Love of Electrical Engineering was in her blood

Love of Electrical Engineering was in her blood
Hello and welcome once again to Electrical
India. The much-awaited cabinet reshuffle
of the Modi government was done today
and as was expected Piyush Goyal has
been shunted out of the power ministry
and he has been succeeded by former
bureaucrat R K Singh. I must add word of
appreciation for the former power minister
before we tell him good bye and get used
to writing power minister R K Singh. Piyush
Goyal, who has been elevated to cabinet
rank and named as the new minister of
railways, will also retain the ministry of
No doubt, there is still power shortage
and no electricity in many thousands of
villages throughout the country, but Piyush Goyal, who was considered the harbinger
of change in the power sector, has in the past three years completely transformed
the power and energy scenario in the country. In my career as a journalist in the
power industry for over 20 years, I can emphatically say that Piyush is one such
power minister, who has not only made electricity accessible and affordable but has
also made the country’s position in the world bank’s electricity accessibility index up
from 99 when he took over to 26 when he was promoted today. Strangely, another
former power minister who was dynamic in the power ministry was also from the BJP
-- in the erstwhile Vajpayee government. He was Rangarajan Kumaramangalam,
who propelled mega power projects forward and delivered on his promises and
whom I had interviewed for Electrical India a few months before he passed away at
a very young age of 48 in August of 2000.
Goyal’s game changer has been his own scripted Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana
(UDAY), which is the first comprehensive power sector reform seen in India as it
covers the entire value chain in the power sector from fuel to generation, transmission,
renewable, distribution and consumers. Many of our highly indebted state power
distribution companies, which are the weakest link in the electricity value chain has
turned around.
The target of UDAY and the power ministry has not yet been met. A lot is still to be
done. Hopefully, his successor R K Singh, whose first statement after taking charge
was complimenting Piyush Goyal for finishing bulk of the work he had started and
for making his challenge easier, will be taking it to the finishing line before the next
general election. Going by his track record as a bureaucrat, ministry of power will
be the ministry to watch for, for action and surprises. After all, this entire exercise of
cabinet reshuffle was also done keeping in mind the next general election. Please
send in your comments to me at [email protected]
Publisher & Editor-In-Chief
Vol 57. Issue No. 9
Publisher & Editor-In-Chief
Mahadevan Iyer
[email protected]
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ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
September 2017
Pravita Iyer
Mahadevan Iyer
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Cable Construction & Cable Selection
Self Regulating Heat Tracing Cable
Ancillary services through Microgrid for Grid
Security & Reliability
– Jignesh Parmar
– A. K. Singh, Prasad Bhukya, Navin Kumar,
Arvind Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Mishra
– Prof. Mrs. Kalyani M. Kurundkar, Dr. Mrs. G. A. Vaidya
Stay Protected from Electrical Fires
Digital Earth Resistance Measurement System
Rural Electrification: Energising Villages
– Vimal Kumar Chopra
– Hardik Rupreliya, Baljit Singh Tomar,
Dhruv Patel, Akshat Patel, Parth Pandya
– Aqeel Ahmad
Vol. 57 | No. 9 | September 2017
High Voltage Cables Market worth
USD 41.27 Bn by 2021 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MV Covered Conductors: Safety Solution
for Wildlife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Lalitha, the first Indian woman engineer: Love
of Electrical Engineering was in her blood . . . . . . .
Rishabh CTs – A Technological Excellence. . . . . . . .
GE Continues to Modernise Generator Units
of Paks Nuclear Power Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Chip-Repellent e-tubes from igus . . . . . . . . . .
“Renewable integration will
change generation footprint”
Ved Mani Tiwari
COO, Sterlite Power
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Publisher’s Letter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Market Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Calender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Product Avenue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index to Advertisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National News >>
BHEL consolidates its global footprint, forays into two new countries
harat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) has achieved yet another
milestone in expanding and consolidating its footprint in the
international market by securing export orders from Chile and Estonia.
With maiden orders for transformer bushing from Niquel Electric Ltda.,
Chile and Electronic cards from SCANFIL OY Vana Sauga, Estonia, BHEL has
now expanded its global footprint to 82 countries across all the six inhabited
continents. The company is continuously aligning its export strategy in line
with global dynamics. Persistent efforts towards globalisation have led
to BHEL securing the highest ever export orders of over Rs.10,000 Crore from
23 countries in FY 2016-17. Significantly, the company secured its largest
Decentralised Distributed Generation for Electrification
of Remote/Backward Areas
he Minister of State (IC) For Power, Coal, New & Renewable Energy
and Mines, Piyush Goyal, in a written reply to a question in Lok
Sabha, informed the House about the steps taken by the Government
for electrification of villages situated in backward and remote areas of the
country through new and renewable energy sources.
The Minister stated that under the Decentralized Distributed
Generation (DDG) of Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY),
electricity access is provided to all the villages/habitations where grid
connectivity is either not feasible or not cost effective including those
situated in backward and remote areas of the country. This includes mini
grids and standalone systems.
Goyal informed that as on 30.6.2017, 4,220 projects have been
sanctioned with the project cost of Rs.1354.60 crore, in various States across
the country under the DDG scheme. All the remaining un-electrified
villages are targeted to be electrified by May, 2018.
Further, the Minister stated that a subsidy of Rs.246.84 crore was
ever export order for setting up the 1,320 MW (2x660 MW) Maitree Super
Thermal Power Project in Bangladesh. Significantly, won against stiff
international competitive bidding, this is BHEL’s largest power project order
in the international market. Recently, it also forayed into two other countries
in Africa, Togo and Benin.
BHEL is making concerted efforts to tap available opportunities in the
overseas market. Currently, the company is focusing on expanding its global
presence through market expansion and market penetration. The company
is favourably placed in opportunities in Africa including a Combined Cycle
Power Plant in Tanzania and a Hydro Power Plant in Zimbabwe.
disbursed under DDG during the last three years. The State-wise details
of capital subsidy released under DDG during the last three years 2014-15,
2015-16 and 2016-17 are as follows:
Sr. No. Name of the State Subsidy amount (Rs. in crore)
Andhra Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Grand Total
NHPC scheduled to generate 4458.69 MUs additional power
inister of State (IC) for Power, Coal, New & Renewable Energy and
Mines, Piyush Goyal, in a written reply to a question in Rajya
Sabha, informed that NHPC is scheduled to generate 4458.69
Million Units (MUs) additional power (based on design energy) from two of
its present under construction hydro
projects, viz., Parbati-II H.E.P (800
MW) in Himachal Pradesh, scheduled
to be commissioned in October, 2018
and Kishanganga H.E.P (330 MW) in
Jammu & Kashmir scheduled to be
commissioned in January, 2018. Informing about the status of progress of hydro-electric projects in the
country, Goyal stated that presently 41 H.E.P. (above 25 MW), aggregating
to 11792.5 MW, are under construction in the country. All the above projects
are running behind schedule due to various reasons including natural
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
calamities, geological factors, delays in forest clearances & land acquisition
and law & order problems, the Minister added. Goyal informed the House about the steps taken by the Government for
expeditious commissioning of pending projects, which are as follows:
• Central Electricity Authority (CEA) is monitoring the under construction
hydro power projects (above 25 MW) in pursuance of Section 73 (f) of
Electricity Act, 2003. The progress of each project is monitored
continuously through site visits, interaction with the developers & other
stake holders. Chairperson, CEA holds review meetings with the Power
Projects Monitoring Panel (PPMP) and monitoring divisions of CEA.
• Power Project Monitoring Panel (PPMP), set up by the Ministry of
Power, independently monitors the progress of the hydro projects. • Ministry of Power also reviews the progress of ongoing hydroelectric
projects regularly with the concerned officers of CEA, equipment
manufacturers, State Utilities / CPSUs / Project developers, etc. Brugg Cables India Pvt. Ltd.
Phone: +91 124 499 2802 • Fax: +91 124 499 2805
E-mail: [email protected] •
National News >>
Government takes steps to ease stress in Stalled Thermal
Power Projects: Piyush Goyal
he Minister of State (IC) for Power, Coal, New & Renewable Energy
and Mines, Piyush Goyal, while giving a written reply to a question
in Lok Sabha, informed the House that Government has reviewed
the status of 34 stressed Thermal Power Projects, as per the list provided by
Department of Financial Services (DFS), with an estimated debt of about Rs.
1.77 lakh crore. The Minister also informed that as per DFS data, the total
advances towards electricity generation sector reported by Scheduled
Commercial Banks (SCBs) is about Rs. 4.71 lakh crore and most of them are
stranded assets. Goyal stated that Neyveli Lignite Corporation of India Limited (NLCIL)
has identified Ragunathpur Thermal Power Station- Phase-I (2x660 MW), a
stressed asset of Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) for acquisition. NLC has
also shortlisted two suitable stressed power assets for possible acquisition
to augment its power generation capacity. Currently, NTPC has no proposal
to acquire stressed power projects or enable their lenders to operate on
contract basis, the Minister added. Government has identified the major reasons for stress in the Power
Sector, which are as follows: • Non-availability of regular fuel supply arrangements • Lack of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) tie-ups • Inability of the Promoter to infuse the equity and service debt • Regulatory and Contractual issues Goyal informed that the Government has also taken a number of
steps to ease stress in the sector. These include: • For grant of regular coal linkages, Govt. of India has approved New Coal
Allocation Policy, 2017, for Power sector, on 17.05.2017 viz. SHAKTI
(Scheme for Harnessing and Allocating Koyala Transparently in India)
under which coal is made available to Public Sector Undertakings of
Central and State Government, and Independent Power Producers
(IPPs) against already concluded long-term Power Purchase Agreements
(PPAs) and long-term & medium-term PPAs, to be concluded in future. To encourage increased purchase of Power, following measures
have been taken: • Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY) scheme for Financial and Operational
Turnaround of power distribution utilities (DISCOMs) of the country. • Power For All (PFA) initiative with States and UTs for bringing
uninterrupted quality of power to each household, industry, commercial
business, small & medium enterprise and establishment. • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) for Rural
Electrification; strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution
networks in the rural areas; separation of agriculture and nonagriculture feeders and metering of distribution transformers/ feeders/
consumers in the rural areas. • Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS) for strengthening of
sub-transmission and distribution networks in the urban areas;
Metering of distribution transformers / feeders / consumers in the
urban areas and IT enablement of distribution sector. • Augmenting Transmission capacity to remove transmission constraints. • Flexibility in utilisation of domestic coal for reducing the cost of power
Turning Indian villages into solar power stations
illages in India will benefit from Swansea University expertise in
creating buildings that work as power stations, generating, storing
and releasing their own power, thanks to £7 million of UK
government funding. The money was awarded to
a Swansea-led consortium of 12 UK and Indian
universities, including Oxford, Cambridge,
Brunel, and Imperial College London.
