following data structure a) Data files b) Data dictionary c) indices 14. What is a data dictionary? A data dictionary is a data structure which stores meta data about the structure of the database ie. the schema of the database. 15. What is an entity relationship model? The entity relationship model is a collection of basic objects called entities and relationship among those objects. An entity is a thing or object in the real world that is distinguishable from other objects. 16. What are attributes? Give examples. An entity is represented by a set of attributes. Attributes are descriptive properties possessed by each member of an entity set. Example: possible attributes of customer entity are customer name, customer id, customer street, customer city. 17. What is relationship? Give examples A relationship is an association among several entities. Example: A depositor relationship associates a customer with each account that he/she has. 18. Define the terms i) Entity set ii) Relationship set Entity set: The set of all entities of the same type is termed as an entity set. Relationship set: The set of all relationships of the same type is termed as a relationship set. 19. Define single valued and multivalued attributes. Single valued attributes: attributes with a single value for a particular entity are called single valued attributes. Multivalued attributes: Attributes with a set of value for a particular entity are called multivalued attributes. 20. What are stored and derived attributes? Stored attributes: The attributes stored in a data base are called stored attributes. Derived attributes: The attributes that are derived from the stored attributes are called derived attributes. 21. What are composite attributes? Composite attributes can be divided in to sub parts. 22. Define null values. In some cases a particular entity may not have an applicable value for an attribute or if we do not know the value of an attribute for a particular entity. In these cases null value is used. 23. Define the terms i) Entity type ii) Entity set Entity type: An entity type defines a collection of entities that have the same attributes. Entity set: The set of all entities of the same type is termed as an entity set. 24. Define the terms i) Key attribute ii) Value set Key attribute: An entity type usually has an attribute whose values are distinct from each individual entity in the collection. Such an attribute is called a key attribute. Value set : Each simple attribute of an entity type is associated with a value set that specifies the set of values that may be assigned to that attribute for each individual entity. 25. Define weak and strong entity sets? Weak entity set: entity set that do not have key attribute of their own are called weak entity sets. Strong entity set: Entity set that has a primary key is termed a strong entity set. 26. What does the cardinality ratio s pecify? Mapping cardinalities or cardinality ratios express the number of entities to which another entity can be associated. Mapping cardinalities must be one of the following: •One to one • One to many • Many to one • Many to many 27. Define the terms i) DDLii) DML DDL: Data base schema is specified by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called a data definition language. DML: A data manipulation language is a language that enables users to access or manipulate data as organized by the appropriate data model. 28. What is a candidate key, primary key and s upe r key? Minimal super keys are called candidate keys. Primary key is c hosen by the database designer as the principal means of identifying an entity in the entity set. A super keyx is a set of one or more attributes that collectively allows us to identify uniquely an entity in the entity set. UNIT II RELATIONAL MODEL 1. Define- relational algebra. The relational algebra is a procedural query language. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relation as input and produce a new relation as output. 2. What is a SELECT operation? The select operation selects tuples that satisfy a given predicate. We use the lowercase letter σ to denote selection. 3. What is a PROJECT operation? The project operation is a unary operation that returns its argument relation with certain attributes left out. Projection is denoted by pie (π). 3. Write short notes on domain relational calculus The domain relational calculus uses domain variables that take on values from an attribute domain rather than values for entire tuple. 4. Define query language. A query is a statement requesting the retrieval of information. The portion of DML that involves information retrieval is called a query language. 5. Write short notes on Schema diagram. A database schema along with primary key and foreign key dependencies ca n be depicted pictorially by schema diagram. Each relation appears as a box with attributes listed inside it and the relation name above it. 6. What is foreign key? A relation schema r1 derived from an ER schema may include among its attributes the primary key of another relation schema r2.this attribute is called a foreign key from r1 referencing r2. 7. What are the parts of SQL language? The SQL language has several parts: data - definitition language ,Data manipulation language,View definition ,Transaction control ,Embedded SQL ,Integrity ,Authorization 8. What are the categories of SQL command? SQL commands are divided in to the following categories: 1. data - definitition language 2. data manipulation language 3. Data Query language 4. data contro l language 5. data administration statements 6. transaction control statements 9. What are the three classes of SQL expression? SQL expression consists of three clauses: Select From where 10. Give the general form of SQL query. Select A1, A2…………., An From R1, R2……………, Rm Where P 11. What is the use of rename ope ration? Rename operation is used to rename both relations and a attributes. It uses the as clause, taking the form: Old-name as new-name 12. Define tuple variable. Tuple variables are used for comparing two tuples in the same relation. The tuple variables are defined in the from clause by way of the as clause. 