IBM Cognos Analytics
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
Version 11.0
User Guide
IBM
©
Product Information
This document applies to IBM Cognos Analytics version 11.0.0 and may also apply to subsequent releases.
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Licensed Materials - Property of IBM
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2005, 2017.
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Contents
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
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The user interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Work in design, structure, or preview view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Report layout and queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Report objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Find objects in a report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Relational and dimensional reporting styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Web browser settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Chapter 2. Creating a report
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Templates and themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a single data item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Validating a report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running a report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limited and fully interactive reports . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specify Not to Render a Page If It Does Not Contain Data. . . . . .
Controlling the Rows Per Page for Multiple Containers in HTML and PDF
Producing a Report in CSV Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Producing a Report in Microsoft Excel Format . . . . . . . . . .
Producing a Report in XML Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing performance details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Lineage Information for a Data Item . . . . . . . . . . . .
The IBM Cognos Analytics lineage tool . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access the IBM InfoSphere Information Governance Catalog . . . . . .
Support for bidirectional languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reports for workspaces in Cognos Workspace . . . . . . . . . . .
Prompts in workspaces in Cognos Workspace . . . . . . . . . .
Enable filters in workspaces in Cognos Workspace . . . . . . . .
Creating Reports for IBM Cognos for Microsoft Office . . . . . . . .
Creating Reports for Mobile Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The IBM Cognos Software Development Kit . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3. Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Set list properties . . . .
Hide columns in list reports .
Creating a scrollable list . .
Using Repeaters . . . . .
Chapter 4. Crosstabs
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41
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Crosstab Nodes and Crosstab Node Members . .
Set Crosstab Properties . . . . . . . . .
Create a Single-Edge Crosstab . . . . . . .
Create a Nested Crosstab . . . . . . . . .
Creating headers automatically for sets in crosstabs
Showing crosstab values as percentages . . . .
Specify the Default Measure . . . . . . . .
Swap Columns and Rows . . . . . . . .
Indent Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change a List into a Crosstab . . . . . . .
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iii
Chapter 5. Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a Chart Type and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Line Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pie Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bar Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Area Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Point Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combination Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scatter Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bubble Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quadrant Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bullet Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gauge Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pareto Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Progressive Column Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microcharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marimekko Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radar Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polar Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Range Indicator Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert Charts From One Type to Another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert Legacy Charts to Current Default Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations When Converting Legacy Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing chart properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resize a Current Default Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resize a Legacy Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing the Color Palette of a Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Conditional Color Palette in a Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change a Chart Background in a Current Default Chart . . . . . . . . . . .
Change a Chart Background in a Legacy Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add background effects to a chart object in a legacy chart . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Colored Regions in a Current Default Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specify Custom Label Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing the Axes of a Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Showing Gridlines in a Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customize the Legend in a Current Default Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customize the Items in the Legend of a Legacy Chart . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a note to a chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a baseline to a chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding markers to charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Trendlines in Current Default Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Regression Lines in Legacy Scatter or Bubble Charts . . . . . . . . .
Showing data labels or values in current default charts . . . . . . . . . . .
Showing data values in current default pie and donut charts . . . . . . . . .
Define Query Context When Customizing Legend Entries, Legend Titles, or Axis Labels
Summarize Small Slices, Bars, or Columns in Current Default Charts . . . . . . .
Customizing lines and data points in a line chart . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customize a Current Default Combination Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create a Matrix of Current Default Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customize a Current Default Gauge Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customize a Legacy Gauge Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining color by value in current default scatter or bubble charts. . . . . . . .
Specify the Bubble Size in a Current Default Bubble Chart . . . . . . . . . .
Set the Position of the First Slice in a Current Default Pie Chart . . . . . . . .
Creating a Donut Chart from a Current Default Pie Chart . . . . . . . . . .
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
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Pull Out Pie Slices in a Current Default Pie Chart . .
Define the Cumulation Line in a Current Default Pareto
Define the Cumulation Line in a Legacy Pareto Chart .
Insert a Microchart into a Crosstab . . . . . . .
Customize a Current Default Bullet Chart . . . . .
Changing the number of hotspots in a chart . . . . .
Create a drill-up and drill-down chart . . . . . . .
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Chapter 6. Extensible visualizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Adding a visualization to a report . . . . . . . .
Example - Adding a treemap visualization . . . .
Example - Adding a heatmap visualization . . . .
Example - Adding a packed bubble visualization . .
Example - Adding a network diagram . . . . . .
Visualization properties . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing where visualizations are rendered . . . . .
Resizing a visualization . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the nesting order. . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the range values that are displayed . . . .
Summarizing data in a visualization. . . . . . . .
Populating a visualization with data from the visualization
Updating visualizations . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting visualizations from one type to another . .
Sorting a category field by a measure in visualizations .
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Chapter 7. Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Adding a map to a report .
Using latitude and longitude
Geospatial data. . . . .
Ambiguous data . . . .
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Chapter 8. Active Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Active Report Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Active Report Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert an Existing Report to an Active Report . . . . . . . . . . .
Specify Active Report Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Interactivity to a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create and Manage Active Report Variables . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Controls to a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Data to a Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define a Connection Between Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specify the Selection Behavior of a Control . . . . . . . . . . .
Specify the Reaction Behavior of a Control . . . . . . . . . . .
Set the No Value List Item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show or Hide a Column or Row . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sort Data in a List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommendation - use master detail relationships when authoring decks .
Creating a data list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting an active report in the preview view. . . . . . . . . . .
Summarizing Data in the Active Report Output . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating application links to other reports or external web pages . . . . .
Run or Save an Active Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 9. Relational Reporting Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Add Relational Data to a Report . .
Group Relational Data . . . . .
Perform Advanced Grouping . .
Creating relational custom groups
Set the Group Span for a Column
Divide data into sections . . .
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Contents
v
Summarizing Data Relationally . . . . . . . . .
Add a Simple Summary . . . . . . . . . . .
Set the Auto Group & Summarize Property . . . .
Specify Detail or Summary Aggregation in the Model .
Specify Aggregation Properties for a Data Item . . .
Use Summary Functions in Data Item Expressions . .
Summary Functions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Focusing Relational Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Create a detail or summary filter . . . . . . . .
Edit or remove a filter . . . . . . . . . . .
Browse or Search the Values of a Data Item . . . .
Ignoring the Time Component in Date Columns. . .
Sorting Relational Data . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perform Advanced Layout Sorting . . . . . . .
Working with Relational Queries . . . . . . . . .
Specify a List of Data Items for an Object . . . . .
Relate a Query to a Layout . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting Queries Between Different Data Sources .
Add a Query to a Relational Report . . . . . . .
Create a Union Query . . . . . . . . . . .
Create a Join Relationship . . . . . . . . . .
Reference a Package Item in a Child Query . . . .
Create a Master Detail Relationship . . . . . . .
Working with Queries in SQL . . . . . . . . .
Using relational calculations . . . . . . . . . .
Create a simple calculation . . . . . . . . . .
Insert a Query Calculation . . . . . . . . . .
Create a Layout Calculation . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 10. Dimensional Reporting Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Add dimensional data to a report . . . . . . . .
Customize the Source Tree . . . . . . . . . .
Insert a member . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Search for a Member . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nest Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert a Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert a Member Property . . . . . . . . . .
Create a Set of Members. . . . . . . . . . .
Sharing sets between reports . . . . . . . . .
Edit a Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extended Data Items . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tips for working with ragged or unbalanced hierarchies
Creating dimensional custom groups . . . . . . .
Summarizing data dimensionally . . . . . . . . .
Add a Simple Summary . . . . . . . . . . .
Summarizing values in crosstabs . . . . . . . .
Summarizing Member Sets . . . . . . . . . .
Rolling and Moving Averages . . . . . . . . .
Show Data for Specific Time Periods . . . . . .
Summary Functions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Focusing Dimensional Data. . . . . . . . . . .
Create a context filter. . . . . . . . . . . .
Sorting Dimensional Data . . . . . . . . . . .
Sort Sets by Label . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sort Sets in the Opposite Axis by Value . . . . .
Perform Advanced Set Sorting. . . . . . . . .
Working with Dimensional Queries . . . . . . . .
Specify a List of Data Items for an Object . . . . .
Relate a Query to a Layout . . . . . . . . . .
Using Dimensional Data Sources with Queries . . .
Connecting Queries Between Different Data Sources .
vi
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
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Multiple-fact Queries . . . . . . . .
Add a Query to a Dimensional Report . .
Add Dimension Information to a Query .
Create a Master Detail Relationship . . .
Working with Queries in SQL or MDX . .
Using Dimensional Calculations . . . . .
Create a Simple Member Calculation . .
Insert a Query Calculation . . . . . .
Create a Layout Calculation . . . . .
Create an Intersection (Tuple) . . . . .
Assigning a Hierarchy or Dimension . .
Drilling Up and Drilling Down in Dimensional
Member Sets . . . . . . . . . .
Create a drill-up and drill-down report . .
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Chapter 11. Adding Prompts to Filter Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Using customized parameters . . . . . . . .
Use the Build prompt page tool . . . . . . .
Build Your Own Prompt and Prompt Page . . .
Create a parameter to produce a prompt . . . .
Create a Prompt Directly in a Report Page . . .
Modifying prompts . . . . . . . . . . .
Change the Prompt Control Interface . . . .
Specify that a prompt requires user input . . .
Allow Users to Select Multiple Values in a Prompt
Show or Hide Prompt Status . . . . . . .
Specify a Default Selection for a Prompt . . .
Customize Prompt Text . . . . . . . . .
Specify Prompt Values . . . . . . . . .
Add a Prompt Button . . . . . . . . .
Create a Cascading Prompt. . . . . . . .
Control the Data That Appears in a Tree Prompt .
Using in_range Filters with Character Data . . .
Showing prompt values in generated SQL or MDX .
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268
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280
Chapter 12. Laying Out a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Report layout . . . . . . . . . . .
The Page Structure View . . . . . . .
Copy object formatting . . . . . . . .
Add a header or footer to a report or list . .
Add borders to an object . . . . . . .
Add a Text Item to a Report . . . . . .
Specify the font for a report . . . . . .
Insert an Image in a Report . . . . . .
Insert a Background Image in an Object .
Add background effects . . . . . . . .
Add background effects to a chart . . .
Add a background gradient to a page . .
Add a drop shadow to a container . . .
Insert a Formatting Object in a Report . . .
Elements Supported in Rich Text Items . .
Adding JavaScript to a report . . . . . .
Align an Object in a Report . . . . . .
Using a table to control where objects appear
Apply a Table Style . . . . . . . .
Apply Padding to an Object . . . . . .
Set Margins for an Object . . . . . . .
Add multiple items to a single column . . .
Reuse a Layout Object . . . . . . . .
Change a Reused Object. . . . . . .
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297
vii
Update Reused Objects . . . . . . . .
Specify text and container direction . . . . .
Specify line spacing and breaking . . . . .
Specify the Height and Width of an Object . .
Control how other objects flow around an object
Specify Report Properties . . . . . . . .
Create and modify report and object styles . .
Modify the report style . . . . . . . .
Modify object styles . . . . . . . . .
Reusing styles from another report . . . .
(Don't Print) class . . . . . . . . . .
Modify classes to format Query Studio reports
Modifying the default layout style sheet . .
Add color to an object . . . . . . . . .
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297
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305
306
Chapter 13. Working with your external data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Manage external data. . . . . . . . .
Preparing to work with your external data
Import data . . . . . . . . . . .
Map data . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finish importing data . . . . . . .
Publish the package . . . . . . . .
Edit your external data . . . . . . .
Delete your external data . . . . . .
Running a report that contains external data
Making your reports public . . . . .
Chapter 14. Using conditions
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309
311
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316
316
317
317
317
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Highlight data using a conditional style . . . .
Create a new conditional style. . . . . . .
Reuse an existing conditional style . . . . .
Create an advanced conditional style . . . .
Manage conditional styles . . . . . . . .
Highlight data using a style variable . . . . .
Adding conditional rendering to a report . . . .
Add a variable from the condition explorer . .
Add a variable from the properties pane . . .
Hide or show an object . . . . . . . . .
Add conditional rendering . . . . . . . .
Add multiple layouts. . . . . . . . . .
Setting up a multilingual reporting environment
Create a multilingual report in Reporting . . .
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319
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327
328
Chapter 15. Bursting Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Defining Burst Recipients . . . . . . . . . .
Create a Calculated Field . . . . . . . . .
Creating the Burst Table in the Source Database . .
Importing the Table into a Package . . . . . .
Specify a Burst Group . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Burst Options . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enable Bursting . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Burst Reports Using Dimensional Data Sources
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331
331
332
333
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334
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335
Chapter 16. Format data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Set the default data formats . . .
Specify the data format for an object
Specifying the number of decimals
Digit shaping in charts and maps.
Locale-sensitive properties . . . .
Suppress empty cells . . . . . .
viii
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
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337
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339
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341
Suppressing null cells by using filters
Specify what appears for data containers
Using patterns to format data . . . .
Pattern guidelines . . . . . . .
Date and time symbols . . . . .
Decimal format symbols. . . . .
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that contain
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341
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344
351
Chapter 17. Using query macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add a query macro . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating prompts using query macros . . . . . . .
Examples - selecting country or region prompts . . .
Examples - creating prompts that use parameter maps
Examples - creating a multiple value prompt . . . .
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353
355
356
358
360
361
Chapter 18. Using drill-through access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Understanding drill-through concepts . . . . . . . . .
Drill-through paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selection contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drilling through to different report formats . . . . . .
Drilling through between packages . . . . . . . . .
Bookmark references . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Members and values . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Member unique names . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conformed dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mapped parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drilling through on dates between PowerCubes and relational
Set up drill-through access in a report . . . . . . . . .
Create a parameter in the target . . . . . . . . . . .
Create a drill-through definition . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining independent drill-through definitions for crosstabs.
Specify the drill-through text . . . . . . . . . . . .
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366
366
366
367
367
368
368
369
370
371
372
372
373
373
374
375
377
378
Chapter 19. Working with multiple pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Add a page to a report . . . . . . .
Page breaks, page sets, and page layers .
Creating page breaks . . . . . . .
Join nested page sets . . . . . . .
Create page layers . . . . . . . .
Add a bookmark . . . . . . . . .
Create a table of contents . . . . . .
Insert page numbers in a report . . . .
Control page breaks and page numbering .
Creating a report booklet . . . . . .
Producing tabbed reports . . . . . .
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379
379
380
381
382
383
385
386
386
388
389
Chapter 20. Managing existing reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Copy a report to the clipboard . . . . . . . .
Copy a report to the clipboard in Internet Explorer .
Copy a report to the clipboard in Firefox . . . .
Open a report from the Clipboard . . . . . . .
Open a file from another studio . . . . . . . .
Analysis Studio query specification . . . . . .
Managing changes in the package . . . . . . .
Update a name reference . . . . . . . . .
Changing the package . . . . . . . . . .
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Contents
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391
391
391
391
392
392
396
396
397
ix
Appendix A. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Problems Creating Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Division by Zero Operation Appears Differently in Lists and Crosstabs . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application error appears when upgrading a report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nested List Report Containing a Data Item That is Grouped More Than Once Does Not Run After Upgrade
Background Color in Template Does not Appear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subtotals in Grouped Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Labels Overwrite One Another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Shows Only Every Second Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Gradient Backgrounds Appear Gray in Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metadata Change in Oracle Essbase Not Reflected in Reports and in the Studios . . . . . . . . . .
Relationships Not Maintained in a Report With Overlapping Set Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summaries in Query Calculations Include Nulls with SAP BW Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Sections on Reports That Access SAP BW Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Characters (--) Appear in Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Columns, Rows, or Data Disappear With SSAS 2005 Cubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Function Unreliable with Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Searching for values might return unexpected results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report Differences Between TM1 Executive Viewer and IBM Cognos Analytics with TM1 Data Sources . .
Order of Metadata Tree Differs for TM1 Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MSR-PD-0012 error when importing external data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MSR-PD-0013 error when importing external data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems Calculating Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unexpected Summary Values in Nested Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Null Results for Calculations Using SAP BW Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incorrect Results with IBM Cognos PowerCubes and Time Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incorrect Results in Summaries When Using OLAP Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems Filtering Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unexplained Discrepancies in Number Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error when filtering on a _make_timestamp column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems Running Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report runs slowly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summaries in a report do not correspond to the visible members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
QE-DEF-0288 Cannot Find the Database in the Content Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parse Errors When Opening or Running an Upgraded Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overflow Error Occurs When a Value in a Crosstab Is More Than 19 Characters . . . . . . . . . .
The ORA-00907 Error Appears When Running a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Report or Analysis Does Not Run Because of Missing Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cannot View Burst Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
An upgraded report does not retain its original look . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measure Format Disappears in SSAS 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill-through Links are Not Active in the Safari Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Does Not Appear in a Target Report or the Wrong Data Appears . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Running Total in Grouped Reports Gives Unexpected Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recursive evaluation error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arithmetic Overflow Error When Running a Report in PDF Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RQP-DEF-0177 An error occurred while performing operation 'sqlPrepareWithOptions' status='-69'
UDA-SQL-0043 Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems with viewing saved Active Report output in Mozilla Firefox 8 or later versions . . . . . . .
Problems with large SAP BW queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master Detail or Burst Reports with Charts or Crosstabs May Result in Denial of Service . . . . . . .
PCA-ERR-0087 error when you run a large report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differences in the appearance of charts that are run in different formats or on different operating systems .
Out-of-memory errors with reports that are run in interactive HTML format . . . . . . . . . . .
Charts in PDF Output Show Unexpected Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Result set of a multi-fact query contains blanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cognos Statistics object is not displayed in a report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems When Drilling Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cannot Drill Through Between PowerCubes Because MUNs Do Not Match . . . . . . . . . . .
Unexpected or Empty Results When Drilling Through. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cannot Drill Through From a Relational Source to a Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
. 399
. 399
. 399
399
. 400
. 400
. 400
. 400
. 401
. 401
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. 403
. 404
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. 405
. 406
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. 408
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. 415
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. 415
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419
420
420
420
420
421
422
422
422
423
424
424
424
426
Calculations Do Not Appear in the Target Report . . . .
Nested Crosstab Only Filters on Some Items . . . . . .
Data is Not Filtered in the Target Report After Drill-Through
Drill-through links in active reports do not work . . . .
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426
426
427
427
Appendix B. Limitations when using dimensional data sources . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Running a Report Against a Dimensional Data Source. . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations When Using Set Expressions in List Reports . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations When Using Clauses in Summary Functions . . . . . . . . . .
Limited Support for Relational Functions When Used with OLAP Data Sources . .
Limitations When Summarizing Measures in DMR Data Sources . . . . . . .
Limitations when filtering dimensional data sources . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Characters (--) When Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations When Specifying the Scope of Summary Filters with Dimensional Data
Limitations When Filtering Data Using an SAP BW Data Source . . . . . .
Considerations when Creating Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation Solve Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Length of Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quality of Service Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Quotation Marks in Literal Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations of calculations in dimensional reporting . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Expressions Using SAP BW Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Microsoft Excel Functions with SSAS 2005 Data Sources . . . . . . .
Concatenating Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intersecting Calculations in Crosstabs and Charts . . . . . . . . . . .
Null (Missing) Values in Calculations and Summaries . . . . . . . . . .
Dimensional coercion rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommendation - Use Member Unique Name (MUN) Aliases . . . . . . .
Limitations When Formatting Empty Cells in SAP BW Data Sources . . . . . .
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429
430
430
431
432
432
433
433
434
435
435
435
435
436
436
436
437
437
437
440
441
445
446
Appendix C. Limitations When Producing Reports in Microsoft Excel Format . . . . . 447
Unable to Load Images from the IBM Cognos Analytics Content Store in a Report
Blank Worksheet Appears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warning Message Appears When Excel Opens an IBM Cognos Analytics Report .
Spreadsheet Content Not Saved for Reports Saved in XLS Format . . . . . .
Unable to Nest Labels in Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Series Are Truncated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Colors Different From Those in HTML or PDF . . . . . . . . . . . .
Repeating Pie Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unable to Skip Discrete Axis Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsupported IBM Cognos Analytics Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cells Contain Series of #. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table and Column Widths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Is Not Supported in Some Excel Formats and Versions
Number Formats Become Currency Formats in Japanese Excel . . . . . . .
Reports Show Data in Wrong Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unable to Access Reports on Remote Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill-through Reports Are Not Supported in Excel . . . . . . . . . . .
Map Reports Are Not Supported in Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsupported Excel Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hyperlink Buttons Are Not Supported in Excel . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unable to View Reports in Excel Format Sent as Email Attachments . . . . .
Many items on axis produces empty chart in Excel . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart legend titles are not supported in Excel . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsupported Chart Properties in Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsupported chart types in Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cell Height and Width Are Incorrect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Appendix D. Prompt API for IBM Cognos Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
cognos.Prompt object .
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Contents
. 455
xi
cognos.Prompt.getControlByName method . .
cognos.Prompt.getControls method . . . .
cognos.Prompt.Control object . . . . . . .
cognos.Prompt.Control.addValues method .
cognos.Prompt.Control.clearValues method .
cognos.Prompt.Control.getName method . .
cognos.Prompt.Control.getValues method .
cognos.Prompt.Control.setValidator method
cognos.Prompt.Control.setValues method .
cognos.Report object . . . . . . . . . .
cognos.Report.getReport method . . . .
cognos.Report.sendRequest method . . . .
cognos.Report.Action object . . . . . . .
cognos.Report.Action.BACK . . . . . .
cognos.Report.Action.CANCEL . . . . . .
cognos.Report.Action.FINISH . . . . . .
cognos.Report.Action.NEXT . . . . . .
cognos.Report.Action.REPROMPT . . . . .
cognos.Value class. . . . . . . . . . .
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455
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462
Appendix E. Legacy Map Manager maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
The Reporting map object . . . . . . .
Creating a map report . . . . . . . .
Set Map Properties . . . . . . . . .
Defining Data Values for the Region Layer .
Match Data Values to Names in the Map File.
Define Data Values for the Point Layer . . .
Add Colors to the Region or Point Layer . .
Add a Legend Title to a Map . . . . . .
Add a Note to a Map . . . . . . . .
Drill Through to Another Report From a Map
Edit a Map . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Maps . . . . . . . . . .
Location intelligence . . . . . . . . .
Appendix F. About this guide
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463
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
xii
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting
IBM® Cognos® Analytics - Reporting is a Web-based report authoring tool that
professional report authors and developers use to build sophisticated,
multiple-page, multiple-query reports against multiple databases. With Cognos
Analytics - Reporting, you can create any reports that your organization requires,
such as invoices, statements, and weekly sales and inventory reports.
The user interface
You enter the IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting user interface by creating a new
report or by opening an existing report in the Cognos Analytics portal.
Many Cognos Analytics user interfaces use standard HTML, including the Cognos
Analytics portal, Cognos Analytics - Reporting, and HTML viewers and reports. As
reports have moved from quirks to standard HTML, there might be small
differences in item sizes. These differences do not have an impact on the majority
of reports that were created in previous Cognos versions. However, minor changes
might be required in a small number of existing reports, such as reports that are
printed on forms. For more information, see the technote Cognos Analytics
conversion to Standards Mode (http://www.ibm.com/support/
docview.wss?uid=swg21982010).
The following table describes where you can find features and functions in the
Cognos Analytics - Reporting user interface.
Table 1. Cognos Analytics - Reporting function mapping
Cognos Analytics - Reporting interface
Function
Save as
Convert to Template
Convert to Active Report
Toggles between editing the report and
viewing the report
Switch between the IBM Cognos Analytics
portal and new or opened reports
Page design view
Page preview view
Page structure view
1
Table 1. Cognos Analytics - Reporting function mapping (continued)
Cognos Analytics - Reporting interface
Function
Run options
, Report level
Validate options
Burst options
Upgrade information
Enable interactive report output
Report style references
Package language
Report properties
PDF page set-up
Conditional layouts
Default data formats
Drill up, drill down, and drill-through
settings
Locked
Options
Layout components
Conditional styles
Clear all parameters
Refresh the report
This icon appears when you run a report.
Add report data by opening a package or
data module.
Source tab
Data items tab
Tip: You can create a report with no data.
Toolbox items
Report pages
Prompt pages
Report overview
Classes
Queries
Condition explorer
Active Report controls
Active Report variables
2
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Table 1. Cognos Analytics - Reporting function mapping (continued)
Cognos Analytics - Reporting interface
,
Report right-click menu
Function
Find report objects
Validate report
Auto correct validation errors
Show specification
Open report from clipboard
Copy report to clipboard
Show generated SQL or MDX
, right-click a query
View tabular data
Slide-out panes contain objects that you can add to a report. You add objects to a
report by dragging them to the work area.
Data pane
Use the Data pane
created.
to add report data to a report and to view queries that are
v The Source tab
contains items from the package selected for the
report, such as data items and calculations.
v The Data Items tab
describes the queries created in the report. You
can add existing query items to a report from this tab.
Toolbox pane
The Toolbox pane
contains various objects that you can add to a report, such
as text and graphics. Toolbox items are organized into different groups.
Add items that you use often to the PINNED group. Items in the PINNED group
appear in the Add circular menu
. To add a toolbox item to the PINNED
group, right-click the item and click Add to Pinned Toolbox Items. To remove an
item from the PINNED group, right-click the item and click Remove from Pinned
Toolbox Items.
Pages pane
Use the Pages pane
to view or create new report pages and prompt
pages, and to create and modify classes.
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
3
Queries pane
Use the Queries pane
to create or modify queries in relational
reporting or dimensional reporting and to perform complex tasks, such as defining
union joins and writing SQL statements. The Queries pane also contains the
following items:
v The Condition Explorer
in a report.
is used to work with variables to define conditions
v If you are authoring an active report, the Active Report controls icon
shows the controls and active report variables inserted in a report and their
relationships to one another. You can click a control in this tab to quickly locate
the control in the report and set default values for variables.
v If you are authoring an active report, the Active Report variables icon
shows the active report variables defined in a report. Use this tab to create new
variables and set default values.
Properties pane
The Properties pane
lists the properties that you can set for an object in a
report or for the entire report.
When you specify a value for a property, press Enter, click another property, or
save the report to ensure that the value is saved.
Tip: You can view a description of the currently selected property in the
information pane.
Report object toolbar
In addition to the Properties pane, you can modify an object in a report by clicking
icons in the toolbar that appears when the object is selected. The icons that are
available depend on the object type.
Tip: The appearance of report object toolbars is controlled by the option Show
on-demand UI on right click (More icon
, Options, View tab).
Page Layers area
When you are working with dimensional data, use the Page layers area to create
sections, or page breaks, in a report to show values for each member on a separate
page. For example, you can drag Northern Europe sales territory from the Source
tab
to the Page layers area. The report is broken into a separate page for
each territory within northern Europe. Each page's context appears in the report
header.
For more information, see “Create page layers” on page 382.
4
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Context Filter area
When you work with dimensional data, use the Context filter area to filter your
report to show values, or context, for only a specific data item. This technique is
also known as a slicer filter. For example, you can drag Sales Territory from the
Source tab
to the Context filter area. When you click a specific territory
from the list, the values in the crosstab change to represent data for that territory.
For more information, see “Create a context filter” on page 236.
Visual Aids icon
The visual aids icon
provides the following options to help you when you
are designing reports in the layout. The visual aids icon is found in the toolbar that
appears when you select the page body in the report.
Option
Description
Show Boundary Lines
Shows all boundary lines around objects.
Force Boundary Lines
Overrides boundary lines around objects.
Show Repeating
Repeats objects when you insert them. For example, when you
insert a data item in a crosstab, the data item appears in each
row or in each column of the crosstab.
Show Page Header &
Footer
Shows the page header and page footer.
Show Drag & Drop
Padding
Shows drag-and-drop zone when the Padding property for an
object is set to 0. If the Padding property is set to a value that is
greater than the minimum padding that IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting uses to show drag-and-drop zones, only the
minimum padding is shown.
Show Hidden Objects
Shows objects for which the Box Type property was set to
None or for which the Visible property was set to No.
Show Sorting
Shows the sorting icon for data items for which a sort order
was specified. For more information about sorting data, see
“Sorting Relational Data” on page 195 or “Sorting Dimensional
Data” on page 238.
Show Grouping
Shows the grouping icon for grouped data items.
Show Source Type
Shows the icon for the source type of objects, such as layout
calculation.
Show Data Item Type
Shows the icon for the type of data item, such as query item,
member, or measure.
Show Drill-through
Definitions
Shows data items for which the drill-through definition was
defined as a hyperlink.
Show Table of Contents
Entries
Shows table of contents entries inserted in the report.
Show Bookmarks
Shows bookmarks inserted in the report.
Show Master Detail
Relationships
Shows master detail relationships defined in the report.
Tip: Pausing the pointer over the master detail relationship
icon shows the relationship.
Show No Data Contents
Tab Control
Shows tabs if the data container's No Data Contents property is
set to Yes.
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
5
Option
Description
Show Repeater and
Singleton Containers
Shows repeater and singleton containers inserted in the report.
Show Interactive Object
Controls
Shows controls for active report application objects. For more
information about active reports, see Chapter 8, “Active
Reports,” on page 151.
Show Container
Selectors
Shows a small selector (three orange dots) for the following
container objects, which you can click to select all the objects
within them: list, crosstab, repeater table, table of contents,
table, and active report application objects.
Show Empty Text
Shows empty text item objects that were inserted in the report.
Show Insertion Icons
Shows the Add circular menu
.
Work in design, structure, or preview view
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has three views in which you can author
reports: Page design view, Page structure view, and Page preview view.
You choose a report authoring view by clicking the Page views icon
. Different
options are available in each view, so you often need to use all views. For example,
you must use the Page design and Page structure views to remove sections in
relational reporting.
Page design view
The default view in Cognos Analytics - Reporting. In this view, you can see what
your report will look like after you run it.
Page structure view
Displays an overview of all of the report objects in your report in a tree structure,
which is organized by page.
Page preview view
Shows you the current report page with live data. In this view, you can edit the
report, such as inserting data items into empty data containers.
When you are authoring an IBM Cognos Active Report, the page preview view
shows you live data as you format the report.
Related concepts:
“The Page Structure View” on page 281
When you add objects to a report, you usually work in the layout. An alternative
view of the report is available.
Related tasks:
“Formatting an active report in the preview view” on page 170
IBM Cognos Active Report has a preview view that you can use to format an
active report and immediately see the layout changes. You no longer have to run
the report whenever you make a formatting change.
6
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Report layout and queries
All reports have two components: a layout component that defines the report
appearance and a query component that defines report data. Understanding these
components will help you design effective reports.
Layout
A layout is a set of pages that defines the appearance and formatting of a report.
When you design the layout of a report, you
v present the data in a meaningful way by using lists, crosstabs, charts, and maps
v add formatting, such as borders, color, images, and page numbers
v specify how the data flows from one page to the next
Pages
Pages are containers for the layout objects that you use to build a report. A page is
made up of the following mandatory and optional components:
v page header (optional)
v page body (mandatory)
v page footer (optional)
When you run a report, the amount of data queried often exceeds one page. As a
result, a page will repeat until all the data is shown. You have control over how
data flows from one page to the next. For example, here are alternative
representations of a report that contains a chart and a lengthy list.
▌1▐ The chart appears on its own page. The list begins on the next page and fills subsequent
pages until all rows appear.
▌2▐ The chart and the first few rows of the list appear on the first page. The rest of the data
in the list appears on the subsequent pages.
Objects
You add layout objects to a page when you create a report. Below are objects that
you will use often when building reports in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting:
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
7
v list
Add a list to show data in rows and columns.
v crosstab
Add a crosstab to show data in a grid with dimensions along the rows and
columns and measures in the cells or intersection points.
v chart
v map
v repeater
Add a repeater to show each instance of a certain column or data item in a
separate frame.
v text
v block
Add a block to hold text or other information. Blocks are often used to lay out
horizontal bands of information.
v table
Related tasks:
“Insert a Formatting Object in a Report” on page 289
In addition to text and images, the Toolbox icon
you can add to the report layout.
contains other objects that
Queries
Queries determine what data items appear in the report. Sometimes you want
detailed rows of data, which you obtain by using a simple SELECT statement.
Other times you must calculate totals or averages using summary functions and
grouped columns or must apply filters to show only the data you want.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically creates the queries you need as
you build reports. However, you can modify these queries or create your own
custom queries to get the results you want.
Related concepts:
“Working with Relational Queries” on page 196
Queries specify what data appears in the report. In IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, you create and modify queries using Query Explorer.
“Working with Dimensional Queries” on page 240
Queries specify what data appears in the report. In IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, you create and modify queries using Query Explorer.
Report objects
You build reports by adding objects and manipulating them to obtain the results
you want. To understand how to work with objects in IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, you must be familiar with the following concepts:
8
v
object types
v
objects as containers
v
locking and unlocking objects
v
hierarchy of objects
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Object types
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, layout objects are either inline or block. You
can insert other objects on the same line as an inline object, but not on the same
line as a block object. When you insert an object horizontally before or after a
block object, the object appears on the line vertically before or after the block
object. Examples of inline objects include graphics and text items. Examples of
block objects include any report type (list, crosstab, chart, map, or repeater) and
tables.
You can also use an object's floating property to define how other objects flow
around the object. For example, you can specify how text flows around an image.
Objects as containers
Objects, such as tables, blocks, and any report frame, are containers in which you
can insert other objects. For example, you can insert a list in one cell of a table and
a chart in another.
You can also nest objects to create a sophisticated layout. For example, you can
insert a table in a cell of another table.
Locking and unlocking objects
To manipulate the contents of some objects, you must first unlock the object. For
example, you have a list that contains the column Product Name. You want to
insert a graphic inside the Product Name column to show an image of each
product. Unlock the list to insert the image object inside a list column.
To unlock a report, click the More icon
and then click Locked. All layout
objects in a report are unlocked. Note that this setting is not saved with the report.
Hierarchy of objects
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, objects are organized hierarchically. For
example, a list contains list columns, and each list column contains a text item,
which is the name of the inserted data item.
The hierarchy of objects is useful to remember when you apply formatting because
formatting is applied to the child objects of the object. For example, you can
specify that all list column titles in a list have red as the background color. The
formatting is automatically applied to any new columns you add to the list
because the formatting is applied to the list and is therefore applied to the objects
in the list. If you apply formatting to a specific object, it will override the same
formatting specified for the parent object.
Find objects in a report
You can quickly locate specific objects in a report by using Find.
About this task
A search box is also available in the Toolbox
search box to find items within those panes.
and Pages
panes. Use the
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
9
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
.
2. Right-click the Report icon
and click Find.
3. Click Find what and choose the type of object to find.
4. In the Options box, specify the search criteria.
For example, if you want to find the objects that reference a specific data item,
you must specify the query that contains the data item and the data item name.
5. To search for objects that are hidden in the report, in the View box, select the
Show hidden objects check box.
6. In the View box, under Page view, select whether you want to do the search in
the Page design, Page structure, or Page preview view.
7. Click Find All or Find Next.
Results
The first object that meets the search criteria is selected in the report. Continue
clicking Find Next to show all other objects that meet the search criteria.
Note: In some cases, such as searching for a data item that is used to define a
conditional style, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting cannot directly select the
object in the report. Instead, Reporting selects the object that uses the object for
which you are searching.
Related concepts:
“Work in design, structure, or preview view” on page 6
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has three views in which you can author
reports: Page design view, Page structure view, and Page preview view.
Relational and dimensional reporting styles
You can create reports in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting using either a
relational reporting style or a dimensional reporting style.
The Reporting tools and query language are the same for both styles. However, it
is important to choose a reporting style to ensure that you are making the most of
your data and to avoid mixing dimensional and relational concepts.
How to choose a reporting style
When authoring a report, first choose your preferred reporting style for working
with data: relational or dimensional. You can choose a reporting style from your
viewpoint:
v If you think about your data as tables and columns, you have a relational
viewpoint and should use a relational reporting style.
v If you think about your data as a number of dimensions intersecting at cells,
you have a dimensional viewpoint and should use a dimensional reporting style.
Relational reporting style
The relational reporting style consists of lists. You focus the data with filters and
summarize with header and footer summaries.
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v If your data is purely relational, then only query subjects and query items
appear in the Source tab
style.
, and you must use the relational reporting
v If your data is dimensional, then dimensions appear in the Source tab
and you can still use a relational reporting style, but instead of query items
(columns) and query subjects (tables), you use measures, levels, and level
properties.
,
To see an example of relational style reporting with dimensional data, see the
Manager Profile sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis) package.
The relational reporting style is similar to report authoring in IBM Cognos Query
Studio.
Dimensional reporting style
The dimensional reporting style consists of measures and members from different
hierarchies arranged in a crosstab with cell values at the intersections. You focus
the data with set expressions that navigate from specific members in the hierarchy
and summarize with set summaries.
To see an example of dimensional style reporting with dimensional data, see the
GO Balance Sheet as at Dec 31, 2012 sample report in the GO Data Warehouse
(analysis) package.
The dimensional reporting style is similar to report authoring in IBM Cognos
Analysis Studio.
Guidelines for each reporting style
This user guide is divided into relational and dimensional reporting sections so
that you can follow the best practices for using this product with the reporting
style that you have chosen. The following table outlines the best practices for both
reporting styles.
Item
Relational reporting
Dimensional reporting
Report type
Lists
Crosstabs
Crosstabs pivoted from lists
Charts created from scratch or
from crosstabs
Charts created from lists
Maps created from scratch or
from lists
Maps created from scratch or
from crosstabs
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
11
Item
Relational reporting
Dimensional reporting
Package tree
In the Source tab
,
click the Options icon
, and
then click View members tree.
If you are using dimensional
data, hide members in the
source tree by right-clicking the
tree, clicking Package Tree
Settings, and clearing the check
boxes for Members and
Members for each level.
The view will include the
following:
package
In the Source tab, click the
Options icon, and then click
View members tree.
Ensure that the option Create
sets is selected.
The view will include the
following:
package
folder
measure
member
named set
folder
namespace
query subject
query item
measure
level
Inserting data
From the package tree, add
query items or levels to the
report.
Avoid using hierarchies directly
in the report.
Avoid using named sets.
Calculating data
From the package tree, add sets
of members to the report.
You can also choose to insert
just the member, just the
children of the member, or the
member and its children.
Add query calculations using
only relational and common
constructs.
Add query calculations using
only dimensional and common
constructs.
Choose only Other expression.
Use Other expression only for
value calculations.
Avoid Common functions that
are marked with an exclamation
mark (!) because they have
limited support.
Summarizing data
Headers and footers in lists
Crosstab member summaries; for
example, aggregate within detail
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Member set summaries; for
example, aggregate within set
Item
Relational reporting
Dimensional reporting
Focusing data
Add detail or summary filters to
view only the data you want to
see. For example, add the
Quarter query item to a list and
filter by Q3.
Add only the relevant members
to an edge of the crosstab or to
the context filter. For example,
only add the Q3 member to
your report.
Use a set expression such as
Topcount or Filter.
Drilling
Drilling through by value
Drilling through by member
Drilling up and down
Page and section
breaks
Simple page breaks
Simple page breaks
Page sets
Page sets
Sections
Page layers
Master detail relationships using Master detail relationships using
parameterized filters
parameterized edge or slicer
expressions
Options
You can set various options that control the appearance and behavior of IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting (More icon
, Options).
View Options
Table 2. Descriptions of the options on the View tab of the Options window
Option
Description
Show new data container dialog
Shows the new data container dialog boxes
when the Show this dialog in the future
check box was previously cleared.
Reuse IBM Cognos Viewer window
Reuses the same IBM Cognos Viewer
window when you rerun a report without
first closing the window.
Show on demand toolbar on right-click
Show the report object toolbar only when
you right-click the object. The default setting
is to show report object toolbars when you
highlight an object. You can control when
you want to see these toolbars by enabling
this feature, which is also used for
accessibility. When you author reports with
accessibility features enabled, the Show
on-demand UI on right click option is
automatically selected. As a result, report
object toolbars do not appear. To show an
object's toolbar, navigate to the object and
press the Enter key.
Start page view
Enables you to start Reporting in Design,
Structure, or Peview view. For the change to
take effect, you must close and then restart
Reporting.
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
13
Edit Options
Table 3. Descriptions of the options on the Edit tab of the Options window
Option
Description
Wrap text in editors
Automatically wraps text in all editors
where you can define expressions.
Automatically populate values list
When building expressions in the expression
editor, automatically shows values when
you browse the data of a data item.
Automatically validate expressions
Automatically validates calculations, such as
filters, created in the expression editor. For
more information, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206 or “Using
Dimensional Calculations” on page 256.
In-place edit
Enables the editing of text in place when
double-clicking.
Allow crosstab nesting beside individual
items
Specifies to create a crosstab node when a
data item is inserted in a crosstab. This
option allows nesting under individual items
instead of only on the entire crosstab edge.
Enable drill-up or drill-down links
For data items where drill-up or drill-down
is possible, enables drill-up or drill-down
links. When you select a data item, it
becomes a link that you can click to drill up
or down. Also, you can still double-click
data items to drill up and down. By default,
this option is enabled. You can also control
drill options in the Properties pane. At the
report level, in the Data section.
Drop replace on crosstab and chart nodes
When you use drag-and-drop techniques,
this setting determines the behavior for
replacing an item.
Double-click on member action
When working with dimensional data,
specifies what happens when you
double-click a member data item.
By default, you drill down or up on the item
that you double-click.
Layout dimensions
Specifies the width and height of the area
where you will create reports.
Report Options
Table 4. Descriptions of the options on the Report tab of the Options window
14
Option
Description
Alias member unique names
When working with a dimensional data
source, creates an alias when you add a
member to the report or to an expression.
Delete unreferenced query objects
Automatically deletes query objects linked to
another object. For example, if you delete a
list, the query linked to the list is deleted as
well.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Table 4. Descriptions of the options on the Report tab of the Options window (continued)
Option
Description
Delete unreferenced conditional styles and
palettes
Automatically deletes conditional styles or
palettes when the last data item that refers
to the conditional style or palette is also
deleted.
Table Style inheritance
When a table style is applied to a list or
crosstab, specifies whether new objects
inserted in the list or crosstab should inherit
the style. For more information, see “Apply
a Table Style” on page 294.
Automatic group and summary behavior
for lists
When working with lists, automatically adds
an overall aggregate summary in the list
footer and a summary for any groups in the
list. When grouping a column, automatically
makes it the first column in the list.
Automatically create crosstab headers for
sets
When adding sets in a crosstab that uses a
dimensional data source, automatically adds
header labels on new columns and rows.
The headers help consumers of the report to
understand where the data is in the
hierarchy.
Limit on inserted individual members
When working with a dimensional data
source, limits the number of child members
that are inserted. For example, you specify 3
for this option and, in the toolbar, you
specify the option to insert children when
you drag a member to a data container. You
then drag the Camping Equipment member
to the rows of a crosstab. What you see as
rows are the child members Cooking Gear,
Tents, and Sleeping Bags and a row named
Others (Camping Equipment) for the
remaining child members of Camping
Equipment.
Advanced Options
Table 5. Descriptions of the options on the Advanced tab of the Options window
Option
Description
Use operating system clipboard
Uses the Microsoft Windows (or other
operating system) clipboard instead of the
internal Reporting clipboard.
Use legacy chart authoring
Enables you to create new reports using the
legacy charts instead of the default charts
and disables the automatic upgrade of charts
in existing reports to the current default
charts. Select this check box if you do not
want to upgrade the charts in your existing
reports.
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
15
Table 5. Descriptions of the options on the Advanced tab of the Options
window (continued)
Option
Description
Disable previews
When editing properties such as date and
number formatting, does not display a
sample of the formatting that is applied to
data. When this option is not enabled, either
sample data or data from your data source
is displayed with formatting options
applied.
Additionally, when in Page Design view,
displays a static image for a chart instead of
updating the chart with a preview of your
chart, using simulated data.
Active Report validation of visualization
Specifies whether to validate visualizations
in an active report when the report is run
from Reporting.
Report styles used for new reports
Specifies which report styles to use by
default when creating new reports.
For more information about report styles,
see “Create and modify report and object
styles” on page 302.
Map feature display limit
When working with maps, specifies the
maximum number of features that can
appear in a map.
Member display count limit (in source tree) When working with dimensional data,
specifies the maximum number of members
that can appear in the Source tab
before you must perform a search.
Related concepts:
“Recommendation - Use Member Unique Name (MUN) Aliases” on page 445
If you are working with a dimensional data source, use MUN aliases to simplify
building reports and expressions. In addition, you can tie the MUN back to the
member in the package.
Web browser settings
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting can be used in the Microsoft Internet Explorer
and Mozilla Firefox Web browsers.
To review an up-to-date list of the environments that are supported by IBM
Cognos products, including information about operating systems, patches,
browsers, web servers, directory servers, database servers, and application servers,
visit Supported Software Environments (http://www.ibm.com/support/
docview.wss?uid=swg27047186).
IBM Cognos Analytics uses the default browser configurations provided by
Internet Explorer and Firefox. Additional required settings are specific to the
browser.
For Internet Explorer, the following settings are required:
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
v Allow Cookies
v Active Scripting
v Allow META REFRESH
v Run ActiveX controls and plug-ins
v Script ActiveX controls marked safe for scripting
v Binary and script behaviors
v Allow programmatic clipboard access
v Userdata persistence
v Enable pop-ups for the IBM Cognos Analytics server
For Firefox, the following settings are required:
v Allow Cookies
v Enable Java™
v Enable JavaScript
v Load Images
v Enable pop-ups for the IBM Cognos Analytics server
Reporting uses the native Microsoft Internet Explorer XML support, which is a
component of the browser. ActiveX support must be enabled because Microsoft
implements XML using ActiveX. IBM Cognos Analytics does not provide or
download ActiveX controls. Only the ActiveX controls that are installed as part of
Internet Explorer are enabled through this configuration.
For more information about the Web browser configuration and cookies used by
IBM Cognos Analytics, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Installation and Configuration
Guide.
Chapter 1. Getting started in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
17
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Chapter 2. Creating a report
Create a report by clicking the New icon
and then clicking Report.
in the IBM Cognos Analytics portal
When you create a report, you are actually creating a report specification. The
report specification defines the queries and prompts that are used to retrieve data
and the layouts and styles used to present the data. For simplicity, the report
specification is named by the same name as the report.
Templates and themes
IBM Cognos Analytics includes several basic report templates and color themes
that you can choose from when you create a new report.
The templates and themes are stored in the Templates.zip deployment file. If you
do not see the list of templates and themes when you create a new report, ask
your administrator to import the deployment file into Cognos Administration.
After the deployment file is imported, the templates appear in the Templates
folder in Team content.
You can also create your own report templates and themes, and make them
available to other users. Save the templates in the Templates folder in Team
content, and save themes in the Style Reference Reports folder in the Templates
folder. When saving your own template or theme, do not use the name of an
existing Cognos Analytics template or theme. Otherwise, your template or theme
might be overwritten when Cognos Analytics is upgraded to a later version. Any
report or theme that is saved in the Templates folder appears in the list of
templates or themes when you create a new report.
You can also convert a report to a template by clicking Save > Convert to
Template.
Tip: By default, templates or themes that you create are identified by a blank icon
in the list of available templates and themes. You can associate your own icon to a
template or theme. Save the icon as an SVG with the same name as the template or
theme, replacing any blank spaces in the name with the underscore (_) character.
For example, if you create a template that is named My template, save the icon as
My_template.svg. Then, ask your administrator to add the icon to the folder
install_location\webcontent\bi\pat\images\templateReports for templates or
install_location\webcontent\bi\pat\images\themeReports for themes.
Related tasks:
“Reusing styles from another report” on page 303
You can apply local and global styles or themes from one report in another report.
Adding data
Add data to a report by loading packages or data modules in IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting.
19
About this task
You can add data from multiple packages that use the dynamic query
mode, from a single package that uses the compatible query mode, or from a
single data module.
The following list provides information about authoring reports that reference
multiple packages.
v You must set one of the packages as the default package.
When a report is run, Cognos Analytics checks the package capabilities of the
package that is used by the report. In a report that references multiple packages,
package capabilities are checked only for the default package.
Tip: The first package that you add to a report is set as the default package.
v A query can reference only one package.
v Query set operations (join, union, intercept, except), master detail relationships,
and the Build prompt page tool are not supported.
v Drill through and external data are supported only for the default package.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
.
2. Click the Add report data icon
.
3. Open the packages that you want, or open a single data module.
4. If you opened multiple packages, to specify a package as the default package,
right-click an item in the package and select Set default package.
5. To delete a package, right-click an item in the package and select Delete
package.
6. To replace a package by another package, right-click an item in the package
and select Replace package. If queries exist that use the package that you are
replacing, model paths in the queries are updated to the new package.
Tip: You can also change the package that is used by a query by modifying the
Data model query property.
Related tasks:
“Changing the package” on page 397
If the name of the package that was used to create a report has changed, you must
change the package connection to update the report.
Inserting a single data item
You can insert a single data item anywhere in your report using the singleton
object. The singleton object retrieves only the first row value for that query.
Inserting a single data item is useful when you want to show a value that is
independent from the rest of the values in the report or when you want to insert
some boilerplate text, such as a company name and address. For example, you can
add the total revenue value in the header of each page in a report.
You can associate multiple singleton objects with a single query in relational
reporting and dimensional reporting to optimize performance, such as when all the
data items in the singleton are from the same database table. In addition, two or
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
more singletons can reference data items from the same query. This is useful when
using a single query is more efficient to display a set of single values than using
multiple queries.
You can also filter the data item in the singleton. For example, you can show the
total revenue for only the year 2012.
Queries that are associated to a singleton object are not supported when producing
report output in delimited text (CSV) format.
Tip: The Returns by Damage, Failed Orders and Complaints in 2012 sample report
in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis) package includes a singleton.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Singleton to the report.
An empty data container is created.
2. Click the Data icon
, and from the Source tab
into the Singleton container.
, drag a data item
Tip: To create a singleton, you can also drag a data item anywhere in your
report layout.
3. To change the query associated to the singleton object, select the singleton, click
the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, double-click the
Query property and make changes.
Results
When the report is run, the first row value for the data item is retrieved.
Validating a report
Validate your report to ensure that it contains no errors.
When you open a report created in a previous version, it is automatically
upgraded and validated.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
or the Queries icon
, and click Validate Report
, right-click the Report icon
.
A message box appears indicating whether any errors were found in the report.
2. If you require more detail from the validation process, click the Show
properties icon
, navigate to the report level, click the Validate options
property, and do the following:
v Click one of the following validation levels.
Validation level
Description
Error
Retrieves all errors returned from the query.
Chapter 2. Creating a report
21
Validation level
Description
Warning
Retrieves all errors and warnings returned
from the query. This is the default validation
level.
Key Transformation
In addition to errors and warnings, retrieves
informational messages describing important
transformation steps from the report
specification to the native query sent to the
data source.
These messages can show the cause of errors
and warnings returned from the query.
Information
Retrieves errors, warnings, key
transformations, and other information
related to query planning and execution.
Tip: Your administrator can change the default validation level. For more
information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
v Select the Interactive data check box to specify that no query optimization is
to be used.
The Interactive data check box controls how queries will be processed
during validation.
Clear the Interactive data check box to set the query property Execution
optimization property to All Rows.
A message box appears indicating whether any errors were found in the
report.
v To view messages that result from the conversion of your report to use the
dynamic query mode instead of the compatible query mode, select the
Dynamic Query Migration check box.
For more information about using the dynamic query mode, see the IBM
Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide. For more information
about managing the migration from the compatible query mode to the
dynamic query mode, see the IBM Cognos Lifecycle Manager Installation and
User Guide.
v Revalidate your report.
3. If you encounter validation errors and want Cognos Analytics - Reporting to
identify incorrect objects in your report, right-click the Report icon and click
Auto Correct.
Cognos Analytics - Reporting provides a list of such objects that you can
remove individually to successfully run your report.
In some cases, the information or error message is linked to the location of the
issue in your report. To go to the location of the issue, click the message, and
then click Select. If only warnings and information appear in the dialog box,
these will disappear when you click OK.
Running a report
Run your report to see the data that is retrieved. Save time by validating it first to
check for errors.
You can also run a report or a group of reports in the IBM Cognos Analytics
portal.
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You can specify not to render a report page if it does not contain any data.
When you run a report in an export format such as PDF, delimited text (CSV),
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software (XLS), the IBM Cognos report name is used
as the exported file name.
If you run a report that uses functions or features not supported by the data
source, an error message appears. We recommend that you periodically test your
reports while you author them in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting to ensure that
you do not encounter multiple error messages when you run the report.
Procedure
1. Open a report.
2. If you want to clear parameter values stored on the IBM Cognos Analytics
server, click the More icon
and click Clear all parameters.
Parameter values stored by the IBM Cognos Analytics server include signon,
validation, and prompt information. For example, if you define two data source
connections in the Cognos Analytics portal that point to the same data source,
you are prompted to choose one when you run a report. This information is
stored so that you are not prompted each time you run the report.
3. If you want to view only the tabular data for a query, do the following:
a. Click the Queries icon
.
b. Right-click the query.
c. Click View tabular data.
Use this command to ensure that the right results appear. For example, you
create a calculation and you want to ensure it is giving you the results you
want.
4. If you want to set run options, click the Run options icon
run options property.
and click Show
Note: The run options that you set apply only to the current session. When
you close Cognos Analytics - Reporting, the options return to the default
settings.
5. Change any values for the current session.
Option
Description
Paper size
Specify only if the output format is PDF.
Paper orientation
Specify only if the output format is PDF.
Data mode
Specify how much data is returned:
v
All Data returns all data.
v
Limited Data limits the amount of data returned based on
design mode filters defined in the package.
v
No Data returns artificial data instead of actual data from
the data source.
For more information about design mode filters, see the IBM
Cognos Framework Manager User Guide.
Language
The content language sets the preferred language for the data,
IBM Cognos Viewer, dates, and so on.
Chapter 2. Creating a report
23
Option
Description
Rows per page
Specifies the number of rows to appear on each page.
A Rows Per Page property exists in the Properties pane for
lists and crosstabs. If you set this property, the setting
overrides the same-named run option. This property applies to
both HTML and PDF outputs. For more information about this
property, see “Controlling the Rows Per Page for Multiple
Containers in HTML and PDF” on page 26.
Prompt
Select to be prompted for each prompt defined unless the
prompt is defined in a report page.
If you clear the Prompt check box, you are prompted only if
the report cannot run without user intervention. For example,
if a report has a single parameterized filter that is optional,
you are not prompted when you run the report.
Include accessibility
features
Specifies whether accessibility features, such as alternate text
on images and charts and summary text in tables, are included
in the report output.
This option is also used for conditional layouts in Reporting.
When the option is selected, you can specify that a crosstab is
rendered as an accessible alternate to a chart.
Enable bidirectional
support
Specifies whether to enable bidirectional support in the report
output.
Tip: You can also enable bidirectional support in Cognos
Analytics portal by modifying your user preferences (My
Preferences link). If you enable bidirectional support in
Cognos Analytics portal, this run option will be automatically
selected.
Include performance
details
Specifies whether to include performance details.
The option Include performance details is designed for
authors that want to interactively view the performance of
their reports. You can use Include performance details while
you are designing your page by running as HTML or by using
the preview mode within the authoring mode.
6. Click the Run options icon and click one of the format options.
You can produce a report in HTML, PDF, CSV, and various Microsoft Excel
formats. You cannot produce a report in CSV format if you have more than one
query defined in the report, unless the additional queries are used for prompts.
Restriction: The formats that are available depend on the capabilities set by the
administrator for each user. You may not be able to run reports in all formats.
For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security
Guide or contact your administrator.
Results
The report runs in the report viewer. Once the report has finished running, you
can run the report again in the same format or in a different format. If you run the
report again in CSV or XLS format, the report will appear in a new browser
window.
Note: Cognos Analytics - Reporting, HTML viewers, and reports use standard
HTML. Because reports have moved from quirks to standard HTML, there might
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be small differences in item sizes. These differences do not have an impact on the
majority of reports that were created in previous Cognos versions. However, minor
changes might be required in a small number of existing reports, such as reports
that are printed on forms.
Related concepts:
“Running a Report Against a Dimensional Data Source” on page 429
You can cancel a report that is running against Microsoft SQL Server Analysis
Services only during the initial portion of its execution. After this time, the report
runs to completion.
Limited and fully interactive reports
Reports can run in limited interactivity or full interactivity mode.
You specify the interactivity mode by setting the report property Run with full
interactivity.
When a report is set to run with limited interactivity, the report runs in the IBM
Cognos Business Intelligence Viewer, also known as the IBM Cognos Viewer.
Report consumers can drill up, drill down, and drill through. Any JavaScript or
prompt API that is contained in the report is run. By default, Cognos BI reports
run with limited interactivity.
When a report is set to run with full interactivity, the report runs in the IBM
Cognos Analytics interactive viewer. By default, reports that are created in Cognos
Analytics are set to run with full interactivity. By clicking various icons in the
report object toolbar that appears when an object is selected, report consumers can
do the following in the Cognos Analytics interactive viewer:
v Sort data
.
v In lists, group data
v Summarize data
.
.
v Convert a list or crosstab to a chart, or change a chart to a different chart type
.
v In crosstabs and charts, suppress columns or rows
rows
or swap columns and
.
v Drill through to another report.
v
Add calculated members
v
Drill up, drill down, and perform dimensional operations, such as
top/bottom filtering
.
.
Run the report as Excel or CSV output.
v
Select and interact with the elements of a chart, such as the bars in a bar
v
chart.
v
View lineage information for a data item
v
Access a business glossary, such as the IBM InfoSphere® Information
Governance Catalog, for a data item
.
.
Chapter 2. Creating a report
25
v
v
Create, edit or remove filters
.
Share or embed report output, preserving the context of the current view
of the report, such as prompt values.
To share or embed report output, click the More icon
and then click Share
or Embed.
v
Run a report as the report owner or with the capabilities granted to the
owner.
In the Cognos Analytics portal, access the Properties slideout of the report, click
the Report tab, and then open the Advanced section.
Report consumers can also save changes that are made to a report as a new report.
You can also start the Cognos Analytics interactive viewer by using URLs.
You can open reports and pass parameters to a report. For more information, see
the Getting Started Guide.
Note: JavaScript in HTML items is removed when the report is run with full
interactivity. Instead, you can use the Custom control tool to add JavaScript.
Related tasks:
“Adding JavaScript to a report” on page 291
Add JavaScript to a report to provide your own user interfaces when the report is
run in HTML.
Specify Not to Render a Page If It Does Not Contain Data
You can specify not to render a report page if the page does not contain any data
when the report is run.
Procedure
1. In the report page, click a data container.
2. Click the Show properties icon
click the data container type.
, click the Select ancestor icon
, and
For example, if the data container is a list, click List.
Tip: You can also click the container selector (three orange dots) of the
container to select it.
3. Set the Render Page when Empty property to No.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for all other data containers in the page and any table of
contents objects.
Results
When you run the report, if no data is produced in all data containers and table of
contents objects in a page, the page is not rendered. The page is not rendered even
if the page contains other objects, such as text items or images.
Controlling the Rows Per Page for Multiple Containers in
HTML and PDF
If you have more than one data container in a report, such as a list and a crosstab,
you can control how the report is rendered in HTML and PDF by setting the Rows
Per Page property for each container.
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
For HTML output, the report property option Page break by data container for
interactive HTML controls whether the default number of rows is rendered for
each data container on each page.
IBM Cognos Analytics uses the following rules when rendering reports in HTML
and PDF:
v If the Rows Per Page property is not set for any of the data containers, 20 rows
per page are rendered in HTML and each page is completely filled in PDF. The
first data container is rendered until there is no more data, followed by the next
container, and so on.
Tip: The number of rows that appear on a PDF page depends on the font size
set in the report.
v If the Rows Per Page property is set for each data container, the specified
numbers of rows are rendered in HTML and PDF on each page until there is no
more data.
v If the property is set for only some of the containers, the specified numbers of
rows are rendered in HTML and PDF on each page until there is no more data.
For the remaining containers, 20 rows per page are rendered on each page in
HTML and each page is completely filled in PDF.
For example, you have two lists, List1 and List2. You set the Rows Per Page
property to 5 for List1. When you run the report in HTML, the first page
contains the first 5 rows from List1 followed by the first 15 rows of List2.
v If no data is returned for a data container, an empty container is rendered.
Producing a Report in CSV Format
IBM Cognos Analytics can produce reports in CSV format so you can open them in
other applications, such as Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software.
Reports saved in CSV format
v support Unicode data across many client operating systems
v are UTF-16 Little Endian data encoded
v include a BOM (Byte Order Mark) at the beginning of the file
v are tab-delimited
v do not enclose strings in quotation marks
v use a new line character to delimit rows
You can open reports saved in CSV format using a variety of spreadsheet software
applications. By default, reports produced in CSV format will appear in the
application associated with the .csv file type.
You cannot produce the following in CSV format:
v maps
v charts that do not have at least one category or series
v reports that have more than one query defined in the report, unless the
additional queries are used for prompts
In the IBM Cognos Analytics portal, you can configure the CSV output to suit your
environment. For example, you can specify the character used to delimit fields. For
more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
Chapter 2. Creating a report
27
Producing a Report in Microsoft Excel Format
You can export your report output to several different Microsoft Excel spreadsheet
software formats.
Excel and Excel data formats render report output in native Excel XML format,
also known as XLSX. This format provides a fast way to deliver native Excel
spreadsheets to Microsoft Excel 2002, Microsoft Excel 2003, and Microsoft Excel
2007. Users of Microsoft Excel 2002 and Microsoft Excel 2003 must install the
Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack, which provides file open and save capabilities
for the new format.
Excel provides fully formatted reports for use in Microsoft Excel version 2007.
The output is similar to other Excel formats, with the following exceptions:
v Charts are rendered as static images.
v Row height can change in the rendered report to achieve greater fidelity.
v Column widths that are explicitly specified in reports are ignored in Microsoft
Excel 2007.
v Merged cells are used to improve the appearance of reports.
v The default size of worksheets is 65 536 rows by 256 columns.
Your IBM Cognos administrator can enable larger worksheets and change the
maximum number of rows in a worksheet, up to a maximum of 16,384 columns
by 1,048,576 rows, by using advanced server properties. For more information,
see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
Excel data provides data for use in Microsoft Excel version 2007. These reports
only contain minimal formatting. Default data formatting is applied to the data
based on data type and assumes that each column has a single data type.
The output is similar to other Excel formats, with the following exceptions:
v The generated output includes only the first list query in the report. Other
queries are ignored. If a report contains only multi-dimensional queries for
crosstabs or charts, an error message is displayed when the report runs.
v Nested frames and master-detail links are not supported.
v Cells in the Microsoft Excel file have a default width and height. You must
adjust the column width and height if the data is larger than the default size.
v Style specifications are not rendered, including color, background color, and
fonts.
v Borders are not rendered.
v User-specified data formatting in the report specification are not applied,
including exception highlighting and color rules for negative numbers.
Related concepts:
Appendix C, “Limitations When Producing Reports in Microsoft Excel Format,” on
page 447
There are limitations when producing reports in Microsoft Excel format.
Producing a Report in XML Format
XML report outputs save the report data in a format that conforms to an internal
schema, xmldata.xsd.
You can find this schema file in installation_location\bin.
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This format consists of a dataset element, which contains a metadata element and a
data element. The metadata element contains the data item information in item
elements. The data element contains all the row and value elements.
You can create models from reports and other data that conform to the
xmldata.xsd schema. This is useful if you want to use a report as a data source for
another report, or if you use a database that cannot be read by IBM Cognos
Framework Manager. In this case, export the data from the data source to an XML
file, in conformance with the xmldata schema, and then open the XML file in
Framework Manager.
For more information, see the Framework Manager User Guide.
You cannot produce the following in XML format:
v maps
v charts that do not have at least one category or series
v reports that have more than one query defined in the report, unless the
additional queries are used for prompts
If a report contains more than one data container, such as a crosstab and a list,
and both containers use the same query, only the output for the list is produced.
If a report contains multiple lists, only the output for the first list is produced. If
a report contains multiple crosstabs and multiple lists, only the output for the
first list is produced.
Viewing performance details
With the option Include performance details, you can view query and rendering
performance on report objects in IBM Cognos Analytics.
The option Include performance details is designed for authors that want to
interactively view the performance of their reports. You can use this option while
you are designing your page by running as HTML or by using the preview mode
within the authoring mode.
The following illustration shows the performance details for a crosstab.
The Execution Time in milliseconds is displayed for each data container, including
prompt controls, in the report. When you hover over the information icon
flyout shows the following information:
a
v Render: The amount of time to generate the query, process any data that is
returned from the database and generate the data container report objects. It
does not include query time.
v Query: The amount of time that is required to plan the query, run it and retrieve
the data.
Chapter 2. Creating a report
29
The Total Execution Time is displayed at the end of the report. The total execution
time is the time to render logic layout of the report, excluding the device time.
When you hover over the information icon
a flyout shows the following
information:
v Host: The name of the server where the report ran.
v Process ID: The process ID of the BIBusTKServerMain that rendered the report.
v Session ID: The client’s unique identifier for his IBM Cognos session, from login
to logout.
v Request ID: The report session’s unique identifier through the duration of the
report execution.
v Hop Count: The number of service nodes that the request communicated with
during the report execution.
Note: To get additional information on why the report object is working the way
that it is, your Cognos Administrator can use the Request ID as a search parameter
within the logs.
Objects that use the same query show different execution times. The last run of
performance details on an object uses cached information and does not have to
rerun a query.
IBM Cognos Analytics retrieves rows as they are required in the interactively run
HTML reports. Because of this, you will not see an accurate representation of the
runtime of the report, when you scroll to the bottom of a long report, as you
would see when you schedule it.
If you want to see the actual runtime by using performance details, then set the
rows per page for your report object to a high enough number to retrieve all rows
for the object. Click the object, such as a list, and then click Show Properties. The
Rows per page option is in the DATA section.
Performance details are not available for the following output formats:
v XLS
v PDF
v Scheduled reports
v Active reports
View Lineage Information for a Data Item
View lineage information of a data item to see what the item represents.
Before you begin
Before you can access lineage information for a report, your administrator must
configure lineage in IBM Cognos Administration. Also, the administrator must
enable the lineage capability and grant read permission for you on the report.
Note: The IBM Cognos Analytics lineage tool shows lineage on a report at its
highest level. The lineage does not change after you drill down on a report.
Because the selection context used to launch lineage can be affected by drill-down
operations, we recommend that you always launch lineage at the highest report
level before drilling down on the report. Otherwise, the lineage may not start
properly.
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
About this task
Lineage information traces the metadata of an item back through the package and
the data sources used by the package. Lineage also displays any data item filters
that were added by the report author or that were defined in the data model.
Viewing lineage information ensures that you add the correct data items to a
report. For example, you can view the lineage information of a model calculation
to see how it was created.
Note: Lineage is available only after your administrator has configured it. In
addition, lineage is not supported in reports that are not linked to packages.
You can use the lineage tool that comes with IBM Cognos Analytics, or you can
use another lineage tool by specifying the URL to the tool in IBM Cognos
Administration. Note that if the URL source is secured, the source must be able to
prompt users for a password because IBM Cognos Analytics does not pass security
information. IBM Cognos Analytics also supports the IBM Metadata Workbench as
a lineage tool.
You cannot use lineage information to troubleshoot queries. For example, lineage
information will not explain why a data item is double counted. Also, you cannot
view lineage information when running a report from a mobile device.
There are several ways in which you can view lineage information.
v You can view lineage information for a data item before you add it to a report.
v You can view lineage information in IBM Cognos Viewer after you run a report.
For example, you can click a cell in a crosstab to see how the cell value was
calculated.
v
You can view lineage information in the Cognos Analytics interactive
viewer after you run a report.
v
In the page preview view, you can view lineage information for a data
item that was added to a report.
Procedure
1. To view lineage information for a data item before you add it to a report:
a. Click the Data icon
.
b. From the Source tab
, right-click the data item and click Lineage.
2. To view lineage information in IBM Cognos Viewer, right-click an item in the
report and then click Lineage.
3. To view lineage information in the Cognos Analytics interactive viewer or in
the page preview view, select an item in the report, and in the report object
toolbar, click the Explore icon
and then click Lineage.
Results
The lineage tool opens showing the lineage information of the selected data item.
The IBM Cognos Analytics lineage tool
The IBM Cognos Analytics lineage tool includes two views: the business view and
the technical view.
Chapter 2. Creating a report
31
The business view displays high-level textual information that describes the data
item and the package from which it comes. This information is taken from IBM
Cognos Analytics portal and the IBM Cognos Framework Manager model.
The technical view is a graphical representation of the lineage of the selected data
item. The lineage traces the data item from the package to the data sources used
by the package.
When you click an item, its properties appear below it. If you click an item in the
Package area, you see the model properties of the item. If you click an item in the
Data Sources area, you see the data source properties of the item.
Figure 1. The technical view in the IBM Cognos Analytics lineage tool
If you or an administrator runs a saved report with the IBM Cognos Analytics
lineage tool, both the business view and the technical view are visible. Report
consumers can see only the business view. In addition to the Package and Data
Sources areas, a Report area exists when looking at the technical view.
Access the IBM InfoSphere Information Governance Catalog
If you use the IBM InfoSphere Information Governance Catalog, you can access the
catalog from various data objects in a report.
Before you begin
To access the IBM InfoSphere Information Governance Catalog, your Cognos
administrator must specify the URI of the Catalog web page in Cognos
Administration. For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration
and Security Guide.
About this task
Business glossaries help you manage and share an enterprise vocabulary and
classification system.
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
If you use the IBM InfoSphere Information Governance Catalog, you can access the
catalog from any of the following data objects:
v Query subject
v Query item
v Measure
v Dimension
v Hierarchy
v Level
v Property or attribute
v Top node member
v Member
v Level item
Procedure
1. Open an HTML report or report view in the IBM Cognos Viewer or in the
Cognos Analytics interactive viewer.
2. If you are in the IBM Cognos Viewer, right-click the data item and click
Glossary.
If you are in the Cognos Analytics interactive viewer, select the data
3.
item, and in the report object toolbar, click the Explore icon
Glossary.
and then click
Results
The IBM InfoSphere Information Governance Catalog appears.
Related concepts:
“Limited and fully interactive reports” on page 25
Reports can run in limited interactivity or full interactivity mode.
Support for bidirectional languages
You can author reports that support bidirectional languages. You can specify base
text direction, digit shaping, and container direction.
Arabic, Hebrew, Urdu, and Farsi are languages written from right to left, using the
Arabic or Hebrew scripts. However, numbers in those languages, as well as
embedded segments of Latin, Cyrillic, or Greek text, are written from left to right.
Using the bidirectional settings in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, you can
control the direction in this type of text in reports.
Report formats
Bidirectional languages are supported for reports produced in HTML, PDF, and
Microsoft Excel. IBM Cognos Active Report also supports bidirectional languages.
Enabling bidirectional support
To enable support for bidirectional languages when a report is run, in the IBM
Cognos Analytics portal, users must open their My Preferences page and select the
Bidirectional language support check box.
Chapter 2. Creating a report
33
To enable support for bidirectional languages when a report is run from Cognos
Analytics - Reporting, select the Enable bidirectional support check box in the
Run options window.
Tip: If you enable bidirectional support in the Cognos Analytics portal and you
then start Cognos Analytics - Reporting, the bidirectional support run option in
Cognos Analytics - Reporting is selected. If you disable bidirectional support in the
Cognos Analytics portal and you then start Cognos Analytics - Reporting, the run
option in Cognos Analytics - Reporting is cleared.
Base text direction
Base text direction sets the text direction as left-to-right or right-to-left. You can
specify the base text direction for any text object in a report. You specify the base
text direction for text by clicking the Direction & justification property for the text
or for the object that contains the text, such as a list column.
A contextual option also exists in the Direction & justification property that sets
the text direction based on the first letter in the text.
For compound objects that contain text, you specify the base text direction of the
text contained in the object by clicking the Contained text direction property for
the object. Examples of compound objects are charts, prompts, and active reports.
Digit shaping
Digit shaping allows users to consume reports with numbers that they can read
after they select the content language in the Cognos Analytics portal. You can
specify digit shaping at the following levels:
v Report
v Container (except for charts and maps)
v Text
v Number
You specify digit shaping for an object by clicking the Data format property for the
object. To specify digit shaping at the report level, click the report property Data
formats.
Tip: Digit shaping has no impact on reports produced in Excel format, since the
shaping of digits in Excel depends on Windows regional settings.
Container direction
Container direction sets the direction of container objects in a report as left to right
or right to left. You specify container direction for an object by clicking the
Direction & justification property for the object.
Tip: Container direction is not supported in reports produced in Excel format.
Excel spreadsheets do not natively support mirroring at the container level.
Related concepts:
“Digit shaping in charts and maps” on page 339
When working with bidirectional content, you cannot specify digit shaping at the
chart or map level. You can specify digit shaping for the objects in charts and
maps.
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Related tasks:
“Running a report” on page 22
Run your report to see the data that is retrieved. Save time by validating it first to
check for errors.
“Specify text and container direction” on page 298
You can specify text and container direction by choosing any of these options.
“Set the default data formats” on page 337
Set the default data properties for each type of data, including text, number,
currency, percent, date, time, date/time, and time interval.
“Specify the data format for an object” on page 338
Specify the format for a particular object if you are not getting the results you
want.
Reports for workspaces in Cognos Workspace
When building a workspace in IBM Cognos Workspace, business users can insert
an entire IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting report or insert only individual objects
from within a report.
To create effective reports for use in workspaces in Cognos Workspace:
v Ensure that all the objects and pages within the report have meaningful names.
For some objects, such as data containers, Reporting gives the object in a report
a default name such as List 1, List2, and so on. In Cognos Workspace, these
names appear in the Content tree. To help business users recognize the report
objects, rename them to something more meaningful (Properties pane, Name
property).
If you do not want an object to be added in a workspace, clear the Name
property for that object. The object will not appear in the Content tree. However,
you cannot clear the name of data containers. Reporting requires that data
containers have names.
Note: Cognos Workspace does not support tables and blocks. Unsupported
objects do not appear in the Content tree in Cognos Workspace, even if you
specify a name for the object.
v Create a container report that includes all the report objects that workspace
users might want to add in a report. Such a report is not meant to be run and
does not need to show report objects in a proper layout. It is only used as a
container for the various report parts. Each page of a report appears as a folder
within the Cognos Workspace Content pane.
For example, on one page named Prompts you can insert all the possible
prompts that users might want to add to a workspace, and give each prompt a
useful business name, such as Value Prompt for Region. On a second page
named Charts, you can insert a number of charts useful for workspaces.
v Ensure that the titles and labels used in your report are understandable by
business users.
v Ensure that you use report objects that are well suited for dashboards. They
convey the most information in as little space as possible. For example, if you
include a chart, use bullet charts, microcharts, line charts, or column and bar
charts. Use conditional blocks to show business indicators.
v If your report includes charts, customize the font sizes so that the charts appear
correctly in a dashboard. You may need to reduce the font sizes.
v If your report includes embedded objects, such as a list with an embedded chart
and crosstab, the embedded objects do not appear in the Cognos Workspace
Chapter 2. Creating a report
35
Content pane, unless the embedded objects are in a table object. When you
insert an object that contains embedded objects, the embedded objects will be
inserted in the workspace.
When embedded objects are in a table object, the embedded objects appear in
the Content pane. Table objects do not appear in the Content pane because
Cognos Workspace does not support Cognos Analytics - Reporting table objects.
Consequently, you can insert the embedded objects in a workspace, but not the
table.
v If your report includes a map, customize the colors of the map in Reporting so
that they match the color palette of the dashboard. You cannot edit the color
palette of a map from within a workspace in Cognos Workspace.
v If your report is using a dimensional data source and you enable drill-up and
drill-down, in the Drill Behavior window, specify that the column title uses
member caption values.
Cognos Workspace does not support drill up and drill down with level label
values as the column titles. Cognos Workspace always uses member captions.
Related tasks:
“Create a drill-up and drill-down report” on page 262
You can link groups of data items from different queries so that when you drill up
or drill down in one query, the data item also drills up or drills down in the linked
queries.
Prompts in workspaces in Cognos Workspace
A prompt control, when assigned a Name property in IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, appears as an object that you can insert from the Content pane in a
workspace in IBM Cognos Workspace.
If a workspace includes reports and report parts from the same model, prompts
automatically filter the appropriate data item in all the widgets in the dashboard.
For example, a prompt filters on Product Line. Any widget in the dashboard that
includes the Product Line data item is filtered when you select a value from this
prompt control. If you do not want a prompt to control a widget in the dashboard,
you can disable communication between the two widgets.
If a dashboard includes prompted reports or report parts from different models,
ensure that the prompts use the same parameter names. For example, a year
prompt should use the same parameter p_Years in reports from both models.
Otherwise, the prompt control is unable to control reports from another package.
Enable filters in workspaces in Cognos Workspace
You can include a data item in the query of the report, but not show that data item
in the actual report. This is useful for creating calculations and filters. If you want
IBM Cognos Workspace users to filter content in a workspace based on a data item
that is not visible in the report, you must include this data item in its own query
and name it _BusinessInsight_ within the IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
report. Therefore, the data item must exist in both the query used for the data
container (such as the list, crosstab, or chart) and in this separate query.
For example, a chart shows the revenue for the product lines for each region. You
want to filter the chart to show only data for the year 2012. When you author the
report, in addition to including Year in the Query1 used for the chart data
container, you create a new query named _BusinessInsight_ that includes Year.
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Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
2. Click the Toolbox icon
, and then click Queries.
, and drag a Query object to the work area.
3. Click the Query object, click the Show properties icon
, and in the
Properties pane, in the Name box, type _BusinessInsight_.
4. Double-click the Query object, click the Data icon
, and from the Source tab
, add the data item to use as a filter.
Ensure that the same data item also exists in the query used for the data
container.
Creating Reports for IBM Cognos for Microsoft Office
IBM Cognos for Microsoft Office provides an integrated environment for IBM
Cognos products and Microsoft Office. You can use IBM Cognos for Microsoft
Office to select pieces of reports to embed in Microsoft Excel workbooks, Microsoft
Word documents, or Microsoft PowerPoint presentations, including data, metadata,
headers, footers, and charts. You can use predefined reports or you can create new
content using IBM Cognos PowerPlay® Web, IBM Cognos Query Studio, or IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting.
Note: Note that to access PowerPlay content, your administrator must configure
PowerPlay to work with IBM Cognos Analytics. PowerPlay content that is
published only to Upfront is not available to IBM Cognos for Microsoft Office.
Because IBM Cognos for Microsoft Office cannot fully convert highly formatted
reports into Excel or other Microsoft document output types, you may not get the
results that you want.
To create effective reports for IBM Cognos for Microsoft Office, follow these
recommendations:
v Create content to meet specific Microsoft Office integration needs.
For example, in IBM Cognos Analytics, many options are available to format
data. Use less formatting to make data more accessible to Office applications.
v Organize reports.
You can publish workbooks to the Cognos Analytics portal and organize them
with your reports in Team content or My content. For more information, see the
IBM Cognos Analytics Getting Started Guide. By organizing your content, you can
quickly retrieve the information that you want.
Tip: Workbooks, documents, and presentations that are enabled for IBM Cognos
for Microsoft Office are identified by their own unique icons, helping you to
distinguish them from other types of files.
v Optimize report templates for Microsoft Office.
If you rely on IT personnel or other report authors to create content, request
report templates that are optimized for your Microsoft Office integration needs.
You may want to request only the data elements or queries that you need and
request minimal formatting so that you can more easily use Microsoft Office
formatting capabilities with the IBM Cognos content. For example, reports
authored in Cognos Analytics - Reporting can contain list objects embedded
within list objects with specific formatting applied. When converted to the
Chapter 2. Creating a report
37
tabular representation available in Excel, these reports may not be rendered in
the same way in which they appear in IBM Cognos Analytics.
v Format elements in the Office application.
Instead of formatting objects in IBM Cognos Analytics, add the formatting in the
Office application. By applying less formatting in IBM Cognos Analytics, you
can import more data into the desired locations.
v Label report elements using descriptive names.
This practice makes them more easier to find after you import them. Examples
of report elements include lists, crosstabs, and charts.
v Do not nest report objects.
If you nested report objects, some objects may not appear in the correct location,
or they may not appear at all. In addition, nesting report objects may cause the
following error message to appear:
RDS-ERR-1000 Report Data Service could not process from the content provider.
For example, this error occurs if a repeater or repeater table is inside a block or
table. It also appears when layout objects, such as lists, crosstabs, and charts, are
in a conditional block that is inside another block or table.
v Keep table sizes small.
For example, because of the size of slides, the maximum number of rows and
columns that you can have in Microsoft PowerPoint tables is 25. Although Word
and Excel permit larger tables, it takes more time to download and render them.
v Use images with transparent backgrounds.
The background will show through the image in the Office application, making
the image look like part of the presentation. If you want, you can then supply
your own background color.
v Specify the height and width of images in a list.
This practice ensures that the image appears in the correct size in the Office
application.
v Remember that graphs and charts are imported as images.
Images in IBM Cognos Analytics have image maps associated with them to
enable tooltips and hotspots. IBM Cognos Analytics for Microsoft Office cannot
import tooltips and hotspots into Office applications.
v Consider the additional limitations that exist when producing reports in Excel
format.
Creating Reports for Mobile Devices
You can send IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting reports to mobile devices that
have IBM Cognos Mobile installed, or that are using the IBM Cognos Mobile Web
portal.
The IBM Cognos Software Development Kit
When you create a report, you are creating a report specification.
A report specification is an XML file that you can view (Pages icon
Queries icon
, right-click the Report icon
).
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
or the
, and click Show Specification
You can also programmatically create or modify reports by using an editing tool to
work with report specifications. You then use the IBM Cognos Software
Development Kit to implement the reports in your IBM Cognos Analytics
environment. This is useful if, for example, you must make the same modification
in many reports. Rather than opening each report and making the change, you can
automate the process using the Software Development Kit, thereby saving you
time. For more information about the Software Development Kit, contact your local
sales office.
Tips
v When you are viewing the report specification, you cannot modify or copy parts
of it.
v You can also modify the XML code in a report specification by saving the report
specification on your computer.
Chapter 2. Creating a report
39
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Chapter 3. Lists
Use lists to show detailed information from your database, such as product lists
and customer lists.
A list shows data in rows and columns. Each column shows all the values for a
data item in the database or a calculation based on data items in the database.
You can specify whether to automatically add an overall aggregate summary in the
list footer and a summary for any groups in the list by selecting Automatic group
and summary behavior for lists in the IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting options.
The default aggregation as specified in your enterprise data source is used.
Tip: The Order Invoices - Donald Chow, Sales Person sample report in the GO
Sales (query) package includes a list.
Related concepts:
“Limitations When Using Set Expressions in List Reports” on page 430
In list reports, we recommend that you avoid using set expressions. When in a list,
set expressions, such as TopCount, may produce fewer rows than in the
corresponding crosstab.
Related tasks:
“Change a List into a Crosstab” on page 53
Change a list into a crosstab to view your data from a different perspective.
“Creating a data list” on page 169
Create a data list to provide better performance in active reports that contain a
large data set that is presented in a list format.
Set list properties
Format lists to give them the appearance you want. You can specify formatting for
individual column titles or bodies or for all columns in a list. When you specify
formatting for all columns in a list, the formatting is automatically applied to new
columns you subsequently add.
You can also quickly format lists by applying table styles.
Formatting for specific columns overrides formatting for entire columns. For
example, you specify red as the background color for a specific column body and
41
green as the background color for all columns. When you run the report, the
specific column body is red and the remaining columns in the list are green. New
columns added to the list will be green.
Procedure
1. To format an individual column, do the following:
a. Click the column title or column body.
b. To format the text in the column title or the data in the column body, click
the More icon
body.
, click the Locked icon
and then click the title or
c. To format the whole column, click the Select ancestor icon
bar of the Properties pane and click List column.
in the title
d. In the Properties pane, set the property value.
For example, to specify a background color, click Background color and
choose the color.
2. To format all columns, do the following:
a. Click a column in the list.
b. To format list column bodies, click the Select ancestor icon in the title bar of
the Properties pane and click List columns body style.
c. To format list column titles, click the Select ancestor icon in the title bar of
the Properties pane and click List columns title style.
d. To format entire columns, click the Select ancestor icon in the title bar of
the Properties pane and click List columns.
e. To format the entire list, click the select ancestor button in the title bar of
the Properties pane and click List.
Tip: You can also click the container selector (three orange dots) of the list
to select it.
f. In the Properties pane, set the property value.
For example, to specify a background color, click Background color and
choose the color.
Related concepts:
Chapter 12, “Laying Out a Report,” on page 281
When creating a report, a good layout is essential to ensure that the information in
the report is presented in a clear and effective manner.
Hide columns in list reports
You can hide columns from the output of list reports. If you select to hide a
column, the query for that column is still executed.
Procedure
1. Select the column that you want to hide.
2. Click the Select ancestor icon
click List column.
3. Set the Render property to No.
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in the title bar of the Properties pane and
Results
When you run your report, the column is hidden in the report output.
Creating a scrollable list
Create a scrollable list so that column headings remain visible when the list
contains many rows of data.
Procedure
1. Select the entire list by clicking the container selector (three orange dots) of the
list.
2. In the IBM Cognos Analytics toolbar, click the Show properties icon
.
3. In the properties sheet of the list, specify the height of the scrollable area, in
pixels, that you want by typing a value in the Scrollable area height property.
Using Repeaters
Use repeaters to repeat items when you run the report. For example, you can use
repeaters to create mailing labels, including customer names and addresses.
To build a repeater, drag the Repeater or Repeater table object from the Toolbox
tab to the work area. Use repeaters to repeat items across a single row without a
particular structure. For example, you want to create a list that contains Year, and
Product line. For each year, you want all product lines to appear in a single row.
To do this, create a list with Year as a column and with a repeater as a second
column. Then insert Product line into the repeater. Use repeater tables to repeat
items in a table structure. Drop the items in the repeater, and modify the properties
of the repeater to obtain the results you want. For example, you can specify how
many frames appear per page in a repeater table by typing values in the Across
and Down properties.
Horizontal pagination is not supported for data containers, such as lists or
crosstabs, that are nested in repeater tables.
Chapter 3. Lists
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Chapter 4. Crosstabs
Use crosstab reports, also known as matrix reports, to show the relationships
between three or more query items. Crosstab reports show data in rows and
columns with information summarized at the intersection points.
For example, the following crosstab shows the gross profit and revenue by product
line for each year.
Tip: The Same Month Prior Year sample report in the Sales and Marketing (cube)
package includes a crosstab.
Related tasks:
“Insert a Microchart into a Crosstab” on page 126
You can use microcharts to improve the visualization of data in crosstabs.
Crosstab Nodes and Crosstab Node Members
When you add data items to crosstabs, you create crosstab nodes and crosstab
node members. These objects allow you to easily create crosstabs, by dragging data
items to crosstabs.
Crosstabs are dimensional objects that have row edges and column edges. Each
edge is composed of a set of crosstab nodes. Each crosstab node contains the
following:
v One or more crosstab node members.
v Zero or one nested crosstab node, which contains one or more crosstab node
members or nested crosstab nodes.
Each crosstab node member refers to a data item that contains an expression to
define the members in the crosstab.
The following crosstab contains four crosstab nodes.
45
▌1▐ Crosstab node 1 contains a single node member for the total. This node refers
to the data item Total(Product line).
▌2▐ Crosstab node 2 contains a crosstab node member that refers to the data item
Product line. This member has a nested crosstab node containing a crosstab node
member that refers to the data item Product type.
▌3▐ Crosstab node 3 contains a single node member for the average. This node
refers to the data item Average(Product line).
▌4▐ Crosstab node 4 contains a crosstab node member that refers to the data item
Order year. This member has two nested crosstab nodes. The first node contains a
crosstab node member that refers to the data item Order month. The second node
contains a crosstab node member for the total. This node refers to the data item
Total(Order month).
Tip: Nodes are also created when you add data items to charts.
Moving Crosstab Nodes
Crosstab nodes can be placed anywhere in the crosstab. For example, in the
previous diagram, you can drag Order month under Average to create a row edge.
To move nested items from one edge to another, ensure that you select the crosstab
node and not the crosstab node member. For example, in the previous diagram,
you want to move Product line and Product type to the column edge. To do this,
click Product line and, in the Properties pane, click the select ancestor button
and click Crosstab Node. Both Product line and Product type are selected.
Crosstab Node Creation Option
The IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting option Allow crosstab nesting beside
individual items (More icon
, Options, Edit tab) affects the drag-and-drop
behavior in crosstabs. When the option is turned on and you add a data item to a
crosstab, the item is created as a crosstab node. In addition, you can nest items
under individual items instead of only on the entire crosstab edge. If the option is
turned off, the item is created as a crosstab node member to an existing crosstab
node.