The award illustrates Swansea University’s
leading role in research in areas such as solar
energy and steel, and the pioneering work on
“buildings as power stations” carried out by the University-led SPECIFIC
project, which recently opened the UK’s first energy-positive classroom.
The new solar project, called SUNRISE, will develop printed photovoltaic
cells and new manufacturing processes, which can be used to construct
solar energy products in India. These will then be integrated into buildings
in five villages, allowing them to harness solar power to provide their own
energy and run off grid. One of the key aims is to provide a real-life example which proves that
this technology works, and that it is appropriate in these communities. The
plan is that it will encourage local industries to manufacture affordable
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
prefabricated buildings, adapted for their environment, that can generate,
store and release their own power.
The project is in line with Indian government plans, announced by
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, to turn the
country into a solar energy leader, leap-frogging
fossil fuels, and to boost the Indian manufacturing
sector. The concept of a building as a power station
has already been proven to work, with the
opening of the energy-positive classroom on the
Swansea University Bay campus. Designed and built by the SPECIFIC project, the classroom can run off
grid. Electricity is generated by a steel roof with integrated solar cells,
supplied by SPECIFIC spin out company BIPVco. It is connected to two
saltwater batteries, which are being used in the UK for the first time and are
capable of storing enough energy to power the building for two days.
The building also uses Tata Steel’s perforated steel cladding for
generation of solar heat energy, which can be stored in a water-based
system, and an electrically-heated floor coating that has been developed by
SPECIFIC researchers.
When it comes to expertise in Uninterrupted
Power supplies Riello Power India has it all
Riello Power India has delivered over 10000 successful
installations in India & Indian subcontinent
318, 3rd Floor, Time Tower, MG Road, Gurgaon, Haryana – 122002
Tel: +91-124-4727134 • Mob:07838552211 • Email: [email protected] • Web:
Company News >>
India’s largest battery based Solar Project – UP Sabzi Mandi project
onsul Neowatt, the global Indian UPS company shared
that it has received the approvals for execution of one
of the largest battery based hybrid solar power projects
in India totalling over 3MW. The project will be powered by
Consul Neowatt’s much acclaimed Sunbird range of hybrid solar
inverters, which has strong performance credentials and is
today the No 1 preferred choice of solar system integrators in
India for any solar power plant with energy storage.
The Sabzi Mandi project initiated by the Government of
Uttar Pradesh is a full-fledged market facility for farmers well
equipped with cold storage facilities, shops, drainage systems,
and warehouses.
The project will cover 16 locations in the state and locations
will be fitted with multiple units of 150kw to 400kW Sunbird
solar Power Conditioning Units (PCUs) to be self-sufficient for
uninterrupted power supply. The solar power in these sites will
serve a mix load of pump motors, lighting, cool
storage fans and other infrastructural needs of the
Sriram Ramakrishnan, CEO & MD, Consul
Neowatt Power Solutions, said, “Our Sunbird range
of solar inverters has proven its ruggedness and
ability to handle a variety of loads over the last
couple of years and was the natural choice for a
project that required solar power to not only power
up the traditional lighting loads but also pump
motors and cold storage fans. This project
demonstrates the feasibility of high power solar
power plants with energy storage as a viable option
for DG Sets and is enabled by the industry leading
technology in-built in our Sunbird hybrid solar
MYSUN launches India’s most advanced and easy to use Rooftop Solar Calculator
uoyed by the overwhelming success of
the MYSUN Solar Calculator, which has
been used by more than 200,000
energy consumers across India in less than 9
months since its launch, MYSUN, the
innovative technology backed solar rooftop
platform recently revealed the launch of an
advanced version of the tool. Called the
‘MYSUN Advanced Rooftop Solar Calculator,
the solar system sizing and savings calculator allows users to estimate an
accurate solar system size, costing estimates, financial returns, impact of
subsidies and offers a simulation of different financing options tailor made
for each and every individual user. The best part is that running the
Advanced Calculator is just as easy as the Basic Calculator and requires just
the three basic inputs: your location, electricity bill amount and the
consumer category.
Recognising the requirement of builders and homeowners who are
constructing a new house or a new building, the company has also launched
a separate calculator, specifically designed to cater to their needs. This
would allow consumers/ builders/ real estate companies to not just design
their buildings solar ready, it would also allow them to estimate their energy
savings while the construction is being planned so that they can go solar
from Day 1. MYSUN believes that with free tools such as the MYSUN Solar
Calculator for Under Construction Building
and MYSUN Advanced Rooftop Solar
Calculator, the consumers will be able to
visualise and therefore maximise their energy
savings through optimum use of solar systems.
This would eventually help in the adoption of
solar reducing the decision making time,
propelling India to reach the set target of
100GW by 2022 faster.
The Advanced MYSUN Solar Calculator also has a Net Metering feature,
which helps buyers to gauge as to how their savings and returns would be
impacted when they opt for Net Metering and whether they should go for it
or not. The tool also informs about the solar policies as well as the Net
Metering policies across different states in the country.
Through the calculator, consumers can also determine the impact of
using a battery-backed solar system (off-grid solar or hybrid solar) versus a
grid connected system and can decide which system type is more suitable
for them. This usually depends on specific energy requirements, grid
downtime and savings expectations. Commercial and industrial
establishments can also test the impact of availing Accelerated Depreciation,
if they wish to.
In short, the MYSUN Advanced Solar Calculator is the most comprehensive
tool for those who are serious about going with Rooftop Solar.
Vikram Solar concludes MoU with Israel’s Water-Gen
ikram Solar had signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
with Israel’s Water-Gen, an air-to-water technology provider in
March 2017, to understand and develop options to meet water
solutions in the country. The plan was to co-operate and jointly study and
examine the water needs across India and use the know-how and technology
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
of Water-Gen to establish local manufacturing facilities in India.
Although the journey brought light to new technology and the
opportunities to provide clean water solutions in various areas of India, the
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Israel’s Water-Gen expired on
27th May 2017 and will not be extended any further.
Company News >>
Alfanar Group of Saudi Arabia collaborates with Suzlon
Suzlon will execute the entire project on a turnkey basis
uzlon Group, a well known global renewable energy
and will also provide operation and maintenance services.
solutions provider in the world, has won an order of
The project has the potential to provide power to over 27,000
50.40 MW wind power project from Riyadh based
households and reduce 0.10 million tonnes of CO2 emissions
Alfanar Group. This is a maiden order from Alfanar, for 24
per annum.
units of S111-90m wind turbine generator, each with a rated
J.P. Chalasani, Group CEO, Suzlon Group, said, “We
capacity of 2.1 MW. The project will be completed by March
welcome Alfanar Energy to India and into our customer
family. Renewable energy market is growing at a robust pace
Alfanar Energy is a fully owned subsidiary of the Alfanar
in India. With our two decades of experience, proven
Group and has set ambitious targets for the Indian market as
technologies, comprehensive product portfolio, and end-toan independent power producer (IPP) and developer. The
J.P. Chalasani
end solutions along with integrated maintenance and
group has allocated resources for setting up 2.2 GWs of
renewable energy projects in the next five years and will focus on wind, solar services, Suzlon is best positioned to serve Alfanar’s ambition to capitalise
on the growing market opportunities in India.”
(PV and CSP) and biomass primarily in MENA, India and Southern Africa.
Tata Power becomes the first power utility to introduce
QR code for bill payments in India
Customer Relation Centre or any other payment avenues and can make
ata Power, India’s well known integrated power company is a
the payment from the comfort of his home/office or on-the-go.
pioneer in the application of innovation and technology for value
added benefits to its customers. In line with this commitment, Tata • All bill details will be auto captured while scanning the QR code and the
consumer has to pay using a single tap on his smartphone. The
Power has become the first power utility to introduce QR code service for bill
consumer need not remember his debit / credit or net banking A/c &
payments in Mumbai.
IFSC code details.
The QR code linked to Unified Payments Interface (UPI) will be printed
Ashok Sethi, COO & ED, Tata Power, said, “We, at Tata Power are
on the electricity bills. Customers can scan the QR code with BHIM app or
constantly working to harness the use of technology to
any other UPI linked bank apps and pay their bills without any
improve our overall customer service and experience. With
hassle. The bill details will be displayed on the app, post which
this, Tata Power will revolutionise electricity bill payments in
the customer can authorise the payment within a few seconds
the city.
and his bill will be paid instantaneously.
The service will provide safer payment options to the
Though this functionality of bill payments through a QR
consumers and contribute to the financial inclusion in the
code has been introduced in other service industries, it will be
country. Tata Power is confident that it will prove to be a great
launched in the power industry for the first time in India by
addition to their overall stakeholder experience and we will
Tata Power.
remain committed to providing quality and uninterrupted
Some of the advantages of QR code service are:
Ashok Sethi
power to our consumers.”
• Consumer need not visit any Tata Power Bill Collection/
Siemens to install state-of-the-art IGBT technology for Indian Railways
IGBTs are state-of-the-art power electronics for the
ndian Railways contributes to the enduring success of the
nation’s growth story through its pivotal role in ensuring
traction system of electric and diesel-electric rail vehicles. The
reliable, safe and secure transportation of people, goods
main benefit of IGBT is that it reduces the requirement for
and services. With a focus on modernisation, expansion of rail
current, minimising heat and traction noise while also making
networks and energy efficiency, Siemens has been a trusted
the acceleration process efficient.
partner of the Indian Railways for the last six decades.