13. List the string operations supported by SQL. 1) Pattern matching Operation 2) Concatenation 3) Extracting character strings 4) Converting between uppercase and lower case letters. 14. List the set operations of SQL. 1) Union 2) Intersect operation 3) The except operation 15. What is the use of Union and intersection ope ration? Union: The result of this operation includes all tuples that are either in r1 or in r2 or in both r1 and r2.Duplicate tuples are automatically eliminated. Inte rsection: The result of this relation includes all tuples that are in both r1 and r2. 16. What are aggregate functions? And list the aggregate functions supported by SQL? Aggregate functions are functions that take a collection of values as input and return a single value. Aggregate functions supported by SQL are Average: avg Minimum: min Maximum: max Total: sum Count: count 17. What is the use of group by clause? Group by clause is used to apply aggregate functions to a set of tuples.The attributes given in the group by clause are used to form groups.Tuples with the same value on all attributes in the group by clause are placed in one group. 18. What is the use of sub queries? A sub query is a select- from- where expression that is nested with in another query. A common use of sub queries is to perform tests for set membership, make setcomparisions, and determine set cardinality. 19. What is view in SQL? How is it defined? Any relation that is not part of the logical model, but is made visible to a user as a virtual relation is called a view. We define view in SQL by using the create view command. The form of the create view command is Create view v as <query expression> 20. What is the use of with clause in SQL? The with clause provides a way of defining a temporary view whose definition is available only to the query in which the with clause occurs. 21. List the table modification commands in SQL? Deletion Insertion Updates Update of a view 22. List out the statements associated with a database transaction? Commit work Rollback work 23. What is transaction? Transaction is a unit of program execution that accesses and possibly updated various data items. 24. List the SQL domain Types? SQL supports the following domain types. 1) Char(n) numeric(p,d) 5) float(n) 6) date. 2) varchar(n) 3) int 4) 25. What is the use of integrity constraints? Integrity constraints ensure that changes made to the database by authorized users do not result in a loss of data consistency. Thus integrity constraints guard against accidental damage to the database. 26. Mention the 2 forms of integrity constraints in ER model? Domain integrity constraints and Referential integrity constraints 27. What is trigger? Triggers are statements that are executed automatically by the system as the side effect of a modification to the database. 28. What are domain constraints? A domain is a set of values that may be assigned to an attribute .all values that appear in a column of a relation must be taken from the same domain. 29. What are referential integrity constraints? A value that appears in one relation for a given set of attributes also appears for a certain set of attributes in another relation. 30. What is assertion? Mention the forms available. An assertion is a predicate expressing a condition that we wish the database always to satisfy. 31. Give the syntax of assertion? Create assertion <assertion name>check<predicate> 32. What is the need for triggers? Triggers are useful mechanisms for alerting humans or for starting certain tasks automatically when certain conditions are met. 33. List the requirements needed to design a trigge r. The requirements are Specifying when a trigger is to be executed. Specify the actions to be taken when the trigger executes. 34. Give the forms of triggers? The triggering event can be insert or delete. For updated the trigger can specify columns. The referencing old row as clause The referencing new row as clause UNIT III DATABASE DESIGN 1. List the disadvantages of relational database system Repetition of data Inability to represent certain information. 2. What is first normal form? The domain of attribute must include only atomic (simple, indivisible) values. 3. What is meant by functional dependencies? Consider a relation schema R and α C R and β C R. The functional dependency α,β holds on relational schema R if in any legal relation r(R), for all pairs of tuples t1 and t2 in r such that t1 [α] =t1 [α], and also t1 [β] =t2 [β]. 4. What are the uses of functional dependencies? To test relations to see whether they are legal under a given set of functional dependencies. To specify constraints on the set of legal relations. 5. Explain trivial dependency? Functional dependency of the form α,β is trivial if β Cα. Trivial functional dependencies are satisfied by all the relations. 6. What are axioms? Axioms or rules of inference provide a simpler technique for reasoning about functional dependencies. 7. What is meant by computing the closure of a set of functional dependency? The closure of F denoted by F+ is the set of functional dependencies logically implied by F. 8. What is meant by normalization of data? It is a process of analyzing the given relation schemas based on their Functional Dependencies (FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties 1. Minimizing redundancy 2. Minimizing insertion, deletion and updating a nomalies 9. Define canonical cove r? A canonical cover Fc for F is a set of dependencies such that F logically implies all dependencies in F C and Fc logically implies all dependencies in F. Fc must have the following properties. 