For example, in the previous diagram, if the option is turned on and you drag
Country or Region from the Source tab
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to beneath Product line,
Country or Region becomes a new peer node to Product line. If the option is
turned off, Country or Region becomes a new peer node to Product line and has
Product type as a nested crosstab node. This happens because instead of adding a
new node, you are adding a new member to the existing node that already
contains Product line.
Tip: To create discontinuous crosstabs, turn the option on. If you want the items
on the edges of crosstabs to be related (contain the same nested items), turn the
option off.
Set Crosstab Properties
Format crosstabs to give them the appearance you want. You can specify
formatting for rows, columns, and fact cells in a crosstab or for the entire crosstab.
When you specify formatting for all rows, columns, fact cells, or the crosstab, the
formatting is automatically applied to any new items you add.
If you apply the same styles, such as font color, to crosstab rows, columns, and
crosstab intersections, the styles are applied in the following order:
1. crosstab fact cells
2. fact cells in the outermost rows
3. fact cells in the innermost rows
4. fact cells in the outermost columns
5. fact cells in the innermost columns
6. crosstab intersections
The style applied to the last object in the list overrides styles applied to previous
objects. In addition, class styles are applied before styles that you apply manually.
You can also quickly format crosstabs by applying table styles and add white space
to a crosstab by inserting crosstab space objects.
Tip: In cases where fact cell formatting applied to rows conflicts with fact cell
formatting applied to columns, you can set the Fact Cells Precedence property in
the Properties pane to determine whether the row formatting or the column
formatting has precedence. To set this property, click anywhere in the crosstab,
click the Select ancestor icon in the title bar of the Properties pane, and click
Crosstab. Or you can click the container selector (three orange dots) of the crosstab
to select it.
Procedure
1. To format the entire crosstab, do the following:
a. Click anywhere in the crosstab.
b. Click the Select ancestor icon
click Crosstab.
in the title bar of the Properties pane and
c. In the Properties pane, set the property value. For example, to specify a
background color, click Background Color and choose a color.
2. To format all rows, columns, or fact cells, click a row, column, or fact cell in the
crosstab and then do the following:
a. If you clicked a row, click the Select ancestor icon in the title bar of the
Properties pane and click Crosstab Rows.
Chapter 4. Crosstabs
47
b. If you clicked a column, click the Select ancestor icon in the title bar of the
Properties pane and click Crosstab Columns.
c. If you clicked a fact cell, click the select ancestor button in the title bar of
the Properties pane and click Crosstab Fact Cells.
d. In the Properties pane, set the property value. For example, to specify a
background color, click Background Color and choose the color.
Tip: You can also right-click the row or column and click Select Fact Cells.
3. To format all crosstab cells for a specific row or column, do the following:
a. Click the row or column.
b. Click the Select ancestor icon in the title bar of the Properties pane and
click Crosstab Member Fact Cells.
Tip: You can also right-click the row or column and click Select Member
Fact Cells.
c. In the Properties pane, set the property value. For example, to specify a
background color, click Background Color and choose the color.
4. To format all row or column titles, do the following:
a. Click a row or column title.
b. Click the Select ancestor icon in the title bar of the Properties pane and
click Crosstab Rows or Crosstab Columns.
c. In the Properties pane, set the property value. For example, to specify a
background color, click Background Color and choose the color.
5. To format an individual row, column, or intersection, do the following:
a. Click the row, column, or intersection.
Tip: To format the data in a row, column, or intersection, click the More
icon
, click the Locked icon
, and then click the text item to format.
b. In the Properties pane, set the property value. For example, to specify a
background color, click Background Color and choose the color.
Related concepts:
Chapter 12, “Laying Out a Report,” on page 281
When creating a report, a good layout is essential to ensure that the information in
the report is presented in a clear and effective manner.
Create a Single-Edge Crosstab
Create a single-edge crosstab report to show data in a list-like form. For example,
to show the quantity of products sold for each year and for each order method,
you could create a crosstab with Order Year and Order Method as rows and
Quantity as the measure.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
2. From the Source tab
zone.
, and drag a crosstab object to the work area.
, drag data items to the Rows or Columns drop
A black bar indicates where you can drop the data item.
3. Repeat step 2 to insert additional data items:
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v If you dragged the data item in step 2 to the Rows drop zone, drag the
additional items above or below the first item.
v If you dragged the data item in step 2 to the Columns drop zone, drag the
additional items to the left or right of the first item.
4. To add measures to the crosstab, drag the measures to the Measures drop zone.
Results
When you run the report, a crosstab is produced that has only one edge.
Create a Nested Crosstab
Nest data in a crosstab report to compare information by using more than one data
item in a column or row. For example, a report shows the number of sales by
product line for the past fiscal year. You decide to add a data item to further break
down the number of sales by quarter.
When nesting columns in a crosstab report, there are four distinct drop zones
where you can insert a new data item. The drop zone you choose will define the
relationship between the data item and the column.
The following relationships are created when you insert a data item as a row:
v Inserting a data item to the left or right of a column creates a parent-child
relationship between them.
When you insert a data item to the left of a column, the data item becomes a
parent to the column. When you insert a data item to the right of a column, the
data item becomes a child of the column.
v Inserting a data item above or below a column creates a union relationship
between them.
The following relationships are created when you insert a data item as a column:
v Inserting a data item to the left or right of a column creates a union relationship
between them.
v Inserting a data item above or below a column creates a parent-child
relationship between them.
When you insert a data item above a column, the data item becomes a parent to
the column. When you insert a data item below a column, the data item becomes a
child of the column.
For example, you have a crosstab with Product line as rows and Quantity and
Revenue as nested rows. For columns, you have Order method with Country or
Region as a nested column. In this crosstab,
v Product line is a parent to Quantity and Revenue.
v Quantity and Revenue are peers.
v Order method is a parent to Country or Region.
Procedure
1. From the Source tab
, click the data item to add.
2. Drag the data item to the report as a nested column or nested row.
A black bar indicates where you can drop the data item.
3. Repeat steps 1 to 2 to add other nested columns or rows.
Chapter 4. Crosstabs
49
Tip: If you add more than one measure to a crosstab, all measures appear as
columns. You cannot have one measure appear as a row and another as a
column. To make all measures appear as rows, swap columns and rows.
Creating headers automatically for sets in crosstabs
You can automatically add header labels on columns and rows when working with
sets in a crosstab that uses a dimensional data source. The headers help consumers
of the report to understand where the data is in the hierarchy.
Header labels are added only when you add new sets to your crosstab. The labels
are not added to existing sets. After you enable this option, it remains on until you
disable it, and applies to any new crosstabs that you create.
Procedure
1. Click the More icon
, click Options, then click the Report tab.
2. Select Automatically create crosstab headers for sets.
3. Click OK.
Results
Header labels are created in the rows and columns in a crosstab.
Showing crosstab values as percentages
When you work with dimensional data sources, you can show crosstab values as a
percentage of a summary instead of the actual values. When you show values as a
percentage, you can compare the contribution of an item to the whole.
About this task
You can show crosstab values as a percentage of a summary on the rows, the
columns, or the rows and columns. For example, a crosstab has Product line as
rows, Year as columns, and Revenue as the measure. You can show the following
crosstab values:
v The actual values of Revenue
v A percentage of a summary on Product line
v A percentage of a summary on Year
v A percentage of a summary on Product line, Year
By default, the summary type that is used to calculate the percentages is Automatic
summary.
When you show values as a percentage, a percentage measure data item is created.
You can also create a custom percentage calculation. For example, you can show
values as a percentage of an intersection (tuple). Or you can show values as a
percentage of a different summary type, such as Maximum.
When you show values as a percentage, the fact cells are formatted with the
percent data format. When you show the actual values, the fact cells are formatted
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with the number format. If you modify the data format of the actual values, the
change is lost when you switch between showing the actual values and percentage
values.
You can show values as a percentage only in crosstabs. If you insert a chart, you
cannot fill the chart with data from a crosstab that shows values as a percentage. If
you create a chart from a crosstab that shows values as percentages, an empty
chart is created in the report.
Procedure
1. Select the measure for which you want to show values as a percentage.
If there is only one measure in the crosstab, click the crosstab corner.
2. From the report object toolbar, click the More icon
, click Show Value As,
and click the percentage values that you want to show.
3. If you click Custom, provide the information that is required to calculate the
percentage values.
a. To change the default name of the percentage data item that you are
creating, type the new name in the Name field.
b. In the Percentage based on box, choose to build the percentage data item
based on a summary of sets in the crosstab or based on an intersection
(tuple).
c. If you choose to build the percentage data item based on a summary of sets,
in the Choose sets box, click the sets that you want to use. Then, click
Summary type and select the summary that you want to use to calculate
the percentage values.
If there is more than one data item on the crosstab edge that you chose for
the sets, select which data item that you want to use.
d. If you choose to build the percentage data item based on an intersection
(tuple), click the ellipsis and select the items that you want to use to create
the intersection.
e. Click OK.
4. To edit a measure percentage data item, follow these steps.
a. Select the measure.
b. From the report object toolbar, click the More icon, click Show Value As >
Edit.
c. Modify the information for the data item as described in step 3.
d. If you replaced a set in the crosstab with a different set, in the Choose sets
box, click Existing sets when you want to base the percentage values on the
set that you replaced.
Related tasks:
“Create an Intersection (Tuple)” on page 260
When working with dimensional data, an intersection, also known as a tuple, is
useful for obtaining a value from the combination of two or more members that
you specify. Each member must be from a different hierarchy. The intersection can
include only one measure.
Chapter 4. Crosstabs
51
Specify the Default Measure
You can specify the default measure for crosstabs and certain chart types. Specify
the default measure to be used when the measures cannot be determined by what
is on the edges. For example, you create a crosstab with Order method as rows
and Product line as columns. You add Quantity and Revenue as nested rows,
making Order method their parent. You then add Country or Region under Order
method. Since there is no measure specified for Country or Region, you specify the
default measure so that data is returned for each country or region.
Note: In crosstabs, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically sets the
default measure when you insert a measure into the crosstab cells.
Procedure
1. To specify the default measure for a crosstab, do the following:
v Click any part of the crosstab, and then click the Select ancestor icon
the title bar of the Properties pane.
in
v Click Crosstab.
Tip: You can also click the container selector (three orange dots) of the
crosstab to select it.
v Set the Default Measure property to the default measure.
2. To specify the default measure for a chart, drag the measure to the Default
measure box in the chart.
Swap Columns and Rows
Swap columns and rows to look at information from a different perspective. This
may help you discover high and low points in the data that you hadn't previously
noted.
You can only swap columns and rows in a crosstab or chart. In a chart, you swap
the x- and y-axes.
Procedure
From the toolbar, click the swap rows and columns button
.
Results
In the report, the rows become the columns and the columns become the rows.
Indent Data
You can indent crosstab node members to set them apart from surrounding data.
When you insert a hierarchy in rows, all members are automatically indented
according to their level. By default, the first member in a set is not indented. If you
insert a hierarchy in columns, the members are not automatically indented. You
can change the indentation properties of members in the report.
Relative indentation means that the member will shift by one tab when the
member's level increases relative to the previous member in the hierarchy.
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Indenting based on the level in the hierarchy means that the member will shift the
number of tabs equivalent to the level in the hierarchy.
You can also indent objects by applying padding.
Procedure
1. Click the crosstab node member to indent.
2. In the Properties pane, set the Level Indentation property to your indentation
type, length, and direction.
Change a List into a Crosstab
Change a list into a crosstab to view your data from a different perspective.
Procedure
1. Click the columns to appear as columns or nested columns in the crosstab.
2. From the report object toolbar, click the Pivot List to Crosstab icon.
Results
The list becomes a crosstab with the columns you selected in step 2 appearing as
columns and nested columns. The unselected columns, except for measures, appear
as rows and nested rows. If you have one measure, it becomes the cells of the
crosstab. If you have more than one measure, they appear as columns.
Tip: To make all measures appear as rows, swap columns and rows.
Chapter 4. Crosstabs
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Chapter 5. Charts
You can use IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting to create many chart types, such as
column, bar, area, and line charts.
Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
You will find procedures in this chapter for using both the legacy charts and the
current default charts. To use the legacy chart type, set the Use legacy chart
authoring option (More > Options > Advanced tab).
Related concepts:
“Limitations When Converting Legacy Charts” on page 78
When you convert a legacy chart to the current default chart, some chart types or
chart properties might not be migrated properly. For example, clustered area charts
and 100% stacked line charts are not available in the current default charts. If your
exact chart configuration is not available, select the closest matching template.
Related tasks:
“Convert Legacy Charts to Current Default Charts” on page 78
You can convert charts from the legacy charts to the current default charts. When
you convert a legacy chart, select the template that most closely matches your
legacy chart in order to preserve as many settings as possible.
Creating Charts
Before creating charts, review the available chart types to select the best chart for
your needs. Also review the chart objects that make up charts.
Tip:
To view the available chart types, add a Visualization object from the
Toolbox pane
to an existing report. In the Visualization gallery window, click
the Filter icon
, and select Charts.
To create charts, drag data items from the Source tab
data series and categories drop zones.
to the measures,
Note: When you are working with dimensional data sources, do not insert
member properties in the series or categories of a chart. By default, IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting groups items that are inserted in these areas. Grouping
member properties produces a warning when you validate the report.
To help you when creating charts, you can do the following:
v Preview your chart style changes.
As you author your chart and edit the chart properties, IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting provides you with a preview of your chart, using simulated data. This
allows you to view your style changes without running your report. You need to
run your report to see the chart with your actual data. You can disable the chart
preview in the options.
55
v Resize your charts.
v Move the chart drop zones into flyouts so that they appear only when you
pause your pointer over the chart.
After you create a basic chart, modify the various chart objects to customize your
chart.
Chart Objects
The following shows the most common chart objects as they appear in your report
output in IBM Cognos Viewer.
The following shows the same chart as it appears in the IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting user interface. The Y-axis is selected, and the axis titles are displayed.
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Click chart objects to specify properties
The default charts have more properties that allow you to customize more aspects
of the chart than in earlier versions. You can click in different areas of the chart to
get access to different properties.
For example, by clicking the axis, you can customize the color, style, weight, and
transparency of chart axis lines and specify where to display major and minor
gridlines on the chart.
Chapter 5. Charts
57
Data Series
A data series is a group of related data points that are plotted in a chart. Each
series has a unique color or pattern and is described in the legend. You can plot
one or more data series in a chart; pie charts have only one data series.
In the example chart, the data series are order years 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013.
Categories
Categories are groups of related data from the data series that are plotted on the
X-axis. Categories of multiple data series are shown together using clustered and
stacked data markers.
In the example chart, the categories are the product lines of The Sample Outdoors
Company in clustered columns.
Axes
Axes are lines that provide references for measurement or comparison.
The primary axis (or Y-axis) refers to measures of quantitative data, such as sales
figures or quantities. Charts can have more than one primary axis.
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The category axis (X-axis or ordinal axis) plots qualitative data, such as products or
regions. It runs horizontally, except in bar charts.
The z-axis is the vertical axis in a 3-D chart.
Major gridlines extend from the tick marks on an axis and run behind the data
markers.
Related concepts:
“Customizing the Axes of a Chart” on page 94
Chart axes are lines that border the chart area and provide a reference for
measurements. They act as a vehicle for tick marks and scales and form a frame
around the chart. The Y-axis is usually the vertical axis and contains data. The
X-axis is usually the horizontal axis and contains categories.
Legend
A legend is a key to the patterns or colors assigned to the data series or categories
in a chart.
Columns, Lines, and Areas
Charts use graphical elements such as columns, horizontal bars, points, bubbles,
lines, and areas as visual representations of data points.
Chart Types
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting provides many types of charts for presenting
your data in a way that is meaningful for your users.
You can select from a variety of chart types (such as pie, bar, line, gauge, scatter,
and so on) and you can select from a variety of chart configurations (such as
stacked columns, 3-D pies). Combination charts allow you to use more than one
chart type within your chart.
Some chart types are not supported for Microsoft Excel output or appear
differently in Excel. For more information, see Appendix C, “Limitations When
Producing Reports in Microsoft Excel Format,” on page 447.
Choosing a Chart Type and Configuration
To choose a chart type, consider what you want the chart to illustrate. Different
chart types and configurations emphasize different things.
Purpose
Chart type or configuration
Show contributions of parts to a whole
Bar Charts
Pie Charts
Stacked Charts, when you want to display
measures of the whole, as well as the parts
100 Percent Stacked Charts
Chapter 5. Charts
59
Purpose
Chart type or configuration
Show trends in time or contrast values
across different categories
Line Charts
Area Charts
Bar Charts
Column Charts
Always place time in the horizontal axis.
Compare groups of related information
against actual values
Bar Charts
Compare different kinds of quantitative
information
Combination Charts
Rank values in descending or ascending
order
Bar Charts
Show correlation between two sets of
measures
Point Charts
Show key performance indicators in an
executive dashboard report
Gauge Charts
Radar Charts
Column Charts
Bullet Charts
Column Charts
Column charts are useful for comparing discrete data or showing trends over time.
Column charts use vertical data markers to compare individual values.
Note: The Sales Growth Year Over Year sample report in the GO Data Warehouse
(analysis) package includes a column chart.
The following example shows the revenue for each product line.
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Column charts can plot data using standard, stacked, 100 percent stacked, and
three-dimensional configurations.
Line Charts
Line charts are useful for showing trends over time and comparing many data
series.
Line charts plot data at regular points that are connected by lines.
Line charts can plot data by using standard, stacked, 100 percent stacked, and
three-dimensional configurations. It is best not to use stacked line charts because
they are difficult to distinguish from unstacked line charts with multiple data
series.
Note: Line charts support a maximum of 32767 data points.
The following example shows a revenue trend that peaked in 2012 in every
territory.
Note: The Top Retailers by Country or Region sample report in the Sales and
Marketing (cube) package includes a line chart.
Pie Charts
Pie charts are useful for highlighting proportions.
They use segments of a circle to show the relationship of parts to the whole. To
highlight actual values, use another chart type, such as a stacked chart.
Pie charts plot a single data series. If you need to plot multiple data series, use a
100 percent stacked chart.
Reports in PDF or HTML format show a maximum of 16 pies or gauges per chart.
Note: The Returns by Failed Orders in 2012 sample report in the GO Data
Warehouse (analysis) package includes a pie chart.
Chapter 5. Charts
61
The following example shows that the largest proportion of revenue comes from
the Americas, followed by the Asia Pacific region.
Pie charts can plot data using standard, 100 percent, and three-dimensional
configurations.
Related tasks:
“Set the Position of the First Slice in a Current Default Pie Chart” on page 123
You can specify the angle in a pie chart where the first pie slice starts. You can also
change the direction of the slices so they appear clockwise or counter-clockwise.
“Creating a Donut Chart from a Current Default Pie Chart” on page 123
You can add a hole to the middle of your pie chart to create a donut chart.
“Pull Out Pie Slices in a Current Default Pie Chart” on page 124
You can highlight pie slices by pulling them out from the rest of the pie. For
example, the following chart shows revenue by product line with slices of less than
1,000,000,000 in revenue pulled out by 25%.
Bar Charts
Bar charts are useful for showing trends over time and plotting many data series.
Bar charts use horizontal data markers to compare individual values.
Note: The Manager Profile sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package includes a bar chart.
The following example shows revenue for every country or region.
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Figure 2. Bar chart
Bar charts can plot data using standard, stacked, and 100 percent stacked
configurations.
Area Charts
Area charts are useful for emphasizing the magnitude of change over time. Stacked
area charts are also used to show the relationship of parts to the whole.
Area charts are like line charts, but the areas below the lines are filled with colors
or patterns.
Do not use standard area charts to show multiple data series because it is possible
for areas with lower values to be covered by others. For multiple data series, use a
stacked area chart.
The following example is a stacked area chart that shows the quantity of products
that were sold over a four-year period in multiple territories.
Chapter 5. Charts
63
Figure 3. An example area chart
Area charts can plot data using standard, stacked, 100 percent stacked, and
three-dimensional configurations.
Point Charts
Point charts are useful for showing quantitative data in an uncluttered fashion.
Point charts use multiple points to plot data along an ordinal axis. A point chart
the same as a line chart without the lines. Only the data points are shown.
The following example shows the revenue for each product line.
Figure 4. An example point chart
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Combination Charts
Combination charts plot multiple data series by using combinations of columns,
areas, and lines within one chart. They are useful for highlighting relationships
between the various data series.
Note: The Quantity Sold vs. Shipped and Inventory sample report in the GO Data
Warehouse (analysis) package includes a combination chart.
The following example shows a combination chart that includes planned revenue
as a line chart and actual revenue as a column chart.
Combination charts can plot data using standard, stacked, 100 percent stacked, and
three-dimensional configurations.
Scatter Charts
Scatter charts use data points to plot two measures anywhere along a scale, not
only at regular tick marks.
You can also specify a default measure. For example, you might need to specify a
default measure to give context to a calculated measure in the chart. For more
information about the default measure, see “Specify the Default Measure” on page
52.
Scatter charts are useful for exploring correlations between different sets of data.
Note: The Employee Satisfaction 2012 sample report in the GO Data Warehouse
(analysis) package includes a scatter chart.
The following example shows the correlation between production cost and gross
profit for each product line.
Chapter 5. Charts
65
Related tasks:
“Defining color by value in current default scatter or bubble charts” on page 121
In a scatter or bubble chart you can specify that data points or bubbles appear in
different colors that are based on an additional measure or fact. The color of the
points or bubbles helps you to see relationships in large amounts of data.
Bubble Charts
Bubble charts, like scatter charts, use data points and bubbles to plot measures
anywhere along a scale. The size of the bubble represents a third measure.
You can also specify a default measure. For example, you might need to specify a
default measure to give context to a calculated measure in the chart. For more
information about the default measure, see “Specify the Default Measure” on page
52.
Bubble charts are useful for representing financial data. These charts are not
supported for Microsoft Excel output.
The following example plots quantity and revenue by product line. The size of the
bubble represents the amount of gross profit.
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Figure 5. Bubble chart
Related tasks:
“Defining color by value in current default scatter or bubble charts” on page 121
In a scatter or bubble chart you can specify that data points or bubbles appear in
different colors that are based on an additional measure or fact. The color of the
points or bubbles helps you to see relationships in large amounts of data.
“Specify the Bubble Size in a Current Default Bubble Chart” on page 122
In a bubble chart, you use a measure or fact to determine the size of the bubbles.
Quadrant Charts
Quadrant charts are bubble charts with a background that is divided into four
equal sections. Quadrant charts are useful for plotting data that contains three
measures using an X-axis, a Y-axis, and a bubble size that represents the value of
the third measure.
You can also specify a default measure. For example, you might need to specify a
default measure to give context to a calculated measure in the chart. For more
information about the default measure, see “Specify the Default Measure” on page
52.
Legacy quadrant charts use baselines to create the quadrants. Current default
charts use colored regions.
Use a quadrant chart to present data that can be categorized into quadrants, such
as a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis.
The following example shows the relationship between production cost and gross
profit. The size of the bubble represents the quantity of units sold.
Chapter 5. Charts
67
Bullet Charts
Bullet charts are a variation of bar charts. They compare a featured measure (the
bullet) to a targeted measure (the target). They also relate the compared measures
against colored regions in the background that provide additional qualitative
measurements, such as good, satisfactory, and poor.
Bullet charts are often used instead of gauge charts in executive dashboards. Bullet
charts can be horizontal or vertical.
Note: This chart type applies only to the current default charts, and does not
apply to the legacy charts.
The following figure is an example of a bullet chart.
Figure 6. An example bullet chart
A bullet chart contains the following components:
v A bullet measure.
The bullet measure, Revenue, appears as the blue bar in the example.
v A target measure.
The target measure, Planned revenue, appears as the black indicator in the
example.
v From zero to five colored regions along the numeric scale to provide information
about the featured measures' qualitative state.
The example contains three colored regions, 0-50%, 50-75%, and 75-100%.
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v A label that identifies the measures.
v A numeric scale.
Related tasks:
“Customize a Current Default Bullet Chart” on page 127
After you create a bullet chart, you can customize the shape, color, and size of the
bullet and target indicators.
Gauge Charts
Gauge charts, also known as dial charts or speedometer charts, use needles to
show information as a reading on a dial.
On a gauge chart, the value for each needle is read against the colored data range
or chart axis. This chart type is often used in executive dashboard reports to show
key business indicators.
Gauge charts are useful for comparing values between a small number of variables
either by using multiple needles on the same gauge or by using multiple gauges.
Reports in PDF or HTML format are limited to show a maximum of 16 pies or
gauges per chart. These charts are not supported for Microsoft Excel output.
A gauge chart consists of a gauge axis (which contains the data range, color
ranges, and intervals markers), needles, and a center pivot point. The following
example shows a basic gauge chart with default attributes. It is a degree dial chart
with two axes.
Figure 7. An example gauge chart
Related tasks:
“Customize a Current Default Gauge Chart” on page 118
When you create a gauge chart, you can choose from a variety of chart templates,
which offer different shape, axis, and border options.
Chapter 5. Charts
69
“Customize a Legacy Gauge Chart” on page 120
You can customize the colors and threshold boundaries of the gauge axis areas and
whether they use numbers instead of percentages. You can also change the colors
of the gauge face and outline and hide gauge labels. By default, the legacy gauge
chart uses a band divided into thirds that runs from green to red.
Pareto Charts
Pareto charts help you to improve processes by identifying the primary causes of
an event. They rank categories from the most frequent to the least frequent. These
charts are frequently used for quality control data, so that you can identify and
reduce the primary cause of problems.
Pareto charts include a cumulation line, which shows the percentage of the
accumulated total of all the columns or bars.
You can create before and after comparisons of Pareto charts to show the impact of
corrective actions. These charts are not supported for Microsoft Excel output.
The following example shows that the most frequent reason for product returns is
unsatisfactory product.
Figure 8. An example pareto chart
You can also create Pareto charts using horizontal bars.
Related tasks:
“Define the Cumulation Line in a Current Default Pareto Chart” on page 125
The cumulation line on a Pareto chart displays the percentage of the accumulated
total of all the columns or bars. For example, if your chart displays revenue by
product line by year, the cumulation line at the second year's column would be the
total revenue of the first and second years.
“Define the Cumulation Line in a Legacy Pareto Chart” on page 126
The cumulation line on a Pareto chart displays the percentage of the accumulated
total of all the columns or bars. For example, if your chart displays revenue by
product line by year, the cumulation line at the second year's column would be the
total revenue of the first and second years.
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Progressive Column Charts
Progressive column charts, also knows as waterfall charts, are like stacked charts
with each segment of a single stack displaced vertically from the next segment.
Progressive column charts are useful for emphasizing the contribution of the
individual segments to the whole.
These charts are not supported for Microsoft Excel output.
The following example analyzes the contribution of each product line to revenue.
Figure 9. An example progressive column chart
Progressive column charts can plot data using standard and three-dimensional
configurations. You can also create progressive charts using horizontal bars.
Microcharts
Microcharts are smaller versions of column charts, bar charts, and line charts that
you can use in crosstabs and dashboards. Microcharts include column microcharts
and bar microcharts, which are available in stacked and 100 percent stacked
configurations, and win-loss charts and modified line charts that contain the
following:
v A closing value marker.
v Opening, closing, high, and low value markers.
v A reference line.
Note: If you specify custom labels for a microchart, the custom labels appear in
the tooltips, not on the chart itself. For more information about custom labels, see
“Specify Custom Label Text” on page 93.
Chapter 5. Charts
71
Win-loss charts are microcharts in which the value of each column is either 1 or -1,
often denoting a win or loss.
Win-loss charts use two measures (the default and the win-loss measure) and no
series. The win-loss measure is the measure or calculation that you define. You can
also specify a default measure. For example, you might need to specify a default
measure to give context to a calculated measure in the chart. For more information
about the default measure, see “Specify the Default Measure” on page 52.
The following example shows the quarters that have a margin of less than 10,000
in red.
Marimekko Charts
Marimekko charts are 100 percent stacked charts in which the width of a column is
proportional to the total of the column's values. Individual segment height is a
percentage of the respective column total value.
The following example shows the contribution of revenues for product lines in
different regions.
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Figure 10. An example Marimekko chart
Radar Charts
Radar charts integrate multiple axes into a single radial figure. For each figure,
data is plotted along a separate axis that starts at the center of the chart.
The following example shows the revenue from multiple retailer types in multiple
territories.
Figure 11. An example radar chart
Radar charts can plot data using standard and stacked configurations.
Polar Charts
Polar charts are useful for showing scientific data.
They are circular charts that use values and angles to show information as polar
coordinates.
You can specify a default measure. For example, you might need to specify a
default measure to give context to a calculated measure in the chart. For more
information about the default measure, see “Specify the Default Measure” on page
52.
Chapter 5. Charts
73
The following example shows the revenue and quantity for each product line. The
distance along the radial axis represents quantity, and the angle around the polar
axis represents revenue.
Range Indicator Charts
Range indicator, or metrics range, charts are useful for showing a target range and
a tolerance range.
A range indicator chart adds a target and range marker to a column, line, or area
chart.
The following example shows actual revenue versus planned revenue. The markers
indicate the planned revenue, and the range and tolerance lines are defined by the
chart author.
Chart Configurations
Chart configurations specify the grouping type of the columns, bars, lines, and
areas in a chart. Some examples are standard, stacked, and 100 percent stacked
charts.
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Standard Charts
Standard or absolute charts are useful for comparing specific values and for
representing discrete data, such as data for different regions or individual
employees. For example, a standard column chart that plots regional sales
emphasizes the actual value that each region achieves in sales.
Standard charts plot the actual value of each data series from a common axis.
When you create charts using multiple data series, you can distinguish each series
by the color or pattern of its data marker. Related data series are shown together in
clusters for easy comparison.
In standard area and radar charts that have multiple data series, the colored areas
that represent lower values might be covered by the larger colored areas that
represent higher values. Use the stacked configuration for area and radar charts
with multiple data series.
The following example shows the revenue values for each product line within each
territory.
Figure 12. An example standard chart that compares specific values
Stacked Charts
Stacked charts are useful for comparing proportional contributions within a
category. They plot the relative value that each data series contributes to the total.
For example, a stacked column chart that plots product line sales will emphasize
the proportion that each product line contributes to the total in each territory.
You can distinguish each data series by the color or pattern of its section in the
stack. The top of each stack represents the accumulated totals for each category.
Do not use the stacked configuration in line charts that have multiple data series
because it is difficult to distinguish between unstacked and stacked configurations,
and your chart consumers might misunderstand your data.
Chapter 5. Charts
75
The following example shows that camping equipment contributed a large
proportion of the actual revenue in most sales territories.
Figure 13. An example stacked chart
100 Percent Stacked Charts
100 percent stacked charts are useful for comparing proportional contributions
across all categories. They plot the relative contribution of each data series to the
total as a percentage. For example, a 100 percent stacked column chart that plots
product line sales emphasizes the percentage within each region without referring
to actual values.
You can distinguish each data series by the color or pattern of its section in the
stack. Each stack represents 100 percent.
100 percent stacked charts highlight proportions. When actual values are
important, use another chart configuration.
The following example shows the percentage of sales for each product line in each
region.
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Figure 14. An example 100 percent stacked chart
Three-dimensional Charts
Three-dimensional charts provide a visually effective display that is suitable for
presentations.
Three-dimensional column, bar, line, and area charts plot data by using three axes.
Three-dimensional pie charts have a three-dimensional visual effect.
Do not use three-dimensional charts when you need to show exact values, such as
for control or monitoring purposes. The distortion in three-dimensional charts can
make them difficult to read accurately. For example, the following chart shows
actual revenue for each product line in each territory, but some data labels are
omitted because there is not enough room to display them all.
Figure 15. An example three-dimensional chart
Chapter 5. Charts
77
Convert Charts From One Type to Another
You can convert a chart from one type (for example, a bar chart) to another type
(for example, a line chart).
When you convert an existing chart to a new chart type, IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting keeps the properties from the existing chart if those properties exist in
the new chart type. For example, if you convert a pie chart to a bar chart,
Reporting maps your chart palette to the new chart, but does not map the
exploding slices, because the exploding slices property does not exist in a bar
chart.
Note: Reporting converts legacy charts to the current default chart types
automatically if you change the chart type unless you select the Use legacy chart
authoring option. You can convert legacy charts to current default charts, but you
cannot convert current default charts back to legacy charts.
Procedure
1. Click a chart and, from the report object toolbar, click the Change chart type
icon
.
2. From the list, select a new chart type.
If some chart properties cannot be converted, the Chart Property Changes
dialog box appears notifying you of the properties that cannot be converted.
Convert Legacy Charts to Current Default Charts
You can convert charts from the legacy charts to the current default charts. When
you convert a legacy chart, select the template that most closely matches your
legacy chart in order to preserve as many settings as possible.
Note: You can convert legacy charts to current default charts, but you cannot
convert current default charts back to legacy charts.
Procedure
1. Click the More icon
, click Options.
2. From the Advanced tab, clear the Use legacy chart authoring check box.
3. Click the legacy chart, and in the report object toolbar, click the Change chart
type icon
.
4. From the list, select a new chart type.
If some chart properties cannot be converted, the Chart Property Changes
dialog box appears notifying you of the properties that cannot be converted.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Limitations When Converting Legacy Charts
When you convert a legacy chart to the current default chart, some chart types or
chart properties might not be migrated properly. For example, clustered area charts
and 100% stacked line charts are not available in the current default charts. If your
exact chart configuration is not available, select the closest matching template.
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The following legacy chart properties are not migrated to the current default
charts:
v Conditional Palette
v Style Variable
v Visual Angle
v
v
v
Rotate Values
Conditional Style, Style Variable, and Drill-Through Definitions on pie labels
and gauge labels
Connecting Lines on combination charts
v line styles; only four line styles are supported in the current default charts
The following table outlines some behavior differences between legacy charts and
the current default charts.
Legacy Charts
Current Default Charts
Combination charts are always ordered from Combination charts support any order.
back to front - area, bar, and line.
In bar charts, multiple bar definitions for the In bar charts, multiple bars are placed on
Y1-axis are placed side-by-side.
top of one another and you can control the
width of the bars.
In combination charts, the color palette is
continued over multiple bars, lines, and
areas.
In combination charts, color palettes are
restarted for each bar, line, and area.
The legend order respects the order in which The legend order is the same as the order
bars, lines, and areas are specified. For
specified in the chart.
example, bars can appear before areas in the
legend.
The following chart types continue to use the legacy chart technology and
therefore cannot be upgraded to the current default chart technology. If you want
to convert these chart types to the current default charts, upgrade them to a
different chart type, such as a column or line chart.
v Win loss
v Radar
v Polar
v 3-D Bar, 3-D Line, 3-D Area, and 3-D Combination
v 3-D Scatter
v Metrics range
v Marimekko
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Customizing chart properties
After you create a chart, you can customize it by changing its properties.
You select the chart object in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting to view its
properties. Some properties are dependent on the existence of other properties.
Chapter 5. Charts
79
If you are familiar with using conditional variables, you can customize the chart to
change its appearance or provide information in response to expressions or
conditions.
As you edit the chart properties, Reporting provides you with a preview of your
chart, using simulated data. This allows you to view your style changes without
running the report. You can disable the chart preview in the options.
The following table shows some of the properties you can change in charts. These
properties are available when you select the chart object unless specified otherwise
in the Action to perform in the Properties pane column.
Goal
Action to perform in the Properties pane
Hide or show the title, subtitle, or footer
Select the chart. Under Chart Titles, set the
Title, Subtitle, or Footer property.
Hide or show the legend
Select the chart. Under Chart Annotations,
set the Legend property.
For more information, see “Customize the
Legend in a Current Default Chart” on page
99.
Hide or show baselines
Select the chart. Under Chart Annotations,
set the Baselines property.
For more information, see “Add a Baseline
to a Current Default Chart” on page 105.
Increase the contrast of the labels
Select the chart. In the Properties pane,
under Label, select Contrast label color.
Add a shadow to the labels to increase the
visibility.
Select the chart. In the Properties pane,
under Label, select Label shadow.
Hide or show trendlines or regression lines
Select the chart. Under Chart Annotations,
set the Trendlines or Regression Line
property.
For more information, see “Display
Trendlines in Current Default Charts” on
page 109 or “Display Regression Lines in
Legacy Scatter or Bubble Charts” on page
110.
Hide or show markers
Select the chart. Under Chart Annotations,
set the Markers property.
For more information, see “Add a Marker to
a Current Default Chart” on page 107.
Hide or show notes
Select the chart. Under Chart Annotations,
set the Notes property.
For more information, see “Add a Note to a
Current Default Chart” on page 102.
Hide or show the axes
Select the chart. Under Axes, set the Y1
Axis, Y2 Axis, or Category Axis property.
For more information, see “Customize the
Axes of a Current Default Chart” on page
94.
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Goal
Action to perform in the Properties pane
Hide or show the axis title or axis line
Select the axis. Under General, set the Axis
Line or Axis Title property.
For more information, see “Customize the
Axes of a Current Default Chart” on page
94.
Change an axis title
Select the axis title. Under General, set the
Default Title property to No, and then
double-click the axis title and type a new
title.
Tip: You can use the Properties pane to
change the axis title properties, such as font,
positioning, color, and so on.
For more information, see “Customize the
Axes of a Current Default Chart” on page
94.
Change axis properties, such as range, scale
interval, and so on
Select the numeric axis. Under General, set
the Minimum Value, Maximum Value,
Scale Interval, or Scale property.
For more information, see “Change the axis
scale of a current default chart” on page 95.
Hide or show the tooltips
Select the chart. Under Chart Labels, set the
Tooltips property.
When you pause your pointer over a data
marker in the report output, the
corresponding absolute or cumulative value
appears in a tooltip.
Tooltips are not supported in PDF output.
Change the data format
Select the numeric axis. Under Data, set the
Data Format property.
Change the white space around the chart
Select the chart. Under Box, set the Padding
or Margin property.
For more information, see “Apply Padding
to an Object” on page 295 and “Set Margins
for an Object” on page 295.
Change the color or pattern in the palette for Select the chart object. Under Color &
columns, lines, and areas
Background, set the Palette or Conditional
Palette property.
For more information, see “Customizing the
Color Palette of a Chart” on page 83 and
“Create a Simple Conditional Palette for a
Current Default Chart” on page 87.
Change the chart orientation
Select the chart. In the Properties pane,
under Chart Orientation, select Vertical or
Horizontal.
Chapter 5. Charts
81
Goal
Action to perform in the Properties pane
Change the default color or font for all chart Select the chart. Under Color &
objects
Background, set the Background Color,
Foreground Color, or Fill Effects property.
For more information, see “Change a Chart
Background in a Legacy Chart” on page 90.
Under Font & Text, set the Font or Relative
Alignment property.
Tip: The 2011 Quarterly Sales Forecast
sample report in the GO Sales (analysis)
package includes text alignment.
Override the default font or color for axes
and chart values
Click the More icon
, click the Locked
icon
to unlock the chart object, select
the chart body by clicking between the axes,
and set the Font, Background Color,
Foreground Color, or Fill Effects property.
Change the three-dimensional appearance of Select the chart. Under General, set the
a chart
Depth or Visual Angle property.
For example, for a pie chart, a Depth value
of 0 (zero) leaves the pie flat, or
two-dimensional. A value of 100 raises the
pie almost to a sphere.
Tip: You can select a value from the Depth
list or type a value that is not listed.
Insert a background image or watermark in
the chart body.
Click the lock button in the toolbar to
unlock the chart object, select the chart body
by clicking between the axes.
Under Color & Background, set the
Background Image property.
For more information, see “Change a Chart
Background in a Legacy Chart” on page 90.
Go to another report
Select the chart. Under Data, set the
Drill-Through Definitions property.
For more information, see Chapter 18,
“Using drill-through access,” on page 365.
Specify which labels and values to use when Select the chart. Under Chart Labels, set the
generating the text shown on the chart
Values property.
Note: When you show all the labels and
values on some chart types, such as scatter
charts, bubble charts, and polar charts, the
text shown might be too long.
Resize a Current Default Chart
You can change the size of a current default chart by dragging the resize handle in
the lower right corner of the chart.
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Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. Click the resize handle in the lower right corner of the chart
.
Use Shift+drag to maintain the aspect ratio of the chart.
3. To see the actual size of the chart as it will appear in the report output, collapse
the chart objects with the minus (-) button in the upper left corner of the chart.
Results
The new chart size appears in the Size & Overflow property. You can also edit the
chart size with this property.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Resize a Legacy Chart
You can resize a legacy chart by defining the height and width in the Size &
Overflow property.
The options available with this property are detailed in “Specify the Height and
Width of an Object” on page 300.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Size & Overflow property and specify
the height and width.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Customizing the Color Palette of a Chart
You can use the chart palette to control the colors or patterns used in the columns,
lines, data markers or areas in a chart. For example, if "Telephone" is the first in a
data series of order methods, and you want it to appear in blue, use the palette to
make the first item in the series blue.
You can customize the color palette for area, bar, bubble, gauge, Pareto, pie, and
scatter charts.
You can also apply background effects to chart objects or change the colors of
specific chart elements.
Note: Your administrator can create custom palettes. For more information, see
Create Custom Palettes in IBM Cognos 10 Report Studio. Although this document
refers to Cognos BI 10.2.2, the information also applies to Cognos Analytics 11. The
only difference is that, in Cognos 11, the location install location\webcontent\
pat has changed to install location\webcontent\bi\pat.
Related tasks:
Chapter 5. Charts
83
“Add background effects to a chart object in a legacy chart” on page 91
You can change the look of certain charts and chart objects by applying visual
effects such as drop shadows, borders, and fills.
Customize the Color Palette of a Current Default Chart
You can use the chart palette to control the colors or patterns used in the columns,
lines, data markers or areas in a chart.
Progressive charts and legacy charts have different steps.
If specified, the default color is used for outputs that do not support the palette
definition. For example, if the palette is defined to use a radial rectangle gradient
and you run the report as PDF output, the default color is used because radial
rectangle gradients are not supported in PDF output.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object. For combination charts, select the bar, line, or area
objects.
2. To choose a preset color palette, click the chart palette presets button
the style toolbar, and then click a palette.
on
3. To change the existing color palette:
v In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the Palette
property.
v On the Entries tab, click the palette entry that you want to change.
v Under Fill, select fill type, color, transparency, and other fill settings. The
options in the Fill type list depend on the chart type you are using.
Linear Gradient displays a gradient that changes color horizontally. You can
specify the position of each color in the gradient and add or remove colors
from the gradient.
Radial Line Gradient displays a gradient that changes color outwards from
a central point, or focus. You can specify the position of each color in the
gradient and the size and position of the focus. You can also add or remove
colors from the gradient.
Radial Rectangle Gradient displays a gradient that changes color outwards
from a rectangle. You can specify the position of each color in the gradient
and the size of the rectangle. You can also add or remove colors from the
gradient.
Pattern displays a colored pattern that you choose from a preset list. You can
specify the foreground and background colors.
Color displays a solid color. You can specify the transparency.
Image displays an image. You can specify the image to use.
v To change the color of this palette definition, click the color in the Colors list,
click Color, specify the color properties, and click OK.
4. Under Style, depending on the chart type you are customizing and the fill type
you chose in step 2, you can change the marker shape, line style, default color,
and line weight.
5. To add a new palette entry, click the New icon
and specify the new
palette settings.
6. To change the order in which the colors, gradients, or patterns appear in the
chart, use the arrow buttons under the Palette box to change their position.
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7. To copy and paste a palette, open the palette dialog box and press Ctrl+C to
copy the palette to the clipboard. Close the palette dialog box. Select another
chart, open the palette dialog box, and press Ctrl+V to paste the palette from
the clipboard.
8. To customize the data markers, on the Properties tab, depending on the chart
type you are customizing and the fill type you chose in step 2, you can specify
whether data markers are shown and change their color and size.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Customize the Color Palette of a Current Default Progressive
Chart
You can use the chart palette to control the colors or patterns used in the columns,
lines, data markers or areas in a chart.
Legacy charts and other types of current default charts have different steps.
If specified, the default color is used for outputs that do not support the palette
definition. For example, if the palette is defined to use a radial rectangle gradient
and you run the report as PDF output, the default color is used because radial
rectangle gradients are not supported in PDF output.
Procedure
1. Select the progressive chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Progressive Palette property.
You can specify the following:
v
Positive value fill defines the appearance of the positive bars or columns on
the chart.
v
Negative value fill defines the appearance of the negative bars or columns
on the chart.
v
First value fill defines the appearance of the first bar or column on the
chart.
v
Total value fill defines the appearance of the total bar or column on the
chart, if a total bar or column is present.
3. To change the appearance of a fill:
v Click the colored box beside the fill name.
v Click a fill type from the Fill type list.
Linear Gradient displays a gradient that changes color horizontally. You can
specify the position of each color in the gradient and add or remove colors
from the gradient.
Radial Line Gradient displays a gradient that changes color outwards from
a central point, or focus. You can specify the position of each color in the
gradient and the size and position of the focus. You can also add or remove
colors from the gradient.
Radial Rectangle Gradient displays a gradient that changes color outwards
from a rectangle. You can specify the position of each color in the gradient
and the size of the rectangle. You can also add or remove colors from the
gradient.
Pattern displays a colored pattern that you choose from a preset list. You can
specify the foreground and background colors.
Chapter 5. Charts
85
Color displays a solid color. You can specify the transparency.
Image displays an image. You can specify the image to use.
v To change the color of this fill, click the color in the Colors list, click Color,
specify the color properties, and click OK.
4. To change the text of the label that appears next to a bar, double-click the text
box beside the fill name and specify the text.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Customize the Color Palette of a Legacy Chart
You can use the chart palette to control the colors or patterns used in the columns,
lines, data markers or areas in a chart.
Current default charts have different steps.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Color & Background section of the Properties pane, double-click the
Palette property.
3. In the Palette dialog box, click the new palette entry button to define a new
palette entry:
v To apply color, click Color, specify the color properties, and click OK.
v To apply a gradient, click Gradient, specify the Direction, From color, and
To color properties, and click OK.
v To apply a pattern, click Pattern, specify the Pattern, Foreground color, and
Background color properties, and click OK.
Tip: You can also select a predefined palette from the Palettes box.
4. To change the order in which the colors, gradients, or patterns appear in the
chart, use the arrow buttons under the Palette box to change their position.
5. To copy and paste a palette, open the palette dialog box and press Ctrl+C to
copy the palette to the clipboard. Close the palette dialog box. Select another
chart, open the palette dialog box, and press Ctrl+V to paste the palette from
the clipboard.
6. Repeat step 3 for each chart series.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Creating a Conditional Color Palette in a Chart
You can create a conditional palette to color data items in your chart in different
ways depending on a condition. For example, in a column chart that shows
revenue per month, you want to make the columns for the months that have a
revenue greater than $1000000 green.
You can also use conditional styles to highlight exceptional data and use conditions
to control the layout of your report.
Related concepts:
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Chapter 14, “Using conditions,” on page 319
You can define conditions to control what users see when they run a report.
Conditions can apply to specific items in a report. For example, you can define a
conditional style to highlight exceptional data, such as product revenue that
exceeds your target.
Create a Simple Conditional Palette for a Current Default Chart
You can create a simple conditional palette based on a string data item or a
numeric data item. For example, if you want to create a condition to display only
Revenues over one million dollars, you can create a numeric condition; whereas, if
you want to create a condition to display only product codes with the letter A in
them, you can create a string condition.
Procedure
1. Select the chart series to which you want to apply the conditional palette.
2. In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the
Conditional Palette property.
3. Click the New icon
and click New Condition.
4. If you want to create a conditional palette based on a string, do the following:
a. Select the string data item to determine the condition.
b. In the Type of conditional style list, click String, and click OK.
c. Click the new button and select how to define the condition:
v To select more than one individual value, click Select Multiple Values
and click the values.
v To type specific values, click Enter Values and type the values.
v To specify your own criteria, such as values that begin with the letter A,
click Enter String Criteria and specify the condition.
d. Under Palette Entry, beside the new condition, click the edit button
.
e. Define the palette entry fill type, colors, and angle, and click OK.
5. If you want to create a conditional palette based on a numeric range, date/time
range, interval range, date range, or time range, do the following:
a. Select a numeric data item to determine the condition.
b. In the Type of conditional style list, click the type of condition you want to
create, and click OK.
c. Click the new button and type a value to define a threshold.
The value appears in the Range column, and two ranges are created.
d. For each range, under Style, click the edit button to define the palette entry
fill type, colors, and angle, and then click OK.
e. Repeat the previous substeps to add other conditions.
Tip: Under Style, pause the pointer over each range
produced for that range.
to see the condition
f. If you want to use the default palette for the lowest range instead of
specifying a conditional palette select the Use default palette for lowest
range check box.
g. To move a value above or below a threshold, click the arrow button
to the value.
Chapter 5. Charts
next
87
For example, you insert a threshold value of five million. By default, the
ranges are less than or equal to five million and greater than five million.
Moving the five million value above the threshold changes the ranges to
less than five million and greater than or equal to five million.
6. To customize the label for a conditional palette, do the following:
a. Click Label beside the palette entry.
b. In the Conditional Palette Entry Label dialog box, click Specified text and
click the ellipsis button.
c. Type the default label text in the Label text box.
d. To add customized labels for other languages, click the Add icon
,
select the other languages, and click the language to define the customized
label for that language.
7. Specify the order in which to evaluate the conditions by clicking a condition
and then clicking the move up or move down arrow.
Conditions are evaluated from top to bottom, and the first condition that is met
is applied.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Create an Advanced Conditional Palette for Current Default
Charts
Advanced conditions allow you to use a calculations or expression to evaluate the
condition. If multiple advanced conditions are met, only the first conditional style
is applied.
Procedure
1. Select the chart series to which you want to apply the conditional palette.
2. In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the
Conditional Palette property.
3. Click the Add icon
and click Advanced Condition.
4. Click the new advanced condition icon
defines the condition.
and specify the expression that
The new advanced condition appears in the Conditional Palette - Advanced
dialog box.
5. Under Palette Entry, beside the new advanced condition, click the edit button
.
6. Define the palette entry fill type, colors, and angle, and click OK.
7. Specify the order in which to evaluate the conditions by clicking a condition
and then clicking the move up or move down arrow.
Conditions are evaluated from top to bottom, and the first condition that is met
is applied.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
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Create a Conditional Color Palette for a Legacy Chart
You can create a color palette that appears differently depending on a yes or no
answer, an expression or calculation, or the report language.
Procedure
1. Click the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the
Conditional Palette property.
3. If you want to create a variable that has only two possible values, Yes and No,
do the following:
a. Under Variable, click New boolean variable.
b. In the New Variable dialog box, type a name for the variable.
c. In the Expression Definition box, define the condition and click OK.
For example, the following expression returns the value Yes if revenue is
less than one million and the value No if revenue is greater than or equal to
one million:
[Revenue]<1000000
d. In the Value box, select whether the expression evaluates to Yes or No.
e. Under Effects, specify the color palette to use for the condition.
4. If you want to create a variable whose values are string-based, do the
following:
a. Under Variable, select New string variable.
b. In the Expression Definition box, define the condition and click OK.
For example, the following expression returns the value high if revenue is
greater than one million and the value low if revenue is less than or equal
to one million:
if ([Revenue]>1000000) then ('high') else ('low')
For information about creating expressions, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206 or “Using Dimensional Calculations” on page 256.
c. Click the Add icon
in the Values pane.
d. For each value that the variable can assume, type the name of the value that
corresponds with the possible outcomes defined in the expression.
For example, in the previous expression, you must create two values for the
variable, high and low.
Tip: You can create a group by clicking two or more values and then
clicking the group values button
. For example, you can create a group
that includes the available French languages.
5. If you want to create a variable whose values are different languages, do the
following:
a. Under Variable, select Report Language Variable.
b. In the Languages dialog box, select the languages to support.
6. Click OK to close the expression editor and leave the Conditional Palette
dialog box open.
7. Under Effect, click Pattern.
8. Under Pattern, select a pattern and click OK.
9. In the Box section of the Properties pane, set the Borders property to Show.
Related concepts:
Chapter 5. Charts
89
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Change a Chart Background in a Current Default Chart
You can use a gradient, pattern, color, or image to customize the chart background.
Procedure
1. Click the chart object.
2. Click the More icon
, click the Locked icon
, select the chart body by
clicking between the axes, and, in the Properties pane, under Color &
Background, double-click the Plot Area Fill property.
3. Click a fill type from the Fill type list.
v Linear Gradient displays a gradient that changes color horizontally. You can
specify the position of each color in the gradient and add or remove colors
from the gradient.
v Radial Line Gradient displays a gradient that changes color outwards from
a central point, or focus. You can specify the position of each color in the
gradient and the size and position of the focus. You can also add or remove
colors from the gradient.
v Radial Rectangle Gradient displays a gradient that changes color outwards
from a rectangle. You can specify the position of each color in the gradient
and the size of the rectangle. You can also add or remove colors from the
gradient.
v Pattern displays a colored pattern that you choose from a preset list. You can
specify the foreground and background colors.
v Color displays a solid color. You can specify the transparency.
v Image displays an image. You can specify the image to use.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Change a Chart Background in a Legacy Chart
You can use a solid color, a pattern, or a gradient fill effect to customize the chart
background.
You can also use an image as a background for a chart.
Procedure
1. Click the chart object.
2. Click the More icon
, click the Locked icon
, select the chart body by
clicking between the axes, and, in the Properties pane, under Color &
Background, double-click the Fill Effects property.
3. In the Effect box, choose a color, a gradient fill effect, or a pattern:
v To apply a color, click Color and specify the color properties.
v To apply a gradient fill effect, click Gradient and then specify the Direction,
From color, and To color properties.
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v To apply a pattern effect, click Pattern and specify the Pattern, Foreground
Color, and Background Color properties.
The foreground color is the color of the selected pattern. The background
color is the color of the area behind the pattern.
4. To remove a background fill effect, click None.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Related tasks:
“Insert a Background Image in an Object” on page 286
You can insert a background image for objects in a report. For example, use a
background image to add a watermark to a page.
Add background effects to a chart object in a legacy chart
You can change the look of certain charts and chart objects by applying visual
effects such as drop shadows, borders, and fills.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. To apply a preset background fill effect, from the report object toolbar, click the
Background effects presets icon
.
3. To add a custom fill effect and border do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the
Background effects property.
b. Click Border and specify settings for border style, width, color, corner
radius for rounded rectangles, and transparency.
If the object also includes a fill with a transparency setting, select the Allow
transparent bleed check box to apply the same transparency to the border.
c. Click Fill and specify the settings.
The fill effect can either be a solid color, a gradient, or a pattern.
4. To add a drop shadow, do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the
Background effects property.
b. Select the Drop shadow check box.
c. From the Shadow color list, click a color.
d. Under Blur, click an intensity to set the drop shadow's blur.
e. Under Offset, enter a value and a unit to define the width and height of the
drop shadow.
f. Under Transparency, type a percentage to determine the transparency of the
shadow.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Customizing the Color Palette of a Chart” on page 83
You can use the chart palette to control the colors or patterns used in the columns,
lines, data markers or areas in a chart. For example, if "Telephone" is the first in a
data series of order methods, and you want it to appear in blue, use the palette to
Chapter 5. Charts
91
make the first item in the series blue.
Related tasks:
“Add color to an object” on page 306
You can add background and foreground color to objects in the report. The
foreground color applies to the text within objects.
Add Colored Regions in a Current Default Chart
You can define colored regions in the body of a chart. For example, you can divide
the background of a scatter chart into quadrants and color each quadrant.
You can add colored regions to bubble, bullet, combination, Pareto, progressive
column, and scatter charts.
In bullet charts, colored regions are automatically added.
You can use the following criteria to position the colored regions.
Option
Position
Percent on Axis (%)
Uses a percentage of the full range of the
axis.
For example, if the axis range is -500 to 1100,
a Percent on Axis value of 25% puts the
baseline at -100 (25% of the range, 1600).
Numeric Value
Uses a static numeric value.
Mean
Uses the statistical mean plus or minus a
number of standard deviations based on all
charted data values on the specified axis.
Percentile (%)
Uses a specified percentile.
Statistical Maximum
Uses the following expression:
25th percentile value - 1.5 * (75th percentile
value - 25th percentile value)
For example, if 2.5 is the 25th percentile and
7.5 is the 75th percentile, the statistical
minimum is -5 [2.5 -1.5(5) = -5].
Statistical Minimum
Uses the following expression:
75th percentile value + 1.5 * (75th percentile
value - 25th percentile value)
For example, if 2.5 is the 25th percentile and
7.5 is the 75th percentile, the statistical
maximum is 15 [7.5 +1.5(5) = 15].
92
Query Calculation
Uses a query calculation from the same
query or from a different query. For more
information, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206.
Layout Calculation
Uses a layout calculation. For more
information, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Option
Position
Category Index
Specifies a position based on the index value
of the data item in the categories axis. The
value must be between 0 and 100.
For example, a Category index value of 1
indicates that the position is located at the
first data item. This is the default.
You can also combine colored regions with gridlines.
Procedure
1. Click the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the Colored
Regions property.
3. Click the New icon
.
4. Under Region label, type a name for the region.
5. Under Label location, specify whether the label should appear in the legend
or in the chart.
6. If your chart includes multiple charts, such as in a combination chart, under
Based on, select the chart to which the colored regions apply.
7. Under Region fill, click the color box to specify the color and fill effects.
8. Specify the start and end of the category and numeric positions.
9. If you want to add more colored regions, repeat steps 3 to 5.
10. If you add more than one colored region, specify their order using the up and
down arrows.
The regions are drawn in the same order that they appear in this list. The first
region is drawn first, on the bottom, and the last region is drawn on top of
the other regions.
Tip: To delete a colored region, click the colored region icon and text and click
the delete button
.
Results
The new region appears in the Colored regions box.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Specify Custom Label Text
By default, chart labels use the name of the underlying data item label. You can
change the label text to make it more meaningful. For example, you can rename a
chart item labeled ISO_3_Letter_Code to Country or Region.
If you specify custom labels for a microchart or win-loss charts, the custom labels
appear in the tooltips, not on the chart itself.
Chapter 5. Charts
93
Procedure
1. Click the chart node member or measure.
2. In the Properties pane, under the Chart Labels, set the Custom Label property
to Show.
A new chart text item appears above the default measure or below the chart
node member.
3. Do one of the following:
v To change the text of the label, double-click the chart text item and type the
text.
v To change the source of the label text, select the new chart text item. In the
Text Source section of the Properties pane, set the Source Type property.
If nothing is specified in the new chart text item, the label appears blank.
Tip: To remove a custom label, set the Custom Label property to Hide.
Customizing the Axes of a Chart
Chart axes are lines that border the chart area and provide a reference for
measurements. They act as a vehicle for tick marks and scales and form a frame
around the chart. The Y-axis is usually the vertical axis and contains data. The
X-axis is usually the horizontal axis and contains categories.
To make your chart data easier to understand, you can do the following to
customize each axis:
v show or hide the axis labels (data values)
v show or hide the axis line
v change the color, style, and weight of the axis line
v show or hide major and minor tick marks and specify where to display them
In HTML/PDF, if you have a report with a line chart, you can use the Include
Zero For Auto Scale property to adjust the scale of the Y-axis of the chart. If the
difference between your measure's maximum/minimum values is much less than
the difference between your measure's minimum value and zero, using this
property will make the chart Y-axis begin at something closer to your measure's
minimum value, making the line utilize all of the chart's vertical space. In some
cases this is significant in improving the readability of the chart.
Related concepts:
“Axes” on page 58
Axes are lines that provide references for measurement or comparison.
Customize the Axes of a Current Default Chart
You can customize the axis labels, axis lines, and minor and major tick marks.
You can change the scale for the major and minor tick mark using the Axis Range
property.
Procedure
1. Select the Y-axis or the X-axis of the chart.
2. To show or hide the axis labels, in the Properties pane, set the Axis Label
property.
3. If your chart includes nested categories, to change how the category axis labels
are displayed, set the Nested Label Display property.
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4. To show or hide axis lines, in the Properties pane, double-click the Axis Line
property, and select or clear the Axis line check box.
5. To change the color, style, and weight of the axis line, in the Properties pane,
set the Axis Line property.
6. To show or hide minor and major tick marks and specify their location, in the
Properties pane, set the Axis Line property.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Related tasks:
“Change the axis scale of a current default chart”
By default, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically determines the
minimum and maximum scale values for the numeric axes in a chart. For example,
a Y-axis showing revenue values might have an axis range of zero dollars to one
million dollars. You can customize the axis scale, or range, to make your chart
easier to understand.
Customize the Axes of a Legacy Chart
You can customize the axis labels and axis line.
Procedure
1. Select the Y-axis or the X-axis of the chart.
2. To show or hide the axis labels, in the Properties pane, set the Axis Label
property.
3. Select the Axis line check box.
4. Click Line color and choose a color for this axis line.
5. To show or hide axis lines, in the Properties pane, double-click the Axis Line
property, and select or clear the Axis line check box.
6. To change the color, style, and weight of the axis line, in the Properties pane,
double-click the Axis Line property.
Change the axis scale of a current default chart
By default, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically determines the
minimum and maximum scale values for the numeric axes in a chart. For example,
a Y-axis showing revenue values might have an axis range of zero dollars to one
million dollars. You can customize the axis scale, or range, to make your chart
easier to understand.
You can specify the following for each numeric axis:
v the maximum and minimum values of the range
v whether to include zero in an automatic axis range
v whether to use a logarithmic scale, if the values in the chart cover a very large
range
v how often major and minor gridlines appear
Logarithmic scales can be useful when some of the data you are displaying is
much less or much more than the rest of the data or when the percentage or ratio
differences between values are important.
Chapter 5. Charts
95
A logarithmic scale in Reporting shows the base value of 10 raised to the power of
a value. For example, 10 has a logarithm of 1 because 10 raised to the power of 1
is 10, 100 has a logarithm of 2 because 10 raised to the power of 2 is 100, and so
on.
For example, the following chart is using a normal scale:
Figure 16. Chart with a normal axis range
In this chart, the Y-axis shows values up to 2,000,000,000 with evenly spaced
intervals of 400,000,000. However, the Outdoor Protection column is so much less
than the other columns that it is difficult to compare them.
The following is the same chart using a logarithmic scale:
Figure 17. Chart with a logarithmic axis range
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In this chart, the Y-axis still shows the same revenue values, but the intervals
reflect a logarithmic scale, which increases exponentially. You can now compare all
the product lines because none of the product lines have much higher or much
lower values than the others.
Logarithmic scales can also be useful when the percentage or ratio differences
between values are important. For example, if the logarithmic scale chart above
represents data from 2011, and you add data from 2012 as a second set of colored
bars, you could see the differences between the 2011 revenue and 2012 revenue. In
a logarithmic scale, differences between values on the Y-axis represent the same
percentage for each bar. So if the 2011 and 2012 data differs by the same distance
for each product line, you could deduce that your revenue went up by the same
percentage for each product line. This would not be clear on a normal scale.
Procedure
1. Select the Y-axis or the X-axis of the chart.
2. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Axis Range property.
3. To set a maximum value for this axis, under Maximum, click Manual, and then
type a maximum value in the Manual box.
Note: You can use either a positive or negative value as the maximum value.
4. To set a minimum value for this axis, under Minimum, click Manual, and then
type a minimum value in the Manual box.
Note: You can use either a positive or negative value as the minimum value.
5. To include zero on this axis, select the Include zero check box.
6. To use a logarithmic scale for this axis, select the Logarithmic scale check box.
Note: If you choose to use a logarithmic scale, ensure that your chart
consumers know that the scale is logarithmic by including that information in
the axis title or in a note on the chart.
7. To set the position of major gridlines and tick marks, under Major interval,
click Manual, and then type the distance between major gridlines and tick
marks in the Manual box.
The distance between major gridlines and tick marks is measured in the units
of that axis. For example, if the axis is revenue in dollars, type the dollar value
in the Manual box.
8. To add minor gridlines, type the number of minor gridlines that you want to
see between each major gridline in the Number of minor intervals box.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Related tasks:
“Customize the Axes of a Current Default Chart” on page 94
You can customize the axis labels, axis lines, and minor and major tick marks.
“Show Gridlines in a Current Default Chart” on page 98
You can also show alternating bands of color in the chart background that
correspond to your axis gridlines.
Chapter 5. Charts
97
Showing Gridlines in a Chart
To make the data in a chart that includes axes easier to read, you can show
horizontal and vertical gridlines. You can show gridlines for the major or minor
intervals on the axes.
You cannot show gridlines for chart types that do not display axes, such as pie and
donut charts.
Show Gridlines in a Current Default Chart
You can also show alternating bands of color in the chart background that
correspond to your axis gridlines.
You can change the scale for the major and minor gridlines using the Axis Range
property.
Procedure
1. Select the Y-axis or the X-axis of the chart.
2. To show alternating bands of color as your chart background, do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, double-click the Gridlines property.
b. Select the Show alternating color bands check box.
c. Set the color and transparency of the first and second colors.
3. To show major gridlines as your chart background, do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, double-click the Gridlines property.
b. Select the Show major gridlines check box.
c. Set the color, style, and weight of the major gridlines.
d. If you are working with a gauge chart, specify the length of the gridline.
4. To show minor gridlines as your chart background, do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, double-click the Minor gridlines property.
b. Select the Show minor gridlines check box.
c. Set the color, style, and weight of the minor gridlines.
d. If you are working with a gauge chart, specify the length of the gridline.
e. To specify by how many minor intervals to divide the major intervals, in
the Properties pane, type a number in the Number of Minor Intervals
property.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Related tasks:
“Change the axis scale of a current default chart” on page 95
By default, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically determines the
minimum and maximum scale values for the numeric axes in a chart. For example,
a Y-axis showing revenue values might have an axis range of zero dollars to one
million dollars. You can customize the axis scale, or range, to make your chart
easier to understand.
Show Gridlines in a Legacy Chart
Gridlines are the lines on a chart that show the intervals along the axes.
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Procedure
1. Select the Y-axis or the X-axis of the chart.
2. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Gridlines property.
3. To specify the color, style, and weight of major gridlines do the following:
a. Select the Show major gridlines check box.
b. Click Line color and choose a color for the major gridlines.
c. To specify the thickness of the gridlines, click Point size and select a line
weight from the list.
d. Click a line style in the Line style list.
4. To specify the color, style, and weight of minor gridlines:
a. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Minor Gridlines
property.
b. Select the Show minor gridlines check box.
c. Click Line color and choose a color for the minor gridlines.
d. To specify the thickness of the gridlines, click Point size and select a line
weight from the list.
e. Click a line style in the Line style list.
f. To change the transparency of the gridlines, type a percentage in the
Transparency box.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Customize the Legend in a Current Default Chart
You can hide or show the legend and change its position relative to the chart area,
chart body, or a data item. For example, in a bar chart showing revenue for each
product line by country or region, you could use the expression [Country or
Region] = 'Canada' to position the legend relative to the Canada bar.
Note: When you choose a preset legend position, that position appears inside any
padding that you have added to the chart object. Customized legend positions do
not include any chart padding.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Legend
property.
3. To show the legend on the chart, select the Show Legend check box.
4. To choose a preset legend position, click Preset and click a position from the
diagram.
5. To choose a customized legend position, do the following:
a. Click Advanced and click the ellipsis button.
b. To display the legend at a set distance from the sides of the chart area, from
the Anchor list, click Relative to Chart.
c. To display the legend at a set distance from the sides of the chart body,
from the Anchor list, click Relative to Chart Body.
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99
d. To display the legend at a set distance from a data item, such as a specific
pie slice in a pie chart, from the Anchor list, click Report Expression, click
the ellipsis button beside Expression, and enter an expression in the Report
Expression dialog box.
e. Set the horizontal and vertical distances from the anchor.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Customize the Items in the Legend of a Current Default Chart
If your legend includes items that are too long, you can truncate long legend items
at a specific number of characters.
For example, if you want an ellipsis to appear at the end of each truncated legend
item, type ... in the Truncation text box.
You can also show the values of the data items in your legend.
Procedure
1. Select the legend.
2. To truncate the legend
a. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Text Truncation
property.
b. To specify the number of characters at which the legend items are
truncated, click Manual and type the number of characters in the
Maximum characters box.
c. To shrink the font of the legend item text until all the text fits in the legend,
select the Shrink font as needed check box.
d. To specify some text to appear at the end of truncated legend items, in the
Truncation text box, type the text that you want to appear at the end of
truncated items.
3. To show the values of legend items within the legend
a. In the Properties pane, under General, set the Show Values property.
First Value and Last Value refer to the first and last item in the child set
under the legend data item. Minimum Value and Maximum Value refer to
the lowest and highest value in the child set under the legend data item.
b. If you want to change the separator between the legend item and value,
type a new separator in the Legend Separator property.
4. To customize the title of the legend
a. Click the default legend title area in the work area.
b. In the Properties pane, under General, set the Default Title property to No.
c. Double-click the default legend title area in the work area and type the new
title.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
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Customize the Items in the Legend of a Legacy Chart
If your legend includes items that are too long, you can truncate long legend items
at a specific number of characters. For example, if you want an ellipsis to appear at
the end of each truncated legend item, type ... in the Truncation text box.
You can also show the values of the data items in your legend and customize the
legend title.
Procedure
1. Select the legend.
2. To truncate the legend text, do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, under General, set the Auto Truncation property to
Yes.
b. In the Properties pane, under General, set the Auto Truncation property to
Yes.
c. In the Maximum Characters property, type the number of characters to
appear before the text is truncated.
d. In the Truncation Text property, type the characters to append when the
text is truncated.
e. To shrink the font of the legend item text until all the text fits in the legend,
select the Shrink font as needed check box.
f. To specify text to appear at the end of truncated legend items, type it in the
Truncation text box.
3. To show the values of legend items within the legend, do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, under General, set the Show Legend Values
property.
First Value and Last Value refer to the first and last item in the child set
under the legend data item. Minimum Value and Maximum Value refer to
the lowest and highest value in the child set under the legend data item.
b. If you show multiple values and want to change the separator between the
values, type a new separator in the Separator property.
4. To customize the title of the legend, do the following:
a. Click the default legend title area in the work area.
b. In the Properties pane, under General, set the Default Title property to No.
c. Double-click the default legend title area in the work area and type the new
title.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Adding a note to a chart
Add a note to a chart to provide additional detail. Notes appear as text in a chart.
By default, notes are aligned in the first part of the chart object. When you add a
note to a chart, you can set the note's position relative to the sides of the chart area
or chart body. You can also use a report expression to position the note next to a
data item within the chart. For example, in a bar chart showing revenue for each
product line by country or region, you could type [Country or Region]='Canada' to
position the note relative to the Canada bar.
Chapter 5. Charts
101
Notes overwrite whatever is under them so you must position them properly.
If you apply more than one note, ensure that each note has a different position in
the report so that they do not overwrite each other. You can also specify the order
that they should be drawn in when the report runs. If you have two notes with the
same coordinates, the first one in the list is drawn first and the next one is drawn
before the first.
Tip: The Top 10 Retailers for 2011 sample report in the GO Data Warehouse
(analysis) package includes a note.
Add a Note to a Current Default Chart
You can add and position multiple notes on your chart.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Notes
property.
3. Click the New icon
.
4. Type the note text in the Text box and click OK.
Tips: To delete a note, click the note and click the delete button
a note up or down in the list, click the up or down arrows.
5. In the Notes dialog box, click OK.
. To move
6. To position the note, do the following:
a. Click the note icon
in the list of notes.
b. In the Properties pane, under Positioning, double-click the Position
property.
c. To align the note horizontally, click the left, center, or right alignment
button.
d. To align the note vertically, click the top, middle, or bottom alignment
button.
e. To set the margins around the chart body, type margin values and choose
margin units.
f. To display the note at a set distance from the sides of the chart area, from
the Anchor list, click Relative to Chart.
g. To display the note at a set distance from the sides of the chart body, from
the Anchor list, click Relative to Chart Body.
h. To display the note at a set distance from a data item, from the Anchor list,
click Report Expression, click the ellipsis button beside Expression, and
enter an expression in the Report Expression dialog box.
7. To edit the text, double-click the text next to the note object
in the chart.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Add a Note to a Legacy Chart
You can add and position multiple notes on your chart.
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Procedure
1. Click the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Notes
property.
3. Click the New icon
.
4. Type the note text in the Text box and click OK.
Tip: To delete a note, click the note and click the delete button
note up or down in the list, click the up or down arrows.
. To move a
5. In the Notes dialog box, click OK.
6. Click the note icon
Properties pane.
and set the note position, size, and border in the
You set the location of the note by defining number of pixels from the bottom
left corner of the chart area.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Adding a baseline to a chart
Baselines are horizontal or vertical lines that cut through the chart to indicate
major divisions in the data. For example, you can add a baseline to show a sales
quota or break-even point.
Each baseline represents a value on an axis.
Depending on the type of chart, you can use the following options to position the
baseline.
Option
Description
Numeric Value
Uses a static numeric value.
Query Calculation
Uses a query calculation from the chart
query or from a different query. For more
information, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206.
Layout Calculation
Uses a layout calculation. For more
information, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206.
Category Index
Uses the index value of the data item in the
categories axis.
For example, a Category index value of 1
indicates that the baseline is located at the
first data item. This is the default.
Note: This option applies only to the
current default charts, and does not apply to
the legacy charts.
Chapter 5. Charts
103
Option
Description
Member Value
When working with dimensional data
sources, uses a position relative to a
member. For example, a member calculation
that uses an expression similar to
[Query1].[Current year]=2011 places the
baseline in the middle of the chart object
that represents 2011. To place the baseline
between 2011 and 2012 on the chart, a half
member width after, set the Member Offset
property to 50%. To place the baseline
between 2010 and 2011, set the Member
Offset property to -50%. You can also type
in 100, -200, and so on to place the baseline
on the chart.
Statistical Limit
Statistical maximum uses the following
expression:
25th percentile value - 1.5 * (75th percentile
value - 25th percentile value)
For example, if 2.5 is the 25th percentile and
7.5 is the 75th percentile, the statistical
minimum is -5 [2.5 -1.5(5) = -5].
Statistical minimum uses the following
expression:
75th percentile value + 1.5 * (75th percentile
value - 25th percentile value)
For example, if 2.5 is the 25th percentile and
7.5 is the 75th percentile, the statistical
maximum is 15 [7.5 +1.5(5) = 15].
Statistical minimum and Statistical
maximum use percentiles to determine
values, so the baseline might not appear on
the chart if its value is off the axis.
Mean
Uses the statistical mean plus or minus a
number of standard deviations based on all
charted data values on the specified axis.
Percentile (%)
Uses a specified percentile.
Percent on Axis (%)
Uses a percentage of the full range of the
axis.
For example, if the axis range is -500 to 1100,
a Percent on Axis value of 25% puts the
baseline at -100 (25% of the range, 1600).
If you apply more than one baseline, you can specify the order in which they
should be drawn when the report runs. If you have two baselines with the same
coordinates, the first one in the list is drawn first and the next one is drawn before
the first one.
By default, the baseline and its label appear in the legend.
Baselines do not support color transparency.
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Tip: The Positions to Fill sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package includes a baseline.
Add a Baseline to a Current Default Chart
When working with current default charts, you can define baselines by values on
the numeric axis or the category axis.
Procedure
1. Click the chart object.
2. Depending on your chart and the type of baseline you want to add, in the
Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Numeric Baselines
or Category Baselines property.
3. Click the New icon
and choose the type of baseline from the list.
4. Specify the necessary criteria for the baseline position
5. Under Baseline Properties, type a label for the baseline and specify the line
style.
Tip: To remove the baseline from the legend, delete the label.
6. If you add more than one baseline, specify their order using the up and down
arrows.
The new baselines appear in the Markers, notes, baselines, and trendlines box.
7. To change the label that appears next to the baseline, under the Markers, notes,
baselines, and trendlines box, double-click the placeholder text next to the
baseline icon
and type your text.
8. To change the line style, select the chart and in the Properties pane, under
Chart Annotations, double-click the Baselines, Numeric Baselines, or Category
Baselines property.
9. To delete a baseline, select the baseline icon
button
and click the delete
.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Add a Baseline to a Legacy Chart
When working with legacy charts, you can define baselines by the values on the
numeric axis.
Procedure
1. Click the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Baselines
property.
3. Click the New icon
and choose the type of baseline from the list.
4. Specify the necessary criteria for the baseline position.
If you use a calculation to determine the baseline, define an expression.
5. If you add more than one baseline, specify their order using the up and down
arrows.
6. Click OK.
Chapter 5. Charts
105
A baseline icon appears in the Markers, notes, and baselines box.
7. To define the line style, click the baseline icon
property.
and set the Line Styles
8. To define the text style, click the baseline text and make changes in the
Properties pane.
9. To delete a baseline, click its baseline icon and click the delete button
.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Adding markers to charts
Markers are symbols that you add to a chart to designate points of significance
that can help you analyze or understand the data.
For example, you might want to add a marker to designate the time when a
significant event happened, such as the date when a new product was launched.
You can add a marker to combination, progressive column, Pareto, scatter, and
bubble charts.
When you define the position of the marker, you define the X- and Y-axes
coordinates for the placement of the symbol. You can position the marker in the
chart using the following options.
Option
Position
Numeric Value
Uses a static numeric value.
Query Calculation
Uses a query calculation from the same
query or from a different query. For more
information, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206.
Layout Calculation
Uses a layout calculation. For more
information, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206.
Statistical Minimum
Uses the following expression:
25th percentile value - 1.5 * (75th percentile
value - 25th percentile value)
For example, if 2.5 is the 25th percentile and
7.5 is the 75th percentile, the statistical
minimum is -5 [2.5 -1.5(5) = -5].
Statistical minimum uses percentiles to
determine values, and might not always
appear in the chart if the values are off the
axis.
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Option
Position
Statistical Maximum
Uses the following expression:
75th percentile value + 1.5 * (75th percentile
value - 25th percentile value)
For example, if 2.5 is the 25th percentile and
7.5 is the 75th percentile, the statistical
maximum is 15 [7.5 +1.5(5) = 15]. Statistical
maximum uses percentiles to determine
values, so the marker might not always
appear on the chart if its value is off the
axis.
Mean
Uses the statistical mean plus or minus a
number of standard deviations based on all
charted data values on the specified axis.
Percentile
Uses a specified percentile.
Percent on Axis
Uses a percentage of the maximum axis
value.
If you apply more than one marker, you can specify the order in which they
should be drawn when the report runs. If you have two markers with the same
coordinates, the first one in the list is drawn first and the next one is drawn after
the first.
Add a Marker to a Current Default Chart
Markers are symbols that you add to a chart to designate points of significance
that can help you analyze or understand the data.
Note: Current default scatter charts have a different set of steps.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Markers
property.
3. Click the New icon
, and then set the marker properties
4. In the Based on box, select the chart object that will determine the marker
position.
5. In the Numeric position box, specify how you want to define the position on
the numeric (Y) axis.
6. In the Category position box, specify how you want to define the position on
the category (X) axis.
7. In the Marker label box, type the label that you want to give to the marker.
8. In the Marker size box, specify the size of the marker symbol.
9. To specify the color, fill, and shape of the marker symbol, click the Color and
style box.
10. If you add more than one marker, specify their order by using the up and
down arrows.
The new markers appear in the Markers, notes, and baselines box.
Chapter 5. Charts
107
Tip: To delete a marker, click the marker icon and text and click the delete
button
.
11. Run the report.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Add a Marker to a Current Default Scatter Chart
Markers are symbols that you add to a chart to designate points of significance
that can help you analyze or understand the data.
Procedure
1. Select the scatter chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Markers
property.
3. Click the New icon
, and then set the marker properties.
4. In the X-axis position box, specify how you want to define the position on the
X-axis.
5. In the Y-axis position box, specify how you want to define the position on the
Y-axis.
6. In the Marker label box, type the label that you want to give to the marker.
7. In the Marker size box, specify the size of the marker symbol
8. To specify the color, fill, and shape of the marker symbol, click the Marker
color and style box.
9. If you add more than one marker, specify their order using the up and down
arrows.
The new markers appear in the Markers, notes, and baselines box.
Tip: To delete a marker, click the marker icon and text and click the delete
button
.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Add a Marker to a Legacy Chart
Markers are symbols that you add to a chart to designate points of significance
that can help you analyze or understand the data.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Markers
property.
3. Click the New icon
, and then set the Numeric position type, Marker
label, Marker shape, Numeric value, and Color properties.
4. If you add more than one marker, specify their order by using the up and
down arrows.
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
The new markers appear in the Markers, notes, and baselines box.
Tip: To delete a marker, click the marker icon or marker label and click the
delete button
Related concepts:
.
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Display Trendlines in Current Default Charts
You can display or hide trendlines in the current default bar, line, area, bubble, or
scatter charts.
Trendlines, also known as lines of best fit or regression lines, graphically illustrate
trends in data series and are commonly used when charting predictions. A
trendline is typically a line or curve that connects or passes through two or more
points in the series, showing a trend.
You can specify the following types of trendlines:
v Linear
Use a linear trendline when your data increases or decreases along a straight
line at a constant rate. For example, if your chart displays a steady increase in
revenue by product line over time, you could use a linear trendline.
v Exponential
Use an exponential trendline when your data values increase or decrease
exponentially, or at an increasingly higher or lower rate. For example, if your
chart displays an exponential increase in revenue by product line over time, you
could use an exponential trendline.
v Polynomial
Use a polynomial trendline when your data values both increase and decrease.
For example, if your chart displays both increases and decreases in revenue by
product line over time, you could use a polynomial trendline.
v Logarithm or Natural Logarithm
Use a logarithmic trendline when your data values increase or decrease rapidly
and then level out. For example, if your chart displays a rapid decrease in
revenue by product line over time and then a plateau, you could use a
logarithmic trendline.
v Power
Use a power trendline when your data values increase or decrease in a curve at
a steady rate. For example, if your chart displays a steady increase in revenue by
product line over time and your data points will fit a curved line, you could use
a power trendline.
v Moving Average
Use a moving average trendline when your data values fluctuate and you want
to smooth out the exceptions to see trends. For example, if your chart displays
wild fluctuations in revenue by product line over time, but you know that some
data points are exceptions, you could use a moving average trendline.
If you are not sure which trendline type to use, try each type to see which one best
fits most of your data points. For example, a linear trendline will not fit most
points on a scatter chart with widely spread data points.
Chapter 5. Charts
109
Trendlines do not support color transparency.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, double-click the Trendlines
property.
3. Click the New icon
and click a trendline type.
4. Define the trendline by specifying the following options. The options that are
available depend on the type of trendline you chose.
v To set the order, or degree, of a polynomial trendline, in the Order box, type
a value between 2 and 6.
v To set the number of periods to go back in a moving average trendline, in
the Periods box, type a value.
v If you have more than one series on your chart, in the Based on list, click the
data you want to use for the trendline.
v Click either One trendline for all series items or A trendline for each series
item.
v To customize the style of the trendlines, click Line Styles and customize the
line color, weight, and style.
v To customize the trendline labels in the legend, click Label and choose None,
Automatic, or Custom.
v To display the trendline equation, click Show equation, and then click Show
in legend or Show on chart, and then click Position to define the equation's
position on the chart.
v To display the R-squared value of the trendline, click Show R-squared value,
and then click Show in legend or click Show on chart and then click
Position to define the position of the value on the chart.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Display Regression Lines in Legacy Scatter or Bubble Charts
When using legacy charts, you can display or hide regression lines on scatter
charts and bubble charts. Regression lines, also known as lines of best fit or trend
lines, graphically illustrate trends in data series. Regression lines are commonly
used when charting predictions. A regression line is typically a line or curve that
connects or passes through two or more points in the series, showing a trend.
Legacy scatter and bubble regression lines are calculated using a numerical
algorithm that isn't guaranteed to be optimal. Regressions may or may not match
current default chart regressions.
You can specify the following types of regression lines to determine the position
and slope of the line:
v
Linear
Use a linear regression line when your data increases or decreases at a consistent
rate. For example, if your chart displays a steady increase in revenue by product
line over time, you could use a linear regression line.
v Common Log or Natural Log
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
Use a logarithmic regression line when your data increases or decreases rapidly
and then levels out. For example, if your chart displays a rapid decrease in
revenue by product line over time and then a plateau, you could use a
logarithmic regression line.
v
v
Exponential
Use an exponential regression line when your data increases or decreases
exponentially, or at steadily increasing or decreasing rate. For example, if your
chart displays an exponential increase in revenue by product line over time, you
could use an exponential regression line.
Polynomial Fit
Use a polynomial fit regression line when your data both increases and
decreases. For example, if your chart displays both increases and decreases in
revenue by product line over time, you could use a polynomial fit regression
line.
If you are not sure which regression line type to use, try each type to see which
one best fits most of your data points. For example, a linear regression line is not
going to fit most points on a scatter chart with widely spread data points.
Procedure
1. Select the scatter or bubble chart.
2. In the Properties pane, under Chart Annotations, set the Regression Line
property to Show.
3. Click the regression line icon
in the report layout.
4. In the Properties pane, under General, set the Line Styles, Regression Type,
and Number of Regression Lines properties.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Showing data labels or values in current default charts
You can show the data labels or data values within the chart so that the data
values are clearer.
For example, you can display the data values above each column in a column
chart to show the exact height of each column.
Procedure
1. For a bar, column, line, or area chart, under Series, select the chart type icon.
2. For a bubble, scatter, Pareto, or progressive chart, click the chart.
3. In the Properties pane, under Chart Labels, double-click the Show Values
property.
4. For bar, column, line, area, Pareto, or progressive charts, to specify the data
label format, in the Values list, select what values to display.
v None does not display data values.
v Values displays the non-cumulative value of the data.
v Cumulative values displays the cumulative value of the data.
Chapter 5. Charts
111
5. For bubble or scatter charts, to specify the data label format, in the Show box,
select whether to show values or values and labels for the category, series, and
measure.
6. For bar, column, line, area, Pareto, or progressive charts, to show lines that
point from data labels to data marker they apply to, select the Show leader
lines check box.
7. For bubble or scatter charts, to show lines that point from data labels to data
marker they apply to, select the Leader lines check box.
8. To specify where values and labels are to be rendered in the chart, click the
Value Location list and choose the location that you want.
9. To specify how to display the labels if their positions on the chart overlap, in
the Collision Mode list, click one of the following modes:
v None specifies that labels appear in default positions and might overlap.
v Normal (for pie and donut charts) specifies that labels are placed just above
their corresponding data markers or chart objects. There is no collision
detection, so labels can overlap.
v Coarse Stagger specifies that labels are placed close to their data markers
and staggered so that they do not overlap. This collision mode takes less
time to render than Fine Stagger but might result in labels that are farther
away from their corresponding data markers.
v Fine Stagger specifies that labels are staggered so that they do not overlap.
The labels are as close to the data markers as possible without overlapping.
This collision mode takes more time to render than Coarse Stagger but might
result in labels that are closer to their corresponding data markers.
Showing data values in current default pie and donut charts
You can show the data labels or data values within the chart so that the data
values are more clear.
For example, in a pie chart, show the data values within each pie slice, so that you
know the exact size of each pie slice.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Show values property.
3. To display data labels for each slice of the pie, under Show, select the Slice
names check box.
4. To show lines pointing from data labels to the slices they apply to, select the
Show leader lines check box.
5. To specify the data label format, in the Values list, select what values to
display.
v Hide does not display data values.
v Absolute displays the absolute value of the data.
v Percentage displays the slice's percentage of the whole pie.
v Absolute and Percentage displays the slice's percentage of the whole pie as
an absolute value.
6. In the Position list, select the placement of data labels.
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Define Query Context When Customizing Legend Entries,
Legend Titles, or Axis Labels
You want to use a revenue expression as a chart legend title. If you get an error
message saying that the query context of a layout object cannot be determined, you
must define the property list for the item to which it refers. You must first add the
desired data item to the query before you can define its property list.
Procedure
1. Open the chart to customize.
2. Click the Queries icon
and click the query.
3. Click the Data icon
, and from the Source tab, drag the desired item to the
Data Items window to add it to the query.
4. Click the Pages icon
5. Click the Data icon
the layout object.
, and click the chart page.
, and from the Data items tab, drag the desired item to
6. In the Properties pane, under Data, double-click the Properties property.
7. Select the check box for the data item to define.
Related tasks:
“Specify a List of Data Items for an Object” on page 241
Specify the list of data items for an object when you must reference a data item
that is in a query but is not in the layout.
Summarize Small Slices, Bars, or Columns in Current Default
Charts
You can summarize the smaller slices or bars in charts to avoid having many tiny
slices or bars. For example, if your pie chart shows revenue by product and 10 of
your products have less than 1% of the pie, you can summarize these 10 slices into
one larger slice and name that slice Other.
Similarly, you can summarize small items in a column, bar, area, and line chart.
You cannot summarize small slices or items in charts that have matrix edges or in
charts that have multiple numeric axes.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Summarize Small
Slices or Summarize Small Items property.
3. To summarize small slices or items up to a maximum number, select the
Maximum number of slices or Maximum number of items check box and
type the maximum number.