Tilak Raj Seth, Executive Vice-President and Head,
Siemens Limited will be designing, supplying and
Mobility, Siemens Limited, said, “The advent of IGBTs has
installing Alternating Current (AC) Traction systems for Dual
yielded strong efficiency gains in electric drive technology.
Cab High Horsepower Diesel Engine locomotive for Diesel
The project showcases Siemens’ partnership with the Indian
Tilak Raj Seth
Locomotive Works (DLW), Indian Railways. The systems have
Railways as it combines innovation with responsibility to
been developed based on the state-of-the-art Insulated Gate
Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) technology. The AC Traction systems will be bring together the combined expertise of its teams that is committed to
deliver reliable, safe and efficient technologies.”
produced at the Nashik Factory of Siemens Limited.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
International News >>
ABB wins $30 million order to strengthen power infrastructure in Iraq
BB has won an order to supply and install
a substation at the 3,000 megawatt
(MW) Rumaila power plant, located in
the Basra region of southern Iraq. The completed
power plant will be operated by Shamara Holding
Group (SHG), one of Iraq’s largest private industrial
conglomerates and an independent power
producer. The Rumaila power plant is expected to
increase power generation capacity by about 20
percent and address acute shortages of electricity, hampering economic
growth in the country. The order was booked in the second quarter of 2017.
The 3,000 MW from the Rumaila power plant will add to Iraq’s current
generation of 13,000 MW, which is short of the country’s peak load demand
of about 23,000 MW. Iraq balances its high power demand and low supply
capacity through load shedding, which means power is only available to its
34 million citizens for about 15 hours each day. The addition of new
generating plants will increase electricity
supply, and support economic growth.
ABB will design, engineer, supply and
install the 400 kilovolt (kV) air insulated
switchgear (AIS) substation, which will be
equipped with technology and instrument
transformers from ABB. The substation will
also be equipped with advanced digital
control, protection and telecommunication
Claudio Facchin, President of ABB’s Power Grids division, said, “Our
advanced substation solution will help bring much needed electricity to the
region by expanding capacity and strengthening Iraq’s power infrastructure,
bringing much needed power to consumers. This project adds to our
extensive installed base in the region and supports our Next Level strategic
thrust on growing markets.”
Duke Energy seeking wind power to serve customers in the Carolinas
s part of building a smarter energy future and generating cleaner
energy for its customers, Duke Energy Carolinas (DEC) issued a
request for proposals (RFP) for up to 500 megawatts (MW) of wind
capacity that would be delivered to its transmission system.
Results from the RFP could bring clean wind energy to the Carolinas and
help DEC meet North Carolina’s 2007 Renewable Energy and Energy
Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS) that mandates the company generate
12.5 percent of its retail sales in the state by renewable energy or energy
efficiency programs by 2021, and continuing afterward.
Rob Caldwell, President, Duke Energy Renewables and Distributed
Energy Technology, said, “As costs in the wind sector decline and capacity
factors increase, now is an excellent time to pursue wind energy for the
Carolinas. Our experience in wind energy spans more than a decade, so we
are excited to evaluate this resource for the benefit of our customers.”
Wind energy will be a strong complement to the company’s already
extensive solar energy portfolio here in the Carolinas, providing energy
during times that solar is not typically available, and it will further diversify
the company’s fuel mix.
The RFP is open to existing or new wind generation facilities – from 100
to 500 MW of delivered capacity – that can be transported into DEC’s
transmission system by the end of 2022. Although Duke Energy owns and
operates more than 35 solar facilities in the Carolinas, it does not currently
purchase any wind capacity for customers in the region.
Energy Recovery awarded $2.5 Million for Desalination Projects in Saudi Arabia
year and avoiding 74,378 tons of CO2 emissions per year.
nergy Recovery, the leader in pressure energy
Energy Recovery’s President and CEO Joel Gay, stated,
technology for industrial fluid flows, today announced
“We remain bullish on the outlook of the desalination market
total award of $2.5 million to supply its PX Pressure
through the balance of 2017 and into 2018. These orders
Exchanger technology for desalination projects in Saudi
further solidify our position as a market leader in the Middle
Arabia. The orders began shipping in the second quarter of
East desalination market, more specifically in Saudi Arabia,
2017, with expected completion by the third quarter of 2017.
which remains a bellwether for mega project activity. Energy Recovery will supply its PX-Q300 and PX-220
As mentioned on our previous 2nd quarter 2017 earnings
Pressure Exchanger devices for the plants, which will produce
call, we remain laser-focused on our water business and will
Joel Gay
a total of up to 103,000 cubic meters of water per day. Energy
continue to guard our position as market leader and attack new
Recovery estimates the PX devices will reduce the total power consumption opportunities to provide our Pressure Exchanger technology to customers
for all projects by 14.4 MW, saving a total of over 124.4 GWh of energy per seeking to optimise plant savings and operations.”
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Saves time. Saves effort. Saves money.
With transformers accounting for up to 60% of the value of the equipment installed
in substations, knowledge of their technical health and performance assumes sigificance.
Meet TRAX, the multi-functional test system that replaces numerous individual testing
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TRAX provides up to 800 A and 2200 V test signals (2000 A and 12 kV
with accessories) with a frequency range adjustable from 5 to 500 Hz
(1 - 500 Hz for insulation testing). Delivering the most comprehensive
picture of transformer health, the tests measurements can be
organized and reported as separate tests or as a combined full set of test
results. Highly user-friendly, TRAX can be used with an integrated touch screen or external
computer device.
Megger is the electrical test industry leader, a position that comes from continually designing world class
products. The range of test systems and TRAX is brought to you by PCI, the company that has earned the
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Winding resistance l
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Circuit breaker
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Tan delta/ power factor and capacitance
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l Bhubhaneshwar l Cochin l Ahmedabad l Gurgaon
International News >>
IKEA introduces new Solar Battery Storage
ome furnishings expert IKEA has teamed
up with leading solar firm Solarcentury
to launch a new Solar Battery Storage
solution to help homeowners make huge savings
on their electricity bills, as well as increasing the
rate at which they can reap the benefits from
their solar investment.
Designed to work alongside existing Solar
Panels or as part of a brand new combined home
Solar Panel and Battery Storage system, the new
offering will make it much easier for homeowners
to save on their electricity bills by enabling them to use more of the
electricity that is generated by their solar panels.
Solar Battery Storage allows users who have
solar panels installed on their homes to store the
electricity generated by the sun and use it
whenever they like. An average solar home in the
UK will typically consume around 40% of all the
solar electricity generated, or even less if they are
regularly out during the day. The remaining 60%
of unused solar electricity is sent back to the
National Grid, at a loss compared to its value. This
means that homeowners currently lose out on
making further cost savings.
Siemens Gamesa successfully installs Asia’s tallest wind turbines in Thailand
iemens Gamesa has set a new record in Asia by installing this year the
tallest wind turbines on the continent. The turbines are equipped with
153-metre tall towers, and with the 56-metre blades, they reach a
total height of 210 metres.
The project -owned by Thai engineering company Gunkul and being
built by developer PowerChina ZhongNan- has total capacity of 67.5 MW;
i.e. 33 units of the G114-2.0 and G114-2.1 MW models.
Siemens Gamesa has already installed these 33 turbines in the
Sarahnlom wind farm in the Nakhon Ratchasima province in central
Thailand, while commissioning is scheduled for this year. The company will
also be in charge of the plant’s operation and maintenance for the next 10
“This milestone showcases the company’s R&D prowess”, said Álvaro
Bilbao, CEO of Siemens Gamesa for Asia-Pacific. “We are demonstrating once
again our ability to respond to what the market needs and the versatility of
our turbines”, he further added.
Power to the People: How the Sharing Economy
will Transform the Electricity Industry
new report released by the World Economic Forum, The Future of
Electricity: New Technologies Transforming the Grid Edge, finds that
adoption of new ‘grid-edge’ technologies in OECD countries could
bring more than $2.4 trillion of value creation for society and the industry
over the next 10 years.
The report outlines the major transformations facing the electricity
industry, as technology and innovation disrupt traditional models from
power generation to beyond-the-meter energy management. Its findings
point to three trends in particular that are converging to produce gamechanging disruptions: electrification, decentralisation and digitalisation.
These trends are presently at the ‘grid edge’ – smart and connected
technologies at the end of the electric power grid. They encompass all of the
major technologies – such as distributed storage, distributed generation,
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
smart meters, smart appliances and electric vehicles – that are impacting
the electricity system.
The $2.4 trillion of value would come from new jobs and reduction of
carbon emissions derived from increasing the efficiency of the overall
system, optimising capital allocation and creating new services for customers.
Rapidly falling costs of smart meters, connected devices and grid
sensors will increase the efficiency of network management and, more
importantly, allow customers to have real-time information about energy
supply and demand across the system. The expected surge in adoption of
electric vehicles could provide great flexibility to the grid in the shape of
storage, but could also pose site congestion challenges, for example if a
large number of electric vehicles wanted to recharge in a given geography
at the same time.
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Schneider Electric India appoints Meenu Singhal as Head of Industry business
chneider Electric revealed the appointment of
for plants and machines.
Meenu Singhal as the Vice President of its Industry
Meenu Singhal brings with him a rich experience of
business. In his new role, Meenu will be responsible
over 26 years in the field of automation. Following his
for accelerating Schneider Electric’s growth of the
graduation as an Electrical Engineer he took a post
business with a focus on automation of industries and
graduate degree in Marketing Management from IMT,
will drive the push for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
Sharing his views on joining the Industry business at
platform across businesses for building greater
Schneider Electric, he said, “I am excited to take over as a
leader of Industry and Automation at a time when
Meenu’s joining comes at an exciting time in
Meenu Singhal
businesses are looking at leveraging technology to
industrial automation, with the IIoT offering
unprecedented possibilities of building efficiencies across an entire automate and drive serious efficiencies in business. Schneider Electric is
system of an industrial operation. Schneider Electric is at the forefront uniquely positioned as a global leader in automation industry and our
of this technology wave with its cutting-edge solutions and Innovation focus as a team is to ensure business continuity and value creation
at Every Level— which is being delivered through EcoStruxure, an through innovative offerings. I look forward to bringing in my experience
IoT-enabled, open and interoperable system architecture and platform on board at Schneider Electric to take the business forward.”