10. List the properties of canonical cover. Fc must have the following properties. No functional dependency in Fc contains an extraneous attribute. Each left side of a functional dependency in Fc is unique. 11. Explain the desirable properties of decomposition. Lossless-join decomposition Dependency preservation Repetition of information 12. What is 2NF, 3NF? A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on primary key. A relation schema R is in 3NF if it is in 1NF, 2NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is not satisfy the transitive property. 13. Define Boyce codd normal form A relation schema R is in BCNF with respect to a set F of functional dependencies if, for all functional dependencies in F+ of the form. α->β, where α 14. Mention the various user privileges. All privileges directly granted to the user or role. All privileges granted to roles that have been granted to the user or role. 15. Give the limitations of SQL authorization. the code for checking authorization becomes intermixed with the rest of the application code. implementing authorization through application code rather than specifying it declaratively in SQL makes it hard to ensure the absence of loopholes. 16. Give some encryption techniques? DES AES Public key encryption 17. What does authentication refer? Authentication refers to the task of verifying the identity of a person. 18. List some authentication techniques. Challenge response scheme Digital signatures Nonrepudiation 19. What is mean by join dependency? Join dependency is a constraint on the set of legal relations over a database scheme. A table T is subject to a join dependency if T can always be recreated by joining multiple tables each having a subset of the attributes of T. If one of the tables in the join has all the attributes of the table T, the join dependency is called trivial. 20. Define 5th normal form A relation R is in 5NF (or project-join normal form, PJNF) if for all join dependencies at least one of the following holds. (a) (R1 , R2 , ..., Rn ) is a trivial join-dependency (that is, one of Ri is R) (b) Every Ri is a candidate key for R. 21. Define dependency preservation. Dependency preservation is another important requirement since a dependency is a constraint on the database and if X -> Y holds than we know that the two (sets) attributes are closely related and it would be useful if both attributes appeared in the same relation so that the dependency can be checked easily. 22. Define multivalued dependencies Let R be a relation schema and let and (subsets). The multivalued dependency α β(which can be read as α multidetermines β) holds on R if, in any legal relation r(R), for all pairs of tuples t1 and t2 in r such that t1 [α] = t2 [α], there exist tuples t3 and t4 in r such that t1 [α] = t2 [α] = t3 [α] = t4 [α] t3 [β] = t1 [β] t3 [R − β] = t2 [R − β] t4 [β] = t2 [β] t4 [R − β] = t1 [R − β] 23. Define 4NF. A table is in 4NF if and only if, for every one of its non-trivial multivalued dependencies X →→ Y, X is a superkey—that is, X is either a candidate key or a superset thereof. A trivial multivalued dependency X →→ Y is one in which Y consists of all columns belonging to X. That is, a subset of attributes in a table has a trivial multivalued dependency on the remaining subset of attributes. UNIT IV TRANSACTIONS 1. What is transaction? Collections of operations that form a single logical unit of work are called transactions. 2. What are the two statements regarding transaction? The two statements regarding transaction of the form: Begin transaction End transaction 3. What are the properties of transaction? The properties of transactions are: Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability 4. What is recovery management component? Ensuring durability is the responsibility of a software compo nent of the base system called the recovery management component. 5. When is a transaction rolled back? Any changes that the aborted transaction made to the database must be undone. Once the changes caused by an aborted transaction have been undone, then the transaction has been rolled back. 6. What are the states of transaction? The states of transaction are Active Partially committed Failed Aborted Committed Terminated 7. What is a shadow copy scheme? It is simple, but efficient, scheme called the shadow copy schemes. It is based on making copies of the database called shadow copies that one transaction is active at a time. The scheme also assumes that the database is simply a file on disk. 8. Give the reasons for allowing concurrency? The reasons for allowing concurrency is if the transactions run serially, a short transaction may have to wait for a preceding long transaction to complete, which can lead to unpredictable delays in running a transaction. So concurrent execution reduces the unpredictable delays in running transactions. 9. What is average response time? The average response time is that the average time for a transaction to be completed after it has been submitted. 10. What are the two types of serializability? The two types of serializability is Conflict serializability View serializability 11. Define lock? Lock is the most common used to implement the requirement is to allow a transaction to access a data item only if it is currently holding a lock on that item. 12. What are the different modes of lock? The modes of lock are: Shared Exclusive 13. Define deadlock? Neither of the transaction can ever proceed with its normal execution. This situation is called deadlock. 14. Define the phases of two phase locking protocol Growing phase: a transaction may obtain locks but not release any lock Shrinking phase : a transaction may release locks but not obtain any lock 15. What are the storage types? The storage types are: Volatile storage Nonvolatile storage 16. Define blocks? The database system resides permanently on nonvolatile storage, and is partitioned into fixedlength storage units called blocks. 