4. To summarize all the slices or bars that are smaller than a specific value, select
the Summarize slices smaller than a value or Summarize items smaller than a
value check box, type a value that represents the upper size limit, and choose
whether the value is a percentage or absolute.
5. Under Small slice summarization type or Small item summarization type,
choose whether to summarize the slices or items as a Total or Average.
Note: Averages are calculated using only the summarized items in the report.
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6. Under Slice label or Item label, type a label for the one large slice, bar, area, or
line that summarizes the smaller ones.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Customizing lines and data points in a line chart
You can customize the lines in a line chart to show only lines, only data points, or
both. Data points represent series values for each category on the Y-axis. You can
show special data markers that represent statistically significant values, such as
open, high, low, and close values.
You can also add markers at other positions on the chart. For more information,
see “Add a Marker to a Current Default Chart” on page 107.
You can also change the path of the line that connects the data points to one of the
following:
v Point to Point shows data points connected by straight lines.
v Step at Point shows data points connected by steps that start and end at the
data points.
v Step Between Points shows data points connected by steps that start and end
between the data points.
v Smooth shows data points connected by smooth curves.
Related tasks:
“Add a Marker to a Current Default Chart” on page 107
Markers are symbols that you add to a chart to designate points of significance
that can help you analyze or understand the data.
Customize Lines and Data Points in a Current Default Line Chart
You can change the color and shape or the line or data markers in a line chart. You
can also show or hide data labels, the line, and data markers.
You cannot show value markers when the Data points option is selected or when
the configuration of the line chart is stacked or 100 percent stacked.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the chart area, under Series, click the line chart icon to view the line
properties.
3. To select whether to show only the line, the line and data markers, or only the
data markers, in the Properties pane, select an option from the Line and
Markers list.
4. To show special data markers, double-click the Value Markers property. Select
the check box for the special data markers that you want to add and for each
marker, specify the color and shape.
The options you specify in Value Markers overwrite the options for Line and
Markers.
5. To change the shape of the line that connects data markers, select an option
from the Line Shape list.
6. To show data labels for the data points, double-click the Data Labels property.
7. To change the color of the lines, double-click the Palette property.
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Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Customizing the Color Palette of a Chart” on page 83
You can use the chart palette to control the colors or patterns used in the columns,
lines, data markers or areas in a chart. For example, if "Telephone" is the first in a
data series of order methods, and you want it to appear in blue, use the palette to
make the first item in the series blue.
Customize Lines and Data Points in a Legacy Line Chart
You can change the color and shape or the line or data markers in a line chart. You
can also show or hide data labels, the line, and data markers.
You cannot show value markers under the following conditions:
v The Data points option is selected.
v The configuration of the line chart is stacked or 100 percent stacked.
v The Show line property is set to No, creating a point chart.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the chart area, under Series, click the line chart icon to view the line
properties.
3. To select whether to show only the line, the line and data markers, or only the
data markers, in the Properties pane, under General, select an option from the
Line Type list.
4. To show or hide the line, select an option from the Show line list.
5. To show data points or value markers, double-click the Show Data Points
property:
v To show or format data points, click Data points and specify the point shape
and point size.
The point color is defined by the chart palette.
v To show or format value markers, click Value markers and specify the
markers to show. For each marker, specify the shape and marker size. Click
Color to change the marker color.
Tip: To remove all data points and value markers, in the Show Data Points
dialog box, select None.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Customizing the Color Palette of a Chart” on page 83
You can use the chart palette to control the colors or patterns used in the columns,
lines, data markers or areas in a chart. For example, if "Telephone" is the first in a
data series of order methods, and you want it to appear in blue, use the palette to
make the first item in the series blue.
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115
Customize a Current Default Combination Chart
Combination charts show data series using two or more types of charts - area, bar,
and line. The different charts are overlaid on top of each other. You can customize
the order in which the charts appear along with the type of charts and their
configurations.
You can also customize which numeric axes to show and which chart to show on
each axes.
Procedure
1. Select the combination chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Combinations
property.
3. Under Numeric axes, select which axes to show.
4. Under Combinations, add
or remove
data series.
5. If you want to change the order in which the series appear, use the up and
down arrows.
The series appear in the order they are listed. Each chart appears in the
foreground of any previous charts.
6. If you want to change the configuration type of the series, such as changing
clustered bars to stacked bars, under Combinations, select the series, click the
edit button
and select the type.
7. If you use the same data series for multiple charts and want to synchronize the
data marker colors, under Color & Background, set the Series Color property
to Match.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Create a Matrix of Current Default Charts
You can view a complex chart that includes nested series or categories into a
matrix, or crosstab, that shows multiple small charts arranged in rows and
columns.
The charts in the rows represent the outer nested levels of the series and categories
and, the charts in the columns represent the categories. Each data item in the outer
nested levels of the series and categories becomes a separate chart. The numeric
scale of all the charts is the same so that you can easily compare.
When working with pie, gauge, and bullet charts, if you include a data item in the
categories, you automatically create a matrix of charts. One chart appears for each
data item in the category. When working with progressive and bullet charts, if you
include a data item in the series, you also automatically create a matrix of charts.
For example, the following column chart shows the revenue for each year (in the
categories or X-axis) for all the regions and product lines (in the series or Y-axis).
This chart is very complex and difficult to understand.
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Figure 18. Complex column chart
The following chart contains the same series and categories. However, when
converted to a matrix of charts, the information is much easier to analyze. The
columns show charts for each year and the rows show charts for each the product
lines. The bars represent the revenue for each region.
Figure 19. Matrix chart
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117
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Matrix rows and
columns property.
3. Select the Show outer nested series as matrix rows or Show outer nested
categories as matrix columns check boxes (or both).
4. In the Matrix levels box, select the number of nested levels to include in the
matrix columns or rows.
The remaining nested levels are represented in the chart bodies in the matrix
if the chart supports additional categories. The pie, gauge, and bullet charts
do not support additional categories. The bullet and progressive column
charts do not support additional series.
For example, in the above chart, Regions are nested under Product Line. In
the matrix chart, a Matrix level of 1 is specified. Therefore, Product Line
appears as the matrix rows (series) and Regions appear within the chart
bodies.
5. If you want labels for the matrix rows and columns to appear on each chart,
select the Show row labels or Show column labels check box.
6. In the Labels location list, select where the nested labels should appear on
each chart.
The default position is on the left for rows and on the bottom for columns.
7. If the labels are too long, click Truncation and specify where to truncate text
or select the Size fonts automatically check box to resize the text to fit.
8. To change the font, color, and data format of the labels, click Style.
9. To show the title in the row or column axis, select the Show row title or
Show column title check box.
10. If you want to hide or show the axes, select the axis object, and in the
Properties pane, under Miscellaneous, set the Show in Matrix property.
11. If your matrix chart includes only rows or columns, and you want them to
wrap, select the Wrap rows or columns if possible check box.
12. If you want to show the axes and axis labels for each small chart in the
matrix, select the Repeat row and column axis labels check box.
When this option is cleared, axes and axis labels appears only along the outer
edge of the matrix.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
Customize a Current Default Gauge Chart
When you create a gauge chart, you can choose from a variety of chart templates,
which offer different shape, axis, and border options.
You can customize the following aspects of your gauge chart. As you modify
properties, the chart preview shows you what your chart will look like.
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Unless indicated in the user interface, all sizes are a percentage of the maximum
allowed.
If your gauge chart includes a border, long axis labels, such as 250,000,000, may
overlap the gauge border and be difficult to read. To avoid this problem, customize
the data format of your gauge chart measure and reduce the scale so that less
zeros are displayed. Or change the gauge border color or size or remove the
border.
Procedure
1. Click the gauge chart object.
2. If you want to change the shape of the gauge, modify the start and end angles
of the gauge axes and border, as follows:
a. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Gauge Axes
property and specify the start and end angles and the direction of the axes.
b. Double-click the Gauge Border property and specify the style and the start
and end angles of the border.
For example, a border start angle of 0 degrees and end angle of 180 degrees
produces a semi-circular gauge.
3. If you want to add an additional axes to a gauge chart, do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Gauge Axes
property.
b. Click the new icon
and specify the start and end angles and the
direction of the new axis.
4. If you want to change the size, shape, and color of the center pivot point,
double-click the Gauge Pivot property and specify the style.
5. If you want to change the indicators in the gauge axis, click the Gauge Axis
object in the chart and do the following:
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119
a. To change the needle, under Axes, double-click the Gauge Needle property
and specify the style.
b. To change, add, or remove color bands that indicate the data range
positions, under Color & Background, double-click the Gauge Axis Colors
property and specify the color palette.
c. If you want to change the size or thickness of the gauge axis and color
bands, under Axes, specify a percentage size for the Gauge Axis Inner
Radius and Gauge Axis Outer Radius properties.
d. If you want to change the gridlines, under General, double-click the
Gridlines or Minor Gridlines properties and specify the style.
e. If you want to change the appearance of the gauge axis line, under General,
double-click Axis Line.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Gauge Charts” on page 69
Gauge charts, also known as dial charts or speedometer charts, use needles to
show information as a reading on a dial.
Customize a Legacy Gauge Chart
You can customize the colors and threshold boundaries of the gauge axis areas and
whether they use numbers instead of percentages. You can also change the colors
of the gauge face and outline and hide gauge labels. By default, the legacy gauge
chart uses a band divided into thirds that runs from green to red.
Procedure
1. Click the gauge chart object.
2. If you want to customize the color of the gauge face or outline, in the General
section of the Properties pane, double-click the Face Color or Dial Outline
Color property.
3. If you want to hide the gauge labels, in the Chart Labels section of the
Properties pane, set the Gauge Labels property to Hide.
4. If you want to customize the colors and boundaries of the gauge areas, do the
following:
a. In the Color & Background section of the Properties pane, double-click the
Gauge Palette property.
b. To change the color of a boundary area, under Palette, select the color, click
Color, specify the color properties, and click OK.
c. To change the value of a boundary area, under Palette, select the boundary
value, and type a new value.
d. To add a new boundary area, click the new icon
.
e. To choose a pre-defined threshold style, click the Palette drop-down menu.
You can choose whether to use discrete colors or continuous colors.
To use a number instead of a percentage as a boundary, clear the Percentage
check box, and then type a number in the Numeric boundary box.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
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“Gauge Charts” on page 69
Gauge charts, also known as dial charts or speedometer charts, use needles to
show information as a reading on a dial.
Defining color by value in current default scatter or bubble
charts
In a scatter or bubble chart you can specify that data points or bubbles appear in
different colors that are based on an additional measure or fact. The color of the
points or bubbles helps you to see relationships in large amounts of data.
For example, the following bubble chart shows the relationship between the unit
cost and unit sale price. The size of the bubbles shows the gross profit and the
color of the bubbles shows whether the quantity sold is above (yellow) or below
(green) 1,000,000 units.
Figure 20. Example of a bubble chart that shows values in different colors
In a bubble chart, you can combine the color by value and bubble size to create a
more meaningful chart.
Procedure
1. Drag a measure to the Color drop zone under Measures and then select the
measure.
2. In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the Color by
Value property.
3. To define the colors by percentages instead of actual values, select the
Percentage check box.
For example, if you select the Percentage check box and your values range
from 25 (red) to 50 (green), the bottom 25 percent of values are red and the top
50 percent of values are green. The values between 25 percent and 50 percent
are an interpolated color, such as yellow.
4. If you want to use a preset color palette, click Palette, and select the palette
that you want to use.
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121
5. If you want to customize a palette color or boundary value, select the palette
entry in the Palette box and specify the color, transparency, and type a new
boundary value.
6. To add a palette entry, select the palette entry below which you want to add
the new entry, click the new palette entry icon
, and click Color.
7. If your chart has lines or markers, under Style, set the marker shape, line style,
and line weight.
8. To choose a color and transparency for missing or null values, under Missing
Values, click Color and type a value in the Transparency box.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Scatter Charts” on page 65
Scatter charts use data points to plot two measures anywhere along a scale, not
only at regular tick marks.
“Bubble Charts” on page 66
Bubble charts, like scatter charts, use data points and bubbles to plot measures
anywhere along a scale. The size of the bubble represents a third measure.
Specify the Bubble Size in a Current Default Bubble Chart
In a bubble chart, you use a measure or fact to determine the size of the bubbles.
You can use the Bubble Measure in the Measures drop zone of the chart to
specify bubble size. You can then specify the size range of the bubbles in the chart.
You can also specify what value the smallest bubbles represent. For example, your
bubble measure is revenue, and you set the minimum and maximum bubble size
to 5 pt and 20 pt, respectively. You set the smallest bubble to represent the value
zero. All the bubbles on your chart will be between 5 and 20 pts and any bubbles
between 0 and 5 pts on this scale will appear at 5 pt.
You can combine bubble size with colors by value to create a chart that shows
multiple dimensions.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In Properties pane, under General, double-click the Bubble Size property.
3. Under Smallest bubble, select what value the smallest bubbles represent:
v To show data items with a value of zero at the minimum bubble size, click
Zero.
Tip: This setting is consistent with Microsoft Excel 2003.
v To show data items with a value of zero at the minimum bubble size and
show negative bubbles as hollow, select the Zero. Negatives shown as
hollow check box.
Tip: This setting is consistent with Microsoft Excel 2007.
v To set the minimum bubble size to the minimum data value, click Minimum
data value, and type a size for the minimum and maximum bubble size.
Note: The minimum data value can be positive or negative.
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Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Bubble Charts” on page 66
Bubble charts, like scatter charts, use data points and bubbles to plot measures
anywhere along a scale. The size of the bubble represents a third measure.
Set the Position of the First Slice in a Current Default Pie
Chart
You can specify the angle in a pie chart where the first pie slice starts. You can also
change the direction of the slices so they appear clockwise or counter-clockwise.
The default starting position of the first slice is 90, which displays the first slice
beginning at the 12 o'clock position. By default, the slices appear clockwise around
the pie, so a starting position of 90 displays the first slice at the 12 o'clock position,
a starting position of 180 displays the first slice at the 9 o'clock position, and so on.
Procedure
1. Select the pie chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under General, beside the First Slice Angle property,
enter the angle at which you want the first slice to appear.
3. To change the directions in which slices appear, change the Slice Direction
property.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Pie Charts” on page 61
Pie charts are useful for highlighting proportions.
Creating a Donut Chart from a Current Default Pie Chart
You can add a hole to the middle of your pie chart to create a donut chart.
About this task
You can display something in the hole of donut charts, such as a company logo or
the legend.
Procedure
1. Select the pie chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under General, set the Hole size (%) property to the
percentage of the pie that you want the hole to take up.
Tip: You can select a value from the Hole size (%) list or type a value that is
not listed.
3. To display the legend in the donut hole, do the following steps:
a. Select the chart.
b. In the Properties window, double-click the Legend property.
c. In the Position box, click the Advanced radio button and then click the
ellipsis button.
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123
d. In the Position box, click the Center and Middle icons.
e. In the Anchor box, click the menu and select Relative to Chart Body.
f. Click OK twice.
4. To display an image in the donut hole, do the following steps:
a. To unlock the report, click the More icon
, click the Locked icon
.
b. Click the chart body. In the Properties window, Properties - Chart Body
appears.
c. Double-click the Background Effects property.
d. Select the Images check box.
e. Under URL, click Browse and select the image that you want to display in
the donut hole.
f. Under Position, click the Align Middle Center icon.
g. Click OK.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Pie Charts” on page 61
Pie charts are useful for highlighting proportions.
Pull Out Pie Slices in a Current Default Pie Chart
You can highlight pie slices by pulling them out from the rest of the pie. For
example, the following chart shows revenue by product line with slices of less than
1,000,000,000 in revenue pulled out by 25%.
Figure 21. Exploding slices in a pie chart
Procedure
1. Select the pie chart object.
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2. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Exploded Slices
property.
3. In the Exploded Slice dialog box, click the new button
.
4. In the Exploded amount box, type the percentage by which the slice should
appear away from the rest of the pie.
0% displays the pie slice in the pie; 100% displays the pie slice as far out from
the rest of the pie as possible.
5. Define which slice to pull out:
v To select a slice to pull out using its slice index, under Exploded slice, click
Slice number and type the slice number.
The slice number refers to the order of the slice in the legend. In the previous
example, Camping Equipment has a slice number of 1 and Personal
Accessories has a slice number of 5.
v To select a slice to pull out using a calculation, under Exploded slice, click
Expression and click the ellipsis beside the Expression box to define an
expression.
In the previous example, the expression that defines which slices to pull out
is as follows: [Query1].[Revenue] < 100000000.
The slice definitions appear in the Exploded Slices list.
6. To pull out other slices, repeat steps 3 to 5.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Pie Charts” on page 61
Pie charts are useful for highlighting proportions.
Define the Cumulation Line in a Current Default Pareto Chart
The cumulation line on a Pareto chart displays the percentage of the accumulated
total of all the columns or bars. For example, if your chart displays revenue by
product line by year, the cumulation line at the second year's column would be the
total revenue of the first and second years.
You can customize the appearance of the cumulation line and its data points.
Procedure
1. Select the Pareto chart.
2. To hide or show the cumulation line, in the Properties pane, under Chart
Annotations, set the Cumulation Line property.
3. To customize the cumulation line, click the cumulation line icon
the Properties pane, under General, set the following properties:
v
, and in
Line Styles defines the cumulation line color, style, and weight.
v
Cumulation Label defines the label in the legend for the cumulation line.
You can use the default label from the data source or type a custom label.
The color and marker shape of the cumulation line still appears in the legend
when this property is set to None.
v
Data Points defines whether to show or hide data points along the
cumulation line, whether to show or hide data point borders, the color of
data point borders, and the data point size and shape.
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125
Data Labels specifies whether to show or hide the labels for the data points
along the cumulation line.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Pareto Charts” on page 70
Pareto charts help you to improve processes by identifying the primary causes of
an event. They rank categories from the most frequent to the least frequent. These
charts are frequently used for quality control data, so that you can identify and
reduce the primary cause of problems.
v
Define the Cumulation Line in a Legacy Pareto Chart
The cumulation line on a Pareto chart displays the percentage of the accumulated
total of all the columns or bars. For example, if your chart displays revenue by
product line by year, the cumulation line at the second year's column would be the
total revenue of the first and second years.
You can customize the appearance of the cumulation line and its data points.
Procedure
1. Select the Pareto chart.
2. To hide or show the cumulation line, in the Properties pane, under Chart
Annotations, set the Cumulative Line property to Show.
3. To customize the cumulation line, click the cumulation line icon
the Properties pane, under General, set the following properties:
and in
v Cumulation Axis displays or hides the cumulation line's axis on the right of
the Pareto chart.
v Cumulation Label displays or hides the cumulation line label in the legend.
The color and marker shape of the cumulation line still appears in the legend
when this property is set to No.
v Line Styles defines the cumulation line color, style, and weight.
v Marker Size (pt) defines the size of the markers along the cumulation line in
points.
v Marker Shape defines the shape of the markers along the cumulation line.
v Values specifies whether to show or hide the values for the markers along
the cumulation line.
v Value Location defines the location of the marker values.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Pareto Charts” on page 70
Pareto charts help you to improve processes by identifying the primary causes of
an event. They rank categories from the most frequent to the least frequent. These
charts are frequently used for quality control data, so that you can identify and
reduce the primary cause of problems.
Insert a Microchart into a Crosstab
You can use microcharts to improve the visualization of data in crosstabs.
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Procedure
1. Select a crosstab row or column.
2. From the right-click menu, click Insert Chart for Row Data or Insert Chart for
Column Data.
3. From the Insert Chart dialog box, select a chart and click OK.
4. Specify the data to plot in the microchart.
The chart automatically plots the data in the specified rows or columns. You
can change this if necessary.
Customize a Current Default Bullet Chart
After you create a bullet chart, you can customize the shape, color, and size of the
bullet and target indicators.
By default, the bullet chart includes three gray colored regions in the background.
You can edit the colored regions (Properties pane, Colored Regions).
Procedure
1. Select the bullet chart object.
2. To change the shape, color, and size of the bullet or target, do the following:
a. In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Bullet Indicators
property.
b. Under Bullet, specify how to show the bullet.
The Bar width setting specifies the width of the bullet bar as a percentage
of the space available. For example, if you specify 50 percent, the bar uses
half of the space available. If you specify 100 percent, the bar uses all the
available space.
c. Under Target, specify how to show the target.
3. To change the chart orientation, in the Properties pane, under General, set the
Chart Orientation property.
Related concepts:
“Current Default Charts and Legacy Charts” on page 55
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has a new default chart technology as of version
10.1.0.
“Bullet Charts” on page 68
Bullet charts are a variation of bar charts. They compare a featured measure (the
bullet) to a targeted measure (the target). They also relate the compared measures
against colored regions in the background that provide additional qualitative
measurements, such as good, satisfactory, and poor.
Related tasks:
“Add Colored Regions in a Current Default Chart” on page 92
You can define colored regions in the body of a chart. For example, you can divide
the background of a scatter chart into quadrants and color each quadrant.
Changing the number of hotspots in a chart
To improve performance, you can limit the number of hotspots that are generated
for Reporting charts.
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About this task
A hotspot in a chart appears when you pause a pointer over it. For example, a
hotspot on a drill-down symbol or a tooltip gives details about the column, line, or
pie slice. The browser response time increases with the number of hotspots. When
charts with many members are generated, the hotspots can become an additional
burden for the system resources, which can freeze the browser.
When you limit the number of hotspots, priority is given to items such as axis
labels and legend labels before individual graphical elements such as bars, pie
slices, and so on. Depending on the number of items in a chart and the setting for
maximum number of hotspots, some axis items may have hotspots while other axis
items and all graphical elements do not, or all axis items and some graphical
elements may have hotspots while other graphical elements do not.
The maximum hotspot setting in Reporting overrides the default set by the
administrator. For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration
and Security Guide.
Procedure
1. Select the chart object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Miscellaneous, specify a number for the
Maximum Hotspots property.
Create a drill-up and drill-down chart
If you use a dimensionally-modeled data source, you can create a chart that allows
you to drill down to lower-level data or drill up to higher-level data.
Drilling up and down allows you to view more general or more detailed
information on your data within a predefined dimensional hierarchy.
This is an example of a dimensional hierarchy:
Years - Year - Quarter - Month
Before you begin
Before you begin, ensure that you are using a dimensionally-modeled data source.
Procedure
1. Open a chart that uses a dimensionally-modeled data source.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, click the select ancestor icon
, click
Report, and then, in the DATA section, double-click Advanced drill behavior.
3. On the Basic tab, in the Report output drill capabilities section, select the
Allow drill-up and drill-down check box.
By default, the system determines which items can be drilled on based on the
dimensional structure.
On the Basic tab, you can make drilling unavailable for any data item by
selecting the item in either the Disable drill-up for box or the Disable
drill-down for box.
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On the Advanced tab, you can change the drill-up or drill-down behavior for
any parameter by selecting the parameter and then choosing one of the desired
behaviors.
Results
The chart generates links for any item that can be drilled down on.
You can drill down or drill up by right-clicking and choosing the action from the
context menu. The menu items are unavailable if an item cannot be drilled up or
down on.
Related tasks:
“Create a drill-up and drill-down report” on page 262
You can link groups of data items from different queries so that when you drill up
or drill down in one query, the data item also drills up or drills down in the linked
queries.
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Chapter 6. Extensible visualizations
You can use extensible visualizations in IBM Cognos reports to visualize data.
Visualizations are available from the IBM Cognos Analytics blog Cognos Business
Intelligence & Cognos Analytics All Visualizations (https://www.ibm.com/
communities/analytics/cognos-analytics-blog/cognos-business-intelligence-cognosanalytics-all-visualizations/). For more information about administration and
visualizations, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
Tip: IBM Cognos Analytics samples include visualizations.
Because visualizations are extensible, they can be customized by an author with
the necessary skills. You can create client-side visualizations that report consumers
can run when they are not connected to the web. You can also use visualizations
on mobile devices.
Some of the visualizations that you can add to your reports are treemaps,
heatmaps, packed bubble visualizations, and network diagrams.
You can set properties that are available for each visualization type. These
properties are determined by the visualization definition. Typically, you can set
such properties as width, height, animation effect, and fixed-axis scaling.
Extensible visualizations support all Active Report interactivity. For example, you
can use Active Report controls to dynamically filter visualizations to view only the
data that you want to analyze.
Adding a visualization to a report
You can add a visualization to a report to efficiently represent your data.
About this task
You add data to a visualization by inserting data items in drop zones.
When you add a visualization to an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can choose to
render visualizations on the IBM Cognos server or on the client. When you choose
to render visualizations on the client, additional drop zones appear for extra
categories or values when all the required drop zones contain data items. You can
use extra categories and extra values to filter data or set variables. Extra items are
not visible in the visualization.
When working with dimensional data sources, if the visualization does not contain
a measure against which to plot data, you must provide one. For example, if you
add a single member to the values drop zone, such as '2012', the default measure
drop zone appears in which you must insert a measure.
Attention: The supported properties for a visualization are determined by the
visualization definition.
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Procedure
1. Create a new report or open an existing report.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
area.
, and drag a Visualization icon
3. In the Visualization gallery window, click the Filter icon
the following choices:
v
to the work
, and select one of
To choose one of the new visualizations that is included in IBM
Cognos Analytics 11.0.5, select New Visualizations.
v To choose a visualization from previous Cognos Analytics releases, select
Legacy Visualizations.
4. Select a visualization and click OK.
5. From the Source tab
data container.
, drag items to the appropriate location in the
6. Run the visualization.
Example - Adding a treemap visualization
You can use a treemap visualization in reports to identify patterns and exceptions.
Treemaps show relationships among large numbers of components by using size
and color coding in a set of nested rectangles.
A treemap that is colored by category identifies the level 1 category by color. The
sizes of the rectangles represent the values. In a treemap that is colored by value,
the sizes of the rectangles represent one of the values and the color represents a
second set of values.
Attention: The supported properties for a visualization are determined by the
visualization definition.
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Figure 22. A treemap visualization
Before you begin
Your administrator must make the visualizations available in the Visualization
Gallery.
If you use Microsoft Internet Explorer to view visualizations, you must have
Microsoft Silverlight 5 installed on your computer. Firefox or iPad users do not
need Silverlight.
About this task
You add data to a visualization by inserting data items in drop zones.
When you add a visualization to an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can choose to
render visualizations on the IBM Cognos server or on the client. When you choose
to render visualizations on the client, additional drop zones appear for extra
categories or values when all the required drop zones contain data items. You can
use extra categories and extra values to filter data or set variables. Extra items are
not visible in the visualization.
When working with dimensional data sources, if the visualization does not contain
a measure against which to plot data, you must provide one. For example, if you
add a single member to the values drop zone, such as '2012', the default measure
drop zone appears in which you must insert a measure.
Attention: The supported properties for a visualization are determined by the
visualization definition.
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Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag a Visualization icon
2. From the Visualization Gallery, select a Treemap icon:
to the work area.
v If you are plotting a single measure, select a treemap colored by category.
v If you are plotting two measures, select a treemap colored by value.
3. Click OK.
4. From the Source tab
data container:
, drag items to the appropriate location in the
a. Under Values, drag items to define the size and color of the rectangles to
Size and Color.
b. Under Categories, drag items to the different levels. Each level represents
the category within which the subsequent levels are nested. For example,
the levels might be Year, Product Line, and Product Type.
Example - Adding a heatmap visualization
Heatmaps use colors to represent the individual values that are contained in a
matrix.
Similar to treemaps, you can use heatmaps to identify patterns and exceptions.
Unlike treemaps, the sizes of the rectangles are not proportionate to values.
Figure 23. A heatmap visualization
Before you begin
Your administrator must make the visualizations available in the Visualization
Gallery.
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If you use Microsoft Internet Explorer to view visualizations, you must have
Microsoft Silverlight 5 installed on your computer. Firefox or iPad users do not
need Silverlight.
About this task
You add data to a visualization by inserting data items in drop zones.
When you add a visualization to an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can choose to
render visualizations on the IBM Cognos server or on the client. When you choose
to render visualizations on the client, additional drop zones appear for extra
categories or values when all the required drop zones contain data items. You can
use extra categories and extra values to filter data or set variables. Extra items are
not visible in the visualization.
When working with dimensional data sources, if the visualization does not contain
a measure against which to plot data, you must provide one. For example, if you
add a single member to the values drop zone, such as '2012', the default measure
drop zone appears in which you must insert a measure.
Attention: The supported properties for a visualization are determined by the
visualization definition.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag a Visualization icon
to the work area.
2. From the Visualization Gallery, select the Heatmap icon and click OK.
3. From the Source tab
data container:
, drag items to the appropriate location in the
a. Under Values, drag a measure or a single value to define the color shading
of the rectangles.
b. Under Categories, drag items to the Y Category and X Category.
Tip: Ensure that the items in the Y Category and X Category come from
different dimensions.
Example - Adding a packed bubble visualization
A packed bubble visualization is similar to a bubble chart in which the bubbles are
tightly packed rather than spread over a grid. You can use a packed bubble
visualization to display a large amount of data in a small space.
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Figure 24. A packed bubble visualization
Before you begin
Your administrator must make the visualizations available in the Visualization
Gallery.
If you use Microsoft Internet Explorer to view visualizations, you must have
Microsoft Silverlight 5 installed on your computer. Firefox or iPad users do not
need Silverlight.
About this task
You add data to a visualization by inserting data items in drop zones.
When you add a visualization to an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can choose to
render visualizations on the IBM Cognos server or on the client. When you choose
to render visualizations on the client, additional drop zones appear for extra
categories or values when all the required drop zones contain data items. You can
use extra categories and extra values to filter data or set variables. Extra items are
not visible in the visualization.
When you work with dimensional data sources, if the visualization does not
contain a measure against which to plot data, you must provide one. For example,
if you add a single member to the values drop zone, such as '2012', the default
measure drop zone appears in which you must insert a measure.
Attention: The supported properties for a visualization are determined by the
visualization definition.
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Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag a Visualization icon
to the work area.
2. From the Visualization Gallery, select the Packed Bubble icon and click OK.
3. From the Source tab
, drag items to the appropriate location in the
data container:
a. Drag a measure or a single value to the data container, under Values.
b. Under Categories, drag an item to plot as the bubbles.
c. Under Series, drag an item to apply as a category. Each item in the category
gets a different color from the color palette.
Example - Adding a network diagram
You can create a network diagram in reports. The nodes data container defines the
items that you want to link together. The links data container defines relationship
between the items that you want to link together.
Figure 25. A network diagram in an active report showing employees by region
Before you begin
Network node drop zones only take numeric data items. Not all data sources have
the appropriate data to create a network diagram.
Your administrator must make the visualizations available in the Visualization
Gallery.
If you use Microsoft Internet Explorer to view visualizations, you must have
Microsoft Silverlight 5 installed on your computer. Firefox or iPad users do not
need Silverlight.
About this task
You add data to a visualization by inserting data items in drop zones.
Chapter 6. Extensible visualizations
137
When you add a visualization to an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can choose to
render visualizations on the IBM Cognos server or on the client. When you choose
to render visualizations on the client, additional drop zones appear for extra
categories or values when all the required drop zones contain data items. You can
use extra categories and extra values to filter data or set variables. Extra items are
not visible in the visualization.
When working with dimensional data sources, if the visualization does not contain
a measure against which to plot data, you must provide one. For example, if you
add a single member to the values drop zone, such as '2012', the default measure
drop zone appears in which you must insert a measure.
Attention: The supported properties for a visualization are determined by the
visualization definition.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag a Visualization icon
to the work area.
2. From the Visualization Gallery, select the Network diagram icon and click OK.
3. From the Source tab
, drag items to the appropriate location in the
data container:
a. In the Nodes1 data container, drag items to Node (Numeric) and Name.
The nodes data container defines the items that you want to link together,
such as Employees, defined by an employee code.
b. In the Links1 data container, drag items to From node (Numeric) and To
node (Numeric). The links data container defines relationship between the
items that you want to link together, such as Employees and Managers.
Visualization properties
The properties that you can set for each visualization affect how you work with
visualizations that are inserted in a report.
All extensible visualizations have properties in common and properties that are
specific to each visualization. Properties that are specific to a visualization are
defined by the visualization author in the visualization definition. By default,
properties that are defined by the visualization author appear in a group that is
named Custom in the Properties window, unless the author created property
groups in the visualization definition.
To set properties for multiple visualizations, press Ctrl while you click the
visualizations in the report. When multiple visualizations are selected, only the
common properties appear in the Properties window.
Choosing where visualizations are rendered
When you add a visualization to an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can choose to
render the visualization on the IBM Cognos server or on the client.
About this task
Visualizations that are added to regular reports are always rendered on the Cognos
server. Visualizations that are rendered on the Cognos server are rendered as static
images. Client-side visualizations are rendered as JavaScript code. Report size and
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performance are affected by whether visualizations are rendered on the server or
on the client. For example, static images might increase the report size when there
are many of them, but performance might be better.
Some visualization properties are available for only one of the render methods,
and other properties are modified when you change the render method. For
example, the Container Filter property, extra values drop zones, and extra
categories drop zones are not supported when you choose to render visualizations
on the Cognos server.
If you want to enable client-side filtering in the visualization, you must choose to
render the visualization on the client.
Note: In the visualization definition, visualization authors can specify to render a
visualization only as JavaScript or only as a static image. When a visualization
supports only one output type, the visualization property Render Method is not
available. In addition, visualizations that can be rendered only in JavaScript do not
appear in the Visualization Gallery when you author regular reports.
Procedure
1. In the active report, select the visualization.
2. In the Properties window, click the Render Method property and choose the
render method that you want.
Resizing a visualization
You can change the size of a visualization.
Procedure
1. Click and drag the lower right corner of the visualization.
2. To maintain the aspect ratio, press the Shift key while you resize the
visualization.
You can view the changing height and width of the resized visualization in the
Properties pane, under Positioning.
Changing the nesting order
When you create a visualization in an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can change
the nesting order so that extra items are ordered properly in the query. If the items
are not ordered properly in the query, the report might not run.
About this task
Extra items are data items that are used for filtering or setting variables. These
items are not visible in the visualization. By default, extra categories are nested
below other categories, so as not to affect sorting. However, if the extra categories
are from the same dimension as a category, they must be in the correct hierarchical
order: Years, Quarters, and Months. You can change the nesting order.
For example, you have Quarters and Months as categories. You then add Years as
an extra category. You add an Active Report control and connect to Years as a filter.
You might have to change the nesting order of the data items for the report to run.
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Note: Extra items are available only when you choose to render the visualization
on the client. You cannot add extra items to a visualization when you choose to
render the visualization on the IBM Cognos server.
Procedure
1. Select the data container that contains the data set in which you want to
change the nesting order.
2. From the Properties pane, under General, click Change Nesting Order.
3. In the Change Nesting Order window, select the extra category and use the
arrow icon to reorder it.
Tip: You can click Show Data Container to view the new nesting order when
the report is run.
Related tasks:
“Sorting a category field by a measure in visualizations” on page 144
You can sort a category field by a measure in visualizations that are inserted in
IBM Cognos Active Report.
Specifying the range values that are displayed
You can specify the range of values that you want to display in a visualization.
About this task
You can specify the range of values and categorical data that is displayed in
visualizations. Some of the options that are available depend on whether you
choose to render the visualization on the IBM Cognos server or on the client.
When the visualization is rendered on the Cognos server, more choices are
available when the visualization is in a master-detail relationship.
To control the range of values that is displayed, the following choices are available
to calculate the minimum and maximum values of the range.
v All data
With this choice, minimum and maximum values are calculated to span the
values of the inserted measure.
When the visualization is added to an active report, the values are calculated to
span the values of all controls that are connected to the visualization.
Note: In visualizations that are added to active reports, the aggregation method
that is specified in the Rollup Method property also affects the range of values.
v All detail data
This choice is available only when the visualization is in a master-detail
relationship and is rendered on the Cognos server. With this choice, the range of
data that is displayed is the same in each detail visualization.
v Filtered data
This choice is available only when the visualization is rendered on the client.
With this choice, minimum and maximum values are calculated from values that
users select in Active Report controls that are connected to the visualization.
v Specified values
With this choice, you specify the minimum and maximum values that you want
to display in the visualization.
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Note: The minimum and maximum values that are displayed in the
visualization might differ from the values that you specify. For example, if you
specify a range of 0 to 195, IBM Cognos Analytics might display a range of 0 to
200.
To specify the categorical data that is displayed, the following choices are available.
v All data
This choice is available only when the visualization is rendered on the client.
With this choice, all categorical data that spans the values of all Active Report
controls that are connected to the visualization is displayed.
v Filtered data
This choice is available only when the visualization is rendered on the client.
With this choice, only the filtered data is shown in the legend and on axes.
The choice that you make for displaying categorical data can affect elements in the
visualization, such as the legend and axes. For example, when all data is selected,
all legend items are always shown in the visualization, and the color of each
legend item stays the same in the visualization. When a category is inserted on an
axis, space is reserved on the axis for all data. When filtered data is selected, the
color of each legend item can change when users select different values in a control
that is linked to the visualization. When a category is inserted on an axis, the axis
shows only the values that are selected in the control.
Procedure
1. To specify the categorical data that is displayed, follow these steps.
a. In the visualization data container, select the category that you want.
b. In the Properties pane, click the Category Range property and select the
choice that you want.
2. To specify the range of values that is displayed, follow these steps.
a. In the visualization data container, click the data item in the Values section
that represents the values in the visualization. For example, in a packed
bubble visualization, click the data item that is inserted in the Size box.
b. In the Properties pane, double-click the Value Range property.
c. In the Range type box, click one of the available choices.
d. If you clicked All data, Filtered data, or All detail data, and you want the
range of values to include zero, select the Range includes zero check box.
e. If you clicked Specified, type the minimum and maximum values of the
range in the Minimum and Maximum boxes.
Related tasks:
“Choosing where visualizations are rendered” on page 138
When you add a visualization to an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can choose to
render the visualization on the IBM Cognos server or on the client.
“Sorting a category field by a measure in visualizations” on page 144
You can sort a category field by a measure in visualizations that are inserted in
IBM Cognos Active Report.
Summarizing data in a visualization
When a visualization is added to an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can specify
how the data is summarized when users select multiple values in a control that
filters the data in the visualization.
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141
About this task
You can specify how data is summarized in a visualization only when you choose
to render the visualization on the client. The Rollup Method property is not
available when you choose to render a visualization on the IBM Cognos server.
In addition to summarizing data, the aggregation method that you choose affects
the range of values that is displayed. For example, if the visualization is filtered by
a single select control, Maximum is usually the appropriate aggregation method.
With this choice, the range of values is based on the maximum of all values across
the filtered items.
Set the aggregation method to the aggregation type of the data item. For example,
if the data item is Margin, set the aggregation method to Average. When you are
using an OLAP data source, IBM Cognos Analytics cannot retrieve the aggregation
type of a measure. As a result, IBM Cognos Analytics sets the aggregation method
to Total by default.
Procedure
1. In the visualization data container, in the Values section, click the box that
represents the data values in the visualization. For example, in a heatmap, click
the Color box.
2. In the Properties pane, click the Rollup Method property and select the
aggregation method that you want to use to summarize data in the
visualization.
Populating a visualization with data from the visualization definition
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, you can populate a visualization with data
that is specified in the visualization definition instead of adding data items from a
package.
About this task
You can use data that is specified in the visualization definition to test a
visualization before you add your own data. Using data from the visualization
definition is also a way to bring external data into a visualization.
Procedure
1. Select the visualization.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Use Embedded Data property.
3. Select the check box of the data container for which you want to use data that
is defined in the visualization specification.
Tip: Some visualizations have more than one data container.
Results
The data container is removed from the visualization. The data container is not
required when the visualization is using data from the visualization definition.
Updating visualizations
Update visualizations when a change was made to the visualization definition.
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About this task
You can update the visualizations in a report by opening the report in a new IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting window.
If any part of a visualization is invalidated by changes that were made to the
visualization definition, the invalidated part is removed. For example, if a field is
renamed, the data items in the field are removed. You must add the data items to
the renamed field for the visualization to run.
For visualizations that are rendered on the client, if you do not update
visualizations when the visualization definition is changed, the old visualization
definition is used when you run the report. Visualizations that are rendered on the
IBM Cognos server always use the latest visualization definition. As a result,
server-side visualizations might not run if they are not updated.
Procedure
Open the report that contains the visualizations that you want to update in a new
Cognos Analytics - Reporting window.
Converting visualizations from one type to another
You can convert a visualization from one type to another type.
About this task
The following list describes the conversion process.
v Data items are mapped to fields with the same name.
v If no field with the same name exists, the first field of the same type is used.
Value fields are mapped to value fields. Category fields are mapped to category
fields. Category fields that are ID fields are only mapped to other category fields
that are also ID fields.
v In active reports, for visualizations that are rendered on the client, extra values
and category items are used to fill any empty fields in the converted
visualization.
If you convert to a visualization that has fewer fields than the original
visualization, the extra data items are kept as extra values or category items.
v Common properties that are not specific to visualizations, such as Data format,
are preserved.
v No warnings appear for properties that are dropped during the conversion.
When you convert a visualization to a new visualization type, you can preserve
properties that have the same ID and the same type. Or you can choose to use
only the default properties of the new visualization.
If you convert a visualization to a visualization type that has more fields than the
original visualization, you must populate the empty fields in the converted
visualization. For example, if you convert a column chart to a combination chart
that has columns and lines, there are empty fields for the line data container.
You cannot convert a visualization to a current default chart and vice versa.
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Procedure
1. Select the visualization that you want to convert, and in the report object
toolbar, click the More icon
and then click Convert Visualization.
2. Select a new visualization type.
3. To preserve properties that have the same ID and the same type, under
Visualization properties, click the Preserve existing visualization properties
radio button.
4. To use only the default properties of the visualization type that you are
converting to, under Visualization properties, click the Use new visualization
default properties radio button.
5. Click OK.
Sorting a category field by a measure in visualizations
You can sort a category field by a measure in visualizations that are inserted in
IBM Cognos Active Report.
About this task
In visualizations, you can sort a data item by the overall totals or by the totals in
the context of an extra category. While Cognos Active Report supports client-side
filtering for visualizations, sorting always occurs on the Cognos server. As a result,
you must construct the visualization so that the underlying crosstab reflects your
filtering options and provides the correct sorting. As you construct the
visualization, you can view the underlying crosstab by right-clicking the
visualization data container and clicking Show Container Data.
This task describes how to maintain the sorting of a category by a measure when
the visualization is filtered by a single selection control. For example, an active
report contains a data drop-down list control with Quarter as the data item, and a
clustered bar visualization that shows quantity that is sold by retailer type. In the
visualization, Retailer type appears as the series, Quantity appears as the measure,
and no data item is specified for the categories. You want to sort the visualization
by quantity that is sold, and filter by quarter. To have the sorting applied for each
quarter, place Quarter on the same edge as Retailer type in the underlying
crosstab, which is accomplished by inserting the Quarter data item as an extra
category for the series. In addition, Quarter must be nested outside of Retailer type
in the underlying crosstab. Otherwise, Retailer type is sorted according to the
quantity that is sold for all quarters.
This technique does not work when a visualization is filtered by multiple controls,
or by a control that accepts multiple selections, such as a check box group control.
Procedure
1. In the visualization, select the category field that you want to sort. In the
preceding example, select Retailer type.
2. In the Properties pane, set the Category Range property to Filtered Data.
3. Double-click the Sorting property.
4. In the Data Items box, drag the measure that you want to sort the category by
to the Sort List box. In the preceding example, drag Quantity.
5. To specify the sort order, click the Sort Order icon.
6. Click OK. A warning message appears that informs you that sorting is applied
when the report is run, and does not reflect client-side filtering.
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7. Click OK.
8. Select the clustered bar data container.
9. In the Properties pane, double-click the Nesting Order property, and change
the nesting order of the extra category as needed. In the preceding example,
for the series, move Quarter above Retailer type.
10. Optional: To view the data in the underlying crosstab, click Show Container
Data. The data in the crosstab is sorted by the sort order that you specified in
step 5.
11. Click OK.
Related tasks:
“Specifying the range values that are displayed” on page 140
You can specify the range of values that you want to display in a visualization.
“Changing the nesting order” on page 139
When you create a visualization in an IBM Cognos Active Report, you can change
the nesting order so that extra items are ordered properly in the query. If the items
are not ordered properly in the query, the report might not run.
Chapter 6. Extensible visualizations
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Chapter 7. Maps
Maps help you to do geographic analysis of data by using locations such as states,
regions, and postal codes.
Over 200,000 administrative boundaries in over 245 countries are supported.
Data is mapped by matching the location name on the map with a location in your
data.
Adding a map to a report
When you use a map in a report, you can show data for two location measures,
one by filled regions and one by points.
Before you begin
You must have access to the IBM Cognos samples. This procedure uses the IBM
Cognos GO Sales sample data. If your administrator installed these samples, they
are in Team content > Samples > Models > GO Sales (query).
About this task
This procedure shows you how to create a map that shows revenue by region and
gross profit as points.
Note: Other names for a map are polygon, filled region, and choropleth.
Procedure
Create the map and add revenue by region.
1. Click New and then click Report.
2. In the Templates and themes window, click Blank and then click OK.
3. On the canvas, click the Data icon
, and then click Visualization.
4. In the Visualization gallery, click Map, and then click OK.
5. In the left pane, click the Add report data icon
, select Team content >
Samples > Models > GO Sales (query) and click Open.
6. Expand Sales (query) > Sales, and drag Revenue to the Color data slot.
7. Expand Branch and drag Country to the Location data slot.
8. Click Run options > Run HTML. The map is populated but an warning
message Not all location data was resolved displays.
Tip: Zoom in and zoom out of the map to see more or less detail. Click and
drag to move around the map.
9. Click the warning message. A window displays the unresolved locations
information. There are two types of unresolved locations: multiple locations
with the same name or no locations are found for the name. To resolve the
first problem, add one or more categories to refine the locations. For example,
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add City and Province or state to the Location data slot. To resolve the
second problem, cleanse your data by renaming the locations.
10. Click Close.
Note: You can hide the location warning message. Make sure that the map
visualization is selected, click the Show properties icon, and change the Hide
Location Warnings field to Yes.
Add gross revenue as points on the map.
11. At the top of the data slot pane, click the down arrow and select Points.
12. From Sales (query) > Sales, drag Gross profit to the Color data slot.
13. Drag Revenue to the Color data slot.
14. Drag Province or state to the Location data slot.
15. Click Run > Run HTML. Resolve the unresolved locations warning the same
way you did for regions.
16. Save the report when you're done.
Using latitude and longitude location information in a map
When you use a map in a report, you can show data for one location, either as a
filled region, a point, latitude/longitude point, or a combination of these locations.
Before you begin
To use longitude/latitude as location measures in your map, use a data source that
contains longitude and latitude data. For example:
Table 6. Example table with latitude and longitude data
City
Longitude
Latitude
Rating
Surveys
Antwerp
4.402771
51.260197
7
30.000
Brussels
4.355607
50.878899
9
76.000
At the top of the data slot pane, click the down arrow and select
Latitude/Longitude.
Note: The format of the longitude and latitude data must be as follows: Lat
51.260197 , Long 4.402771. The format 51° 26’ 01.97’’ N , 4° 40’ 2.771’’ E is
not supported.
Procedure
1. Click New and then click Report.
2. In the Templates and themes window, click Blank and then click OK.
3. On the canvas, click the Data icon
, and then click Visualization.
4. In the Visualization gallery, click Map, and then click OK.
5. In the left pane, click the Add report data icon
contains latitude/longitude data.
, select report data that
6. At the top of the data slot pane , click the down arrow and select
Longitude/Longitude.
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7. In the left pane, expand your data items and drag latitude and longitude to
the Latitude and Longitude data slots.
8. Drag City to the Label data slot. The latitude, longitude, name of the city will
appear when you hover over the data points.
9. Drag rating to the Size data slot and drag Surveys to the Color data slot.
10. Click Run options > Run HTML.
11. Click Close.
Geospatial data
To use a map, your data set must contain geographical data, such as countries,
states, or provinces.
To determine whether a column can be used in a map, Cognos Analytics analyzes
a sample of 2000 values in the location column, looking for recognizable place
names. If 80% or more are recognized as map values, Cognos Analytics produces a
map.
For example, you have four countries in your location column and one country is
misspelled: Brazil, China, Indiea, and Russia. The typo for India means that only
75% of the values are recognizable place names and you cannot see a map as a
starting point. However, if you have five countries and one has a typo in it, you
see a map.
If you don't see a map as a recommended starting point for your data, look at
your location column to see whether it contains ambiguous data.
Ambiguous data
Ambiguous data in your data set can lead to misleading, inaccurate, or incomplete
maps in your dashboard or report.
Here are some tips for locating and correcting ambiguous data:
v If the column heading for the location column is misleading, such as a location
column called Employee Name, it cannot be used for mapping your data.
v Look at the values in your data. Misspellings cause problems.
v Check for and resolve ambiguous locations in your data file and then replace the
data in the data set. For example, Georgia is the name of a country and the
name of a state in the United States.
– If Georgia appears in a column that contains American states, a map of the
United States is displayed.
– If Georgia appears in a column that contains countries, a world map or a map
of Asia is displayed, depending on the other values in the column.
– If Georgia is in a column that contains both states and countries, no map is
displayed. To avoid this problem, split the column into two, one for countries
and one for states. Make sure that the state appears as US Georgia.
v Unmatched values occur when the location on your data cannot be matched by
name to a supported admin boundary or postal code. For admin boundaries, if
the location is under a different name, you must correct your data.
– Cognos Analytics does not support U.S. of America, but it does support USA.
Create a calculation to change the unsupported value to a supported one.
– Lakes or other bodies of water are not supported locations.
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v For postal codes, you must understand the postal code system for the country
that is mapped. You must include both the country and the postal code data
items. If Cognos Analytics cannot map the data, there are several possible
causes.
– You are trying to map a full or extended postal code. In Canada, the first 3
characters of the postal code are supported (forward sortation area).
– For the United States of America, the 5-digit postal code is supported, not the
extended postal code.
– Many countries use a 5-digit postal code so your data must include the
country.
– Countries are constantly updating their postal codes. Cognos Analytics
updates the list of supported postal codes once a year.
A map is not displayed in the following cases:
v The data contains both countries and provinces, countries and states, or regions
and parts of a region. For example, US, Texas, Florida; UK, Scotland, England;
Europe, France, Germany; Florida, Miami-Dade, Broward, Sarasota.
v The data contains abbreviations that can be both countries or states. For
example, AL, AR, CA, DE can be Alabama, Arkansas, California, Delaware,
Albania, Argentina, Canada, or Germany.
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Chapter 8. Active Reports
You can use IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting to create active reports. IBM
Cognos Active Report is a report output type that provides a highly interactive
and easy-to-use managed report. Active reports are built for business users,
allowing them to explore their data and derive additional insight.
Active reports make business intelligence easier for the casual user. Report authors
build reports targeted at their users' needs, keeping the user experience simple and
engaging. Active reports can be consumed by users who are offline, making them
an ideal solution for remote users such as the sales force.
Active reports are an extension of the traditional IBM Cognos report. You can
leverage existing reports and convert them to active reports by adding interactive
behavior, providing end users with an easy-to-consume interface.
Like existing IBM Cognos reports, you can execute active reports from the Cognos
Analytics portal as well as schedule and burst them to users.
You build active reports with the same objects that you use to build other report
types. However, there are objects that are specific to active reports. These objects
fall into two categories:
v
active report controls
v
active report variables
For tips about building active reports, see the Business analytics proven practices
page (http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/analytics/practices.html).
Note: Cognos Active Report does not support JavaScript.
Active Report Controls
You use active report controls to create the layout of an active report as well as
filter, sort, and navigate through data in the report.
Layout
The following controls are used to build the layout of an active report:
v Tab controls, which are used for grouping similar report items.
v Decks of cards, which are used for layering report items.
v Hiding or showing list columns, which allows users to control the data they see
by using check boxes.
v Row numbers, which show the number of rows of data in a control.
Filtering and Sorting
To help report authors deliver the content in the most consumable way possible,
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting provides several new filtering controls:
v List and drop-down list controls
v Interactions with charts
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For example, clicking a category in a chart filters the data in a list.
v Radial buttons
v Check boxes
v Toggle buttons
v Push button controls
Navigation
To help users navigate through data in a report, report authors can add the
following controls:
v Iterators
v Sliders
Data Containers
Data containers, such as lists, crosstabs, charts, visualizations, and repeater tables,
are also considered controls in an active report, as you can add interactive
behavior to them.
Related concepts:
“Adding Controls to a Report” on page 155
IBM Cognos Active Report offers several active report controls. For many controls,
two different versions are available, a static version and a data-driven version.
Active Report Variables
Active report variables work in conjunction with active report controls to add
interactivity to a report.
Actions performed on a control, such as selecting an item in a control or selecting a
control itself, can set the value of a variable. In turn, controls can respond to
changes in the value of a variable, such as filtering data in a control.
Related tasks:
“Create and Manage Active Report Variables” on page 154
Create active report variables to allow controls in a report to interact with each
other. Active report variables pass information from one control to another control.
Convert an Existing Report to an Active Report
You can leverage existing reports by converting them to active reports.
Procedure
1. Open the report that you want to convert.
2. Click the Save icon
and click Convert to Active Report.
Results
IBM Cognos Active Report commands, objects, and properties become available in
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting. Objects in the report that are not supported in
active reports, such as prompt controls in report pages, are removed.
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Specify Active Report Properties
You can specify properties for active reports, such as the text that appears in the
browser window title bar, the maximum number of rows that a report can contain,
and an access code that users must enter to view a report.
Procedure
1. Click the Show properties icon
then click Report.
, click the Select ancestor icon
, and
2. Double-click the Active reports property.
3. To specify the title that will appear in the browser window title bar when the
report is viewed, under Window Title, type the title that you want.
4. If you want to specify the window title in other languages, do the following:
v Under Window Title, click the ellipsis button.
v Click the add button
.
v Select the languages that you want.
v In the Language column, click one of the languages that you selected.
v Click the edit button
and type the window title for that language.
5. In the Window Startup Size box, choose among the available options to specify
the size of the browser window when an active report is viewed.
6. In the Maximum query rows box, specify the maximum number of rows of
data that the report can contain.
If the number of rows of data returned when the report is run exceeds this
value, an error message appears, and users will not be able to view the report.
7. If you do not want to compress the MHT file that is produced when the active
report is run, clear the Compress the active report output check box.
Compressing the output reduces the size of MHT files so that active reports can
support more data and load faster in browsers and mobile devices.
8. If you made changes to the Window Startup Size, Maximum query rows, or
Compress the active report output properties and you want those changes to
become the default values when you create new active reports, click Change
defaults.
9. To specify an access code that users will have to enter to view the report, enter
the code in the Access code box.
You can use any Unicode character in the access code, and there is no limit to
the number of characters an access code can contain.
The access code will not be hidden or treated like a password when entered (*
will not appear as the code is entered). Users will have three attempts to enter
the correct code, after which the active report will shut down. To try again,
users have to reopen report.
Note: The access code is a tool to help prevent the unauthorized consumption
of an active report within an organization. It is not an enterprise grade security
solution.
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Adding Interactivity to a Report
You create an active report by adding interactive behavior to controls in the report.
Adding interactive behavior links controls to each other, allowing an action
performed on a control to change the state of another control.
Create and Manage Active Report Variables
Create active report variables to allow controls in a report to interact with each
other. Active report variables pass information from one control to another control.
About this task
You can also create active report variables when you define connections between
controls. However, you may want to modify these variables, such as changing the
name or defining default values.
In addition, active report variables allow active reports inserted in a workspace in
IBM Cognos Workspace to interact with each other. For example, selecting a
product line in one active report causes another active report to show the data for
the selected product line. In addition, variables allow check boxes and sliders in a
workspace in Cognos Workspace to drive active reports in the workspace.
To work in Cognos Workspace, active report variables must meet the following
criteria:
v The variables must be public.
When you make a public variable, the variable can be consumed in other IBM
Cognos products.
v For active reports to listen to each other in a workspace, each report must have a
public variable with the same name.
v For a Cognos Workspace slider to drive an active report, a range variable must
be defined in the active report.
The data item of the slider and the range variable in the active report must have
the same name.
Two variables are used to define the minimum and maximum values of the
range variable. The two variables are used to define the minimum and
maximum values of the slider.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
and then click the Active Report variables icon
.
2. Create a variable by following these steps:
a. Click Create a new variable.
b. In the Name box, type the name of the variable.
c. Click the Data Type drop-down menu and click the type of variable that
you want to create.
d. To make the variable public, select the Public (External) check box.
e. If you want to specify a default value for the variable, click Set default
values and define or specify the values that you want.
If you have added a control to the active report, the Variable Values Source
drop-down menu becomes active.
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To define your own default values, in the Variable Values Source list, click
Enter Value(s), and then click the new icon
.
To specify default values that come from a data item in a control, in the
Variable Values Source list, click Select Value(s). Specify the control and
the data item from which you want to select default values, and then select
the values that you want from the Values box.
Tip: Define multiple default values when you want more than one item
selected in a control that allows multiple selections, such as a check box
group.
3. To modify an existing variable, right-click the variable and click Edit variable.
4. To add a default value, click Set default values.
To change a default value, click the name of the current default value specified
for the variable.
5. Create a range variable by following these steps:
a. Create the variables that will define the minimum and maximum values of
the Cognos Workspace slider.
The variables must have the number data type.
Tip: Range variables are automatically set as public variables. Do not make
the variables that are used to define the minimum and maximum values of
the slider public.
b. Click Manage ranges.
c. Click the new icon
.
d. In the Name box, type the name of the range variable.
e. Click the Minimum Variable list and select the variable that will be used to
set the minimum value of the slider.
f. Click the Maximum Variable list and select the variable that will be used to
set the maximum value of the slider, and then click OK twice.
Note: If you later delete the minimum or maximum variable, the range
variable is also deleted.
Related tasks:
“Define a Connection Between Controls” on page 163
Define a connection between controls to link them together. When you link
controls, an action performed on one control affects the behavior of the other
control.
Adding Controls to a Report
IBM Cognos Active Report offers several active report controls. For many controls,
two different versions are available, a static version and a data-driven version.
Use the static version of a control when you want to manually define the values
that the control can contain. Use the data-driven version of a control when you
want the values that the control can contain to come from a data item. You can
find active report controls by clicking the Toolbox icon
.
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When you add a control to an active report, you can convert the control to another
type of control that is compatible. Select the control, click the More icon
, and
click Convert Control. For example, you can convert a data drop-down list control
to a data iterator control.
Variable Text Items
Use variable text items
to insert active report variables in a report. Variable
text items are useful to show the value of a variable when an item in another
control is selected. For example, you can use a variable text item as a title for a list
that is linked to a drop-down list control. When an item is selected from the
drop-down list, the item appears as the title of the list.
Row numbers
The active report row number tool
adds row numbers that reflect the visible
row number in the report. This is different from the report row number tool, which
reflects the server calculated row number.
Static repeater tables
Use static repeater tables and data repeater tables to build a repeating structure of
content. Repeater table controls allow you to create button bars or grids of custom
content to control the content that appears in other controls. In data repeater table
controls, the content that appears in the repeater table is driven by a data item that
you insert in the control.
The following image shows a static repeater table when it is inserted in an active
report.
Figure 26. Static repeater table control
The data repeater table is the repeater table data container that is available for all
report types. The static repeater table is available in the Toolbox tab only when
you are authoring an active report.
Decks and Data Decks
Use decks and data decks to show different objects and different data respectively
based on a selection in another control. For example, in a deck, clicking a radio
button in a radio button group control shows a list object while clicking a different
radio button shows a chart object.
The following image shows a deck control when it is inserted in an active report.
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Figure 27. Deck control
Decks are composed of cards. In static decks, you define the number of cards in
the deck and you insert the objects that you want in each card. This allows you to
create cards that can contain different objects, such as pie chart in one card and a
crosstab in another card. In data decks, the cards are defined by a data container or
data items inserted in the deck, and a data item determines which card appears.
Tab Controls and Data Tab Controls
Use tab controls and data tab controls to define multiple pages for the same area of
a report. In data tab controls, the tabs are driven by a data item that you insert in
the control.
The following image shows a tab control when it is inserted in an active report.
Figure 28. Tab control
Button Bars and Data Button Bars
Use button bars and data button bars to add a group of push buttons. In data
button bars, the buttons are driven by a data item that you insert in the control.
The following image shows a button bar control when it is inserted in an active
report.
Figure 29. Button bar control
In reports, users can click only one button at a time.
Toggle Button Bars and Data Toggle Button Bars
Use toggle button bars and data toggle button bars to add a group of buttons that
change appearance when pressed. In data toggle button bars, the buttons are
driven by a data item that you insert in the control.
The following image shows a toggle button bar control when it is inserted in an
active report.
Figure 30. Toggle button bar control
In reports, users can click one or more buttons simultaneously.
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157
Radio Button Groups and Data Radio Button Groups
Use radio button groups and data radio button groups to group a set of buttons
that have a common purpose. In data radio button groups, the radio buttons are
driven by a data item that you insert in the control.
The following image shows a radio button group control when it is inserted in an
active report.
Figure 31. Radio button group control
In reports, users can click only one radio button at a time.
Check Box Groups and Data Check Box Groups
Use check box groups and data check box groups to group a set of check boxes. In
data check box groups, the check boxes are driven by a data item that you insert in
the control.
The following image shows a check box group control when it is inserted in an
active report.
Figure 32. Check box group control
In reports, users can select one or more check boxes simultaneously.
Drop-Down Lists and Data Drop-Down Lists
Use drop-down lists and data drop-down lists to provide a list of items that users
can choose from. In data drop-down lists, the lists are driven by a data item that
you insert in the control.
The following image shows a drop-down list control when it is inserted in an
active report.
Figure 33. Drop-down list control
In reports, users can select only one item at a time.
List Boxes and Data List Boxes
Use list boxes and data list boxes to provide a list of items that users can choose
from. In data list boxes, the lists are driven by a data item that you insert in the
control.
The following image shows a list box control when it is inserted in an active
report.
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Figure 34. List box control
In reports, users can select one or more items in a list box.
Iterators and data iterators
Use these controls to allow users to navigate or filter values in a control by clicking
buttons such as previous and next. In data iterators, the iterations are driven by a
data item that you insert in the control.
The following image shows an iterator control when it is inserted in an active
report.
Figure 35. Iterator control
Discrete values sliders, continuous values sliders, and data
discrete values sliders
These controls allow users to navigate or filter data using a slider bar. Discrete and
data discrete values sliders allow users to slide between individual values, such as
months. In data discrete values sliders, the values are driven by a data item that
you insert in the control. With continuous values sliders, users slide through
numeric values between minimum and maximum values that you define, such as 0
and 100.
The following image shows a discrete value slider control when it is inserted in an
active report.
Figure 36. Discrete values slider control
Buttons
Use buttons to add individual push buttons to a report.
The following image shows a button control when it is inserted in an active report.
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159
Figure 37. Button control
Report prompts and iFrames
With these tools, you can use an active report as a prompt to launch and filter
target reports, or to launch external web pages. Similar to drill-through, links are
created from the active report to other reports or external web pages. Target
reports and external web pages can appear in an iFrame in the current window, or
in a separate window or browser tab.
The Report prompts tool opens a window where you specify the target report that
you want to open. IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting creates the necessary controls
and variables.
If you insert an iFrame tool, you must create the necessary controls and variables
to launch a target report or external web page.
Data Containers
Lists, crosstabs, charts, maps, visualizations, and repeater tables are also controls in
an active report, as you can add interactive behavior to them.
In addition, a list container called a data list is available when you are authoring
an active report. Data lists offer better performance than regular lists, because they
are run on the client workstation or device instead of on the Cognos server. Data
lists are scrollable and have pinned headers. Other features include applying a
sequence of colors to the list rows, and replacing column values with a microchart.
Related tasks:
“Creating a data list” on page 169
Create a data list to provide better performance in active reports that contain a
large data set that is presented in a list format.
Add Data to a Control
For every control that you insert in a report, you must add the data that you want
to appear in the control.
Add data to a data-driven control
For data-driven controls, you insert data items from the package.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
, and on the Source tab
or query items to the control.
, drag query subjects
2. To add an image to the data in the control, drag the appropriate data item to
the Icon box.
3. If the data that will appear in the control depends on other data that you do
not want to show, drag the appropriate data item to the Extra Items box.
For example, you add Product type to a data list box control and you want to
filter the product types that appear in the control based on a product line
selected in another control. To filter the data, you must drag Product line to the
Extra Items box.
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Tip: IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting can automatically copy data items from
other controls when you create connections between controls.
4. If the control is a data deck and you want to create a default card that will
appear when no other card matches the variable value passed to the deck,
select the deck, click the Show properties icon
, and navigate to the
properties of the deck. Click Yes for the Show Default Card property, and then
click the Current Card property and select (Default). Insert the objects that you
want to appear on the default card.
Related tasks:
“Define a Connection Between Controls” on page 163
Define a connection between controls to link them together. When you link
controls, an action performed on one control affects the behavior of the other
control.
Add data to a static control
For static value driven controls, you manually define the data in a data table.
Procedure
1. In the report, click the definition icon
of the control.
Tip: The definition icon is visible only when the visual aid Show Interactive
Object Controls is enabled.
2. To add a new object, such as a card in a deck or a button in a button bar, under
Data Table, click the new button.
3. In Data Table, define the values that you want to appear in the control.
Values are organized by data item. In addition to the default data item (Label)
and values provided, you can create your own data items and values. For
example, to add an icon to each value, you must create a data item for the
icons.
v To define a new data item, click the new button
the data item that you want to create.
and type the name of
v Click inside each table row and type the name of the value.
v To add translations for the values, to support users in multiple languages,
click the ellipsis button, choose the languages that you want to support by
clicking the add button
added.
, and type the translated text for each language
v If you created new data items, in the Definition box, click the Label
drop-down list and select the data item that you want to use in the control.
v To add an icon to each value, select the Icon check box, click the drop-down
list, and select the data item that contains the icons that you want to use.
You cannot add an icon to values in static decks and discrete values sliders.
To add an icon to values in a static repeater table, insert the Image object
from the Toolbox pane
. Then specify the data item for the icons by
referencing the data item in the Properties pane.
4. Optional: If you want to copy all data values to another static control, click the
copy control definition icon
.
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After you have copied the data values of the control, click the definition icon of
another static control, and then click the paste control definition icon
copy the data values.
to
Tip: You can also drag data items from one control and drop them in another
control. This action moves the data item from one control to another control
instead of copying the item. You can drag and drop data items only to static
controls that can contain objects, such as a deck, tab control, and repeater table.
In addition, the data table of the target control must contain a data item with
the same name as the data item you are moving, such as Label.
5. If the control is a deck, click the arrows to navigate to each card of the deck
and insert the objects that you want to appear on each card.
To create a default card that will appear when no other card matches the
variable value passed to the deck, click the Show properties icon
, and
navigate to the properties of the deck. Click Yes for the Default Card property,
and then click the Current Card property and select (Default). Insert the objects
that you want to appear on the default card.
Related tasks:
“Referencing data items defined in a static control”
If you insert an object in a static control, such as an image in a static repeater table,
you can use a data item in the control to populate the object.
Referencing data items defined in a static control
If you insert an object in a static control, such as an image in a static repeater table,
you can use a data item in the control to populate the object.
Before you begin
You must create the data item in the data table of the control before you can
reference the item.
About this task
You can reference data items only for text items, images, hyperlinks, and HTML
items inserted in decks, tab controls, and repeater tables.
Procedure
1. In the static control, click the object for which you want to reference a data
item.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, click the
Source type property and choose Control data item value. The Control data
item value property appears.
3. Click the Control data item value property and select the data item that you
want to reference.
Tip: If the object is a hyperlink, you can specify the data item to be used to
populate the hyperlink text as well as the data item to be used to populate the
URL of each link.
Related tasks:
“Add data to a static control” on page 161
For static value driven controls, you manually define the data in a data table.
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Define a Connection Between Controls
Define a connection between controls to link them together. When you link
controls, an action performed on one control affects the behavior of the other
control.
Procedure
1. Click the create a new connection icon
report.
of a control that you added to the
Tip: The create a new connection icon is visible only when the visual aid Show
Interactive Object Controls is enabled.
2. In the Source Control drop-down list, select the source control for which you
want to define a connection.
3. Click the Data Item drop-down list under the source control and select the data
item that will drive the behavior of the target control.
4. In the Target Control drop-down list, select the target control for which you
want to define a connection.
If the target control is a visualization, select a visualization data container.
5. Click the Data Item drop-down list under the target control and select the data
item that will determine what appears in the target control.
If the data item that you want to use is not in the query of the target control,
and the source control is a data-driven control, select Copy Data Item from
Source to copy the source data item specified in the previous step to the target
control query. If the source control is a static control, select Use Source
Definition.
If the target control is a data container, the copied data item appears shaded in
the container to indicate that the column visibility property for the item is set
to Hidden.
6. Click the Behavior drop-down list between the source and target controls and
specify the type of relationship that you want to define between the two
controls:
v To select data in the target control based on what will be selected in the
source control, click Select.
v To filter data in the target control based on what will be selected in the
source control, select Filter.
7. Below the Behavior area, click the active variable drop-down list and choose to
create a new variable for the connection or use an existing variable.
Tip: If there are no variables defined in the report, you cannot click the active
variable drop-down list.
a. If you create a new variable, type a name for the variable and specify its
data type. You can also specify its default values.
b. If you choose to use an existing variable, choose the variable that you want.
You can also specify its default values.
8. Click Connect.
Results
When a connection is defined, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting creates the
appropriate conditions for the selection behavior and reaction behavior of the
source and target controls.
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Tip: The interactive behavior icon
of a control changes to indicate that a
connection was defined. Click the Queries icon
, and then click the Active
Report controls icon
to see the controls and variables inserted in a report and
their relationships to one another. You can click a control in this tab to quickly
locate the control in the report as well as set default values for variables.
Related tasks:
“Show or Hide a Column or Row” on page 167
You can show or hide a column in a list or a column or row in a crosstab when the
report is viewed.
“Add data to a data-driven control” on page 160
For data-driven controls, you insert data items from the package.
“Add data to a static control” on page 161
For static value driven controls, you manually define the data in a data table.
Specify the Selection Behavior of a Control
Specify the selection behavior of a control to determine what interactive behavior
should occur when the control is clicked or when an object in the control, such as a
button, check box, or data item, is selected.
Specifying the selection behavior of a control sets the value of active report
variables defined in the report. The active report variable values are then used to
specify the reaction behavior of controls. For example, you add two drop-down list
controls to a report and you create a connection between them. The first
drop-down list shows product lines and the second drop-down list shows product
types. When a product line is selected in the first drop-down list box, you want to
pass that information to the second drop-down list box so that it shows only the
product types of the selected product line.
You can specify a selection behavior for any control, except for decks and data
decks.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically sets active report variable values
when you define a connection between controls. However, you may need to set the
value of other variables to specify additional interactive behavior.
Procedure
1. Click the interactive behavior icon
of the source control.
Tip: The interactive behavior icon is visible only when the visual aid Show
Interactive Object Controls is enabled.
The Report behavior box shows the relationship between the source and target
controls when you defined a connection between the controls. You can specify
default values for the variable associated with the control by clicking Set
default values.
2. In the Behavior on select box, click inside the Set variable values box and then
click the edit button
that appears.
3. For each active report variable that you want to set as part of the selection
behavior of the control, click the Value drop-down list and select one of the
following choices:
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v If you want to clear the current value of the variable, click Set to empty.
Tip: Clearing the current value of a variable is useful when you have
cascading controls. For example, if the parent control is reset to a default
value, you want to reset the child control to a default value as well.
v If you want to specify your own value, click Type in a value and type the
value that you want to use.
v If you want the variable values to be driven by a data item in the report,
click the data item that you want to use.
v If you do not want the variable to be used for the control, click Do not set.
4. To create a new active report variable, click Create a new variable.
Related tasks:
“Specify the Reaction Behavior of a Control”
Specify the reaction behavior of a control to determine how a control will react
when another control, or an object in the control, is selected.
Specify the Reaction Behavior of a Control
Specify the reaction behavior of a control to determine how a control will react
when another control, or an object in the control, is selected.
About this task
You can specify the following reaction behaviors:
v Select an item in a control.
You can specify this reaction behavior for any control, except for single button
controls.
For example, you specify a default value for a variable, and the variable drives a
drop-down list control. When the report is run, you want the default value to
appear in the control.
You can also specify to select the first or last item in a control by default. For
example, an active report contains two data radio button groups that are
connected to each other. The first data button group is driven by Product line
and the second data button group is driven by Product type. When a user clicks
on a product line, the product types that belong to the selected product line
appear in the second radio button group, and you want the first or last radio
button in the product type radio button group to be selected.
v Filter data in a control.
For example, you want to filter the product types in a drop-down list control
based on the product line selected in another drop-down list control.
You can specify this reaction behavior for drop-down lists, data drop-down lists,
list boxes, data list boxes, radio button groups, data radio button groups, check
box groups, data check box groups, lists, and crosstabs.
v Enable a control.
For example, you want to make a control interactive only when a selection is
first made in another control.
You can specify this reaction behavior for any control, except for decks, data
decks, tabs, data tabs, lists, crosstabs, charts, and maps.
In addition to these behaviors, you can specify the item to appear when nothing is
selected in a list control, hide or show a column, and whether to allow data to be
sorted in a list.
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically sets the reaction behavior when
you define a connection between controls. However, you may want to change the
reaction behavior or specify additional interactive behavior.
Procedure
1. Click the interactive behavior icon
of the control.
2. If you want to specify the select an item in a control reaction behavior, and you
want to specify to select the first item or the last item in the control by default,
click the Auto Select menu and choose First Item or Last Item.
3. In the Reaction behavior box, click the reaction behavior box that you want,
such as Container selection, and click the edit button
that appears.
If a condition is not yet defined, two dialog boxes appear. The second dialog
box prompts you to define the condition expression that you want to use to
specify the reaction behavior.
Note: If the reaction behavior that you are setting is Container selection, and
you previously clicked an option other than None in the Auto Select menu,
defining a condition sets the Auto Select menu to None. Similarly, if you
define a condition in the Container selection box, and you then set the Auto
Select menu to an option other than None, the condition is deleted.
4. In the first Item box, define the left side of the condition expression.
v To use a data item, click the Data Item radio button and then click the item
that you want to use.
The data items that are available in the drop-down list depend on the data
items that you inserted into the control.
v To use a static item, click the Value radio button, type the value that you
want to use, and then specify the value's data type.
The value must be defined as a value of the selected active report variable in
the next step.
v If you want to set the value of an active report variable to null, click the
Empty Variable radio button.
5. Click the Operator drop-down list and select the operator that you want to use.
6. In the second Item box, define the right side of the condition expression.
v To use a value in an active report variable, click the Active Report Variable
radio button and then click the variable that you want to use.
The variables that are available in the drop-down list depend on the
variables that you defined in the report.
v To use a static item, click the Value radio button, type the value that you
want to use, and then specify the value's data type.
v To use null as the value, click the Empty Data Item radio button.
Use null as the value to specify the reaction behavior when no data exists for
the value selected in the source control.
7. If you want to apply the condition when no item is selected in the source
control, clear the Drop this condition if the variable is empty check box.
Clearing the check box can improve performance and prompt users to perform
an action. For example, a report contains a list with many rows of data, and the
list is filtered by another control. When the check box is cleared, no data will
appear in the list until an item is selected in the other control.
Related concepts:
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“Recommendation - use master detail relationships when authoring decks” on
page 168
When authoring deck controls in active reports, use master detail relationships to
improve performance.
Related tasks:
“Specify the Selection Behavior of a Control” on page 164
Specify the selection behavior of a control to determine what interactive behavior
should occur when the control is clicked or when an object in the control, such as a
button, check box, or data item, is selected.
“Set the No Value List Item”
Set the no value list item to show a specific item in a control when no value is
selected.
“Show or Hide a Column or Row”
You can show or hide a column in a list or a column or row in a crosstab when the
report is viewed.
“Sort Data in a List” on page 168
You can specify whether users can sort data in a list in the report output.
Set the No Value List Item
Set the no value list item to show a specific item in a control when no value is
selected.
For example, a report contains a drop-down list control that contains product lines.
You create a no value list item named (All) to show all product lines when the
report is initially viewed.
Procedure
1. Select the control.
2. Click the Show properties icon
click Show.
, and for the No Value List Item property,
A text item representing the no value list item appears in the control.
3. In the Properties pane for the no value list item, double-click the Label
property.
4. In the Default text box, type the name of the no value list item.
5. To specify the text for other languages, do the following:
v Click the add button
.
v Select the languages that you want.
v In the Language column, click one of the languages that you selected.
v Click the edit button
that language.
and type the name of the no value list item for
v Repeat for all remaining languages.
6. In the Properties pane for the no value list item, click the Position in List
property and specify where you want the no value list item to appear in the
control.
Show or Hide a Column or Row
You can show or hide a column in a list or a column or row in a crosstab when the
report is viewed.
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Procedure
1. Click the title of the column or row that you want to show or hide.
2. If the data container is a crosstab, click the Show properties icon
Visible property and click Yes or No.
3. If the data container is a list, click the Show properties icon
double-click the Column Visibility property.
, click the
and
4. To make the list column visible when the report is viewed, click the Visible
radio button.
5. To hide the list column when the report is viewed, click the Hidden radio
button.
6. To make the list column visible based on a condition, click the Visible based
on condition radio button, click the edit condition button
condition.
, and specify the
v If you want to specify a value to use for the condition, click the Value radio
button, type the value, and in the Data Type drop-down list, select the
value’s data type.
v If you want to use null as the value for the condition, click the Empty
Variable radio button instead.
v Click the Operator drop-down list and select the operator that you want to
use for the condition.
v In the Active Report Variable drop-down list, select the active report
variable that you want to use for the condition.
v If you want to apply the condition when no item is selected in a control that
is connected to the list, clear the Drop this condition if the variable is
empty check box.
Sort Data in a List
You can specify whether users can sort data in a list in the report output.
Procedure
1. Select the column that you want users to be able to sort.
2. Click the Show properties icon
Yes.
, and for the Allow Sorting property, click
Recommendation - use master detail relationships when
authoring decks
When authoring deck controls in active reports, use master detail relationships to
improve performance.
Decks offer greater flexibility in active reports by allowing you to show different
objects in each card of a deck. In data decks, the number of cards that are created
depends on data items inserted in the deck. As a result, a data deck can contain
many cards, which may reduce performance when the report is run and viewed.
For example, if a data deck contains Product line and Years, there can be up to 20
cards in the deck (five different product lines multiplied by four different years). In
addition, filtering data in a data deck can affect performance when there are many
rows of data in the deck.
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To improve performance, use a master detail relationship to filter data in a data
container inserted in a data deck control. A master detail relationship defined
between a data deck and a data container inserted in the deck results in a specific
number of cards generated for the deck, which serves as a way to filter the data in
the data container. For example, a data deck contains a list object that has many
rows of data, and you want to filter the list by product line. Creating a master
detail relationship between the deck and the list using Product line produces five
cards in the deck, one for each product line. When you filter by product line, the
appropriate card appears in the data deck.
In addition, specify Select as the behavior instead of Filter when defining the
connection between the data deck control and the control you want to use to filter
the data in the deck.
Tip: If the data container in the data deck is a chart, you must use a master detail
relationship if you want to filter data in the chart.
Creating a data list
Create a data list to provide better performance in active reports that contain a
large data set that is presented in a list format.
About this task
Data lists provide better performance than regular lists because they are rendered
on the client workstation or device and not on the IBM Cognos server. Data lists
include the following features:
v The list headers are pinned.
v The list is scrollable.
v You can apply a sequence of colors to the rows.
v You can substitute numeric values in a column that are between -1 and 1 with a
microchart.
You add or modify features by accessing the properties of the data list or a column
in the list.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
list to the report.
, expand the Data Container group, and drag Data
2. Click the Data icon
and add the data items that you want to the list. The
data items appear in the data list flyout, in the appropriate section (Categories,
Values).
3. To add extra data items to the list, add the data items that you want to the
Extra Categories or Extra Values sections in the flyout.
Extra items are items that are used for filtering or setting variables. Extra items
do not appear in the data list.
Tip: You can move items from the data list flyout to the list. In the flyout, you
can move items from one section to another section. For example, you can
move an item in the Categories section to the Extra Categories section.
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4. To modify data list properties, select the entire data list and click the Show
properties icon
.
5. To change the order of extra data items in the data list query, click the Nesting
order property.
You might have to change the nesting order so that extra items are ordered
properly in the query. If the items are not ordered properly, the report might
not run.
a. Change the order of items as needed.
b. If you want the order of items to correspond to the order of the list
columns, select the Keep list columns synchronized check box.
6. To replace numeric values in a column with a microchart, select the column
and click the Microchart property.
a. Click the Type menu and select the type of microchart that you want to
add.
The Colored option produces a microchart that shows a different color for
positive, negative, or zero values. The Sized option produces a microchart
of different colors and sizes, based on the column values. The HTML option
shows HTML that you author.
Note: The HTML option is available only if you have the HTML Items in
Report subcapability enabled. In IBM Cognos Administration, this
subcapability is found within the Report Studio capability.
b. If you selected the Colored or Sized option, select the check boxes of the
values for which you want to show a microchart, and then specify the type
of microchart that you want to show and the color.
c. If you selected the Sized option, select the Animate check box to produce
an animation effect when users interact with the list.
7. To specify a different label for a column, select the column heading and set the
Override Label property to Yes, and then specify the label that you want in the
Label property that appears.
Formatting an active report in the preview view
IBM Cognos Active Report has a preview view that you can use to format an
active report and immediately see the layout changes. You no longer have to run
the report whenever you make a formatting change.
About this task
In the Active Report preview view, you can toggle between two different modes.
To format elements in the report, you must enter the edit mode. When you are in
the edit mode, a dotted blue square appears when you hover over a selectable
element in the report. You click an element to select it, after which you can format
the element by modifying properties in the Properties pane. When you enter the
Preview mode, you can test active report behavior by clicking elements in the
report.
You can also make non-formatting changes to the report. When a non-formatting
change is made, a message appears that notifies you that you must refresh the
report. The report is refreshed when you click OK. You can also refresh the report
by clicking the Refresh icon
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.
You can view the report in different screen sizes and orientation. Changing the
screen size provides a guideline as to how the report will look on screens of
various sizes. When you change the screen size, the Active Report preview view
shows the report at the size that you specified. On a mobile device, the IBM
Cognos Mobile application zooms out the report to fit the width of the mobile
device screen, eliminating the need for horizontal scrollbars.
Procedure
1. To enter the active report preview mode, click the Page views icon
then click Page preview.
and
2. To enter the edit mode, in the toolbar, click the Edit icon.
3. In the edit mode, format the elements in the report that you want.
4. To enter the preview mode, in the toolbar, click the Preview icon.
5. To view the report in different screen sizes, in the toolbar, click the Fit to screen
menu and choose one of the preset sizes, or click Add custom size to specify
your own screen size.
6. If you specified a screen size in the previous step, click the Orientation menu
to change the report orientation.
Related concepts:
“Work in design, structure, or preview view” on page 6
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has three views in which you can author
reports: Page design view, Page structure view, and Page preview view.
Summarizing Data in the Active Report Output
You can add an output summary to a list or crosstab control that reflects the data
that appears in the control when an active report is viewed.
About this task
You can add two types of summaries to an active report. The summaries that you
can add to regular reports are also available in active reports. Output summaries
are specific to active reports. Output summary values are calculated from the data
that users see in the output. For example, an active report contains a check box
group control and a list control. You add two summaries to the list. The first
summary is the aggregation method Total that is available in all reports. The
second summary is the output summary Total that is available only in active
reports. The data that users see in the list is filtered by selecting items in the check
box group control. The Total output summary value is calculated from the items
that are selected in the check box group control. The value for the Total
aggregation method that is available in all reports remains the same, regardless of
what items are selected in the check box group control. This value is the total of all
items in the list.
Only a subset of the aggregation methods that are available in all reports is
available as output summaries.
Procedure
1. In a list or crosstab, click the column or row for which you want to add an
output summary.
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2. In the report object toolbar, click the summarize button
and then, under
Summarize in Output, choose the summary that you want to add to the active
report output.
Tip: After you add an output summary, you can specify a different aggregation
method. Select the summary data item in the list or crosstab, click the Show
properties icon
, and for the Output summary property, choose the
aggregation method that you want.
Creating application links to other reports or external web pages
Create application links to use an active report to open other reports or external
web pages in an iFrame.
About this task
The following active report tools are used to create links.
v Report links
v iFrame
The Report links tool opens a window where you specify the target report that
you want to open. The necessary controls and active report variables are then
created by using parameters that are found in the target report. If you choose to
open the target report in the current window, an iFrame is added to the report.
If you later want to change an application link or add a new link, select a control
that was created, click the Refresh application link property, and choose one of
the available options. When you edit an application link, you can modify Cognos
Viewer settings or application parameters.
With the iFrame tool, you specify the target report or external web page that you
want users to open. You must manually create the controls and variables that are
needed to open the target report or web page.
When users run an active report that contains a report prompt or iFrame tool, they
are prompted to select values in the controls that appear. The target report is then
run, and the data in the target report is filtered by the selected values.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
the report.
and drag the Report links or the iFrame tool to
2. Specify the target report that you want to link to the active report.
Note: You cannot choose an active report as the target report.
3. If you inserted a report link, specify whether to open the target report in an
iFrame in the current window, in a new window, or replace the current
window.
4. Click OK.
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Run or Save an Active Report
You can run an active report in HTML format or save it as a MIME HTML (MHT)
file so that you can send the report to your consumers. MHT files are viewable in
the Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox browsers.
Before you begin
If you are using Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0, you cannot open an active report
in MHT format as a file. You can view the report only by using a URL.
If an active report contains an extensible visualization, and you are using Internet
Explorer 9 or 10, you must have Microsoft Silverlight 5 installed on your computer.
About this task
To assist you in resolving problems when you are authoring an active report, a run
option that shows the state of active report variables in the report as you click
various controls is available. By default, this option is enabled.
Active reports require the same web browser settings as regular reports.
Procedure
1. To disable the run option that can show the state of active report variables
when the report is viewed, click the Run options icon
, click Show run
options, and clear the Enable right-click debug menu check box.
2. To run a report, click the Run options icon and click Run Active Report.
3. To save a report, click the Run options icon and click Download Active
Report, and when prompted, choose to save the report as an MHT file.
Results
When running a report with the Enable right-click debug menu check box
selected, right-clicking in the report output window allows you to choose to view
the active report variables in the report, reset variables, or print the report.
Tip: The right-click debug menu is not available if you run the report from the
IBM Cognos Analytics portal.
Related concepts:
“Web browser settings” on page 16
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting can be used in the Microsoft Internet Explorer
and Mozilla Firefox Web browsers.
Related tasks:
“Drill-through links in active reports do not work” on page 427
When viewing an active report that contains drill-through links in Microsoft
Internet Explorer 8 and later, the links do not work.
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Chapter 9. Relational Reporting Style
The relational reporting style is recommended for relational data sources.
Relational data is best represented by lists. This data is organized in IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting by query items.
In relational reporting, you summarize data by using headers and footers in lists,
summary functions, and within detail aggregation. You focus data in relational
reporting with summary or detail filters.
IBM Cognos Query Studio is also available to work with relational data.
Limitations when using data modules
IBM Cognos Analytics data modules can model multiple data sources, including
relational data sources, other data modules, and uploaded files. The following
limitations exist when you use data modules in relational reporting.
v Report bursting, package drill-through definitions, and query properties are not
supported.
v Generated prompts do not use the metadata to generate the proper prompt.
Instead, a text box is used.
For more information about data modules, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Data
Modeling Guide.
Add Relational Data to a Report
Select the data items to appear in the report.
Note: We recommend using relational data in the relational reporting style.
However, if you are using dimensional data, see “Add dimensional data to a
report” on page 211.
If you frequently use items from different query subjects or dimensions in the
same reports, ask your modeler to organize these items into a folder or model
query subject and then to republish the relevant package. For example, if you use
the product code item in sales reports, the modeler can create a folder that contains
the product code item and the sales items you need.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
item to the report.
, and from the Source tab
, drag each query
Note: A flashing black bar indicates where you can drop an item. Items
inserted in the report appear on the Data Items tab
.
Other ways to select data items are to double-click each item or to right-click
each item and click Insert.
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2. If you want to remove a data item from the report, select it, and in the report
object toolbar, click the More icon
and then click the Delete option
.
To remove the data item from the report but keep it on the Data Items tab
, click Cut instead.
3. For more information about a query item, right-click the item in the Source tab
and click Properties. You can also obtain more information by clicking Lineage.
Group Relational Data
Group data items in a list report to remove duplicate values. For example, you
have a report that shows all the products purchased and their product type. You
group the Product type column so that each product type cell spans the products
purchased cells.