Wärtsilä India appoints Neeraj Sharma as President & Managing Director
Wärtsilä India, a subsidiary of the technology
strong results in the demanding posts he has held in India
company Wärtsilä Corporation, has appointed Neeraj
and globally. We are confident that his experience, deep
Sharma as the new President & Managing Director. understanding of the market dynamics, analytical
Sharma comes with over 30 years of experience in the
management style and ability to identify potential areas of
Energy and Industrial sectors. He has significant
expansion will further facilitate profitable growth for Wärtsilä
experience in leading and developing emerging markets.
in India. We look forward to utilising his expertise and
Prior to this appointment, he was Executive Vice President,
experience in taking the company’s goal and vision forward.”
Asia Pacific and Member of the Executive Board for KONE
“I would like to thank Kari and the local management
Neeraj Sharma
Corporation, Finland. Earlier to this, he was Managing
team for steering Wärtsilä India through challenging
Director, KONE India. Sharma has also held management positions times during the last two years. Wärtsilä India has a competitive edge
with global organisations like General Electric and Alstom.
in the country, and I am convinced that we will have a big role to play
Kari Hietanen, Chairman, Wärtsilä India, said, “Neeraj has an in implementation of solutions for the Energy and Marine sectors in
outstanding career spanning over 30 years in the industry, and has shown India in the coming years”, said Neeraj on his appointment.
Siemens extends appointment of CEO Joe Kaeser
he Supervisory Board of Siemens AG has
“We’ve accomplished a great deal together over the
past four years. Vision 2020 has given Siemens a clear
extended Joe Kaeser’s appointment as President
direction, and we’ve significantly increased our company’s
and Chief Executive Officer ahead of schedule. His
value,” said CEO Joe Kaeser. “But we still have a long way
term of office will now extend until the Annual
to go. Together with our global leadership team, we at
Shareholders’ Meeting in 2021. This move is intended to
Siemens want to shape the digital transformation of
ensure the continuity and stability needed for sustainable
industry and ensure that our company is well prepared
and successful implementation of the company’s Vision
for the next generation.”
2020 strategy program. “Over the past few years, Kaeser
Implementation of the Vision 2020 strategic
Joe Kaeser
has driven Siemens’ realignment with great dedication
realignment was initiated at the start of the fiscal year
and entrepreneurial spirit,” said Supervisory Board Chairman Gerhard
that began on October 1, 2014.
Cromme. “He’s not only a guarantor of success, but also of stability in
The core elements are the alignment of the company with the
increasingly turbulent times. From the perspective of the Supervisory growth fields of electrification, automation and digitalisation, the
Board, it’s all the more gratifying that we’ll be continuing the extremely sharpening of the focus of the company’s portfolio and the
successful collaboration with Kaeser, which is based on the highest implementation of concrete, sustainable measures for enhancing its
levels of trust.”
functional efficiency.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
BHEL wins ICAI National Award for Excellence in Cost Management
mong a host of public and private sector companies,
Maharatna engineering and manufacturing enterprise, Bharat
Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) has been conferred the ‘ICAI
National Award for Excellence in Cost Management 2016’. The award
was presented by Piyush Goyal, Hon’ble Union Minister of State (I/C) for
Power, Coal and New & Renewable Energy to Atul Sobti, Chairman &
Managing Director, BHEL and T. Chockalingam, Director (Finance), BHEL,
in the presence of Arjun Ram Meghwal, Hon’ble Union Minister of State
for Finance and Corporate Affairs, at a function in New Delhi.
Significantly, this is the tenth time BHEL has won this prestigious
recognition. An independent jury unanimously selected BHEL for the
First Award in the PSU Manufacturing Organisation - Large category, for
the Award for 2016.
BMU’s Vice Chancellor Dr. Satyanarayana wins Best VC Award
ML Munjal University’s Vice Chancellor Prof. B. S. Satyanarayana
was awarded the ‘Best Vice-Chancellor Terna Mathworks Award’.
The award was conferred by the Indian Engineering Educators
and Administrators Conference (IEEAC-2017) in recognition of his key
role towards research and innovation and hands-on and crossdisciplinary learning. Prof. Satya is also playing an instrumental role in
helping set BMU up as a Green campus, teaching his students how to
ensure a sustainability model on campus.
Prof Satyanarayana has two patents to his name. He has initiated
and implemented many projects, with funding to the tune of over $ 50
million, published over 120 papers in journals & conf. proceedings, and
delivered over 200 invited and contributed presentations in conferences
and workshops. Prof. B. S. Satyanarayana holds a Ph.D in Electrical Engineering
from Cambridge University UK. He has over 30 years of experience
working in Industry, R&D institutions, Academics and Government
Policy in India, UK and Japan and with other international partners. This
includes establishing new entrepreneurial ventures, setting up new
labs in Academic, R&D & industrial environment, change management,
Dr. Satyanarayana receives the award
defining new government policies and defining new pedagogy in
academic environment. At all the places of work he has entered new
domains, created new facility, trained new teams, demonstrated new
technologies bringing in frugal innovation and creating an environment
for Make in India in his Indian activities.
Paras Prasad receives honorary doctorate in Brazil
niversity at Buffalo researcher Paras
with the Brazilian university.
Prasad, an internationally recognised
Since 1999, Prasad has co-authored 19
expert in optics and photonics, has
scientific papers and received grants with
been awarded an honorary doctorate from
UFPE collaborators, given numerous lectures
the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE)
and helped organised conferences at the
in Brazil.
Brazilian university, hosted UFPE students at
Prasad, PhD, who serves as the executive
UB, and connected UFPE researchers with
director of UB’s Institute for Lasers, Photonics
counterparts in China, France and elsewhere.
and Biophotonics (ILPB), received the award
“Working with UFPE has been one of the
on July 6.
Paras Prasad holds the honorary doctorate he most gratifying experiences in my career. I am
received from the Federal University of
The honor stems from a 19-year ongoing
humbled to receive such an honour,” said
Pernambuco (UFPE) in Brazil. To his left is
partnership that Prasad — a SUNY
Prasad, who was an early pioneer in
Anisio Brasileiro, rector of UFPE.
Distinguished Professor in UB’s departments
nanomedicine, which uses super-small
of chemistry, physics, medicine and electrical engineering — formed particles, materials and devices to treat and diagnose disease.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Market Watch
High Voltage Cables Market
worth USD 41.27 Bn by 2021
Major factors, such as grid interconnections, offshore wind farm connections, connections of islands with
mainland, power from shore links to offshore oil & gas installations, and projects integrating renewable
generation with the power transmission grid are driving the market across the globe…
he high voltage cables & accessories
market is expected to grow from an
estimated USD 30.83 billion in 2016 to
USD 41.27 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 6.0%.
Major factors such as grid interconnections,
offshore wind farm connections, and connections
of islands with mainland, power from shore links
to offshore oil & gas installations, and projects
integrating renewable generation with the
power transmission grid are driving the market
across the globe.
and creating huge prospects in this
service industry. Also, governments,
private producers & service providers,
and cables & accessories
manufacturers are continuously
trying to integrate their existing
technologies and develop new ones
extensively to increase the capacity of
high voltage transmission and reduce
the impact of high voltage
transmission near residential areas.
XLPE cables is the biggest
underground products
Cable and Accessories
Market worth 202.07
Billion USD by 2021
XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) cables are
the most commonly used cables in
undergrounding systems. The cable technology
has advanced significantly, which has enabled
the use of XLPE cables over the fluid-filled cable
technology. XLPE provides insulation to cables to
make it withstand the electric field under rated
and transient operating conditions. XLPE cable
was the largest segment in the underground
cable systems market in 2015.
The global cable and accessories market is
projected to grow from an estimated USD 147.53
billion in 2016 to USD 202.07 Billion by 2021,
registering a CAGR of 6.5%. Factors such as
increase in renewable energy generation, rapid
industrialization & urbanization, and government
initiatives undertaken to expand transmission &
distribution systems would drive the LV & MV
cable and accessories market.
Asia-Pacific is the dominant
market for high voltage
cables & accessories
Asia-Pacific is the largest market for high
voltage cables & accessories among other
regions. This region will continue to dominate
the high voltage cables & accessories market,
seeking high voltage transmission projects in the
region. China is leading the regional high voltage
cables & accessories market, whereas other
global key markets include the US, India,
Germany, UK, Brazil, and Egypt. The
manufacturers and service providers are focusing
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Infrastructure segment to
dominate the LV cables &
accessories market
The cable and accessories market has been
categorized, by installation, into three segments,
namely, industrial, infrastructure, and
renewables. The infrastructure sector held more
than half of the LV cables & accessories market
share in 2015. This growth can be attributed to
increasing urbanization and continuing demand
from commercial users, especially in the
emerging economies. The industrial sector held
around half of the MV cable and accessories
market share in 2015. Growth in construction
would eventually increase the number of MV
cables & accessories being used in the
construction process. These factors drive the
cable and accessories market.
On the basis of installation, the LV cable and
accessories market has been segmented into
underground and overhead. The overhead sector
dominated the market, followed by underground
in 2015. Further, the MV cable and accessories
market, based on installation, has been
segmented into underground, overhead, and
submarine. In 2015, the underground sector
dominated the market, followed by overhead.
Continuous refurbishment of LV & MV voltage
cables & accessories is essential in the
underground segment. They have to be replaced
in order to maintain the cables according to the
soil condition. Therefore, the market for LV & MV
cables & accessories in the underground segment
is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during
the forecast period.
The Asia-Pacific region is expected to witness
a high-growth rate for cables & accessories from
2016 to 2021. Moreover, increase in renewable
power generation would drive the LV & MV cable
and accessories market.