17. What is meant by Physical blocks? The input and output operations are done in block units. The blocks residing on the disk are referred to as physical blocks. 18. What is meant by buffer blocks? The blocks residing temporarily in main memory are referred to as buffer blocks. 19. What is meant by disk buffe r? The area of memory where blocks reside temporarily is called the disk buffer. 20. What is meant by log-based recovery? The most widely used structures for recording database modifications is the log. The log is a sequence of log records, recording all the update activities in the database. There are several types of log records. 21. What are uncommitted modifications? The immediate- modification technique allows database modifications to be output to the database while the transaction is still in the active state. Data modifications written by active transactions are called uncommitted modifications. 22. Define shadow paging. An alternative to log-based crash recovery technique is shadow paging. This technique needs fewer disk accesses than do the log-based methods. 23.Define page. The database is partitioned into some number of fixed- length blocks, which are referred to as pages. 24.Explain curre nt page table and shadow page table. The key idea behind the shadow paging technique is to maintain two page tables during the life of the transaction: the current page table and the shadow page table. Both the page tables are identical when the transaction starts. The current page table may be changed when a transaction performs a write operation. 25. What are the drawbacks of shadow-paging technique? •Commit Overhead •Data fragmentation •Garbage collection 26.Define garbage collection. Garbage may be created also as a side effect of crashes. Periodically, it is necessary to find all the garbage pages and to add them to the list of free pages. This process is called garbage collection. 27.Differentiate strict two phase locking protocol and rigorous two phase locking protocol. In strict two phase locking protocol- all exclusive mode locks taken by a transaction is held until that transaction commits. Rigorous two phase locking protocol- requires that all locks be held until the transaction commits. 28. How the time stamps are implemented? •Use the value of the system clock as the time stamp. That is a transaction’s time stamp is equal to the value of the clock when the transaction enters the system. •Use a logical counter that is incremented after a new timestamp has been assigned; that is the time stamp is equal to the value of the counter. 29.What are the time stamps associated with each data item? •W-timestamp (Q) denotes the largest time stamp if any transaction that executed WRITE (Q) successfully. •R-timestamp (Q) denotes the largest time stamp if any transaction that executed READ (Q) successfully. UNIT V IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES 1. Give the measures of quality of a disk. Capacity Access time Seek time Data transfer rate Reliability Rotational latency time. 2. Compare sequential access devices versus random access devices with an example sequential access devices random access devices Must be accessed from the beginning It is possible to read data from any location Eg:- tape storage Eg:-disk storage Access to data is much slower Access to data is faster Cheaper than disk Expensive when compared with disk 3.What are the types of storage devices? Primary storage Secondary storage Tertiary storage 4. What are called jukebox systems? Jukebox systems contain a few drives and numerous disks that can be loaded into one of the drives automatically. 5. What is called remapping of bad sectors? If the controller detects that a sector is damaged when the disk is initially formatted, or when an attempt is made to write the sector, it can logically map the sector to a different physical location. 6 . Define access time and seek time. Access time is the time from when a read or write request is issued to when data transfer begins. The time for repositioning the arm is called the seek time and it increases with the distance that the arm is called the seek time. 7. Define rotational latency time and average latency time. The time spent waiting for the sector to be accessed to appear under the head is called the rotational latency time. The average latency time of the disk is one-half the time for a full rotation of the disk. 8. What is meant by data-transfer rate and mean time to failure? The data-transfer rate is the rate at which data can be retrieved from or stored to the disk. The mean time to failure is the amount of time that the system could run continuously without failure. 9. What are a block and a block number? A block is a contiguous sequence of sectors from a single track of one platter. Each request specifies the address on the disk to be referenced. That address is in the form of a block number. 10. What are called journaling file systems? File systems that support log disks are called journaling file systems. 11. What is the use of RAID? A variety of disk-organization techniques, collectively called redundant arrays of independent disks are used to improve the performance and reliability. 12. Explain how reliability can be improved through redundancy? The simplest approach to introducing redundancy is to duplicate every disk. This technique is called mirroring or shadowing. A logical disk then consists of two physical disks, and write is carried out on both the disk. If one of the disks fails the data can be read from the other. Data will be lost if the second disk fails before the first fail ed disk is repaired. 13. What is called mirroring? The simplest approach to introducing redundancy is to duplicate every disk. This technique is called mirroring or shadowing. 