You can specify whether grouping a column automatically makes it the first
column in the list by selecting the Automatic group and summary behavior for
lists check box in the IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting options. With this option
selected, if the list contains any fact or measure columns, footers that show the
summary values for the columns are automatically created for each group.
Grouping a second column makes it the second column. When you ungroup a
column, that column becomes the first column after the grouped column.
After a column is grouped, you can move it elsewhere in the report.
You can also group data items in repeaters and in page sets.
In addition to grouping, you can specify the sort order of data items. In lists, you
can sort data items within groups as well as ungrouped items. In crosstabs, you
can sort row and column items. For more information, see “Perform Advanced
Layout Sorting” on page 195.
Tip: The Succession Report sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package includes grouping.
Procedure
1. Click the column on which to group.
You can click either the column title or one of the column cells.
Tip: To perform multiple groupings at once, use Ctrl+click or Shift+click.
2. In the report object toolbar, click Group/Ungroup
.
Results
A symbol appears indicating that the column is grouped. You can control when its
values appear by setting the group span, and the column appears in the list of
headers and footers that you can add to the report.
Note: Grouping all columns in a list is equivalent to creating a single-edge
crosstab.
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Perform Advanced Grouping
You can perform more advanced groupings in a list to get the results you want.
For example, you can
v view the entire grouping structure and make changes to the grouping order
v group a data item that appears in a query but not in the layout
v specify a list of properties for a group
You can also perform advanced sorting.
Procedure
1. Click a column in the list.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, click the Select ancestor icon
title bar of the Properties pane, and click List.
in the
Tip: You can also click the container selector (three orange dots) of the list to
select it.
3. In the Properties pane, double-click the Grouping & Sorting property.
4. To change the grouping order, in the Groups pane, click the grouped item in
the Groups folder and drag it to the grouping hierarchy.
5. To create a new grouping, in the Data items pane, click the data item and drag
it to the Groups folder in the Groups pane.
6. To specify a list of data items for a group, do the following:
v Click the group.
Tip: Click Overall to specify a list of data items for the overall group. The
overall group is the grouping of all data into one group. You can specify a
list of data items for the overall group to add overall totals to the list.
v Click the properties button
.
v Select the appropriate check boxes.
Creating relational custom groups
Create custom groups to classify existing data items into groups that are
meaningful to you.
You can use custom groups to convert numeric values into broader categories. For
example, you can break down sales results into low, medium, and high categories.
Or you can reduce the number of values into a smaller, more meaningful groups.
For example, you can change a list of employees into separate teams or
departments.
When you create custom groups in a list, a new column is added to the report,
with the name data item (Custom). You can use this new column to group or sort
the report. If you want to show only the new groups, you can delete the original
column.
Procedure
1. Click the column that you want to group on and, and in the report object
toolbar, click the Insert calculation icon
Groups.
and then click Define Custom
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Tip: You can click either the column heading or one of the column cells.
2. Click the New Group Entry icon
.
3. To group by values that you select, click New Select Values Group, type a
New group name, select the required values from the Values box, and move
the values to the Selected values box.
4. To group by a range of values, click New Range Group, type a New group
name, and enter the From and To values.
5. If you do not want a group name to appear for remaining values, select Do not
show remaining values. Clicking this option will produce empty cells for
remaining values.
6. If you want the group name for remaining values to match each value, select
Use each remaining value as a group name.
7. If you want to specify your own group name for all remaining values, select
Group remaining values into a single group and type the name that you
want.
8. If you are adding custom groups in a list, under New data item name, select
either the default data item name or type a new data item name.
Set the Group Span for a Column
When columns are grouped, you can choose how often to show column names by
changing the group spanning.
For example, when country or region and city are both grouped, you can choose to
show the country or region name each time
v the country or region changes, by spanning Country or Region by Country or
Region
v the city changes, by spanning Country or Region by City
v there is a new record, by specifying no spanning
Spanning one grouped column by another column is helpful if the second column
contains many items.
Procedure
1. Click the column that will span the other column(s).
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and In the Properties pane, set the Group
span property to the column to span.
Divide data into sections
Create sections in a report to show a data item as the heading of a section. When
you run the report, separate sections appear for each value.
Creating sections is similar to creating headers by grouping on a data item The
difference is that section headers appear outside the list, crosstab, chart, or
repeater. In addition, you can group data items only in lists.
When working with dimensional data, you can also create page layers to show
values on a separate page for each member.
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Procedure
1. Click the column to make a section heading.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the Section/subsection icon
.
If the column is in a list or repeater, sections are created without creating a
master detail relationship. This can improve performance when running the
report.
If the column is in a crosstab or chart, sections are created by using a master
detail relationship. Sections are created, and a section header appears. The data
container that contains the column used to create sections is embedded in a list.
3. To add or remove section headers and footers, from the report object toolbar,
click the More icon
, click Headers & footers > List headers & footers, and
then select or clear the appropriate check boxes.
The section header and footer check boxes appear under Overall header.
Remove Sections
You can remove sections and reinsert the data item that was used to create the
sections in the data container.
Procedure
1. Click the Page views icon
and click Page structure.
2. Expand the page containing the data container with the section.
3. Expand Page body until you see the data container in which you added the
section.
The data container is nested in the List column body object of the List object
that is created when you add a section.
4. Drag the data container to Page body.
The data container appears as a node of Page body.
5. Delete the List object.
6. Click the Page views icon and click Page design.
7. Click the Data icon
, click the Data items tab
, and drag the
data item that was used as a section header back into the data container.
8. If you created sections in a list, select the data item, and in the report object
toolbar, click the Group/Ungroup icon
to ungroup the item.
Summarizing Data Relationally
Summarize data in your reports to obtain totals, averages, and so on.
In a report, you can add both detail and summary aggregation. Detail aggregation,
which is supported only for relational data sources, specifies how a data item is
totaled at the lowest level in a report. In lists, detail aggregation specifies how the
values that appear in the rows are totaled. In crosstabs, detail aggregation specifies
how the values in the cells are totaled. For example, detail aggregation for a
measure like Revenue might be Total in both lists and crosstabs. In the following
list report, this means that the values you see for the Revenue column represent
the total revenue for each product type.
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Figure 38. A list showing product line, product type, and revenue
Summaries, which are supported for all data sources, specify how data items are
totaled in the headers and footers of a list and in the total rows and columns of a
crosstab. For list reports, these summaries only summarize the data that is visible
on that page of the report.
You can specify detail and summary aggregation in different ways by using any of
the following:
v aggregation properties that are specified in the model
v the Auto group & summarize property
v the summarize icon in the report object toolbar
v aggregation properties for a data item
v summary functions in data item expressions
v the solve order of calculations
Tip: When you add a summary by clicking the summarize icon in the report object
toolbar, a data item is created in the query for the summary. In lists, the data item
that is created is called a list summary. In crosstabs and charts, the data item that
is created is called an edge summary.
Limitation
If a summary is applied to a report that contains binary large object (BLOB) data,
such as images or multimedia objects, you cannot also perform grouping or
sorting.
The Type of Data
How data is aggregated also depends on the type of data that you are aggregating.
Aggregation rules are applied differently to facts, identifiers, and attributes. For
example, if you aggregate a data item that represents part numbers, the only
aggregate rules that apply are count, count distinct, count non-zero, maximum,
and minimum. For information about how to determine the type of data that a
data item represents, see “Add Relational Data to a Report” on page 175 and “Add
dimensional data to a report” on page 211.
Add a Simple Summary
You can add simple summaries to the groups in a report by using the summarize
icon in the report object toolbar. This icon provides a subset of the summary
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functions available in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting. For list reports, a Custom
option is also available so that you can add your own summary function in the
expression of the data item.
The summarize icon sets the rollup aggregate property for the data item to the
selected summary, and places the data item into an appropriate footer. A footer is
created for each group as well as an overall footer, unless they already exist.
In lists, the summary appears as a footer. If the column to which you added a
summary is grouped, group and overall summaries appear. In crosstabs and charts,
the summary appears as a node.
To change a summary, select it, click the Show properties icon
, and in the
Properties pane, under Data Item, click the Summary property and choose a
different function.
In crosstabs, you can add multiple summaries at the same level. For example, you
have a crosstab with Product line as rows, Order year as columns, and Revenue as
the measure. For Product line, you can add the Total summary as a header, which
will total all revenue for each order year. You can then add the Average summary
as a footer, which will give the average revenue of all product lines for each order
year.
For information about adding a rolling or moving average, see “Rolling and
Moving Averages” on page 229.
Procedure
1. Click the column to which to add a summary.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the Summarize icon
summary type.
3. To change the summary label, do the following:
and click a
v Click the label.
v Click the Show properties icon, and In the Properties pane, under Text
Source, set the Source type property to the source type to define the label.
For example, set it as Data item value to produce a dynamic label for the
summary based on data item values.
v Set the property under Source type to specify the label.
This property depends on the source type you chose. For example, if you
chose Data item value as the source type, set the Data item value property
to the data item to use to define the label.
Set the Auto Group & Summarize Property
Set the Auto group & summarize query property to specify whether IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting should group non-fact data items (identifiers and attributes)
and apply aggregate functions to aggregate fact data items in lists.
If you are using an OLAP data source, data is always summarized regardless of
how this property is set.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and click a query.
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2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, set the Auto
group & summarize property:
v To group non-aggregate fact data items and apply aggregate functions to
aggregate fact data items in lists, set this property to Yes.
v To render detail rows, set this property to No.
Specify Detail or Summary Aggregation in the Model
When working with relational or dimensionally-modeled relational (DMR) data
sources, you can use the aggregation properties specified for the query item in the
IBM Cognos Framework Manager model instead of specifying detail or summary
aggregation in the report. The model specifies the default summary function for
each query item.
Aggregation functions are mapped between data sources, Framework Manager,
and IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting.
Specify Aggregation Properties for a Data Item
When working with relational data sources and list reports, for each data item in a
report, you can specify detail and summary aggregation properties to manage
summaries without having to create complex data item expressions.
Procedure
1. Click the data item for which to set detail or summary aggregation.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, set the Detail
aggregation or the Summary aggregation property to a function.
Use Summary Functions in Data Item Expressions
You can use summary functions in data item expressions. The summary functions
in the expression editor that have the same name as the summary functions
available through the Detail aggregation and Summary aggregation properties
operate the same way. For example, in a relational report, setting the Detail
aggregation property to Total is the same as changing the expression of the data
item to total ( [Revenue] ).
In general, report maintenance is easier if the Detail aggregation and Summary
aggregation properties are used rather than adding summary functions to data
item expressions. Use summary functions in expressions if the required summary
is not supported as an aggregate or rollup aggregate property or if the complexity
of the expression cannot be managed using the data item properties. Add a
summary function to a data item expression if one of the following conditions
applies:
v The underlying data source is relational, and you want to use database
vendor-specific summary functions.
v You want to use summary functions that require more than one parameter, such
as percentile.
v You require summary expressions that are not available in the aggregation
properties, such as a for clause. You should use for clauses only in relational
style reports (list reports).
For example, your report uses Product line, Product type, and Quantity. You want
to calculate the percentage of the parent quantity that is represented by each
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product type. This requires you to compare the total quantity for each product
type to the total quantity for the parent product line. In other words, your
expression requires summaries at different group levels. You use summary
functions, such as aggregate, in the data item expression with a for clause to
specify the group level as follows:
[Quantity] / aggregate ([Quantity] for [Product line])
In some cases, you may need a summary that is different from the default. For
example, if the default summary for Quantity is total, you can calculate the
average as follows:
[Quantity] / average ( aggregate ([Quantity]) for [Product line])
The inner summary gives you the expected Quantity values at the Product Type
level, which are then averaged to the Product Line level. This two-stage
aggregation is required for OLAP data sources and recommended for relational
data sources also.
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Why is this necessary? Here's what would happen if you simply averaged
Quantity, as follows:
[Quantity] / average([Quantity] for [Product line])
The denominator is now computed as the average of the detail Quantity rows in
the underlying fact table. Since these values are much smaller than the
pre-summarized Quantity values you see in the report, the resulting percentage is
far too big, and not what we wanted.
Tip: The Total Revenue by Country or Region sample report in the GO Data
Warehouse (query) package includes a total summary function.
Procedure
1. Click a data item.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, double-click
the Expression property and add summary functions to the expression for the
data item.
Related concepts:
“Limitations When Using Clauses in Summary Functions” on page 430
A summary function that uses a for clause may yield unexpected results. These
may include error messages, warnings, incorrect numbers, and more or fewer than
expected rows, columns, or chart points and lines.
Summary Functions
This section describes the summary functions that are available in IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting. Some functions, such as Custom, are available only when
you click the Summarize icon
in the report object toolbar. Additional
summary functions are available in the expression editor.
Default summary
Depending on the type of data item, applies the function None, Summarize, or
Calculated based on the context in which the data item appears.
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Calculated is applied if the data item expression
v contains a summary function
v is an if then else or case expression that contains a reference to at least a
modeled measure in its condition
v contains a reference to a model calculation or to a measure that has the Regular
Aggregate property set to a value other than Unsupported
v contains a reference to at least one data item that has the Summary aggregation
property set to a value other than None
If the underlying data source is relational and if the data item expression contains
no summary functions and a reference to at least one fact that has the Regular
Aggregate property set to a value other than Unsupported, Summarize is applied.
In all other contexts, None is applied.
For relational and dimensionally modeled relational (DMR) data sources, if this
function is applied to a data item expression that has the average function,
weighted averages are computed based on the lowest level detail values in the
data source.
Note: This is the default function.
Average
Adds all existing values and then divides by the count of existing values.
Calculated
Specifies that all the terms within the expression for a data item are aggregated
according to their own rollup rules, and then the results of those aggregations are
computed within the overall expression.
For example, a list contains the data item Quantity with the Detail aggregation
property set to Total. You add a query calculation named Quantity Calculated. You
define its expression as Quantity + 100 and you set its Detail aggregation property
to Calculated. When you run the report, the values for Quantity Calculated are
computed by first adding all values for Quantity and then adding 100 to each
value.
Note: In crosstabs, this function overrides any solve orders that are specified.
Count
Counts all existing values.
If the underlying data source is dimensionally modeled relational (DMR), Count
behaves as follows if it is specified in the Detail aggregation or Summary
aggregation property for a data item.
Object
Behavior
Level
Count distinct is used. A warning appears
when you validate the report.
Member set
Count distinct is used. A warning appears
when you validate the report.
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Object
Behavior
Attribute
Supported.
Measure
Supported.
If you add the count summary to a non-fact column in a list and then group the
column, the column will not be grouped when you run the report. To resolve this
issue, group the column first before adding the count summary.
Count Distinct
Returns the total number of unique non-null records.
If the underlying data source is dimensionally modeled relational (DMR), count
distinct is supported for levels, member sets, attributes, and measures when it is
specified in the Detail aggregation or Summary aggregation property for a data
item.
Custom
Summarizes data based on an expression that you define.
Maximum
Selects the largest existing value.
Median
Returns the median value of the selected data item.
Minimum
Selects the smallest existing value.
None
Does not aggregate values.
If the underlying data source is relational, the data item is grouped when the
query property Auto group & summarize is set to Yes.
Not applicable
This function is available only for the Detail aggregation property. It specifies that
the aggregate attribute is ignored. For example, the calculation will be applied after
the data is aggregated.
This function differs from the Calculated function, which applies aggregation to
the rows and then performs the calculation.
For example, for the average ( [Quantity] ) + 5 expression, when the Detail
aggregation property is set to Not applicable, five is added to the average of the
single Quantity value. When the function is set to Calculated, five is added to the
average of a set of numbers.
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This setting should not be applied to a simple model reference.
This setting is relevant only for reports that are upgraded from IBM Cognos
ReportNet 1.x.
Standard Deviation
Returns the standard deviation of the selected data item.
Note: From a mathematical perspective, this function is not useful for small
numbers of items and is not supported if the query property Auto group &
summarize is set to Yes.
Summarize
Aggregates data based on model or data type information. This function can be
thought of as a calculate and then aggregate rule. Data is aggregated using the
following rules:
If the underlying data source type is relational and the data item or calculation is a
reference to a single fact query item in the model that has the Regular Aggregate
property set to Sum, Maximum, Minimum, Average, or Count, aggregate data
using this function. Otherwise, data is aggregated according to the data type of the
data item as follows:
v
v
Total is applied for numeric and interval values.
Maximum is applied for date, time, and date-time values.
v
Count is applied for everything else.
The underlying data source type can be dimensional and the data item or
calculation a reference to a single item in the model. In this case, if the Regular
Aggregate property of the model item is not unknown, the summary function that
corresponds to the Regular Aggregate property is applied. If the Regular
Aggregate property is unknown, set the function to Calculated.
For example, a list contains the data item Quantity with the Detail aggregation
property set to Average. You add a query calculation named Quantity Summarize.
You define its expression as Quantity + 100 and you set its Detail aggregation
property to Summarize. When you run the report, the values for Quantity
Summarize are computed by first adding 100 to each value for Quantity and then
calculating the total. The total is calculated because Quantity contains numeric
values and the expression for Quantity Summarize is not a simple data item
reference. If Quantity Summarize is defined as Quantity, the function Average is
applied to each value.
Total
Adds all existing values.
Variance
Returns the variance of the selected data item.
Note: From a mathematical perspective, this function is not useful for small
numbers of items and is not supported if the query property Auto group &
summarize is set to Yes.
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Mapping Aggregation Functions From Data Sources to
Framework Manager and Reporting
The summary functions available in IBM Cognos Framework Manager and IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting reflect summary functions supported by relational
and dimensional data sources. The following table shows how summary functions
in data sources are mapped to Framework Manager and Reporting.
Data source
Framework Manager
Reporting
None specified, or none
Unsupported
None
average (avg)
Average
Average
count
Count
Count
count distinct
Count Distinct
Count distinct
maximum (max)
Maximum
Maximum
minimum (min)
Minimum
Minimum
median
Median
Median
standard deviation (stddev)
Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation
sum
Sum
Total
variance (var)
Variance
Variance
count non zero
Count Non-Zero
Automatic
average non zero
unknown
Automatic
external
unknown
Automatic
any
unknown
Automatic
calculated
unknown
Automatic
unknown
unknown
Automatic
first_period
unknown
Automatic
last_period
unknown
Automatic
The following summary functions exist only in either Framework Manager or
Reporting. There is no corresponding summary function in data sources.
Framework Manager
Reporting
Automatic
Automatic
Calculated
Calculated
No corresponding summary function
Summarize
No corresponding summary function
Not Applicable
Focusing Relational Data
You can limit the data in your report with filters or query parameters. The method
you choose should depend on the capabilities of the data source, the performance
requirements, the persistence of the dataset, and how complex you want the report
to be.
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, summary and detail filters are best for list
reports in the relational reporting style. Summary filters are applied to summaries
and detail filters are applied to details. These filters remove rows and columns
from your reports.
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You can also use prompts, or prompt controls, to allow report users to provide
input for the filter.
Create a detail or summary filter
Add a filter expression to focus a report and minimize processing time by
excluding unwanted data. For example, you can filter data to show only customers
who placed purchase orders that were valued at over one thousand dollars during
the past year. When you run the report, you see only the filtered data.
Detail filters are applied only to detail data items from the data source, and not to
summary data items. Examples of detail data items include customer names,
product numbers, and order numbers. Detail filters are Boolean expressions that
apply one or more conditions and evaluate to either true or false. If the conditions
are true for a row of data, the row is retrieved from the data source and appears in
your report. If the conditions are false, the row is not retrieved and does not
appear in your report. You can specify whether detail filters are applied before or
after summaries using the Application property.
Tip: The 2011 Sales Summary sample report in the GO Sales (analysis) package
includes a detail filter.
Summary filters are applied to summary data items in a report. They are also
Boolean expressions, however they are used to exclude specific groups of data
items based on the group summaries. They are based on summary calculations.
You can combine multiple conditions using AND, OR, and NOT operators. By
default, multiple conditions are combined with an AND operator, which means
that all conditions must be met for the filter to take effect.
For relational data sources, if a filter expression is used in multiple reports or by
different report authors, ask your modeler to create the filter as a standalone object
in the model and include it in the relevant package. For information about creating
filters in the package, see the IBM Cognos Framework Manager User Guide.
If you are filtering a multiple-fact query, you should understand the differences
between using a detail filter and summary filter.
If you filter values that are floating-point numbers, you may encounter imprecise
filtering results due to rounding or data truncation. Floating-point numbers may
appear differently in the report than how than how they are stored in the data
source. To ensure accurate results, your filter criteria should account for any
rounding issues.
If you are working with a Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) data
source, we recommend that you not use OR filters in summaries. Doing so causes
error characters (--) to appear in summaries instead of values.
Procedure
1. To add a filter that was already created in the package, click the Data icon
and from the Source tab
, drag the filter
,
to the report.
You must drag the filter to a data container object that is linked to a query,
such as a list, crosstab, or chart.
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2. To create your own filter, select the item in the report that you want to filter
on, and in the toolbar that appears, click the Filters icon
, and then click
one of the following options.
v To create a simple filter condition based on only one data item, click Create
Custom Filter, and then go to step 6.
v To create a more complex filter, click Edit Filters.
If more than one query is defined in the report, you must first select a data
container object that is linked to a query.
Tip: You can also define filters in Query explorer. Click the Queries icon
and click a query.
,
3. In the Filters dialog box, decide what type of filter to create:
v To add a filter that will apply to detail values, click the Detail Filters tab.
v To add a filter that will apply to summary values, click the Summary
Filters tab.
4. Click the add button
.
5. In the Create filter dialog box, decide what conditions to include in the filter:
v To create a simple filter condition based on only one data item, click
Custom based on data item, select a data item from the query, and click
OK.
v To combine multiple filter conditions, click Combined, and click OK.
v To create a filter condition that uses advanced calculations, click Advanced,
and click OK.
6. If you create a simple filter condition based on one data item, do the
following:
a. In the Filter condition window, select whether you want to keep or
exclude the values that you are going to select.
b. In the values box, choose the values that you want to filter on.
If you are filtering numeric values, click the Comparison tab to create a
comparison filter, or click the Range tab to create a range filter.
c. If you want to allow report consumers to change the filter when the report
is run, select the Can be changed in the viewer check box.
Note: Report consumers can change the filter only if the report is fully
interactive.
d. To include missing values, select the Include missing values (NULL)
check box.
e. To apply the filter to individual records in the data source, select the
Apply to individual values in the data source check box.
f. If you want to parameterize the filter so that users are prompted when
they run the report, select the Prompt for values when report is run in
viewer check box.
Tip: If you leave the Prompt for values check box selected (the default)
and run a report that contains the same parameter name that appears in
your My parameters panel, you are not prompted to provide a value for
the parameter. The system automatically uses the default values that were
set for the user’s role. Even if the parameter on the report is optional, the
default value for the global parameter is passed.
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g. Click OK.
7. If you create a Combined filter, do the following:
a. In the Create filter dialog box, select the data item for the first filter
condition and click OK.
b. In the Filter condition dialog box, specify the details for the first condition
and click OK.
c. Click the new condition button
and, in the Create filter dialog box,
select the data item for the second filter condition and click OK.
d. In the Filter condition dialog box, specify the details for the second
condition and click OK.
e. In the Combined filter dialog box, use the AND, OR, and NOT operators
to combine the filter conditions. Select the conditions that you want to
combine, and click an operator. To change an operator, double-click the
operator to toggle among available ones or select the operator and then
select a different one from the list.
f. Click OK.
8. If you create an Advanced filter condition, in the Filter expression dialog box,
define the filter expression:
a. To add data items that are not shown in the report, on the Source tab
, double-click data items.
b. To add data items that are in the report but not necessarily in the model
(such as calculations), on the Data items tab
, double-click data items.
c. To add data items from a specific query in the report, on the Queries tab
, double-click data items.
d. To add functions, summaries, and operators, on the Functions tab
,
double-click elements. You can insert only functions that return a Boolean
value (true or false). For example, you cannot insert the function topCount
because it returns a set of data. Filter expressions must resolve to a
Boolean in order to be valid.
e. To add a value that is derived from a parameter, on the Parameters tab
, double-click the parameter. Parameters define prompts, drill-through
reports, and master detail relationships.
f. To add a macro, on the Macros tab
, double-click the parameter maps,
session parameters, or macro functions you want to add to the macro
expression.
Tip: Use Insert macro block to get you started with creating the macro
expression. Insert macro block inserts number signs in the expression.
Make sure that the macro expression you create is between the number
signs.
g. Click the Validate icon
and click OK.
h. Click OK.
Tip: You can also type the filter expression directly in the Expression
Definition box. When typing date values, use the YYYY-MM-DD format.
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For more information about creating expressions, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206.
9. In the Usage box, specify whether the filter is required, optional, or not to be
used.
10. If you create a detail filter, under Application, click one of the following
options:
v To apply the filter to individual records in the data source, click Before auto
aggregation.
For example, for a specific product type within a product line, you want to
filter out individual orders that generated less than one thousand dollars in
revenue.
v To apply the filter to data after the query has grouped and summarized at
the lowest level of detail, click After auto aggregation.
For example, you want to filter out the product types that generated less
than ten thousand dollars in revenue within a product line.
For example, you have a list that contains the data items Product line, Product
type, and Revenue. The revenue values you see are aggregated to the product
type level. If you create a detail filter on Revenue and you choose to filter
values before auto aggregation, you are filtering non-aggregated revenue
values. If you choose to filter values after auto aggregation, you are filtering
revenue values aggregated to the product type level.
11. If you want to allow report consumers to change the detail filter when the
report is run, select the Can be changed in the viewer check box.
12. If you create a summary filter, under Scope, click the ellipsis button and select
the grouping level at which to apply the filter.
For example, a revenue report is grouped on product line and product type.
You can choose to filter total revenue for either the product line or product
type level.
If the query in which you are creating the summary filter is linked to more
than one data container, the data item that you select as the grouping level
must be grouped in all data containers linked to the query. Otherwise, the
report will not run successfully.
Tip: To filter at the overall level, do not click a level. For example, if a report
has an overall footer that shows the total revenue for all products, by not
choosing a level you will apply the filter to the footer. In addition, if you are
using a dimensional data source, excluding a parent level excludes its
children, and excluding all children excludes the parent.
13.
To show filter text in a report, click a data container to which you
added a filter, and in the toolbar that appears, click the Filters icon
then click Insert Filter Text.
, and
a. Click the filter text block that appears.
b. Click the Show properties icon
.
c. To specify how to display filter text for detail filters, click the Display
detail filter text property and choose one of the available options.
d. To specify how to display filter text for summary filters, click the Display
summary filter text property and choose one of the available options.
14. Repeat step 12 to show filter text for other data containers that are linked to a
different query.
Related concepts:
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“Limited and fully interactive reports” on page 25
Reports can run in limited interactivity or full interactivity mode.
Edit or remove a filter
After you created filters, you can edit or remove them.
Procedure
1. Click a data container object that contains a filter.
2. To remove all filters from the object, in the report object toolbar, click the
Filters icon
and click Remove All Filters.
3. To edit a filter or remove a single filter, in the report object toolbar, click the
Filters icon
and click Edit Filters.
Tip: You can also edit filters from the Query explorer. Click the Queries icon
, and click the query that contains your filter.
Browse or Search the Values of a Data Item
When building expressions in the expression editor, you can browse the data of a
data item. This is useful when you do not know how a particular value is stored in
the database. For example, you want to filter a report so that it shows data for
only New South Wales. The actual value in the database for New South Wales is
NSW, and this is what you must insert in the filter expression to obtain the correct
results.
Procedure
1. In the source, data items, or query tab, right-click the data item you want to
browse.
2. If you want to insert a single value, click Select Value
.
3. If you want to insert multiple values, click Select Multiple Values
.
4. In the Values box, click the value you want to insert in the expression.
Tip: Use the Keywords box to search for specific values. If you select Use Tab
as keyword delimiter, you can add a tab in the Keywords box only by copying
and pasting a tab (or the string you want to search on with a tab in it), from
another application, such as Notepad. If the data source is case sensitive and
you want to perform a case insensitive search, click the Search arrow and then
click Case Insensitive.
5. If you clicked multiple values, click the right arrow button
the Selected values box.
to add them to
6. Click Insert.
Tip: To control where values appear in the Expression Definition box, you can
click the copy button
if you selected a single value or the copy all button
if you selected multiple values instead. The values are copied to the clipboard,
and you can then paste them where you want.
Related concepts:
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“Searching for values might return unexpected results” on page 404
In the expression editor, when searching for values for a data item, the results you
obtain might contain unexpected results if the data item is not a string data type.
Because you can edit the expression for a data item, IBM Cognos Analytics cannot
determine with certainty what the data type is.
Ignoring the Time Component in Date Columns
Database systems use Date, Time, and Timestamp to represent date and time
values. While a timestamp type holds a date and time component, an application
may allow the RDBMS to default the time component. When rows are inserted,
updated, or queried, the application may specify only a date value and leave the
RDBMS to extend the value to include a default time (usually 00:00:00.000).
The challenge with a timestamp is when the application has no immediate interest
in the time component. For example, the business question How many orders were
taken today? implies all orders taken irrespective of what time the order was
booked. If the application defaulted the time component as it stored rows, the
query that was used to answer the question returns the count of orders taken
today. If the application stored the actual time component, the query likely returns
no data, because the number of orders entered at midnight is probably zero.
Relying on the time defaults can be dangerous if the application changes and starts
to capture actual times. To avoid this problem, you can
v
truncate the time by creating a derived column
v
convert the timestamp to a date
v
create a hi-low filter
Truncating the Time by Creating a Derived Column
In the IBM Cognos Framework Manager model, create a derived column using a
calculated expression that truncates the time from a timestamp, and returns a
timestamp containing the original date and a default time. For example, if you use
an Oracle data source, the following expression creates the derived column
DATEONLY from COL1, where COL1 contains the values as stored by the
application while DATEONLY contains the dates with the default time of 12:00:00
AM:
Select COL1,trunc(COL1) as DATEONLY from [SCOTT_TIGER].DATES
Tip: You can change the data format of the column to show only the date value by
setting the Date Style property to Short.
You can then apply filters to the DATEONLY column that would return the correct
results. If you create a parameter in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting that filters
on this column, the default prompt will present a date and time control because
the data type is still a timestamp.
Converting the Timestamp to a Date
In the IBM Cognos Framework Manager model, define a calculation that uses the
cast function to convert the timestamp to a date. For example, the following
expression converts the data type of the column COL1 to date:
cast ([SCOTT_TIGER].[DATES].[COL1],DATE)
If you create a parameter in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting that filters on this
calculation, the default prompt presents a date control.
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Ignoring the Time by Creating a Hi-Low Filter
You can create a hi-low filter to ignore the time. In the IBM Cognos Framework
Manager model, create a filter in the form date-column between date-lowtime and
date-hightime. For example, the following expression returns all values between
00:00:00:000 and 23:59:59:000 for a given day:
[SCOTT_TIGER].[DATES].[COL1] between?p1? and
cast(substring(?p1?,1,10),’23:59.59.000’,timestamp)
Sorting Relational Data
You can sort items to view them in your preferred order. By default, IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting retrieves items in the order defined in the data source. OLAP
data sources always have a defined order. Relational and dimensionally-modeled
relational data sources may not always have a defined order. The data modeler
defines the sorting options in the model.
For more information about data modeling, see the IBM Cognos Framework
Manager User Guide. Sorting applied in Reporting applies only to the layout within
the report.
You can sort items in a list in ascending or descending order based on a value or a
label, such as revenue or employee name. You can also perform advanced sorting
to sort columns within groups or to sort a row or column using another data item.
Tip: The Sales Growth Year Over Year sample report in the GO Data Warehouse
(analysis) package includes sorting.
Procedure
1. Click the column or row on which to sort.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the Sort icon
Descending.
and click Ascending or
An arrow appears beside the data item to indicate that a sort order was set.
When you specify a sort order for more than one column, the columns are
sorted in the order in which they were inserted in the report. For example, you
add columns A, B, and C to a report and specify a sort order for each. When
you run the report, column A is sorted first, then column B, and then column
C. You can change the order in which the columns are sorted in the Edit
Layout Sorting options.
Tip: To remove a sort order, click Don't Sort.
Perform Advanced Layout Sorting
If you use relational data, in a list, you can sort columns within groups and change
the sort order of columns. In a crosstab, you can sort a row or column by another
item, such as Order year by Revenue.
Procedure
1. Click a column.
In a crosstab, click the sorted row or column on which to perform advanced
sorting.
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2. In the report object toolbar, click the Sort icon
and click Edit Layout
Sorting.
3. To sort a list column within a group, do the following:
v In the Groups pane, under the Groups folder, expand the folder of the
grouped column.
v In the Data items pane, drag the data items to sort to the Sort list folder.
Tip: You can also drag data items from the Detail Sort List folder.
v Click the Sort order icon
to specify ascending or descending order.
4. To change the sort order of columns, in the Groups pane, change the order of
columns in the Sort list folder of a group or in the Detail Sort List folder.
Tip: Add items to the Detail Sort List folder to sort items that are not groups.
5. If you are sorting a crosstab, do the following:
v From the Data items pane, drag the item on which to sort to the Sort List
pane.
For example, you have a crosstab with Product line as rows, Order year as
columns, and Revenue as the measure. To sort Order year by Revenue, drag
Revenue to the Sort List pane.
v Click the Sort order icon to specify ascending or descending order.
Working with Relational Queries
Queries specify what data appears in the report. In IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, you create and modify queries using Query Explorer.
Query Explorer provides an alternative way to modify existing reports or to
author new reports. You can use Query Explorer to perform complex tasks and
other tasks that are more difficult to do in the report layout. For example, use
Query Explorer to
v improve performance by changing the order in which items are queried from the
database, or by changing query properties to allow the report server to execute
queries concurrently where possible
Note: Only queries that are referenced in the report layout can be executed
concurrently. If a query is defined in Query Explorer by joining two or more
existing queries, IBM Cognos Analytics cannot execute the source queries
concurrently. By default, queries run sequentially. Your administrator must
enable the concurrent query execution feature. For more information, see the
IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
v view or add filters and parameters and modify their properties
v view or add dimensions, levels, and facts
v incorporate SQL statements that come from other reports or reports that you
write
v create complex queries using set operations and joins
Related concepts:
“Queries” on page 8
Queries determine what data items appear in the report. Sometimes you want
detailed rows of data, which you obtain by using a simple SELECT statement.
Other times you must calculate totals or averages using summary functions and
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grouped columns or must apply filters to show only the data you want.
Specify a List of Data Items for an Object
Specify the list of data items for an object when you must reference a data item
that is in a query but is not in the layout.
For example, you want to add a layout calculation to a list that uses a data item
that is in the query definition. If the data item does not appear in the list, you
must reference it in order to make the layout calculation work. You must also
specify the list of data items if you apply conditional formatting that uses a data
item that is not in the query.
Procedure
1. Click a layout object.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, double-click
the Properties property and select data items.
Relate a Query to a Layout
Queries and layouts work together. After you decide the type of data that you
need, you must create a layout in which to show the results. Each column of data
must be both selected for the query and shown in a layout unless there are some
columns that you do not want to show. The query and layout portions of a report
must be linked to produce a valid report.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically links query and layout. For
example, when you use Reporting and the list report layout, query and layout are
automatically linked.
Procedure
1. Select a data container.
2. Click the Show properties icon
property to a query.
, and in the Properties pane, set the Query
3. Click the Data icon
, click the Data items tab
items from the query to the data container.
, and drag data
Connecting Queries Between Different Data Sources
This section lists the data sources between which you can and cannot connect
queries.
IBM Cognos Analytics supports the following:
v RDBMS to RDBMS joins
v set operations of any two queries
v master detail relationships between any two queries
v drill from any query to any other query
You cannot create the following types of joins:
v cube-to-cube (homogeneous)
v cube-to-cube (heterogeneous)
v cube-to-RDBMS
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v cube-to-SAP BW
v SAP-BW-to-RDBMS
Add a Query to a Relational Report
You can create multiple queries in Query Explorer to suit your particular needs.
For example, you can create a separate query for each data container in a report to
show different data.
Tip: The Briefing Book sample report in the GO Sales (analysis) package and the
Top 10 Retailers for 2011 sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package include multiple queries.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and click Queries.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
area.
and drag one of the following objects to the work
Object
Description
Query
Adds a query.
Join
Adds a join relationship.
Union
Adds a union operator.
Intersect
Adds an intersect operator.
Except
Adds an except (minus) operator.
SQL
Adds SQL commands.
Note: When adding queries to the report
v right-click the work area and click Show Package Sources to see the queries
that use data items from a package
v right-click the work area and click Expand References to see the
relationships that exist between queries in the report, which is useful when
you are creating complex queries
3. Click the Show properties icon
properties.
, and In the Properties pane, set the object
For example, if you added a join, set the Join relationships property to define
the join.
4. Double-click a query.
5. Click the Data icon
the Data Items pane.
, and from the Source tab
, drag data items to
Tip: You can add data items to the query that you do not want to appear in
the layout. For example, to filter on Product line code and show Product line in
the layout, you must add both data items to the query.
6. To create a new data item, click the Toolbox icon
the Data Items pane.
and drag Data Item to
7. To add a filter, click the Toolbox icon, drag Filter to the Detail Filters or
Summary Filters pane and define the filter expression.
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Tip: You can also create a filter by clicking the Data icon, dragging a data item
from the Source tab to one of the filters panes, and completing the filter
expression.
Create a Union Query
Create a union query to combine two or more queries into one result set.
You can combine queries that use different data sources. For example, you can
combine a query that returns data from a dimensional data source with a query
that returns data from a relational data source.
Before you begin
To combine two queries, the following conditions must be met:
v The two queries must have the same number of data items.
v The data items must have compatible types and appear in the same order.
For numeric data types, integer, float, double, and decimal are compatible.
For string data types, char, varChar, and longVarChar are compatible.
For binary data types, binary and varBinary are compatible.
Date data types must match exactly.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
2. Click the Toolbox icon
, and click Queries.
, and do the following:
v Drag Query to the work area.
v Drag Union, Intersect, or Except to the right of the query.
Two drop zones appear to the right of the operator.
v Drag a Query object to each drop zone.
Two queries are created in the work area, and a shortcut to each query
appears in the drop zones.
3. Double-click each query that makes up the union query and add data items to
the query.
4. Return to the Queries work area.
5. Click the set operator that you added in step 2.
6. Click the Show properties icon
, and In the Properties pane, set the
Duplicates property to remove or preserve duplicate rows.
7. Double-click the Projection list property.
The projection list shows the list of projected data items for the set operation.
8. To automatically produce the list of projected data items, click Automatically
generated.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting generates the projection list using only one
of the two queries in the union.
9. To add, delete, move, or rename data items in the projection list, click Manual
and make the changes.
10. Double-click the union query.
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11. Click the Data icon
Data Items pane.
, and from the Source tab
, drag data items to the
Results
The union query is complete. You can now link the union query to a data
container in the layout.
Create a Join Relationship
You can create a join relationship to join two queries.
In general, join relationships should be created in the IBM Cognos Framework
Manager model. Create a join relationship in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting if
what you are trying to do cannot be modeled in Framework Manager.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and click Queries.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
and do the following:
v Drag Query to the work area.
v Drag Join to the right of the query.
Two drop zones appear to the right of the operator.
v Drag a Query object to each drop zone.
Two queries are created in the work area, and a shortcut to each query
appears in the drop zones.
3. Double-click each query that makes up the join query and add data items to
the query.
4. Return to the Queries work area.
5. Click Join.
6. Click the Show properties icon
the Join relationships property.
, and in the Properties pane, double-click
7. Click New Link.
8. To create the link, click a data item in the left query, and then click a data item
in the right query.
9. For each query, click Cardinality and click a cardinality option.
10. Click Operator and click an operator.
11. To convert the join relationship to an expression, click Convert to expression.
Convert the join relationship to an expression to make changes to the join
definition.
Note: After you convert the relationship to an expression, you cannot change
it back to a relationship.
12. Double-click the join query.
13. Click the Data icon
, and from the Source tab
to the Data Items pane.
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, drag data items
Results
The join query is complete. You can now link the join query to a data container in
the layout.
Reference a Package Item in a Child Query
When you create a child query in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, you can only
reference items from its parent or from other queries. For example, if you add a
filter to a child query, the only items that you can insert into the expression are
items that exist in other queries defined in the report. To add an item from the
package, you must unlink the child query from its parent.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and click Queries.
2. Unlink the child query from its parent by selecting the parent query shortcut to
the right of the child query and pressing the Delete key.
3. Double-click the child query.
Items are now available on the Source tab
.
4. Add items.
For example, to create a detail filter that references a package item, click the
Toolbox icon
drag the filter object to the Detail Filters pane, and then add
the items in the Expression Definition box.
5. Recreate the link between the child query and the parent query by dragging the
parent query to the right of the child query.
6. If necessary, double-click the child query to complete it.
For example, if you created a filter, you may need to complete the filter
expression.
Create a Master Detail Relationship
Create a master detail relationship to deliver information that would otherwise
require two or more reports. For example, you can combine a list with a chart. The
list can contain product lines and the chart can show details for each product line.
Master detail relationships must appear in nested frames to produce the correct
results. You can create a master detail relationship in two ways:
v Use a parent frame for the master query and a nested frame for the detail query.
v Associate a report page with the master query and use a data container, such as
a list or crosstab, for the detail query.
You cannot display parent data in the child frame or child data in the parent
frame. Also, you cannot perform calculations across master detail queries.
You can use a master detail relationship to show data from separate data sources
in a single report. However, the data sources must be contained in the same
package.
With the dynamic query mode, master detail reports with a crosstab report object
are optimized to use a single query whenever possible, rather than a separate
query for each report object instance.
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Procedure
1. To use a parent frame for the master query and a nested frame for the detail
query:
v Click the Toolbox icon
and drag a List, Repeater Table, or Repeater to
the report.
v Add a second data container to the object you inserted.
You can insert a list, crosstab, chart, repeater table, or repeater into a list.
You can add a list to a repeater table or repeater.
v Add data items to both data containers.
2. To associate a report page with the master query and use a data container for
the detail query:
v Click anywhere in the report page.
v Click the Show properties icon
Select ancestor icon
, and In the Properties pane, click the
and click Page.
v Set the Query property.
v Click the Toolbox icon and drag a data container to the report.
3. To link a data item in the master query to a parameter in the detail query
instead of to another data item, create the parameter in the detail query.
Use parameters to filter values at a lower level in the detail query.
v Click the Queries icon
, and double-click the detail query.
v Click the Toolbox icon and drag the Filter object to the Detail Filters box.
v In the Expression Definition box, create the parameter.
4. Click Pages icon
, and click the report page.
5. Select the data container containing the details.
6. In the report object toolbar, click the More icon
Relationships.
and click Master Detail
7. Click New Link.
8. In the Master box, click the data item that will provide the primary
information.
9. To link the master query to a data item, in the Detail box, click the data item
that will provide the detailed information.
10. To link the master query to a parameter, in the Parameters box, click the
parameter that will provide the detailed information.
Tip: To delete a link, select the link and press the Delete key.
11. If your detail query object is a chart, you can disconnect a chart title from the
master query.
v Click the chart title, and in the report object toolbar, click the More icon and
click Master Detail Relationships.
v Clear the Use the master detail relationships from the chart check box.
12. If your master detail relationship includes a chart as the detail and you are
using automatic axis ranges, you can set the same axis range for all the detail
charts:
v Select the axis.
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v In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Axis range
property.
v Under Maximum and Minimum, click Automatic.
The master detail report option is only available with automatic axis ranges.
v Under Master detail reports, select the Same range for all instances of
chart check box.
For more information about axis ranges, see “Change the axis scale of a
current default chart” on page 95.
Tip: To avoid seeing the same data item twice in the report, click the data
item in the data container driven by the detail query, click the More icon and
click Cut. This removes the item from the report display but keeps it in the
query.
Master Detail or Burst Reports with Charts or Crosstabs May
Result in Denial of Service
When running a master detail or burst report that includes a chart or crosstab, disk
space exhaustion may cause the report or other requests to fail. A large set of burst
keys or master rows may produce one or more charts per detail, resulting in many
master detail executions. This may cause the temp folder to accumulate many
gigabytes of temporary files containing data required for successful chart
rendering.
To avoid this issue, we recommend that you test large master detail or burst
reports that include charts or crosstabs to determine the potential peak disk
requirements for the report.
Working with Queries in SQL
For each query in a report, you can work with the SQL that is executed when you
run a report.
You can
v
view the SQL for an entire report or a query
v
build a report using your own SQL
v
convert a report to use SQL directly
v
edit the SQL
When working with a relational data source, the SQL that is produced by IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting depends on the report output selected.
Note: MDX is not available with relational or DMR data sources.
View the SQL for an Entire Report or a Query
View the SQL to see what is passed to the database when you run a report.
Procedure
1. To view the SQL for the entire report, click the Queries icon
Report icon
, right-click the
, and click Show Generated SQL/MDX.
This option shows the SQL that will be executed in the data source. The SQL is
organized by query and by query result. If a query is used in more than one
data container, a query result is generated for each data container.
2. To view the SQL for a specific query, do the following:
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v Click the Queries icon, and click the query.
v Click the Show properties icon
, and In the Properties pane,
double-click the Generated SQL property.
The Generated SQL property shows the SQL that is executed when you view
tabular data (right-click the query and click View Tabular Data). Tabular data
shows the data that is produced by the query in the form of a list. You can use
this property to help you build advanced queries.
Results
The SQL for the query appears in the Generated SQL dialog box. You can choose
to view native SQL, which is the SQL that is passed to the database when you
execute the query, or IBM Cognos SQL, which is a generic form of SQL that IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting uses. Cognos SQL is converted to native SQL before
the query is executed.
Build a Report Using Your Own SQL
You can build a report by adding SQL from an external source, such as another
report.
If you edit the SQL of a query, you must change the Processing property for that
query to Limited Local.
Procedure
1. Create a new report and choose the Blank template.
2. Click the Queries icon
, and click Queries.
3. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Query to the work area.
4. Click the Toolbox icon, and to build an SQL query, drag SQL to the right of
the query.
Tip: You can drag SQL anywhere in the work area, and IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting will automatically create a query.
5. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, double-click
the Data source property and click a data source.
6. If required, set the Catalog property to the name of the catalog.
7. Double-click the SQL property and type the SQL.
8. Click Validate to check for errors.
9. Select the query, and In the Properties pane, set the Processing property to
Limited Local.
10. Double-click the query.
If the SQL is valid, the data items defined in the SQL appear in the Data
Items pane.
11. Click the Pages icon
, and click a report page.
12. Click the Toolbox icon and drag an object to the work area.
For example, drag a list, crosstab, chart, or repeater.
13. Click the data container.
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14. In the Properties pane, click the select ancestor button
container you just created.
For example, if you created a list, click List.
and click the
Tip: You can also click the container selector (three orange dots) of the
container to select it.
15. Set the Query property to the query for the report type.
16. Click the Data icon
, and from the Data items tab
, drag the
items from the query you chose in the previous step to the data container.
Convert a Query to SQL
You can convert a query to SQL to edit it. You may want to do this to improve
performance or to use SQL features that are not supported directly by IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting.
Converting a query to SQL is an irreversible process.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
and click the query.
2. Click the Show properties icon
the Generated SQL property.
, and in the Properties pane, double-click
3. Click Convert.
4. Click Validate to check for errors.
5. Select the query, and In the Properties pane, set the Processing property to
Limited Local.
Edit the SQL
You can edit the SQL for a query that has been created as an SQL query or that has
been converted to SQL.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and double-click the SQL item under the query.
2. Make changes in the SQL window.
3. Click Validate to check for errors.
First-Rows Optimization
The SQL produced by IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting depends on the report
format you choose. For example, if you specify HTML format, first-rows
optimization is requested. All-rows is requested if you specify PDF.
It is important for database administrators and programmers to remember that
Reporting does not always use first-rows optimization. If you assume first-rows
optimization is always requested, this can cause the RDBMS optimizer to process
the query differently than you expect.
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Using relational calculations
Insert a calculation to make your report more meaningful by deriving additional
information from the data source. For example, you create an invoice report, and
you want to see the total sale amount for each product ordered. Create a calculated
column that multiplies the product price by the quantity ordered.
You build calculations in the expression editor using functions.
If a calculation is used in multiple reports, or by different report authors, ask your
modeler to create the calculation as a standalone object in the model and include it
in the relevant package.
You can add calculations to lists, crosstabs, and all other data containers. You can
also add calculations directly to a page header, body, or footer. However, you must
first associate a query to the page. For more information, see “Add a page to a
report” on page 379
Units of Measure
When creating calculations in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting and IBM Cognos
Query Studio, you may encounter problems with the units of measure. For
example, the calculation Cost*Cost returns the unit of measure * instead of a
currency unit of measure. To avoid this problem, change the format of the
corresponding column to obtain the desired unit of measure.
Calculation Solve Order
When calculations in the rows and columns of a report intersect, calculations are
performed in the following order: addition or subtraction, multiplication or
division, aggregation (rollup), and then the remaining arithmetic functions.
The remaining functions are as follows:
v absolute, round, round down, average, minimum, maximum, medium, count
v percentage, % difference (growth) or % of total
v rank, quartile, quantile, or percentile
If both calculations have the same precedence, for example, if they are both
business functions, then the row calculation takes precedence.
Limitations of Calculations
You should use only the expressions and functions available in Reporting, and
follow their syntax.
Minimal checking exists for calculations. If your calculation uses an invalid
expression, your report results may contain unexpected values.
In addition, you should define member summaries as follows:
summary_function (currentMeasure within set set_reference)
where set_reference is a level or set inserted from the Source tab
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Unless otherwise required, summary_function should be the aggregate function. If
you use an explicit summary function, you may encounter problems with
measures and scenario or account dimension members (such as profit margin,
distinct count, and so on) that have complex rollup rules, or members that do not
roll up.
Know your data, and confirm with the owner of the cube where overriding the
automatic aggregation is safe.
Because of these limitations, summaries of calculations may not provide reliable
values. For convenience, you may have to build reports where row summaries and
calculated member columns intersect. In such reports, these intersections may
contain unexpected values. In contrast, row calculations intersecting with column
aggregates using the aggregate function are safe because the calculation is
performed on the reliably summarized values.
Create a simple calculation
You can select items in your report and create simple calculations.
In addition to simple arithmetic calculations, you can perform the following
calculations:
Calculation
Description
Rollup
Summarizes, or rolls up, all the values in a
hierarchy.
%
Calculates the value of a selected item as a
percentage of another item.
% Growth
Calculates the difference between two items
as a percentage.
% Of Base
This calculation is only available if you
select two members from different
hierarchies, each from a different edge.
This calculation takes the first selected
member from edge A and the second
selected member from edge B. The
calculation result of a percent of base should
be such that all the values for member A
will compare itself to the intersect value of
member A and B.
Custom
Allows you to specify your own value when
performing a simple arithmetic calculation.
Also allows you to change the order of
operands or type a custom name for the
new calculated row or column.
Procedure
1. Select the items in your report to calculate.
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2. From the report object toolbar, click the insert calculation button
select the calculation to perform.
and
Tip: Calculations that are not applicable to the items you selected are grayed
out.
3. To change the order of the operands, the name of the calculated item added to
the report, or to create a custom calculation, click Custom.
Results
The calculation appears as a new row or column in your report.
Insert a Query Calculation
Insert a query calculation into your report to add a new row or column with
values that are based on a calculation.
For example, you create a query calculation named Euros that converts dollars to
euros by multiplying an existing dollar measure by a conversion rate. Euros can
then be displayed to end users in a separate row or column.
Note: When creating an expression that will be used in a double-byte
environment, such as Japanese, the only special characters that will work are
ASCII-7 and ~ -- || - $ ¢ £ ¬.
Not all data sources support functions the same way. The data modeler can set a
quality of service indicator on functions to give a visual clue about the behavior of
the functions. Report authors can use the quality of service indicators to determine
which functions to use in a report. The quality of service indicators are:
v not available (X)
The function is not available for any data source in the package.
v limited availability (!!)
The function is not available for some data sources in the package.
v limited support (!)
The function is available for all data sources in the package but is not naturally
supported for that data source. IBM Cognos Analytics uses a local
approximation for that function. Because an approximation is used, performance
can be poor and the results may not be what you expect.
v unconstrained (check mark)
The function is available for all data sources.
When inserting literal strings in an expression, you must enclose the string in
single quotation marks. If the string contains a quotation mark, it must be escaped.
For example, if you want to insert the string ab'c, you must type 'ab''c'.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Query calculation to the report.
2. Type a meaningful name for your expression in the Name box.
For example, if you are calculating the difference between 2012 revenue and
2011 revenue, you could name your expression 2012 - 2011 Revenue.
3. In the Available Components pane, define the calculation:
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v To add data items that are not shown in the report, on the source tab
,
double-click the data items.
v To add data items that are in the report but not necessarily in the model,
such as calculations, on the data items tab
, double-click the data items.
v To add data items from a specific query, on the queries tab
data items.
, double-click
v To add functions, summaries, and operators, on the functions tab
double-click elements.
,
v To add a value that is derived from a parameter, on the parameters tab
double-click a parameter.
,
Parameters define prompts, drill-through reports, and master detail
relationships.
v To add a macro, on the macros tab
, double-click the parameter maps,
session parameters, or macro functions you want to add to the macro
expression.
Tip: Use Insert macro block to get you started with creating the macro
expression. Insert macro block inserts number signs in the expression. Make
sure that the macro expression you create is between the number signs.
You can also type the calculation directly in the Expression Definition box.
When typing date values, ensure that the date format is correct for your
database type.
To copy and paste expression components in the Expression Definition pane,
you can use the copy button
4. Click the validate button
and the paste button
.
.
Any validation errors appear on the Errors tab of the Information pane.
Related concepts:
Chapter 17, “Using query macros,” on page 353
A macro is a fragment of code that you can insert in the Select statement of a
query or in an expression. For example, add a macro to insert a new data item
containing the user's name.
Create a Layout Calculation
Create a layout calculation to add run-time information to your report, such as
current date, current time, and user name.
When creating layout calculations, only report functions are available to you in the
expression editor. These functions are executed in the report layout, as opposed to
the other functions which are executed in the query.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Layout calculation to the report.
2. In the Available Components box, define the calculation:
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v To add data items from a specific query, on the queries tab
data items.
, double-click
v To add functions, summaries, and operators, on the functions tab
double-click elements.
,
v To add a value that is derived from a parameter, on the parameters tab
double-click a parameter.
Parameters define prompts, drill-through reports, and master detail
relationships.
Tip: You can also type the expression directly in the Expression Definition
box.
3. Click the validate button
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,
Chapter 10. Dimensional Reporting Style
The dimensional reporting style is recommended for dimensionally-modeled
relational (DMR) and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) data sources.
Dimensional data is best represented by crosstabs, maps, and charts. This data is
shown in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting in dimensions, hierarchies, levels, and
members.
In dimensional reporting, you summarize data by using member summaries and
within set aggregation. You focus data in dimensional reporting by adding only the
relevant members to the edge of a crosstab or to the context filter. You can also
enable drilling up and drilling down in dimensional reports.
Add dimensional data to a report
For dimensional and mixed model data sources, you can view the full data tree by
clicking the Options icon
(Data icon
, Source tab) and then clicking View
metadata tree. You can switch to the dimensional-only data tree by clicking the
View members tree option.
Note: Use dimensional data in the dimensional reporting style. However, if you
are using relational data, see “Add Relational Data to a Report” on page 175.
If you are working with a dimensional data source, data items are organized
hierarchically. Dimensional data sources include OLAP and dimensionally-modeled
relational (DMR) data sources. The Source tab
view of the data.
shows a metadata-based
Note: The names of levels and members in a dimension come from the model. It is
the responsibility of the modeler to provide meaningful names.
1. Package
Packages are subsets of a model containing items that you can insert in a
report.
2. Dimension
211
Dimensions are broad groupings of descriptive data about a major aspect of a
business, such as products, dates, or markets.
3. Level hierarchy
Level hierarchies are more specific groupings within a dimension. For example,
for the Years dimension, data can be organized into smaller groups, such as
Years, Current Month, and Last Month.
4. Members folder
Members folders contain the available members for a hierarchy or level. For
example, the Members folder for the Years level hierarchy contains everything
found in the Year, Quarter, and Month levels.
5. Level
Levels are positions within the dimensional hierarchy that contain information
at the same order of detail and have attributes in common. Multiple levels can
exist within a level hierarchy, beginning with a root level. For example, the
Years level hierarchy has the following related levels.
Level
Level name
Description
Root
Years
The root level.
First
Year
Years in the Years root level.
For example, 2013, 2012, and
2011.
Second
Quarter
Quarters for each year in the
Year level. For example, 2013
Q1, 2013 Q2, and 2013 Q3.
Third
Month
Months for each quarter in
the Quarter level. For
example, Jan., Feb., and Mar.
Tip: The Measures dimension contains the measures available in the data
source.
6. Member property
Member properties are attributes that each member possesses. For example,
gender could be a property for all employee members. For more information
about member properties, see “Insert a Member Property” on page 215.
Related concepts:
“Limited Support for Relational Functions When Used with OLAP Data Sources”
on page 431
When working with an OLAP data source, we recommend that you not use
relational functions, such as substring and concatenation functions, in a report that
also contains a measure with the Aggregate Function property set to Calculated or
Automatic in the model. If you do so, you may encounter unexpected results. For
example, some summaries are calculated using the Minimum function instead of
the aggregate function derived from the individual query items.
Customize the Source Tree
When using dimensional data, you can customize how you see data in the source
tree. You can select a full package tree view that shows dimensions, hierarchies,
levels, an optional members folder, and member properties.
Or you can select a members-only tree view, such as the one in IBM Cognos
Analysis Studio. This view allows you to add only members in your report.
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Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
, click the Source tab
, and then click the
Options icon
.
2. To view the members-only tree view, click View members tree.
3. To view the full package tree, click View package tree.
4. To change what is included in the tree, right-click a data item and click
Package Tree Settings.
Use the Preview pane to choose the appropriate settings.
Insert a member
By default, when you insert members from the source tree into your report with
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, single members are inserted without any
details or children. You can change how members are inserted. For example, you
may want to insert a member along with all its children or insert only the
member's children. Or you may want to insert members as a set.
When you double-click a member that you have already inserted in your report,
by default, its children are inserted after the parent member. You can control
whether the children are inserted before or after, nested, or not inserted at all: click
the More icon
, Options, and in the Edit tab, click a setting under
Double-click on member action.
When inserting members into a crosstab, ensure that you insert members from the
same hierarchy on only one of the crosstab edges. If you insert members from the
same hierarchy on both edges of the crosstab, you may encounter unexpected
results. For example, a report that uses members from years in the rows and
Quarters in the columns is very difficult to read because the useful numbers are
distributed over a large area of mostly blank cells.
Calculated members from the data source also appear in the source tree. However,
calculated members in Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) cubes do not
appear in the list of descendants in the query. If you want these calculated
members to appear in a report or a prompt, you must insert them explicitly.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
Options icon
, click the Source tab
, and then click the
.
2. Under Insert, click Individual Members.
3. Under Member Insert Options, select how you want to insert members.
4. If you want to insert members within a set instead of inserting individual
members, under Insert, click Create sets.
5. Do one of the following:
v To insert a member above or below another member, drag the new member
above or below a cell.
A flashing black bar appears where you can drop the new member.
v To replace a member, drag the new member to the cell with the member to
replace.
A flashing black box appears where you can drop the new member.
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Search for a Member
You can perform a member search to quickly find data.
You can control the number of members that are returned in a search by specifying
a value for the Member display count limit (in source tree) option (More icon
, Options, Advanced tab).
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
right-click a hierarchy
, and from the Source tab
or level
, select and then
and click Search.
2. In the Keywords box, type the words or characters for which to search.
3. Click the search parameter to use.
4. To search all descendants instead of just the immediate children, select the
Search all descendants check box.
For example, when performing a search in a hierarchy, selecting this check box
returns members found in all the levels of the hierarchy.
5. Click Search.
Results
The search results appear in a hierarchical structure on the Search tab
You can browse the hierarchy to explore members at lower levels.
.
Tip: You can insert members directly from the Search tab into a report. This can
save you time, because you do not have to define a filter. For example, instead of
inserting Product line from the Source tab and adding a filter for Camping
Equipment, you can insert Camping Equipment from the Search tab.
Nest Members
When you insert members in your report, you may want to nest them in another
row or column to make your report easier to use. You can nest members from
different dimensions. You can also nest sets.
For example, in the following report, the quarters (Q1 to Q4) were selected from
the Time dimension and nested only for the GO Americas member, which is from
a different dimension.
Figure 39. Crosstab showing the year to date amount for all four quarters nested beside GO
Americas
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When you filter out children from nested sets, the parent set still appears in your
report. To avoid this, filter only the top level set and nest only the complete set of
descendants at the desired levels.
Procedure
Click the Data icon
, and from the Source tab
, drag the members to
the work area.
A flashing black bar indicates where you can drop an item.
Insert a Hierarchy
You can quickly insert entire hierarchies in a report.
When using an IBM Cognos PowerCube, a SSAS cube, or a dimensionally-modeled
relational data source, you can insert multiple hierarchies from the same dimension
in a crosstab. For example, you can place one hierarchy from a dimension on an
edge of the crosstab and nest another hierarchy from the same dimension on the
same edge, on another edge, or in the Context filter area.
You can also perform arithmetic, percentage, and ranking calculations using
multiple hierarchies.
Summary or analytic calculations that refer to different hierarchies from the same
dimension, such as total, count, average, minimum, and maximum, are not
supported. These calculations cause an OP-ERR-0250 error.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
, and from the Source tab
, drag the hierarchy
to the report.
2. In the Insert hierarchy dialog box, choose which members to insert:
v To insert only the root members of the hierarchy, click Root members.
v To insert all members of the hierarchy, click All members.
Tip: The default Level indentation property for all members is to show the
hierarchical structure when the report is run.
Insert a Member Property
You can insert member properties, which are attributes of a member, in your
report. Member properties provide additional information about the member. For
example, an employee level may have a property named gender.
About this task
In the data tree of the Source tab
the icon
, member properties are identified by
.
You can only insert properties. You cannot group them. Do not insert member
properties in the series or categories of a chart because by default, IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting groups items that are inserted in these areas. Grouping
member properties produces a warning when you validate the report.
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215
Procedure
Click the Data icon
property
, and from the Source tab
, drag the member
to the report.
Create a Set of Members
Use sets to group members that are logically related for various actions, such as
formatting, nesting, and sorting. Creating sets is also useful when members may be
dynamic over time. For example, the child accounts of a total assets account may
change from year to year. By creating a set, you do not have to modify the report
each time accounts are added or removed.
After you create a set of members, you can add or remove members within the set.
You can perform operations on the set such as excluding specific members, moving
members within the set, showing only the top or bottom members, filtering the set,
and expanding or collapsing the members within a set. You can view the set
definition to see and edit operations that are performed on the set.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
Options icon
, click the Source tab
, and then click the
.
2. Under Insert, click Create sets.
3. From the Source tab, select the items to include in the set and drag them to the
work area.
4. To add or remove members, select the set, click the More icon
Edit Members.
Tip: You can also select the set, click the Show properties icon
the Properties pane, double-click the Members property.
, and click
, and in
Sharing sets between reports
When you are working with dimensional data, you can share a set to make it
available for inclusion in multiple reports.
You must first create a set in a source crosstab report, create a shared set definition,
then refer to it in a target report.
A shared set definition is copied from one report to another. As a result, the set
definition must not depend on any context from the source report. For example, it
must meet the following criteria:
v It cannot reference other shared sets.
v It cannot reference other data items.
v It cannot contain calculated members.
You cannot change the definition of a shared set from within the target report.
However, you can carry out other set operations on it, such as excluding a member
or creating a top 10 list.
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Procedure
1. In the source crosstab report, create a set that you want to share.
2. Select the set, click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane,
in the Sharing property, enter a name and description for the set.
3. Save the report.
4. Click the Data icon
, and in the Source tab
model. Click Add shared set report.
, right-click the
5. In the Open box, select the source report that contains the shared set
definition. If it does not exist, a new folder that is called Shared Sets is
created. It is displayed at the bottom of the source tree.
6. Optional: To add, delete, or change the order of reports in the Shared Sets
folder, right-click the folder and click Manage Shared Set Reports.
7. Create or open a crosstab target report that you want to refer to the shared set
definition.
8. In the Source tab
, open the Shared Sets folder. Open the source
report that contains the shared set definition that you want to use.
9. Add the shared set definition into your target report.
10. Select the shared set in the target report, click the More icon
Edit Set.
, and click
11. In the Set definition box, select the shared set.
12. Click Edit
. The Set Reference Properties window opens.
13. Set the Inclusion property.
a. Select Run time to retrieve the latest shared set definition every time that
the report runs.
b. Select Design time to store the shared set definition in the target report.
This definition is used until you refresh it.
14. Click OK, then save the report.
Managing shared set references
After you share a set to make it available for inclusion in multiple reports, you can
manage references to it. You can also copy it locally.
You can manage set references in the following ways:
v Create a copy of a shared set to be used in a report.
Converting a shared set reference into a copy replaces the reference with a set
definition that is stored in the report. The report does not reference the shared
set from the source report. Any changes that are made to the shared set in the
source report are not reflected in the target report. Instead of converting the
reference to a copy, you can change the Inclusion property of the reference to
Design time. Design time references use a static stored version of the shared set
definition. However, you can later change the Inclusion property to be Run
time to use the latest shared set definition.
v Modify the properties of a set reference in the target report, including its
Inclusion property. You can also modify a set reference in the target report by
changing the set definition it refers to.
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217
v Refresh an existing set reference after a set changed in a source report and you
want to use the updated set. To use the updated set if the Inclusion property is
set to Design time, you must refresh its reference.
v Review problems with an existing set reference.
Procedure
1. Open the target report that contains the reference to the shared set that you
want to work with.
2. Click the More icon
and then click Shared sets.
3. To create a copy of a shared set to be used in a report, do the following steps:
a. Select the shared set reference that you want to copy.
b. Click Convert Reference to Copy. The Confirm Convert window is
displayed.
c. If you want to convert the set reference into a copy that is stored in this
report, click Yes. If you do not want to create a copy, click No.
Important: If you convert the set reference into a copy, it is not updated
when the set in the original report changes.
4. To modify an existing set reference in a target report, do the following steps:
a. Select the shared set reference that you want to modify.
b. Click Edit Reference.
c. To modify the set reference properties, select the reference, then click Edit
. The Set Reference Properties window opens. You can now modify the
set reference properties.
d. To modify the definition of the set, click New
. The Set Definition
window opens. You can now modify the set definition.
5. To refresh an existing set reference after a set changed in a source report, do the
following steps:
a. Select the set reference that you want to refresh.
b. Click Refresh Reference.
6. To review problems with an existing set reference in a target report, do the
following steps:
a. Select the set reference that is causing the problem.
b. Review and act upon the message that is displayed.
7. Save the report.
Edit a Set
After you create a set, you can view its definition to see, change, add, or delete
operations, such as the following, that are performed on the set:
v excluding a member
v moving members to the top or bottom of a set
v applying a top or bottom filter
v filtering the set
v expanding or collapsing members in a set
The definition of a set shows you, in the graphical tree, the history of all the
operations that are performed on the set.
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You can see and change the order in which the operations are performed. For
example, you apply a top three filter and then exclude one member. Your set now
contains only two members. You can choose to exclude the member before the top
three filter so that your set still contains three members.
Procedure
1. Select a set, click the More icon
, and click Edit Set.
A graphical tree shows all the operations that are performed on the set of
members.
2. To see the details of an operation, hover your mouse over an operation node.
3. To change the order of an operation, click the operation node, and click the
right or left arrow.
4. To edit an operation, click the operation node and click the edit button
5. To add a new operation, click the new button
.
.
Exclude Members from a Set
You can choose to remove individual items that are not needed in your analysis.
Procedure
1. Select a set, click the More icon
2. Click the new button
, and click Edit Set.
and click Exclude.
3. In the Exclude box, choose the members to exclude and use the right arrow to
move them to the Members pane.
Move Members Within a Set
You can move one or more members to the top or bottom of a set.
Procedure
1. Select a set, click the More icon
2. Click the new button
, and click Edit Set.
and click Move to Top or Move to Bottom.
3. In the Available members list, select the member to move to the top or bottom
and click the right arrow.
The members appear in the order shown in the Members list.
Limit Data to Top or Bottom Values
You want to focus your report on the items of greatest significance to your
business question. For example, you want to identify your top 100 customers and
what that group of customers is worth.
You can limit the data to the top or bottom values of a set. This keeps the amount
of data shown in the work area small, even when using large data sources.
You can define a top or bottom rule by specifying
v a number, such as the 50 top or bottom performing sales people
v a percentage, such as customers who contribute to the top 10% of overall
revenue
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v a cumulative sum, such as customers who contribute to the first ten million
dollars of overall revenue
If the selected set contains a user-defined filter, the top or bottom rule applies only
to the included values. For example, if you apply a filter to show only retailers
with revenue greater than one million dollars, the bottom rule applies to the lowest
values within those results.
You can filter a set of members to show only those at the top or bottom and base
the filter on the measure you are using and the set of members on the opposite
edge. You can also specify a custom filter.
Procedure
1. Select a set, click the More icon
2. Click the new button
, and click Edit Set.
and click Top or Bottom.
3. Under Type, select whether to filter the Top or Bottom values.
4. To choose how and how much you want to filter, under Number of items, click
Count, Percent, or Sum and type the number of data items to show, the
percent of data items to show, or the value to sum.
5. Choose the intersection on which to base your filter by clicking the ellipsis
button and selecting the members and measure for the intersection from either
the Source tab
or the Calculated members and measures tab
.
For more information, see “Create an Intersection (Tuple)” on page 260.
Filter the Members Within a Set
You can remove members from within a set by specifying filter conditions so that
only the members that you require remain. You can filter a set based on
v member captions
For example, your set includes employee names and you want to keep only the
employees with names that begin with a specific letter.
v properties that are numeric or strings
For example, your set includes employee names and you want to filter
employees using the gender property.
v intersection of values (tuple)
For example, you want to keep only the employees who used less that ten sick
days for the year 2012.
If you want to create a more complex filter, you can combine multiple conditions
using AND, OR, and NOT operators. By default, multiple conditions are combined
with an AND operator, which means that all conditions must be met for the filter
to take effect.
Filtering the members in a set is not the same as relation detail or summary filters.
Procedure
1. Select a set, click the More icon
2. Click the new button
and click Set filter.
3. Select how you want to filter.
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v If you want to filter the set using a caption, click Caption.
v If you want to filter the set using a member property, click Property and
select from the drop-down list.
v If you want to filter the set using an intersection of members, or tuple, click
Intersection (tuple) and click the ellipsis button. Then, from Available
members and measures, select the desired items and click the right arrow to
move them to the Intersection members and measures list.
4. Specify the Operator and Value to complete your condition and click OK.
5. To add additional conditions, click the new button.
6. If you include multiple conditions in your filter, use the AND, OR, and NOT
operators to combine them.
v To add an operator, select the conditions that you want to combine, and click
an operator.
v To change an operator, double-click the operator to toggle among available
ones or select the operator and then select a different one from the list.
v To remove an operator, select it in the condition string, and then click the
delete button
.
7. To change a condition, click the edit button
.
Expand and Collapse a Member Within a Set
You can expand a member to add its child members below it as new rows, and
you can collapse expanded members to remove the expanded member's child
members.
Procedure
1. Select a set, click the More icon
2. Click the new button
, and click Edit Set.
and click Expand or Collapse.
3. In the Available members list, select the member to expand or collapse and
click the right arrow to move it to the Members list.
Extended Data Items
Extended data items differ from the traditional, expression-based text strings by
enabling you to add children, view details, select sets, sort sets, and apply
contextual calculations.
Extended data items are created when you insert data items from dimensional
packages. Extended data items do not apply to relational packages or
non-dimensionally modeled packages.
You can do the following with extended data items that are not available with
traditional data items:
v Add an extended data item's child members
You can double-click an extended data item to insert its child members beside it
in the report object.
v View an extended data item's details
You can select an extended data item and see where the data item appears in the
package in the Properties pane under Data Item.
v Select member sets
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You can select a member in a set to highlight it as the primary selection and the
other members as secondary selections.
v Sort sets
You can select an extended data item, click the sort button
in the report
object toolbar, and click Edit set sorting to sort a set in ascending or descending
order, to sort hierarchically, and to sort by caption, by a property, or by an
intersection (tuple).
v Apply contextual calculations
You can select an extended data item and then, from the report object toolbar,
click the Insert Calculatation icon
to see a contextual list of calculations
that are available for this extended data item.
Tips for working with ragged or unbalanced hierarchies
In ragged or unbalanced hierarchies, some members that are not at the lowest level
of the hierarchy may have no descendants at one or more lower levels. Support for
these hierarchy gaps in relational data sources is limited. More complete support is
provided for OLAP data sources, but some reports may still result in unexpected
behavior.
For example, the following may occur:
v Groups corresponding to missing members may appear or disappear when
grouped list reports are pivoted to a crosstab. This happens with set expressions
using the filter function, and detail filters on members.
v Ragged and unbalanced sections of the hierarchy are suppressed when set
expressions in that hierarchy are used on an edge.
v When a crosstab is sectioned or is split into a master detail report, sections
corresponding to missing members become empty.
v Cells that were suppressed may still appear in the report output for reports with
ragged or unbalanced hierarchies.
Some of these behaviors may be corrected in a future release, while others may be
codified as supported behavior. To avoid these behaviors, do not use levels from
ragged or unbalanced hierarchies. Instead of using levels, use the descendants,
children, or ancestors.
We consider the following scenarios to be safe:
v One or more nested level references on an edge with no modifying expression.
v A hierarchy reference on only one level of one edge.
v One or more explicit members or sets of explicit members as siblings on only
one level of one edge.
v Summaries of the previous three scenarios.
In all cases, you should test reports based on ragged and unbalanced hierarchies to
confirm that hierarchy gaps are handled correctly.
For more information about ragged or unbalanced hierarchies, see the IBM Cognos
Framework Manager User Guide.
Related concepts:
“Creating Sections on Reports That Access SAP BW Data Sources” on page 402
SAP BW data sources may have problems with sections in reports under different
circumstances:
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Creating dimensional custom groups
Create custom groups to classify existing data items into groups that are
meaningful to you.
You can reduce the number of values into smaller, more meaningful groups. For
example, you can change a list of employees into my team and others.
When you are working with dimensional data and crosstabs or charts, you can
create custom groups only on sets of members. After you create a custom group in
a set, the members in the set are replaced by the custom groups.
When you create custom groups in a list, a new column is added to the report,
with the name data_item (Custom). You can use this new column to group or sort
the report. If you want to show only the new groups, you can delete the original
column.
When you are creating custom groups on sets of members, consider the following
constraints:
v Members included in a custom group must be from the same level in a
hierarchy.
v If you insert a hierarchy that is used in a custom group elsewhere in the data
container, it must be inserted as a sibling of the custom group.
v Automatic aggregation on a custom group might not work as expected. For
example, you might encounter error cells (- -).
Procedure
1. To add custom groups in a crosstab or chart that includes sets of members, do
the following steps:
a. Select a set, click the More icon
b. Click the New icon
, and click Edit Set.
and select Custom Grouping.
c. In the Custom grouping window, click the New Group Entry icon
.
d. Type a name for the new group.
e. Select members from the Available members list and move them to the
Members list.
2. To add custom groups to a list, do the following steps:
a. Click the column that you want to group on, click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, double-click the Set definition property.
Tip: You can click either the column heading or one of the column cells.
b. Click New Group Entry
.
c. To group by values that you select, click New Select Values Group, type a
New Group Name, select the required values from the Values box, and
move the values to the Selected Values box.
d. To group by a range of values, click New Range Group, type a New Group
Name, and enter the From and To values.
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3. If you do not want a group name to be displayed for remaining values, select
Do not show remaining values. Clicking this option produces empty cells for
remaining values.
4. If you want the group name for remaining values to match each value, select
Use each remaining value as a group name.
5. If you want to specify your own group name for all remaining values, select
Group remaining values into a single group and type the name that you
want.
6. If you are adding custom groups in a list, under New data item name, select
either the default data item name or type a new data item name.
Summarizing data dimensionally
Summarize data in your reports to obtain totals, averages, and so on.
The summary options that you can use depend on the type of data source that you
are using. If you are querying an OLAP data source, all measure values that
appear in reports are pre-summarized because the data source contains rolled up
values. The type of summary that is used is specified in the data source itself. As a
result, we recommend that you use the Automatic summary when creating
dimensional style reports. This ensures that the report always uses the type of
summary that the data modeler specified in the data source.
For example, the modeler may have specified that the rollup for revenue is total
and the rollup for stock prices is average.
If you use other types of summaries with dimensional style reports, you may
encounter unexpected results.
You can also add summaries, which are supported for any data source. Summaries
specify how data items are totaled in the headers and footers of a list and in the
total rows and columns of a crosstab. For list reports, these summaries only
summarize the data that is visible on that page of the report.
Figure 40. Crosstab showing automatic summaries for rows and columns
You can specify summary aggregation in different ways by using any of the
following:
v aggregation properties that are specified in the model
v the Auto group & summarize property
v the summarize button in the toolbar
v aggregation properties for a data item
v the solve order of calculations
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Tip: When you add a summary by clicking the summarize button in the toolbar, a
data item is created in the query for the summary. In lists, the data item that is
created is called a list summary. In crosstabs and charts, the data item that is
created is called a dimensional edge summary.
Limitation
If a summary is applied to a report that contains binary large object (BLOB) data,
such as images or multimedia objects, you cannot also perform grouping or
sorting.
The Type of Data
How data is summarized also depends on the type of data that you are
summarizing. Summary rules are applied differently to facts, identifiers, and
attributes. For example, if you summarize a data item that represents part
numbers, the only summary rules that apply are count, count distinct, count
non-zero, maximum, and minimum. For information about how to determine the
type of data that a data item represents, see “Add Relational Data to a Report” on
page 175 and “Add dimensional data to a report” on page 211.
For information about how null or missing values are handled in summaries, see
“Null (Missing) Values in Calculations and Summaries” on page 440.
Limitations on Measure Rollups
For all OLAP data sources except IBM Cognos PowerCube and Microsoft SQL
Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS), aggregation and re-aggregation are
supported only for calculations and measures that use the following rollups: Sum
(Total), Maximum, Minimum, First, Last, and Count.
All other types of rollup either fail or return error cells, which typically appear as
two dash characters (--).
This problem occurs in, but is not limited to, the following:
v footers
v aggregate function
v context filters that select more than one member of a hierarchy that is used
elsewhere on the report
Summarizing Sets
When working with Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) data sources,
we recommend that you not summarize values for sets which contain members
that are descendants of other members in the same set. If you do so, SSAS
double-counts values for automatic summaries and all data sources double-counts
values for explicit summaries.
Related concepts:
“Limitations When Summarizing Measures in DMR Data Sources” on page 432
There are limitations when summarizing dimensionally-modeled relational (DMR)
measures and semi-additive measures in crosstabs using the aggregation function
count distinct, median, standard-deviation, or variance. The following
limitations can produce empty or error cells when the report is run:
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Add a Simple Summary
You can add simple summaries in a report by using the summarize button
.
This button provides a subset of the summary functions available in IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting.
The summarize button sets the summary property for the data item to the selected
summary, and places the data item into an appropriate footer. A footer is created
for each set, hierarchy, or level.
In crosstabs and charts, the summary appears as a node.
In crosstabs, you can add multiple summaries at the same level. For example, you
have a crosstab with Product line as rows, Order year as columns, and Revenue as
the measure. For Product line, you can add the Total summary as a header, which
will total all revenue for each order year. You can then add the Average summary
as a footer, which will give the average revenue of all product lines for each order
year.
For information about adding a rolling or moving average, see “Rolling and
Moving Averages” on page 229.
Procedure
1. Select the item for which you want to add a summary.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the summarize button
summary type.
and click a
3. To change the summary label, do the following:
v Click the label.
v Click the Show properties icon
, and In the Properties pane, under Text
Source, set the Source type property to the source type to define the label.
For example, set it as Data item value to produce a dynamic label for the
summary based on data item values.
v Set the property under Source type to specify the label.
This property depends on the source type you chose. For example, if you
chose Data item value as the source type, set the Data item value property
to the data item to use to define the label.
4. To change a summary, select it and, in the Properties pane, under Data Item,
click Summary and choose a different function.
Summarizing values in crosstabs
In crosstabs, summaries are calculated using two summary expressions.
The expressions used to summarize data are:
v
aggregate ([measure within set [data item]) summarizes the member values
from the data source within the current content.
v
aggregate ([measure within detail [data item]) summarizes the lowest level of
details in the report.
The expression that is used to calculate a summary is controlled by the summary’s
Use set aggregation property. For example, in the following crosstab, if you
specified Total as the summary, the following aggregate expressions are produced
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when the Use set aggregation is set to Yes and No respectively:
v Total ([Revenue] within set [Quarter])
This expression totals the quarter values from the data source at the intersecting
product line. It totals the aggregate over all product lines for each quarter. The
total appears after other values.
v Total ([Revenue] within detail [Quarter])
This expression totals the month values visible in the report at the intersecting
product line. It totals all of the intersecting month - product line values visible in
the report. The total appears after other values.
In simple cases, the members and values visible in the report and the aggregate
rules in the report are the same as those in the data source and all of these
expressions produce the same results.
For example, for the quarter and month values, if you are totaling the values for
all months in all quarters, it makes no difference whether the visible values, the
values in the cube, or the month and quarter values are used. The result is the
same.
Tip: The Total Revenue by Country or Region sample report in the GO Data
Warehouse (query) package includes a totalsummary function.
Different results appear when you start filtering, changing aggregation types, or
using set expressions or unions.
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For example, the following crosstab shows the quantity of products sold across all
product types for each product line. The crosstab has two summary values that
show the average quantity of products sold by product line.
Each summary value uses a different expression that is set by the value specified
for the Use set aggregation property.
v
Average (Product line) - within detail
This summary is the average of the detail values in the crosstab.
v
Average (Product line) - within set
This summary is the average of the product type values rolled up into sets at
the Product line level. The values are obtained from the data source. If filters or
slicers exist, the values are recomputed using the aggregation rules defined in
the data source.
In most cases, you should use the within detail expression because the results are
easiest to understand and the same as the results for footers in a grouped list
report. The within set expression should be reserved for reports with a purely
dimensional focus, such as when there are no detail or summary filters defined in
the report.
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Summarizing Member Sets
When you work with dimensional data sources and you summarize member sets,
if an explicit summary function such as Total is used and the set contains
duplicates, the result is double-counted. If you are using an OLAP data source, the
result produced for the automatic summary function depends on the data source.
For example, the following product line rows were defined using the expression
union ([Product line], [Camping Equipment], ALL)
where [Product line] is the level that contains Camping Equipment.
Figure 41. Crosstab showing revenue by product line with an aggregate row and a total row
For PowerCubes, Aggregate (Product line) is the sum of the product lines
excluding duplicates. For more information about how the aggregate function is
processed, see “Summary Functions” on page 230.
Rolling and Moving Averages
Use rolling and moving averages to analyze data for specific time series and to
spot trends in that data. When viewing these averages on a line chart, use a longer
period of time to reveal long-term trends.
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, to add a rolling or moving average, you
must create summary and custom calculations using layout expressions “Insert a
Query Calculation” on page 258.
The Rolling and Moving Averages interactive sample report includes rolling and
moving calculations.
Rolling Average
A rolling average continuously updates the average of a data set to include all the
data in the set until that point. For example, the rolling average of return
quantities at March 2012 would be calculated by adding the return quantities in
January, February, and March, and then dividing that sum by three.
Tip: The Historical Revenue sample report in the Sales and Marketing (Cube)
package also includes a rolling average.
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Moving Average
A moving average calculates the average of a data set for a specified period. For
example, the moving average of return quantities at March 2012 with a specified
period of two would be calculated by adding the return quantities in February and
March and then dividing that sum by two. In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting,
you can use a prompt to specify the period.
Show Data for Specific Time Periods
Show data for a specific time period to associate a report with a business time
period rather than the execution time. For example, you have a monthly report
that you run at the beginning of each month, and you want the last business day
of the previous month to appear rather than the day on which you run the report.
If the report functions AsOfDate and AsOfTime are added to the report, they will
return a value based on the results of the As of Time Expression object. If the As
of Time Expression object is not added to the report, these two functions return
the date and time at which the report is run.
If the As of Time Expression object is added more than once in the report, the first
occurrence of the object in the layout that returns a valid value is used.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag As-of-time Expression to the report.
2. Double-click As-of-time Expression.
3. In the Expression Definition box, type the expression.
The expression must return a date-time value.
Tip: You can drag a function that returns a constant from the Constants folder
in the Functions tab
. You can then change the constant to the value to use.
If you do not specify a time, the default time 12:00:00.000 AM is used.
Summary Functions
This section describes the summary functions that are available in IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting. Some functions, such as Custom, are available only when
you click the summarize button
on the report object toolbar. Additional
summary functions are available in the expression editor.
Automatic Summary
Depending on the type of data item, applies the function None, Summarize, or
Calculated based on the context in which the data item appears.
Calculated is applied if the underlying data source is OLAP. It is also applied if
the data item expression
v contains a summary function
v is an if then else or case expression that contains a reference to at least a
modeled measure in its condition
v contains a reference to a model calculation or to a measure that has the Regular
Aggregate property set to a value other than Unsupported
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v contains a reference to at least one data item that has the Summary aggregation
property set to a value other than None
If the underlying data source is relational and if the data item expression contains
no summary functions and a reference to at least one fact that has the Regular
Aggregate property set to a value other than Unsupported, Summarize is applied.
If the underlying data source is OLAP and if the data item expression contains no
summary functions and a reference to at least one fact that has the Regular
Aggregate property set to a value other than Unsupported, Calculated is applied.
If the underlying data source is SAP BW, reports containing aggregations and
summaries run more efficiently if the aggregation applied to a query item matches
the aggregation rule for the underlying key figure on the SAP BW server. In
Cognos Analytics - Reporting, the easiest way to accomplish this is to change the
value of the Detail aggregation property to Automatic.
In all other contexts, None is applied.
For relational and dimensionally modeled relational (DMR) data sources, if this
function is applied to a data item expression that has the average function,
weighted averages are computed based on the lowest level detail values in the
data source.
Note: This is the default function.
Average
Adds all existing values and then divides by the count of existing values.
Calculated
Specifies that all the terms within the expression for a data item are aggregated
according to their own rollup rules, and then the results of those aggregations are
computed within the overall expression.
For example, a list contains the data item Quantity with the Detail aggregation
property set to Total. You add a query calculation named Quantity Calculated. You
define its expression as Quantity + 100 and you set its Detail aggregation property
to Calculated. When you run the report, the values for Quantity Calculated are
computed by first adding all values for Quantity and then adding 100 to each
value.
Note: In crosstabs, this function overrides any solve orders that are specified.
Count
Counts all existing values.
If the underlying data source is OLAP, Count behaves as follows if it is specified in
the Summary Aggregation property for a data item.
Object
Behavior
Level
Count distinct is used. A warning appears
when you validate the report.
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Object
Behavior
Member set
Count distinct is used. A warning appears
when you validate the report.
Attribute
Not supported. An error is returned when
you run the report.
Measure
Supported.
If the underlying data source is dimensionally modeled relational (DMR), Count
behaves as follows if it is specified in the Detail aggregation or Summary
aggregation property for a data item.
Object
Behavior
Level
Count distinct is used. A warning appears
when you validate the report.
Member set
Count distinct is used. A warning appears
when you validate the report.
Attribute
Supported.
Measure
Supported.
If you add the count summary to a non-fact column in a list and then group the
column, the column will not be grouped when you run the report. To resolve this
issue, group the column first before adding the count summary.
Count Distinct
Returns the total number of unique non-null records.
If the underlying data source is OLAP, count distinct behaves as follows if it is
specified in the Summary aggregation property for a data item.
Object
Behavior
Level
Supported.
Member set
Supported.
Attribute
Not supported. An error is returned when
you run the report.
Measure
Not supported. An error is returned when
you run the report.
If the underlying data source is dimensionally modeled relational (DMR), count
distinct is supported for levels, member sets, attributes, and measures when it is
specified in the Detail aggregation or Summary aggregation property for a data
item.
Custom
Summarizes data based on an expression that you define.
Maximum
Selects the largest existing value.
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Median
Returns the median value of the selected data item.
Minimum
Selects the smallest existing value.
None
Does not aggregate values.
If the underlying data source is relational, the data item is grouped when the
query property Auto group & summarize is set to Yes.
Not Applicable
This function is available only for the Detail aggregation property. It specifies that
the aggregate attribute is ignored. For example, the calculation will be applied after
the data is aggregated.