Energy Optimization
Cable Construction&
Cable Selection
Cable Construction
Parts of Cable:
Jignesh Parmar
M. Tech (Electrical)
Technical Writer,
Technical Blogger
It is also an important factor
for selecting the type of
cable. It is to be kept in mind
that the cost of the cable
should not be such large that
it causes loss and another
cable may fetch the same
results in low cost and loss…
N IA | S
p em
b r 2017
2 17
Conductor (For LV/MV/HT Cables)
Conductor Screen (For MV/HT Cables)
Filler & Binding Tapes (For LV/MV/HT Cables)
Insulation (For LV/MV/HT Cables)
Insulation Screen (For MV/HT Cables)
Separation Tape (For MV/HT Cables)
Bedding (Inner Sheath)
Metallic Sheen (For MV/HT Cables)
Armor (For LV/MV/HT Cables)
Outer Sheath (For LV/MV/HT Cables)
Water Blocking Tapes –Optional (For MV/HT
12. Insulation Tapes–Optional (For MV/HT
1. Conductors
Code: IS: 8130 / IEC 60228/ BS 6360
Material: Class 2 - Annealed Plain / Tinned
Copper / Aluminum.
Used for: LV, MV & HV Cables
• Usually stranded copper (Cu) or Aluminum
(Al) is used.
• Copper is denser and heavier, but more
conductive than aluminum.
• Electrically equivalent aluminum conductors
have a cross-sectional area approximately
1.6 times larger than copper, but half the
• The size of the copper / Aluminum conductor
forming one of the cores of a cable is
<< Energy Optimization
expressed in square millimeters (mm2), and
the current rating of the cable is dependent
upon the cross-sectional area of each core.
Multi-core Aluminum or copper conductor
are produced by two shapes
Circular Conductor: Multi-layers of
stranded wires are assembled together to
make circular shape.
To achieve a circular conductor, the number
of strands follows a particular progression: 3,
7, 19, 37, 61, and 127 etc, the diameter of
each strand being chosen to achieve the
desired cross-sectional area of whole
Circular shape conductor is normally
available used up to 200mm.2
Segmental Conductor: Five segments of
compacted conductor in triangle shape of 72
degree are assembled together with
separation of non-metallic tapes to reduce
the skin effect which reduce the AC conductor
Larger sizes have conductors with the strands
laid up in a segmental formation; this cable
achieves a better space factor and reduces
the overall diameter of the cable. It also
reduces the inductance of the cable due to
decreased spacing between phases
Segmental conductor is normally available
from 1000 mm2 and above.
2. Conductor Screen (Semi
Conductor Screen):
Code: IS: 7098/IEC: 60502/ BS: 6622/BS: 7835
Material: Extruded thermo set semi-conducting
compound, carbon paper and carbon loaded
Used for: Cable from 6 to 30kV (MV & HV Cables)
• This screen consists of a lapped copper tape
or metallic foil usually less than 1.0mm in
thickness, which is the interface between the
conductor and the insulation (PVC, XLPE).
• The main purpose of conductor screen is to
maintain a uniformly divergent electric field,
and to contain the electric field within the
cable core.
• Conductor screen is semi-conducting
material because semi-conducting materials
do not conduct electricity well enough to be
a conductor but will not hold back voltage. It
smoothes out the surface irregularities of the
conductor. The conductor shield makes the
voltage on the inside of the insulation the
Semiconducting screening materials are
based on carbon black that is dispersed
within a polymer matrix. The concentration
of carbon black needs to be sufficiently high
to ensure an adequate and consistent
The incorporation must be optimized to
provide a smooth interface between the
conducting and insulating portions of the
The smooth surface is important as it
decreases the occurrence of regions of high
electrical stress.
Control Electrical Field: Conductor screen
is control the electric field within the
insulation and thus the same voltage
gradient across it. It also avoids any
interaction of the electric stresses due to the
voltages on different phase conductors
within the same cable.
Reduce Voltage Stress: Conductor Screen
helps to reduce voltage stress at the interface
between the conducting and insulating
A typical construction for a medium voltage
cable consists of an aluminum conductor
covered by a screening layer, then by a
polyethylene or ethylene propylene rubber
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Energy Optimization
insulation followed by a further screening
layer. The coefficient of expansion of the
insulation layer is typically ten times greater
than that of the aluminum and when the
cable is at its maximum operating
temperature of 90ºC, a large enough gap can
be formed to allow electrical discharges to
occur. The semi-conducting layer then serves
to even out the stresses associated with
these discharges, which would otherwise
attack the insulation at specific points.
Uniform Electrical Field: A black semiconducting tape is used to maintain a
uniform electric field and minimize
electrostatic stresses in MV/HV power cables.
• The external surfaces of the conductor may
not be smooth, particularly for stranded
conductors, so this layer provides a smooth
surface at the same potential as the
conductor to keep the electric field consistent
all the way around the surface. Without this
layer, any small peaks or troughs could cause
concentrations of electrical energy which
could create small arcs, and over time could
erode the insulation layer and cause failure
of the cable.
Reduce Electrical Flux line around the
each core: It provide a cylindrical, smooth
surface between the conductor and
• Semi-conducting compounds also have the
effect of filling in the interstices of the
conductor giving a smooth surface for the
insulation. This reduces the electrical flux
lines around each individual wire that make
up the conductor, which can reduce the
stress by 10-15%. ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
3. Filler & Binding Tap (LayingUp):
Material: Non-Hygroscopic PVC / Poly propylene
Fiber to maintain roundness of cable.
Used for: LV, MV & HV Cables
• In case of three core cables, the three cores are
laid up with polymer compound or nonhygroscopic fillers like polypropylene (PP)
fillers and a binder tape is applied with an
overlap to provide a circular shape to the cable.
• These binder tapes can be of PVC or foamed
• Inner Sheath (Bedding) for Armored Cables.
Extruded layer of PVC or PE is applied over
the laid up cores for armored cables.
4. Insulation
Code: IS: 7098, 8130, 14494 / IEC: 60502 / BS:
6622/BS: 7835.
Material: PVC, XLPE, Rubber, Elastomer, EPR.
Used for: LV, MV & HV Cables
• Insulation main Purpose is to withstand the
electrical field applied to the cable for its
design life in its intended installed
• This will be an extruded layer of XLPE,
Elastomer, Rubber or PVC applied over
conductor screen under triple extrusion
process along with conductor screen and
insulation screen.
• There are different Type of Insulation Material
used for cable but widely used are
(A) Cross-linked polyethylene: (XLPE)
• They are known as PEX or XLPE Cable. It is
form of polyethylene with cross links.
• XLPE creates by direct links or bonds between
the carbon backbones of individual
polyethylene chains forms the cross linked
polyethylene structure.
• The result of this linkage is to restrict
movement of the polyethylene chains
relative to each other, so that when heat or
other forms of energy are applied to the
basic network structure cannot deform and
the excellent properties that polyethylene
has at room temperature are retained at
higher temperatures.
• The cross linking of the molecules also has
the effect of enhancing room temperature
• The useful properties of XLPE are temperature
resistance, pressure resistance (stress rupture
resistance), environmental stress crack
resistance (esc), and resistance to UV light,
chemical resistance, oxidation resistance,
room temperature and low temperature
• XLPE cables work for the working voltage of
240 V to 500 KV.
• The jacketing material can be of PVC / Flame
Retardant / Flame Retardant Low Smoke /
Zero Halogen (LSOH).
Applications: Fire Survival, Under Water
Cables, Underground burial, installation on trays
and ducts.
(B) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
• They are known as PVC insulated cables are
widely used in various fields.
• PVC's relatively low cost, biological and
chemical resistance and workability have
resulted in it being used for a wide variety of
• For electric cables the PVC is mixed up with
plasticizers. PVC has high tensile strength,
superior conductivity, better flexibility and
ease of jointing.
• PVC is a thermoplastic material, therefore,
care must be taken not to overheat it; it is
suitable for conductor temperatures upto
70°C. PVC insulated cables should not be laid
when the temperature is less than 0ºC,
because it becomes brittle and is liable to
Applications: Low voltage copper
conductor PVC cables are extensively used for
domestic home appliances wiring, house wiring
Energy Optimization
and internal wiring for lighting circuits in
factories, power supply for office automation, in
control, instrumentation, submarine, mining,
ship wiring applications etc.
(C) Elastomer insulated cable
• These cables are suitable for use where the
combination of ambient temperature and
temperature-rise due to load results in
conductor temperature not exceeding 90°C
under normal operation and 250°C under
short-circuit conditions.
• This insulation shall be so applied that it fits
closely on the conductor (with or without
either separator or screen) but shall not
adhere to it. The insulation, unless applied by
extrusion, shall be applied in two or more
layers and it is applicable to cables with a
rated voltage up to 1 100 volts.
Applications: Welding Cables, Ship wiring
cables, Pressure Tight Cables and cables for
submerged connection, Railways locomotives
and coach wiring cables, mining cables.
(D) Polyvinyl chloride (EPR).
• For high-voltage cables, the insulation is
ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and for
low-voltage cables it is polyvinyl chloride
• EPR has good electrical properties and is
resistant to heat and chemicals; it is suitable
for a conductor temperature up to 85 ºC.
(E) Rubber insulated cable
• These are used in electric utilities such as the
generation and transmission of electricity.
Long service life under normal environment
in nuclear and conventionally powered
generating stations plus safety considerations
are the significant factors of these electric
• When exposed to fire, Silicon offers circuit
integrity, low smoke evolution, and freedom
from halogen acids.
5. Insulation Screen
Code: IS: 7098/IEC: 60502/ BS: 6622/BS: 7835
Material: Extruded thermo set semi-conducting
compound, Carbon paper and carbon loaded
Used for: Cable from 6 to 30kV (MV & HV Cables)
• An extruded layer of semi conducting is
applied over the insulation layer to insure
that the electric stress is homogenous
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
around the insulated core. The semi
conducting layer shall be firmly bonded to
the outer layer of the insulation layer.
The purpose of insulation screen is same as
conductor screen.
The purpose of insulation screen is to reduce
voltage stress at the interface between the
conducting and insulating component.
A cylindrical, smooth surface between the
insulation and metallic shield.