14. Define query optimization. Query optimization refers to the process of finding the lowest –cost method of evaluating a given query. 15. What is called bit-level striping? Data striping consists of splitting the bits of each byte across multiple disks. This is called bitlevel striping. 16. What is called block-level striping? Block level striping stripes blocks across multiple disks. It treats the array of disks as a large disk, and 17. What are the factors to be taken into account when choosing a RAID level? Monetary cost of extra disk storage requirements. Performance requirements in terms of number of I/O operations Performance when a disk has failed. Performances during rebuild. 18 Define hot swapping Hot swapping permits the removal of faulty disks and replaces it by new ones without turning power off. Hot swapping reduces the mean time to repair. 19. Which level of RAID is best? Why? RAID level 1 is the RAID level of choice for many applications with moderate storage requirements and high I/O requirements. RAID 1 follows mirroring and provides best write performance. 20. Distinguish between fixed length records and variable length records? Fixed length records Every record has the same fields and field lengths are fixed. Variable length records File records are of same type but one or more of the fields are of varying size. 21. What are the ways in which the variable-length records arise in database systems? Storage of multiple record types in a file. Record types that allow variable lengths for one or more fields. Record types that allow repeating fields. 22. Explain the use of variable length records. They are used for Storing of multiple record types in a file. Used for storing records that has varying lengths for one or more fields. Used for storing records that allow repeating fields 23. What is the use of a slotted-page structure and what is the information present in the header? The slotted-page structure is used for organizing records within a single block. The header contains the following information. The number of record entries in the header. The end of free space An array whose entries contain the location and size of each record. 24 What are the two types of blocks in the fixed –length re presentation? Define them. •Anchor block: Contains the first record of a chain. •Overflow block: Contains the records other than those that are the first record of a chain. 25. What is known as heap file organization? In the heap file organization, any record can be placed anywhere in the file where there is space for the record. There is no ordering of records. There is a single file for each relation. 26. What is known as sequential file organization? In the sequential file organization, the records are stored in sequential order, according to the value of a ―search key‖ of each record. 27. What is hashing file organization? In the hashing file organization, a hash function is computed on some attribute of each record. The result of the hash function specifies in which block of the file the record should be placed. 28. What is known as clustering file organization? In the clustering file organization, records of several different relations are stored in the same file. 29. What is an index? An index is a structure that helps to locate desired records of a relation quickly, without examining all records. 30. What are the two types of ordered indices? Primary index Secondary index 31. What are the types of indices? Ordered indices Hash indices 32. What is known as a search key? An attribute or set of attributes used to look up records in a file is called a search key. 33. What are the two types of indices? Dense index Sparse index 34. What are called multilevel indices? Indices with two or more levels are called multilevel indices. 35. What are called secondary indices? Indices whose search key specifies an order different from sequential order of the file are called secondary indices. The pointers in secondary index do not point directly to the file. Instead each points to a bucket that contains pointers to the file. 36. What are the disadvantages of index sequential files? The main disadvantage of the index sequential file organization is that performance degrades as the file grows. This degradation is remedied by reorganization of the file. 37. What is a B+-Tree index? A B+-Tree index takes the form of a balanced tree in which every path from the root of the root of the root of the tree to a leaf of the tree is of the same length. 38. What is hashing? Hashing allows us to find the address of a data item directly by computing a ha sh function on the search 39. Distinguish between static hashing and dynamic hashing? Static hashing Static hashing uses a hash function in which the set of bucket adders is fixed. Such hash functions cannot easily accommodate databases that grow larger over time. 39. Define Dynamic hashing Dynamic hashing allows us to modify the hash function dynamically. Dynamic hashing copes with changes in database size by splitting and coalescing buckets as the database grows and shrinks. 40. What is called query processing? Query processing refers to the range of activities involved in extracting data from a database. 41 What are the steps involved in query processing? The basic steps are: parsing and translation optimization evaluation 42. What is called an evaluation primitive? A relational algebra operation annotated with instructions on how to evaluate is called an evaluation primitive. 43. What is called a query evaluation plan? A sequence of primitive operations that can be used to evaluate ba query is a query evaluation plan or a query execution plan. 44. What is called a query –execution engine? The query execution engine takes a query evaluation plan, executes that plan, and returns the answers to the query.