This function differs from the Calculated function, which applies aggregation to
the rows and then performs the calculation.
For example, for the average ( [Quantity] ) + 5 expression, when the Detail
aggregation property is set to Not Applicable, five is added to the average of the
single Quantity value. When the function is set to Calculated, five is added to the
average of a set of numbers.
This setting should not be applied to a simple model reference.
This setting is relevant only for reports that are upgraded from IBM Cognos
ReportNet 1.x.
Standard Deviation
Returns the standard deviation of the selected data item.
Note: From a mathematical perspective, this function is not useful for small
numbers of items and is not supported if the query property Auto group &
summarize is set to Yes.
Summarize
Aggregates data based on model or data type information. This function can be
thought of as a calculate and then aggregate rule. Data is aggregated using the
following rules:
If the underlying data source type is relational and the data item or calculation is a
reference to a single fact query item in the model that has the Regular Aggregate
property set to Sum, Maximum, Minimum, Average, or Count, aggregate data
using this function. Otherwise, data is aggregated according to the data type of the
data item as follows:
v
Total is applied for numeric and interval values.
v
Maximum is applied for date, time, and date-time values.
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v
Count is applied for everything else.
The underlying data source type can be dimensional and the data item or
calculation a reference to a single item in the model. In this case, if the Regular
Aggregate property of the model item is not unknown, the summary function that
corresponds to the Regular Aggregate property is applied. If the Regular
Aggregate property is unknown, set the function to Calculated.
For example, a list contains the data item Quantity with the Detail aggregation
property set to Average. You add a query calculation named Quantity Summarize.
You define its expression as Quantity + 100 and you set its Detail aggregation
property to Summarize. When you run the report, the values for Quantity
Summarize are computed by first adding 100 to each value for Quantity and then
calculating the total. The total is calculated because Quantity contains numeric
values and the expression for Quantity Summarize is not a simple data item
reference. If Quantity Summarize is defined as Quantity, the function Average is
applied to each value.
Total
Adds all existing values.
Variance
Returns the variance of the selected data item.
Note: From a mathematical perspective, this function is not useful for small
numbers of items and is not supported if the query property Auto group &
summarize is set to Yes.
Mapping Summary Functions From Data Sources to Framework
Manager and Reporting
The summary functions available in IBM Cognos Framework Manager and IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting reflect summary functions supported by relational
and dimensional data sources. The following table shows how summary functions
in data sources are mapped to Framework Manager and Reporting.
234
Data source
Framework Manager
Reporting
None specified, or none
Unsupported
None
average (avg)
Average
Average
count
Count
Count
count distinct
Count Distinct
Count distinct
maximum (max)
Maximum
Maximum
minimum (min)
Minimum
Minimum
median
Median
Median
standard deviation (stddev)
Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation
sum
Sum
Total
variance (var)
Variance
Variance
count non zero
Count Non-Zero
Automatic
average non zero
unknown
Automatic
external
unknown
Automatic
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Data source
Framework Manager
Reporting
any
unknown
Automatic
calculated
unknown
Automatic
unknown
unknown
Automatic
first_period
unknown
Automatic
last_period
unknown
Automatic
The following summary functions exist only in either Framework Manager or
Reporting. There is no corresponding summary function in data sources.
Framework Manager
Reporting
Automatic
Automatic
Calculated
Calculated
No corresponding summary function
Summarize
No corresponding summary function
Not Applicable
Focusing Dimensional Data
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, there are three approaches to focusing
dimensional data in a crosstab:
v drag data items to the edges of your crosstab
v drag data items to the context filter area
v create set expressions on the edges of your crosstab that return members or sets
of members, such as the filter function
Note: Summary and detail filters are recommended only for focusing data in
relational reporting.
The approach you choose should depend on the capabilities of the data source, the
performance requirements, the persistence of the dataset, and how complex you
want the report to be.
If you filter values that are floating-point numbers, you may encounter imprecise
filtering results due to rounding or data truncation. Floating-point numbers may
appear differently in the report than how than how they are stored in the data
source. To ensure accurate results, your filter criteria should account for any
rounding issues.
Consider the limitations when filtering dimensional data and when filtering data
from SAP BW data sources.
You can also use prompts, or prompt controls, to allow users to provide input for
the filter.
Related concepts:
“Limitations when filtering dimensional data sources” on page 432
Avoid combining context filters (slicers) with dimensional constructs that involve
members from hierarchies that are used elsewhere in the report. This combination
gives results that are often not what you might expect and that may change in a
future release.
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Create a context filter
When working with dimensional data, you can use context filters, or slicer filters,
to quickly focus your report on a particular view of the data.
For example, the following crosstab contains product lines in the rows, years in the
columns, and revenue as the measure. We want to filter the values to show us the
revenue for only Web orders from Asia Pacific. To change the context, you drag
Asia Pacific and Web from the source tree to the Context filter section of the
overview area. The crosstab then shows the revenue for only Asia Pacific and Web.
Changing context changes only the values that appear. It does not limit or change
the items in the rows or columns.
Figure 42. Crosstab showing revenue by product line by year filtered to show only Asia
Pacific and web orders
The members that are used as the context filter appear in the report header when
you run the report.
Any summary values in the report are recomputed to reflect the results returned
by the context filter.
You can create multiple context filters to filter across two or more different
hierarchies.
Tip: The Budget vs. Actual sample report in the Sales and Marketing (cube)
package includes a context filter.
Note: There are limitations when using context filters:
v Calculated measures do not get suppressed by the filter. To avoid this, drag the
desired members from the Source tab
directly onto the row or column
edge instead of using the members in the context filter.
v Suppression can be slow on large cubes, because all of the data is retrieved and
then filtered.
If the desired data in the context filter is from a hierarchy that appears on the
crosstab edge, drag the desired members from the Source tab directly onto the
crosstab edge.
If the desired data is from a hierarchy that does not appear on the crosstab edge,
use a context filter in conjunction with other means to limit the data, such as a
top or bottom filter.
To use a calculation or expression to define a context filter, create a slicer member
set using the query explorer. A slicer member set is an expression that returns a set
of members from the same dimension. For example, you can define a slicer
member set that filters for the top five products with the greatest revenue.
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Context filters are different from other filters. When you filter data, members that
do not meet the filter criteria are removed from the report. A context filter does not
remove members from a report. Instead, their values are filtered or you see blank
cells.
You can also use context filters as prompts when the report is run.
When creating context filters,
v use only members from hierarchies that are not already projected on an edge of
the crosstab
v use only one member per hierarchy
Create a simple context filter
When working with dimensional data, you can use context filters, or slicer filters,
to quickly focus your report on a particular view of the data.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
, and from the Source tab
one or more items on which to filter.
, select or search for
2. Drag the item on which to filter into the Context filter section of the overview
area.
3. To change context, select a new item from the Context filter box.
Create an advanced slicer filter
To use a calculation or expression to define a context filter, create a slicer member
set using the query explorer. A slicer member set is an expression that returns a set
of members from the same dimension. For example, you can define a slicer
member set that filters for the top five products with the greatest revenue.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
slicer.
, and click the query for which you want to add a
2. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Slicer member set to the Slicer pane.
3. Drag the members to the Expression Definition box.
You must join the members in the expression by using the set function. For
example, the following expression contains the Fax and Telephone members
from the Order Method dimension:
set ([Fax],[Telephone])
4. To add members from another dimension, repeat step 2 to create a separate
slicer member set.
Define a Prompt Using a Context Filter
If context filters (or slicers) are defined, you can use these filters to create prompts
in the report.
Prompts provide questions that help users to customize the information in a report
to suit their own needs. For example, you create a prompt so that users can select
a region. Only data for the specified region is retrieved and shown in the report.
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Before you begin
Before you define a prompt, you must create context filters.
Procedure
1. In the Context filter section of the overview area, click the down arrow next to
the filter to use as a prompt.
2. Click Prompt and do one of the following:
v To remove the prompt, click No Prompt.
v To allow users who run the report to select any member from the hierarchy,
click Prompt on Hierarchy.
v To allow users who run the report to select from a list of members in the
current level, click Prompt on Level.
Sorting Dimensional Data
You can sort items to view them in your preferred order. By default, IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting retrieves items in the order defined in the data source. OLAP
data sources always have a defined order. The data modeler defines the sorting
options in the model.
For more information about data modeling, see the IBM Cognos Framework
Manager User Guide.
Tip: The Sales Growth Year Over Year sample report in the GO Data Warehouse
(analysis) package includes sorting.
Limitations When Sorting SAP BW Data
If you use a SAP BW data source, each level in a hierarchy has an item with the
same name as the level and a role of _businessKey. Such items are known as level
identifiers. You should use only the level identifier of all the time-related
characteristics, such as 0CALDAY and 0CALMONTH, for sorting. All other
(attribute) items in these hierarchies are formatted string representations of the
characteristic values with which they are associated. These formatted values sort
alphanumerically and not chronologically.
Tip: By level identifier, we are referring to a query item with the same name as the
level that has the role of _businessKey. Each level in a SAP BW hierarchy has a
level identifier.
Sort Sets by Label
You can sort sets of members based on their label (or caption). By default, when
you select Sort by Label, Ascending or Descending, the members within the set
are sorted only by their labels. You can also perform advanced sorting to sort sets
using an intersection (tuple) or a member property.
For example, a set contains regions and you sort the regions within the set in
descending alphabetical order. Only extended data items that represent sets
support set sorting.
Before you can perform set sorting, you must create sets for the members in your
report.
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You cannot sort data items from different dimensions that are intermixed. For
example, if you have years and products on the same edge and at the same level
in your crosstab, you can sort the years, and you can sort the product lines, but
you cannot sort them as combined set because years and products come from
different dimensions.
Procedure
1. In a crosstab, select a set to sort.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the sort button
click Ascending or Descending.
and under Sort by Label,
Tip: To remove a sort order, click Don't Sort.
Sort Sets in the Opposite Axis by Value
You can sort members in the sets on the opposite axis based on the value of a
member or measure that you select.
For example, a crosstab contains years inserted as individual members in the
columns, product lines inserted as a member set in the rows, and revenue as the
measure. You select the 2012 column and then select Sort by Value, Descending.
The values in the 2012 column are sorted.
Figure 43. Crosstab showing revenue by year by product line with the 2012 column sorted in
descending order
Before you can perform this sorting, you must create sets for the members in your
report.
In nested crosstabs, items are sorted based on the values of the innermost nested
row or column of the opposite axis. For example, a crosstab contains years in the
columns and retailers nested within product line in the rows. Select 2012, sort in
descending order, and you see retailers listed from the largest value to the smallest
value for each product line.
Procedure
1. In a crosstab, select a member or measure to sort.
For example, to sort a set in the row axis, select a member or measure in the
column axis.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the sort button
click Ascending or Descending.
and under Sort by Value,
Tip: To remove a sort order, click Don't Sort.
Perform Advanced Set Sorting
If you use dimensional data, you can sort using the property of a member.
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For example, your report includes employee names and you want to sort the
employees using the gender property. You can also sort using an intersection of
members, also known as a tuple. For example, you want to sort the employees
using the value of sick days taken for the year 2012.
Procedure
1. Select a set.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the sort button
Options, click Edit set sorting.
and under Other Sort
3. Specify the sorting options.
4. If you are sorting members from different levels and want to preserve the
hierarchy, select the Hierarchized sorting check box.
5. To sort items using a member property, under Sort by, click Property, navigate
the tree, and select the member property to use.
6. To sort items using an intersection of members, or a tuple, under Sort by, click
Intersection (tuple) and click the ellipsis button. Then, from the Available
members and measures box, select the items to use and click the right arrow to
move them to the Intersection members and measures box. You can also select
items from the Calculated members and measures tab
.
Working with Dimensional Queries
Queries specify what data appears in the report. In IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, you create and modify queries using Query Explorer.
Query Explorer provides an alternative way to modify existing reports or to author
new reports. You can use Query Explorer to perform complex tasks and other tasks
that are more difficult to do in the report layout. For example, use Query Explorer
to
v improve performance by changing the order in which items are queried from the
database, or by changing query properties to allow the report server to execute
queries concurrently where possible
Note: Only queries that are referenced in the report layout can be executed
concurrently. If a query is defined in Query Explorer by joining two or more
existing queries, IBM Cognos Analytics cannot execute the source queries
concurrently. By default, queries run sequentially. Your administrator must
enable the concurrent query execution feature. For more information, see the
IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
v view or add filters and parameters and modify their properties
v view or add dimensions, levels, and facts
v incorporate SQL statements that come from other reports or reports that you
write
v create complex queries using set operations and joins
Related concepts:
“Queries” on page 8
Queries determine what data items appear in the report. Sometimes you want
detailed rows of data, which you obtain by using a simple SELECT statement.
Other times you must calculate totals or averages using summary functions and
grouped columns or must apply filters to show only the data you want.
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Specify a List of Data Items for an Object
Specify the list of data items for an object when you must reference a data item
that is in a query but is not in the layout.
For example, you want to add a layout calculation to a list that uses a data item
that is in the query definition. If the data item does not appear in the list, you
must reference it in order to make the layout calculation work. You must also
specify the list of data items if you apply conditional formatting that uses a data
item that is not in the query.
Procedure
1. Click a layout object.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, double-click
the Properties property and select data items.
Relate a Query to a Layout
Queries and layouts work together. After you decide the type of data that you
need, you must create a layout in which to show the results. Each column of data
must be both selected for the query and shown in a layout unless there are some
columns that you do not want to show. The query and layout portions of a report
must be linked to produce a valid report.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically links query and layout. For
example, when you use Reporting and the list report layout, query and layout are
automatically linked.
Procedure
1. Select a data container.
2. Click the Show properties icon
property to a query.
, and in the Properties pane, set the Query
3. Click the Data icon
, and from the Data items tab
items from the query to the data container.
, drag data
Using Dimensional Data Sources with Queries
When you are working with SAP BW data sources, you can use only a single
hierarchy in a query.
Creating queries using a mix of OLAP and relational data is not supported. If you
create queries using a database for which you do not know the type, consult your
database administrator or modeler.
When performing multi-cube queries using dimensional data sources, the
following restrictions apply:
v Only basic operators (+, *, /,-) are available for cross-cube calculations.
v Inner joins are not supported.
v All joins for multi-cube queries are outer joins.
v Viewing MDX using the Generated SQL/MDX query property may not show
you the actual MDX that is executed. This is because when a multi-cube query is
executed, a number of smaller queries are actually executed.
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Related concepts:
“Problems with large SAP BW queries” on page 420
When you are working with an SAP BW data source, if your report includes a data
set greater than 1,000,000 cells, you might encounter an XQE error.
Connecting Queries Between Different Data Sources
This section lists the data sources between which you can and cannot connect
queries.
IBM Cognos Analytics supports the following:
v RDBMS to RDBMS joins
v set operations of any two queries
v master detail relationships between any two queries
v drill from any query to any other query
You cannot create the following types of joins:
v cube-to-cube (homogeneous)
v cube-to-cube (heterogeneous)
v cube-to-RDBMS
v cube-to-SAP BW
v SAP-BW-to-RDBMS
Multiple-fact Queries
You must understand the result of a query on more than one fact table to achieve
the results that you want. The result of a multiple-fact query varies depending on
whether you are working with conformed or non-conformed dimensions, on the
level of granularity, and on the additive nature of the data.
The GO Data Warehouse (analysis) package has characteristics that affect the
results if you use a multiple-fact query with the Inventory and Sales namespaces.
Granularity for time differs in that inventory levels are recorded monthly and sales
are recorded daily. Also, Sales includes a non-conformed dimension, Order
method.
The following examples will help you interpret the results of a multiple-fact query
and understand the options for changing a query to obtain the results that you
want.
Conformed Dimensions
Individual queries on Inventory and Sales by Quarter and Product yield the
following results.
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A query on multiple facts and conformed dimensions respects the cardinality
between each fact table and its dimensions and returns all the rows from each fact
table. The fact tables are matched on their common keys, Product and Time.
Product and Time apply to both Inventory and Sales. However, inventory levels
are recorded monthly and sales are recorded daily. In this example, results are
automatically aggregated to the lowest common level of granularity. Quantity,
which comes from Sales, is rolled up to months.
Nulls are often returned for this type of query because a combination of
dimensional elements in one fact table may not exist in the other. For example, if
Husky Rope 50 was available in inventory in Q1 2011, but there were no sales of
this product in the same time period, Quantity would show a null in the Husky
Rope 50 row.
IBM Cognos Analytics does not support conformed dimensions generated by IBM
Cognos Framework Manager for SAP BW data sources.
Non-conformed Dimensions
If a non-conformed dimension is added to the query, the nature of the results
returned by the query is changed.
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Order method type exists only in Sales. Therefore, it is no longer possible to
aggregate records to a lowest common level of granularity because one side of the
query has dimensionality that is not common to the other side of the query.
Opening inventory and Closing inventory results are repeated because it is no
longer possible to relate a single value from these columns to one value from
Quantity.
Grouping on the Quarter key demonstrates that the result in this example is based
on the same data set as the query on conformed dimensions. Summary values are
the same. For example, the total quantity for Q1 2011 is 88,320 in both examples.
Filters on Non-conformed Dimensions
By default, to improve performance, filters are applied at the database level. The
default behavior can result in unexpected nulls when you add a filter to a
multiple-fact query. If you create a filter on the Order method dimension to show
only the fax order method and apply the filter at the data source, the report
includes nulls.
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The filter is applied only to one subject area, Sales. Because Order method type
does not exist in Inventory, all products still appear in the report. For example,
Course Pro Umbrella was in inventory in Q2 2012. Because there were no sales
using the fax order method for this product in Q2 2012, Order method type and
Quantity are null.
To remove the nulls, change the filter so that it is applied to the result set instead
of the data source. By applying the filter to the result set, you get the same results
that you would get if you were working with conformed dimensions. Only the
products that were ordered using the fax order method appear in the report.
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The overall summary for Quantity is 8,043 using either filter method, which shows
that the results are based on the same data set.
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, there are two types of filters. A detail filter is
applied to the data source. A summary filter is applied to the result set.
Related tasks:
“Create a detail or summary filter” on page 189
Add a filter expression to focus a report and minimize processing time by
excluding unwanted data. For example, you can filter data to show only customers
who placed purchase orders that were valued at over one thousand dollars during
the past year. When you run the report, you see only the filtered data.
Add a Query to a Dimensional Report
You can create multiple queries in Query Explorer to suit your particular needs.
For example, you can create a separate query for each data container in a report to
show different data.
Tip: The Briefing Book sample report in the GO Sales (analysis) package and the
Top 10 Retailers for 2011 sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package include multiple queries.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and click Queries.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
area.
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and drag one of the following objects to the work
Object
Description
Query
Adds a query.
Join
Adds a join relationship.
Union
Adds a union operator.
Intersect
Adds an intersect operator.
Except
Adds an except (minus) operator.
SQL
Adds SQL commands.
MDX
Adds MDX commands.
Note: When adding queries to the report
v right-click the work area and click Show Package Sources to see the queries
that use data items from a package
v right-click the work area and click Expand References to see the
relationships that exist between queries in the report, which is useful when
you are creating complex queries
3. Select an object, click the Show properties icon
pane, set the object properties.
, and In the Properties
4. Double-click a query.
5. Click the Data icon
the Data Items pane.
, and from the Source tab
, drag data items to
Tip: You can add data items to the query that you do not want to appear in
the layout. For example, to filter on Product line code and show Product line in
the layout, you must add both data items to the query.
6. To create a new data item, click the Toolbox icon
the Data Items pane.
and drag Data Item to
7. To add a filter, click the Toolbox icon and drag Filter to the Detail Filters or
Summary Filters pane and define the filter expression.
Tip: You can also create a filter by dragging a data item from the Source tab to
one of the filters panes and completing the filter expression. When working
with a dimensional data source, you can quickly filter data by dragging a
member to a filter pane instead of dragging the level to which the member
belongs. For example, dragging the member 2012 from the Years level will filter
data for the year 2012. This method is quicker than dragging the Years level
and specifying data only for the year 2012 in the filter expression.
Add Dimension Information to a Query
Add dimension information to a query when the data source has no dimension
information available or when you want to override, extend, or restrict the
information.
Add dimension information if any of the following apply:
v There is no dimension information available in the data source.
For example, the data source contains flat data that you want to model
dimensionally.
v You want to override the dimension information in the data source.
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v You want to extend or restrict dimension information in the data source.
If you do not add dimension information and the data source contains dimensions,
then the dimension structure of the data source is used. If the data source contains
no dimensions, IBM Cognos Analytics creates a default dimension structure.
Dimension information is not intended to define the presentation of information,
but to help query planning. Dimension information can be considered as a form of
query hint. In addition, users will not be able to drill down on dimensions that
you add to a report.
Note: Adding dimension information is not supported in reports that use the
dynamic query mode.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and click a query.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, set the
Override dimension info property to Yes.
3. Double-click the query.
The Dimension Info tab appears in the work area.
4. Click the Dimension info tab.
5. To create a dimension from an existing data item, click the Data icon
from the Source tab
, and
, drag the data item to the Dimensions pane.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically generates the entire
dimension.
6. To create a new dimension, click the Toolbox icon
and drag Dimension to
the Dimensions pane, and then build the new dimension by adding objects to
the dimension:
v To create a level, drag Level.
v To create a level hierarchy, drag Level hierarchy.
v To create a member hierarchy, drag Member hierarchy.
For information about these objects, see “Add dimensional data to a report” on
page 211.
7. Click the Data icon, and from the Source tab, drag data items to the objects
you added in the previous step.
For example, if you created a level, define a key by dragging a data item to the
Keys folder.
8. To create a fact, from the Source tab, drag a data item to the Facts pane.
Create a Master Detail Relationship
Create a master detail relationship to deliver information that would otherwise
require two or more reports. For example, you can combine a list with a chart. The
list can contain product lines and the chart can show details for each product line.
Master detail relationships must appear in nested frames to produce the correct
results. You can create a master detail relationship in two ways:
v Use a parent frame for the master query and a nested frame for the detail query.
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v Associate a report page with the master query and use a data container, such as
a list or crosstab, for the detail query.
You cannot display parent data in the child frame or child data in the parent
frame. Also, you cannot perform calculations across master detail queries.
When you are working with dimensional data, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
does not support master detail relationships that use a custom group.
You can use a master detail relationship to show data from separate data sources
in a single report. However, the data sources must be contained in the same
package.
With the dynamic query mode, master detail reports with a crosstab report object
are optimized to use a single query whenever possible, rather than a separate
query for each report object instance.
If you are working with an SAP BW data source, you cannot use a data item from
the master query that contains non-ASCII values.
Before you begin
To create a master detail relationship using queries that reference two different
dimensional data sources, you must first link the members by aliasing the levels
that contain the members.
Procedure
1. To use a parent frame for the master query and a nested frame for the detail
query:
v Click the Toolbox icon
the report.
and drag a List, Repeater Table, or Repeater to
v Add a second data container to the object you inserted.
You can insert a list, crosstab, chart, repeater table, or repeater into a list.
You can add a list to a repeater table or repeater.
v Add data items to both data containers.
2. To associate a report page with the master query and use a data container for
the detail query:
v Click anywhere in the report page.
v Click the Show properties icon
Select ancestor icon
, and In the Properties pane, click the
and click Page.
v Set the Query property.
v Click the Toolbox icon, drag a data container to the report.
3. To link a data item in the master query to a parameter in the detail query
instead of to another data item, create the parameter in the detail query.
Use parameters to filter values at a lower level in the detail query.
v Click the Queries icon
v Click the Toolbox icon
box.
, and click the detail query.
and drag the Filter object to the Detail Filters
v In the Expression Definition box, create the parameter.
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4. Click the Pages icon
, and click the report page.
5. Click anywhere in the report page.
6. Click the Show properties icon, and In the Properties pane, click the Select
ancestor icon and click Page.
7. Click the data container containing the details.
8. In the Properties pane, click the Master detail relationships property.
9. Click New Link.
10. In the Master box, click the data item that will provide the primary
information.
11. To link the master query to a data item, in the Detail box, click the data item
that will provide the detailed information.
12. To link the master query to a parameter, in the Parameters box, click the
parameter that will provide the detailed information.
Tip: To delete a link, select the link and press the Delete key.
13. If your detail query object is a chart, you can disconnect a chart title from the
master query.
v Click the chart title, and from the Properties pane, click Master detail
relationships.
v Clear the Use the master detail relationships from the chart check box.
14. If the master detail relationship includes a chart as the detail and you are
using automatic axis ranges, you can set the same axis range for all the detail
charts:
v Select the axis.
v In the Properties pane, under General, double-click the Axis range
property.
v Under Maximum and Minimum, click Automatic.
The master detail report option is only available with automatic axis ranges.
v Under Master detail reports, select the Same range for all instances of
chart check box.
For more information about axis ranges, see “Change the axis scale of a
current default chart” on page 95.
Tip: To avoid seeing the same data item twice in the report, click the data
item in the data container driven by the detail query. In the report object
toolbar, click the More icon
and click Cut. This removes the item from the
report display but keeps it in the query.
Related concepts:
“Master Detail or Burst Reports with Charts or Crosstabs May Result in Denial of
Service” on page 420
When running a master detail or burst report that includes a chart or crosstab, disk
space exhaustion may cause the report or other requests to fail. A large set of burst
keys or master rows may produce one or more charts per detail, resulting in many
master detail executions. This may cause the temp folder to accumulate many
gigabytes of temporary files containing data required for successful chart
rendering.
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Link Members from Two Data Sources
If you create a master detail relationship using queries that reference two different
dimensional data sources, you may need to create a relationship between levels
with the same member captions but different Member Unique Names (MUNs).
For more information about MUNs, see “Recommendation - Use Member Unique
Name (MUN) Aliases” on page 445.
For example, you may want to link the Americas member in the Sales territory
level in the Sample Outdoors cube with Americas in the GO Subsidiary level in the
Sample Outdoors Finance cube. To create the relationship, you must alias the levels
that contain the members to link.
Procedure
1. Select the parent frame or the report page, click the More icon
Go to query.
, and click
2. Add a query calculation to the query.
a. Click the Toolbox icon
Data Items box.
and drag the Query calculation tool to the
b. In the Create calculation window, click the Other expression radio button
and click OK.
c. In the Name box, type a name for the calculation.
d. In the Expression Definition box, type the following expression:
caption (data item name)
For example, caption ( [great_outdoors_company].[Sales
Territory].[Sales Territory].[Sales territory] )
3. Replace the level that contains the member that will provide the primary
information with the calculation.
a. Click the Pages icon
, and click the report page from step 1.
b. Click the Data icon
and then click the Data items tab
.
c. From the query where you created the query calculation, drag the
calculation to the parent frame or the report page, beside the level that you
are replacing.
d. Delete the level.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for the level in the data container that contains the details.
A caption alias is created for each level. You can now use the caption alias for
each level to create a master detail relationship using member captions, which
are the same, instead of MUNs, which are different.
Results
You can now create the master detail relationship between the two levels.
Working with Queries in SQL or MDX
For each query in a report, you can work with the SQL or MDX that is executed
when you run a report.
Note: MDX is not available with DMR data sources.
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View the SQL or MDX for an Entire Report or a Query
View the SQL or MDX to see what is passed to the database when you run a
report.
Only SQL is available when using DMR data sources because these data sources
were relational.
Procedure
1. To view the SQL or MDX for the entire report, click the Queries icon
right-click the Report icon
,
, and click Show Generated SQL/MDX.
This option shows the SQL or MDX that will be executed in the data source.
The SQL or MDX is organized by query and by query result. If a query is used
in more than one data container, a query result is generated for each data
container.
2. To view the SQL or MDX for a specific query, do the following:
v Click the Queries icon, and click the query.
v Click the Show properties icon
, and In the Properties pane,
double-click the Generated SQL property.
The Generated SQL property shows the SQL or MDX that is executed when
you view tabular data (right-click a query and click View Tabular Data).
Tabular data shows the data that is produced by the query in the form of a list.
You can use this property to help you build advanced queries.
Results
The SQL or MDX for the query appears in the Generated SQL dialog box. For
SQL, you can choose to view native SQL, which is the SQL that is passed to the
database when you execute the query, or IBM Cognos SQL, which is a generic
form of SQL that IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting uses. Cognos SQL is converted
to native SQL before the query is executed.
Related tasks:
“Showing prompt values in generated SQL or MDX” on page 280
You can show prompt values when viewing the generated SQL or MDX of a query
or report.
Build a Report Using Your Own SQL or MDX
You can build a report by adding SQL or MDX from an external source, such as
another report.
If you are working with MDX, you must be aware of the MDX syntax that IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting supports.
If you edit the SQL of a query, you must change the Processing property for that
query to Limited Local.
You cannot build a report by adding your own MDX if the data source is IBM
Cognos TM1®. IBM Cognos TM1 does not support custom MDX.
Procedure
1. Create a new report and choose the Blank template.
2. Click the Queries icon
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3. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Query to the work area.
4. From the Toolbox, do one of the following:
v To build an SQL query, drag SQL to the right of the query.
v To build an MDX query, drag MDX to the right of the query.
Tip: You can drag SQL or MDX anywhere in the work area, and Cognos
Analytics - Reporting will automatically create a query.
5. Click the Show properties icon
, and In the Properties pane, double-click
the Data source property and click a data source.
6. If required, set the Catalog property to the name of the catalog.
7. Double-click the SQL or MDX property and type the SQL or MDX.
8. Click Validate to check for errors.
9. If you are working with SQL, select the query, and in the Properties pane, set
the Processing property to Limited Local.
10. Double-click the query.
If the SQL or MDX is valid, the data items defined in the SQL or MDX appear
in the Data Items pane.
11. Click the Pages icon
, and click a report page.
12. Click the Toolbox icon and drag an object to the work area.
For example, drag a list, crosstab, chart, or repeater.
13. Click the data container.
14. Click the Show properties icon, and In the Properties pane, click the Select
ancestor icon
and click the container you just created.
For example, if you created a list, click List.
Tip: You can also click the container selector (three orange dots) of the
container to select it.
15. Set the Query property to the query for the report type.
16. Click the Data icon
, and from the Data Items tab
, drag the
items from the query you chose in the previous step to the data container.
Convert a Query to SQL
You can convert a query to SQL to edit it. You may want to do this to improve
performance or to use SQL features that are not supported directly by IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting.
Converting a query to SQL is an irreversible process.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and click the query.
2. Click the Show properties icon
the Generated SQL property.
, and In the Properties pane, double-click
3. Click OK and then click Convert.
4. Click Validate to check for errors.
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5. Select the query, and In the Properties pane, set the Processing property to
Limited Local.
Edit the SQL or MDX
You can edit the SQL or MDX for a query that has been created as an SQL or MDX
query or that has been converted to SQL.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
under the query.
, expand the query, and click the SQL or MDX item
2. In the work area, double-click the SQL or MDX item.
3. Make changes in the text box.
If you are working with MDX, you must be aware of the MDX syntax that IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting supports.
4. Click Validate to check for errors.
First-Rows Optimization
The SQL produced by IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting depends on the report
format you choose. For example, if you specify HTML format, first-rows
optimization is requested. All-rows is requested if you specify PDF.
It is important for database administrators and programmers to remember that
Cognos Analytics - Reporting does not always use first-rows optimization. If you
assume first-rows optimization is always requested, this can cause the RDBMS
optimizer to process the query differently than you expect.
Supported MDX Syntax
If you are working with MDX, you must be aware of the syntax that IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting supports. Cognos Analytics - Reporting supports the MDX
grammar as specified in Microsoft Data Access Software Developer Kit version 2.8.
Cognos Analytics - Reporting supports the following MDX functions. This is a
partial list and applies only when you are working with the following data
sources:
v cubes
v SAP BW
v
IBM Cognos TM1
v
DB2® OLAP
v
IBM Cognos Consolidation
v
IBM Cognos Contributor
For these data sources, IBM Cognos Analytics uses a variation of the Microsoft
SQL Server Analysis Services syntax.
254
v
Acos
v
Aggregate
v
Ancestor
v
Ancestors
v
Asin
v
Atan
v
Avg
v
BottomCount
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v
v
BottomPercent
BottomSum
v
v
v
Children
ClosingPeriod
CoalesceEmpty
v
v
Convert
Cos
v
Cosh
v
v
Count
Cousin
v
Crossjoin
v
CurrentMember
v
DefaultMember
v
Descendants
v
Dimension
v
Distinct
v
Except
v
Exp
v
Filter
v
FirstChild
v
FirstSibling
v
Generate
v
v
Head
Hierarchize
v
Hierarchy
v
IIf
v
Intersect
v
Is
v
IsAncestor
v
IsEmpty
v
Item
v
Lag
v
LastChild
v
LastPeriods
v
LastSibling
v
Lead
v
v
Level
Levels
v
LinkMember
v
Ln
v
Log10
v
Max
v
Median
v
Members
v
Min
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v
v
Mtd
Name
v
v
v
NextMember
OpeningPeriod
Order
v
v
Ordinal
ParallelPeriod
v
Parent
v
v
PeriodsToDate
PrevMember
v
PreviousMember
v
Properties
v
Qtd
v
Rank
v
Siblings
v
Sin
v
Sinh
v
Stddev
v
Subset
v
Sum
v
Tail
v
Tan
v
v
Tanh
TopCount
v
TopPercent
v
TopSum
v
Union
v
Value
v
Var
v
Wtd
v
Ytd
Using Dimensional Calculations
Insert a calculation to make your report more meaningful by deriving additional
information from the data source. For example, you create an invoice report, and
you want to see the total sale amount for each product ordered. Create a calculated
column that multiplies the product price by the quantity ordered.
You build calculations in the expression editor using functions.
If a calculation is used in multiple reports, or by different report authors, ask your
modeler to create the calculation as a standalone object in the model and include it
in the relevant package.
Related concepts:
“Considerations when Creating Calculations” on page 435
Consider the following information and limitations when creating dimensional
calculations.
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Create a Simple Member Calculation
When working with dimensional data sources, you can select members in your
report and create simple calculations.
In addition to simple arithmetic calculations, you can perform the following
calculations:
Calculation
Description
Rollup
Summarizes, or rolls up, all the values of the
selected items in a hierarchy.
%
Calculates the value of a selected item as a
percentage of another item.
% Difference
Calculates the difference between two items
as a percentage.
% Of Base
This calculation is only available if you
select two members from different
hierarchies, each from a different edge.
This calculation takes the first selected
member from edge A and the second
selected member from edge B. The
calculation result of a percent of base should
be such that all the values for member A
will compare itself to the intersect value of
member A and B.
For example, you have a crosstab showing
quantity sold by year by product line. You
select 2012 and Camping Equipment,
right-click the selection, click Calculate, and
then click % of Base (2012, Camping
Equipment). The calculated row shows the
percentage value of each product line for
2012 as compared to Camping Equipment
for 2012.
Custom
Allows you to specify your own value when
performing a simple arithmetic calculation.
Also allows you to change the order of
operands or type a custom name for the
new calculated row or column.
Procedure
1. Select the items in the report to calculate.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the insert calculation button
the calculation to perform.
and select
Tip: Calculations that are not applicable to the items you selected are grayed
out.
3. To change the order of the operands or the name of the calculated item added
to the report, click Custom.
Results
The calculation appears as a new row or column in the report.
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Insert a Query Calculation
When working with dimensional data, insert a query calculation into your report
to add a new row or column with values that are based on a calculation. For
example, you create a query calculation named Euros that converts dollars to euros
by multiplying an existing dollar measure by a conversion rate. Euros can then be
displayed to end users in a separate row or column.
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting you can create the following types of
calculations:
v Create calculated members or calculated measures where the expression is a
member or a tuple-based (as opposed to property-based) value expression. For
example, [2013] - [2012] is a calculated member and [Revenue] - [Planned
Revenue] is a calculated measure.
v Use set expressions to create calculated sets of members. For example, children
([2012]) is a set expression that displays the child members of 2012.
You must base each set expression on a hierarchy and the set expression must
contain only members from this hierarchy.
v Create value expressions when you want to insert a string, number, date, or
interval value.
You can also create a calculation that uses an intersection (tuple) that you already
defined.
If you are using a DB2 data source, the subtract operator is invalid if you combine
the datatypes timestamp2 and packed decimal.
When creating an expression that will be used in a double-byte environment, such
as Japanese, the only special characters that will work are ASCII-7 and ~ -- || - $ ¢
£ ¬.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Query calculation to the report.
2. Click the type of calculation you want to create and if required, select the
hierarchy that contains the data that is the focus of your calculation.
3. In the Name box, type a meaningful name for the calculation.
For example, if you are calculating the difference between 2012 revenue and
2011 revenue, you could name your expression 2012 - 2011 Revenue.
4. In the Available Components pane, define the calculation:
v Specify how you want to view the available data items in your data package
by clicking the view member tree button
button
or the view metadata tree
.
v To add data items that are not shown in the report, on the source tab
double-click the data items.
,
v To add data items that are in the report but not necessarily in the model,
such as calculations, on the data items tab
, double-click the data items.
v To add data items from a specific query, on the queries tab
data items.
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, double-click
v To add functions, summaries, and operators, on the functions tab
double-click elements.
,
v To add a value that is derived from a parameter, on the parameters tab
double-click a parameter.
,
Parameters define prompts, drill-through reports, and master detail
relationships.
v To add a macro, on the macros tab
, drag the parameter maps, session
parameters, or functions you want to add to the macro.
Tip: Use Insert macro block to get you started with creating the macro
expression. Insert macro block inserts number signs in the expression. Make
sure that the macro expression you create is between the number signs.
You can also type the calculation directly in the Expression Definition box.
When typing date values, ensure that the date format is correct for your
database type.
To copy and paste expression components in the Expression Definition pane,
you can use the copy button
5. Click the validate button
and the paste button
.
.
Any validation errors appear on the Errors tab of the Information pane.
Tip: To copy and paste expression components in the Expression Definition
pane, you can use the copy button
and the paste button
.
Related concepts:
Chapter 17, “Using query macros,” on page 353
A macro is a fragment of code that you can insert in the Select statement of a
query or in an expression. For example, add a macro to insert a new data item
containing the user's name.
Create a Layout Calculation
Create a layout calculation to add run-time information to your report, such as
current date, current time, and user name.
When you create layout calculations, unsupported functions do not appear in the
Functions tab of the expression editor. Specifically, there is no Summaries folder,
and some operators, constants, and constructs are also unavailable. These functions
are not available because only the database can perform them. Report expressions
and calculations based on layout expressions are performed in IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting.
To see the complete list of functions available in the expression editor, except for
report functions, create a query calculation. All functions are available when you
create a query calculation because these calculations are performed in the database
and not in Cognos Analytics - Reporting.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Layout calculation to the report.
2. In the Available Components box, define the calculation:
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v To add data items that are not shown in the report, on the source tab
double-click data items.
v To add data items from a specific query, on the queries tab
data items.
,
, double-click
v To add functions, summaries, and operators, on the functions tab
double-click elements.
,
v To add a value that is derived from a parameter, on the parameters tab
double-click a parameter.
,
Parameters define prompts, drill-through reports, and master detail
relationships.
Tips:
v You can also type the calculation directly in the Expression Definition box.
v When typing date values, ensure that the date format is correct for your
database type.
v To copy and paste expression components in the Expression Definition
pane, you can use the copy button
3. Click the validate button
and the paste button
.
.
Create an Intersection (Tuple)
When working with dimensional data, an intersection, also known as a tuple, is
useful for obtaining a value from the combination of two or more members that
you specify. Each member must be from a different hierarchy. The intersection can
include only one measure.
For example, the intersection (Revenue, 2012, Cooking Gear) shows the revenue
value for the year 2012 and for the product line Cooking Gear.
Use tuples to avoid report summaries that do not reflect the visible data. For more
information about this issue, see “Summaries in a report do not correspond to the
visible members” on page 412.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
report.
and drag the Intersection (Tuple) object to the
2. From the Available members and measures pane, select items and click the
right arrow to move them to the Intersection members and measures box. You
can also use items from the Calculated members and measures tab
.
3. To define the hierarchy for this intersection, click a parent object in the
Intersection hierarchy box.
Assigning a Hierarchy or Dimension
You must assign each calculated member, set expression, and intersection (tuple) to
a hierarchy or dimension. We recommend that you select the hierarchy or
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dimension upon which your calculation focuses. For example, if your calculated
member is based on years, select the Time hierarchy. If you create a calculated
measure, select the Measures dimension.
Select only a hierarchy that cannot affect the value of the calculation. For example,
the hierarchy Camping Equipment has the same value no matter what Products
context it appears in the report. Therefore,
v the calculation ([Camping Equipment]-[Mountaineering Equipment]) has a
well-defined meaning only in the Products hierarchy, so select that hierarchy.
v the calculation tuple ([Revenue], [Camping Equipment]) can be assigned to
either the Products or Measures hierarchy, as it is not affected by either context.
v the calculations ([2013] - [Camping Equipment]) and ([Fiscal Year 2013] [Calendar Year 2013]) do not have a well-defined meaning in any hierarchy, and
therefore cannot be used reliably at all.
Drilling Up and Drilling Down in Dimensional Reports
When working with dimensional or dimensionally-modeled relational (DMR) data
sources, you can create reports that allow the reader to view more general or more
detailed information on your data within a predefined dimensional hierarchy (such
as Years - Year - Quarter - Month) without having to create different reports.
You can link groups of data items from different queries so that when you drill up
or drill down in one query, the data item also drills up or drills down in the linked
queries. Linking data items is useful if your report includes more than one query
with the same data item. For example, if your report shows a list and a crosstab
that each include the Product Line data item, you can link the Product Line data
item from the crosstab query to the Product Line data item from the list query so
that when you drill up in the crosstab Product Line data item, the list Product Line
data item also drills up.
Member Sets
Member sets are used to group data items that are logically related for various
actions, such as drill actions, zero suppression, and ranking. They can be defined
as a flat list or as a tree structure in which member sets in the same parent chain
are considered related.
For example, for drill operations, a member set defines the set of items that can
potentially change when a given item in the set is drilled on. The values of other
items in the query or even those in the same hierarchy are preserved when any
item in this set is drilled on. Usually, a member set references items that have
logical roles in a drill action, such as a detail, a summary of the detail, or a parent
of the detail. A single data item can belong to only one member set.
If you do not define member sets for items, the IBM Cognos Analytics server
associates items into default member sets and behaviors using simple dimension
rules on item expressions. You can override the behavior for a particular item
while other items continue to use the default.
When you define a member set, you must explicitly define behaviors for each item
in the set. Items in the set that have no behaviors have their values preserved.
Drill behaviors always act from a root member set. This means that when an item
is drilled on, the root member of its member set is found and all items from the
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root down are processed. Although calculations and aggregates are not directly
related by hierarchy, they respond because of their dependence on the items upon
which they are based.
Create Member Sets
Create a member set when you want to define a non-default drill behavior. You
specify what items respond to a drill action by adding them to the member set.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
set.
, and click the query in which to create a member
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and In the Properties pane, set the
Define member sets property to Yes.
3. Double-click the query and click the Member sets tab.
4. Click the Data icon
to the work area.
, and from the Data items tab
, drag items
To define a member set as a tree structure, drag the item that will serve as the
root item of the set to the work area, and then drag other items over the root
item to create the tree structure.
Note: You can also nest member sets.
Create a drill-up and drill-down report
You can link groups of data items from different queries so that when you drill up
or drill down in one query, the data item also drills up or drills down in the linked
queries.
When you drill down or up, you can specify whether the column title shows the
member caption value or the level label value. By default, titles use member
captions. Using level labels may be more meaningful. For example, within the
Country or Region column, you drill down on Australia. By default, the column
title becomes Australia, the member caption. It may be more meaningful to use
Country or Region, the level label, as the column title.
Tip: The Returned Items sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package includes drilling.
Before you begin
Before you begin, ensure that you are using a dimensional data source.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
or the Queries icon
, and click the Report icon
.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, double-click
the Advanced drill behavior property.
3. On the Basic tab, in the Report output drill capabilities box, select the Allow
drill-up and drill-down check box.
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By default, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting determines which items can be
drilled on based on the dimensional structure.
4. To enable the report to be used as the source during a package drill-through,
select the Allow this report to be a package-based drill-through source check
box and click OK.
For more information about package drill-through, see the IBM Cognos Analytics
Administration and Security Guide.
5. When the report is a drill-through target, to specify whether to apply additional
filtering when names from the context in the source report matches names of
items in the target report, select the Accept dynamic filters when this report is
a drill-through target check box.
6. To disable drill-up or drill-down for a data item, select the data item in either
the Disable drill-up for box or the Disable drill-down for box.
7. From the Advanced tab, you can change the drill-up or drill-down behavior for
any data item by selecting the data item and then choosing one of the
following behaviors.
Behavior name
Drill-up behavior
Drill-down behavior
Preserve
The data item's value will
remain unchanged.
The data item's value will
remain unchanged.
Empty Set
The set of values associated
with this data item is set to
be the empty set (novalues).
For crosstabs, the data item
will effectively be removed
from the report.
The data item will be
removed from the report.
Replace Item
The data item's value will
The data item's value will
change to become the parent change to become the item
(if a lowest-level summary
that was drilled on.
was drilled up on) or the
grandparent (if a lowest-level
detail of a dimension was
drilled up on) of the item
that was drilled on.
Replace Expression
The data item's value will
change to become the
children of the parent (if a
lowest-level summary was
drilled up on) or the children
of the grandparent (if a
lowest-level detail of a
dimension was drilled up
on) of the item that was
drilled on.
The data item's value will
change to become the
children of the item that was
drilled on.
Change Expression
The data item's value will
change to become the value
of some other data item in
the query.
The data item's value will
change to become the value
of some other data item in
the query.
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Behavior name
Drill-up behavior
Drill-down behavior
Depth Based Expression
The data item's value will
The data item's value will
change to become all data
change to become all data
items n generations higher in items n generations higher in
the dimensional hierarchy
the dimensional hierarchy
than the item that was
than the item that was
drilled on. The number of
drilled on. The number of
generations or levels is
generations or levels is
determined by the Depth
determined by the Depth
value.
value.
Ancestor
The data item's value will
change to become the data
value of the ancestor n
generations higher in the
dimensional hierarchy than
the item that was drilled on.
The number of generations
or levels is determined by
the Depth value.
The data item's value will
change to become the data
value of the ancestor n
generations higher in the
dimensional hierarchy than
the item that was drilled on.
The number of generations
or levels is determined by
the Depth value.
8. In the Column title drill behavior box, specify whether to use member
captions or level labels as the columns titles for each data item.
9. From the Data items linking tab, you can link groups of data items:
v Click the New Group of Linked Data Items icon
.
v Type a name for this group of linked data items and click OK.
To rename a group of linked data items, click the group, click the Rename
Group of Linked Data Items icon
, type a name, and click OK.
v Use the arrows to move data items from the queries on the left to the groups
on the right.
Note: You can only add a data item to one group.
Results
The report will generate links for any item that can be drilled up or down on.
When you run a report, you can drill down or drill up by right-clicking the data
item and choosing the action from the context menu. The menu items will be
disabled if an item cannot be drilled up or down on.
Related tasks:
“Create a drill-up and drill-down chart” on page 128
If you use a dimensionally-modeled data source, you can create a chart that allows
you to drill down to lower-level data or drill up to higher-level data.
Recommendation - Drilling Down in Very Large Data Sources
When you drill down in a report that uses a very large data sources query results
can be much larger than what can be held in memory. For example, if you insert
the lowest level of four hierarchies that each contain 1000 members, the report can
contain 1,000,000,000,000 cells. At best, this query will take a very long time to run.
While this large query executes, all other queries for the same server process will
likely be blocked. For most data sources, the query will likely fail due to
insufficient memory or timing out. Then the memory is released and normal
services resume.
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However, when using a Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) cube,
the memory consumed by the SSAS client is not always released in a way that
other queries can effectively re-use. The server continues to run with insufficient
memory, causing new queries to either run very slowly or fail completely. You may
encounter an error, and, to continue, the system administrator must manually stop
and restart the IBM Cognos Analytics service.
To avoid these problems, consider the size of hierarchy levels and sets when
creating reports and avoid combining them in ways that create large queries. To
determine the size of a set, create and run a very small report that includes only a
count of the members within that set. You can also use filtering techniques to focus
your data.
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Chapter 11. Adding Prompts to Filter Data
You can add prompts to a report to add interactivity for users. Prompts act as
questions that help users to customize the information in a report to suit their own
needs. For example, you create a prompt so that users can select a product type.
Only products belonging to the selected product type are retrieved and shown in
the report.
Prompts are composed of three interrelated components: parameters, prompt
controls, and parameter values. Parameters are based on parameterized filters and
form the questions to ask users. Prompt controls provide the user interface in
which the questions are asked. Parameter values provide the answers to the
questions.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting provides several ways to create prompts. You
can
v use the My parameters
your administrator
panel to access parameters that were customized by
v use the Build Prompt Page tool
v
build your own prompt and prompt page
v
create a parameter to produce a prompt
v
insert prompts directly into the report page
v in dimensional reporting, you can also define prompts using context filters
If you include reports from different packages in an interactive dashboard that
uses global filters, ensure that you use the same parameter name for the prompt in
all the reports. You can also create prompts in the package. For more information,
see topics on modeling. You can also use context filters, also known as slicer filters,
to focus the data in your report.
Syntax of Prompt Expressions
Prompt expressions use the following syntax, where p represents the parameter
name.
You can also use these expressions to create parameterized data items that you can
then use in master detail relationships.
The type of expression you use depends on whether you have chosen relational or
dimensional reporting style. For more information about reporting styles, see
“Relational and dimensional reporting styles” on page 10.
Relational: Detail Filter Expressions
Dimensional: Context (Slicer) or Edge
Expressions
[data item] = ?p?
[level or hierarchy]->?p?
for single-select prompts and master detail
relationships
For single-select member prompts and
master detail relationships
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Dimensional: Context (Slicer) or Edge
Expressions
[data item] in ?p?
set([level or hierarchy]->?p?)
for multi-select prompts
For multi-select member prompts
filter ([set], [property expression] = ?p? )
For single-select value prompts and master
detail relationships
A property expression is an expression that
is assigned to a property to enable dynamic
update of the property when the report
runs.
filter ([set], [property expression] IN ?p? )
For multi-select value prompts
A property expression is an expression that
is assigned to a property to enable dynamic
update of the property when the report
runs.
Related tasks:
“Creating application links to other reports or external web pages” on page 172
Create application links to use an active report to open other reports or external
web pages in an iFrame.
“View the SQL for an Entire Report or a Query” on page 203
View the SQL to see what is passed to the database when you run a report.
Using customized parameters
You can use the My parameters
panel to tailor reports according to your role
and to maintain consistency across reports.
Your administrator may decide to adopt a set of standard parameter names that
can be used by all report authors. These parameters are called global parameters.
The administrator can specify default values for global parameters. These
parameters can be customized to your role. It all depends on how often you use
certain data items in your own reports.
Global parameters allow you to avoid being prompted repeatedly for the same
values. You can set your own values which are then automatically applied to
reports when they are run.
You can apply parameter values from the My parameters panel with or without
prompts:
v If applied on a prompt page, the parameter defaults to your preferred value.
v If applied in a filter expression, the report simply runs with the default values
that you selected previously.
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About this task
You can take advantage of global parameters when you perform these tasks:
v creating a detail or summary filter
v creating a drill-through definition
v creating your own prompt and prompt page
v creating a parameter to produce a prompt
Procedure
1. Click the My parameters icon
.
The My parameters panel appears. Parameters that were created by your
administrator are listed. For each parameter, values appear. Check boxes are
selected next to values that your administrator has specified as the default
values.
2. If you want to use a different default value than the one assigned by your
administrator, you can select a different value.
Tip: You may want to check with your administrator before you change default
parameter values. There could be a reason why the administrator is
recommending a specific value.
3. If you changed one or more default values but then decide to revert to the
values set by your administrator, click Reset.
Use the Build prompt page tool
Use the Build prompt page tool to quickly add filters and prompts to a report.
This tool creates filters in the query using the prompt information properties that
are set in the IBM Cognos Framework Manager model. For more information
about the prompt information properties, see the Framework Manager User Guide.
Note: The Promotion Success sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package includes a prompt page. The Historical Revenue sample report in the
Sales and Marketing (cube) package and the Eyewear Revenue by Brand and Size
sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis) package include multiple
prompts.
Before you begin
Note: The Build prompt page tool creates a static report specification, so if the
prompt information properties are updated in the Framework Manager model,
those updates will not be reflected in your report.
Procedure
1. Click the column or row on which users will be prompted.
To create multiple prompts or a cascading prompt, click more than one column
or row.
2. From the report object toolbar, click the More icon
prompt page.
, and then click Build
A prompt page is created that has the following items:
v a page header
v a prompt control for each selected column
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v a page footer containing Cancel, Back, Next, and Finish buttons
Build Your Own Prompt and Prompt Page
Create your own prompt and prompt page to control how they appear in a report.
Note: The Promotion Success sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package includes a prompt page.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
2. Click the Toolbox icon
, and click Prompt pages.
, and drag Page to the Prompt pages box.
3. Double-click the page you just created.
4. Click the Toolbox icon
prompt page.
, drag one of the following prompt controls to the
Prompt control
Description
Text box prompt
Retrieves data based on a value that users
type.
Use this control when users know exactly
what value they want to enter, such as a
name or account number.
Value prompt
Retrieves data based on values that users
select from a list.
Use this control to show a list of possible
values from which users can choose.
Note: The maximum number of items that
can appear in a list is 5000.
Select & search prompt
Retrieves values based on search criteria that
users specify. Data is then retrieved based
on values users select from the search
results.
Use this control instead of a value prompt if
the list of values is very long, which can
slow down performance.
Tip: Users have the option of performing a
case sensitive or case insensitive search. A
case sensitive search is faster, while a case
insensitive search usually returns more
values.
You cannot use this control if you are
working with SAP BW data sources.
Date prompt
Retrieves data based on a date that users
select.
Use this control to filter a date column.
Users can retrieve data for a specific day, a
set of days, or a range of days.
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Prompt control
Description
Time prompt
Retrieves data based on a time that users
select.
Use this control to restrict a report to a
particular time or time range. For example,
users can see how many orders are received
after business hours. Users can then use this
information to determine the number of staff
needed to work after hours.
Date & time prompt
Retrieves data based on a date and time that
users select.
Use this control to filter a datetime or
timestamp column. This control is useful for
specifying ranges. For example, users can
retrieve all orders received from Monday at
12:00 a.m. to Friday at 5:00 p.m.
Interval prompt
Retrieves data based on a time interval that
users specify.
Use this control to retrieve data that is
related to the passage of time. For example,
users can retrieve a list of products that
were returned 30 or more days after they
were purchased.
Tree prompt
Retrieves data based on values that users
select from a list. Values are organized
hierarchically.
This control is useful when you are working
with dimensional data sources. Data is
shown from the top of a dimension
hierarchy to the most detailed member, and
users can choose the level of detail they
want to view in the report. For more
information about tree prompts, see “Control
the Data That Appears in a Tree Prompt” on
page 279.
Tree prompts let you page through large
numbers of prompt values with a More link
at the bottom of the tree.
Generated prompt
Selects a prompt control based on the data
type of the data item.
This control acts like a placeholder. When
users run the report, the control is replaced
by the appropriate prompt control. For
example, if users are prompted for date
values, the control is replaced by a date &
time prompt.
The Prompt Wizard dialog box appears.
5. If you are creating a text box, date, time, date and time, interval, or generated
prompt, do the following:
v Create a new parameter for the prompt or use an existing or global
parameter.
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v Click Next.
v If you created a new parameter, define the expression by selecting a data
item from the package and the operator to use.
Tip: Make the prompt optional by selecting the Make the filter optional
check box.
v Go to step 7.
6. If you are creating a value, select & search, or tree prompt, do the following:
v Create a new parameter for the prompt or use an existing or global
parameter.
v Click Next.
v If you created a new parameter and you want to use the parameter to filter
data, select the Create a parameterized filter check box and define the
expression by selecting a data item from the package and the operator to use.
If you are creating a tree prompt, you must choose in in the Operator box.
You can also use a parameter to provide a value for a layout calculation,
such as showing a user's name in the report. When the report is run, you can
use a parameter to prompt the user to type his name and have it appear in
the report.
Tip: Make the prompt optional by selecting the Make the filter optional
check box.
v Click Next.
v If you created a parameterized filter and you have more than one query
defined in the report, select the check box for the query on which to filter
and click Next.
v Select the Create new query check box to create the query that will be used
to build the list of data values shown when the report is run.
Tip: Do not create a new query if you want to link the prompt to an existing
query or if you intend to create the query at a later time.
v Click the ellipsis button beside Values to use and click the data item on
which to prompt.
v To choose a data item that is different than what users will see when they
are prompted, click the ellipsis button beside Values to display and click the
data item.
v To create a cascading prompt, in the Cascading source box, click the
parameter that represents the cascade source.
7. Click Finish.
Results
The prompt control is added to the prompt page. A prompt page is like a report
page. You can insert graphics and text and apply formatting.
You can also modify the properties of the prompt control by clicking it and making
changes in the Properties pane.
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Create a parameter to produce a prompt
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting can automatically generate prompted reports
based on parameters you create. When you run the report, Reporting can generate
a prompt page for each parameter not associated to an existing prompt page
depending on whether the prompt run option is selected or not.
Note: When Reporting automatically generates a prompt, it creates filters in the
query using the prompt information properties that are set in the IBM Cognos
Framework Manager model. For more information about the prompt information
properties, see the Framework Manager User Guide.
You can also define parameters when you want to create a drill-through report or
define master detail relationships.
Procedure
1. From the report object toolbar, click the Filters icon
2. On the Detail Filters tab, click the add button
.
.
The Detail Filter dialog box appears.
3. In the Available Components box, click the Source tab
tab
, or the Parameters tab
prompt:
, the Data Items
to select the data item to use for the
v To filter data based on data items not shown in the report, double-click a
data item on the Source tab.
v To filter data that appears in the report but not necessarily in the model,
such as calculations, double-click a data item on the Data Items tab.
v To filter data using standardized parameters that were created by your
administrator, double-click a data item on the Parameters tab in the Global
Parameters folder.
The data item appears in the Expression Definition box.
4. In the Expression Definition box, type an operator after the data item or select
an operator from the Functions tab
.
The operator sets some of the default properties of the prompt. For example, if
the operator is equals (=), users will be able to select only a single prompt
value and the prompt's Multi-Select property is set to No.
For more information about creating expressions, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206 or “Using Dimensional Calculations” on page 256.
5. Type a name after the operator to define the prompt parameter. A question
mark must precede and follow the name.
6. To specify whether the prompt is mandatory, in the Usage box, click Required,
Optional, or Disabled.
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Create a Prompt Directly in a Report Page
You can add prompt controls directly in a report page instead of creating a prompt
page.
Prompt controls that are added to report pages will not appear in the following:
v saved reports
v PDF reports
v reports that are sent to users by email
v scheduled reports
Prompt controls are interactive. They are used to satisfy parameter values before
running a report. As a result, prompt controls added to a report page only appear
when you run the report in HTML format. When you run a report in HTML
format, users select which values they want to see, and the report is refreshed,
producing a new report.
For the previously listed non-interactive reports, prompt parameter values must be
collected and satisfied before the report is run. You provide the parameter values
using the Run options tab in the IBM Cognos Analytics portal. If you do not
provide all the required values, the report will fail to run. You can access the Run
options tab by clicking the set properties icon
for the report.
Tip: The Revenue by Product Brand (2011) sample report in the Sales and
Marketing (cube) package and the Rolling and Moving Averages interactive sample
report include value prompts.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag a prompt control to the report.
The Prompt Wizard dialog box appears.
2.
Provide the information necessary to create the prompt.
Tip: Make the prompt optional by selecting the Make the filter optional check
box. Otherwise, when you run the report for the first time, the prompt appears
in a generated prompt page rather than in the report page. Alternatively, you
can specify a default selection for the prompt.
3. In the work area, click the prompt.
4. In the Properties pane, set the Auto-submit property to Yes.
If you do not set the Auto-submit property to Yes, the report will not refresh
when users select a different prompt value.
Tip: An alternative to setting the prompt to auto-submit is to add a prompt
button from the Toolbox icon and set its Type property to Finish.
Results
The prompt control is added to the report page. You can modify its properties by
clicking it and making changes in the Properties pane.
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Modifying prompts
For each prompt you create, you can modify its properties by specifying values in
the Properties pane.
For example, you can
v
v
v
change the prompt control interface
require user input
enable multiple selections
v
show or hide prompt statuses
v
specify default selections
v
specify prompt values
v
add prompt buttons
v
create cascading prompts
Some properties you set for a prompt may be overridden under some conditions.
For example, some properties set for the filter associated with a prompt may
override the corresponding prompt property.
Change the Prompt Control Interface
By default, when you create a prompt, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting selects
the prompt control interface. You can change the prompt control interface
depending on the type of prompt you created. For example, for a value prompt,
you can choose a drop-down list, a list box, or a radio button group.
Procedure
1. Click the prompt control.
2. In the Properties pane, set the Select UI property to the interface.
Specify that a prompt requires user input
You can specify that a prompt requires user input before the report can run.
Procedure
1. Click the prompt control.
2. In the Properties pane, set the Required property to Yes.
3. Click the Pages icon
, and click a report page.
4. Click the report object associated with the prompt, from the report object
toolbar, click Filters
and then click Edit filters.
5. Click the filter associated with the prompt.
6. In the Usage box, click Required.
Results
When you run the report, a star appears next to the prompt indicating that the
user must select or type a value.
If you have a cascading prompt and the parent prompt control is required, the
child prompt control is disabled. This ensures that users choose at least one value
in the parent prompt before they can choose a value in the child prompt.
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Conversely, if the parent control is optional, then the child control is populated.
This gives users the ability to choose values in the child prompt without having to
choose a value in the parent prompt.
Allow Users to Select Multiple Values in a Prompt
You can allow users to select more than one value in a prompt. For example, you
have a prompt for which users must select a product line. You can modify the
prompt so that users can select more than one product line.
If you enable multiple selections, the Auto-submit property is always set to no.
Procedure
1. Click the prompt control.
2. In the Properties pane, choose whether to allow users to specify more than one
value or a range of values:
v To allow users to specify more than one value, set the Multi-select property
to Yes.
v To allow users to specify a range of values, set the Range property to Yes.
3. Click the Pages icon
, and click a report page.
4. Click the report object associated with the prompt, from the report object
toolbar, click Filters
and then click Edit filters.
5. Double-click the filter associated with the prompt.
6. Change the operator to one of the following:
v If you are creating a multi-select prompt, change the operator to in.
For example, [Product_line] in ?Product line? where [Product_Line] is the
name of the data item allows users to select multiple product lines.
v If you are creating a range prompt, change the operator to in_range.
For example, [Margin] in_range ?Margin? where [Margin] is the name of the
data item allows users to specify a margin range.
Show or Hide Prompt Status
Each prompt you create in a report provides dynamic validation when the report is
run. Validity checks are performed to ensure that the data is correct and that
required values are supplied. For example, a star appears next to each required
prompt. An arrow appears next to a prompt if you must select or type a value. If
you type an incorrect value, a dotted line appears. You can choose whether to
show the star and arrow for each prompt.
Procedure
1. Click the prompt control.
2. In the Properties pane, set the Hide adornments property to Yes to hide the
prompt characters or No to show them.
Specify a Default Selection for a Prompt
You can specify a default selection for a prompt so that users do not have to select
or type a value when they run the report.
Procedure
1. Click the prompt control.
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2. To define a range of values, in the Properties pane, set the Range property to
Yes.
3. To specify more than one default selection, in the Properties pane, set the
Multi-select property to Yes.
4. In the Properties pane, double-click the Default selections property.
5. Click the add button
and do one of the following:
v If you chose to define a single value, type the value as the default selection.
v If you chose to define a range of values, type the minimum and maximum
values of the range in the Minimum value and Maximum value boxes,
respectively.
6. Repeat step 4 to specify other default selections.
Customize Prompt Text
You can customize the instructional text that appears around prompts. For
example, a value prompt with multiple selections includes a Select all link below
the choices that you can customize to text other than Select all. You can also
specify translated text in many languages for international report users.
Procedure
1. Click the prompt control.
2. To change the default prompt text, in the Properties pane, double-click any of
the properties under Prompt Text.
Note: When you select a property in the Properties pane, its description
appears in the information pane below the Properties pane.
3. Click Specified text, and then click the ellipsis button.
4. In the Localized Text dialog box, type the text that you want to appear.
5. To add customized text for other languages:
v Click Add.
v Select the countries and regions for which you want to specify localized text
and click OK.
v To specify text for a country and region, select the country and region and
click Edit, and then type the localized text in the text box.
Specify Prompt Values
You can provide your own values in a prompt instead of the default values that
come from the database.
You can specify your own prompt values to
v show something different from what is in the database
v improve performance by not accessing the database
v provide text for optional prompts, such as Select a value
v restrict the number of values available
For example, you have a prompt in which users choose a country or region. For
the database value United States, you want USA to appear in the prompt.
Tip: The Rolling and Moving Averages interactive sample report includes a value
prompt.
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Procedure
1. Click the prompt control.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Static Choices property.
3. Click the add button
.
4. In the Use box, type the prompt value to add.
5. In the Display box, type the value that will appear in the prompt.
6. Repeat steps 3 to 5 to add other prompt values.
7. To link a prompt value to a condition, do the following:
v In the Variable box, choose the variable to use or create your own.
For information about creating variables, see “Add a variable from the
condition explorer” on page 323.
v In the Value box, click one of the possible values for the variable.
v Click the static value to link to the variable and click the edit button
.
v In the Display box, type the value to appear in the prompt.
v Repeat this procedure for each additional value.
Add a Prompt Button
Add prompt buttons so that users can submit selected items, cancel reports, or
navigate between pages.
When you are building prompts and prompt pages, you may have to add prompt
buttons to submit selections. Some prompt controls, such as the value prompt, can
be set to submit selections automatically. Other prompt controls, such as the date
prompt, require a prompt button.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
, and click the page to which to add a prompt button.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag Prompt button
to the work area.
3. Click the prompt button and, in the Properties pane, set the Type property to
one of the following actions.
Goal
Action
Cancel the report
Cancel
Go to the previous prompt page
Back
Go to the next prompt page
Next
Run the report
Finish
Reprompt the user
Tip: Reprompting users is useful when you
have cascading prompts.
Reprompt
Create a Cascading Prompt
Create a cascading prompt to use values from one prompt to filter values in
another prompt. For example, a report contains the columns Product line and
Product type. You create prompts for these columns, and you specify that the
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Product type prompt is a cascading prompt that uses Product line as the source.
When users select a product line, they see only the product types related to the
selected product line.
Tip: The Employee Training by Year sample report in the GO Data Warehouse
(analysis) package includes cascading prompts.
Procedure
1. To make the cascading source a required prompt, select it and, in the Properties
pane, set the Required property to Yes.
2. Click the prompt control to use as a cascading prompt.
3. In the Properties pane, double-click the Cascade source property.
4. Click the parameter that represents the cascade source.
5. If the prompt allows users to select multiple values, add a prompt button to the
cascade source to provide the cascading prompt with the appropriate values:
v Click the Toolbox icon
, drag Prompt button
to the report.
v Click the prompt button and, in the Properties pane, set the Type property
to Reprompt.
v To change the text in the prompt button, click the Toolbox icon, drag the
Text item icon
to the prompt button and type the text.
Control the Data That Appears in a Tree Prompt
You can control what data appears in a tree prompt and how the data is structured
to get the results that you want. To do this, you add various functions to the filter
expression.
In addition, the operator that you chose in the Prompt Wizard dialog box controls
what appears next to each prompt value. If the operator is in or not in, check
boxes appear next to each prompt value. If the operator is equals (=), no check
boxes appear.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
prompt.
, and click the query that is associated with the
2. In the Data Items pane, double-click the data item on which you are
prompting.
3. In the Expression Definition box, type one of the following functions.
Goal
Function
Show the hierarchical structure of all
members in the hierarchy. If this function is
not used, all members are shown in a flat
list.
rootmembers (data_item)
Show the descendants of the data item in a
hierarchical structure where x represents the
level. For example, if you are prompting on
the Year hierarchy and x=1, you will see
2010, 2011, and 2012 in the tree. If x=2, you
will see 2010 Q1, 2010 Q2, and so on.
descendants (rootmembers (data_item), x)
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Goal
Function
Show the children of a member. For
example, 2012 Q1, 2012 Q2, 2012 Q3, and
2012 Q4 appear for the member 2012.
children (member)
Using in_range Filters with Character Data
If you use an in_range filter with character data, and the From value is greater
than the To value, the filter returns no results. For example, if the From value is
"Zone" and the To value is "Aloe Relief", the report returns no data.
To allow results within a range regardless of whether the From value is greater
than the To value, your IBM Cognos administrator can enable a prompting setting.
For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security
Guide.
Showing prompt values in generated SQL or MDX
You can show prompt values when viewing the generated SQL or MDX of a query
or report.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
generated SQL or MDX.
, and click the query for which you want to view the
2. In the Properties pane, set the Use SQL parameters property to Literal.
Related tasks:
“View the SQL or MDX for an Entire Report or a Query” on page 252
View the SQL or MDX to see what is passed to the database when you run a
report.
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Chapter 12. Laying Out a Report
When creating a report, a good layout is essential to ensure that the information in
the report is presented in a clear and effective manner.
Report layout
When you create a report, consider the following structural elements:
v Define the page structure.
Determine what goes into the page header, body, and footer. The page header
contains information that appears at the top of each page. The page body
contains information that starts on the first instance of the page. If there is too
much data to fit on a single page, it continues across all instances of the page.
The page footer contains information that appears at the bottom of each page.
v Identify horizontal bands of information.
Look for natural bands of information running across the page. Each of these
bands typically translates into a block.
v Identify vertical bands of information.
In each horizontal band of information, look for bands that run up and down
the page. Each of these bands typically translates into table cells.
v Decide which data frames to use to lay out the data.
Choose a list, crosstab, chart, repeater, or text frame.
v Set properties at the highest level item possible.
By setting properties at the highest level, you set them once instead of setting
them for each child object. For example, if you want all text items in a report to
appear in a specific font, set the font for the page.
Tip: When setting properties for an object, click the Select ancestor icon
the Properties pane title bar to see the different levels available.
in
v Use padding and margins to create white space.
Do not use fixed object sizing unless it is absolutely necessary. When you specify
that an object has a fixed size, your layout becomes less flexible.
The Page Structure View
When you add objects to a report, you usually work in the layout. An alternative
view of the report is available.
To view the report in a different way, click the Page views icon
click Page structure.
, and then
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Figure 44. Example of the page structure view
Use the page structure view
v to view the entire contents of a report page in a tree structure
Using a tree structure is useful for locating the objects in a page and
troubleshooting problems with nested objects.
v to quickly move objects from one area of a page to another
If you have a complex layout, it may be difficult to select, cut, and paste objects
in the layout view. Objects are easier to locate in the page structure view.
v to modify object properties
You can modify object properties in the layout or in the page structure view.
Tip: To switch back to the report layout, click the Page views icon
click Page design.
and then
Related concepts:
“Work in design, structure, or preview view” on page 6
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has three views in which you can author
reports: Page design view, Page structure view, and Page preview view.
Copy object formatting
You can quickly copy the formatting of items in your report, such as fonts, colors,
borders, and number formats, and apply that formatting to other items.
Procedure
1. Click an item that has the formatting to copy.
2. Do one of the following:
v To copy all the formatting applied to the item, from the object toolbar, click
the Pick up style icon
up style icon again.
, click the item to format, and then click the Pick
v To copy only one of the formatting styles, click the down arrow to the right
of the pick up style button and click the style to copy. Then click the item to
format and click the apply style button.
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3. If you want to make changes to a style that you copied, click the down arrow
to the right of the pick up style button and click Edit Dropper Style.
4. In the Style dialog box, specify basic and advanced style characteristics.
Add a header or footer to a report or list
Add a header or footer to make a report easier to read. Headers and footers are
containers in which you can add objects like text, images, and report expressions
such as the current date and page numbers. You can add headers and footers to
pages and lists.
Tip: The Revenue by Product Brand (2011) sample report in the Sales and
Marketing (cube) package includes a customized header and footer.
Add a page header or footer when you want information to appear on every page
in the report, such as a title or page numbers. You can use combinations of text,
data items, and report expressions in titles.
You can add the following headers and footers to lists to organize data into logical
sections or to identify every change in value of a column.
Type
Description
List page header
Adds a header that appears at the top of the
list on every page in which list data appears.
Overall header
Adds a header that appears once at the top
of the list.
Group or section header
Adds a header that appears for each group
of a grouped column or each section.
Group or section footer
Adds a footer that appears for each group of
a grouped column or each section.
Overall footer
Adds a footer that appears once at the
bottom of the list.
List page footer
Adds a footer that appears at the bottom of
the list on every page in which list data
appears. Note that summary calculations in
list page footers only summarize the data
that is visible on that page of the list report.
You can also add section footers by adding a summary.
Before you begin
To see the headers and footers, ensure that the visual aids are turned on.
Procedure
1. If you want to add a page header or footer, from the report object toolbar, click
the More icon
, click Headers & footers > Page header & footer, select the
appropriate check boxes, and click OK.
2. If you want to add a list header or footer, from the report object toolbar, click
the More icon
, click Headers & footers > List headers & footers, select the
appropriate check boxes, and click OK.
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3. If you want to add objects to a header or footer, click the Toolbox icon
and
drag the objects to the appropriate location.
To add objects to a list header or footer, you must first unlock the report. Click
the More icon
, then click the Locked icon
.
Tip: To add data items to the page header or footer, you must associate a
query to the page.
4. To split a header or footer into multiple cells that span the list, select the cell to
be split and then, from the report object toolbar, click the Split cell icon
.
5. To merge multiple cells in a list header or footer, select the cells that you want
to merge, and, from the report object toolbar, click the Merge cells icon
.
Add borders to an object
You can add borders to objects in a report such as a column, a header, or a footer
or to the whole report.
Tip: You can also add borders using the report object toolbar by clicking the
Border icon
.
Procedure
1. Click the object to which to add a border.
Tip: To quickly select the parent of an object, click the object, and then click the
Select ancestor icon
in the title bar of the Properties pane.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Border property and select values in
the Color, Style, and Width boxes.
Note: Specifying a width using % as the unit of measure is not supported
when producing reports in PDF.
3. Apply the selected values to the top, bottom, left side, right side, or all sides of
the object by clicking the appropriate button in the Preview section.
Tip: To clear the border applied, click the clear borders button
.
Add a Text Item to a Report
You can add text to a report. You can insert text in other objects, such as a block or
table cell, or directly in the report page.
You can also add multilingual text to a report.
You can now format the text by changing the font, color, size, and so on. Select the
text and make the appropriate changes in the Properties pane.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag the Text Item object
The Text dialog box appears.
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to the report.
2. Type the text and click OK.
Tip: You can also paste text from another part of the report.
Specify the font for a report
You can specify the font for text in a report.
Procedure
1. Click the object.
Tip: To specify the default font for the report, click the page.
2. Do one of the following:
v From the report object toolbar, click the Font icon
font properties.
and then specify the
v In the Properties pane, double-click the Font property and specify the font
properties.
To specify the color of the text, from the report object toolbar, click the Font
icon
, and then click Foreground color. Alternatively, you can specify the
color of the text by clicking the Foreground color property for the object.
Tip: Type a list of fonts in the Family box if you are not sure whether a
specific font is installed on a user's computer. For example, if you type Times
New Roman, Arial, monospace, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting checks to
see if Times New Roman is installed. If it is not, Reporting checks for Arial.
If Arial is not installed, the monospace font used by the computer is used.
Results
If you clicked (Default) for any of the font properties, the default value for the
property is used. Default values are stored in a style sheet that is used across all
IBM Cognos Analytics tools. You can modify default values by modifying classes.
Insert an Image in a Report
You can insert an image in a report. You can insert images in other objects, such as
blocks or table cells, directly in the report page or as the background image of
another object.
Before you begin
The images that you insert must first be uploaded to the IBM Cognos Analytics
server or another web server and must be .gif or .jpg format.
About this task
The images that are included with Cognos Analytics are in a different location than
in IBM Cognos Business Intelligence releases. In Cognos Analytics, the images are
located in install_location\webcontent\bi\images. If you have existing reports
with hard coded links to IBM Cognos Business Intelligence images, you must copy
the images to this folder, or update the image references to the folder.
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Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, select Layout, drag the Image object
report, and then double-click it.
to the
2. From the Image Picker box, specify an image in one of these ways:
v Double-click an image in the Image Gallery.
Tip: The image gallery must first be created by your administrator. For more
information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Managing Guide.
v In the text box, type the URL of an image.
v Click Browse to go to the location that contains the image.
Tip: To browse images on a web server, you must enable Web-based
Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) on your web server. For
more information about configuring web servers, see the IBM Cognos
Analytics Installation and Configuration Guide.
Insert a Background Image in an Object
You can insert a background image for objects in a report. For example, use a
background image to add a watermark to a page.
You can also create your own background visual effects, such as drop shadows and
gradient fills. For more information, see “Add background effects” on page 287.
Before you begin
The images that you insert must first be uploaded to the IBM Cognos Analytics
server or another Web server and must be .gif or .jpg format.
Procedure
1. Select the object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Color & Background, double-click the
Background Image property.
3. To use the background from the default style for the object (Cascading Style
Sheet (CSS) class), click Default.
4. To explicitly not insert a background image, click None.
This option overrides any default background images including background
gradients on objects that appear in the 10.x report styles.
5. To insert a specific image, click Specified, and then do one of the following:
v In the Image URL box, type the URL of an image.
v Click Browse, and double-click an image in the Image Gallery.
Tip: The image gallery must first be created by your administrator. For more
information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Managing Guide.
v Click Browse, and go to the location on the web server that contains images.
Tip: To browse images on a web server, you must enable Web-based
Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) on your web server. For
more information about configuring web servers, see the IBM Cognos
Analytics Installation and Configuration Guide.
6. In the Position box, choose how to align the image in the object.
7. In the Tiling box, click a tiling option.
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Related tasks:
“Change a Chart Background in a Legacy Chart” on page 90
You can use a solid color, a pattern, or a gradient fill effect to customize the chart
background.
Add background effects
You can add background effects to enhance the appearance of your report. You can
enhance objects, such as data containers (lists, crosstabs, and charts), headers,
footers, page bodies, and so on with borders, gradient fill effects, drop shadows,
and background images. You can also apply background effects as a class style.
The background effect is rendered within the area that bounds the object. To use a
generated background in a chart, the chart must have a fixed size.
If the background image is complex and large, the size of the report output may be
affected proportionately.
Background effects are rendered only if the data container has a fixed height and
width; if a percentage size is used, the effects are ignored.
Resizing or overflow behavior is ignored for generated images in HTML reports.
Add background effects to a chart
Background effects include borders, fills, drop shadows, images, texture effects,
and bevel effects.
Procedure
1. Click the chart object.
2. To apply a preset background fill effect, from the report object toolbar, click the
Background effects presets icon
.
3. In the Properties pane, under Color & background, double-click the
Background effects property.
4. Select one or more of the following:
v To apply a border, click Border and specify settings for border style, width,
color, corner radius for rounded rectangles, and transparency.
If the element also includes a fill with a transparency setting, select the
Allow transparent bleed check box to apply the same transparency to the
border.
v To apply a fill effect, click Fill and specify the settings. The fill effect can
either be a solid color, a gradient, or a pattern. You can define a gradient fill
effect as a linear, radial line, or radial rectangle gradient.
v To apply a drop shadow effect, click Drop shadow and specify the shadow
color, transparency value, color, and offset settings. The default horizontal
and vertical offset is 5 pixels.
v To specify one or more images as a background, click Images. You can
specify the transparency value and the position for each defined image. You
can also specify a custom position for each image.
Tip: To remove the effect, clear its check box.
5. To add a texture effect, in the Properties pane, under Color & Background,
select an option under Material effects.
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6. To add a bevel, in the Properties pane, under Color & Background,
double-click the Bevel property and click a bevel effect.
Note: To see the Bevel property in a bar chart, you must first select the Series
(primary axis) object in the chart.
Add a background gradient to a page
A background gradient is a shading that goes from one color to another either
horizontally or vertically across your page.
Procedure
1. Click anywhere in the report page.
2. In the Properties pane title bar, click the Select ancestor icon
Page.
and click
3. Under Color & Background, double-click the Gradient property.
4. Select the Gradient check box and then select the colors and direction for the
gradient.
Background gradients and drop shadows do not appear in Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet software output. They are also supported only for report outputs
run in the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser.
Tip: To remove the effect, clear the Gradient check box.
Add a drop shadow to a container
A drop shadow is a border on the bottom and right of an object. You can specify
the color and transparency of this shadow.
Procedure
1. Click the crosstab, list, repeater table, or table in the report.
2. In the Properties pane title bar, click the Select ancestor icon
Crosstab, List, Repeater table, or Table.
and click
Tip: You can also click the container selector (three orange dots) of the
container to select it.
3. Under Color & Background, double-click the Drop shadow property.
4. Select the Drop shadow check box and then select the color, offset, and
transparency values.
Background gradients and drop shadows do not appear in Excel output. They
are also supported only for report outputs run in the Internet Explorer Web
browsers.
If you add a drop shadow, ensure that you also specify a background color for
the object. Otherwise, if you keep the default transparent background, data
values also have a drop shadow and are difficult to read.
Tip: To remove the effect, clear the Drop shadow check box.
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Insert a Formatting Object in a Report
In addition to text and images, the Toolbox icon
you can add to the report layout.
Object
Block
Table
Field set
contains other objects that
Description
Adds an empty block, which is a container in which you
can insert other objects. This is useful for controlling
where objects appear.
Tip: You can use blocks to add space between objects.
However, empty blocks are not rendered. You must insert
an object or specify the height and width.
Tip: The Revenue by GO Subsidiary 2011 sample report in
the GO Data Warehouse (analysis) package includes an
empty block.
Adds a table, which is a container in which you can insert
other objects. This is useful for controlling where objects
appear.
Adds an empty block that has a caption. This is similar to
the Block object, but with a caption.
Intersection (tuple)
Adds an intersection (tuple). For more information, see
“Create an Intersection (Tuple)” on page 260.
Query calculation
Adds a calculated column. For more information, see
“Using relational calculations” on page 206 or “Using
Dimensional Calculations” on page 256.
Layout calculation
Adds run-time information to the report layout, such as
the current date. For more information, see “Create a
Layout Calculation” on page 209 in the Relational
Reporting Style chapter or “Create a Layout Calculation”
on page 259 in the Dimensional Reporting Style chapter.
Crosstab space
Inserts an empty cell on a crosstab edge. Allows for the
insertion of non-data cells on an edge. Blank cells appear
for the edge when the report is run.
Insert this object when a crosstab edge does not produce
useful data and you want blanks to appear in the cells
instead.
Crosstab space (with fact
cells)
Inserts an empty cell on a crosstab edge. Allows for the
insertion of non-data cells on an edge. The contents of the
fact cells for the edge are rendered when a measure is
added or the default measure is specified.
v If the crosstab space is nested, the scope of the fact cells
is the scope of the item that is at the level before the
space.
v If the crosstab space is not nested and there are no
items nested below it, the scope of the fact cells is the
default measure.
Singleton
Conditional blocks
Inserts a single data item. For more information, see
“Inserting a single data item” on page 20
Adds an empty block that you can use for conditional
formatting.
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Object
HTML item
Description
Adds a container in which you can insert HTML code.
HTML items can be anything that your browser will
execute, including links, images, multimedia, tooltips, or
JavaScript.
HTML items appear only when you run the report in
HTML format.
Note: You cannot include <form> tags in HTML items.
Tip: The Table of Contents sample report in the GO Sales
(analysis) package includes an HTML item.
Note: When you upgrade to the next version of IBM
Cognos Analytics, the report upgrade processes do not
account for the use of undocumented and unsupported
mechanisms or features, such as JavaScript, that refers to
IBM Cognos HTML objects.
Rich text item
Inserts an object that is used to render HTML in the
layout. This object is similar to the HTML Item, except
that rich text items also render in PDF output. Using rich
text items is useful when you want to add annotations
defined in a data source to a report.
Note: Rich text items support only a restricted set of
well-formed XHTML.
Hyperlink
Adds a hyperlink so that users can jump to another place,
such as a Web site.
Hyperlink button
Adds a hyperlink in the form of a button.
As-of-time expression
Adds an As of Time expression so that you can show data
for a specific time period.
Date
Adds the current date.
Time
Adds the current time.
Page number
Inserts page numbers that you can customize.
Row number
Layout component reference
Numbers each row of data returned when the report is
run.
Note: You can add row numbers only to lists and
repeaters.
Adds a reference to another object. Useful when you want
to reuse an object.
Table of contents
Creates a table of contents that is rendered in the output
of a report.
Table of contents entry
Adds a table of contents marker.
Bookmark
Inserts a bookmark so that users can move from one part
of a report to another.
Custom control
Adds a custom user interface in JavaScript. For more
information, see “Adding JavaScript to a report” on page
291.
For information about each prompt control and prompt buttons, see Chapter 11,
“Adding Prompts to Filter Data,” on page 267. The Toolbox contains other objects
when you work in other areas such as Query explorer and Condition explorer.
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Before you begin
Before you can add a hyperlink, HTML item, or hyperlink button, you must have
the HTML items in report capability. For more information, see the IBM Cognos
Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
Procedure
To add an object, click the Toolbox icon
report.
and double-click it or drag it to the
Elements Supported in Rich Text Items
Rich text items support all XHTML character entities, such as &nbsp;
(non-breaking space), and the following elements: div, span, ul, ol, and li.
Each element only supports the style attribute, which must contain a valid CSS
style. In addition, ul and ol elements support list-style attributes. Specifically, the ol
element supports decimal, and the ul element supports circle, disc, and square, as
well as list-style-image.
For example, the following code produces an unordered list entitled List: with
three items. Each list item is in a different color, and the list-style attribute used is
circle.
<div style="font-size:14pt; text-decoration:underline">List:</div>
<ul style="list-style-type:circle">
<li style="color:green">Item <span style="font-weight:bold">A</span></li>
<li style="color:red">Item B</li>
<li style="color:blue">Item C</li>
</ul>
Adding JavaScript to a report
Add JavaScript to a report to provide your own user interfaces when the report is
run in HTML.
About this task
In IBM Cognos Analytics, you can add JavaScript in the following ways.
v As with IBM Cognos Business Intelligence releases, you can add JavaScript in
HTML item objects.
In Cognos Analytics, JavaScript in HTML items is executed only when the report
is run with limited interactivity (the report property Run with full interactivity
is set to No).
Note: If you run a report with full interactivity, use HTML items to insert only
static HTML or static CSS into the report output.
v You can add JavaScript to reports by using two types of Asynchronous Module
Definition (AMD) modules.
With this choice, JavaScript is executed when the report is run with full
interactivity (the report property Run with full interactivity is set to Yes).
The JavaScript must exist in a separate file that your browser can access.
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The two types of AMD modules that you can use are
1. A module that implements the CustomControl Module interface.
2. A module that implements the Page Module interface.
You add a CustomControl Module interface to a report by referencing the interface
in a custom control object. The reference is a file location that you specify in the
Module path property of the custom control. Add a custom control to provide
your own user interface for a prompt-like control that reads and sets parameters or
for page navigation buttons.
You add a Page Module interface by referencing the interface in a report page or a
prompt page. The reference is a file location that you specify in the Module path
property of the page. Add a page module to set the initial state of prompt controls,
to set prompt control custom validation functions, or to read current selections
from a prompt control.
For information about the JavaScript that Cognos Analytics supports, see the
technote Adding JavaScript to a report (www.ibm.com/support/
docview.wss?uid=swg21990557).
Procedure
1. To add a custom control, from the toolbox
to the report.
, drag the Custom control icon
2. Select the custom control and click the Show properties icon
.
a. To specify the location of the file that contains the JavaScript that you want
to use for the control, click the Module path property.
b. To add JSON that configures the custom control, click the Configuration
property.
For example, add JSON that sets the orientation, alignment, and
background color of the control.
c. To specify how you want the control to interact with the report, click the UI
type property.
If you do not want to render an interface, set the property to None. If you
do not want events, such as mouseup, to propagate from the control to the
report, set the property to UI without event propagation. If you want
events to propagate to the report, set the property to UI with event
propagation.
3. To add a page module interface, open the property sheet of the report page or
prompt page, click the Module path property, and specify the location of the
file that contains the JavaScript that you want to use.
Related concepts:
“Limited and fully interactive reports” on page 25
Reports can run in limited interactivity or full interactivity mode.
Align an Object in a Report
You can specify a horizontal and vertical alignment for an object in a report to
determine where they appear.
Tables can also be used to determine where objects appear in a report.
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Note: The Justify horizontal alignment works with HTML output but does not
apply to PDF output.