Insulation screen is a layer of black cross
linked semi conductive compound of approx
1mm thickness and is either fully bonded to
the insulation layer, or can be “cold strippable”
by hand.
When terminating or jointing the cables, it is
necessary to remove a part of the insulation
6. Bedding (Inner Sheath)
Code: IS: 7098, 1554 / IEC: 60502 / BS: 6622 / BS:
Material: Thermoplastic material i.e. PVC,
Polyethylene, thermosetting (CSP) compound
Used for: LV, MV & HV Cables
• It could be also called inner sheath or inner
jacket, which serves as a bedding under
cable armoring to protect the laid up cores
and as a separation sheath.
• Inner sheath is over laid up of cores.
• It gives circular shape of the cable and it also
provides Bedding for the armoring.
• IS: 1554 permits following two methods of
applying the Inner Sheath of thermoplastic
material i.e. PVC, Polyethylene etc., which is
not harder than insulation.
• Inner sheath is provided by extrusion of
thermoplastic over the laid up of cores.
• Inner sheath is provided by wrapping at
thermoplastic tape.
• All multi-core cables have either extruded
PVC inner sheath or thermoplastic wrapped
inner sheath, which is compatible with
insulation material and removable without
any damage to insulation. Single core cables
have no inner sheath.
7. Water blocking Tapes
• Water blocking is used to prevent moisture
• Water blocking tapes or Swelling powder
should be applied between the conductor
strands to block the ingress of water inside
the cable conductor (if required).
Water blocking methods to be considered are
as follows:
Powders: Swell able powders are used as
longitudinal water blocks in cables to prevent
longitudinal water penetration. These
powders swell and expand sufficiently upon
contact with water to form a gel-like material
to block the flow of water.
Water-Blocking Tapes: A water-blocking
tape is usually a non-woven synthetic textile
tape impregnated with, or otherwise
containing, a swell able powder.
Sealed Overlap: To ensure a seal of the
overlap, hot-melt adhesives can be used.
These adhesives can be extruded or pumped
into the overlap seam of a longitudinally
formed metallic tape before the seam is
closed during cable manufacture.
8. Metallic Screen
Code: IS: 7098 /IEC: 60502 / BS: 6622/ BS: 7835.
Material: Non-magnetic metallic materials
Copper Wire / Tape or Aluminum Wire / Strip
Used for: MV & HV Cables
• Medium Voltage & High voltage cables have
an earthed metallic screen over the insulation
of each core.
• This screen consists one or multi layers of a
lapped conductive copper wires, copper tape
or metallic foil, lead, aluminum helically
with overlap over insulation screen.
• The metallic shield needs to be electrically
continuous over a cable length to adequately
perform its functions of electrostatic
protection, electromagnetic protection, and
protection from transients, such as lightning
and surge or fault currents.
(1) Shield Electromagnetic radiation: A
metallic sheath is used as a shield to
keep electromagnetic radiation in the
• The main function of the metallic screen is to
nullify the electric field outside of the cable
– it acts as a second electrode of the capacitor
formed by the cable. The screen needs to
connect to earth at least at one point along
the route.
• The capacitive charging current and induced
circulating currents which are generated
Energy Optimization
under normal operating conditions will be
drained away through the screen.
(2) Earth Path: It also provides a path for
fault and leakage currents (sheaths are
earthed at one cable end).
• The screen also drains the zero-sequence
short circuit currents under fault conditions;
this function is used to determine the
required size of the metallic screen.
• Lead sheaths are heavier and potentially
more difficult to terminate than copper tape,
but generally, provide better earth fault
(3) Water Blocking: The other function of
metallic sheaths is to water block and
form a radial barrier to prevent humidity
from penetrating the cable insulation
(4) Mechanical Protection: It also
provides some degree of mechanical
protection to cable.
• Cable shields are non-magnetic metallic
materials. The two materials typically used
for metallic shields are aluminum and
copper. Aluminum requires a larger diameter
as a wire or a thicker cross section as tape to
carry the same current as copper. At
equivalent current-carrying capacity, an
aluminum shield will be lighter in weight
but about 40% larger in dimensions
Different Types of Metallic
(A) Concentric Copper Wire screens /Tapes
• Lightweight and cost-effective design.
• High short-circuit capacity.
• Easy to terminate.
• Low resistance of screen may necessitate
need for special screen connections to limit
the circulating current losses.
• Does not form a complete moisture barrier
unless water swell able tapes are used under
and/or over the copper wires.
(B) Aluminum foil laminate
• Lightweight and cost effective design.
• Moisture proof radial barrier.
• Low short circuit capacity.
• More difficult to terminate – requires special
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
screen connections.
(C) Extruded lead alloy sheath
• Waterproofing guaranteed by the
manufacturing process.
• Excellent resistance to corrosion and
hydrocarbons (suitable for oil and gas
• Heavy and expensive.
• Lead is a toxic metal whose use is being
restricted in some countries.
• Limited capacity for short circuits.
9. Armoring:
Code: IS: 7098 / IS: 3975 / IEC: 60502 / BS: 6622/
BS: 7835.
Material: metallic or non-magnetic Aluminum,
Steel wire/strip.
Used for: LV, MV & HV Cables
• The armor provides mechanical protection
against crushing forces.
• Armor also can serve as an Earth Continuity
Conductor (ECC).
• The armoring type could be:
Mechanical protection of the cable is
provided by a single layer of wire / strip
strands laid over the bedding. Steel wire or
strip is used for 3-core or 4-core cables, but
single-core cables have aluminum wire
• When an electric current passes through a
cable, it produces a magnetic field (the
higher the voltage the bigger the field). The
magnetic field will induce an electric current
in steel armor (eddy currents), which can
cause overheating in AC systems. The nonmagnetic aluminum armor prevents this
from happening.
• Magnetic Material’s armoring for 3Ph
System: With 3-core or 4-core cables the
vector sum of the currents in the conductors
is zero, and there is virtually no resultant
magnetic flux. In multi-core, armored cables
have either single layer of Galvanized Steel
wire Armor or Galvanized steel strip applied
over inner sheath with left hand lay.
• Non-Magnetic Material’s armoring for
1Ph System: This is not so, however, for a
single-core cable, where eddy-current
heating would occur if a magnetic material
was used for the armoring. The material has
to be non-magnetic for armoring as in this
case of return current is not passing through
the same cable. Hence, it will not cancel the
magnetic lines produced by current. These
magnetic lines which are oscillating in case
of AC systems will give rise to eddy currents
in magnetic armoring and hence, armoring
will become hot, and this may lead to failure
of the cable. Hence, single core cables for use
on AC systems are armored with single layer
of non-magnetic (aluminum) material.
Armoring is mostly of following type:
• SWA - Steel wire armor, used in multi-core
cables (magnetic),
• AWA - Aluminum wire armor, used in singlecore cables (non-magnetic).
• Tinning or galvanizing is used for rust
prevention. Phosphor bronze or tinned
copper braid is also used when steel armor is
not allowed.
• As strip construction is economical, the
manufacture always provides steel strip
armoring unless wire armoring is specified.
• As per IS: 1554 Round Wire armoring is
provided in cable where calculated diameter
under amour is upto13mm. Above this the
amour is either steel wire or steel strip of size
10. Over Sheath (Outer Jacket):
Code: IS: 7098 / IEC: 60502 / BS: 6622/BS: 7835.
Material: PVC Flame Retardant / Flame
Retardant Low Smoke / Zero Halogen (LSOH),
High density Polyethylene HDPE, Halogen Free
Flame Retardant (HFFR)
Used for: LV, MV & HV Cables
• It is the outer protection part of the cable
against the surrounding environment.
• Protected against water ingress, protection
against termite, protection against UV and
protection against differing soil
• It is applied over armoring in case of armored
cable and over inner sheath in case of
unarmored cable called as ‘Outer Sheath.’
• The standard sheath color is Black other
colors such as Red, Light Blue can also be
• High-voltage cables are identified by outer
sheaths colored red; a black sheath indicates
a low-voltage cable
• Thermal Cameras
• Clamp Meters
• Multimeters
• Non-Contact
Voltage Detector
• Moisture Meters
Images for illustrative purposes only.
• Flex Clamps
For more details call us on: +91-11-4560 3555 or write to us at [email protected]
FLIR Systems India Pvt. Ltd.
1111, D Mall, Netaji Subhash Place, Pitampura, New Delhi – 110034 | Fax: +91-11-4721 2006
Energy Optimization
The following are the electrical property may
be considered while selecting an outer Sheath
• Dielectric Strength: Cable Sheath may be
semiconducting or insulating.
• Discharge and Tracking Resistance:
When a non shielded cable rests upon or
comes into contact with a ground plane, the
ground plane acts as the outer plate of the
capacitor, made up of the conductor,
insulation and the ground plane. Discharges
and tracking may cause erosion of the outer
sheath material.
• Material: A major consideration in selecting
outer sheath may be a thermoplastic or
thermosetting material. Mostly, a
thermoplastic jacket is less expensive.
However, thermoplastics will melt at some
elevated temperature and, thus, could run or
drip from the cable under extreme conditions.
• Thermoset materials will not melt and run or
drip at elevated temperatures.
Comparison of Cable
PVC Insulated Cable
• PVC insulation becomes stiff making it
difficult to fold and the soft PVC loosens its
softening agent over years, making it brittle
and prone to rip.
• Even at the time of disposing, burning PVC
emits toxic dioxin, which is responsible for
causing cancer and does, when dumped
scantly dissolve.
• PVC is thin insulation mainly used in LT side
cables and XLPE is thick insulation used in
MV & HT cables.
XLPE Insulated Cable
• Higher Current Capacity: XLPE has higher
current carrying capacity.
• Higher Temperature Withstand
Capacity: It can withstand higher
temperature compared to PVC cable.
• Higher Overload Capacity: XLPE have high
overload capacity.
• Low Dielectric Constant: XLPE has lower
dielectric and constant power factor.
• Light weight & Small Bending Radius:
XLPE cables are lighter in weight, has smaller
bend radius, and hence lesser installation
• Higher Short Circuit Capacity: XLPE has
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
higher short circuit rating. XLPE can
withstand higher & lower temperatures
insulation is usually thinner but the
resistance is higher.
• Higher Moisture Resistance: XLPE also
has a higher moisture & chemical resistance.
• Cable installation job for XLPE is easier than
PVC insulated cables because of less weight,
less diameter and less bending radius.
• The volume resistivity (ohm-cm) for XLPE is
way higher than the PVC cables which are of
the order of XLPE cable has insulation
resistance of 1000 times compared to PVC
Elastomer Insulated Cable
• Elastomer cables are preferred for flexible
application and in congested locations,
where the bending radius are very small.
Elastomer cables are available from low
voltage up to 33 kV grade.
• Elastomer cables are also available with rigid
copper conductors and having properties like
fire survival, zero halogen and low toxicity FS
Rubber Insulated Cable
• Rubber insulation remains in the best
condition after a long span of time, say 25-30
years and remain soft and pliable even when
the temperature is low.
• Rubber Cables are predominantly used in
special applications like, mining, ship wiring,
transportation sector and defense
applications & earth moving machines.
• These materials have the potential to be
recyclable since they can be molded ,
extruded and reused like plastics, but they
have typical elastic properties of rubbers
which are not recyclable owing to their
thermosetting characteristics
Cable Selection Parameters
Voltage of Cable
• The Nominal voltage is to be expressed with
two values of alternative current Uo/U in V
• Uo/U : Phase to earth voltage
• Uo : Voltage between conductor and earth
• U : Voltage between phases (conductors)
• (i) Low-tension (LT) cables — upto 1000 V
• (ii) High-tension (HT) cables — upto 11,000
• (iii) Super-tension (ST) cables — from 22 kV
to 33 kV
• (iv) Extra high-tension (EHT) cables — from
33 kV to 66 kV
• (v) Extra super voltage cables — beyond
132 kV
• A low-voltage system usually has a solidly
earthed neutral so that the line to earth
voltage cannot rise higher than (line volts) ÷
√ 3. Cables for low-voltage use are insulated
for 600V rms score to earth and 1000V rms
core to core.
• High-voltage cables used in Shell
installations are rated 19000/3300V or
3810/6600V or 6600/11000V, Phase/Phase.
• In selecting the voltage grade of cable, the
highest voltage to earth must be allowed for.
For example, on a normal 6.6kV unearthed
system, a line conductor can achieve almost
6.6kV to earth under earth-fault conditions,
to withstand this, a cable insulated for
6600/11000V must, therefore, be used.
Current Carrying Capacity
• The current carrying capacity of a cable is
called Ampacity. Ampacity is defined as the
maximum amount of electrical current a
conductor or device can carry before
sustaining immediate or progressive
deterioration and is the rms electric current
which a device or conductor can continuously
carry while remaining within its temperature
Short Circuit Values
• The “short-circuit current rating” is the
maximum short-circuit current that a
component can withstand. Failure to provide
adequate protection may result in
component destruction under short circuit
• Short circuits and their effects must be
considered in selecting cables. These cables
should have a short circuit rating which is the
highest temperature the cable can withstand
during an electrical short circuit lasting up to
about half a second.
Type of Conductor
• Type of Conductor Material Copper or
Aluminum is main criteria for selection of
No of Core
Energy Optimization
• No of core selection is depends upon power
• For Single Phase Power Supply, we can use 2
core cable for three phase supply we can use
3.5 core or 4 core cable for HV supply. We
may be use single core cable.
Voltage drop
• It is a primary concern when installing
lengths of cables is voltage drop. The amount
of voltage lost between the originating
power supply and the device being powered
can be significant. All cables have resistance,
and when current flows in them, this results
in a volt drop.
Type of Insulations
• Type of Cable Insulation Material like, PVC,
XLPE, Rubber
• PVC Cable is cheaper than XLPE Cable
Method of Installation
• If we lay cable in ground armor cable is
required. But if we lay cable in cable tray, we
may be used an armor cable to reduce cost of
• If we lay cable on cable tray, then shielded
cable is required.
• Mutual heating effect due to cable group
laying is also considered while selecting a
cable. When multiple cables are in close
proximity, each contributes heat to the
others and diminishes the amount of
external cooling affecting the individual
cable conductors. Therefore, cable de rating
is necessary consideration for multiple cables
in close proximity.
Shielded Cable or unshielded
The choice of a shielded cable or non-shielded
cable depends upon some criteria.
• An area such as a production/factory floor
where heavy equipment being used is a
prime example of a place where we might
consider a shielded cable.
• Grounding can also be a concern in some
installations. If shielded cable is used to
connect equipment from two different
circuits, a ground loop can occur, causing
noise on a network line. If the ground voltage
difference is great enough, it may even cause
• Terminations of the shielded cable must also
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
be made with care to provide for a smooth
dielectric transition from the shielded
condition to the unshielded condition.
• The substantial space required if shielded
cables were used. Shielded cables require a
significant amount of space at each end of
the cable for installation of the stress cone
kit. Also, the minimum bending radius for
shielded cables is twelve times cable outside
diameter, whereas the minimum bending
radius for unshielded cables is only eight
times outside diameter (and even less with
extra-flexible appliance connection cables
used in controllers).
• The two factors, high cost and large space
requirements, preclude use of shielded cable
in switchgear.
• It is also an important factor for selecting the
type of cable.
• It is to be kept in mind that the cost of cable
should not be such large that it causes loss
and another cable may fetch the same results
in low cost and loss.
Environmental Conditions
• Cable operates at its best when it is installed
in its optimum environmental conditions.
• For example, Elastomeric Cable is applied in
trailing, coal cutter, wind mill, panel wiring,
battery cable and such other areas. XLPE
cables work good in areas where moisture
content is good. Thus, proper cable should be
selected so that the system becomes more
• Low voltage cables with both PVC and XLPE
insulation are suitable for indoor and outdoor
• Armored cables are not recommended for
tray applications, as they are heavy in weight
and extra loads are exerted on the tray.
• Unarmored cables are not recommended for
direct buried applications, except if the
quoted cables are designed and produced to
pass direct burial test requirements
(example, direct burial tests described in UL
1277 and UL 1581).
• A PVC jacket is a very stable material against
a wide range of chemicals, while HDPE
jacketed cables can serve better in wet
Cable Core Colors
Single core - Natural
Two core - Red, Black
Three core - Red, Yellow and Blue
Four core - Red, Yellow and Blue and Black
Five core - Red, Yellow and Blue and Black
and Green
Abbreviation for PVC &
XLPE Cable
A = Aluminum Conductor. Y = PVC Insulation or PVC Sheath
2X = Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation W = Round Steel Wire Armoring WW = Double Round Steel Wire Armoring
F = Formed Steel Wire (Strip) Armoring
FF = Double Formed Steel Wire (Strip)
C = Metallic Screening (Usually of Copper) CE = Metallic Screening (Usually of Copper)
over each individual core.
Gb = Holding Helix Tape (of Steel) Wa = Aluminum Round Wire & Aluminum
Formed Wire (Strip) Fa Armouring.
• AYY: Aluminum Conductor, PVC Insulated,
PVC Outer Sheathed Heavy Duty Cables.
• AYWY: Aluminum Conductor, PVC
Insulated, Round Steel Wire Armored and
PVC Outer Sheathed
Aluminum Conductor, PVC
Insulated, Flat Steel Wire (Strip) Armored
and PVC Outer Sheathed
• AYCY: Aluminum Conductor, PVC
Insulated, Metallic Screened and PVC Outer
• A2XCY: Aluminum Conductor, XLPE
Insulated, Metallic Screened and PVC Outer
Cable Application Standard
• IEC 60502 (Part 1)”PVC/ XLPE insulated
cables” single core /multi-core
• BS 5467 for XLPE insulated armored cables
• BS 7889 for XLPE insulated single core
unarmored cables
Self Regulating
Heat Tracing Cable
Self-regulating trace heater
cables on roofs or gutters are
used to melt ice during winter
months. When used in gutters
the cable is not meant to keep
the gutters free of ice or snow,
but only to provide to free
path for the melted water to
get off the roof and down the
downspout or drain piping.
Similarly, hot water service
piping can be traced, so that a
circulating system is not
needed to provide hot water at
outlets. The combination of
trace heating and the correct
thermal balance where the heat
output from the trace heating
matches the heat loss from the
pipe. Self –limiting or
regulating tapes have been
developed and are very useful
in this application. In this
paper authors like to discuss
about development, uses and
product classification approach
to measure the temperature
class of thermopads make selfregulating type trace heater
model STF 15 J.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
very pipe or vessel is subjected to heat
loss when its temperature is greater than
ambient temperature. Thermal insulation
reduces the rate of heat loss but does not
eliminate it. Self-regulating heat tracing tape is
used for pipe freeze protection application. Its
resistance varies with temperature. When the
cable temperature reaches the set point, the
resistance goes high and then no more heat is
supplied. This means heat is supplied only where
needed along the length of the cable.
A trace heating system shall be designated
so that the sheath temperature of the trace
heater is limited to a temperature class or
ignition temperature, minus 5oK for temperature
less than or equal to 200°C or minus 10oK for
temperatures greater than 200°C. Maximum
sheath temperatures of trace heaters shall be
determined for proper application of the heater.
Electrical trace heating began in the 1930s.
Mineral insulated cables ran at high current
densities to produce heat and control equipment
was adapted from other applications. Mineral
insulated resistance heating cable was
introduced in the 1950s, and parallel type
heating cables that could be cut to length in the
field became available. Self-limiting
thermoplastic cables were marketed in 1971.
<< Application
Figure 1: Self-regulating trace heater cable STF15J for freeze protection in pipes.
Control systems for trace heating systems
developed from capillary filled bulb thermostats
and contractors in the 1970s to network
computerized control in the 1990s, in large system
that require centralized control and monitoring.