Procedure
1. Select the object to align.
2. From the toolbar, click one of the available horizontal or vertical alignment
buttons.
Using a table to control where objects appear
You can use tables in your report to control where objects appear. Tables can be
inserted anywhere in a report, such as a header, a footer, or the page body. After
you create a table, insert the objects you want in the cells.
You can also apply a predefined table style to tables.
The alignment buttons can also be used to determine where objects appear in a
report.
Tip: The Singletons on Page Body sample report in the GO Sales (analysis)
package includes a table to control the report layout.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag Table
to the report.
Tip: You can also insert a table in an object from the report object toolbar by
clicking the Insert table
icon.
The Insert table dialog box appears.
2. In the Number of columns and Number of rows boxes, type the number of
columns and rows for the table.
3. If you want to have the table span the width of the report page, select the
Maximize width check box.
4. If you want to add borders to the table, select the Show borders check box.
5. If you want to merge cells in the table, select the cells and click the merge cells
button.
6. Select the table object.
7. In the Properties pane, under Positioning, double-click the Table Properties
property.
8. To display both the inside and outside borders, do the following:
v Clear the Collapse borders check box.
v Type a number in the Cell spacing text box to define how much space to
add between the table cells.
v Select the Show empty cell borders check box to display the borders even
for empty cells.
9. To fix the size of the columns in the table, check the Fixed size check box.
When this check box is cleared, the table columns expand to fit the text.
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Apply a Table Style
Apply a table style to quickly format tables. You can also apply a table style to
lists, crosstabs, and repeater tables.
About this task
By default, when a new object is inserted in a list or crosstab, the object inherits
the style from an object of the same type in the data container. For example, if you
insert a measure in a list, the measure inherits the style of a measure that is
already in the list, if there is one. If you do not want objects to inherit styles, clear
the Table Style inheritance option in the More options (More, Options, Report
tab).
The following rules explain how style inheritance is applied to lists and crosstabs.
v Styles are inherited in the following order: custom, client default, and server
default.
A custom style is a style that you manually apply. A client default style is one of
the styles available in the Apply Table Style dialog box. The server default style
is the style applied when Default is selected in the Apply Table Style window.
v When a new column or row is inserted, it inherits the style from the sibling of
the same type that is on its right or below it.
v If there is no sibling of the same type, then the style of the nearest sibling that is
on its left or above it is applied.
v If there is no sibling of the same type in the container, then the client or server
default table style is applied.
v If a custom style is applied to a column or row and the object is then moved to
another location, the object retains the custom style.
Custom styles applied to part of an object, such as the header, body, or footer,
may be lost. For example, if a container has a footer, the footer is recreated when
a column is moved. The recreated footer is rendered using the style that was
applied to the footer before you customized its style.
v Deleting a column or row has no impact on the styles of the other objects in the
container.
v Styles are preserved if a column is grouped or ungrouped. The same applies
when creating or removing sections.
v When drilling up or down, the style of the parent item is applied.
Procedure
1. Click the table, list, crosstab, or repeater table.
2. From the report object toolbar, click More > Style > Apply table style.
3. In the Table styles box, click a table style.
Tip: Some styles are unique to tables, lists, or crosstabs.
4. If you are applying a table style to a table or list, in the Apply special styles to
section, select or clear the various column and row check boxes based on how
you want to treat the first and last columns and rows.
Some check boxes may not be available for particular table styles, or to
particular columns or rows.
5. If you are applying a table style to a list or crosstab and you want the style to
be applied to all lists or crosstabs in the report, select the Set this style as the
default for this object type check box.
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For a list, you may need to clear the First column and Last column check
boxes in the Apply special styles to section before you can select this check
box. In addition, some table styles cannot be set as the default.
Apply Padding to an Object
Apply padding to an object to add white space between the object and its margin
or, if there is a border, between the object and its border.
Tip: You can quickly apply before or after padding by pressing Tab or Shift+Tab.
Tip: The GO Balance Sheet as at Dec 31 2012 sample report in the GO Data
Warehouse (analysis) package includes padding.
Procedure
1. Select the object to which to apply padding.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Padding property.
3. Specify top, bottom, left, and right padding by typing values in the
corresponding boxes and choosing the unit of measure.
Note: Specifying padding using % as the unit of measure is not supported
when producing reports in PDF.
Set Margins for an Object
Set the margins for objects in a report to add white space around them.
For Date, Time, Row Number, and Page Number objects, you can only set the left
and right margins. If you want to set the top or bottom margins for these objects,
place them in a table or a block. Then set the margin or padding properties on the
table or block object.
Procedure
1. Select the object.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Margin property.
3. Specify the top, bottom, left, and right margins by typing values in the
corresponding boxes and choosing the unit of measure.
Note: Specifying margins using % as the unit of measure is not supported
when producing reports in PDF.
Add multiple items to a single column
You can add multiple items to a single column to condense a report. For example,
you have a list report that contains many columns. You can reduce the number of
columns in the list by putting related information in a single column.
Procedure
1. Click the More icon
, and then click Locked to unlock the report.
2. From the content pane, drag the items to the column.
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For example, you can add data items from the Source tab
items from the Toolbox tab
or text
.
Reuse a Layout Object
You can save time by reusing layout objects that you add to a report instead of
re-creating them. For example, you have a multiple-page report and you want to
show the company logo in the page header of each page. Insert the logo once and
reuse it on all other pages.
Procedure
1. Click the object to reuse.
Tip: To quickly select the parent of an object, click the object, and then click the
Select ancestor icon
in the title bar of the Properties pane.
2. In the Properties pane, set the Name property to a value beginning with a
letter to uniquely identify the object and press the Enter key.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting may have already specified a name for the
object.
3. To reuse the object in another report, open that report.
4. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag the Layout component reference object to
the location in which it will be reused.
5. In the Component Location box, do one of the following:
v To reference an object in the current report, click This report.
v To reference an object in another report, click Another report, click the
ellipsis button, and open the report.
Note: In active reports, you cannot reference objects from another active
report.
6. In the Available components to reference box, click the object and click OK.
7. If the referenced object is in another report, click the Layout component
reference object and in the Properties pane, set the Embed property to specify
how to store the referenced object in the report:
v Click Copy to store a copy of the object.
The copy is not automatically updated if the source object is modified.
Note: In active reports, you can store referenced objects only by copying
them to the report.
v Click Reference to store a reference, or pointer, of the object.
The reference of the object is automatically updated if the source object is
modified. For example, if you open or run the report, you see the modified
object.
Results
A copy or reference of the object appears where you placed the Layout component
reference object. If a source object is changed, you can update reused objects.
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Tip: You can also create a new report or template and add all the objects to share.
All your shared objects then reside in a single location, like a library.
Change a Reused Object
If you reuse an object that contains other objects, you can change the child objects
to something different. For example, you have a block object containing a text item
in the page header and you decide to reuse the block in the page footer. However,
you want the text item in the page footer block to show different text from that in
the page header.
About this task
If you reuse a visualization, you cannot change the data container of the
visualization.
Procedure
1. In the parent object to reuse, click the child object to change.
2. In the Properties pane, set the Name property to a value beginning with a
letter to uniquely identify the object.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting may have already specified a name for the
object.
3. Select the copy of the parent object you created with the Layout component
reference object.
4. In the Properties pane, double-click the Overrides property.
5. In the Overrides dialog box, select the child object to change and click OK.
The child object in the copy of the parent object is replaced by the following
text:
Drop item to override component child.
6. Drag an object to replace the child object.
You can replace the child object with any other object, not just an object of the
same type. For example, if the child object is a text item, you can replace it
with an image.
Update Reused Objects
If a report contains objects referenced in another report, you can quickly update
the referenced objects if the source objects have changed. Shared objects are stored
in the layout component cache.
Procedure
1. Open the report to update.
2. Click the More icon
, click Layout components.
The Layout component cache dialog box appears, showing all reports that
contain referenced objects and the source reports where the objects exist.
3. To view which components are reused, click a source report.
The components that are reused appear in the Components used pane.
4. Click Reload Components to refresh all referenced objects.
Although referenced objects are automatically refreshed when you open or run
a report, clicking this button updates components that were changed while the
report is open.
5. Click Update All Component Copies to refresh all copied objects.
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6. Click Close.
Specify text and container direction
You can specify text and container direction by choosing any of these options.
Option
Description
Direction
Sets the reading order of an object, such as right-to-left. If
Inherit is selected, the direction is inherited from the
parent object. The default is left-to-right.
For text objects, an additional choice named Contextual
exists. This choice sets the text direction based on the first
letter in the text. If the letter belongs to a right-to-left
script, the text direction is right-to-left. Otherwise, the text
direction is left-to-right. Numbers and special characters do
not influence the text direction. For example, if the text
starts with a number followed by an Arabic letter, the
direction is right-to-left. If the text starts with a number
followed by a Latin letter, the direction is left-to-right.
Tip: You can also set the direction of text objects by
clicking the Text direction icon
in the toolbar. This icon
is visible only when the IBM Cognos Analytics portal user
preference Enable bidirectional support is selected.
Writing mode
Sets the direction and flow of content in an object.
Bidirectional
Sets the level of embedding in an object.
For text objects, if the Direction option is set to a value
other than (Default) and no value is selected for this
option, this option is set to Embed. Setting this option to
Embed ensures that the base text direction specified for the
text is applied.
Justification
Sets the type of alignment used to justify text in an object.
Kashida space
Sets the ratio of kashida expansion to white space
expansion when justifying lines of text in the object. This
property is used in languages that use the Arabic writing
script.
About this task
Specifying text direction and container direction depends on the object selected in
the report. The following list describes the types of objects in Reporting that you
can specify text or container direction.
v Compound objects
Compound objects are container objects that contain text. Examples include
charts, maps, active reports, and prompts. You cannot set text direction for
specific text objects in a compound object.
To specify container direction for compound objects, click the Direction &
justification property for the object. To specify text direction for text in
compound objects, click the Contained text direction property for the object.
v Container objects
You can specify only container direction for container objects, such as a report
page. Click the Direction & justification property for the object to specify
container direction.
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By default, the text direction of text in a container object is inherited from the
container.
v Text objects
For all text objects, the Direction & justification property specifies the text
direction.
In charts, container direction impacts all aspects of a chart. The following list
describes the parts of a chart that are affected by container direction.
v The chart itself.
v The location of the Y-axis and the horizontal run direction of the X-axis.
v The labeling, including the orientation of angled labels on axes.
v The location of the legend as well as the legend content.
Container direction has no impact on rotary axes. For example, the slices in a pie
always progress in the same direction around the pie. However, container direction
does affect labelling as well as position and direction of the legend.
Note: You cannot specify base text direction and container direction for legacy
charts.
Procedure
1. Click an object.
Tip: To specify the base text direction of a text object that is inside another
object, such as a list column, you must first unlock
the report.
2. In the Properties pane, click one of the following properties:
v Direction & justification
v Contained text direction
This property applies only to compound objects.
3. Specify the text direction and container direction options that you want.
Related concepts:
“Support for bidirectional languages” on page 33
You can author reports that support bidirectional languages. You can specify base
text direction, digit shaping, and container direction.
Specify line spacing and breaking
You can specify text properties by choosing any of these options.
Option
Description
Line height
Sets the distance between lines of text in an
object.
Letter spacing
Sets the amount of additional space between
letters in an object.
Text indent
Sets the indentation of the first line of text in
an object.
Note: This property works with HTML
output but does not apply to PDF output.
Word break
Sets line-breaking behavior within words.
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Option
Description
Break words when necessary
Sets whether to break words when the
content exceeds the boundaries of an object.
Enforce stricter line-breaking rules for
Japanese Text
Sets line-breaking rules for Japanese text.
Procedure
1. Click an object.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Spacing & breaking property.
3. Specify the text properties.
Specify the Height and Width of an Object
You can specify the height and width of objects using various units of
measurement. In addition, if the object is a field set, text box prompt, prompt
button, hyperlink button, block, or a conditional block, you can specify how to
handle content overflow. Specify the height and width by choosing any of these
options.
Option
Description
Height
Sets the height of the object.
Width
Sets the width of the object.
Content is not clipped
If the contents of the block exceed the height
or width of the block, the block
automatically resizes to fit the contents.
Content is clipped
If the contents of the block exceed the height
or width of the block, the content is clipped.
Note: The clipped content still exists. It is
just not visible in the block.
Use scrollbars only when necessary
If the contents of the block exceed the height
or width of the block, scrollbars are added
to the block.
Always use scrollbars
Scrollbars are added to the block.
Do not use percentages to resize charts and maps that contain interactive elements
that are activated when you pause the pointer over them, such as tooltips or
drill-through links, because the browser is unable to realign the hard-coded hot
spots after an image is resized.
When you use a percentage to specify the size of an object, the percentage is
relative to the object's parent. In some cases, setting the size of an object using
percentages will not give you the results that you want unless you also specify the
size of the parent container.
Procedure
1. Click an object.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Size & overflow property and specify
the height and width.
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Control how other objects flow around an object
You can control how objects flow around other objects by choosing any of the
following options.
Option
Description
Float
Sets how other objects flow around the
object.
Allow floating objects on both sides
Allows other objects to flow on both sides.
The Float property must be set.
Move below any floating object on the left
side
If there are other objects to the left of the
object, the object moves below those objects.
The Float property must be set.
Move below any floating object on the
right side
If there are other objects to the right of the
object, the object moves under those objects.
The Float property must be set.
Move below any floating object
Moves the object under any other object in
which the Float property was set.
Procedure
1. Click an object.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Floating property.
3. Specify how other objects flow around the object by specifying the floating
options.
Specify Report Properties
You can change the default report property settings.
Procedure
1. Click the Show properties icon
properties.
, and navigate to the report level
2. To specify the classes that IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting uses to format
objects, click Report styles and choose one of the available options.
To use the latest prompt control interfaces, select 11.4 styles.
3. For reports with multiple data containers, to render the default number of rows
of each data container on each HTML page, you must set the Page break by
data container for interactive HTML option to Yes. The default value is No.
4. To show each report page in its own tab in HTML output, click the View pages
as tabs menu and select the location where you want the tabs to appear in
browsers.
5. To create a single, scrollable HTML page when you run and save this report as
HTML from the IBM Cognos Analytics portal, clear the Paginate saved HTML
output check box.
The default is to paginate HTML reports with the same page breaks as PDF
reports. The single, scrollable HTML page will be available from the IBM
Cognos Analytics portal when you click the view report output versions action
.
6. If you work with reports that are created in IBM Cognos ReportNet and you
want to create CSV report output, click Use 1.x CSV export.
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This option ensures that all the query columns are exported. In IBM Cognos
ReportNet, if a data item was referenced by using the Properties property of a
list, it was included in the CSV output. The default is to export only the
columns in the list.
Related concepts:
“Create and modify report and object styles”
Create your own classes or modify existing classes in a report to format objects
across a report according to your particular needs. In IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, objects in reports are assigned a Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) class that
provides a default style for the object. For example, when you create a new report,
the report title has the class property Report title text assigned to it. In addition,
objects inherit the classes set on their parent objects.
“Controlling the Rows Per Page for Multiple Containers in HTML and PDF” on
page 26
If you have more than one data container in a report, such as a list and a crosstab,
you can control how the report is rendered in HTML and PDF by setting the Rows
Per Page property for each container.
Related tasks:
“Producing tabbed reports” on page 389
When you produce reports in HTML format, you can show each report page as a
tab.
Create and modify report and object styles
Create your own classes or modify existing classes in a report to format objects
across a report according to your particular needs. In IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, objects in reports are assigned a Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) class that
provides a default style for the object. For example, when you create a new report,
the report title has the class property Report title text assigned to it. In addition,
objects inherit the classes set on their parent objects.
You can use classes to highlight data using conditional styles.
Classes you create or modify can be applied only to the current report. To create or
modify classes for all reports, you must modify a layout style sheet. In addition,
some classes can be used to format Query Studio reports.
If you use the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser, version 6, some color
gradients used in the 10.x default report styles are not supported.
Modify the report style
You can define whether your report uses the default styles for this version or the
styles from a previous version.
Procedure
1. Click the Show properties icon
.
2. Click Report styles and select one of the following options:
v To work with classes in the default style sheet, click 10.x styles.
v To work with classes that were used in IBM Cognos 8, click 8.x styles.
Use 8.x report styles when you are working with reports created in IBM
Cognos 8 and you want to preserve their original appearance.
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v To work with classes that were used in IBM Cognos ReportNet, click 1.x
styles.
Use 1.x report styles when you are working with reports created in
ReportNet and you want to preserve their original appearance.
v To work with classes that have minimal styling defined, click Simplified
styles.
This option is useful when creating financial reports.
Modify object styles
You can change global classes to modify the style of all objects in a report or you
can modify local classes and apply them to specific objects.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
, and click Classes.
2. To create a new class, click the Toolbox icon
Classes pane.
, drag Class to the Local
3. To modify an existing class, in the Local Classes or Global Class Extensions
pane, click the class.
Modify a global class to apply a change to all objects that use that class. For
example, if you modified the style List column title cell, all column titles in
lists will reflect your modifications.
Tip: Ctrl+click classes to make the same change to more than one class.
4. In the Properties pane, modify the properties to specify your desired
formatting.
Tip: Look at the Preview pane to preview your changes for different report
objects, such as blocks, table cells, and text items.
If you modify a global class, a pencil symbol appears beside the global class
icon to indicate that the class was modified.
5. Apply the class to objects:
v Click the Pages icon, and click a report page.
v Click an object to which to apply a class.
v In the Properties pane, double-click the Class property.
v Click the classes to apply from the Local classes and Global classes panes
and click the right arrow button
.
v If you applied more than one class, in the Selected classes pane, specify the
order in which the classes are applied using the up and down arrow buttons.
Classes in the Selected classes pane are applied from top to bottom. The
style properties from all classes are merged together when they are applied.
However, if the classes have style properties in common, the properties from
the last class applied override those from previous classes.
Reusing styles from another report
You can apply local and global styles or themes from one report in another report.
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About this task
Local styling is kept when you reference styles from another report. However, you
can remove some or all local styling from the target report.
If the referenced report is renamed or moved, the reference information in the
target report is automatically updated.
You can reference local classes only if local classes with the same name exist in the
target report. You can reference styles from a report only if you have the
permissions to access the report. If you referenced styles from a report and the
permissions for the report are changed so that you can no longer access it, the
referenced styles are still applied when the target report is run.
You cannot use a report that contains referenced styles as the source report for
style references for other reports.
If the target report contains more than one page, the Preview pane in the Report
Style References window shows how the referenced styles are applied in the report
page that you are currently viewing.
Tip: You can see which global classes contain inherited styles when you click
Pages > Classes. Global classes that reference styles from another report are
identified by the referenced styles icon
. You can also modify classes that
contain referenced styles. Such classes are identified by the modified referenced
styles icon
.
Procedure
1. Click the Show properties icon
, click the select ancestor icon
Report, and then, in the STYLE section, click Theme.
, click
2. Select the Apply style from report check box.
3. Click the ellipsis icon and open the report that contains the styles that you
want to reuse.
4. To remove local styles in the report, in the Remove custom styles from the
current report section, select the check boxes of the styles that you want to
remove.
5. To specify when to refresh styles when styles in the referenced report are
modified, in the Refresh report styles section, select one of the following
options.
v To refresh styles automatically, click the Run time radio button.
v To control when styles are refreshed, click the Manually radio button.
When this choice is selected, styles are refreshed only when you click the
Refresh now icon.
Related concepts:
“Templates and themes” on page 19
IBM Cognos Analytics includes several basic report templates and color themes
that you can choose from when you create a new report.
(Don't Print) class
The (Don't Print) class allows HTML items to display in the Web browser but not
to print.
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The (Don't Print) class behaves as follows in the various report output formats:
v HTML
The Web browser defines the behavior. The HTML standard is that the item
appears on the screen in the Web browser but is excluded by the print operation
of the Web browser.
v PDF
The item is excluded from the output.
v Microsoft Excel 2002 spreadsheet software
The class is specified in the HTML that IBM Cognos uses to render Microsoft
Excel 2002 output. However, Microsoft Excel 2002 does not appear to honor it
and displays the item as missing some or all other style definitions.
v Microsoft Excel 2007 spreadsheet software
The item is excluded from the output.
v CSV
The item is included in the output.
v XML
The item is included in the output.
An alternative way to consistently exclude a report object from HTML, PDF and
Microsoft Excel output is to set the Box Type property for the object to None. CSV
and XML report outputs will still contain the object.
Modify classes to format Query Studio reports
Some global classes are specific to IBM Cognos Query Studio or can be applied to
Query Studio reports. You can modify the following classes to format Query Studio
reports.
To format a Query Studio report using the modified classes, the template must be
applied to the report. For more information about applying a template to a Query
Studio report, see the Query Studio User Guide.
Class
Description
List column body cell
Style used to format list data.
List column title cell
Style used to format list column titles.
To modify classes, you must
1. Create a Query Studio template.
2. Modify the global classes.
3. Save the template.
Modifying the default layout style sheet
In addition to creating or modifying classes in a report, you can create and modify
classes that will apply to all reports. Default styles are stored in a style sheet
named GlobalReportStyles.css.
For information about modifying the style sheet, see the following topics:
v Chapter 3 - Modify Global Style Sheet in How to Implement a Corporate-Wide
Reporting Style Using IBM Cognos BI
v Create Custom Palettes in IBM Cognos 10 Report Studio
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Important: The documents How to Implement a Corporate-Wide Reporting Style Using
IBM Cognos BI and Create Custom Palettes in IBM Cognos 10 Report Studio refer to
Cognos BI 10.2.2. However, the information also applies to Cognos Analytics 11.
The only difference is that in Cognos 11, the location install location\
webcontent\pat has changed to install location\webcontent\bi\pat.
Add color to an object
You can add background and foreground color to objects in the report. The
foreground color applies to the text within objects.
Tip: The TOC Report sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (query) package
includes objects with color.
About this task
When you open one of the color windows, such as the Foreground Color window,
you can save up to eight colors as favorites. Saving colors as favorites is useful
when you define a custom color. When you save a custom color as a favorite, you
do not need to reenter the RGB color values when you want to use the color
elsewhere in the report.
Favorite colors are stored in cookies. As a result, favorite colors are shared across
all Reporting users.
Procedure
1. Select the object.
Tip: To quickly select the parent of an object, click the object, and then, from
the title bar of the Properties pane, click the Select ancestor icon
. You can
also find a version of the Select ancestor icon in the report object toolbar.
2. Do one of the following:
v From the report object toolbar, click the Background color icon
the Font icon
or click
, and then click Foreground color.
v In the Properties pane, double-click the Background color or Foreground
color property.
3. To apply an existing color, click the Basic colors tab or Color swatch tab and
choose one of the available colors.
Use a basic color to select a color from a small set of colors. Use the color
swatch to select from 216 available colors.
4. To apply a custom color, click the Custom color tab and type values in the Red,
Green, and Blue boxes.
The values must be hexadecimal.
5. If the object is an extensible visualization and you want to specify the
transparency, under Transparency (%), type a percentage value or use the slider
to set the transparency to the value that you want.
6. To save a color as a favorite, click Set as favorite.
If you save a color with a transparency value as a favorite, the transparency is
applied only when you add the favorite color to an extensible visualization.
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Tip: You can modify or replace a color that was saved as a favorite. Click the
favorite color, make the changes that you want, and click Set as favorite.
Related tasks:
“Add background effects to a chart object in a legacy chart” on page 91
You can change the look of certain charts and chart objects by applying visual
effects such as drop shadows, borders, and fills.
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Chapter 13. Working with your external data
You can supplement your enterprise data with your own external or personal data
file.
You can create a report that uses an external file that contains data that is not part
of your IBM Cognos Analytics enterprise data. For example, you are an analyst
and you receive a spreadsheet that contains what-if data about opening new
branches of your retail store. You are asked to analyze the impact of these possible
new branches on existing sales volumes. You link this scenario data with your
enterprise data and create a professional report in IBM Cognos Analytics.
You import your own data file and start reporting on it right away. After you
import the file, it is protected by the same IBM Cognos security as your enterprise
data. As a result, you can report on your data in a secure and private environment.
You can import your external data in different tools.
Upload files tool
You can import the following types of files:
v Microsoft Excel (.xls and .xlsx) spreadsheet software files
v Delimited text files, such as .csv files
After you import your data, it is saved in a database. You then publish a
package that contains your data and you can then report on your data. You
can grant other users access to your personal data by sharing the
corresponding packages.
Manage External Data tool
You can import the following types of files:
v Microsoft Excel (.xls and .xlsx) spreadsheet software files
v Tab-delimited text (.txt) files
v Comma-separated (.csv) files
v XML (*.xml) files
After you import your data, you then publish a package that contains your
data in addition to the data contained in an existing package. You can then
report on your data.
To review an up-to-date list of the environments that are supported by IBM
Cognos products, including information about operating systems, patches,
browsers, web servers, directory servers, database servers, and application servers,
see Supported Software Environments (www.ibm.com/support/
docview.wss?uid=swg27047186).
Manage external data
You can supplement your enterprise data with your own external or personal data
file by using the Manage External Data tool
Reporting.
in IBM Cognos Analytics -
309
You import your own data file and start reporting on it right away. After you
import the file, it is protected by the same IBM Cognos security as your enterprise
data. As a result, you can report on your data in a secure and private environment.
You can use the following types of files:
v Microsoft Excel (.xls) spreadsheet software files
The Manage External Data tool supports external data sources from Microsoft
Excel up to version Microsoft Excel 2007.
To review an up-to-date list of the environments that are supported by IBM
Cognos products, including information about operating systems, patches,
browsers, web servers, directory servers, database servers, and application
servers, see Supported Software Environments (www.ibm.com/support/
docview.wss?uid=swg27047186).
v Tab-delimited text (.txt) files
v Comma-separated (.csv) files
v XML (*.xml) files
Your XML files must adhere to the IBM Cognos schema specified at
c10_location/bin/xmldata.xsd. For more information, contact your IBM Cognos
administrator.
This schema consists of a dataset element, which contains a metadata element
and a data element. The metadata element contains the data item information in
item elements. The data element contains all the row and value elements.
For example, the following simple XML code produces a table with two columns
(Product Number and Color) and two rows of data.
<?xml version="1.0" ?> <dataset xmlns="http://developer.cognos.com/
schemas/xmldata/1/" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
<metadata> <item name="Product Number" type="xs:string" length="6"
scale="0" precision="2" /> <item name="Color" type="xs:string"
length="18" scale="0" precision="8" /> </metadata> <data> <row>
<value>1</value> <value>Red</value> </row> <row> <value>2</value>
<value>Blue</value> </row> </data> </dataset>
To work with your external data by using the Manage External Data tool, you
start with an existing IBM Cognos package. You import data from your external
file into the package and create links between data items in your file and data
items in your enterprise data source. You then publish a new package that you can
use to create reports that use your data and your enterprise data, or reports that
use only your data. You can link your external data with both dimensional and
relational data sources.
Before you can import your own external data file, your IBM Cognos administrator
must grant you permission for the Allow External Data capability that is found
within the Reporting capability. You must also have permissions to use IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting.
Packages that contain external data
When you import external data into a package with the Manage External Data
tool, you do not overwrite the original package. You create a new package that
includes the original package, the new external data, and any links or relationships
that you defined between the two. By default, the new package is saved in the My
content area of the IBM Cognos Analytics portal, with External Data appended to
the original package name. You can change where your package is published.
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Note: The current content language is used to create the new package, and users
cannot select the language for the package. For example, the content language in
the IBM Cognos Analytics portal is set to English. External data is imported into
the GO Sales (query) package, and a new package called GO Sales (query) External
Data is created. If the content language is changed to a different language, the
package name is not translated, even though GO Sales (query) is a multilingual
package.
IBM Cognos samples
Sample external data sources in Microsoft Excel (.xls) format are provided with
IBM Cognos Analytics. You can import these sample files into the Sample
Outdoors Company sample reports that are found in the GO Data Warehouse
(analysis) or GO Data Warehouse (query) package.
You can find sample external data source files on the server where IBM Cognos
Analytics is installed. Locate the Team content > Samples > Models > Sample
file_GO sales.xls file to explore how to work with external data.
To obtain these files, contact your IBM Cognos administrator.
Preparing to work with your external data
To work with your external data, follow the process in this section.
There are four steps to preparing to work with your external data. The following
diagram details these steps.
Figure 45. Process to prepare to work with external data
1. Prepare your external data file for import.
Ensure that your external data file matches your enterprise data for your
reporting needs. For example, if your external data file contains sales values by
month, ensure that the formatting of months in your file matches the
formatting used in your enterprise data source. Ensure that you can uniquely
link at least one column from your external data file, such as product codes or
years, with your enterprise data source.
The maximum file size that you can import is 2.5 MB, with a maximum of
20000 rows. You can import a maximum of one external data file per package.
Your IBM Cognos modeler can override these governors in IBM Cognos
Framework Manager.
2. Import your external data.
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You import your external data file from your own computer or from a location
on your network into an existing IBM Cognos package.
A step-by-step wizard guides you through importing your data. If you want to
create reports that contain data from both your external data file and your
enterprise data source, you must link data items from the two data sources.
You can import all or a subset of data columns from your external file.
By adding external data, you extend an existing IBM Cognos package definition
with the new data items from your file and you create a new package.
3. Create reports with your external data file.
After you import and link your external data, it appears as a new namespace in
the data tree of the Source tab
Cognos content.
and is integrated with the IBM
You can then create reports with your data and perform any operation, such as
filtering, sorting, grouping, or adding calculations. When you run the report, it
uses data items from your external data file.
You can save reports that contain your external data within the My content
area of the IBM Cognos Analytics portal.
4. Determine whether you want to share your reports that use external data with
other people in your organization. If you decide to share, take into account
these considerations.
Working with Date Data
If the data that you import contains dates, ensure that the dates use the format
yyyy-mm-dd.
Working with Dimensional Data Sources
If your enterprise data source is dimensional, such as OLAP or
dimensionally-modeled relational, and you want to link your external data with
your enterprise data, you must first create a tabular or list report. Create and save
a list report with your enterprise data that contains the data items that you want to
use to link with your external data. Ensure that you remove the aggregate rows
that are automatically added in the footer of the list. This list is a projection of
your dimensional data source.
When you import your external data, use the list report that you created to link
your external data with the query subject from your enterprise data.
Data in your external file is relational by nature because it consists of tables and
rows. If your enterprise data source is dimensional, you can still import and work
with your external data. However, you cannot mix relational data from your
external data files, and dimensional data from your enterprise data source within
the same query. For example, a data container, such as a list, crosstab, or chart,
uses one query and you cannot mix relational and dimensional data within the
same list, crosstab, or chart. Doing so will cause an error.
If you want to use data from both the external data file and the original package
within the same query, you must link the external data to a query subject within
the current package instead of another report.
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Working with External Data in an Unsecured IBM Cognos
Application
If your IBM Cognos application is not secured, and users can log on anonymously,
you may encounter issues if multiple people import external data in the same
package.
For example, Robert imports his external data into package A and saves the
package and reports he created in My content. Then, Valerie also imports her
external data into the same package A and saves the package in My content.
Valerie has therefore overwritten Robert's external data in package A. Now, if
Robert tries to run one of his reports, he encounters errors because his external
data is no longer in package A.
To avoid this problem,
v save packages that contain external data with a unique name.
v apply security to your IBM Cognos applications so that users do not share the
same My content area.
Import data
You select the file to import from your own computer, or from your local area
network.
You select which columns to import.
You then specify a namespace to use. The namespace provides a unique name to
associate with the data items that you import. The namespace appears in the data
tree in the Source tab
and is used to organize the data items. By default,
the namespace is the imported file name without the extension.
If you change the default name for the namespace, you are prompted to select the
external data file each time that you run the report. To avoid this prompt, select
the Allow server to automatically load file check box.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
, click the Source tab
, right-click the package
for which you want to add external data and then click Manage external data.
2. On the Select Data page of the wizard, under External data file, click Browse
and select your external data file to import.
If you want the server to load the file without prompting users when they run
the report, select the Allow the server to automatically load the file check box.
If selected, you must use the Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path, such
as \\servername\filename, and you must ensure that the IBM Cognos server
has access to the file.
3. Under Data items, select the check box for the data items that you want to
import.
4. Type a name for the namespace and click Next.
The namespace appears in the Source tree, and identifies the external data
within the package. By default, the name is the name of your imported external
data file.
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5. If you do not want to link your data or change the data attributes, click Finish
now.
Related tasks:
“MSR-PD-0012 error when importing external data” on page 405
When you try to import an external data file, you receive an MSR-PD-0012 error.
“MSR-PD-0013 error when importing external data” on page 405
When you try to import an external data file, you receive an MSR-PD-0013 error.
Map data
If you want to create reports that contain data from both your external file and
from your enterprise data, you must link at least one query subject from your
package or from an existing report to a data item in your external data. This
mapping creates a relationship between your external data and your enterprise
data. For example, your external data contains information about employees,
including an employee number. You map the employee number from your external
data file to the employee number in your enterprise data. This ensures that your
data is integrated smoothly.
About this task
Mapping a data item in your external data to a query subject that references other
query subjects is not supported. For example, the query subject cannot contain a
calculation that references a query item from another query subject. Such a
mapping produces the following error message:
MSR-PD-0001 Failed to relate external data to objects in the underlying package. The item
[query item] does not lead to a query subject.
Procedure
1. On the Data Mapping page, link existing query subjects in your enterprise data
to data items in your external data file.
2. Under Existing query subject / report, click the ellipsis button and do one of
the following:
v If you want to select a query subject from the data tree, click Choose Query
Subject and select a query subject.
Note: This option is not available when working with dimensional packages.
v If you want to select from the query subjects included in a report, click
Choose Report and select a report.
3. Click the two data items that you want to link and click the New link button.
You cannot link a data item in your external data to a calculation in a query
subject.
A link appears linking two data items.
Tip: You can create multiple links for multiple data items. To delete a link,
select the link and click Delete Link.
4. If your report is using the dynamic query mode, specify the type of filter to
generate for the join relationship by clicking the Join filter type (DQM only)
menu and choosing one of the available values.
A join relationship is created when you link data items. The filter type is used
to optimize the join relationship. In generates an IN predicate of constant
values. Between generates a BETWEEN predicate using the minimum and
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maximum values of the join keys. Table generates a table row constructor form
of the IN predicate. The default value is In.
5. Click Next.
Finish importing data
You can change how query items from your external data file appear after they are
imported into IBM Cognos Analytics. For example, you can change the number of
decimal places or the default summary.
If you want to use numeric data from your external data source as a measure in a
crosstab, you must assign that data item a default summary other than
Unsupported. A specified default summary makes the data item appear as a
measure in the data tree in the Source tab
. Otherwise, if you add the
data item with an Unsupported default summary as the measure in a crosstab, no
values appear.
Attribute
Description
Data type
Identifies whether data in the file is one of the following types:
Integer, which represents numeric values.
Decimal, which represents integer values that are scaled by a
variable power of 10.
Text, which represents values that contain letters and symbols.
Date or Date Time, which represent dates and times.
Default summary
Identifies Sum, Average, Max, Min, Count or Unsupported as the
default type of summary for the data item.
Applies only to Integer and Decimal data types.
Decimal places
Specifies the number of decimal places for the data item.
Applies only to the Decimal data type.
If you mapped links between data items in your external data and data items in
your enterprise data, specify the options that define the relationships between the
data items.
For each data item that you import and link, specify whether values are unique or
exist more than once in both your external data and in your enterprise data. You
can also specify how to handle rows that contain missing values in the report
results.
Procedure
1. On the Data Attributes page, specify the attributes for each data item after it is
imported and click Next.
For example, if you import numeric data items, you can change the default
summary and number of decimal places.
2. On the Mapping Options page, specify the relationships between the linked
data items and how to process the results in the report output.
3. Click Finish.
Chapter 13. Working with your external data
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Publish the package
You can change the name and location of the package with your external data to
help you differentiate between data packages.
Procedure
1. If you want to rename the package that will be published or change the
location where it is published, do the following:
v In the Manage external data dialog, under Package name, click the ellipsis
button.
v Type a new name for the package and select the location where to save it.
v Click Save.
2. Click Publish.
Results
IBM Cognos Analytics imports your external data into a new package. A
namespace with the data items from your external file appears in the data tree in
the Source tab
.
You can now create reports with your external data.
Edit your external data
After you import your data, you can change the data mappings and options that
you originally specified and republish the package.
You can
v Rename the namespace, which renames the organizational folder that appears in
the data tree in the Source tab
. If you change the namespace, you are
prompted for the external data file when you run the report.
v Change which columns to import.
v Change the data mapping links.
v Change the data attributes.
v Change the mapping options.
You can also import multiple external data files into the same package. To do this,
your data modeler must modify governors in the model and republish the package
that contains your enterprise data. For more information, see the IBM Cognos
Framework Manager User Guide.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
, click the Source tab
, right-click the package
for which you want to add external data and then click Manage external data.
2. In the Manage external data dialog box, select the external data to edit and
click the Edit icon
.
3. In the left pane, select the options that you want to change.
4. Click OK and then republish the package.
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Results
IBM Cognos Analytics reimports your external data and updates the data items
that appears in the data tree in the Source tab
.
You can now create and update reports with your external data.
Delete your external data
You can delete your external data from within the package that you created if you
no longer need it.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
, click the Source tab
, right-click the package
for which you want to add external data and then click Manage external data.
2. In the Manage external data dialog box, select the external data package to
delete and click the delete button
.
3. Click Publish.
Results
The external data namespace is removed from the package.
If you also no longer require the external data package or any reports created with
the package, you can delete it from within the IBM Cognos Analytics portal.
Running a report that contains external data
Reports that contain external data run the same way as reports that contain only
enterprise data. If you have access to the report, you will also have access to the
external data included within the report.
You may be prompted to select the location of the external data file when you run
the report if either
v the report author did not specify to automatically load the file.
v the IBM Cognos Analytics server cannot locate the file.
However, you are not re-prompted within the same Web browser session.
You can determine whether data in a report uses external data by tracing its
lineage. For more information, see “View Lineage Information for a Data Item” on
page 30.
Making your reports public
After you create a report that uses your external data, you may want to make it
public to share it with coworkers. They can run your report using your external
data file that you made available on a public network drive that the IBM Cognos
server can access. They can also use their own version of the file. If they use their
own version, the file must contain the same columns as your original external data
file that you used to import the data and create the report. In addition, you must
clear the Allow server to automatically load file check box in the Select Data
page of the Manage external data wizard.
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To make reports public, you must save them in the Team content area of the IBM
Cognos Analytics portal. To save content in Public Folders, you must have the
appropriate permissions. Contact your IBM Cognos administrator to obtain
permissions and to inform him or her that you are sharing a package or files.
If you share your reports, ensure that you maintain the reports.
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Chapter 14. Using conditions
You can define conditions to control what users see when they run a report.
Conditions can apply to specific items in a report. For example, you can define a
conditional style to highlight exceptional data, such as product revenue that
exceeds your target.
Conditions can also apply at the report layout level. Conditional layouts are useful
for delivering reports to a multilingual audience. For example, you can have text
items, such as titles and cover pages, appear in the same language as the data in
the report.
Related concepts:
“Creating a Conditional Color Palette in a Chart” on page 86
You can create a conditional palette to color data items in your chart in different
ways depending on a condition. For example, in a column chart that shows
revenue per month, you want to make the columns for the months that have a
revenue greater than $1000000 green.
Highlight data using a conditional style
Add conditional styles to your report to better identify exceptional or unexpected
results. A conditional style is a format, such as cell shading or font color, that is
applied to objects if a specified condition is true.
For example, you want to automatically highlight in green the departments in your
organization that meet their budget quotas and highlight in red the departments
that go over budget. Creating conditional styles color-codes information in your
reports so that you can find areas that need attention.
You can apply multiple conditional styles to objects. For example, you can apply
one style in specific cells and another style for the overall report. If multiple styles
set the same property, such as font color, the last style in the list is applied.
You can apply conditional styles based on any data item in your report.
You can create the following types of conditional styles.
Type
Description
Numeric Range
Highlights straight numerical data, such as
revenues and losses.
Date/Time Range
Highlights data from specific dates and
times.
Date Range
Highlights data from specific dates.
Time Range
Highlights data from specific times.
Interval
Highlights data falling between set intervals.
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Type
Description
String
Highlights specific alphanumeric items in a
report. For example, you can highlight all
instances of a specific word or phrase, such
as Equipment. String criteria are
case-sensitive.
If multiple string conditions are met, only
the first conditional style is applied.
Advanced
Creates conditional styles that use
calculations or expressions.
If multiple advanced conditions are met,
only the first conditional style is applied.
You can also apply a conditional color palette to a chart.
Note: Conditional styles and conditional data formatting do not work on chart
axis labels. If you apply a conditional style or conditional data formatting to a
chart axis, only the first style defined is applied.
You can perform a search to find objects in your report that use conditional styles.
You can also view all the conditional styles used in your report to delete or modify
them.
You can also use variables to highlight data. If a report contains both conditional
styles and style variables, the style variables are applied first and then the
conditional styles are applied.
Tip: The Return Quantity by Order Method sample report in the GO Data
Warehouse (analysis) package includes conditional highlighting.
Create a new conditional style
You can apply conditional styles based on any data item in your report.
Procedure
1. Click the object for which you want to define a conditional style and click the
Conditional styles icon
.
Tip: You can also click the object, and then, in the Properties pane, set the
Conditional styles property.
2. Click the add button
and click New Conditional Style.
3. Select the data item to determine the condition and click OK.
The type of conditional style that you can use depends on the type of data item
you select.
4. In the Name box, type a name for the conditional style.
5. To define a numeric value, date/time, date, time, or interval condition:
v Click the new button
and select a value to define a threshold.
The value appears in the Range column, and two ranges are created.
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v For each range, under Style, click one of the predefined styles to apply to the
range or click the edit button
and create a new style.
Tip: You can also define a style for the cells in your report that have missing
values.
v Repeat these steps to add other conditions.
Tip: Under Style, pause the pointer over each range
produced for that range.
to see the condition
v To move a value above or below a threshold, click the arrow button
to the value.
next
For example, you insert a threshold value of five million. By default, the
ranges are less than or equal to five million and greater than five million.
Moving the five million value above the threshold changes the ranges to less
than five million and greater than or equal to five million.
6. To define a string condition:
v Click the new button and select how to define the condition.
v To select more than one individual value, click Select Multiple Values and
click the values.
v To type specific values, click Enter Values and type the values.
v To specify your own criteria, such as values that begin with the letter A, click
Enter String Criteria and specify the condition.
v For each condition, under Style, click one of the predefined styles to apply
or click the edit style button and create a new style. Specify the style to
apply to remaining values by clicking one of the predefined styles beside
Remaining values (including future values).
v Specify the order in which to evaluate the conditions.
Conditions are evaluated from top to bottom, and the first condition that is
met is applied.
Reuse an existing conditional style
You can create a conditional style once and reuse it on multiple objects in your
report. You can specify the order in which conditional styles are applied. You can
also use existing local classes as your conditional styles.
Procedure
1. Click the data item for which you want to define a conditional style, and then
click the Conditional styles icon
.
Tip: You can also click the data item, and then, in the Properties pane, set the
Conditional styles property.
2. Click the add button
style.
, click Use Existing Conditional Style, and select the
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Create an advanced conditional style
You can create advanced conditional styles that use calculations or expressions.
If multiple advanced conditions are met, only the first conditional style is applied.
Procedure
1. Click the data item for which you want to define a conditional style, and then
click the Conditional styles icon
.
Tip: You can also click the data item, and then, in the Properties pane, set the
Conditional styles property.
2. Click the add button
and click Advanced Conditional Style.
3. Type a name for the conditional style.
4. Click the add button and specify the expression that defines the condition.
5. For each condition, under Style, click one of the predefined styles to apply or
click the edit button
and create a new style. Specify the style to apply to
remaining values by clicking one of the predefined styles beside Remaining
values (including future values).
6. Specify the order in which to evaluate the conditions by clicking a condition
and then clicking the move up or move down arrow.
Conditions are evaluated from top to bottom, and the first condition that is met
is applied.
Manage conditional styles
You can view, modify, or delete the conditional styles that are applied to your
report. You can also define a new conditional style.
In the IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting options, you can specify whether to
automatically delete conditional styles that are no longer used in a report.
Procedure
Click the More icon
, and then click Conditional styles.
Highlight data using a style variable
Highlight data in your report to better identify exceptional results. For example,
you want to identify sales representatives who have exceeded their quota. You
create a condition that checks whether each representative's sales for the year is
greater than their quota for the year.
Style variables are useful if you are working with reports that were created in a
previous version of IBM Cognos Analytics or if you want to use language variables
to specify conditional styles.
You can also use conditional styles to highlight data. If a report contains both
conditional styles and style variables, the style variables are applied before the
conditional styles.
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Procedure
Create a variable and define the condition that determines if the data will be
highlighted.
2. In the work area, click the column to highlight based on the condition.
3. In the Properties pane, double-click the Style variable property.
1.
4. Click Variable, click the variable to assign to the object, and click OK.
5. If you assigned a string variable, in the Values box, select the values for the
condition to support.
Tip: A default value exists for the variable, and it is always selected.
6. If you assigned a language variable, in the Values box, select the languages
for the condition to support.
Tip: A default value exists for the variable, and it is always selected.
7. Click OK.
8. Click the Condition explorer icon
default value.
and click a value other than the
Tip: When you select a value in the condition explorer, the Explorer bar
becomes green to indicate that conditional formatting is turned on and that
any changes you make to the report apply only to the variable value.
For example, if you created a Boolean variable, click Yes.
9. In the Properties pane, specify the formatting with which to highlight the
column when the condition is satisfied.
For example, click the Border property to create a thicker border around the
column.
10. Repeat steps 8 to 9 for other possible values defined for the variable.
Tip: To view the report with no variables applied, click the Condition
explorer icon and click (No variable) or triple-click the Explorer bar.
Results
When you run the report, the report objects to which you applied the variable are
highlighted when the condition is satisfied. For example, if you created a Boolean
variable, the objects are highlighted when the condition is met. If the condition is
not satisfied for any object, no conditional formatting is applied.
Adding conditional rendering to a report
You can specify which objects are rendered when a report is run.
Before you can add conditional formatting or conditional rendering to your report,
you must add a variable. You can create a variable in the condition explorer or in
the Properties pane.
Add a variable from the condition explorer
Before you can add conditional formatting or conditional rendering to your report,
you must add a variable. You can create a variable in the condition explorer or in
the Properties pane.
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323
Procedure
1. Click the Condition explorer icon
2. Click the Toolbox icon
Variables pane:
and click Variables.
, drag one of the following variables to the
v To create a variable that has only two possible values, Yes and No, drag
Boolean Variable.
v To create a variable whose values are string-based, drag String Variable.
v To create a variable whose values are different languages, drag Report
Language Variable.
3. If you created a Boolean variable, in the Expression Definition box, define the
condition and click OK.
For example, the following expression returns the value Yes if revenue is less
than one million and the value No if revenue is greater than or equal to one
million:
[Revenue]<1000000
For information about creating expressions, see “Using relational calculations”
on page 206 or “Using Dimensional Calculations” on page 256.
4. If you created a string variable, do the following:
v In the Expression Definition box, define the condition and click OK.
For example, the following expression returns the value high if revenue is
greater than one million and the value low if revenue is less than or equal to
one million:
if ([Revenue]>1000000) then ('high') else ('low')
For information about creating expressions, see “Using relational
calculations” on page 206 or “Using Dimensional Calculations” on page 256.
v Click the add button
in the Values pane.
v For each value that the variable can assume, type the name of the value that
corresponds with the possible outcomes defined in the expression.
For example, in the previous expression, you must create two values for the
variable, high and low.
Tip: You can create a group by clicking two or more values and then
clicking the group values button
. For example, you can create a group
that includes the available French languages.
5. If you created a language-specific variable, in the Languages dialog box, select
the languages to support.
Add a variable from the properties pane
Before you can add conditional formatting or conditional rendering to your report,
you must add a variable. You can create a variable in the condition explorer or in
the Properties pane.
Procedure
1. Select the report object.
2. In the Properties pane, under Conditional, double-click the conditional
property to which to assign the variable.
The following conditional properties are available:
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Goal
Conditional Property
Specify a variable based on which text can
be conditionally shown.
Text source variable
For example, you want different text to
appear when a report is run in a different
language.
Specify a variable based on which object can Render variable
be conditionally rendered.
For example, you want to make a revenue
report smaller by not rendering rows that
are below a threshold.
Specify a variable based on which object can Style variable
be conditionally styled.
For example, you want data that meets some
criterion to appear in a different color.
Specify a variable based on which objects in
a block can be conditionally rendered.
Applies only to conditional block objects
that you insert in a report.
Block variable
3. In the Variable box, click an existing variable or one of the following variable
types:
v
<New language variable>
v
<New string variable>
v
<New boolean variable>
4. In the New variable dialog box, in the Name box, type the name of the
variable.
5. If you created a string variable, click the add button
values to define, and click OK.
, type the string
6. If you created a language variable, select the languages to support and click
OK.
7. In the Expression Definition box, define the condition.
Hide or show an object
You can hide and show objects in a report based on a condition you define.
You can also specify that an object should not be rendered based on a condition.
Tip: The Global Bonus Report sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package includes hidden objects.
Procedure
1.
Create a variable, and define the condition that determines if the object is
shown or hidden.
Tip: Create a Boolean variable to show and hide objects, as this type of
variable has only two possible values.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag a Conditional blocks object to the work area.
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325
3. Select the conditional block.
4. In the Properties pane, double-click the Block variable property.
5. In the Variable box, click the variable you created and click OK.
6. Set the Current block property to Yes.
7. From the content pane, drag the object to show or hide to the conditional block.
For example, drag a data item from the Source tab or from the Data items tab.
You may need to link the report page to a query before you can add a data
item to the block.
Results
When you run the report, the report objects to which you applied the variable are
visible when the condition is satisfied and invisible when it is not.
Add conditional rendering
Add conditional rendering to specify which objects are rendered when a report is
run. This is useful when your report contains sensitive data.
Conditional rendering is not the same as hiding objects. When you hide an object,
the object exists but is transparent. If an object is not rendered, it is not in the
report.
Procedure
1. Select the list column to be rendered conditionally.
Tip: You must select the list column, not the list column body or the list
column title. If the body or title is selected, as indicated in the Properties pane,
click the Select ancestor icon
and click the list column.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Render variable property.
3. Click Variable and click the variable that will determine if the column will be
rendered.
4. In the Render for box, select the values that the condition will support.
Tip: A default value exists for the variable, and it is always selected.
Add multiple layouts
Add multiple layouts to show a report in different ways. For example, you can
define a different layout for each language in a multilingual report. This allows
you to create a single report that can be viewed by report consumers that use
different regional settings.
Procedure
1.
Create a variable and define the condition that will be used for each layout.
For example, create a report language variable that includes each language that
requires a conditional layout.
Note: Expressions used in a conditional layout cannot reference a query.
2. Click the Show properties icon
layouts.
, in the REPORT section, click Conditional
3. Select a variable, and then select the values that require a separate layout.
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Results
A layout is created for each value you selected. Use the Pages icon
to navigate
the different layouts. For each layout, click Report pages to create a report page or
Prompt pages to create a prompt page and add objects.
Tip: You can create new variables from the Conditional layouts dialog. The
variables are added to the condition explorer. For more information, see “Add a
variable from the condition explorer” on page 323.
Setting up a multilingual reporting environment
You can create reports that show data in more than one language and use different
regional settings. This means that you can create a single report that can be used
by report consumers anywhere in the world.
The samples databases provided with IBM Cognos store a selection of text fields,
such as names and descriptions, in more than 25 languages to demonstrate a
multilingual reporting environment. For information about how data is stored in
the samples databases and how the samples databases are set up to use
multilingual data, see the Administration and Security Guide.
Here is the process for creating a multilingual reporting environment:
v Use multilingual metadata.
The data source administrator can store multilingual data in either individual
tables, rows, or columns.
For more information about configuring your database for multilingual
reporting, see the Administration and Security Guide.
v Create a multilingual model.
Modelers use the modeling capabilities of IBM Cognos Analytics or IBM Cognos
Framework Manager to add multilingual metadata to the model from any data
source type except OLAP. They add multilingual metadata by defining which
languages the model supports, translating text strings in the model for things
such as object names and descriptions, and defining which languages are
exported in each package. If the data source contains multilingual data,
modelers can define queries that retrieve data in the default language for the
report user.
For more information, see the Framework Manager User Guide.
v Create multilingual maps.
Administrators and modelers use a Microsoft Windows operating system utility
named Map Manager to import maps and update labels for maps in IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting. For map features such as country or region and
city names, administrators and modelers can define alternative names to provide
multilingual versions of text that appears on the map.
For more information, see the Map Manager Installation and User Guide.
v Create a multilingual report.
The report author uses Reporting to create a report that can be viewed in
different languages. For example, you can specify that text, such as the title,
appears in German when the report is opened by a German user. You can also
add translations for text objects, and create other language-dependent objects.
v Specify the language in which a report is viewed.
You can use the IBM Cognos Analytics portal to do the following:
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– Define multilingual properties, such as a name, screen tip, and description,
for each entry in the portal.
– Specify the default language to be used when a report is run.
Tip: You can specify the default language on the run options page, in the
report properties, or in your preferences.
– Specify a language, other than the default, to be used when a report is run.
For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics portal User Guide.
The data then appears in the language and with the regional settings specified in
v the user's Web browser options
v the run options
v the IBM Cognos Analytics portal preferences
Any text that users or authors add appears in the language in which they typed it.
Create a multilingual report in Reporting
You can create a report in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting that can be viewed in
different languages. For example, you can specify that text such as the title appears
in German when the report is opened by a German user. You can also add
translations for text objects and create other language-dependent objects.
Before you begin
If you want the report to show data in different languages, the model must also be
multilingual.
Procedure
1. Create a report language variable.
2. In the work area, select the object to modify based on a language.
3. In the Properties pane, double-click the Style variable property.
If you are changing the language of a text string, click Text source variable
instead.
4. Click Variable and click the language variable you created.
5. In the Values box, select the languages for the condition to support and click
OK.
Tip: A default value exists for the variable, and it is always selected.
6. Click the Condition explorer icon
and a language for the variable.
Tip: When you select a value in the condition explorer, the Explorer bar
becomes green to indicate that conditional formatting is turned on and that any
changes you make to the report apply only to the variable value.
7. In the Properties pane, specify the formatting for the language.
For example, to change the language of a text string, double-click the Text
property and select the new string.
8. Press Enter when you are done.
9. Repeat steps 6 to 8 for all other languages specified for the variable.
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Tip: To view the report with no variables applied, pause the pointer over the
condition explorer button and click (No variable) or triple-click the Explorer
bar.
Results
When you run the report, the report objects to which you applied the variable are
formatted according to the browser's language.
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Chapter 15. Bursting Reports
Burst a report to distribute its contents to various recipients. Bursting is the process
of running a report once and then dividing the results for recipients who each
view a subset of the data. For example, salespeople in different regions each need a
report showing the sales target for their country or region. You use burst reports to
send each salesperson only the information they need. Burst reports can be
distributed by email or saved to a folder for viewing in the IBM Cognos Analytics
portal.
Tip: The Bursted Sales Performance Report sample report in the GO Data
Warehouse (analysis) package includes bursting.
To burst a report against a dimensional data source, see “Creating Burst Reports
Using Dimensional Data Sources” on page 335.
You cannot burst crosstab or chart reports. However you can burst a report where
a container includes a crosstab or chart that is part of a master detail relationship.
In this situation, you can burst only HTML, PDF, and XLS output formats; you
cannot burst CSV or XML output formats.
For information about avoiding disk space exhaustion when bursting charts or
crosstabs, see “Master Detail or Burst Reports with Charts or Crosstabs May Result
in Denial of Service” on page 420.
Procedure
1.
define burst recipients
2.
specify burst groups
3.
set burst options
4.
enable bursting
Defining Burst Recipients
Define the recipients who will receive data when the report is run. You can
distribute burst reports to individual users, groups, roles, distribution lists, and
contacts.
To define the recipients, you create a calculated field, create the burst table in the
source database, and then import the table into a package.
Create a Calculated Field
You can use a calculated field to dynamically create burst report recipients.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
distribute.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
, and click the query that will produce the data to
and drag Data Item to the Data Items pane.
3. To give the data item a more meaningful name, in the Name box, replace the
default name.
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4. In the Expression Definition box, type the expression that will generate the list
of recipients and click OK.
For example, typing the following expression builds the list of the employees of
The Samples Outdoors Company. The expression concatenates the first letter of
each employee's first name with their last name. lower(substring([Employee
summary (query)].[Employee by organization].[First name],1,1) +
[Employee summary (query)].[Employee by organization].[Last name])
Creating the Burst Table in the Source Database
You can create a burst table in the source database for the list of recipients. The
steps you must follow depend on the database system you are using. The burst
table must contain the following columns:
v A unique identifier
Tip: Some database systems do not require a unique identifier for each table.
v A recipient column
v The data item on which to burst
You can also include other columns that provide additional information. For
example, if you plan to distribute reports by email, you can add a column for the
email address of each recipient.
After you create the table, add the recipients who will receive the report. You can
create a mixed recipients list that includes individual users, groups, roles, contacts,
distribution lists, or email addresses. For example, a burst table may contain the
following recipients.
Recipient example
Recipient type
CAMID(":Canada")
Group
CAMID(":")/contact[@name='Silvano Allessori']
Contact
CAMID(":")/distributionList[@name='European
Partners']
Distribution list
CAMID("LDAP_Local_ID
:u:uid=gbelding,ou=people")
Authentication provider user or group,
where LDAP_Local_ID is the name of
an LDAP namespace ID, and people is
the name of an organizational unit
[email protected]
Email address
CAMID stands for Cognos Access Manager ID, and it represents an internal search
path to the recipients. Specify search paths when you want to save burst reports in
a folder. You can obtain the search path in the IBM Cognos Analytics portal by
opening the Properties page for each recipient and clicking View the search path.
Ensure that you use the proper syntax when adding recipients to the burst table.
In the case of NTLM namespaces, user IDs in the search path use alphanumeric or
numeric characters that make them difficult to read. You can use the following
alternate search path syntax:
directory/namespace[@name="Local NT"]//account[@userName="gbelding"]
where Local NT is the name of a namespace and gbelding is the name of a user.
The double slash before the account element indicates that you are searching all
accounts under the specified namespace.
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Note: If you have a mixed recipients list, do not mix email address recipients and
alternate path recipients. Because the alternate path syntax contains the @ symbol,
it will be mistaken for an email address.
For more information about users, groups, roles, contacts, and distribution lists, see
the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
Importing the Table into a Package
After you create the burst table in the source database, you must add it to the
package that you will use to create the report.
For more information about importing tables and creating relationships, see the
Framework Manager User Guide.
Procedure
1. Open the package.
2. Import the table.
3. Define the relationship between the burst table and the table containing the
data item on which to burst.
For example, you are bursting on country or region code. You define a
relationship between country or region code in the burst table and country or
region code in the Country or Region table.
4. Save and publish the package.
Specify a Burst Group
Specify burst groups to set how the report will be distributed. Burst groups are
defined by a data item that you create in the report or that you add from the burst
table.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
distribute.
, and click the query that will produce the data to
2. If you are creating a data item, do the following:
v Click the Toolbox icon
and drag Data Item to the Data Items pane.
v In the Expression Definition box, type the expression that defines the burst
key.
For example, the following expression builds an email address for each sales
representative in The Sample Outdoors Company. The expression
incorporates the calculated field that was previously created, which is named
userID in the following expression, with ibmcognos99.com as the domain
name.
[userID]+’@ibmcognos99.com’
Tip: To give the data item a more meaningful name, replace the default
name in the Name box.
3. To specify a burst table column as the data item, do the following:
v Click the Data icon
table.
, and from the Source tab
, expand the burst
v Drag the data item to the Data Items pane.
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For example, if you are bursting reports by email, drag the data item
containing email addresses.
Set Burst Options
Set burst options for the report to indicate the data item on which to burst and the
recipients.
Before you begin
Before you set burst options, ensure that the data item on which you intend to
burst is in the report and is grouped. The grouped column will create the
appropriate subsets of data. In addition, you must associate the burst key with this
level of grouping.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
or the Queries icon
, and click the Report icon
.
2. Click the Show properties icon
Burst options property.
, and in the Properties pane, click the
3. Select the Make report available for bursting check box.
4. Under Burst Groups, in the Query box, click the query that contains the data
item on which to burst.
Tip: You can choose a query that does not appear in the layout. This is useful
to distribute the same report to all burst recipients.
5. In the Label box, click the data item with which to label each burst report.
6. Click the edit button
.
7. In the Data items box, drag the data item on which to burst to the Groups
folder and click OK.
Tip: You can specify the sort order of data within each group by dragging
data items to the Sort list folder and then clicking the sort order button
.
8. Under Burst Recipient, in the Query box, click the query that contains the
data item to be used as the distribution list.
9. In the Data Item box, click the data item that contains the recipients.
10. In the Type box, choose the method to burst the report:
v Click Automatic to let IBM Cognos Analytics determine from the data item
whether to email reports or send them to folders in the Cognos Analytics
portal.
v Click Email addresses to distribute reports by email.
v Click Directory entries to distribute reports to folders that recipients can
access in the Cognos Analytics portal.
Note: To burst reports to multiple mobile device users, you must choose to
distribute reports to folders. You can choose Directory entries, or you can
choose Automatic if the data item returns directory entries instead of email
addresses. To view the reports, the recipients must have IBM Cognos Mobile
installed on their mobile devices.
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When recipients log into IBM Cognos Analytics, they will see only the report
that is specific to them.
11. If the report contains two nested data containers, such as a list and a chart,
click the ellipsis button beside Master detail relationships and define the
relationship between the data containers.
For information about master detail relationships, see “Create a Master Detail
Relationship” on page 248.
Enable Bursting
When the report is ready to be distributed, enable bursting for the report in the
IBM Cognos Analytics portal.
Procedure
1. Locate the report in the Cognos Analytics portal.
2. Click the More icon
and click Run as.
3. Enable Run in background.
4. Expand Advanced.
5. Make sure that the Burst the report check box is selected.
6. If you are distributing reports by email, open the Delivery slide out menu and
select the Send this report by email check box.
Tip: If you are bursting the report to a folder, you can also send the report by
email if the Send the report by email check box is selected. Reports will be
emailed if the recipient's email address is stored in the authentication source
you are using or if they are entered in the recipient's personal information in
the Cognos Analytics portal.
7. If the burst report contains a drill-through link to another report and you are
distributing the burst report by email, select the Include a link to the report
check box.
If you do not select the check box, the drill-through links in the burst report
will not work.
8. Run the report.
Results
Allow a few moments for the report to run. If you are an administrator, you can
view all outputs for the report. Click the More icon
and then click View
versions. When burst recipients log into the Cognos Analytics portal or access their
email accounts, they will see only the data that is meant for them.
Creating Burst Reports Using Dimensional Data Sources
You can burst a report using a dimensional data source by using burst information
that is stored in the data source. Because you do not want to append bursting
information to existing dimensional data sources, you can create a relational data
source that contains the burst information.
Report bursting is limited when the underlying data source is a cube (MOLAP
data source such as IBM Cognos PowerCube, Microsoft Analysis Services, Oracle
Essbase, or IBM DB2/OLAP). The burst report must be a grouped report, and the
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burst is restricted to the outermost grouping in the report. For example, if you
have a report grouped on Country or Region and State, then you can burst the
report only on Country or Region.
Procedure
1. In IBM Cognos Framework Manager, include both the dimensional data source
that is the basis for reporting and the relational burst table in the model.
For more information about models, see the Framework Manager User Guide.
2. In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, create a master detail report in which the
master query drives the report and the detail query contains the burst
information.
You must group the master query on the data item on which you are bursting.
This data item must have a corresponding data item in the relational burst
table.
Author the detail query against the relational burst table. The burst table must
contain two columns: the data item corresponding to the data item used in the
master report for bursting and the data item that contains the recipient
information. The recipient can be an email address or an expression that results
in a search path to an object in IBM Content Manager, such as an account,
group, role, contact, or distribution list.
For more information about master detail queries, see “Create a Master Detail
Relationship” on page 248.
3. Ensure that the detail query, which must be evaluated by IBM Cognos
Analytics when the report is executed, is not visible:
v Place a list that is based on the detail query in a conditional block with a box
type of None.
v Link the master and detail queries using the following expression:
[Master Burst Key] = [Detail Burst Key]
Results
When you set the burst options for the report, the master query provides the data
items for the burst key and the detail report provides the data items for the burst
recipients.
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Chapter 16. Format data
Format data in a report to improve readability. For example, you can show all date
values in the order year, month, and day. If you do not set Data Format properties
here, data is formatted according to the properties set in the model. If the
properties were not set in the model, data is formatted according to the
International Components for Unicode (ICU) formats.
Special cells, such as overflow or underflow, errors, or not applicable values,
appear with two dash (--) characters unless you override them.
You can also format data based on a condition or specify the format for a
particular object.
When you create a calculation that uses mixed currency values or other mixed
units of measure, an asterisk character (*) might appear as the unit of measure. To
avoid this problem, change the format of the column or row that contains the
result of the calculation so that the wanted unit of measure appears.
Set the default data formats
Set the default data properties for each type of data, including text, number,
currency, percent, date, time, date/time, and time interval.
Procedure
1. Click the Show properties icon
, click the select ancestor icon
Report, and then, in the DATA section, click Data formats.
, click
2. In the Format type box, click a format type.
The properties that you can set for the selected format type appear in the
Properties box.
3. If you clicked the Currency format type and require different currencies in the
report, click the add button
and select currency check boxes.
For example, you may have one column with values are in euros and another
column whose values are in US dollars.
4. Set the properties.
If you added currencies in step 3, click each one and set the properties. If you
did not add any currencies, any properties you set will apply to all currencies.
For properties in which you type meta-characters that represent certain types of
information, such as YYYY-MM-DD for dates, the meta-characters that are
required depend on the authoring language specified for the report. For more
information, see “Using patterns to format data” on page 343.
If you set a value for the Pattern property, all other formatting properties are
ignored with the following exceptions:
v Missing value characters
v Zero value characters
v Negative pattern
Some properties are language-sensitive and should be changed only with
caution.
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Results
The data formatting properties you set are applied to objects only in the current
layout. If a data item contains values in multiple currencies but only a subset of
those currencies have defined formats, the default format for the locale in which
you are working is applied to values with no specified format.
Specify the data format for an object
Specify the format for a particular object if you are not getting the results you
want.
For example, you add a measure to a report and you want to see two decimals
when you run the report. You set the number of decimals to two for the Number
format type for the current layout. However, when you run the report, you see
more than two decimals for the measure. To get the results you want, you must
map the measure to the Number format type.
About this task
Data formats are not applied in delimited text (CSV) and XML report outputs.
The time interval data format assumes that input values are in milliseconds. As a
result, when the time interval format is applied to an object, the values that appear
in the report output are in milliseconds. You can apply the cast function to return
the interval type that you want.
Procedure
1. Click the object.
2. In the report object toolbar, click the Data format icon
Tip: You can also click the Show properties icon
the Data format property.
.
, and then double-click
3. Under Format type, click the format type to apply to the object.
4. To override any of the properties of the format type that were defined for the
current layout, in the Properties box, click the property and specify its value.
Specifying the number of decimals in numbers
When specifying the number of decimals, IBM Cognos Analytics uses the IEEE 754
default rounding mode known as half even. With half even rounding, numbers are
rounded toward the nearest truncated value, unless both truncated values are
equidistant, in which case the value ending in an even digit is chosen, as follows:
v If the digit immediately after the precision to be shown is greater than 5, the
number is rounded up.
v If the digit immediately after the precision to be shown is less than 5, the
number is rounded down.
v If the digit immediately after the precision is a 5, the number is rounded down
when the preceding digit is even and rounded up when the preceding digit is
odd.
For example, the number 78.5 is rounded to 78, while the number 73.5 is
rounded to 74.
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In addition, if the maximum number of decimals is less than the actual number of
decimals in the number, the number is rounded to the maximum number of
decimals.
Digit shaping in charts and maps
When working with bidirectional content, you cannot specify digit shaping at the
chart or map level. You can specify digit shaping for the objects in charts and
maps.
To understand how digit shaping is applied to charts and maps, you must know
which chart and map objects are considered text and which objects are considered
numeric values.
The following table describes the chart and map objects that are considered text.
Table 7. Chart and map objects that are considered text
Container
Object
Chart
chart title, subtitle, footer, notes, legend item, legend title, regression label,
marker label, background image label, axis titles, discrete axis label (for
example, category axis label, x-axis), baseline labels
Map
map title, subtitle, footer, legend title, notes, axis labels
The following table describes the chart and map objects that are considered
numeric values.
Table 8. Chart and map objects that are considered numeric values
Container
Object
Chart
numeric axis label (for example, measure axis label, y-axis), numeric values
that appear in the legend (you can select to show the first, last, maximum,
minimum value for each item in legends), numeric values that appear in the
chart
Map
legend items
The following list describes the different digit shaping options and how digit
shaping is applied to charts and maps.
v The digit shape options for text objects, which include titles, footers, and labels,
are Default, None, National, and Contextual. Digit shape options for numeric
values are Default, None, and National. There is no Contextual option for
numeric values.
v By default, digit shaping is not applied to numbers that appear on an object that
is considered text. For example, if a chart shows year data on the x-axis and the
content language specified in the IBM Cognos Analytics portal is Arabic (Egypt),
no digit shaping is applied because the x-axis label is considered a string.
The following list describes the default digit shaping behavior for charts and maps
when the content language implies non-European digits, such as Arabic (Egypt).
v Numeric values that have a specific format, such as decimal or currency, are
displayed as Arabic-Indic.
v Except for matrix charts, numeric axis labels for charts and maps are displayed
in European digits.
This is due to the way that charts and maps are rendered. The engine used to
render charts and maps does not perform any formatting for numeric axis labels.
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No locale information is passed, and consequently the labels are displayed as
European digits. To display the labels as Arabic-Indic, select the digit shaping
option National.
Matrix charts are rendered using International Components for Unicode (ICU) to
format numbers. Locale information is passed and the numbers are shaped
accordingly. For example, when the content language is Arabic (Egypt), ICU
displays numbers as Arabic-Indic.
v Numbers within text labels are displayed as is. That is, no digit shaping is
applied.
The following list describes the default digit shaping behavior for charts and maps
when the content language is Thai.
v Numeric values that have a specific format, such as decimal or currency, are
displayed as European digits.
v Numbers within text labels are displayed as is. That is, no digit shaping is
applied.
Related concepts:
“Support for bidirectional languages” on page 33
You can author reports that support bidirectional languages. You can specify base
text direction, digit shaping, and container direction.
Locale-sensitive properties
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting contains an extensive library of customized
properties adapted to users from different regions who speak different languages.
For example, if a modeler specifies that a given data item is a currency, only the
proper currency symbol must be specified. When reports are created, Reporting
automatically adapts the format of the currency numbers to each user according to
the content language specified in the IBM Cognos Analytics portal.
When modelers or report authors specify properties, these properties override user
preferences and risk creating inconsistent formatting for users of other cultures. It
is usually much easier and safer to let Reporting take care of formatting. For
example, for the date format type, different regions use different characters to
represent the date separator. If you specify a date separator, you may confuse users
in other regions.
The following data formatting properties are locale-sensitive:
v Currency symbol position
v Date separator
v Date ordering
v Calendar type
v Time separator
v Display AM/PM symbols
v
Clock
v Decimal symbol
v Negative sign position
v Thousands separator
v Group size (digits)
v Secondary group size (digits)
v Missing value characters
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v Zero value characters
v Pattern
v Negative pattern
Suppress empty cells
Sparse data may result in crosstabs showing empty cells. For example, a crosstab
that matches employees with products results in many rows of empty values for
the revenue measure if the employee does not sell those products.
You can suppress rows, columns, or rows and columns based on divide by zero,
missing, and overflow values. Suppressing rows or columns without data gives
you a more concise view or your report.
Calculations are performed before suppression is applied. If you have multiple
crosstabs or charts, you must select one in order to access suppression options.
Within a list report, suppression applies only to rows and is based on non-grouped
data items. If details of a group are null, then the header and footer are also
suppressed.
Suppression can also be applied to charts, repeaters, and repeater tables.
Access to the suppression feature depends on the settings in your modeling
component, IBM Cognos Transformer, IBM Cognos Framework Manager, and IBM
Cognos Administration.
Procedure
1. From the report object toolbar, click the Suppress icon
Suppression options.
and click
2. Under Suppress, choose what sections to suppress.
3. Under Suppress the following, choose which values to suppress.
Related concepts:
“Limitations When Formatting Empty Cells in SAP BW Data Sources” on page 446
When working with SAP BW data sources, if the SAP BW server administrator
configured custom formatting for empty cells on the SAP BW server, this custom
format does not appear in IBM Cognos Analytics reports. Ask your administrator
to configure the formatting of empty cells in IBM Cognos Analytics.
Suppressing null cells by using filters
You can also use filters to suppress null cells in your reports. Using filters ensures
that calculations take suppression into account. You may also obtain better report
performance because the filtering is done at the data source.
If your report includes more than one measure or fact expression, it is best to base
the filter on only one underlying fact or measure.
Relational-style Reports
In relational-style reports, you can use detail and summary filters.
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Dimensional-style Reports
In dimensional-style reports, you can use the filter function.
For example, insert a set expression in your crosstab and use the expression filter
( descendants ([Set]) is not null). If your crosstab includes three or more levels
within the same dimension on an edge, use the expression filter ( descendants (
currentMember([Hierarchy] ) is not null).
If your crosstab includes nested sets, filter the sets using a cascading approach to
improve performance. For example, first filter the outermost (or highest nested
level) set, and then filter the remaining sets proceeding inward.
Specify what appears for data containers that contain no data
You can specify what appears in a data container when no data is available from
the database.
When no data is available, you can show one of the following options:
v An empty data container, such as a blank list.
v Alternate content, such as another data container or an image. You can insert
any object from the Toolbox tab.
v Text, such as There is no data available for this month. If you show text, you can
format it. By default, the text No Data Available appears.
You can specify what appears when no data is available for the following data
containers: lists, crosstabs, charts, maps, repeaters, repeater tables, and tables of
contents.
If your report includes multiple data containers, you can specify different no data
contents for each container.
Tip: The No Data sample report in the GO Sales (query) package includes data
containers that have no data.
Procedure
1. Select a data container.
2. In the Properties pane, click the select ancestor icon
container type.
and click the data
3. Click the ellipsis button next to the No data contents property and select what
should appear for data containers that contain no data:
v To show an empty data container, click No contents.
v To show alternate content, click Content specified in the No data tab.
Two tabs appear at the top of the data container and the No data contents
tab
is selected automatically.
Click the Toolbox icon
, insert the objects to appear when there is no
data available into the No data contents tab.
v To show text, click Specified text and type the text that you want to appear.
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Using patterns to format data
You can format data so that it matches any pattern of text and numbers when
default formats are not appropriate. For example, you can format dates to use full
text including the era, or you can format them to only use numbers and show the
last two digits of years to save space.
Using symbols and patterns can provide similar results as basic data formatting
tasks. For example, you can set how many digits appear after the decimal point.
You can achieve these types of results with a pattern, or you can set the Number
of decimal places property. Patterns allow flexibility for more complex
requirements.
Each supported content language code requires a specific set of symbols to be used
in patterns. For each language code, there are two tables you will need; one for
date and time symbols, and one for decimal symbols. The decimal symbols are the
same for all locales, however, date and time symbols are grouped into six locale
groups. Check the Date and Time Symbol section to see which locale group is used
for your locale.
To define patterns, open the Data format dialog box, and edit the Pattern property
for each format type. Use the symbols that are defined in the language code tables,
and follow these guidelines.
Pattern guidelines
When you define a pattern, the number of symbols you use affects how the data
will be shown. There are different rules for text, numbers, and values that can take
the form of text or numbers.
Text
You can specify whether text is produced in full or abbreviated form.
Number of symbols
Meaning
Example
4 or more
Full text form
EEEE produces Monday
Less than 4
Abbreviated form
EEE produces Mon
Numbers
The number of symbols you use in a pattern sets the minimum number of digits
that are produced in a report. Numbers that have fewer digits than specified are
zero-padded. For example, if you specify mm for minutes, and the database value
is 6, the report will show 06.
Note: The year value is handled differently. If you specify two symbols for year,
the last two digits of the year value is produced. For example, yyyy produces 2013,
and yy produces 13.
Text and Numbers
For values that can produce text or numbers, such as months, you can specify
whether text or numbers are produced, and whether words are abbreviated.
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Number of symbols
Meaning
Example
3 or more
Text
MMMM produces January
MMM produces Jan
Less than 3
Numbers
MM produces 01
M produces 1
Date and time symbols
Date and time symbols are divided into locales, each of which is detailed in the
following sections.
Locale Group A
Locales: af-za, en, en-au, en-be, en-bw, en-ca, en-gb, en-hk, en-ie, en-in, en-mt,
en-nz, en-ph, en-sg, en-us, en-vi, en-za, fo-fo, gl-es, id, id-id, is, is-is, it, it-ch, it-it,
kk-kz, ms, ms-bn, ms-my, nb-no, nl, nl-be, nl-nl, no, no-no, om-et, om-so, pl, pl-pl,
pt, pt-br, pt-pt, so-dj, so-et, so-ke, so-so, sv, sv-fi, sv-se, sw-ke, sw-tz
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Era
G
Text
AD
Year
y
Number
2013
Year (of 'Week of
Year')
Y
Number
2013
Month in year
M
Text and number
July and 07
Week in year
w
Number
27
Week in month
W
Number
2
Day in year
D
Number
189
Day in month
d
Number
10
Day of week in
month
F
Number
2 (2nd Wed in July)
Day of Week (1=first
day)
e
Number
2
Day in week
E
Text
Tuesday
a.m. or p.m. marker
a
Text
pm
Number
24
Hour in day (1 to 24) k
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Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(0 to 11)
K
Number
0
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(1 to 12)
h
Number
12
Hour in day (0 to 23) H
Number
0
Minute in hour
m
Number
30
Second in minute
s
Number
55
Millisecond
S
Number
978
Time zone
z
Text
Pacific Standard Time
Escape used in text
'
n/a
n/a
Single quote
''
n/a
'
Locale Group B
Locales: be-by, bg-bg, el, el-gr, fi, fi-fi, hr, hr-hr, hu, hu-hu, ja, ja-jp, ko, ko-kr, ro,
ro-ro, ru, ru-ua, ru-ru, sh-yu, sk, sk-sk, sl-si, sq-al, sr-sp, th, tr, tr-tr, uk-ua, zh,
zh-cn, zh-hk, zh-mo, zh-sg, zh-tw
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Era
G
Text
AD
Year
a
Number
2013
Year (of 'Week of
Year')
A
Number
2013
Month in year
n
Text and number
July and 07
Week in year
w
Number
27
Week in month
W
Number
2
Day in year
D
Number
189
Day in month
j
Number
10
Day of week in
month
F
Number
2 (2nd Wed in July)
Day of Week (1=first
day)
e
Number
2
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345
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Day in week
E
Text
Tuesday
a.m. or p.m. marker
x
Text
pm
Hour in day (1 to 24) h
Number
24
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(0 to 11)
K
Number
0
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(1 to 12)
k
Number
12
Hour in day (0 to 23) H
Number
0
Minute in hour
m
Number
30
Second in minute
s
Number
55
Millisecond
S
Number
978
Time zone
z
Text
Pacific Standard Time
Escape used in text
'
n/a
n/a
Single quote
''
n/a
'
Locale Group C
Locales: ca-es, cs, cs-cz, da, da-dk, es, es-ar, es-bo, es-cl, es-co, es-cr, es-do, es-ec,
es-es, es-gt, es-hn, es-mx, es-ni, es-pa, es-pe, es-pr, es-py, es-sv, es-us, es-uy, es-ve,
eu-es, mk-mk
346
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Era
G
Text
AD
Year
u
Number
2013
Year (of 'Week of
Year')
U
Number
2013
Month in year
M
Text and number
July and 07
Week in year
w
Number
27
Week in month
W
Number
2
Day in year
D
Number
189
Day in month
t
Number
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Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Day of week in
month
F
Number
2 (2nd Wed in July)
Day of Week (1=first
day)
e
Number
2
Day in week
E
Text
Tuesday
a.m. or p.m. marker
a
Text
pm
Hour in day (1 to 24) h
Number
24
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(0 to 11)
K
Number
0
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(1 to 12)
k
Number
12
Hour in day (0 to 23) H
Number
0
Minute in hour
m
Number
30
Second in minute
s
Number
55
Millisecond
S
Number
978
Time zone
z
Text
Pacific Standard Time
Escape used in text
'
n/a
n/a
Single quote
''
n/a
'
Locale Group D
Locales: de, de-at, de-be, de-ch, de-de, de-lu
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Era
G
Text
AD
Year
j
Number
2013
Year (of 'Week of
Year')
J
Number
2013
Month in year
M
Text and number
July and 07
Week in year
w
Number
27
Week in month
W
Number
2
Chapter 16. Format data
347
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Day in year
D
Number
189
Day in month
t
Number
10
Day of week in
month
F
Number
2 (2nd Wed in July)
Day of Week (1=first
day)
e
Number
2
Day in week
E
Text
Tuesday
a.m. or p.m. marker
a
Text
pm
Hour in day (1 to 24) h
Number
24
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(0 to 11)
K
Number
0
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(1 to 12)
k
Number
12
Hour in day (0 to 23) H
Number
0
Minute in hour
m
Number
30
Second in minute
s
Number
55
Millisecond
S
Number
978
Time zone
z
Text
Pacific Standard Time
Escape used in text
'
n/a
n/a
Single quote
''
n/a
'
Locale Group E
Locales: fr, fr-be, fr-ca, fr-ch, fr-fr, fr-lu
348
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Era
G
Text
AD
Year
a
Number
2013
Year (of 'Week of
Year')
A
Number
2013
Month in year
M
Text and number
July and 07
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Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Week in year
w
Number
27
Week in month
W
Number
2
Day in year
D
Number
189
Day in month
j
Number
10
Day of week in
month
F
Number
2 (2nd Wed in July)
Day of Week (1=first
day)
e
Number
2
Day in week
E
Text
Tuesday
a.m. or p.m. marker
x
Text
pm
Hour in day (1 to 24) h
Number
24
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(0 to 11)
K
Number
0
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(1 to 12)
k
Number
12
Hour in day (0 to 23) H
Number
0
Minute in hour
m
Number
30
Second in minute
s
Number
55
Millisecond
S
Number
978
Time zone
z
Text
Pacific Standard Time
Escape used in text
'
n/a
n/a
Single quote
''
n/a
'
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Era
R
Text
AD
Year
b
Number
2013
Locale Group F
Locales: ga-ie
Chapter 16. Format data
349
350
Meaning
Symbol
Presentation
Example
Year (of 'Week of
Year')
B
Number
2013
Month in year
M
Text and number
July and 07
Week in year
t
Number
27
Week in month
T
Number
2
Day in year
l
Number
189
Day in month
L
Number
10
Day of week in
month
F
Number
2 (2nd Wed in July)
Day of Week (1=first
day)
e
Number
2
Day in week
E
Text
Tuesday
a.m. or p.m. marker
a
Text
pm
Hour in day (1 to 24) u
Number
24
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(0 to 11)
K
Number
0
Hour in a.m. or p.m.
(1 to 12)
k
Number
12
Hour in day (0 to 23) U
Number
0
Minute in hour
n
Number
30
Second in minute
s
Number
55
Millisecond
S
Number
978
Time zone
c
Text
Pacific Standard Time
Escape used in text
'
n/a
n/a
Single quote
''
n/a
'
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Decimal format symbols
All locales
Symbol
Meaning
0
A digit that is shown even if the value is
zero.
#
A digit that is suppressed if the value is
zero.
.
A placeholder for decimal separator.
,
A placeholder for thousands grouping
separator.
E
Separates mantissa and exponent for
exponential formats.
;
Separates formats for positive numbers and
formats for negative numbers.
-
The default negative prefix.
%
Multiplied by 100, as percentage.
Multiplied by 1000, as per mille.
The currency symbol. If this symbol is
present in a pattern, the monetary decimal
separator is used instead of the decimal
separator.
The international currency sign. It will be
replaced by an international currency
symbol. If it is present in a pattern, the
monetary decimal separator is used instead
of the decimal separator.
X
Other characters that can be used in the
prefix or suffix.
'
Used to quote special characters in a prefix
or suffix.
/u221E
Infinity symbol.
/uFFFD
Not a Number symbol.
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Chapter 17. Using query macros
A macro is a fragment of code that you can insert in the Select statement of a
query or in an expression. For example, add a macro to insert a new data item
containing the user's name.
You can include references to session parameters, parameter maps, and parameter
map entries in macros. Parameter values are set when you run the query. For
example, you can use the language session parameter to show only the data that
matches the language setting for the current user.
Macros can be used in these different ways:
v They can be inserted in the SQL.
An example is Select * from Country where Country.Name =
#$myMap{$runLocale}#
v They can supply an argument to a stored procedure query subject.
If a value is not hard-coded for the argument, the stored procedure query
subject can be used to return different data.
v They can be inserted in expressions, such as calculations and filters.
An example is a filter [gosales].[Sales staff].[Staff name] =
#$UserLookUpMap{$UserId}#
v They can be used as a parameter wizard.
Parameters can reference other parameters. An example is Map1, Key = en-us,
Value = #$myMap{$UserId}#
You can also add query macros to the IBM Cognos Framework Manager model.
For more information, see the Framework Manager User Guide.
Support for query macros in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting includes the same
capabilities as macros used in Framework Manager. However, Reporting query
macros do not extend to the layout. Therefore, when making changes to the query
using macros, you must bear in mind the side-effects on the layout. For example, if
a macro removes a column from the query that the layout refers to, a run-time
error will occur.
Syntax
Use the following syntax to reference session parameter and parameter values.
Object
Syntax
Example
Session key
$session_key
#$my_account#
Parameter map key
$map{<key>}
#$map_one{’abc’}#
Parameter map entry whose
key is defined by a session
parameter
$map{$session_key}
#$map_one{$my_account}#
You can add the following elements to further define the macro expression.
353
Symbol
Purpose
Single quotation marks '
Delineates a literal string that has a single
quotation mark as part of the string.
If the single quotation mark displays in a
string, such as a query item, the string must
be enclosed in a single quotation mark on
both sides of the string and the single
quotation mark must be doubled. For
example, ab'c is written as ’ab’’c’
If the single quotation mark displays in a
macro, the string must be enclosed in square
brackets. For example, ab'c is written as
[ab’c]
If the single quotation mark displays in a
prompt, there is no need to enclose the
string.
To escape a single quotation mark in an
expression, use &apos;
Square brackets [ ]
Encloses model objects, such as a namespace
or query subject and macro names that
contain restricted characters, such as a
number sign, hyphen, or space.
Curly brackets, also known as braces { }
Calls a function that is unknown to the
parser, such as dateadd in DB2, and whose
first argument is a keyword.
Example:
dateadd
({month},2,<date
expression>)
+ operator
Concatenates two strings, such as ’abc’ +
’xyz’
Single quote function (sq)
Surrounds the result of a string expression
with single quotation marks. If the single
quotation mark displays in a string, such as
a query item, the string must be enclosed in
a single quotation mark on both sides of the
string and the single quotation mark must
be doubled. You can use this function to
build clauses to test against literal
parameter-driven values.
Here is an example:
#sq($my_sp)#
If a session parameter (my_sp) has the value
ab'cc, the result is
’ab"cc’
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Symbol
Purpose
Double quote function (dq)
Surrounds the result of a string expression
with double quotation marks. You can use
this function to refer to table and column
names with non-identifier characters, such
as a blank space or a percent sign (%).
Here is an example:
#dq
(’Column’ + $runLocale)#
If runLocale=en-us, the result is
"Column en-us"
Square bracket function (sb)
Inserts a set of square brackets into the
argument to build object references in a
model query and model expressions, such as
filters and calculations.
Here is an example:
#sb
(’my item in ’ + $runLocale)#
If runLocale=en-us, the result is
[my item in en-us]
Add a query macro
Add a query macro to allow run-time changes to be made to SQL queries.
About this task
When you reference a parameter, you must do the following:
v Use a number sign (#) at the beginning and end of each set of one or more
parameters.
Everything between the number signs is treated as a macro expression, which is
processed at runtime. Framework Manager removes anything that is outside the
number signs.
v Precede each parameter map entry with a dollar sign ($)
v Use a name that starts with an alpha character (a..z, A..Z)
Do not insert macros between existing quotation marks or square brackets because
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting does not execute anything within these
elements.
Procedure
1. To add a macro to an expression, in the Expression Editor, click the macros tab
.
2. Click the Queries icon
, and click Queries.
3. If the query to which you are adding a macro was built by using your own
SQL, do the following:
v Click the SQL object that is linked to the query.
v In the Properties pane, double-click the SQL property.
Chapter 17. Using query macros
355
v In the SQL dialog box, type the macro.
4. If the query to which you are adding a macro was not built by using your own
SQL, do the following:
v Click the query.
v In the Properties pane, double-click the Generated SQL/MDX property.
v In the Generated SQL/MDX dialog box, click Convert.
v In the SQL dialog box, type the macro.
Creating prompts using query macros
You can create mandatory and optional prompts in reports using query macros.
Use the prompt macro functions prompt and promptmany to create single-value and
multiple-value prompts. You can use prompt macro functions when working with
a relational data source or a dimensionally-modeled relational (DMR) data source.
If you want to use a prompt macro in an expression such as a calculation, you
must specify the data type when using an overloaded operator, such as a plus sign
(+). You can use the plus sign to concatenate two items and to add two items.
If you want to define a filter on a dimension level and have the filter use the
prompt or promptmany macro, you must provide the data type as memberuniquename
and a default value.
Here is an example:
members( [MS_gosales].[New Dimension].[PRODUCTLINE].[PRODUCTLINE])
in ( set( #promptmany(’what’, ’memberuniquename’,
’[MS_gosales].[PROD1].[PRODUCTLINE].[PRODUCTLINE]
->[all].[1]’)# ) )
Here is an example of a mandatory prompt:
select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY = #prompt(’CountryName’)#
When default values are specified in the syntax of macro prompts, you may see an
error. Use prompt syntax such as where Country = ?Enter Country?.
The prompt and promptmany functions have the following mandatory and optional
parameters. All argument values must be specified as strings.
Name
This mandatory parameter is the name of the prompt. Name can also refer to the
name of a parameter on a user-created prompt page, in which case the user-created
prompt page appears when the report is run instead of the default prompt page
that the macro would generate.
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Datatype
This optional parameter is the prompt value data type. The default value is string.
Prompt values are validated. In the case of strings, the provided value is enclosed
in single quotation marks and embedded single quotation marks are doubled.
Values include the following:
v boolean
v date
v datetime
v decimal
v double
v float
v int
v integer
v interval
v long
v memberuniquename
Memberuniquename is not an actual data type. This value must be used when
the data type of the parameter is member unique name (MUN).
v numeric
v real
v short
v string
v time
v timeinterval
v timestamp
v token
Token is not an actual data type. It is a way to pass SQL. A token does not pass
values.
v xsddate
v xsddatetime
v xsddecimal
v xsddouble
v xsdduration
v xsdfloat
v xsdint
v xsdlong
v xsdshort
v xsdstring
v xsdtime
DefaultText
This optional parameter is the text to be used by default. If a value is specified, the
prompt is optional.
Chapter 17. Using query macros
357
If you use a space and no values are provided in the Prompt Value dialog box, a
Where clause is usually not generated.
If you use text and no values are provided in the Prompt Value dialog box, a
Where clause is usually generated using the default value.
Ensure that the text you provide results in a valid SQL statement.
Note: If the data type is memberuniquename, a value for the DefaultText parameter
must be provided. For example:
(#prompt(’WhichLevel’, ’memberuniquename’,
’[goSalesAgain].[PRODUCT1].[PRODUCT].[PRODUCT(All)]->[all]’)#)
Text
This optional parameter is text that precedes any user-provided values, such as
’and column1 = ’.
QueryItem
This parameter is optional. The prompt engine can take advantage of the Prompt
Info properties of the query item. Descriptive information can be shown, although
the prompt value is a code.
TextFollowing
This optional parameter is the closing parenthesis that is used most often for the
promptmany function. This parameter is also useful when the prompt is optional
and is followed by hardcoded filters in the SQL statement.
Examples - selecting country or region prompts
When a report is run, you want your users to be prompted to choose the country
or region for which they want to see data. The following code examples describe
how you can use macros to create different prompts.
Mandatory prompt with no data type specified
Note the following:
v The Datatype argument is not specified. Therefore, it is a string, which is correct
in this case.
v The DefaultText argument is not specified. Therefore, it is a mandatory prompt.
select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY = #prompt(’CountryName’)#
Mandatory prompt with the data type specified
Note the following:
v This prompt requires a valid integer value as response.
v The DefaultText argument is not specified. Therefore, it is a mandatory prompt.
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select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE >
#prompt(’Starting CountryCode’,
’integer’,
’’,
’’,
’[gosales].[COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL].[COUNTRY_CODE]’)#
Optional prompt and mandatory filter with the data type and
default value specified
Note the following:
v This prompt allows the user to supply a valid integer response.
v The DefaultText argument is specified. Therefore, the user may omit entering a
value, in which case the value 10 is used. This makes it an optional prompt, but
not an optional filter.
Example 1:
select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE >
#prompt(’Starting CountryCode’,
’integer’,
’10’
)#
Example 2:
[gosales].[COUNTRY].[COUNTRY] = #prompt(’countryPrompt’,’string’,’’’Canada’’’)#
Result 2:
[gosales].[COUNTRY].[COUNTRY] = 'Canada’
Note the following:
v The defaultTextparameter must be specified such that is literally valid in the
context of the macro, because no formatting takes place on this value. See details
below.
v The default string Canada in Example 2 is specified as a string using single
quotes, in which the embedded single quotes are doubled up, thus 3 quotes.
This results in the string being properly displayed within single quotes in the
expression.
v As a general rule for the string datatype, the defaultText should always be
specified as in the previous note, except in the context of a stored procedure
parameter.
v For the defaultText of types date or datetime, a special format should be used
in the context of SQL. Examples of these formats are ’DATE ’’2012-12-25’’’ and
’DATETIME ’’2012-12-25 12:00:00’’’. In all other contexts, you use the
date/datetime without the keyword and escaped single quotes (e.g.,
’2012-12-25’).
Chapter 17. Using query macros
359
Prompt that appends text to the value
Note the following:
v The DefaultText argument is specified as a space character. In this case, the
generated text is just the space character, which eliminates the Where clause from
the query.
v The Text argument is specified, which is written into the generated SQL before
the user-provided prompt value.
select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
#prompt(’Starting CountryCode’,
’integer’,
’ ’,
// < = = this is a space
’where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE >’
)#
Syntax substitution
Note the following:
v The Datatype argument is set to token, which means that the user-provided
value is entered without any checking on the provided value.
Because checking is not performed on the value, the expression editor may
indicate that the expression is not valid. When a valid user-provided value is
supplied or if you provide a valid default value, expression editor will interpret
the expression as valid.
v Token should be used only if there is a list of pick-values for the user.
v The DefaultText argument is specified. Therefore, this is an optional prompt and
group by COUNTRY is used in the generated SQL.
Select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
#prompt(’Sort column’,
’token’,
’group by COUNTRY’,
’group by ’
)#
Examples - creating prompts that use parameter maps
When a report is run, you want your users to select a language for the data in the
report. The following examples describe several ways you can do this.
Prompt that uses session variables
Note the following:
v The name of the prompt is specified using a lookup in the parameter map
named PromptLabels. The key value is the session variable $language.
v The Where clause is using a parameterized column.
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select
ORDER_METHOD.ORDER_METHOD_CODE as ORDER_METHOD_CODE,
ORDER_METHOD.ORDER_METHOD_#$language#
as ORDER_METHOD_EN
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.ORDER_METHOD ORDER_METHOD
#prompt($PromptLabels{$language},
’’,
’ ’,
’where ORDER_METHOD.ORDER_METHOD_’ + $language + ’
>’
)#
A parameter map that nests prompts
Note the following:
v In the model, there is a parameter map DynPromptLabels with
#$PromptLabels{$language}#
v Part of the prompt information is run from a parameter map instead of being
coded directly inside the SQL.
v The whole macro containing the prompt can be a value in a parameter map.
select
ORDER_METHOD.ORDER_METHOD_CODE as ORDER_METHOD_CODE,
ORDER_METHOD.ORDER_METHOD_#$language#
as ORDER_METHOD_EN
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.ORDER_METHOD ORDER_METHOD
#prompt($DynPromptLabels{’ex9’},
’’,
’ ’,
’where ORDER_METHOD.ORDER_METHOD_’ + $language + ’
>’
)#
Examples - creating a multiple value prompt
When a report is run, you want your users to select one or more values. The
following examples describe several ways you can do this.
Prompt with a required minimum
Note the following:
v The user must enter at least a single value.
v This resembles the first example on prompting for a country or region
“Mandatory prompt with no data type specified” on page 358.
select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY IN (#promptmany(’CountryName’)#)
Prompt with a required minimum with the data type specified
Note the following:
v This resembles the second example on prompting for a country or region
“Mandatory prompt with the data type specified” on page 358.
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select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE IN (
#promptmany(’Selected CountryCodes’,
’integer’,
’’,
’’,
’[gosales].[COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL].[COUNTRY_CODE]’)#
)
Optional prompt with the data type and default value specified
The In clause and both parentheses are part of the SQL statement.
select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE IN (
#promptmany(’Selected CountryCodes’,
’integer’,
’10’
)#
)
Prompt that adds text before the syntax
Note the following:
v This example uses the TextFollowing argument.
select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL
#promptmany(’Selected CountryCodes’,
’integer’,
’ ’,
// < = = this
is a space
’where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE IN
( ’,
’’,
’)’
)#
Optional prompt that adds text before the syntax
Select
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE as COUNTRY_CODE,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY as COUNTRY,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL."LANGUAGE" as LANGUAGE1,
COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.CURRENCY_NAME as CURRENCY_NAME
from
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL,
gosales.gosales.dbo.COUNTRY XX
where COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE = XX.COUNTRY_CODE
#promptmany(’Selected CountryCodes’,
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’integer’,
’ ’,
’ and COUNTRY_MULTILINGUAL.COUNTRY_CODE IN (’,
’’,
’)’
)#
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Chapter 18. Using drill-through access
Using drill-through access, you can move from one report to another within a
session while maintaining your focus on the same piece of data. For example, you
select a product in a sales report and move to an inventory report about that
product.
Drill-through access helps you to build analytical applications that are bigger than
a single report. Drill-through applications are a network of linked reports that
users can navigate, retaining their context and focus, to explore and analyze
information.
Drill-through access works by defining the target report or object and then using
information from the source report to filter the target. IBM Cognos Analytics can
match data from the source to metadata in the target report, or you can define
parameters in the target for greater control.
Note: In the dimensional reporting style, you can also enable drilling up and
drilling down. For more information about drilling up and drilling down, see
“Create a drill-up and drill-down report” on page 262.
What You Should Know
For a drill-through link to work, it is necessary to know
v the source
v the target
v how the data in the packages that contain these objects is related
Depending on the underlying data, you may create a drill-through definition
and have IBM Cognos Analytics match the data (dynamic drill-through) or
create parameters in the target (parameterized drill-through).
v whether to run the target report or to open it
The target of drill-through access is usually a saved report definition. The report
can be created in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, IBM Cognos Query Studio,
IBM Cognos PowerPlay Studio, or IBM Cognos Analysis Studio. The target of
drill-through access can also be a package that contains an IBM Cognos
PowerCube, in which case a default view of the PowerCube is created.
v whether the users of the drill-through link in the source report have the
appropriate permissions to view or run the target report
v if the target is being run, in what format to run it, and what filters to use on the
target
If you do not want to run the target report on demand, you may link to a
bookmark in the saved output instead of running the report. For more information,
see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
Sources and Targets
In IBM Cognos Analytics, there are many different examples of source and target.
For example, you can drill through
365
v between reports created in different packages against different data source types,
such as from an analysis against a package that contains a PowerCube to a
detailed report against a package based on a relational data source
v from one existing report to another report using definitions created in Reporting
v between IBM Cognos Viewer reports authored in Reporting, Query Studio, and
Analysis Studio
v to and from a package built on a PowerCube
v from IBM Cognos Series 7 to IBM Cognos Analytics reports
Tip: In the GO Data Warehouse (analysis) package, the Positions to Fill sample
report is a drill-through target report and the Recruitment Report sample report is
a drill-through source report.
Understanding drill-through concepts
Before you set up drill-through access, you must understand the key concepts
about drilling through. Knowing these concepts will help you to avoid errors so
that report consumers drill through as efficiently as possible.
Drill-through paths
You can create a drill-through path in a source report, or using drill-through
definitions. A drill-through path is the definition of the path that is taken when
moving from one report to another, including how the data values are passed
between the reports.
Using Drill-Through Definitions, you can create a drill-through path from any
report in the source package to any target report in any other package. This type of
drill-through definition is stored in the source package.
For any target report that contains parameters, you should map the target
parameters to the correct metadata in the drill-through path. This ensures that the
values from the source report are passed to the correct parameter values, and that
the target report is filtered correctly. If you do not map parameters, then the users
may be prompted for values when the target report is run.
A report-based drill-through path refers to a path created and stored in a source
report. This type of drill-through path is also called authored drill through. The
path is associated with a specific data column, chart, or cross tab in the source
report, and is available only when users select that area of the report. If an
authored drill-through definition is available, a hyperlink appears in the source
report when it is run.
Report-based drill-through is limited to reporting source reports and any target
reports. Use this type of drill-through access when you want to pass data item
values or parameter results from within a source report to the target report, pass
the results of a report expression to a target report, or a use URL link as a part of
the drill-through definition.
Selection contexts
The selection context represents the structure of the values selected by the user in
the source.
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In IBM Cognos Analysis Studio, this includes the context area. When a package
drill-through definition is used, the selection context is used to give values for
mapped parameters (parameterized drill-through) or also to map the appropriate
data items and values.
Drill-through links can also be defined to open the target object at a bookmark.
The content of this bookmark may also specified by the selection context.
Drill-through access is possible between most combinations of the IBM Cognos
Analytics studios. Each studio is optimized for the goals and skills of the audience
that uses it, and in some cases for the type of data source it is designed for.
Therefore, you may need to consider how the various studios manage the selection
context when you drill through between objects created in different studios, and
how the data sources are conformed. During testing or debugging, you can see
how source values are being mapped in different contexts using the drill-through
assistant.
Drilling through to different report formats
The settings in the drill-through definition determine the format in which users see
the report results.
For example, the users may see the reports in IBM Cognos Viewer as an HTML
Web page, or the reports may open in IBM Cognos Query Studio, IBM Cognos
PowerPlay Studio, or IBM Cognos Analysis Studio. If your users have PowerPlay
Studio, then they may also see the default view of a PowerCube.
Reports can be opened as HTML pages, or as PDF, XML, CSV, or Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet software formats. When you define a drill-through path, you can
choose the output format. This can be useful if the expected use of the target
report is something other than online viewing. If the report will be printed, output
it as PDF; if it will be exported to Excel for further processing, output it as Excel or
CSV, and so on.
To run reports, or drill to targets that run reports in the delimited text (CSV), PDF,
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (XLS), or XML output formats, users require the
generate output capability for the specific format.
If you define a drill-through path to a report that is created in Analysis Studio,
PowerPlay Studio, or Query Studio, consumers can open the report in its studio
instead of in IBM Cognos Viewer. This can be useful if you expect a consumer to
use the drill-through target report as the start of an analysis or query session to
find more information.
For example, if an application contains a dashboard style report of high-level data,
you can define a drill-through link to Analysis Studio to investigate items of
interest. The Analysis Studio view can then be drilled through to a PDF report for
printing.
Note: IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting does not display data results.
Drilling through between packages
You can set up drill-through access between packages.
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The two packages can be based on different types of data source, but there are
some limits. The following table shows the data source mappings that support
drill-through access.
Table 9. Data source mappings that support drill-through access
Source data source
Target data source
OLAP
OLAP
Note: OLAP to OLAP drill through is
supported only if the data source type is the
same, for example, SSAS to SSAS.
OLAP
Dimensionally modeled relational
OLAP
Relational data
Note: For more information, see “Business
keys” on page 371.
Dimensionally modeled relational
Dimensionally modeled relational
Dimensionally modeled relational
Relational
Relational
Relational
Bookmark references
When you drill through, the values that you pass are usually, but not always, used
to filter the report. IBM Cognos Analytics supports bookmarks within saved PDF
and HTML reports so that a user can scroll a report to view the relevant part based
on a URL parameter.
For example, you have a large inventory report scheduled to run daily or weekly
during off hours because of resource considerations. Your users may want to view
this report as a target because it contains detailed information, but you want them
to view the saved output rather than run this large report. Using this Action option
and bookmark settings, users can drill through from another source location based
on products to open the saved report to the page that shows the product they
want to focus on.
When a bookmark in the source report is used in a drill-through definition, it
provides the value for the URL parameter. When report consumers drill through
using this definition, they see the relevant section of the target report.
Bookmark references are limited to previously run reports that are output as PDF
or HTML and contain bookmark objects.
Members and values
Dimensionally modeled data, whether stored in cubes or stored as dimensionally
modeled relational (DMR) data, organizes data into dimensions. These dimensions
contain hierarchies. The hierarchies contain levels. And the levels contain members.
An example of a dimension is Locations. A Locations dimension may contain two
hierarchies: Locations by Organization Structure and Locations by Geography.
Either of these hierarchies may contain levels like Country or Region and City.
Members are the instances in a level. For example, New York and London are
members in the City level. A member may have multiple properties, such as
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Population, Latitude, and Longitude. Internally, a member is identified by a
Member Unique Name (MUN). The method by which a MUN is derived depends
on the cube vendor.
Relational data models are made up of data subjects, such as Employees, which are
made up of data items, such as Name or Extension. These data items have values,
such as Peter Smith.
In IBM Cognos Analytics, the methods of drilling through available are
v Dimensional (member) to Dimensional (member)
v Dimensional (member) to Relational (data item value)
v Relational (data item value) to Relational (data item value)
If the target parameter is a member, the source must be a member. The source and
target should usually be from a conformed dimension. However, if the data
supports it, you may also choose to define a mapping using different properties of
the source metadata item.
If the target parameter is a value, the source can be either a value or a member. If
the source is a dimensional member, you must ensure that the level or dimension
is mapped to the target data item correctly in the drill-through definition. The
business key from which the member is sourced should usually match the
relational target value, which is most often the business key. However, if the data
supports it, you may also choose to define a mapping from the caption of the
source metadata item.
Member unique names
The member unique name (MUN) is a unique identifier for a member in IBM
Cognos reports. It is stored in the report specification when the member is
referenced in the report directly.
The MUN is used in drill-through between OLAP data sources. The member keys
in the MUN for the different OLAP data sources must match.
The MUN is used to find the member in the data source, which is similar to how
business keys are used to find records in a table. For example, when you create
OLAP dimension Products, you use the Product Line database column as s label
for the members in your Product Line level. However, you use the Product Line
Code business key from the database table to ensure that all the Product lines are
unique in that level. The source value that you used to create the members is used
in combination with the data source name, hierarchy, and level information in the
member unique name.
If the MUN changes, members that are directly referenced in expressions, filters, or
reports are no longer found. Changes to the MUN may be related to other changes.
For example, changes to the hierarchy and level structures may change the level
unique name, and changes to the business key values may change the member key
path. Other factors that can affect the MUN are application changes during the
design stage or over time, IBM Cognos PowerCube category codes that are
unpredictably unique, the production environment that has more members than
the test environment, or removing the member from the data source.
To avoid potential problems, we recommend the following best practices when you
build OLAP data sources:
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v Use unique codes and keys within a dimension for the member keys.
v Define your OLAP and relational packages using unique conformed values for
the source values (business keys) within similar dimensions or data values
where drill-through between applications may be required.
v Ensure that the business keys and dimension metadata structure are the same in
the production and test environments.
v Do not change the business keys in IBM Cognos Framework Manager in the
production environment.
v Resolve the non-unique keys in a dimension in the data source before you build
the cube.
Ensure that there are no duplicate source values in all levels of a dimension
before you build a PowerCube. We do not recommend using the tilde character
(~) in the category codes.
For more information, see the section about uniqueness in the IBM Cognos
Series 7 Step-by-Step Transformer.
For information about PowerCubes migrated from IBM Cognos Series 7, see the
IBM Cognos PowerPlay Migration and Administration Guide.
Conformed dimensions
If you work with more than one dimensional data source, you may notice that
some dimensions are structured the same, and some are not.
The reason that dimensions can be structured differently is that the data sources
may serve different purposes.
For example, a Customer dimension appears in a Revenue data store, but not in an
Inventory data store. However, the Products dimension and the Time dimension
appear in both data stores.
Dimensions that appear in multiple data stores are conformed if their structure is
identical for all of the following:
v hierarchy names
v level names
v level order
v internal keys
Drilling through is possible between different dimensional data stores only if the
dimensions are conformed, and if the dimension data store is of the same vendor
type, such as IBM Cognos PowerCube as the source and the target. For example, in
two data stores for Revenue and Inventory that contain Products and Time
dimensions, it is possible to define the Products and Time dimensions differently
for each data store. However, for drill-through between the Products and Time
dimensions to work, their structures must be identical in each data store.
If you are not sure whether your dimensions are conformed, then you should
check with the data modeler to ensure that the drilling through will produce
meaningful results.
IBM Cognos Analytics does not support conformed dimensions generated by IBM
Cognos Framework Manager for SAP BW data sources.
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Dimensionally modeled Relational Data Sources
Ensure that each level contains a business key that has values that match your
PowerCube or other DMR models. Also, you must also ensure that the Root
Business Key property is set and uses the business key of the first level in the
hierarchy. This helps to ensure that you have a conformed member unique name
when attempting to drill through using members from this dimension.
Related concepts:
“Data Does Not Appear in a Target Report or the Wrong Data Appears” on page
418
If no data appears when you drill through to a target report or if the wrong data
appears, the problem might be data source conformance. The business keys might
be different or might be mismatched.
Related tasks:
“Unexpected or Empty Results When Drilling Through” on page 424
When you drill from a source report to a target report, there might be no data
returned. This might be the correct result if there is no data that corresponds to the
drill-through selections or if you do not have permission to view the data.
Business keys
When drill-through access is defined from a member to a relational value, the
business key of the member is passed by default.
This means that your relational target parameter must be set up using the data
item with a matching value, which is most often the business key data item. You
can also choose to pass the caption of the source metadata item.
For example, employees are usually uniquely identified by an employee number,
not by their name, because their name is not necessarily unique. When you drill
through from a dimensional member to a relational data item, the value provided
is the business key. Therefore, the parameter in the target report must be defined
to accept a business key value. The exact logic used to define the business key
value supplied depends on the cube vendor. For IBM Cognos PowerCubes, the
business key value is the Source property defined for the level in IBM Cognos
Transformer. IBM Cognos Series 7 Transformer PowerCubes pass the source value
if the drill-through flag was enabled before the cube was built. Otherwise, the
category code is used.
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, you can determine what the member
business key is using an expression such as roleValue(’_businessKey’,[Camping
Equipment]). This expression is case-sensitive.
SSAS 2005 multipart business keys are not supported in drill-through operations.
Tip: When other users run your drill-through report, you may not want them to
be prompted for a business key. In Reporting, you can build a prompt page with a
text that is familiar to the users, but filters on the business key. Your IBM Cognos
Framework Manager modeler can also set the Display Item Reference option for
the Prompt Info property to use the business key when the data item is used in a
prompt.
Related concepts:
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“Data Does Not Appear in a Target Report or the Wrong Data Appears” on page
418
If no data appears when you drill through to a target report or if the wrong data
appears, the problem might be data source conformance. The business keys might
be different or might be mismatched.
Related tasks:
“Unexpected or Empty Results When Drilling Through” on page 424
When you drill from a source report to a target report, there might be no data
returned. This might be the correct result if there is no data that corresponds to the
drill-through selections or if you do not have permission to view the data.
Scope
Scope is specific to drill-through definitions created using drill-through definitions
(package drill-through definitions). The scope you set defines when the target
report is shown to the users, based on the items they have in the source report.
Usually, you define the scope of a drill-through path to match a parameter that it
passes. For example, if a target report contains a list of employees, typically you
want to display the report as an available drill-through choice only when a user is
viewing employee names in a source report. If employee names are not in the
source report and the scope was set on the employee name in the drill-through
definition, the employee report does not appear on the list of available
drill-through target reports in the Go To page. You can set the scope to a measure
or to an item in the report.
In report-based drill-through access, where the drill-through path is associated
with a specific report column, the column serves as the scope.
Mapped parameters
Drill-through targets may contain existing parameters or you can add parameters
to the target for greater control over the drill-through link.
You usually map all parameters in a drill-through target to items from the source.
When you map source items that are OLAP or DMR members to target
parameters, you can select from a set of related member properties to satisfy the
requirements of the target parameter. For a dimensional target, a dimensional
source item uses the member unique name by default. For a relational target, a
dimensional source item uses the business key by default.
For example, you could change the source member property that is used for a
mapping to the member caption instead of the business key to match the
parameter in a relational target. For a dimensional target, you could define a
parameter that accepts a particular property (such as business key or parent
unique name), then pass the appropriate source property to satisfy that target.
Note: If you define drill through between non-conformed dimensions, you should
test carefully to ensure that the results behave as expected.
If you do not specify parameter mappings, then by default, you will be prompted
for any parameters required in the target when you use the drill-through link. To
customize this behavior, use the display prompt pages setting.
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When the action is set to Run the report using dynamic filtering, then additional
filtering is applied if names from the context in the source report match names of
items in the target. Use this action as well when there are no parameters defined in
the target.
If parameters are not mapped correctly, then you may receive an empty report, the
wrong results, or an error message.
The source and target cannot contain identical parameter names when they are
from different packages, even if the data structure is conformed. If the source and
target are from the same package, there is no restriction.
If you have the necessary permissions, you can use the drill-through assistant to
look at what source parameters are passed, and what target parameters are
mapped for a given drill-through link.
You can change the dynamic drill-through filter behavior if you want drill-through
to generate a filter using the Member Business Key instead of the default Member
Caption. For more information, see Changing Drill-Through Filter Behavior in the
IBM Cognos Administration and Security Guide.
Drilling through on dates between PowerCubes and relational
packages
The usual method of drilling through from OLAP to relational packages requires
that the target report parameter is set using the business key in the relational data,
which does not work well for dates.
OLAP data sources typically view dates as members, such as Quarter 1 2012, while
relational data sources view dates as ranges, such as 1/Jan/2012 to
31/March/2012.
A special feature exists for drilling through between PowerCubes and relational
packages. Ensure that the target report parameter is set up using in_range. The
parameter must be of type date-time, and not integer.
An example follows:
[gosales_goretailers].[Orders].[Order date] in_range ?Date?
Also ensure that the drill-through definition maps the parameter at the dimension
level and that the PowerCube date level is not set to suppress blank categories.
Enabling the option to suppress blank categories in the Transformer model before
you build the cube may cause the drill-through on dates to be unsuccessful. This
happens because there are missing values in the range.
Set up drill-through access in a report
Set up drill-through access in a source report to link two reports containing related
information.
You can then access related or more detailed information in one report (the target)
by selecting one or more data item values from another report (the source). IBM
Cognos passes values from the source to the target and uses the passed values to
filter the target object. If the data in the source and target is conformed or if the
data item names are the same, then the system may map the source values to filter
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the target (dynamic drill-through). If you require greater control, you may define
parameters in the target object (parameterized drill-through).
For instructions about creating parameters in other kinds of targets, see the IBM
Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
When you define the drill-through path in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, you
can pass a value from a different data item that is hidden from the user for display
purposes but still in the query. For example, users see the Product Name data item
and can drill through on that item, but the drill-through definition passes the
Product Number value for the product name the user chose. You can also define
the target parameter to accept multiple values or a range of values from the data
item in the drill-through source report or to accept a value from a parameter in the
source report.
Drill-through definitions that have been authored inside a Reporting report appear
in the source report as blue underlined links. Users click the hyperlink to select the
value they want passed to the target and to drill through to the target report. If a
user selects multiple items within a single column then when the drill-through
target report is run, the values from each selected row are passed to the target
parameters. This occurs as an and condition.
You can also drill through within the same report by creating bookmarks. As well,
you can create drill-through definitions in the source package instead of the
Reporting report. Users can use package drill-through definitions to navigate to a
target report from an IBM Cognos Analysis Studio analysis, an IBM Cognos Query
Studio report, an IBM Cognos PowerPlay Studio report or IBM Cognos PowerCube
package, or a Reporting report. For more information, see the Administration and
Security Guide.
If you have the IBM Cognos Software Development Kit, you can use URLs to set
up drill-through access to and from third-party sources.
You can also drill through from a map.
Create a parameter in the target
Set up drill-through access in a source report to link two reports containing related
information. You can then access related or more detailed information in one report
(the target) by selecting one or more data item values from another report (the
source).
If you are using an SAP BW data source for the target report and the target report
contains a variable for a hierarchy node, values from the source report can be
values only of the data item representing the leaf-level identifier of the hierarchy.
Before you begin
Before you begin, ensure that you have a report that will serve as the source report
and another report that will serve as the target report.
Procedure
1. In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, open the target report.
2. Create a parameter that will serve as the drill-through column or that will filter
the report.
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For example, to drill through or filter Product line, create the following
parameter:
[Product line]=?prodline_p?
Tip: Use the operators in or in_range to enable the target report to accept
multiple values or a range of values.
3. In the Usage box, specify what to do when a value for the target parameter is
not passed as part of a drill through:
v To specify that users must select a value, click Required.
If a value for the target parameter is not passed, users are prompted to
choose a value.
v To specify that users do not need to select a value, click Optional.
Users are not prompted to choose a value and so the value is unfiltered.
v To specify not to use the parameter, click Disabled.
The parameter is not used during the drill-through. It will also not be used
in the report for any other purposes.
Tip: If the parameter is needed in the report for other reasons, then you can
also specify not to use it in the drill-through definition (Parameters table,
Method, Do not use parameter).
Create a drill-through definition
Create a drill-through definition to link two reports containing related information
(the source report and the target report).
Drill-through definitions that have been authored inside an IBM Cognos Analytics
- Reporting report appear in the source report as blue underlined links. Users click
the hyperlink to select the value they want passed to the target and to drill
through to the target report. If a user selects multiple items within a single column
then when the drill-through target report is run, the values from each selected row
are passed to the target parameters. This occurs as an and condition.
Before you begin
Before you begin, ensure that you have a report that will serve as the source report
and another report that will serve as the target report.
Procedure
1. Check the drill-through target:
v Confirm that the drill-through users have access to the target.
v If necessary, check what parameters exist in the target.
2. Open the source report.
3. Click the element in the report that will serve as the starting point for the
drill-through link.
You can select a data item that your report users are likely to choose to drill
on for more detailed information, such as an Employee Name data item.
Tip: If you are passing only parameter values to the target report, you do not
have to drill on a data item. Instead, you can drill on any object in the report,
such as the report title. Therefore, you can drill from outside the context of a
query.
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4. Click the Show properties icon
, in the DATA section, double-click the
Drill-through definitions property.
5. Click the Add icon
.
A drill-through definition is created.
Tip: To change the drill-through name, click the rename button, type the new
name, and click OK.
6. On the Target report tab, click the ellipsis button next to the Report box and
select the drill-through target report.
7. In the Action box, decide how users will view the target report when they
click the drill-through link in the parent report:
v To view the latest data in IBM Cognos Viewer, select Run the report.
v To edit an IBM Cognos Query Studio, IBM Cognos Analysis Studio, or IBM
Cognos PowerPlay Studio target, select Edit the report.
v To have IBM Cognos Analytics match values from the selection context with
data in the target (dynamic filtering), select Run the report using dynamic
filtering.
Note: If you chose this option, any parameters in the target report are still
used for the drill-through access.
v To view the most recently saved output version of the target report from
the IBM Cognos Analytics portal, select View the most recent report.
v To use the default action specified for the report in the IBM Cognos
Analytics portal, select (Default).
8. If the target report contains parameters, then, under the Parameters box, click
the edit button.
Each required and optional parameter defined in the target report appears in
the Parameters dialog box.
9. For each parameter, specify the Method of treatment:
v To specify not to pass any value, click (Default).
v To specify not to use this parameter, click Do not use parameter.
The target report will not be filtered by this parameter.
v To pass values from a data item, click Pass data item value, click Value,
and then click the data item.
Values for the selected data item are passed to the target report.
v To pass values from a source report parameter, click Pass parameter value,
click Value, and then click the parameter.
Values for the selected parameter are passed to the target report.
v If you choose to pass parameters, and the source report is based on a
dimensional package, then click an item from the drop-down list in the
Source metadata item properties column. You can pass the default property
of the source metadata item (business key) or another property, such as the
member caption.
10. Click OK.
11. If you chose to run the target report, in the Format box, click the output
format for your report.
Tip: Click (Default) to run the report using the default format specified for
the report in the IBM Cognos Analytics portal.
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12. To open the target report in a new window, select the Open in new window
check box.
13. In the Display prompt pages box, choose how to display prompt pages:
v To always display prompt pages when the drill-through action occurs
regardless of whether values were specified for the required parameter
values, click Always.
v To use the prompt settings of the target report (specified by the Prompt for
Values check box in the IBM Cognos Analytics portal, Report Properties,
Report tab) to determine whether to show the prompt pages, click Based
on the default prompt settings of the target report.
Tip: If you leave the Prompt for values check box selected (the default)
and run a report that contains the same parameter name that appears in
your My parameters panel, you are not prompted to provide a value for
the parameter. The system automatically uses the default values that were
set for the user’s role. Even if the parameter on the report is optional, the
default value for the global parameter is passed.
v To not display prompt pages when the required parameter values are
provided by the drill-through definition, click Only when required
parameter values are missing. This is the default setting.
Results
The drill-through text appears as a blue hyperlink in text items in the non-chart
areas of the report. Report consumers can also start the drill-through action by
clicking the Go To button or by right-clicking the item and clicking Go To, Related
links. If you have the necessary permissions, you can view which parameters were
passed from the source and how they are mapped in the target object from the Go
To page using the drill-through assistant.
For more information, see the Administration and Security Guide.
Defining independent drill-through definitions for crosstabs
By default, you can create only one drill-through definition for fact cells in a
crosstab, regardless of how many facts there are. This topic describes how to define
different drill-through definitions for different measures in crosstab fact cells.
For example, a crosstab has Quantity and Revenue as measures. For the Quantity
cells, you want to define a drill-through definition to a target report that contains
more information about quantities sold. For the Revenue cells, you want to define
a drill-through definition to a different target report that shows details about
revenue generated.
Procedure
1. Open the source report.
2. Click the More icon
and then click the Locked icon
.
3. In the crosstab, click the white space inside one of the fact cells of the measure
for which you want to define a drill-through definition.
Do not click the measure text. You want to select the crosstab intersection and
not the text item. In the Properties pane title bar, ensure that Crosstab
intersection appears.
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4. In the Properties pane, set the Define contents property to Yes. The text item
in the crosstab intersection disappears.
5. Click the Data icon
and then click the Data items tab
.
6. From the crosstab query, drag the measure that disappeared in step 4 to the
empty crosstab intersection.
7. Click the measure in the crosstab intersection and then, in the Properties pane,
click Drill-through definitions.
8. Create the drill-through definition.
Results
A drill-through definition is defined for the selected measure. Repeat the steps to
define different drill-through definitions for other measures in the crosstab. When
users run the report, clicking values from different measures takes them to a
different target report.
Specify the drill-through text
You can specify the drill-through text that appears when users can drill through to
more than one target.
For example, if users from different regions view the report, you can show text in a
different language for each region.
Procedure
1. Click the drill-through object and then, from the Properties pane, click
Drill-through definitions.
2. If more than one drill-through definition exists for the object, in the
Drill-through definitions box, click a drill-through definition.
3. Click the Label tab.
4. To link the label to a condition, in the Condition box, do the following:
v Click Variable and click an existing variable or create a new one.
v Click Value and click one of the possible values for the variable.
5. In the Source type box, click the source type to use.
6. If the source type is Text, click the ellipsis button that corresponds to the Text
box and type text.
7. If the source type is Data item value or Data item label, click Data Item and
click a data item.
8. If the source type is Report expression, click the ellipsis button that
corresponds to the Report expression box and define the expression.
9. If the label is linked to a condition, repeat steps 5 to 8 for the remaining
possible values.
Results
When users run the source report and click a drill-through link, the Go to page
appears. The drill-through text you specified appears for each target. If you did not
specify the drill-through text for a target, the drill-through name is used.
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Chapter 19. Working with multiple pages
Divide a report into multiple pages and add navigation elements to make it easier
to use.
Note: The pages that you see in the Pages icon
differ from physical, printed
pages. For example, if you create page breaks in a long report, the Pages icon
could show only one page, but your report could include several physical pages
when you print it.
Add a page to a report
Add pages to create a multiple-page report.
About this task
Reports may contain pages with a variety of content. For example, you are creating
a sales report and you want to include general information about the company.
You decide to create an introduction page to show this information. When you run
the report, page 1 of the report is the introduction page and the following pages
contain data
Tip: The TOC Report sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (query) package
includes multiple pages.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
and click Report pages.
Tip: Click Prompt pages to add a prompt page.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag Page to the work area.
3. To change the order of pages, drag pages above or below other pages.
4. To associate a query to the page, in the Properties pane, set the Query property
to the query.
Associate the page to a query to add data-related objects directly to the page
header, body, or footer, such as data items and filters.
5. Double-click the page to open it in page design view.
6. Add objects to the page.
Page breaks, page sets, and page layers
You can create simple page breaks, advanced page sets, or page layers to associate
pages with a query structure to force page breaks.
For example, a query contains the data item Product line, which is grouped.
Creating a page set that is associated with this query adds page breaks for each
product line. When working with dimensional data, you can use the Page layers
area to show values on a separate page for each member.
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When you are working with dimensional data, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting
does not support page breaks or page sets that are based on custom groups.
Tip: The Global Bonus Report sample report in the GO Data Warehouse (analysis)
package includes page sets.
Reports in Excel 2007 format
When you produce reports in Excel 2007 format, you can configure IBM Cognos
Analytics to dynamically name the Excel worksheet tabs, based on the data items
that are used to break pages. For example, you specify to break pages by Product
line. In Excel 2007 output, the five worksheet tabs that are generated are named
Camping Equipment, Mountaineering Equipment, Personal Accessories, Outdoor
Protection, and Golf Equipment. To dynamically name Excel worksheet tabs, ask
your administrator to add the RSVP.EXCEL.PAGEGROUP_WSNAME_ITEMVALUE
advanced setting to the report service. For more information, see the IBM Cognos
Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
If a report contains two page sets that use the same grouping data item, the suffix
_<number> is appended to the Excel tabs. For example, a report contains two page
sets that use Product line as the grouping item. In the Excel output, worksheet tabs
are named Camping Equipment_1, Golf Equipment_1, Camping Equipment_2, and
so on. Similarly, page set header and footer pages are named Camping Equipment,
Camping Equipment_2, Camping Equipment_3, and so on.
If a report contains nested page sets, worksheet tab names are a concatenation of
the nested items separated by commas. For example, a report contains a page set
with Product line as the grouping item. The page set has a nested page set that
uses Product type as the grouping item. Examples of worksheet tab names that are
generated are Camping Equipment,Cooking Gear and Camping
Equipment,Lanterns.
Note: In Excel, tab names cannot exceed 30 characters. Tab names with more than
30 characters are truncated. If truncated tab names produces duplicate names, the
prefix s_<worksheet indexing> is added to the names. For example, multiple pages
are named Camping Equipment,Cooking Gear. The first tab name is Camping
Equipment,Cooking Gea. The second tab name is s_22Camping
Equipment,Cooking.
Creating page breaks
Create page breaks in a report by adding page sets.
About this task
Page sets define sets of pages within a report. You customize the grouping and
sorting of each page set to produce the results that you want.
You cannot create page sets if you set the option to show report pages as tabs in
HTML output (Show properties > View pages as tabs).
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
, and click Report pages.
2. Create the report pages.
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3. Click the Toolbox icon
pane.
and drag the Page set object to the Report pages
4. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, set the Query
property to the query that you want to associate with the page set.
Tip: You can also create a page set and associate it to a query by clicking the
Data icon
, right-clicking a query and clicking Insert.
5. Organize the pages in the report by dragging report pages to the page set.
6. Insert the page containing details in the Detail Pages folder.
Detail pages are the pages that repeat based on the items by which you group
in the following step.
Tip: You can insert multiple detail pages into the same page set and link them
using a master detail relationship.
7. Define the grouping structure for the page set:
v Click the page set.
v In the Properties pane, double-click the Grouping & sorting property.
v In the Data items pane, drag the data item by which to group data items to
the Groups folder in the Groups pane.
v To sort the data within each group, in the Data items pane, drag the data
item by which to sort to the Detail Sort List folder, and then click the sort
order button
to specify the sort order. For more information about
sorting data, see “Sorting Relational Data” on page 195 or “Sorting
Dimensional Data” on page 238.
Note: Grouping an item for a page set is not the same as grouping a column in
the layout. Grouping a column in the layout visually shows groups in a report.
Grouping an item for a page set groups the item in the query. If you want to
use an item that is already grouped in the layout, you must still perform step 7.
8. Repeat steps 3 to 7 to create other page sets.
Tip: You can nest page sets and join them by defining a master detail
relationship. Create nested page sets to have pages occur within other pages.
For example, you want pages containing product type information to occur
within pages containing product line information.
Join nested page sets
If you have nested page sets in your report, define a master detail relationship
between them to see data in the nested page set that is related to the data in the
parent page set.
For example, you have a page set that shows pages of product line information.
The page set contains a nested page set that shows pages of product type
information. For each product line page, you want to see the related product type
pages, as shown in the following example:
Product line_1
v Product type_1
v Product type_2
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v Product type_3
Product line_2
v Product type_4
v Product type_5
v Product type_6
For more information about master detail relationships, see “Create a Master Detail
Relationship” on page 248.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
and click Report pages.
2. In the Report pages pane, click the nested page set.
3. In the Properties pane, double-click the Master detail relationships property.
4. Click the New Link button.
5. In the Master Query box, click the data item that provides the primary
information.
6. Link the master data item to the details by doing one of the following:
v To link to another data item in the detail query, in the Detail Query box,
click the data item that provides the detailed information.
v To link to a parameter, in the Parameters box, click the parameter that
provides the detailed information.
7. Repeat steps 4 to 6 to create other links.
Tip: To delete a link, select it and press the Delete key.
Create page layers
When working with dimensional data, you can create page layers in a report to
show values for each member on a separate page. For example, your report
contains payroll information for the entire company. You want to view values for
each department on a separate page.
After you create page layers, a caption appears in the header to indicate the
contents of each page. You can navigate between the different pages using links
below the report.
Creating page layers is similar to filtering using context. However, with context
filters, values are filtered according to the member you add to the Context filter
area. With page layers, the report is split into a separate page for each child of the
member you add to the Page layers area.
To create more complex page layers in your reports, such as a report book with
title and end pages, create page sets.
Procedure
1. In the source tree, select or search for one or more items on which to filter.
2. Drag the item into the Page layers section of the overview area.
The crosstab shows the results for the children of the selected item on separate
pages, and a list appears under Page layers.
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Tip: To navigate between pages, click Page down and Page up below the
report.
3. To replace the page breaks with items from the same dimension, select an item
from the list. To delete the page breaks, from the list, click Delete. To delete all
the page breaks, right-click the Page layers area and click Delete All.
Add a bookmark
Add a bookmark so that users can quickly move from one part of a report to
another. For example, a list report contains many rows of data. You add
bookmarks so that users can move to specific rows.
You can also drill through to another report.
If you want to use page numbers to move from one part of a report to another,
you can also create a table of contents.
Bookmarks work for reports produced in HTML format or PDF. In HTML format,
they work best when viewing saved report outputs, as the entire report appears in
a single HTML page. When reports are run interactively, more than one HTML
page may be generated, and a bookmark works only if the target exists in the page
currently being viewed.
If you run a saved report using a URL, and you specify a bookmark within the
URL, you always go to the first page of the report. The bookmark defined in the
URL is not honored. For more information about using URLs to run reports, see
the Administration and Security Guide.
Tip: You can reduce the number of HTML pages generated when a report is run
interactively by specifying a value for the Rows per page property for a data
container in the report.
Tip: The Briefing Book sample report in the GO Sales (analysis) package includes
bookmarks.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag a Bookmark
object to the report.
2. Click the bookmark and, in the Properties pane, set the Source type property
to a source type.
Source type
Description
Text
Creates a static bookmark using a text value.
For example, a list has sections and you
want users to jump from each section to the
top of the report.
Report expression
Creates a dynamic bookmark whose values
are derived from an expression that you
define.
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Source type
Description
Data item value
Creates a dynamic bookmark that has data
as possible values. This is useful for creating
a context-based bookmark.
For example, a list has sections and you
want users to jump from the top of the
report to a specific section.
Note: This source type appears only if the
bookmark is inserted next to a data item.
Creates a bookmark that has the label of a
data item as its value. Use this source type
to jump to the first occurrence of a data item
label.
Data item label
For example, a list is divided into sections
using Product line. You want users to jump
to the first product line section that appears
in the list rather than to a specific section,
such as Camping Equipment.
Note: This source type appears only if the
bookmark is inserted next to a data item.
Member caption
In a crosstab, creates a dynamic bookmark
that uses member captions as possible
values.
Cell value
In a crosstab, creates a dynamic bookmark
that uses cell values as possible values.
3. Set the property that appears under the source type you chose to the bookmark
value.
For example, if the source type is Data item value, set the Data item value
property to the data item.
4. Click the object that will jump to the bookmark, from the report object toolbar,
click the More icon
, and then click Drill-Through Definitions.
For example, click a data item, image, chart, or text item.
Tip: The object can exist in a different report, so you can jump from one report
to another.
5. Click the New Drill-Through Definition icon
.
6. Click the Bookmark tab.
7. Click Source type and click one of the source types described in step 3.
Click the source type to use to produce the value needed to jump to the
bookmark. For example, click Data item value if you want the value to come
from a data item such as Product line.
8. If you clicked one of the following source types, specify the value to use to
jump to the bookmark.
v For Text, click the ellipsis button next to Text and type a text value.
v For Data item value or Data item label, in the Data item list, choose a data
item.
v For Report expression, click the ellipsis button next to Report expression
and define the expression.
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Create a table of contents
You can create a table of contents that appears in the rendered output of your
report. A table of contents is useful for reports that include sectioned items,
grouped items, or multiple pages in the layout. The report output indicates page
numbers and allows for easy navigation.
You can include multiple tables of contents in your report, which are useful if your
report contains grouped lists. You can also add section numbers in front of entries
in the table of contents by modifying the heading level property.
Table of contents entries are logical markers placed anywhere in a report. For
example, you can place entries at the top of a page or in a list group header to
mark each grouped data value. Although table of contents entries are visible in
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, they cannot be seen when a report is run.
A table of contents works only for reports produced in PDF or non-interactive
HTML format. In HTML format, they work best when viewing saved report
outputs, as the entire report appears in a single HTML page. When reports are run
interactively, more than one HTML page may be generated, and a table of contents
works only if the target exists in the page currently being viewed.
Tip: You can reduce the number of HTML pages generated when a report is run
interactively by specifying a value for the Rows per page property for a data
container in the report.
If you want to quickly move from one part of a report to another without using
page numbers, you can add bookmarks.
Tip: The Briefing Book sample report in the GO Sales (analysis) package includes a
table of contents.
Before you begin
You must first create a table of contents before adding entries in the report. All
entries must be inserted after the table of contents in the report layout.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag the Table of contents object to the new
location, which can be anywhere in the report.
A table of contents placeholder appears.
2. Drag the Table of contents entry object to the location of your first table of
contents marker.
The new entry appears in the table of contents.
3. Double-click the Double-click to edit text box of the new marker.
4. In the Text box, type the text to appear in the table of contents and click OK.
5. To edit the heading level of a table of contents entry, click the entry and, in the
Properties pane, set the Heading level property to the level.
The heading level is used to insert section numbers in front of entries in the
table of contents using layout calculations.
6. When you finish creating the table of contents, run the report. By clicking the
arrow to the right of the run report button, you can specify whether to run the
report as HTML or PDF.
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Insert page numbers in a report
You can insert page numbers in a report and specify the number style to use.
You can select a predefined page numbering scheme or create a custom scheme.
You can easily insert page numbers using the Page number object.
You can also manually create an expression to insert page numbers by inserting a
layout calculation and using the different page report functions in the expression
editor.
Procedure
1. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag Page number to the report.
Tip: When you create a new report using one of the existing report layouts,
Page number is already inserted in the page footer.
2. Double-click the page number symbol and choose the style to use.
The first three choices apply only to vertical page numbers. The remaining
choices specify how vertical and horizontal page values appear.
Note: The 1 of 3 number style works only for reports produced in PDF or
non-interactive HTML format. In HTML format, the 1 of 3 number style works
when viewing saved report outputs, as the entire report appears in a single
HTML page.
3. If you want to customize the choice that you made in the previous step, click
the edit button
, make your changes, and click OK.
A custom number style is created. If you later choose a different number style,
the custom style is removed from the list.
Tip: In the Custom number style dialog box, when you pause the pointer over
a box, a tooltip describes how that box affects page numbers. For example, the
Separator box contains the text, such as a hyphen, that separates page values
for both vertical and horizontal pages.
Control page breaks and page numbering
You can control page breaks and page numbering in a list, crosstab, table, or report
page by choosing any of these options.
The options that are available depend on which object you have selected. All the
options for all the objects are described in the following table.
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Option
Description
Keep with header
Keeps all headers on the same page with the
number of detail rows specified.
Keep with footer
Keeps all footers on the same page with the
number of detail rows specified.
Keep with previous
Keeps the object with the specified number
of preceding objects on the same page, if
space permits.
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Option
Description
Keep with next
Keeps the object with the specified number
of subsequent objects on the same page, if
space permits.
Reset page count
Resets the page count after a page break to
the value specified.
Reset page number
Resets the page number after a page break
to the value specified.
Repeat every page
If the report renders multiple pages, this
object is repeated on every page.
Allow contents to break across pages
Allows contents to break across pages. In
lists and crosstabs, controls whether a cell is
broken across pages, which is useful when
there is a lot of text.
Allow horizontal pagination
In PDF output, allows the columns of a list
or crosstab to break across horizontal pages
if they do not fit on a single page.
Tip: In lists, you can select the Repeat every
page option for list columns that show on
every horizontal page.
If the Allow horizontal pagination option is
not selected, the size of the list or crosstab is
scaled down when necessary so that it fits
on a single page.
Tip: The Horizontal Pagination sample
report in the GO Sales (analysis) package
includes horizontal pagination.
If your report includes nested data frames
such as a list within a list, horizontal
pagination is supported on either the parent
or child frame, but not both. If horizontal
pagination is enabled on both the parent and
child frame, it will be ignored on the child
frame when the report runs. We recommend
that you do not enable horizontal pagination
on both the parent and child frames.
Horizontal pagination is not supported for
data containers, such as a list or crosstab,
that are nested in repeater tables.
You can also specify page number options
that use compound numbering schemes. For
example, you can use the numbering scheme
1-1, 1-2, 2-1, 2-2, and so on. For more
information, see “Insert page numbers in a
report” on page 386.
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Option
Description
Enable horizontal page numbering
Increments page numbers of horizontal
pages separately from the main page
numbers when you select a page numbering
style that includes horizontal pages. For
example, if a page has three page breaks
horizontally and you selected the page
number style 1a, the horizontal pages are
numbered 1a, 1b, and 1c. If you did not
select a numbering style that includes
horizontal pages, the horizontal pages are all
numbered 1 for the first vertical page, 2 for
the second vertical page, and so on.
If this option is not selected and there are
horizontal pages, all pages are numbered
sequentially. For example, if a report has
two vertical pages and three horizontal
pages, the PDF pages are numbered from 1
to 6. Pages 1 to 3 are the three horizontal
pages for the first vertical page and pages 4
to 6 are the three horizontal pages for the
second vertical page.
Allow row contents to break across pages
In tables, allows the contents of a row to
break across pages. For example, if a row
contains four lines of text, the first two lines
from the row appear on the first page, and
the last two lines appear on the next page.
Repeat table rows on page break
In tables, if a row breaks across pages,
repeats the rows that were previously
rendered on each page. By default, table
rows are repeated.
Note: This option applies to saved reports
only. In interactive HTML reports, table
rows are always repeated even if this option
is not selected.
You can also specify the style to use for page numbers.
Procedure
1. Click an object.
2. In the Properties pane, double-click the Pagination property.
3. Specify the page break and numbering options.
Creating a report booklet
In an IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting report, you can add references to other
reports to create a report booklet. Each report reference represents a booklet item.
About this task
You can insert or move report references before and after pages and page sets.
However, you cannot add report references to a page set.
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You can copy a report reference and paste it in a valid area in the report. If you try
to paste a report reference in a page set, the report reference is added to the end of
the report.
You can create a table of contents entry for a report reference. When the table of
contents is generated, by default, the report name is used for the table of contents
entry. You can edit the entry by selecting it in the table of contents. If the report
name is changed, you must manually update the table of contents entry. If you
change the order of pages in the report, the table of contents is automatically
updated when it is generated.
You cannot add references to other reports if you set the option to show report
pages as tabs in HTML output (Show properties > View pages as tabs).
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
and click Report pages.
2. Click the Toolbox icon
, drag Report reference to the Report pages pane.
The Choose report window opens.
3. Locate the report that you want to add as a report reference and double-click it.
Tip: If you want to change the report reference, from the Properties pane,
double-click the Referenced report property and choose a different report.
4. Optional: Create a table of contents entry for the booklet item by modifying
properties in the Properties pane, in the Table of contents group.
a. Set the Table of contents entry property to Yes.
b. To roll up table of content entries for the booklet item into the report
booklet, set the Roll up table of contents property to Yes.
c. Specify the starting heading level for the booklet item by typing a value in
the Start heading level property. For example, if you specify 2, all table of
content entries for the booklet item have section numbers that start at 2.
5. To render prompt pages that exist in the booklet item when the report is run,
set the Show prompt pages property to Yes.
6. Specify how to handle saved parameter values that come from the booklet item
when the report is run by clicking one of the options in the Saved parameter
values property.
Parameter values include signon, validation, and prompt information, and they
are saved on the IBM Cognos server.
v If you do not want to use saved parameter values from the booklet item,
select Ignore.
v If you want to use saved parameter values from the booklet item, select
Merge.
When Merge is selected, parameter values that come from the booklet item
are merged with parameter values that come from the report. If the same
value exists for both the booklet item and the report, the booklet item value
is ignored.
Producing tabbed reports
When you produce reports in HTML format, you can show each report page as a
tab.
Chapter 19. Working with multiple pages
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About this task
Report page names are used to name each tab in the output.
The option to show pages as tabs is not supported when a report is used as a
report reference in a report booklet. This option is also not supported when a
report contains page sets. Page sets are created in a report when you add a page
set object, page layers, and page breaks.
In Excel output, each tab becomes a single sheet within the same workbook.
Procedure
1. Click the Show properties icon
, and go to the Report properties.
2. Click the View pages as tabs menu and select the location where you want the
tabs to appear in browsers.
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Chapter 20. Managing existing reports
After you have created a report, you can make changes or enhancements, such as
setting up the report for bursting.
Before you modify an existing report, ensure that you have the proper security
permissions. For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration
and Security Guide.
Copy a report to the clipboard
You can copy a report specification to the clipboard so you can open it from the
clipboard later.
This process is different for the Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox
Web browsers because the clipboard works differently in each Web browser.
Copy a report to the clipboard in Internet Explorer
This process is different for the Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox
Web browsers because the clipboard works differently in each Web browser.
Procedure
Click the Pages icon
or the Queries icon
then click Copy Report to Clipboard.
, right-click the Report icon
,
Copy a report to the clipboard in Firefox
This process is different for the Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox
Web browsers because the clipboard works differently in each Web browser.
Procedure
1. Click the Pages icon
or the Queries icon
, right-click the Report icon
, then click Copy Report to Clipboard..
2. In the Copy Report to Clipboard dialog box, copy the entire report
specification.
3. Open a text editor and paste the report specification.
4. Copy all the text from the text editor report specification.
Now the text is saved on your computer's clipboard.
Open a report from the Clipboard
You can open a report specification that was previously copied to the clipboard.
To copy a report to the clipboard, see “Copy a report to the clipboard.” This is
useful for importing an XML report specification from outside the IBM Cognos
Analytics environment.
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Although IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting attempts to validate the report
specification, it is your responsibility to ensure that it is correct. For more
information, see the IBM Cognos Software Developer Kit Developer Guide.
Procedure
Click the Pages icon
or the Queries icon
then click Open Report from Clipboard.
, right-click the Report icon
,
Open a file from another studio
You can open reports, templates, or analyses that were created in IBM Cognos
Query Studio or IBM Cognos Analysis Studio in IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting. All the capabilities of Reporting are available to you so you can change
formatting, layout, calculations, and queries.
Note: If you make and save changes to a Query Studio report or an Analysis
Studio analysis in Reporting, the report or analysis can no longer be opened in
Query Studio and Analysis Studio.
Procedure
1. To locate an item, from the Home page window, click Team content , My
content, or to search for an item by name, click Search and enter a name.
2. Double-click to open folders and then click the report, template, or analysis.
Analysis Studio query specification
IBM Cognos Analysis Studio defines each group of rows and columns as a set.
When you import an analysis into IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, the report
will have one query that processes all the sets found on the crosstab. Each set is
defined by data items that segment and summarize the base set definition. To
maintain reports converted from Cognos Analysis Studio, you must understand
what each of these items represents and how they relate to each other.
Before you modify any of the data items in the Cognos Analysis Studio set
definitions, we recommend that you fully understand each data item and its
dependencies. Modifying the data items may cause unpredictable results and may
slow the performance of your report.
The data items for a set specify the following:
v the set definition
v set segments, including which members were excluded and hidden individually
v filter rules for defining which members are to be retrieved
v calculations for Subtotal (N items), More & Hidden, Subtotal (included), Subtotal
(excluded), and the total
For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analysis Studio User Guide.
v which subtotals should appear
v any user-defined calculations
The default measure identifies which measure is the default for the crosstab or
chart. If no default measure is specified, the default measure may be empty.
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Set Definitions
The following table shows the definitions and dependencies for the data items in
the set definition.
Data item
Definition
Dependencies
<set name> (base)
Defines the set of members
to be used for sorting,
filtering, and summary
operations. This data item
provides a generic reference
for all other data items and
may reference one of the
other set definitions.
None
<set name> (level)
Identifies the level for a
level-based set.
None
<set name> (list)
Defines the list of members
in a selection-based set.
None
<set name> (depth N)
Defines the set of members
None
at N, number of levels down.
<set name> (named set)
References a predefined set.
None
Set Segments Definitions
The following table shows the definitions and dependencies for the data items in
the set segment definition.
Data item
Definition
Dependencies
<set definition> (hidden list)
Lists the members that are
manually hidden using the
Hide command in Cognos
Analysis Studio. This set
appears when you try to
unhide a member.
<set definition>
<set definition> (included set)
Lists the set of members after <set definition> (hidden list)
filters are applied and
hidden items are excluded,
but before the More limit is
applied. Sort or order
operations, if any, are
defined in this data item.
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Data item
Definition
Dependencies
<set definition> (visible items
set)
Limits the set to show the
<set definition> (included set)
number of members
according to the More limit
with a small tolerance. The
tolerance allows showing the
last two members if they are
all that remain in the More
portion of the set.
The choice of visible
members can be based on a
sort order.
<set definition> (excluded list) Identifies members that were <set definition>
manually excluded from the
analysis. If no members were
manually excluded, the
expression defines an
emptySet. This set appears
when you try to remove a
member from the Excluded
items list in the Properties
pane.
Filters
The following table shows the definitions and dependencies for the data items in
the filter.
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Data item
Definition
Dependencies
<set definition> (filter rules)
Specifies the user-defined
filter rules to reduce the set
definition using operators
such as greater than or less
than based on measures,
calculations, or attributes.
<set definition>
<set definition> (excluded
filters)
Removes members that were <set definition> (excluded
manually excluded from the list), <set definition> (filter
results after applying the
rules)
user-defined rules.
<set definition> (filter top
bottom)
Focuses on the members
<set definition> (excluded
based on top / bottom / first filters) and totals for sets on
n where n can be a count or the opposite axis
a percentile. For more
information about
Top/Bottom filters, see the
IBM Cognos Analysis Studio
User Guide.
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Data item
Definition
Dependencies
<set definition> (filter rules)
Specifies the user-defined
filter rules to reduce the set
definition using operators
such as greater than or less
than based on measures,
calculations, or attributes.
<set definition>
Subtotals and Related Conditions
The following table shows the definitions and dependencies for the data items in
the subtotals and related conditions.
Data item
Definition
Dependencies
<set definition> (subtotal)
Aggregates the visible items
in the set.
<set definition> (visible items
set)
<set definition> (subtotal
display)
Shows the subtotal if the
number of included items is
greater than the number of
visible items.
<set definition> (visible items
set), <set definition> (included
set), <set definition> (subtotal)
<set definition> (more and
hidden subtotal)
Calculates the More &
<set definition> (included set),
hidden subtotal by
<set definition> (visible items
subtracting the aggregation
set), <set definition>
of the included members
from the aggregation of those
members that were manually
hidden or hidden by
exceeding the maximum
display limit. Not available
for selection-based sets.
<set definition> (more and
hidden subtotal as set)
Converts the More & hidden <set definition> (more and
subtotal member to a set for hidden subtotal)
use in set operations.
<set definition> (more and
hidden subtotal as member)
Generically references the
More & hidden subtotal.
<set definition> (more and
hidden subtotal)
<set definition> (more and
hidden subtotal display)
Shows the More & hidden
subtotal if the number of
items hidden or clipped is
greater than zero.
<set definition> (more and
hidden subtotal)
<set definition> (included
subtotal)
Calculates the Subtotal
<set definition> (included set)
(included). For
selection-based sets, this data
item references the summary
data item for the set.
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Data item
Definition
Dependencies
<set definition> (included
subtotal display)
Shows the Subtotal
(included) if any members
passed the filter criteria.
<set definition> (included set)
<set definition> (excluded
subtotal)
Calculates the value for
Subtotal (excluded). This
data item is not available for
selection-based sets.
<set definition> (total), <set
definition> (included
subtotal), <set definition>
<set definition> (excluded
subtotal display)
Shows Subtotal (excluded) if <set definition> (excluded
the number of members in
subtotal), <set definition>
the filtered set is less than
the base set. This means that
the filter rule is filtering out
something.
<set definition> (total)
Identifies the total for the set. <set definition>
This value is calculated
directly from the data store.
The expression used to
calculate the summary
depends on the set type:
v Details-based set: The
selected member.
v Level-based and
depth-based sets: The root
member for the hierarchy.
v Selection-based set: The
aggregate, typically the
sum, of the selected
members.
Managing changes in the package
If changes were made to the package that was used to create a report, the report
must be updated.
When you open a report, IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting automatically checks
to see if the package has changed. If it has, a message appears indicating that the
report will be updated to the latest version of the package. However, you may
need to make additional changes to the report if
v the namespace name or query subject and data item names in the package have
changed
v the name of the package has changed
Update a name reference
If the namespace name or query subject and data item names in the package have
changed, you must update reports that were created with the package to reflect the
change.
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The names of data items in a report are a concatenation of the namespace name,
the query subject name, and the data item name. For example, if you add Order
number from the GO Data Warehouse (query) sample package to a filter
expression, you will see [Sales (query)].[Sales order].[Order number] in the
expression. Similarly, package filter names are a concatenation of the namespace
name and the filter name.
Procedure
1. To update a data item name reference:
v Click the data item.
v In the Properties pane, double-click the Expression property.
v In the Expression Definition box, update the data item name reference.
2. To update a package filter name reference:
v From the report object toolbar, click Filters
.
v Double-click the package filter.
v In the Expression Definition box, update the namespace name.
Changing the package
If the name of the package that was used to create a report has changed, you must
change the package connection to update the report.
Procedure
1. Click the Data icon
.
2. Click the Add report data icon
.
3. From the Open window, choose the new package.
4. Click Open.
The new package is loaded and the report is validated. If errors are found, the
Validation response window appears, showing the elements that must be
updated to reflect the package change.
5. Click Close.
6. Make any required changes in the report to support the new package.
For example, you may need to link the data items in the report to the new
package.
Tip: You can use Query explorer to make the changes.
Related tasks:
“Adding data” on page 19
Add data to a report by loading packages or data modules in IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting.
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Appendix A. Troubleshooting
This appendix describes some common problems you may encounter.
For more solutions, see the troubleshooting topics on IBM Knowledge Center.
Problems Creating Reports
The topics in this section document problems you may encounter when creating
reports.
Division by Zero Operation Appears Differently in Lists and
Crosstabs
If you have a list that accesses a relational data source, a calculation containing a
division by zero operation appears as a null value, such as an empty cell. In a
crosstab, the division by zero operation appears as /0.
This happens when the query property Avoid division by zero is set to Yes, which
is the default.
To have a consistent display of null values in lists and crosstabs, define an
if-then-else statement in the expression in the crosstab cell that changes the value
/0 to the value null.
Application error appears when upgrading a report
When upgrading a report, the following error appears if the report contains data
items in the page layout that are not in a data container:
RSV-SRV-0040 An application error has occurred. Please contact your Administrator.
This error occurs when IBM Cognos Analytics cannot determine the query
reference for a data item. Such data items are identified by a red circle with a
white x icon.
To correct the error, drag the data items into a container. If the container is a list,
we recommend that you drag the data items into the list page header or footer, or
the overall header or footer. If you want to see the first row of the item on each
page or in the overall report, drag the item to the list page header or overall
header. If you want to see the item's last row on each page or in the overall report,
drag the item to the list page footer or overall footer.
Tip: If a header or footer does not exist, create it.
Nested List Report Containing a Data Item That is Grouped
More Than Once Does Not Run After Upgrade
When you upgrade a nested list report that contains a data item that is grouped in
both lists, the report does not run.
The following error occurs when the report is run against a dimensional data
source and both lists are using the same query. This error does not occur if the
report is run against a relational data source.
399
OP-ERR-0199: The query is not supported. The dimensions on the edge are inconsistent.
The dataItems from dimension="[Product line]" must be adjacent.
For example, you have a list that contains the grouped items Product line and
Product type and a nested list that contains the data items Year, Quarter, Product
line, and Unit sale price. Year, Quarter, and Product line are grouped items in the
nested list.
To resolve the issue, delete the data item that is grouped in both lists from the
inner list.
Procedure
1. Click anywhere in the report.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and In the Properties pane, click the
Select ancestor icon and click the List link that represents the inner list.
3. Double-click the Grouping & sorting property.
4. In the Groups pane, select the data item that you want and press the Delete
key.
Background Color in Template Does not Appear
When creating a Query Studio template in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, if
you add a list object and change its background color, the color change does not
appear when you apply the template to a Query Studio report.
To work around this issue, do one of the following:
v Edit the style sheet (CSS) classes for lists in Cognos Analytics - Reporting.
v Do not add any objects to the page body when you are creating a Query Studio
template.
v Leave the page body blank.
Subtotals in Grouped Lists
When using an IBM Cognos PowerCube that contains a ragged hierarchy, if you
group on the first level in the hierarchy, subtotals may appear in the wrong place
or show wrong values.
To resolve the issue, group on the second level.
Chart Labels Overwrite One Another
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting and Query Studio, if you define a chart and
render it in HTML or PDF format using the default sizes, the axis labels of the
chart may overwrite each other.
To avoid this problem, make the chart wider or taller by modifying the height and
width properties of the chart or enable the Allow skip property.
Chart Shows Only Every Second Label
You create a report that includes a chart. The Allow skip property is set to false,
but when you run the report, labels are skipped.
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This can occur if there is not enough room for all labels and the properties Allow
45° rotation, Allow 90° rotation, and Allow stagger are also set to false. IBM
Cognos Analytics has no options for making the labels fit, so it skips every second
label.
The solution is to select either Allow 45° rotation, Allow 90° rotation, or Allow
stagger.
Chart Gradient Backgrounds Appear Gray in Internet Explorer
In IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, you can define a custom palette for a chart
that includes a gradient. When the chart is rendered in HTML format in Microsoft
Internet Explorer, the chart background appears gray. This is an Internet Explorer
issue.
To avoid this problem, select the chart and define the color white as the chart
background.
For more information, see the Microsoft Knowledge Base article # 294714 at
http://support.microsoft.com.
Metadata Change in Oracle Essbase Not Reflected in Reports
and in the Studios
When there is a metadata change on the Oracle Essbase server, the change is not
immediately reflected in the metadata tree in the studios. In addition, when a
report is run, the report does not pick up the republished changes.
To view the new structure, you must restart the IBM Cognos Content Manager
server.
Relationships Not Maintained in a Report With Overlapping
Set Levels
In a report, the relationship between nested or parallel member sets at overlapping
levels in the same dimension may not always be maintained.
For example, a named set in the data source that contains members from both a
Year and Month member is nested under Year, but is not properly grouped by
year.
In another example, an error message such as this appears:
OP-ERR-0201 Values cannot be computed correctly in the presence of multiple hierarchies
([Product].[B1], [Product].[Product]) that each have a level based on the same attribute
(Product).
This problem occurs in the following scenarios involving non-measure data items
X and Y, which overlap in the same dimension:
v X and Y together as ungrouped report details
v Y nested under X
v Y appended as an attribute of a group based on X
When using named sets, or sets that cover more than one level of a hierarchy, do
not use sets from the same dimension in more than one place in the same report.
They should appear on only one level of one edge.
Appendix A. Troubleshooting
401
Summaries in Query Calculations Include Nulls with SAP BW
Data Sources
When using an SAP BW data source in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, null
values in the database are returned in the result set and the count summary
function includes the empty cells in the following scenarios:
v A query calculation includes an arithmetic calculation where one or more NULL
operands and an aggregation is performed on the calculation.
v The result of a query calculation is a constant, such as current_time and
current_date.
The count summary function should normally exclude null values.
To avoid this problem, for the first scenario, ensure that both operands do not
return null values. For example, the original expression is [num1]+[num2]. Instead,
use the following expression:
if ([num1] is null) then ( 0 ) else ([num1])
if ([num2] is null) then ( 0 ) else ([num2])
There is no workaround for the second scenario.
Creating Sections on Reports That Access SAP BW Data
Sources
SAP BW data sources may have problems with sections in reports under different
circumstances:
If a section in a report uses the lowest-level query item in a ragged hierarchy, such
as the children of the not assigned node, the following BAPI error may appear:
BAPI error occurred in function module BAPI_MDDATASET_SELECT_DATA. Value
<valueName> for characteristic <cubeName> unknown
Lowest-level Query Item in a Ragged Hierarchy
The solution is to remove the section from the lowest-level query item.
Several Multicubes with SAP Variables
The solution is to use one SAP multicube when creating sections in reports.
Related concepts:
“Tips for working with ragged or unbalanced hierarchies” on page 222
In ragged or unbalanced hierarchies, some members that are not at the lowest level
of the hierarchy may have no descendants at one or more lower levels. Support for
these hierarchy gaps in relational data sources is limited. More complete support is
provided for OLAP data sources, but some reports may still result in unexpected
behavior.
Error Characters (--) Appear in Reports
When you run a report, you see two dash (--) characters in your report instead of
values.
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These characters may appear if you use an OLAP data sources other than
PowerCube and Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS), and you
apply aggregation to calculations and measures that use rollups other than Sum
(Total), Maximum, Minimum, First, Last, and Count.
All other types of rollup either fail or return error cells, which typically display as
two dash characters (--).
This problem occurs in, but is not limited to, the following:
v footers
v aggregate function
v summary filters and detail filters that use a summary
v detail, summary, and context filters that select more than one member of a
hierarchy that is used elsewhere on the report
If you are working with a SSAS 2005 data source, these characters may also appear
in summary cells if you use an OR filter in the summary. To avoid this problem,
do not use OR filters in summaries.
Columns, Rows, or Data Disappear With SSAS 2005 Cubes
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) has a feature called AutoExists
that removes tuples that have no facts at the intersection of two hierarchies of the
same dimension.
Columns, rows, or data can disappear if you set the default member of a hierarchy
to a member that does not exist with every other member in the dimension. To
avoid this problem, change the default member that caused the disappearance to a
member that exists with all other members in the dimension.
Columns, rows, or data can also disappear if members are specified that result in
one or more non-existent tuples. There is currently no workaround for this
scenario. For more information, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article #944527 at
http://support.microsoft.com.
You may also encounter unexpected results if the default member of a hierarchy is
a member that doesn't also exist in all other hierarchies in the dimension, and if
you query members from different hierarchies in the same dimension.
For example a crosstab includes the following (using the Adventure Works cube):
v Rows: Generate([Adventure_Works].[Account].[Accounts],set([Balance
Sheet],[Units])) nested with
children([Adventure_Works].[Department].[Departments]>:[YK].[[Department]].[Departments]].&[1]]])
v Column: [Adventure_Works].[Account].[Account Number].[Account Number]
v Measure: [Adventure_Works].[Measures].[Amount]
You run the report and notice that the query renders with some blanks cells. You
then apply the simple detail filter [Amount]>1 and run the report. Only row labels
are displayed and all data and columns are missing.
In the Adventure Works cube, the [Account].[Accounts] attribute has a default
member set to [Net Income]. When evaluating the GENERATE set expression,
SSAS looks in the entire cube space and looks at all coordinates for the [Account]
Appendix A. Troubleshooting
403
dimension. These coordinates include both [Account][Account Type].&[] and
[Account].[Accounts].[Net Income]. Because these two coordinates don't exist
within the same hierarchy, SSAS returns an empty set.
To avoid this problem the SSAS administrator must set the default member in the
cube to a member that exists in all other hierarchies.
Function Unreliable with Sets
If you create an expression that uses the descendants function with sets, you may
encounter unpredictable results. Some expected members may be missing or may
have blank captions or labels.
This problem occurs if the descendants function uses a set as its first parameter
instead of a single member and if the descendants function is nested under
another data item from the same hierarchy.
To avoid this problem, replace the first parameter in the descendants function with
the function currentmember(H), where H is the hierarchy of the desired set and
under which the expression is nested. For example, use
descendants(currentmember(H).
Searching for values might return unexpected results
In the expression editor, when searching for values for a data item, the results you
obtain might contain unexpected results if the data item is not a string data type.
Because you can edit the expression for a data item, IBM Cognos Analytics cannot
determine with certainty what the data type is.
Therefore, IBM Cognos Analytics guesses the data type of the data item by looking
at its aggregate and rollup aggregate set.
Related tasks:
“Browse or Search the Values of a Data Item” on page 193
When building expressions in the expression editor, you can browse the data of a
data item. This is useful when you do not know how a particular value is stored in
the database. For example, you want to filter a report so that it shows data for
only New South Wales. The actual value in the database for New South Wales is
NSW, and this is what you must insert in the filter expression to obtain the correct
results.
Report Differences Between TM1 Executive Viewer and IBM
Cognos Analytics with TM1 Data Sources
When using an IBM Cognos TM1 data source, comparable reports created in IBM
Cognos Analytics and in TM1 Executive Viewer may contain different cell values.
This occurs because the TM1 Executive Viewer product uses an algorithm for
selecting default members for non-projected dimensions that differs slightly from
traditional OLAP clients.
To avoid this problem, when filtering your reports in IBM Cognos Analytics, use
context filters that match the default selections shown in the Executive Viewer user
interface. This ensures that the cell values in IBM Cognos Analytics match the
values in Executive Viewer.
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Order of Metadata Tree Differs for TM1 Data Sources
When using a an IBM Cognos TM1 data source, the order of members in the
metadata tree of the Source tab in IBM Cognos Analytics may differ from the order
shown in TM1 Architect.
By default, TM1 Architect renders members of hierarchies using a slightly different
algorithm than does IBM Cognos Analytics. IBM Cognos Analytics automatically
renders member metadata from TM1 data sources in hierarchical order.
From within TM1 Architect, if you want to see how IBM Cognos Analytics will
render a hierarchy, click the Hierarchy Sort button.
MSR-PD-0012 error when importing external data
When you try to import an external data file, you receive an MSR-PD-0012 error.
MSR-PD-0012: Unable to upload the specified external data file. It exceeds the permitted
file size of "0(KB)", as specified by your system administrator.
This error occurs when the size of the file you are trying to import is greater than
the value specified for the Maximum external data file size (KB) governor in the
Framework Manager model.
To resolve the issue, the modeler must update the governor, save the model, and
republish the package.
MSR-PD-0013 error when importing external data
When you try to import an external data file, you receive an MSR-PD-0013 error.
MSR-PD-0013: Unable to upload the specified external data file. It exceeds the permitted
maximum number of rows "0", as specified by your system administrator.
This error occurs when the number of lines in the file you are trying to import is
greater than the value specified for the Maximum external data row count
governor in the Framework Manager model.
To resolve the issue, the modeler must update the governor, save the model, and
republish the package.
Problems Calculating Data
The topics in this section document problems you may encounter when calculating
or summarizing data.
Unexpected Summary Values in Nested Sets
If a report contains nested sets, summaries other than the inner set summaries may
contain unexpected values. For example, you insert a summary in a crosstab that
contains a set with years in the rows.
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Figure 46. Example of revenue numbers for the years 2012 and 2013
You then nest a product line set within years.
Figure 47. Example of revenue numbers for the listed products for the years 2012 and 2013
Notice that the summary value does not change to represent the total of the new
values. This occurs because the within set aggregation used with dimensional
packages does not take into account sets that are nested below the set that is
summarized.
To show the correct summary values, if the inner and outer sets do not belong to
the same dimension, you can nest a copy of the inner summary item under the
outer summary item, as follows.
Figure 48. Example of the combined aggregate set for the years 2012 and 2013
Null Results for Calculations Using SAP BW Data Sources
When using a SAP BW data source, the expression you use in your calculation is
evaluated as a null value if your expression contains a null item. For example, in
the calculation some_expression = result, the result is null if a row or column that
the expression references includes a null value.
To avoid obtaining null values as the result of your calculations, suppress null
values before you create the calculation.
Incorrect Results with IBM Cognos PowerCubes and Time
Measures
If a report uses an IBM Cognos PowerCube data source and a combination of data
items, you will encounter incorrect results.
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The following combination of data items in a report that uses an IBM Cognos
PowerCube data source will give incorrect results.
v a measure with a Time State Rollup set to Average or Weighted Average
v an aggregate ( members from time dimension ) expression
v an intersection with a member in a relative time hierarchy
To avoid incorrect results, do not use this combination in your reports.
Incorrect Results in Summaries When Using OLAP Data
Sources
When using an OLAP data source, summaries that use for clauses give incorrect
results.
This occurs because for clauses require access to the detail rows of the fact table.
OLAP data sources do not have detail rows.
For example, this report uses a dimensionally-modeled relational (DMR) data
source and contains the following summaries:
v mx: maximum ([Revenue] for [Year (ship date)])
v mx2: maximum (Aggregate([Revenue]) for [Year (ship date)])
Figure 49. Example list report that uses a dimensionally-modeled relational data source and
revenue for four years
Notice that the mx and mx2 values are different, where mx2 is based on visible
data, but mx is not. This result is correct.
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The following report uses an OLAP data source and contains the same summaries.
Figure 50. Example list report that uses a dimensional data source and revenue for four
years
In the example report, mx and mx2 values are now the same. Both summaries are
based on visible data. The mx value is incorrect.
Incorrect results also appear for footer summaries.
To avoid this problem, when using OLAP data sources, ensure that the parameter
that precedes the for clause is an aggregate function.
Problems Filtering Data
The topics in this section document problems you may encounter when filtering
data.
Unexplained Discrepancies in Number Calculations
You might find unexplained discrepancies in number calculations due to round-off
errors.
For example:
v You run regression tests and find differences in numbers. They are different only
because of the rounding off of decimal places.
v You choose not display zeros in reports, but the zeros are displayed anyway
because there are decimal places (0.00000000000000426, for example) that are
rounded off to zero in reports.
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Round-off problems are not specific to IBM Cognos software. They can occur in
any environment where rounding off occurs.
Binary Round-Off Errors
Discrepancies in calculations might occur due to binary round-off errors. For
example, if the number 1.1 is represented as a binary floating point number and
your report format includes a large number of decimal places, the number 1.1
might actually be something like 1.09999999999997.
If your report is formatted to use only one decimal point, decimal round-off takes
place, compensating for the binary round-off. So the number appears to be 1.1
when it is really 1.09999999999997. When the number is used in calculations, you
might get round-off errors. For example, Microsoft Excel calculations use binary
numbers (without rounding off decimal places) but formatting in reports shows
rounded off decimal places, which can create small discrepancies.
Division Round-Off Errors
Calculations that involve division typically incur round-off errors, regardless of
how the numbers are represented. Examples of such calculations are Average and
Percent of Base.
Design Guidelines to Minimize Round-Off Effect
The best solution is to change the underlying database schema or cube model but
that may not always be possible. Another solution is to minimize the round-off
effect by following these guidelines when authoring reports and creating models in
IBM Cognos Framework Manager and external OLAP cubes:
v Avoid storing data in floating point format whenever possible. This is especially
true for currency values, which should be stored as either fixed-point decimals
or as integers with a scale value such as 2.
For example, in a cube, the Revenue for Camping Equipment in 2012 is
$20,471,328.88. If revenue details are stored as floating point numbers, round-off
errors might occur when revenue is calculated.
The round up errors might have slight differences, depending on the order of
calculation. If revenue for Products is calculated first and revenue for Time is
calculated second, you might get a different round-off error than if Time is
calculated first and Products is calculated second.
Total revenue might be calculated as the number shown in the previous
example. Or there might be slight discrepancies, for example,
$20,471,328.8800001 as opposed to $20,471,328.88. The internal number might be
slightly different than what is displayed. The number might even be for different
runs of the same report, depending on the order that the OLAP engine uses for
calculation.
v In reports, avoid division whenever possible. When division is unavoidable, try
to do it as late as possible in the calculation process. For example, instead of
Total([Revenue]/1000), use Total([Revenue])/1000.
v When doing comparisons, add a margin to allow for round-off. For example,
you may want [Profit %] to be a fractional value formatted as a percentage with
no decimals. However, the filter [Profit %]<>0 (or [Profit %] NOT BETWEEN 0
and 0) rejects zero values and may still return values that appear to be 0% after
formatting.
To avoid this, filter in one of these two ways:
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– [Profit %] NOT BETWEEN -0.005 and 0.005
– ([Profit %] <- 0.005) OR ([Profit %]> 0.005)
Note that 0.005 is equivalent to 0.5%, which displays as either 0% or 1%,
depending on floating point precision losses.
In some cases, you may prefer control round-off errors by rounding values
explicitly. For example, instead of [Profit %], use round([Profit %],2).
v Recalculate numbers every time instead of reusing calculations that might
contain rounded off decimals.
There might be additional considerations for Microsoft Analysis Services
2005/2008, especially when comparing report results from different runs (as
happens in Lifecycle Manager). Refer to Microsoft documentation for more
information.
Error when filtering on a _make_timestamp column
You cannot filter on a _make_timestamp column. If you do that, the following
error messages appear:
UDA-SQL-0114 The cursor supplied to the operation "sqlOpenResult" is inactive
UDA-SQL-0206 The OLEDB driver returned the following value:
HRESULT= DB_E_CANTCONVERTVALUE
RSV-SRV-0025 Unable to execute this request
The solution is to apply the filter after aggregation, and not before.
Problems Running Reports
The topics in this section document problems you may encounter when viewing or
running reports.
Report runs slowly
The following is a list of questions that will help you to troubleshoot a slow report.
v Does your IBM Cognos environment conform with the supported environments?
v Has the report always been slow or did it recently become slow?
If it recently became slow, can you identify an event that occurred just before the
report began to run slowly? Events could include changes to configuration
settings, changes to tuning settings, a recent upgrade where your previous
settings have not been applied, an introduction of firewalls or proxies, changes
to existing firewalls or proxies, changes to virus scans on temp directories, or
temporary table space restrictions on the database. This event could have caused
the change in report performance.
v Is the performance slow for all reports or just one report?
If all reports are slow, the issue may be due to your environment or database. If
all reports from a specific package are slow, the issue may due to the model
design. If just one report is slow, the issue may be due to a specific report
element.
v How many queries does your report contain?
The number of queries on the report will proportionally affect the report
execution time.
v Does the report run slowly for everyone, or just for one user?
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If the report runs slowly for just one user, the issue may be due to something in
that user's environment, such as virus scanning, page file size or location
settings, or their location on the network.
v Is the report burst or run often by many people?
If many people are running the same report at the same time, you may need to
scale your environment or consider using dispatcher routing rules to direct all
requests for a specific package or group of users to a specific server or server
group. For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and
Security Guide.
v Do your queries require local processing?
The following report elements require local processing: crosstabs and charts,
master relationships, unions or joins, multiple fact queries, bursting, and
non-vendor specific functions. Local processing requires the IBM Cognos server
to compute operations on the result set returned by the database, which can
impact the SQL execution time.
v Does your environment use a Custom Authentication Provider?
Using a Custom Authentication Provider could cause a memory leak if the code
is not destroying objects correctly.
v Have you reviewed the logs in the install_location/logs directory and the audit
logs?
They may help you identify the source of the problem. Monitoring your
processes, such as the Java and the bus processes could also identify excessive
memory use.
v Is your environment tuned correctly?
v Have you recently upgraded?
Ensure that any tuning settings that were applied to your previous installation
are applied to the new environment. Ensure that your models have been
verified, upgraded, and republished. Verify that the IBM Cognos Framework
Manager governor that allows enhanced model portability at runtime is not
enabled. Depending on your upgrade method, you may also need to open and
save the reports again after upgrading.
The following tips may help you improve report performance.
v Change the order in which items are queried from the database. For more
information, see “Working with Relational Queries” on page 196 or “Working
with Dimensional Queries” on page 240.
v Create sections without creating master detail relationships. For more
information, see “Divide data into sections” on page 178.
v Share queries between lists and repeaters.
You can share an identical query between data containers that use it. To share a
query, data containers must be lists, repeaters, or repeater tables and must use
the same grouping structure and list of properties. The data containers cannot be
part of a master detail relationship. Sharing queries improves performance by
minimizing the number of queries executed against the database.
To share a query, set the Share result set property for the data container to Yes.
v Convert queries to SQL. For more information, see “Convert a Query to SQL”
on page 205 for relational reporting or “Convert a Query to SQL” on page 253
for dimensional reporting.
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v Avoid using functions with limited support, as indicated by the quality of
service indicators. For more information, see “Insert a Query Calculation” on
page 208 for relational reporting or “Quality of Service Indicators” on page 435
for dimensional reporting.
v Be aware of the limitations of creating expressions with SAP BW data sources.
For more information, see “Using Microsoft Excel Functions with SSAS 2005
Data Sources” on page 437.
v Use Select & Search prompts instead of value prompts if your list of prompts is
long. For more information, see “Build Your Own Prompt and Prompt Page” on
page 270.
v Provide your own prompt values in a prompt to avoid accessing the database.
For more information, see “Specify Prompt Values” on page 277.
v Suppress null cells using filters. For more information, see “Suppressing null
cells by using filters” on page 341.
v Set page breaks without creating master detail relationships. For more
information, see “Page breaks, page sets, and page layers” on page 379.
v Do not modify IBM Cognos Analysis Studio set definitions. For more
information, see “Analysis Studio query specification” on page 392.
v Do not put filters on non-identifiers.
v Avoid combining large hierarchy levels and sets in a drill-through report in a
way that creates large queries. For more information, see “Recommendation Drilling Down in Very Large Data Sources” on page 264.
v Use database functions when possible.
v Use fixed width objects in PDF reports by setting their Size & overflow
properties. For more information, see “Set list properties” on page 41, “Set
Crosstab Properties” on page 47, “Customizing chart properties” on page 79, or
“Set Map Properties” on page 464.
For more information, search for Performance and tuning (http://www.ibm.com/
developerworks/analytics/practices.html) documents that may help you improve
your report performance.
Summaries in a report do not correspond to the visible
members
If a crosstab or chart created in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting using a
dimensional data source has a context-dependent set function such as filter or
topCount on an edge, summaries do not correspond to the visible members.
This problem occurs because a summary that has the query property Use set
aggregation set to Yes, which produces an expression that contains the within set
clause, uses a set that is dependent on the members that it intersects with on the
opposite edge. For example, the following crosstab has the top three products
returned as columns. The expression used to generate the columns is
topCount ([Product],3,[Return quantity])
where [Product] is the level.
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Figure 51. A crosstab showing that the summary values for all rows do not correspond to the
visible members.
The summary values for Total and Minimum for all rows except Central Europe
do not correspond to the member values in the crosstab. This means that the top
three products returned in all regions except for Central Europe are not Bug Shield
Lotion, Bug Shield Extreme, and Sun Shelter 30. Note that the summary values for
Total and Minimum for all columns do correspond to the visible member values.
That is because those summary values represent the total and minimum quantities
returned for those three products in each region.
You can see what the top three products returned in each region are by dragging
the columns to the right of the rows.
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Figure 52. A single-edge crosstab showing the Total Returned Products and Minimum
Returned Products for each region
To obtain summary values that reflect the visible members, modify the expression
of the data item containing the context-dependent set function so that it includes a
tuple that is locked to the default member of every hierarchy that appears on the
opposite edge. For this example, modify the expression to the following:
topCount ([Product],3,tuple([Return quantity], defaultMember([Retailer site])))
where [Product] is the level and [Retailer site] is the hierarchy.
When you run the report, all summary values reflect the visible members in the
crosstab.
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Figure 53. A crosstab showing the return quantity of products in different regions of the world
QE-DEF-0288 Cannot Find the Database in the Content Store
You cannot retrieve data from the selected database when running a report.
The following error message appears:
QE-DEF-0288 Unable to find the database...
If this error does not occur when you are logged on as an administrator, then to
solve the problem, ensure that the user has permissions to the signon embedded. If
this error always occurs, the data source has not been created. Create the data
source with the name mentioned in the error message.
Parse Errors When Opening or Running an Upgraded Report
Earlier versions of IBM Cognos ReportNet and IBM Cognos Business Intelligence
included the cast_Date function for reports that run on an Oracle database. This
function does not exist for Oracle in IBM Cognos 8.1.2 MR1 and later versions. If a
report that uses an Oracle database includes the cast_Date function, parse errors
will be received when you try to open or run the report.
Overflow Error Occurs When a Value in a Crosstab Is More
Than 19 Characters
In a crosstab report, values support a maximum of 19 characters, including the
decimal point. If a value exceeds 19 digits, an overflow error occurs. By default,
the decimal precision is set to 7 digits, which restricts the number of integers to 11
digits.
To use more than 11 integers, you must edit the qfs_config.xml file in the
install_location\configuration directory. For more information, see the section about
reducing decimal precision in the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security
Guide.
The ORA-00907 Error Appears When Running a Report
When using an Oracle 9.2 data source, under certain circumstances, multiple or
nested join operations may fail and produce the following error.
ORA-00907: missing right parenthesis
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A query that uses both a left outer join and an ON clause condition returns zero
values instead of null values.
A Report or Analysis Does Not Run Because of Missing Items
You attempt to run a report or analysis and a message indicates that one or more
items are missing or changed. Each missing item is listed by its MUN (member
unique name). The MUN includes the complete path within the hierarchy for the
item. When you place your cursor on an item in the Source tab, the MUN for that
item is displayed in a tooltip. This situation may occur if members have been
removed from or changed in the data source. It may also occur when you attempt
to run a report that uses items to which you do not have access. For example, an
administrator may create an analysis that includes items that you do not have the
correct permission to access.
The solution is to find a suitable replacement in the Source tab, and drag it to the
work area. The report or analysis will then run.
Cannot View Burst Report
When you burst a report, each burst output is sent to the associated list of
recipients.
If a list of recipients contains invalid entries, the following occurs:
v The burst output is not saved to IBM Cognos Content Manager.
Consequently, you cannot view the burst output.
v If you choose to send the output by email, only valid recipients will receive an
email. Although the output is sent as an attachment if you select the Attach the
report check box, no link is generated if you select the Include a link to the
report check box.
v The following error message appears in the run history for the report, where
parameter 1 is the burst key, parameter 2 is the list of recipients, and parameter
3 contains the error messages returned by Content Manager:
An error occurred while saving the output for the burst instance <param type="string"
index="1"/> with the recipients (<param type="string" index="2"/>). Here are the
details: <param type="string" index="3"/>
Note: The list of recipients includes both the valid and invalid recipients.
For example, a report is set up to burst on Country or Region, and the recipients
are managers. Running the report produces the following countries and regions
and recipients:
v Canada: John, Mary
v US: Peter, Frank
v France: Danielle, Maryse
Frank is an invalid recipient. The burst outputs for Canada and France are saved
to Content Manager, but not the U.S. output. If you choose to send an e-mail to
each recipient and you selected the Include a link to the report check box, the
e-mail to Peter will not contain a link to the output for US. The error message that
is generated will contain Peter and Frank as values for parameter 2 with no
indication as to which is invalid.
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Procedure
1. View the error message in the run history for the report.
2. From the list of recipients, determine which recipients are invalid.
You may need to consult with your administrator to find out which recipients
are invalid.
3. Correct or remove the invalid recipients.
Correcting or removing invalid recipients will depend on how the list of
recipients was defined, such as through a calculated field or a burst table.
4. Run the report again.
An upgraded report does not retain its original look
When you upgrade a report to IBM Cognos Analytics, a new style sheet is applied
that changes the look of the report.
To preserve the formatting that was used in the original report, you can select a
different style sheet. This retains the original look of the report and specifies that
any new items added to the report, such as list columns or crosstab levels, have
the original formatting applied to them.
Procedure
1. Open the report in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting.
2. Click the Pages icon
icon
or the Queries icon
, and then click the Report
.
3. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, click the
Report styles property and select one of the available values.
For example, to use the IBM Cognos ReportNet style sheet, select 1.x styles.
Measure Format Disappears in SSAS 2005
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) does not propagate formatting
through calculations. IBM Cognos compensates for this whenever possible, but
cannot guarantee to do so in all cases. As a result, if you are working with a
Microsoft SSAS cube, any calculation (other than a non-count summary) that is
based on or intersects with a formatted measure, such as a currency, may lose the
measure format. This may also happen if you use a detail filter or context filter
(slicer).
For example, a crosstab includes members on one edge and a measure with
formatting, such as a currency symbol and decimal places, applied on the other
edge. When you run the report, you see the formatting for each cell. However, if
you add a detail filter, such as measure > 1 and run the report, all the formatting
disappears.
Additionally, the fine details of the MDX generated by IBM Cognos Analytics can
change from release to release. As the SSAS behavior depends on the MDX
generated, the loss of formatting in reports might not occur in a future release.
To avoid this problem, specify explicit formatting for the affected row, column, or
cell.
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Drill-through Links are Not Active in the Safari Browser
When viewing a PDF report in the Macintosh Safari browser, you cannot open
hyperlinks. This is because the Macintosh Safari browser does not have the
necessary Adobe Acrobat plug-in.
To avoid this problem, use the HTML format when creating drill-through reports
that may be viewed in Safari.
Data Does Not Appear in a Target Report or the Wrong Data
Appears
If no data appears when you drill through to a target report or if the wrong data
appears, the problem might be data source conformance. The business keys might
be different or might be mismatched.
For example, the business key for Camping Equipment might be 100 in the data
source for the source report and 1 in the data source for the target report, in which
case no data appears in the target report. Another example might be that the
business key for Camping Equipment is 100 in the data source for the source
report but, in the data source for the target report, 100 is the business key for Golf
Equipment, in which case the wrong data appears in the target report.
To solve the problem, ensure that business keys have the same value in both data
sources. If there are cases where data does not appear to match, contact your
database administrator or data modeler.
For more information about data source conformance, search for "conformed
dimensions" and "business keys" in the IBM Cognos Transformer User Guide.
You might also want to see “Unexpected or Empty Results When Drilling
Through” on page 424.
Related concepts:
“Conformed dimensions” on page 370
If you work with more than one dimensional data source, you may notice that
some dimensions are structured the same, and some are not.
“Business keys” on page 371
When drill-through access is defined from a member to a relational value, the
business key of the member is passed by default.
A Running Total in Grouped Reports Gives Unexpected
Results
You have a running total calculation in a grouped report that returns unexpected
values.
Because tabulation of the running total calculation depends on the order in which
the grouping is executed, you must ensure that the grouped totals are tabulated
before applying the running total.
To ensure that the grouping is executed in correct order, define a running total
calculation as a freestanding calculation outside the query subject in IBM Cognos
Framework Manager, and ensure that the Regular Aggregate property is set to
Automatic.
This may also be an issue with other running, moving, and ranking aggregations.
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Recursive evaluation error
You run a report and encounter the following error.
PCA-ERR-0057 Recursive evaluation has
COG_OQP_USR_Aggregate(Retailer Type):
COG_OQP_USR_Aggregate(Retailer Type):
COG_OQP_USR_Aggregate(Retailer Type):
COG_OQP_USR_Aggregate(Retailer Type):
exceeded limit.
COG_OQP_INT_m2:
COG_OQP_INT_m2:
COG_OQP_INT_m2:
COG_OQP_INT_m2:
Calculated member trace:
COG_OQP_INT_m1:
COG_OQP_INT_m1:
COG_OQP_INT_m1:
COG_OQP_INT_m1
You may encounter this error when two or more data items form a recursive
evaluation. For example, in this error, the calculation of Aggregate(Retailer Type) is
dependent on a column expression while at the same time the column expression
is dependent on Aggregate(Retailer Type). Therefore, the cyclic relationship cannot
be resolved.
To avoid this problem, ensure that calculations do not have cyclic relationships.
Arithmetic Overflow Error When Running a Report in PDF
Format
If you use a Microsoft SQL Server 2005 data source and your report includes
aggregations, you may encounter the following error when you run your report in
PDF format:
RQP-DEF-0177 An error occurred while performing operation 'sqlOpenResult'
status='-28'. UDA-SQL-0114 The cursor supplied to the operation "sqlOpenResult" is
inactive. UDA-SQL-0564 [Microsoft OLE DB Provider for SQL Server] Arithmetic
overflow error converting expression to data type int. (SQLSTATE=22003,
SQLERRORCODE=8115)
This error occurs because the action is performed in the database, and the database
data type is too small.
To avoid this problem, increase the size of the the database data type.
RQP-DEF-0177 An error occurred while performing operation
'sqlPrepareWithOptions' status='-69' UDA-SQL-0043 Error
You cannot run a report in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting or IBM Cognos
Query Studio, and the following error messages appear.
RQP-DEF-0177 An error occurred while performing operation 'sqlPrepareWithOptions'
status='-69' UDA-SQL-0043 The underlying database detected an error during processing
the SQL request.[NCR][ODBC Teradata Driver][Teradata Database] Partial string
matching requires character operands
These error messages do not indicate an IBM Cognos Application Firewall
problem.
There is a problem with your data source not converting numeric data items. Ask
your administrator to consult the topic Enable Conversion of Numeric Search Keys to
Strings in Queries in the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
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Problems with viewing saved Active Report output in Mozilla
Firefox 8 or later versions
When you try to view saved Active Report output in Mozilla Firefox 8 or later, you
receive errors. The problem also occurs when you try to insert a saved active
report in a workspace in IBM Cognos Workspace.
No problems occur when you use an earlier version of Firefox. In Firefox 8 and
above, you see the following errors:
Error: ReferenceError: HTMLIsIndexElement is not defined
Error: TypeError: _IS1 is undefined
The problem occurs because HTMLISIndexElement was deprecated as of Firefox 8.
To resolve the problem, rerun the active report and create a new saved output
version.
Tip: If you must rerun many active reports, you can create a job to run multiple
reports.
Problems with large SAP BW queries
When you are working with an SAP BW data source, if your report includes a data
set greater than 1,000,000 cells, you might encounter an XQE error.
XQE-CON-0007 XQE error encountered: XSB-ERR-0022 Execution of MDX failed:
XSB-ERR-0038 SAP Error executing BAPI BAPI_MDDATASET_SELECT_DATA:
com.cognos.xqe.data.providers.olap.sbwodp.bapi.JBapiSAPException: RFC Error:
MDX result contains too many cells (more than 1 million).
To avoid this error, set the Processing property for the query to Limited Local.
This option allows the report to process locally.
Master Detail or Burst Reports with Charts or Crosstabs May
Result in Denial of Service
When running a master detail or burst report that includes a chart or crosstab, disk
space exhaustion may cause the report or other requests to fail. A large set of burst
keys or master rows may produce one or more charts per detail, resulting in many
master detail executions. This may cause the temp folder to accumulate many
gigabytes of temporary files containing data required for successful chart
rendering.
To avoid this issue, we recommend that you test large master detail or burst
reports that include charts or crosstabs to determine the potential peak disk
requirements for the report.
PCA-ERR-0087 error when you run a large report
You run a large report and you receive a PCA-ERR-0087 error that indicates that
the report exceeds the maximum number of tuples allowed.
PCA-ERR-0087 The "crossJoinSet" operator is not applicable. The limit on the number of
tuples per edge has been exceeded (<value>).
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This error appears when there is an item in a query that has no relationship to the
rest of the data or does not make sense in the query.
To resolve the problem, review the query for unrelated items. If an item is found,
redesign the query or apply a filter on the item to reduce the number of results
returned.
If you still receive the error, ask your administrator to modify the maximum
number of tuples setting in IBM Cognos Analytics. The setting is an XML attribute
named maxTuplesPerEdge. For more information, see the IBM Cognos Analytics
Administration and Security Guide.
Differences in the appearance of charts that are run in
different formats or on different operating systems
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting charts can appear differently when reports are
run in different formats or on different operating systems. For example, donut and
pie charts can appear smaller in reports that are run on the Linux on System z®
operating system compared to the Windows operating system.
The differences in appearance occur only with Cognos Analytics - Reporting
default charts. Cognos Analytics - Reporting legacy charts are not affected. When
default charts are rendered in HTML or PDF, the following font-related problems
might occur.
v The font that is used in HTML output is different than the font used in PDF
output.
v Some chart items appear misaligned. For example, a pie chart might show
smaller pies in PDF output than in HTML output.
v The font that is used in the chart is different from the expected font.
v The font that is used in the chart is different when you run the chart in different
operating systems.
There are two possible causes to the font-related problems.
v The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) used by IBM Cognos Analytics did not
find the font that is specified in the chart, and substituted the font with a
different font.
v An unknown default font is specified.
To resolve the problem, ask your administrator to configure JRE to find the
installed fonts on the Cognos Analytics server. There are two ways that you can
configure JRE to find the installed fonts:
v Copy the installed fonts to the jre/lib/fonts folder.
For example, to use the Cognos Analytics default font Andale WT, copy
Andalewt.ttf from the install_location/bin/fonts folder to jre/lib/fonts.
v Configure the JRE font search path to point to the location where the fonts are
installed.
On AIX®, set the shell environment variable JAVA_FONTS=<list of directories>
Tip: Setting this variable is equivalent to setting the properties java.awt.fonts
and sun.java2d.fontpath.
The default fonts configuration in your Cognos Analytics server default style sheet
can also cause font-related problems, particularly when the operating system is
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UNIX. On UNIX systems, fonts must be purchased and installed. To ensure that a
specific font is used, perform one of the following tasks:
v Ask your administrator to update the Cognos Analytics server default style
sheet to reflect the fonts that are installed on the server.
v Update the chart fonts that are used in your report to use that font, and do not
rely on any default fonts.
Out-of-memory errors with reports that are run in interactive
HTML format
Out-of-memory errors occur when you run a report in interactive HTML format.
The errors do not occur when you run the report in other formats, such as PDF or
saved HTML.
Out-of-memory errors occur in reports that contain many objects that require
memory intensive processing, such as crosstabs and charts that are linked together
with master-detail relationships. Running reports in interactive HTML can
consume more memory than running reports in other formats. When a report is
run in interactive HTML, data sets are kept in memory for all pages in the report.
For report formats like PDF, data sets are released from memory after the report is
rendered.
Under certain conditions, you can exceed the memory limitations of a 32-bit
configuration of the Cognos Analytics server report server component when you
interact with an interactive HTML report. For example, scrolling through a report
page by page or drilling up or drilling down can consume more memory and
processing capacity in interactive HTML than in other output formats.
Charts in PDF Output Show Unexpected Results
Charts, when viewed in PDF output, have different levels of interaction support,
depending on the version of Adobe Acrobat Reader and the style of chart element.
Adobe Reader version 5 does not support tooltips. Drill up and down and Go to
links have limited support, due to technical limitations. Only rectangular areas in
charts, such as bars, columns, horizontal labels on the axis, or legend labels can be
enabled for drill or Go to interaction. Non-rectangular areas, such as pie slices in
pie charts, cannot be enabled for drill or Go to interactions.
Adobe Reader version 6 and 7 supports tooltips, drill up and down, and Go to
links for all chart types. When chart elements overlap or are separated by only a
few pixels, the interactive region may be smaller than the area shown.
Result set of a multi-fact query contains blanks
The result set of a multi-fact query contains blanks in some columns, even though
there is a conformed dimension that should join the records from both fact tables.
When IBM Cognos Analytics processes a multi-fact query, it breaks it up into two
single fact queries (each with items from a single star in the star schema), then
stitches the results of both of those queries together to create a single result set.
You can see the two queries and stitching in the native SQL generated for the
multi-fact query in Reporting.
Stitching these queries together is not the same as joining tables in the model.
Stitching the two sides together requires a stitch key that exists in each single fact
query as a unique value for the row. The rows from the two single fact queries are
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then matched 1:0, based on the stitch key values. The stitching must be 1:0.
Otherwise, you can get double counting of measure data, or exclude rows that
should be included. The stitching also means that it is possible for a row from one
of the single fact queries to not have a corresponding row from the other single
fact query, leading to blanks in the result set.
When the fact tables contain non-conformed dimensions between them, there is not
a suitable stitch key among the query items selected. As a result, IBM Cognos
Analytics creates one using RSUM, and joins the results of the two queries. For
more information, see the topic Multiple-fact, Multiple-grain Query on
Non-Conformed Dimensions in the Framework Manager User Guide.
When there is a conformed dimension, it is still possible to not have a suitable
stitch key, depending on what items are used in the query and other model design
factors. In such cases, IBM Cognos Analytics uses the conformed dimensions and
the row numbers from the results of each query to create a stitch key. If one single
fact query returns more rows than the other, there are blanks in the result.
To resolve the problem, it might be possible to avoid splitting the query by
changing the model. For more information, see Resolving Queries That Should Not
Have Been Split in the Framework Manager User Guide. If you cannot avoid splitting
the query and the report needs these two result sets to be joined differently, create
two separate, single-fact queries in Reporting, create a join between them, and
define the join links and cardinality as needed.
Cognos Statistics object is not displayed in a report
An IBM Cognos Statistics object is not displayed in a report.
Each removed statistical object is replaced with an image in the report:
Figure 54. Image that replaces statistical objects in upgraded reports
A warning also is displayed in the Upgrade Information window for each
statistical object that is replaced with the image.
Beginning with IBM Cognos Business Intelligence version 10.2.1, IBM Cognos
Statistics is no longer available.
To ensure that reports that were created in previous releases and that contain
statistical objects run, statistical objects are removed when the reports are
upgraded.
Tip: Queries, and their data items, that are associated to statistical objects are not
removed from upgraded reports.
You can use IBM SPSS® Statistics to perform statistical reporting and analysis.
Appendix A. Troubleshooting
423
Problems When Drilling Through
The topics in this section document problems you may encounter when drilling
through reports.
Cannot Drill Through Between PowerCubes Because MUNs
Do Not Match
We recommend that business keys be unique throughout the dimension for
PowerCubes. These keys are used as the source value for levels in a hierarchy of a
dimension. If the values are not unique throughout the dimension, the
corresponding Category Code values may be generated with tildes.
For example, if a category for the Product Line level has a source value of 101 and
a category in the Product Type level has a source value of 101, the Category Code
value for the Product Type level is automatically generated with a unique value
such as 101~245. The Category Code values are used in the Member Unique Name
(MUN) for each member, for example, [Sales and
Marketing].[Products].[Products].[Product type]->:[PC].[@MEMBER].[101~245].
Because these values are generated automatically, they cannot be guaranteed from
one cube build to the next or in a build for another cube with the same dimension
structure using the same source values. Therefore, drilling from one PowerCube to
another on what appears to be the same member might not work since the MUNs
might not match.
If the MUNs do not match, consult the cube modellers to see if the business keys
can be made unique throughout the dimension. If this is not likely, or might take
some time to resolve, you can use calculations to pass the source value from one
PowerCube to another for drill-through.
For more information about drill-through access, see the Drill-Through Access
chapter in the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
Procedure
1. In the target report, create a filter with the following syntax: filter([Hierarchy
or Level], roleValue('_businessKey', [Hierarchy or Level]) =
?Parameter?)
For example:filter([Sales Cube].[Products].[Products].[Product type],
roleValue('_businessKey',[Sales Cube].[Products].[Products].[Product
type]) = ?Prod Type?)
2. In the source report, create a Query Calculation which is used to pass the
business key (source value) to the target report by mapping it to the target
parameter in the drill-through definition. Use the following syntax:
roleValue('_businessKey', [Hierarchy or Level])
For example:
roleValue('_businessKey',
[sales_and_marketing].[Products].[Products].[Product type])
Unexpected or Empty Results When Drilling Through
When you drill from a source report to a target report, there might be no data
returned. This might be the correct result if there is no data that corresponds to the
drill-through selections or if you do not have permission to view the data.
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In other cases, if no data or the wrong data appears, the source item might not be
mapped to the target correctly or the values in the data sources might not be
conformed (the values do not match in both data sources).
If you have the necessary permissions, you can debug drill-through definitions by
using the drill-through assistant from the Go To page (right-click the selection in
the source report and select Go To). You can view the passed source values and
the mapping to the target report parameters. You can use this tool for both
authored and package drill-through definitions.
You might be able to correct the problem by modifying the parameter mapping in
the drill-through definition. For example, when you drill from a cube to a
relational data source, sometimes no data is returned or the wrong data is returned
because the business key values in the two data sources do not match. You can
change the drill-through definition to pass the caption of the IBM Cognos
PowerCube member instead of the business key, but you must also change the
target report to filter on the corresponding string value and not the business key
value.
However, it is best to ensure the data sources are conformed. In this example, the
business keys in the cube should match the business keys in the relational source.
Filtering on a key is more efficient than filtering on a larger string that may or may
not be indexed in the database.
For more information on data source conformance, search for "conformed
dimensions" and "business keys" in the IBM Cognos Transformer User Guide.
Procedure
1. Ensure that the target report filters on a string value that matches the caption
being passed from the PowerCube.
2. Edit the drill-through definition as follows:
v If the drill-through definition was created in IBM Cognos Analytics Reporting, open the report, and go to the drill-through definition associated
with the drill-through source object. On the parameter mapping page, select
Member caption in the Property to pass column.
v If the drill-through definition was created in the source package, in the IBM
Cognos Analytics portal, click the New icon
, Other, Drill-Through
Definitions. Open the package drill-through definition. On the Target tab of
the drill-through definition, select Member caption in the Property to pass
column for the appropriate parameter.
Results
When you drill through, instead of the business key, the caption is passed to the
target.
You might also want to see “Data Does Not Appear in a Target Report or the
Wrong Data Appears” on page 418. For more information about drill-through
access, see the Drill-Through Access chapter in the IBM Cognos Analytics
Administration and Security Guide.
Related concepts:
“Conformed dimensions” on page 370
If you work with more than one dimensional data source, you may notice that
some dimensions are structured the same, and some are not.
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“Business keys” on page 371
When drill-through access is defined from a member to a relational value, the
business key of the member is passed by default.
Cannot Drill Through From a Relational Source to a Cube
By default, you cannot drill through from a relational data source to a cube. This is
because a cube expects a Member Unique Name (MUN) as a parameter value and
relational sources do not use MUNs.
Members have properties which include a business key and a caption. If either of
these match data items within the relational source, drilling through can be
performed as long as the cube target report is authored in Reporting.
If the source data source has a query item, for example display name, that
corresponds to a member property in the target cube, for example caption, you
must create the parameter on the caption in the target report.
To pass the data item to the cube target, do the following:
v In the cube target report, create a parameter that accepts the caption of the
member. This parameter should be created in a Query calculation object from
the Toolbox icon
with the following syntax. Type the following
filter([ Hierarchy or Level],caption([Hierarchy of Level]) = ?Parameter?)
For example:
filter([sales_and_marketing].[Products].[Products].[Product line],
caption([sales_and_marketing].[Products].[Products].[Product line])
= ?Product Line?)
For more information about drill-through access, see the Drill-Through Access
chapter in the IBM Cognos Analytics Administration and Security Guide.
Calculations Do Not Appear in the Target Report
If you drill through to PowerPlay Studio from a report in Reporting, Analysis
Studio, or PowerPlay Studio, calculations on the edges in the target report might
not appear.
For example, you have a target report with the calculation Personal
Accessories+100 as a column in a crosstab report. When you drill through from a
source report to the target report, if Personal Accessories is filtered out of the target
report (Personal Accessories is not one of the items that is returned on the column
edge), then the Personal Accessories+100 calculation does not appear. Personal
Accessories has been filtered out of the target report and is not available to fulfill
the calculation.
To see the calculations in the target report, ensure the items used in the
calculations are returned in the result set (not filtered out). For more information
and examples, see Understanding Drill-Through Behavior in IBM Cognos 8 at
developerWorks (www.ibm.com/developerworks).
Nested Crosstab Only Filters on Some Items
If you perform a parameter-based drill-through from a source report to an IBM
Cognos Analytics - Reporting target report with two or more dimensions nested on
a row or column, you may encounter unexpected results depending on the filters
applied to the target report.
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For example, a target Cognos Analytics - Reporting report has the following two
filters:
v [sales_and_marketing_mdc].[Order method].[Order method].[Order method
type]=?Order Method Type?
v [sales_and_marketing_mdc].[Retailers].[Retailers].[Region]=?Region?
Order method type and Region both have filters, but Product line does not. A
drill-through definition mapped to the appropriate parameters, in this case Order
method type and Region, is created.
When the source report is run and the intersection of Outdoor protection, Northern
Europe, and Telephone is selected to drill through to the target report, the order
method type and region display as expected, but all product lines are returned.
This is because there are filters on Order method type and Region but not Product
line.
For more information and examples, see Understanding Drill-Through Behavior in
IBM Cognos 8 at developerWorks (www.ibm.com/developerworks).
Data is Not Filtered in the Target Report After Drill-Through
You drill through to a target report, but no filtering occurs in the target report. For
example, you drill through on a crosstab intersection of Camping Equipment and
2010 and expect to see only data for Camping Equipment for 2010 in the target
report. Instead you see all products for all years. This occurs because the target
report has no filters for the parameters that were passed.
To solve the problem, ensure that the target report has the correct filters. In the
previous example, the correct filters in the target report are Product line and Year.
Alternatively, you can enable Dynamic Drill-Through in a package-based
drill-through definition.
Drill-through links in active reports do not work
When viewing an active report that contains drill-through links in Microsoft
Internet Explorer 8 and later, the links do not work.
Clicking on a drill-through link produces an error like the following:
The search path "<drill_through_target_search_path>" is invalid. An object may
contain invalid syntax, or an unsupported character, or the user account in the
namespace may not have sufficient privileges. Check the object to ensure that the
target destination location does not contain special characters.
Details
CM-REQ-4069 The property "na" is unknown. Replace it with a valid property.
When clicking a link in an active report, you are attempting to move from a local
domain (the active report MHT file on your computer) to the IBM Cognos
Analytics server's domain. Internet Explorer views this as a potential risk. To
resolve the problem, make the following changes to the security settings in Internet
Explorer.
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Procedure
1. Click Tools, Internet Options.
2. Click the Security tab.
3. Click Trusted sites and then click Sites.
4. In the Add this website to the zone box, type the IBM Cognos Analytics
server's domain.
5. Click Add and then Close.
6. Click Custom level.
7. In the Scripting section, under Enable XSS filter, click Disable and then click
OK twice.
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Appendix B. Limitations when using dimensional data
sources
There are limitations when authoring or running reports against dimensional data
sources.
Running a Report Against a Dimensional Data Source
You can cancel a report that is running against Microsoft SQL Server Analysis
Services only during the initial portion of its execution. After this time, the report
runs to completion.
The same behavior applies to SAP BW data sources.
In IBM Cognos Framework Manager, you can also control the number of levels
within a hierarchy from which members, or values, are extracted from the
hierarchy to populate a tree prompt.
For SAP BW, you can reduce the number of hierarchy levels to limit the number of
nodes by setting the SAP BW variable property trimHierarchyLevels to 1. This
removes the lowest level from the hierarchy prior to creating the list of nodes.
Units of Measure Notation
When running a report against an SAP BW data source, units of measure are
included in the same column as the data values, separated by one space. For
example, Celsius and Fahrenheit notations are appended to the end of the value.
If you see an asterisk character (*), one of the following was detected:
v an unknown currency
v a value with an unknown or questionable unit of measure, such as a mixed
currency calculation or rollup
Mixed currency values occur when you calculate values with different
currencies.
This behavior occurs when you are using an IBM Cognos cube as a data source.
This behavior also occurs for SAP BW data sources.
Unsupported SAP Variable Properties
The following SAP variable properties are not supported:
v Exclusionary ranges appear as an inclusionary prompt.
v Mandatory not initial appears as a mandatory prompt.
When using Business Explorer (BEx) to define variables in your SAP data source,
avoid using exclusionary ranges and the mandatory not initial property.
429
Limitations When Using Set Expressions in List Reports
In list reports, we recommend that you avoid using set expressions. When in a list,
set expressions, such as TopCount, may produce fewer rows than in the
corresponding crosstab.
For example, the following list includes Year in the first column, followed by a
column containing an expression that returns the top three months by revenue.
Only three rows appear in the report and they correspond to the top three months
across all years. If you group by Year, the report still shows only three months.
However, the corresponding crosstab, you see three months for each year.
Figure 55. List showing the top three revenue months in 2013, and the corresponding
crosstab
In crosstab reports in IBM Cognos Analytics, set evaluation is always done in the
context of what the set is nested under in the report. However, in list reports set
evaluation is done independently of the grouping. For example, if the first column
contains Country or Region instead of Year, you see the top three months for each
country or region (across all years) in both cases.
In the case of different dimensions, you can force context independence by
replacing [Revenue] in the topCount expression with tuple ([Revenue], X), where X
is the default member of the hierarchy that contains Month.
However, for nested levels in the same hierarchy, there is no such workaround at
this time.
Limitations When Using Clauses in Summary Functions
A summary function that uses a for clause may yield unexpected results. These
may include error messages, warnings, incorrect numbers, and more or fewer than
expected rows, columns, or chart points and lines.
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To avoid these problems, ensure that the parameters that follow the for clause
adhere to the following constraints:
v Parameters must be simple data item references.
v All data items in the parameter list must appear on every list, crosstab, or chart
that uses that summary.
v For any edge used in the for clause, data items listed in the for clause must
start with the first data item on that edge.
v Data items must be listed in the order in which they appear on each edge of the
report with no gaps.
v In crosstabs and charts, there must be no sibling data items that are considered
details. Summaries are normally not considered details.
v Section headers must not be included in the parameter list.
If following these constraints does not resolve the problems and your report uses
dimensional data with no detail or summary filters, consider using the within set
clause instead of the for clause.
Limited Support for Relational Functions When Used with OLAP Data
Sources
When working with an OLAP data source, we recommend that you not use
relational functions, such as substring and concatenation functions, in a report that
also contains a measure with the Aggregate Function property set to Calculated or
Automatic in the model. If you do so, you may encounter unexpected results. For
example, some summaries are calculated using the Minimum function instead of
the aggregate function derived from the individual query items.
In the expression editor, an exclamation mark (!) that precedes a function indicates
that the function is not naturally supported for that data source. IBM Cognos
Analytics uses a local approximation for that function. Because an approximation is
used, performance can be degraded and the results may not be what you expect.
For example, you create an IBM Cognos Query Studio report that contains the data
items Product line and Retailer site count. The footer summary is set to Calculated.
You then insert a calculated column that returns the first three characters of the
Product line item, which uses the relational concatenation function. The footer
summary now shows the lowest gross margin value.
Figure 56. A report that contains a calculated footer summary
Related concepts:
“Summarizing data dimensionally” on page 224
Summarize data in your reports to obtain totals, averages, and so on.
Appendix B. Limitations when using dimensional data sources
431
Limitations When Summarizing Measures in DMR Data Sources
There are limitations when summarizing dimensionally-modeled relational (DMR)
measures and semi-additive measures in crosstabs using the aggregation function
count distinct, median, standard-deviation, or variance. The following
limitations can produce empty or error cells when the report is run:
v The aggregation function must apply to all members of a level or all children of
a member.
v To use OLAP functions in detail filters that are applied to a dimension that is
not in the report, or is at a level below what is being reported, only the
functions children, level, members, roleValue, and rootMembers will work.
v You cannot define detail filters that reference one or more measures and are set
to After auto aggregation.
v You cannot define context filters that have more than one member from a
dimension that does not appear in the report.
v Context filters that have more than one member from a dimension that appears
in the report produce errors in all cells that are ancestors of the slicer members.
v If a crosstab has a row that is a set of members from one dimension (dimension
A) and another row that is a set of members from another dimension (dimension
B), and a context filter containing members from dimension A is defined, error
cells are produced in the row that contains members from dimension B.
v If a context filter contains members from a dimension, and a crosstab has a row
that is a set of members from a higher level than the slicer members, error cells
are produced for that row.
v Error cells are produced when drilling down on a crosstab that has two nested
levels.
If you do not consider these limitations in a calculation, the report may return
inaccurate results.
If there is a non-measure calculation that returns a constant or contains a summary
function, and the calculation has a lower solve order than the measure being
aggregated, error cells are returned for the aggregated measure.
In list reports, error cells are produced as a result of these limitations if the list
uses an OLAP function other than children, filter, level, members, roleValue,
and rootMembers.
Limitations when filtering dimensional data sources
Avoid combining context filters (slicers) with dimensional constructs that involve
members from hierarchies that are used elsewhere in the report. This combination
gives results that are often not what you might expect and that may change in a
future release.
Dimensional data sources provide implicit rollup at all levels of each dimensional
hierarchy. Context filters and slicers with more than one member invalidate any
pre-computed rollup of members at hierarchy levels before the level at which the
filter applies.
The following types of filtering are safe for dimensional reporting:
v Context filters (slicers) with one or more explicit, non-calculated members per
hierarchy, if those hierarchies are not used elsewhere in the report.
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v Expressions that use the filter function (not in a slicer), comparing measure,
tuple, or attribute values.
Nesting Incomplete Sets
When you nest sets (especially sets of explicit members, and sets that result from
the functions such as filter and intersect), there may be members at one nesting
level that have no corresponding members that can appear nested after them. In
such cases, filtering results may not be what you expect: the higher-lever members
may or may not appear in the result.
While this is most commonly seen within a single hierarchy, it can also happen
across different hierarchies and dimensions.
To avoid this problem, ensure that the sets are constructed to ensure that they are
never empty for any of the members in the higher-level set. For example, you
could filter only the high level set and nest only the complete set of descendants at
the desired levels after that one.
Error Characters (--) When Filtering
When you use slicers or context filters with a calculated fact or measure, you may
see two dashes (--) as values for some or all of the cells in the report that represent
aggregates that are calculated in the database (aggregation is set to Automatic).
This means that the data source is unable to compute these values.
You can avoid this error by using an explicit rollup rule or aggregation function
such as Total. However, do this only if you are familiar with the data and
absolutely certain that this is the appropriate answer for that report.
Time Hierarchies
Error characters also appear in summaries if your report includes a time hierarchy
and you use two or more members from a different time hierarchy as a context
filter. To avoid the error, use only one member as the context filter.
Filters in Queries and Sub-queries
For dimensional data sources, filters in queries and sub-queries are considered
equivalent. The same applies to slicers.
Limitations When Specifying the Scope of Summary Filters
with Dimensional Data Sources
When you specify the scope for a summary filter, consider the following
limitations. The scope of a summary filter
v must refer to a grouped data item for list reports. Otherwise, you encounter the
following error:
OP-ERR-0212 The summary filter scope (Scope1) found in the query (Query1) is not
valid. It must refer to a grouped query item.
v can refer to multiple data items, but it can refer to only one data item per edge
of the crosstab. Otherwise, you encounter the following error:
OP-ERR-0213 The summary filter scope (Scope1) found in the query (Query1) is not
valid. Referencing more than one query item from the same edge is not supported.
Appendix B. Limitations when using dimensional data sources
433
v must refer to a level and cannot refer to a measure. Otherwise, you encounter
the following error:
OP-ERR-0209 The summary filter scope (Scope1) found in the query (Query1) is not
valid. It must refer to a level.
v must refer to a data item that is projected on an edge of the crosstab. If the
scope of a summary filter refers to a data item that was deleted from the report
layout, you may encounter unexpected results. Otherwise, you encounter the
following error:
OP-ERR-0213 The summary filter scope (Scope1) found in the query (Query1) is not
valid. Referencing more than one query item from the same edge is not supported.
v must refer to unique data items. For example, the summary filter cannot refer to
the same data item more than once.
Limitations When Filtering Data Using an SAP BW Data
Source
If you are working with an SAP BW data source, you must consider additional
exceptions when applying filters.
If you apply a filter and a sort to an item that corresponds to the leaf-level of a
recursive hierarchy, siblings may appear in the report even though the aggregated
values are correct. Siblings are characteristic values with the same parent as the
filtered member.
Each level in an SAP BW hierarchy has an item with the same name as the level
and a role of _businessKey. Such items are known as level identifiers. The level
identifier must be an exact value for the operators =, <, and > to work. For
example, for the filter [Office] > 'Chicago' to work, the value 'Chicago' must exist
in the data source. If you do not know the exact values, you can apply the filter to
one of the attribute items associated with the level, such as [OfficeLongName] >
'C'. Filters on non-identifiers are possible, but they are slower because SAP BW
data sources are optimized for queries based on level identifiers.
When filtering time-related data, only the level identifier items of the time-related
characteristics in SAP BW, such as 0CALDAY and 0CALMONTH, should be used
for performing anything other than equality filters. All other (attribute) items in
these hierarchies are formatted string representations of the characteristic values
with which they are associated. These formatted values sort alphanumerically and
not chronologically.
Using Prompt Expressions in Filters
If you create a filter expression using report item attributes, such as the following,
no data is returned.
[ report item attribute ] = ?prompt?
To resolve the problem, do one of the following:
v Fully qualify the item by using items from the source tree instead of data items
from the report.
v Use prompt controls in the report instead of hand coded prompts.
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Considerations when Creating Calculations
Consider the following information and limitations when creating dimensional
calculations.
Calculation Solve Order
When calculations in the rows and columns of a report intersect, calculations are
performed in the following order: addition or subtraction, multiplication or
division, aggregation (rollup), and then the remaining arithmetic functions.
The remaining functions are as follows:
v absolute, round, average, minimum, maximum, medium, count
v percentage, % difference (growth), or % of total
v rank, quartile, quantile, percentile
If both calculations have the same precedence, for example, if they are both
business functions, then the row calculation takes precedence.
You can override the order of precedence by changing the solve order property. For
more information, see “Resolve Multiple Calculations for Crosstabs and Charts” on
page 438.
Length of Expressions
When creating layout calculations that use complex expressions, limit the length of
the expression to less than 1,000 tokens. A token is a keyword, identifier, constant,
or special character symbol that the server identifies when it parses the SQL. For
example, the expression 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 contains approximately 28 tokens,
whereas the expression 1+1+1...+1 (400 times) contains more than 1000 tokens.
Tip: The Sales Commissions for Central Europe sample report in the GO Data
Warehouse (analysis) package includes expressions.
Quality of Service Indicators
Not all data sources support functions the same way. The data modeler can set a
quality of service indicator on functions to give a visual clue about the behavior of
the functions. Report authors can use the quality of service indicators to determine
which functions to use in a report.
The quality of service indicators are:
v not available (X)
The function is not available for any data source in the package.
v limited availability (!!)
The function is not available for some data sources in the package.
v limited support (!)
The function is available for all data sources in the package but is not naturally
supported for that data source. IBM Cognos Analytics uses a local
approximation for that function. Because an approximation is used, performance
can be poor and the results may not be what you expect.
v unconstrained (check mark)
The function is available for all data sources.
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435
Using Quotation Marks in Literal Strings
When inserting literal strings in an expression, you must enclose the string in
single quotation marks. If the string contains a quotation mark, it must be escaped.
For example, if you want to insert the string ab'c, you must type 'ab''c'.
Limitations of calculations in dimensional reporting
You should use only the expressions and functions available in IBM Cognos
Analytics - Reporting and follow their syntax.
Minimal checking exists for calculations. If your calculation uses an invalid
expression, your report results may contain unexpected values.
In addition, you should define member summaries as follows:
summary_function (currentMeasure within set set_reference)
where set_reference is a level or set inserted from the Source tab
.
Unless otherwise required, summary_function should be the aggregate function. If
you use an explicit summary function, you may encounter problems with
measures (such as profit margin, distinct count, and so on) that have complex
rollup values, and/or scenario or account dimension members that do not roll up.
Know your data, and confirm with the owner of the cube where overriding the
automatic aggregation is safe.
Because of these limitations, summaries of calculations may not provide reliable
values. For convenience, you may have to build reports where row summaries and
calculated member columns intersect. In such reports, these intersections may
contain unexpected values. In contrast, row calculations intersecting with column
aggregates using the aggregate function are safe because the calculation is
performed on the reliably summarized values.
Units of Measure
When creating calculations, you may encounter problems with the units of
measure. For example, the calculation Cost * Cost returns the unit of measure *
(asterisk) instead of a currency unit of measure. To avoid this problem, change the
format of the corresponding column to obtain the desired unit of measure.
Limitation When Using Dimensional Functions with Running and
Moving Summaries
IBM Cognos Analytics does not currently support queries that contain both
dimensional functions and running summaries or moving summaries. For example,
when you drill down in a report, the query uses the dimensional function
children, which is not compatible with running and moving summaries. Running
and moving summaries are supported for only the overall level of a dimension.
Creating Expressions Using SAP BW Data Sources
You must consider the following when creating expressions using an SAP BW data
source, or you may not get the results you expect.
v The case and if/then/else constructs are not supported in filters.
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v The query item identifier of the leaf-level of the 0CALDAY characteristic and its
presentation hierarchies is of type date. When the values for the query item
identifier are presented in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting, they are formatted
as dates. These formatted values should not be used in filter expressions. The
correct date constant format for use in expressions is YYYY-MM-DD.
v You can apply a comparison expression with an operator other than equals to a
query item that represents a level identifier. However, level identifiers are more
efficient for identifying specific values. Range comparisons must be performed
on the IBM Cognos application server, which slows down the performance of
the report.
Using Microsoft Excel Functions with SSAS 2005 Data
Sources
If you are working with a Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) data
source and you want to use Microsoft Excel VBA functions such as
ROUNDDOWN in MDX queries, the following Microsoft Office features must be
installed on the SSAS server:
v Microsoft Office Excel
v Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications
To see a list of Excel VBA functions, see the Microsoft Web site
(http://www.microsoft.com).
If these Microsoft Office features are not installed on the SSAS 2005 server, and
you use Excel VBA functions, you encounter an error such as the following:
YK-ERR-0008 The data provider returned an error message: "The
'[Excel].[ROUNDDOWN]' function does not exist.".
This error occurs because the OLAP server cannot process the function since Excel
function libraries are missing.
For more information, see the Microsoft Knowledge Base article 932214 at
http://support.microsoft.com.
Concatenating Strings
When IBM Cognos Analytics concatenates strings locally and if any of the involved
strings contain null values, the result of the concatenation is an empty cell or a null
value. This occurs because IBM Cognos Analytics requires that an expression that
involves a null value returns a null value. Many databases ignore null strings
when they perform concatenations. For example, if you concatenate strings A, B,
and C, and if string B is a null value, the database may concatenate only strings A
and C.
Intersecting Calculations in Crosstabs and Charts
An intersection point in a crosstab or chart can contain a value that is derived from
multiple calculations.
If the query expressions for the row and column that intersect in a crosstab both
include calculations, the intersecting value is the result of performing both
calculations. The second calculation is performed on the result of the first
calculation. If you change the order in which the calculations are performed, the
resulting value at the intersection point changes.
Appendix B. Limitations when using dimensional data sources
437
The solve order is a positive numeric value that you assign to data items. Negative
values are not supported. The data item with the lowest value is calculated first,
followed by the next higher value, and so on. The data item with the highest solve
order is computed last. If you do not specify a solve order, the default value of 0 is
used. In crosstabs, if more than one data item has the same solve order, column
items are calculated first and row items are calculated second.
For example, a crosstab contains the columns Revenue, Sales target, and a column
that calculates the percentage by which actual revenue exceeds target revenue. The
crosstab contains a row for each Year and a summary row that calculates the
overall totals for each of the three columns. The cell where the percentage
calculation and the overall total calculation intersect contains only one value. By
default, IBM Cognos Analytics calculates the column percentage first and the
summary row last. The value that appears at the intersection is therefore a sum of
the percentages, which is not a meaningful result. The value is more meaningful if
the overall percentage is calculated after the actual and sales target revenues are
summed. Specifying a solve order for the percentage calculation that is higher than
the overall total calculation gives the following result:
Figure 57. Crosstab showing a calculation that has a solve order specified
It is not necessary to specify the solve order for the overall total calculation.
Because the default solve order is 0, setting the solve order for the percentage
calculation to a value higher than 0 is sufficient.
Nested Calculations in Crosstabs
If a crosstab contains nested calculations, the calculations are performed in the
following order by default:
1. outermost calculation on the columns
2. innermost calculation on the columns
3. outermost calculation on the rows
4. innermost calculation on the rows
If there are solve order ties, column items are calculated before row items and
outer nesting items are calculated before inner nesting items.
Resolve Multiple Calculations for Crosstabs and Charts
If an intersection in a crosstab or chart contains a value that is derived from
multiple calculations, you can specify the order in which to perform the
calculations. The solve order must be a positive numeric value. The calculations are
performed from lowest to highest solve order value.
Setting the Summary aggregation property to Calculated for a data item assigns a
solve order that is higher than any other data item in a query unless a solve order
is explicitly specified. If there are multiple data items that have the Summary
aggregation property set to Calculated, the normal rules for solve order apply.
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Procedure
1. Click the data item for which to specify the solve order.
A data item can have only one solve order value. Consequently, if a data item
is in a query that is used in more than one context and you want the data item
to have a different solve order in each context, you must use a separate data
item.
2. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, set the Solve
order property to an integer value.
Resolve Query Calculations that Intersect with Calculated
Measures Defined in Microsoft Analysis Services
Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) data sources may include data
source calculations. Because IBM Cognos Analytics cannot predict the presence of a
solve order on such calculations, setting the Solve order property may not resolve
the solve order correctly. You can suppress potentially meaningless results when
querying dimensional data sources that include data source calculations. In the
following example, the columns YTD Change and YTD Growth are data source
calculated members and the summary values for these two columns were
suppressed.
Figure 58. Crosstab showing revenue by product line with a summary row
When a query-defined calculated member and a data source calculated member
intersect, the value is the result of performing both calculations. The second
calculation is performed on the result of the first calculation. Whether the final
value is meaningful depends on the order in which the calculations are performed.
Because IBM Cognos Analytics cannot determine the presence of these members
ahead of time, it cannot automatically determine the correct solve order.
In most cases, SSAS 2005 gives the expected results when no solve order is defined
in the cube. Therefore, when using SSAS 2005, you do not need to set either the
Solve order property in the query or the Calculation intersection property.
Note: Dimensionally-modeled relational (DMR) data sources query one or more
underlying relational databases, and therefore cannot contain data source
calculations. They are not considered dimensional data sources in the context of
this topic.
Procedure
1. Click the Queries icon
, and click the query that contains the data item for
which to suppress values.
2. In the Data Items pane, click the data item.
Appendix B. Limitations when using dimensional data sources
439
3. Click the Show properties icon
, and in the Properties pane, set the
Calculation intersection property to Show "Not applicable".
Results
When a query-defined calculated member and a data source calculated member
intersect, the resulting value is suppressed. If the intersecting members do not
contain data source calculations, the value is not suppressed.
Null (Missing) Values in Calculations and Summaries
The data source that you use determines how null (or missing) values are handled
in calculations, summaries, and other expressions.
Null values represent missing data values. For example, a new eyewear product,
called Abby, is introduced in 2012. Therefore there are no sales in 2011. If you
create a report with the years 2011 and 2012, the values for sales of Abby for the
year 2011 are null (missing).
By default, null values appear as blank cells in a crosstab or list report. You can
change the default to specify the display of other characters, such as the word null,
by changing the data format of the Missing Value Characters property for the cells
or report. For more information, see “Set the default data formats” on page 337.
Arithmetic Operations
Null values in arithmetic operations yield different results depending on the type
of data source.
In Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) and Cubing Services data
sources, a null value in arithmetic operations is treated as follows:
v In operations such as addition (+), a null value yields the same result as zero (9
+ NULL = 9)
v In operations such as multiplication (*), a null value yields a null result (9 *
NULL = NULL)
You can accommodate this behavior by using more complex expressions such as
the following:
v
if ([M] is not NULL, then ([M]) else (0)
v
if ([M] is not NULL, then (<expression involving M> else NULL)
In relational and other OLAP data sources the result of an operation that includes
a null value is always null. For example, 9 + NULL = NULL.
Equality Comparisons
Equality comparisons, such as equal to (=) and not equal to (<>), compare two
values and return a Boolean value of true or false.
For all data sources, equality comparisons are treated as tests for missing data.
Inequality comparisons are treated as tests for non-missing data.
For example, NULL=NULL is true and NULL=0 is false.
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Ordered Comparisons
In ordered comparisons, such as rank and quantile functions, null values are
handled as follows.
For relational data sources, the result of the comparison is always false. For
example, NULL < 1 is false.
For Microsoft SSAS, Cubing Services, and other OLAP data sources, the null value
is treated as zero. For example, NULL < 1 is true.
Boolean Functions
In Boolean operations, such as or, null values are handled as follows.
For relational and dimensionally-modeled relational data sources, the result of a
Boolean operation is always null. Boolean functions are used in conditions and the
null result is treated as a false condition. For example, NULL OR TRUE = NULL
(FALSE)
For Microsoft SSAS, Cubing Services, and other OLAP data sources, the null value
is treated as if it is false. For example, NULL OR TRUE = TRUE.
Summary Functions
All summary functions, such as aggregate, average, and maximum, ignore null
values. For all functions except count, if all values in the expression are null, the
result is null. For count, if all values in the expression are null, the result is zero.
For example, if the value for Quantity for 2013 is 10 and the values for 2011 and
2012 are null, then the average is as follows:
v
average ([Quantity] within set set([2012], [2013] ) ) = 10
v
average ([Quantity] within set set([2012], [2011] ) ) = NULL
The count is as follows:
v
count ([Quantity] within set set([2012], [2013] ) ) = 1
v
count ([Quantity] within set set([2012], [2011] ) ) = 0
String Operations
For all data sources, the result of string operations, such as concatenation (||), that
include a null value is always null.
For example, 'A' || NULL = NULL and NULL || NULL = NULL.
Dimensional coercion rules
IBM Cognos Analytics uses dimensional coercion rules to automatically convert
dimensional types to better match other types. These conversions help you build
simpler expressions, making them easier to understand. In addition to the implicit
rules that IBM Cognos Analytics provides, you can make explicit data type
conversions using various functions, such as children.
IBM Cognos Analytics supports the following types of coercion:
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441
v coercion of an object of one dimensional type into another, such as a level into a
member set
v coercion of a dimensional object into a numeric, date, time, or string value, such
as a numeric measure into a numeric value
Coercion rules are applied to expressions and data items. In expressions, an
operator or function may require operands to be of a particular dimensional type.
When an operand is not of the required type, one or more coercion rules may be
applied to coerce the operand to the appropriate type. Coercion rules may also be
applied to data items to coerce the data item to a collection of members or values.
Function Operands
The following describes how coercion rules are applied to function operands:
v If the operand is of the required type, no coercion is required.
v If the function operand is supposed to be a numeric value, it is coerced into one.
A coercion rule exists for each type of dimensional object coercion.
v If the function operand is supposed to be a dimensional object and a coercion
exists to coerce the operand to the required type, the coercion is applied.
v If no coercion exists, an error message with the code QE-DEF-0478 appears to
indicate that an unsupported conversion of a dimensional object from the source
to target type occurred.
Comparison and Other Symmetric Operators
Binary operators that accept operands of more than one type, such as equals (=)
and in, need both operands to be the same dimensional type.
No coercion is possible between value domains (numeric, date, time, and string) or
between members and values. Consequently, if either operand is a value type, both
must be in the same value domain and converted explicitly using a function.
Otherwise, the query fails.
Members and member set operands are valid only with the operators equals (=),
not equals (<>), in, and not in, where the right side of the expression is a member,
member set, or prompt. Only the following are valid:
v [member / member set] = [member]
v [member / member set] <> [member]
v [member / member set] = ?p?
v [member / member set] <> ?p?
v [member / member set] in ([member], ...)[member / member set] not in ([member], ...)
v [member / member set] in ([member set])[member / member set] not in ([member
set])[member / member set] in ?p?[member / member set] not in ?p?
Exceptions
For the left operand, member sets are supported in detail and summary filter
expressions, but not in expressions that use the filter function. Members are not
supported in detail and summary filters, but they may be used in expressions that
use the filter function.
The in_range operator is not supported for members and member sets.
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Normal coercion rules apply to these operands.
NULL operands are considered values, rather than members.
Examples
The following examples illustrate how coercion is applied to levels in expressions
with operators.
[Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line] = [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line]->[Outdoor
Equipment]
The left operand is coerced to the following member set:
members ([Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line])
The following expressions are invalid:
v [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line] = NULL
v [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line] + 1
v [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line] = ’Canada’
v [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line] > 2000
The following examples illustrate how coercion is applied to members in
expressions with operators. In each example, the left operand is coerced to a value
of the current cell at this member:
(tuple ([Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line]->[Outdoor Equipment]))
v [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line]->[Outdoor Equipment] = NULL
v [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line]->[Outdoor Equipment] + 1
v [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line]->[Outdoor Equipment] > 2000
v [Sales].[Products].[].[Product Line]->[Outdoor Equipment] + ’Canada’
Coercion Rules for Dimensional Objects
The following table describes coercion rules that are applied when coercing an
object of one dimensional type into another.
Note: Measures and Member Unique Names (MUNs) are considered members.
Source type
Target type
Result
Measure dimension
Hierarchy
A measure dimension can be
used without any conversion
as a hierarchy.
Measure dimension
Member set
The member set contains the
members of the measure
dimension.
This coercion is done in two
steps. First, measure
dimensions are coerced to
hierarchies, and then
hierarchies are coerced to
member sets.
Hierarchy
Member set
A set containing the
members of the hierarchy.
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443
Source type
Target type
Result
Level
Member set
A set containing the
members of the level.
The equivalent expression is
members (level).
Measure
Member
A measure can be used
without any conversion as a
member.
Measure
Tuple
This coercion is done in two
steps. First, measures are
coerced to members, and
then members are coerced to
tuples.
Measure
Member set
This coercion is done in two
steps. First, measures are
coerced to members, and
then members are coerced to
member sets.
Member
Tuple
The tuple consists of the
member.
The equivalent expression is
tuple (member).
Member
Member set
The set consists of the
member.
This coercion is done in two
steps. First, members are
coerced to tuples, and then
tuples are coerced to member
sets.
Coercion Rules for Numeric and String Values
The following table describes the coercion rules for expressions or prompts that
return a numeric or string value. These rules apply to functions and operators that
require an operand of a particular data type, as well as to binary operators that
require operands of the same type.
Source type
Target type
Result
Measure
Number, Date/Time, or
String
The result is the value of the
measure at the current cube
intersection.
Member
Number
The result is the value of the
cell at the cube intersection
specified by the member.
This coercion is done in two
steps. First, members are
coerced to tuples, and then
tuples are coerced to the
target type.
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Source type
Target type
Result
Tuple
Number
The value of the cell at the
cube intersection specified by
the tuple.
The equivalent expression is
value (operand or parameter).
Coercion Paths
The following diagram shows how coercion rules are connected. The expression
that coerces a source node type to a target node type is built by following the path
that connects them. A dotted line indicates a coercion that does not require an
explicit conversion function. This occurs whenever the source type is a
specialization of the target type. For example, every measure is a member so you
can use measures without conversion wherever a member is required.
Recommendation - Use Member Unique Name (MUN) Aliases
If you are working with a dimensional data source, use MUN aliases to simplify
building reports and expressions. In addition, you can tie the MUN back to the
member in the package.
When working with dimensional data sources, IBM Cognos Analytics uses MUNs
to uniquely identify members. MUNs are very complex. For example, the MUN for
the member 2012 might appear as
[great_outdoors_company].[Years].[Years].[Year]->:[PC].[@MEMBER].[2012010120121231].
When you build expressions that involve members, the use of MUNs makes these
expressions difficult to read and maintain.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting has an option that automatically generates an
alias for MUNs (More icon
, Options, Report tab, Alias member unique
names). The MUN alias is a data item that has the MUN as its definition. For the
Appendix B. Limitations when using dimensional data sources
445
previous example, you would see 2012 as the MUN alias in the Expression
property for the data item. If the MUN alias is not enabled, in the Expression
property, you would see the complex MUN for 2012.
Important: Do not modify or rename MUN aliases, because they will lose their
connection to their respective members in the package.
Running a Report That Contains Members
If you are using members in a report and your modeler has updated the data
source in a way that changes member unique names, the following problems may
arise when you run the report.
v If the report queries an OLAP data source, you receive an error message
explaining that some specific members cannot be found.
v If the report queries a dimensionally modeled relational (DMR) data source, data
items whose member unique names have changed do not appear in the report.
Calculations that refer to members that have changed no longer contain values
from the members.
To resolve these problems, you must update the member unique names in the
report. Open the query that contains the members that you need to update in
Query Explorer. Delete the member from the pane in which it appears and reinsert
it from the Source tab. For example, if you inserted the member as a detail filter,
delete it from the Detail Filters pane and reinsert it.
Limitations When Formatting Empty Cells in SAP BW Data Sources
When working with SAP BW data sources, if the SAP BW server administrator
configured custom formatting for empty cells on the SAP BW server, this custom
format does not appear in IBM Cognos Analytics reports. Ask your administrator
to configure the formatting of empty cells in IBM Cognos Analytics.
Related tasks:
“Suppress empty cells” on page 341
Sparse data may result in crosstabs showing empty cells. For example, a crosstab
that matches employees with products results in many rows of empty values for
the revenue measure if the employee does not sell those products.
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Appendix C. Limitations When Producing Reports in Microsoft
Excel Format
There are limitations when producing reports in Microsoft Excel format.
Unable to Load Images from the IBM Cognos Analytics Content Store
in a Report
If a report contains an image whose URL points to the IBM Cognos Analytics
content store, the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software generates an access
violation error and shuts down.
This problem is a known issue in the Microsoft knowledge base, and Microsoft is
currently investigating the problem. This problem occurs only in Excel 2002.
Blank Worksheet Appears
If the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software cannot download a worksheet within a
timeout period, Excel may instead open a blank worksheet.
Warning Message Appears When Excel Opens an IBM Cognos
Analytics Report
Each time the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software opens an IBM Cognos
Analytics report, a warning message appears.
The warning message is as follows:
Some of the files in this Web page are not in the expected location. Do you want to
download them anyway? If you are sure the Web page is from a trusted source,
click Yes.
The Excel workbook in HTML/XML format requires the presence of the file
filelist.xml. IBM Cognos Analytics does not allow the creation of local files on the
client side. In addition, a local file that contains URLs introduces a security issue.
Consequently, this message will appear whenever you open an IBM Cognos
Analytics report in Excel. If you see this error message, click Yes to open the
report.
Spreadsheet Content Not Saved for Reports Saved in XLS Format
If you open a report that was saved in XLS format or run a report in XLS format,
and security settings in your Web browser are set so that you are prompted to
open or save the report, do not click Save. If you save the report, the spreadsheet
content will not be saved. This is because Microsoft Excel reports in Microsoft
Office 2000 HTML format use relative paths to the spreadsheets. The relative URL
paths are no longer available when you open a saved XLS report.
Instead, click Open first and then choose to save the report.
447
Unable to Nest Labels in Charts
Currently, it is not possible to specify nested labels for the category axis via XML.
Data Series Are Truncated
The Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software may group data series or categories
differently when compared to a chart produced by IBM Cognos Analytics.
A 1 KB buffer limit in Excel limits the maximum number of data series per chart to
120. Data series over 120 are truncated.
Colors Different From Those in HTML or PDF
If an IBM Cognos Analytics report contains a chart that uses custom colors, the
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software may not be able to add the custom color to
the Excel color palette. Excel will attempt to match the custom color to one of its
available standard colors. As a result, colors in Excel may vary from those seen in
HTML or PDF.
We recommend that you use standard colors in charts.
Repeating Pie Charts
If you have a report that has repeating pie charts and you define a chart title, the
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software will show each pie with a title that is a
concatenation of the chart title and the data series. For example, if the chart title is
Quantity Sold by Order Method and Product Line and the data series is Order
method, the title of each pie in Excel will be Quantity Sold by Order Method and
Product Line, order method.
Unable to Skip Discrete Axis Labels
In IBM Cognos Analytics charts, you can control the skipping of discrete axis
labels. This feature is not supported in Microsoft Excel charts.
Unsupported IBM Cognos Analytics Formatting
About 30% of the formatting functions available in IBM Cognos Analytics are not
supported in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software.
In particular, Excel does not allow changing locale-dependent formatting attributes,
such as the following:
v Decimal Separator
v Exponential Symbol
v Group Separator
v Monetary Decimal Separator
v AM String
v Day Name
v Day Short Name
v Decimal Delimiter Symbol
v Month Name
v Month Short Name
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v PM String
v YYYY date format pattern
Excel does not provide an equivalent capability to the Y formatting character. As
a result, Cognos Analytics cannot preserve this capability when creating XLSX
files.
In addition, Excel does not support the following:
v Format Width
v International Currency Symbol
v List Separator
v Percent Symbol (Excel does not support percent symbols for charts)
v Multiplier
v Overline Text Format
v PerMill Symbol
v Plus Sign
v Scale (Excel has a different scaling formula than IBM Cognos Analytics)
v Calendar (Excel does not allow changing the calendar)
v Era Name
v First Day Of Week
v Show Era
Cells Contain Series of #
Cells in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software have a limit of 255 characters. If
your report contains text strings that are longer than 255 characters, they will be
formatted as text and appear as ######.
To resolve this problem, use fewer characters.
Table and Column Widths
The Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software does not support using percentages to
determine the width of tables.
If the report contains only one table, the value of the width attribute for the Table
element in the report specification determines the width of the table in the Excel
worksheet. If the report contains more than one table, Excel determines the width
of all the tables in the worksheet. If the tables are nested, the width specified for
the outer table is used and, if necessary, the width is adjusted to accommodate
data in the nested tables. The columns and rows around the table are merged to
preserve the appearance of the nested table. When you save the workbook, only a
single table is saved per worksheet.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Is Not Supported in Some Excel Formats
and Versions
SSL is supported for only the Microsoft Excel 2002 format in Microsoft Excel 2002
and Microsoft Excel 2003.
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449
Number Formats Become Currency Formats in Japanese Excel
A report uses the Number data format and you save it as Microsoft Excel output.
When you open the report in the Japanese version of Microsoft Excel, the data
format is listed as Currency rather than Number. This occurs because Japanese
Excel interprets the standard Number data format slightly differently than other
versions of Excel.
The value appears correctly in Number format. For example, if you specified five
digits as your number format, five digits still appear. In Excel, click the Custom
number format to see the exact format string being used.
Reports Show Data in Wrong Columns
A report contains a large amount of data that is presented using a large number of
nested report objects, such as tables and blocks. When the report is produced in
Microsoft Excel format, some of the data appears in the wrong columns. This
occurs because Excel has a 64K limit on how many nested cell objects can appear
in a single spreadsheet.
To solve this problem, you can redesign the report to present the data using
non-nested structures.
Unable to Access Reports on Remote Servers
You cannot access a report in Microsoft Excel format on a remote server.
To resolve this problem, you must change the hostname portion of the gateway
URI from localhost to either the IP address of the computer or the computer name.
You do this using IBM Cognos Configuration.
Drill-through Reports Are Not Supported in Excel
IBM Cognos Analytics does not support drill-through for reports in Microsoft Excel
format.
Map Reports Are Not Supported in Excel
IBM Cognos Analytics does not support map reports in Microsoft Excel format.
Unsupported Excel Formatting
IBM Cognos Analytics does not support some formatting.
The following formatting functions that are available in the Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet software are not supported by IBM Cognos Analytics:
v background images in table cells
v Excel-specific headers and footers
v text flow and justification
v floating text objects
v white space, normal, and wrap text formatting
v maximum characters
Some layouts do not show exactly in HTML and PDF due to Excel limitations.
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Hyperlink Buttons Are Not Supported in Excel
The Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software does not support hyperlink buttons.
Unable to View Reports in Excel Format Sent as Email Attachments
IBM Cognos Analytics can send Microsoft Excel reports in HTML and XML format
by email. However, you cannot open them directly from the email message.
Save the Excel email attachments to your computer and view them from there.
Many items on axis produces empty chart in Excel
If a chart contains many items on the x-axis, an empty chart is generated when the
report output format is Microsoft Excel 2002.
This problem is caused by a limitation in Excel 2002 for chart data strings. To work
around the problem, produce the report in Excel 2007 format. Excel 2007 does not
have this limitation.
Chart legend titles are not supported in Excel
The Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software does not support chart legend titles.
Unsupported Chart Properties in Excel
The following IBM Cognos Analytics chart properties are not supported in the
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software:
v tool tips
v conditional text
v depth
v visual angle
v show values
v marker text location
v show baseline
v new note
v new marker
v truncation text and allow n-degrees rotation category labels
v border
v margin
v box type
v font and font alignment
v footer
v subtitle
v regression line
v baseline
v Include Zero For Auto Scale
v Summarize Small Slices
v Summarize Small Items
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451
In addition, IBM Cognos Analytics makes sure that Excel reuses the same color
palette that is defined in IBM Cognos Analytics. However, Excel can only use the
first 16 colors from the IBM Cognos Analytics palette. If the number of categories
in a chart exceeds 16, the rest of the colors are taken from the default Excel palette.
Unsupported chart types in Excel
About 30% of the chart types available in IBM Cognos Analytics are not matched
in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software.
The following chart types appear differently or are not supported. Charts that are
not supported appear as a default column chart in Excel.
v Bipolar charts
v Bubble charts
Excel does not support regression lines.
v Bullet charts
Excel does not support certain fills. As a result, the colored regions in bullet
charts do not appear in Excel output.
v Combination charts
In Excel, combination charts appear as two-dimensional. If a three-dimensional
or two-dimensional combination chart includes only an area, column, or line
chart, only the one chart appears.
v Gauge charts
v Donut charts
Excel may fill in the donut hole to accommodate extra measures. Excel shows
donut three-dimensional charts as donut charts.
v Maps
In Excel, no chart appears.
v Matrix charts
v Metrics range charts
In Excel, they appear as combination charts with two line charts for the
tolerance bars.
v Pareto charts
In Excel, the cumulative line is not displayed.
v Pie charts
Excel shows only one type of pie chart and may show it at a different angle.
v Progressive column charts
v Polar charts
In Excel, a scatter chart appears instead.
v Quadrant charts
v Radar charts
Excel does not support stacked area radar charts. Excel names area radar charts
as filled radar charts. Excel shows radar charts as radar with markers.
v Scatter charts
In Excel, three-dimensional scatter charts appear as two-dimensional scatter
charts. The z-axis is dropped.
v 100% stacked bar and column charts
Clustered (side-by-side) stacked column charts are not supported in Excel. Only
one column is rendered in the Excel output. For example, you have a 100%
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stacked column chart with Product line and Order method as columns. In the
Excel output, columns for only Product line appear in the chart, but both
Product line and Order method appear in the legend.
Cell Height and Width Are Incorrect
The width and height of cells that contain data with curly brackets {} or
parentheses () may appear incorrectly.
This is because the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software uses different word
wrapping algorithms than IBM Cognos Analytics.
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Appendix D. Prompt API for IBM Cognos Analytics
The JavaScript Prompt API provides report authors with a method of customizing
prompt interaction in the reports they author.
With the prompt API, JavaScript applications can interact with IBM Cognos
Analytics report prompts for the purposes of validation or custom interaction. The
prompt API can query and set user selections, validate typed-in values using
patterns, set default values using expressions or query data, and more. Examples
are provided to show various usage scenarios of the prompt API.
Note: The prompt API does not support tree and search prompt controls.
Additionally, date and date & time prompt controls do not support the
setValidator method.
cognos.Prompt object
Defines the class that contains a prompt object from a report.
This object should only be accessed through an instance of cognos.Report.
cognos.Prompt.getControlByName method
Returns the control object associated with a name.
Syntax
(cognos.Prompt.Control) getControlByName(String sName)
Parameters
{String} sName
Specifies the prompt name property set for the control in IBM Cognos Analytics
- Reporting.
Returns
{cognos.Prompt.Control}
Object associated to the specified sName control. Returns null if the control
does not exist.
Example
The following is an example of the clearMyPrompt() function.
<script type="text/javascript">
function clearMyPrompt() {
var oCR = cognos.Report.getReport("_THIS_");
var myPrompt = oCR.prompt.getControlByName("myPrompt");
myPrompt.clearValues();
}
</script>
cognos.Prompt.getControls method
Returns an array of all controls associated with the report.
455
Syntax
(cognos.Prompt.Control[]) getControls()
Parameters
None.
Returns
{cognos.Prompt.Control[]}
An array of controls associated with the report.
Example
This example implements a function, clearAllValues(), that resets (clears the
selection of) all prompt controls for a page.
<script type="text/javascript">
function clearAllValues() {
var oCR = cognos.Report.getReport("_THIS_");
var aControls = oCR.prompt.getControls();
for (var i = 0; i < aControls.length; i++) {
aControls[i].clearValues();
}
}
</script>
cognos.Prompt.Control object
A control is a visual element in the prompt page, such as a text prompt or a value
prompt.
cognos.Prompt.Control.addValues method
Add an array of values to a control.
If the control does not support multiple values, only the first one provided is used.
Syntax
{void} addValues(aValues)
Parameters
{cognos.Value[]} aValues
The new values to use for this control.
Returns
{void}
Example
This example adds an array of two values (use and display) to a prompt.
var oCR = cognos.Report.getReport(“_THIS_”);
function setPromptValue( promptName, useValue, displayValue ) {
var oP = oCR.prompt. getControlByName( promptName );
var oValue = {'use': useValue, 'display': displayValue };
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oP.addValues( [oValues] );
}
setPromptValue ( 'country', 'ca', 'Canada');
cognos.Prompt.Control.clearValues method
Clear (or deselect) all values for this control.
Syntax
For a text prompt, the text is set to empty. For a value prompt, all the selections
are removed.
{void} clearValues()
Parameters
None.
Returns
{void}
Example
This example resets all the controls of a page.
function clearAllValues() {
var oCR = cognos.Report.getReport("_THIS_");
var aControls = oCR.prompt.getControls();
for (var i = 0; i < aControls.length; i++) {
aControls[i].clearValues();
}
}
cognos.Prompt.Control.getName method
Returns the name of the control.
The name is set in IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting in the name property set for
the control.
Syntax
{String} getName()
Parameters
None.
Returns
{String}
The value specified by the name property set for the control.
cognos.Prompt.Control.getValues method
Returns the current value for the control.
This method always returns an array, even if there is only one value selected.
v The following is an example for a text box prompt (single):
Appendix D. Prompt API for IBM Cognos Analytics
457
[ {use: "Smith", display: "Smith"} ]
v The following is an example for a select prompt (multiple):
[ {use: "CAN", display: "Canada"}, {use: "JPN", display: "Japan"} ]
v The following are examples of range prompts:
A range is an array of two elements, with the mandatory names start and end.
The value of each element is a regular array as in earlier examples. When the
range values are equal, this method returns a normal value instead of a range:
[ {use: useValue, display:displayValue} ]
When the range values are different, this method returns a range:
[ start:{use: useValue, display:displayValue}, end:{use: useValue,
display:displayValue} ]
Syntax
{cognos.Value[]} getValues(boolean v_allOptions)
Parameters
{Boolean} v_allOptions
This optional parameter is applicable only to value prompts. The parameter
specifies whether to retrieve all values or only selected values.
If the parameter is true, then all options are returned. If the parameter is false
or missing, then only the selected options are returned.
The default value of this parameter is false.
Returns
{cognos.Value[]}
An array of values for the control.
Example
This example demonstrates how to adjust your code based on whether the result is
a single value or a range.
function isRangeOutOfLimits(datePrompt, rangeLimit) {
var result = false;
var v = datePrompt.getValues();
var rangeValue = v[0];
var rangeDaysDiff = 0;
if (rangeValue.start) {
rangeDaysDiff = 0;
var startDate = rangeValue.start.use;
var endDate = rangeValue.end.use;
rangeDaysDiff = dateUtils.substractDate(endDate,startDate);
}
if (rangeDaysDiff > 0 && rangeDaysDiff <= rangeLimit) {
result = true;
}
return result;
}
This example demonstrates the use of the parameter v_allOptions.
var allValues = valueControl.getValues(true);
var selectedValues = valueControl.getValues();
cognos.Prompt.Control.setValidator method
Changes the default validation function for a control to one defined by the user.
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When the specified function returns false, the UI element associated with the
control indicates that a validation error occurred. When used in a multi-select
control, the Insert button is disabled.
Note: Date and date & time prompt controls do not support this method.
Syntax
{void} setValidator(oFct)
Parameters
{function} oFct
A user-defined function that takes the user input as a parameter and returns a
Boolean value.
Returns
{void}
Example
This example demonstrates how to ensure that a valid postal code is provided in
the form A1A 1A1.
textBox.setValidator(
function (values) {
var result = false;
if (values && values.length > 0) {
var sValue = values[0][’use’];
var rePostalCodeFormat = new RegExp( "[a-z][0-9][a-z] ?[0-9][a-z][0-9]", "gi" );
if ( rePostalCodeFormat.test(sValue ) ) {
result=true;
}
}
return result;
}
);
cognos.Prompt.Control.setValues method
Resets the control and adds an array of values to a control.
If the control doesn't support multiple values, only the first value provided is used.
This is a convenience method that issues consecutive calls to clearValues() and
addValues().
Syntax
{cognos.Value[]} aValues
Parameters
{cognos.Value[]} aValues
New values to use for this control.
Returns
{void}
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Example
function setPromptValue( promptName, value ) {
var oCR = cognos.Report.getReport(“_THIS_”);
var oP = oCR.prompt. getControlByName( promptName );
oP.setValues( oValues );
}
oValues = [{'use': 'ca', 'display': 'Canada'},
{'use': 'us', 'display': 'USA'}];
setPromptValue( 'countries', oValues );
cognos.Report object
Represents a report object in the content store.
Properties
prompt
References a cognos.Prompt object for this instance.
Example
This example creates a new cognos.Report object from the current instance.
var ocr= cognos.Report.getReport("_THIS_");
The new ocr object is specific to the cognos.Report namespace and avoids
collisions with other objects in your scripts. The keyword _THIS_ should always be
used. The Report Server will replace it with a unique namespace during report
execution.
cognos.Report.getReport method
Getter method for a cognos.Report object.
Namespaces are used to support HTML fragments. Always use a proper
namespace when using this method to retrieve a cognos.Report object.
Syntax
<static> {cognos.Report} cognos.Report.getReport(sNamespace)
Parameters
{String} sNamespace Optional
Returns
{cognos.Report}
The cognos.Report instance for this namespace.
Example
var oCR = cognos.Report.getReport( "_THIS_" );
cognos.Report.sendRequest method
Sends a requests with the current parameters and values.
Syntax
{void} sendRequest(eAction)
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Parameters
{cognos.Report.Action} eAction
Specifies one of the cognos.Report.Action enumeration values. No other
values are allowed.
Returns
{void}
Example
function customButton( eAction )
{
var oCR = cognos.Report.getReport("_THIS_");
oCR.sendRequest( eAction );
}
cognos.Report.Action object
Defines constants for report navigation.
cognos.Report.Action.BACK
Go back one prompt page.
Syntax
<static> <constant> cognos.Report.Action.BACK
cognos.Report.Action.CANCEL
Cancel report execution and navigate to the previous page.
Syntax
<static> <constant> cognos.Report.Action.CANCEL
cognos.Report.Action.FINISH
Submit parameter values and skip all remaining optional prompts and prompt
pages.
Syntax
<static> <constant> cognos.Report.Action.FINISH
cognos.Report.Action.NEXT
Submit parameter values and go to the next prompt page.
Syntax
<static> <constant> cognos.Report.Action.NEXT
cognos.Report.Action.REPROMPT
If the report contains prompt pages, the first prompt page is displayed. Otherwise,
if the report doesn't contain prompt pages, this constant will re-prompt for values.
Syntax
<static> <constant> cognos.Report.Action.REPROMPT
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461
cognos.Value class
JSON structure to represent parameter values.
This object includes the following valid attributes:
v display
v end
v start
v use
Simple values
{ ’use’: ’[a].[b].[c]’, ’display’: ’Canada’ }
Range values
{
’start’: {’use’: ’2007-01-01’, ’display’: ’January 1, 2007’}
’end’: {’use’: ’2007-12-31’, ’display’: ’December 31, 2007’}
}
Multiple values
[
{ ’use’: ’12’, ’display’: ’Canada’ },
{ ’use’: ’41’, ’display’: ’Germany’ },
{ ’use’: ’76’, ’display’: ’Japan’ }
]
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Appendix E. Legacy Map Manager maps
This appendix describes the Map Manager maps functionality that has been
replaced by new maps functionality as described in other areas of this document.
IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting provides a set of maps that you can use to
represent tabular data in a spatial context. For example, on a map of the world,
countries and regions can be colored to represent the level of revenue.
Maps are not supported for reports run in Microsoft Excel format.
The Reporting map object
Maps are most often used to show geographical areas, but they can be used to
show other spatial information, such as a floor plan in a building, seats in an
airplane, or parts of the human body.
Maps are similar to crosstabs in the way their data is organized. The display is
different, but maps show the intersection of data the same ways as crosstabs; for
example, you can see the revenue for golf equipment in Canada.
A map in IBM Cognos Analytics consists of a collection of layers. Each layer
contains different information and acts like a transparency that is placed over the
map. Each layer adds more information to the map. For example a map of the
world may contain information related to countries or regions on one layer and
information related to cities on another level.
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting maps provide the following three types of
layers:
v Region layer
Specifies the regions on a map to be differentiated according to values in the
data source. For example, to show the revenue level for each country and region
on a map of the world, choose Country and Region as the region layer and then
specify that the color of each country and region is based on the revenue value
for that country and region. Areas can be set up for drilling through to other
reports.
v Point layer
Specifies the points to be placed on a map. The color and size of the points is
based on the data that you select. For example, you choose to show cities as
points on a map and set the color of each point by revenue and the size of each
point by profit. Points can be set up for drilling through to other reports.
v Display layer
You can show or hide items such as grid lines or capital cities. This layer is
determined in the map file and not in the data source.
Note: If you intend to create CSV or XML output from your map, use only a point
layer or a region layer. CSV and XML do not support the simultaneous use of both
layers in the same map. Only one layer will be rendered in the output.
Creating a map report
To show how revenue for the company is distributed throughout the world, you
can create a report that contains a map that shows the distribution of revenue by
country and region.
Procedure
1. To start IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting click New and then click Report.
2. In the Templates and themes window, click Blank and then click OK.
3. Click the Data icon, click the Add report data icon
click Open.
, find the package and
4. Click the Toolbox icon, double-click Map.
5. In the Choose map dialog box, in the Maps pane, expand the World folder and
click World.
6. In the Region layers box, click Countries and Regions + Territories.
7. In the Point layers box, click None.
8. In the Display layers box, click Oceans and then click OK.
Tip: You can select or deselect multiple display layers by Ctrl+clicking.
Tip: You can return to the Choose Map dialog box at any time by
double-clicking the map background.
9. Drag data items to the map and run the report.
Set Map Properties
When you select an element in a map, you can view its properties in the
Properties pane. Some properties are dependent on the existence of other
properties.
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If you are familiar with using conditional variables, you can customize the map to
change appearance or provide information in response to expressions or
conditions.
When you change a map property, you usually do not see the change until you
run the report. Changes to the properties of labels and titles are reflected
immediately.
These are some of the properties you can change in maps. These properties are
available when you select the map object, unless specified otherwise in the Action
to perform in the Properties pane column.
Goal
Action to perform in the Properties pane
Hide or show the title, subtitle, footer, or
axis title
Under Chart Titles, set the Title, Subtitle,
Footer, or Axis Title property.
Hide or show the legend
Under Chart Annotations, set the Legend
property.
Hide or show region and point layer values
and labels on the map
Select the region or point layer. Under Chart
Labels, double-click the Show Values
property and select the options that you
want.
To hide overlapping labels, select the Hide
overlapping labels check box.
Hide or show display layer labels on the
map
Select the display layer. Under Chart Labels,
double-click the Show Labels property and
select the option that you want.
To hide overlapping labels, select the Hide
overlapping labels check box.
Hide or show the border around the legend
Select the legend icon. Under Box, set the
Borders property.
Change the border around the map object
Under Box, set the Border property.
Hide or show the tooltips
Note: Some versions of Acrobat Reader do
not support tooltips.
Under Chart Labels, set the Tooltips
property.
Change the amount of white space around
the map
Under Box, set the Padding or Margin
property.
Change the default colors for all map
elements
Under Color & Background, set the
Background Color, Foreground Color, or
Fill Effects property.
Change the font and the alignment of text
Under Font & Text, set the Font or Relative
Alignment property.
Tip: The 2011 Quarterly Sales Forecast
sample report in the GO Sales (analysis)
package includes text alignment.
Resize the map
Under Positioning, set the Size & Overflow
property.
Change the font for the legend
Select the legend icon. Under Font & Text,
set the Font property.
Change the format of values in the legend
Select the value in the region or point layer.
Under Data, set the Data Format property.
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465
Goal
Action to perform in the Properties pane
Ignore data with no features
Under Data, set the Ignore Data with No
Features property.
Specify the size of points
In the point layer, click the measure in the
Size drop zone and set the Minimum Size
and Maximum Size properties.
Add titles, subtitles, footers, or axis titles
Set the Title, Subtitle, Footer, or Axis Title
property.
Procedure
1. Select the map object or map element to change:
v To change general properties, such as size and color, click the map object.
v To change specific map elements, such as a layer or title, click the element
itself.
Tip: To cancel a selection, press the Esc key.
2. In the Properties pane, set the property value.
An ellipsis button indicates that a dialog box provides further options.
Note: You may have to scroll to see all the properties.
Defining Data Values for the Region Layer
The map that you created in the previous topic is not yet linked to a data source.
You will now specify the data values from your data source that will determine the
color of each region.
Procedure
1. From the Source tab
, expand your data.
2. Drag your measure to the Color drop zone.
3. Drag your country or region items to the Location drop zone.
4. Run the report.
Match Data Values to Names in the Map File
If the Ignore Data with No Features property is set to No, then each object that is
called from the data source must have a matching label in the specified layer of the
map file. For example, if your data source has a country and region named United
States and the layer in the map file labels the same country and region USA, then
there is a mismatch that must be corrected. IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting only
makes you aware of a mismatch if each object in your data source does not have a
corresponding label in the map file. If there are extra labels in the map file that do
not have a match in the data source, the report will run without an error message.
A mismatch between your data and the map file must be corrected by the report
author. It can not be corrected by a consumer of the map report at run time. There
are two ways to correct a mismatch between your data and the labels in the map
files. You can use IBM Cognos Map Manager to edit the labels in the layers of the
map file, or you can use the dictionary property to create an alias for each
mismatched object. When you use the dictionary property, it resolves the mismatch
only for a single report, and is not shared with other reports. If you intend to
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continue using a map with the same data source, it is best to edit the map in Map
Manager so that the labels match the objects in your data source.
For information about using Map Manager, see the Map Manager Installation and
User Guide.
Procedure
1. Select the map object.
The title bar of the Properties pane now shows the word Map.
2. In the General section of the Properties pane, double-click the Dictionary
property.
3. Click the new button
.
4. In the Dictionary Entry dialog box, click Search.
5. In the Search string box, type a word or part of a word for which to search.
For example, if you are searching for United States, type in part or all of the
name.
6. In the Search map layer box, click the layer to search and click Search.
7. In the Matching features box, click the label to which to match your data
source and click OK.
8. In the Alias box, type the name as it appears in the data source and click OK.
For example, if the country and region in your data source is named USA, type
USA as the alias.
Note: To find out the name for the objects in your data source, run a list
report. For example, you can run a list report to show the names of all the
countries and regions in your data source. For more information see Chapter 3,
“Lists,” on page 41.
Define Data Values for the Point Layer
The Point layer in a map is used to visually represent data for point locations, such
as cities or sales outlets. Both the color and size of points can be based on data
from your data source.
Procedure
1. Open the Choose Map dialog box:
v When you create a new map report, this dialog box appears automatically.
v If you are already in a map report, double-click the map background.
2. In the Point Layers box, select the layer containing the points to show on the
map.
For example, on a map of the world, you may want the points to represent
cities.
3. From the Source tab
Point Layer.
, drag a data item to the Color drop zone in the
For example, to have the color of the point based on revenue, drag Revenue
from the Source tab to the Color drop zone.
4. From the Source tab, drag a data item to the Size drop zone in the Point
Layer.
Appendix E. Legacy Map Manager maps
467
5. From the Source tab, drag a data item to the Location drop zone in the Point
Layer.
The object must be supported in the map file as a point location. For example,
in the World sample map, city is supported as a point location but country or
region is not.
6. If you need to refine the location, drag an object to the Refine Location drop
zone.
Use this drop zone when there is more than one location with the same name.
For example, if you try to run a report with cities in the point layer, and there
is more than one city in your data source with the same name, the report does
not run. An error message indicates that there are cities in your data source
with duplicate names. You can differentiate the cities by using the data object
Region to refine the location.
Add Colors to the Region or Point Layer
You can add colors for regions or points and specify values to determine when
those colors are shown.
Procedure
1. In the report, click the Region Layer or Point Layer.
2. In the Color & Background section of the Properties pane, double-click the
Palette property.
3. Click the new button
and click Color.
A new color is added to the list of colors.
4. To view the palette colors as a continuous spectrum in which colors blend into
one another, click Continuous Colors.
5. With the new color selected, click Color in the right pane of the dialog box and
select a color.
6. Change the percentage boundaries for the colors.
Tip: To specify absolute values rather than percentages, clear the Percentage
check box.
Add a Legend Title to a Map
There are legend titles for the entire legend, for the color of the regions, for the
color of the points, and for the size of the points.
Procedure
1. If the legend title is not showing, click the legend icon
.
2. In the General section of the Properties pane, set the Legend Title to Show.
3. In the report, double-click the legend title and type the title.
4. By default, the legend titles are taken from the object you have selected from
the data source. To change the legend title for the region color, point color, or
point size, do one of the following:
v Click the Toolbox icon
, drag a text or calculation object to the Color
Legend Title drop zone in the Region Layer or Point Layer, or the Size
Legend Title drop zone in the Point Layer.
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IBM Cognos Analytics - Reporting Version 11.0: User Guide
v Double-click the Color Legend Title or Size Legend Title drop zone, to
change from the default legend title, then double-click the drop zone again.
In the Text dialog box, type text for the legend title.
Add a Note to a Map
You can add one or more notes, determine their position in the map report, and
specify borders around notes.
Procedure
1. Select the map object.
2. In the Chart Annotations section of the Properties pane, double-click the
Notes property.
3. Click the new button
, and click OK twice.
A note icon with the words New Note appears in the report.
4. Click New Note next to the note icon
.
5. In the Text Source section of the Properties pane, double-click the Text
property.
6. Type the text to appear in the note and click OK.
7. In the report, click the note icon.
8. In the Positioning section of the Properties pane, type values to specify the
bottom position, left position, height, and width for the note.
The location of the note is defined by the number of pixels.
9. Set the Note Border property to specify a border around the note.
10. Run the report to view the note.
If necessary, change the position again.
Drill Through to Another Report From a Map
You can link regions or points on a map to another report. For example, on a map
of the world, you can specify that when you click on China, a map of China opens.
Procedure
1. Open the target report.
2. From the report object toolbar, click Filters.
3. On the Detail Filters tab, click the add button
.
4. In the Available Components box, click the Source or Data Items tab to select
the data item to use.
For example, to open the target report when Canada is clicked in the source
report, expand Countries and Regions and double-click Country and Region.
5. In the Expression Definition box, type an operator after the data item or
select an operator from the Functions tab and then enter a value.
For example, to open the report when Canada is clicked in the source report,
the expression would be as follows:
[Country and Region]='Canada', where [Country and Region] is the name of
the data item in the package.
6. Save the target report.
7. Open the source report.
Appendix E. Legacy Map Manager maps
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8. Select the region layer or the point layer.
9. In the Data section of the Properties pane, double-click the Map Drills
property.
10. In the Map Drills dialog box, click the new button
.
11. In the Search string box, type the name of the feature to use for the
drill-through link.
For example, to open a report when you click on Canada in the map, search
on all or part of the wo