The most common pipe trace heating applications
• Freeze protection
• Temperature maintenance
• Snow melting on driveways
Other uses of trace heating cables include
• Ramp and stair snow / ice protection
• Gulley and roof snow / ice protection
• Under floor heating
• Door / frame interface ice protection
• Window de-misting
• Anti-condensation
• Pond freeze protection
• Soil warming
• Anti-cavitation purpose
• Reducing condensation on windows.
Self-regulating heat tracing tapes are cable
whose resistance varies with temperature – low
resistance for temperatures below the cable set
point and high resistance for temperatures above
the cable set point. These cables used two parallel
bus wires which carry electricity but do not
create significant heat. They are encased in a
semi-conductive polymer. This polymer is loaded
with carbon as the polymer element heats, it
allows less current to flow. The cables are
manufactured and then irradiated and by varying
both the carbon content and the dosage then
different tape with different output characteristics
can be produced. There is then an inner jacket
which separates the bus wires from the grounding
braid. In commercial and industrial cables, an
additional outer jacket of rubber or teflon is
applied. The benefits of this cable are the ability
to cut to length in the field. It is more rugged but
not necessarily more reliable than series or zone
heaters, it cannot over-heat itself so in theory it
can be crossed, but it is bad practice to install
tape in this way. Self-regulating heating cables
have a specific maximum exposure temperature
based on the type of polymer which is used to
make the heating core which means that if they
are subject to high temperatures then the tape
can be damaged beyond repair. Also self-limiting
tapes are subject to high inrush currents on
starting up similar to ‘induction’ motor so a
higher rated contactor is required.
Thermo trace Self
Regulating Trace Heater
STF15J is a self-limiting heating tape for
applications for freeze protection applications in
pipe lines. It comprises of the inner insulation of
TPE material and outer jacket of fluoropolymer.
As the cable self regulates its heat output, it limit
the maximum sheath temperature. Thus, making
it burnout proof. Table 1 shows the technical
specifications of STF15J.
1) 1.2 sq. mm coated copper bus wires
2) Semi conductive heating core extruded over
bus wires
3) TPE jacket providing electrical insulation,
mechanical strength and moisture resistance
4) Aluminum mylar with drainwire / coated
copper braid to give a continuous ground path
Table 1: Technical Specifications of STF15J
Catalogue Reference
Heating Power W/m (230V AC) at 100C
Voltage Supply
Min. Installation Temperature
Max. Installation Temperature Power on
Max. Exposure Temperature Power Off
Insulation Material Max. Exposure Temperature
Minimum Bending Radius
5) Outer jacket of UV Resistant Flouropolymer
(J)/TPE(JT) to enable use in corrosive area.
Determination of maximum
sheath temperature
At least one of the following two methods
shall be used for verifying a trace heater’s sheath
temperature or temperature class.
a) Product classification approach in which the
maximum sheath temperature is determined
in an artificial environment simulating
adverse conditions.
b) Systems method in which the manufacturer
demonstrates the ability to design and
predict sheath temperatures of trace heaters
by conducting tests on representative
installations representing adverse design
and operating conditions when installed
according to the manufacturers installation
We are adopting product classification
approach for verifying trace heater sheath
temperature or temperature class in which the
maximum sheath temperature is determined in
an artificial environment simulating adverse
conditions. A detailed test procedure is described
in the following section.
Determination of Sheath
temperature as per Product
Classification Approach
A sample of trace heater at least 1500 mm in
length is placed loosely coiled in a forced air
230V AC, 50 Hz., 110/120V AC
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
oven ambient temperature. A straight line is also
drawn tangent to the curve at 5oK temperature
difference point and extended to the X axis (oven
temperature). The temperature read at this
intercept is taken as the maximum sheath
temperature which can be verified from the test
results and curves obtained. Figure 4 shows the
variation between tracer (STF15J) output (W/m)
and maintain oven temperature °C.
It is cleared from Table 2 and Figure 4 that
tracer STF15J output (W/m) decreases as oven
temperature increases.
Instruments Used to
Measure Data
Figure 2: Set up for measuring the sheath temperature of trace heater Cable, STF15J
Oven Ambient Temperature (°C)
Figure 3: The variation between tracer heater sheath (Ts-To) and oven ambient
temperature (To)
circulation oven. For a trace heater pad or panel,
a representative sample is placed horizontally in
the oven. The sample shall be within the upper
half of the trace heater’s thermal output
tolerance. Representative thermocouples are
used to monitor sample sheath temperatures
and are placed approximately 500 mm from each
end. One additional thermocouple is used to
monitor oven ambient temperature. The trace
heater shall be powered at 110% of rated voltage.
Table 2 shows the measured data of Thermopads
make tracer type STF15J.
The oven ambient temperature is
incrementally raised from room ambient in
approximately 15 oK increments. Sufficient time
is permitted at each temperature for the oven
ambient and heater sheath temperatures to
stabilize and attain thermal equilibrium. Oven
ambient and heater sheath temperatures are
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
recorded at each successive level until the
difference (ΔT) between the two approaches 5oK
or less. Figure 3 shows the variation between,
difference between tracer heater sheath and
Digital Ampere Meter 0-10A
Digital Voltmeter 0-500V
Digital Voltmeter 0-300V
Digital Watt Meter 0-200W
Digital Watt Meter 15-1000W
Digital Temperature Controller 0-400 Deg.C
Digital Temperature Controller 0-300 Deg.C
Data Logger (8 Channels) 0-1370 Deg. C
Ageing Oven 0-300Deg.C with 3 Nos. K-type
thermocouple Sensors
10) Ageing Oven 0-400Deg.C with 3 Nos. K-type
thermocouple Sensors.
This is an effective means of slowly heating
an object to measure thermodynamic properties
such as thermal.
1) Thermo trace self-regulating is used for
freeze protection of pipeline.
2) Tracer maintains the temperature above
freezing by balancing heat loss within heat
Oven Ambient Temperature (°C)
Figure 4: The variation between tracer (STF 15J) output (W/m) and oven ambient
temperature °C
Power Quality Solutions
MV Capacitor
Thyristor Switch Module
Capacitor Duty Contactors
Harmonic Filter
Power Factor Correction
Three Phase
Filter Reactor
Power Factor
Table 2: The Measured Data Of Thermopads Make Tracer Type Stf15j
Trace Type
Wattage (w)
Rated Voltage (v)
Total length 9m)
Voltage (v)
(110% of rated
: STF 15J
: 15W @ 10 deg. C
: 230
: 1.5
Current I Total wattage Wattage
VxI (W)
3) Tracers are cable whose resistance varies
with temperature – low resistance for
temperature below the cable set point and
high resistance for temperature above the
cable set point heat.
4) As the cable self regulates its heat output, it
limits the maximum sheath temperature,
thus making it burnout proof.
5) The maximum sheath temperature of thermo
pads make tracer type STF15J was measured
Navin Kumar
Technical Officer
CSIR-Central Institute of Mining
& Fuel Research, Dhanbad
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Measured Temperature in Deg. C.
Difference between
Sensor-reading (0C)-Placed on Sensor-reading (0C)-Placed on Max. Sheath Temp
tracer heater sample at 500mm trace heater sample at 500mm (0C) for sensor-1 Ambient tracer heater sheath and
away from opposite side of
& sensor-2
Temp. (0C)
Oven ambient temp
away from power connection
power connection )
reading Ts
72°C which comes under temperature class
T6 (i.e. less than 85°C).
6) The output of tracer STF15J (W/m) decreases
as oven temperature increases.
A. K. Singh
Senior Principal
CSIR-Central Institute of Mining
& Fuel Research, Dhanbad
Prasad Bhukya
CSIR-Central Institute of Mining
& Fuel Research, Dhanbad
Arvind Kumar
Technical Officer
CSIR-Central Institute of Mining
& Fuel Research, Dhanbad
Rakesh Kumar Mishra
Technical Officer
CSIR-Central Institute of Mining
& Fuel Research, Dhanbad
integration will
change generation
Sterlite Power is India’s leading solution
provider of energy delivery. It has become a
pioneer in introducing some of the best
global practices in the Indian power
transmission sector. The transmission sector
will see investments worth Rs 2,60,000 crore
over the next five years to ensure that
government’s vision of power for all is met.
Private sector will have a huge role to play
in this and we are confident of winning a
fair share of this market, informs Ved Mani
Tiwari, COO, Sterlite Power in an
interaction with Electrical India…
What are the key market trends of Indian Transmission
sector? What are the growth drivers of this sector?
by 2019 through use of smart metering, better detection of theft, and
more efficient transmission and distribution network.
Some key trends the sector has witnessed over the last couple of
years are:
One Nation One Grid: The power market in the country operates
in five different grids and with the integration of the southern grid
with the national grid, the country has the One Nation One Grid One
Price is closer to reality. This means a seamless interconnected grid
network across the country capable of transferring a watt of energy
from a surplus zone to a deficit one.
Power Surplus Status: We as a nation have moved from an era
or power deficit to surplus power. Currently, our installed capacity
exceeds that of our demand. This is a huge achievement for the sector,
where government, public as well as private sector has joined hands
to deliver this.
Lowering T&D losses: Transmission and Distribution (T&D)
losses, also referred to as Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C)
losses, while still high, have come down significantly. At an all-India
level, the T&D losses have come down from 26.63% in 2011-12 to
21.81% in 2015-16. Government is targeting to bring it down to 15 %
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Private participation: The opening of the transmission sector
to private participation has been one important policy intervention.
From there moving to a Tariff Based Competitive Bidding (TBCB) has
not just laid a level playing field for all players but also reduced the
project cost and timelines. Success of BOOM projects is a good
testimony of healthy private participation in the sector.
Rise of renewables: Our renewables capacity, which includes
solar and wind, are galloping at a very healthy clip. Of the 330 MW
installed capacity as on June 2017, 58 GW comes from renewables.
This was 44GW last year. Comparatively, thermal capacity rose by just
6GW during the same period. This gap will only rise in the years
to come.
Technology for transparency: Government is using technology
to enhance transparency in the sector. Each power mission now has
an app (e.g. URJA, UDAY, DEEP, TARANG etc.) which could be tracked
by anybody. This is very helpful for all stakeholders.
The Growth drivers of transmission sector are:
• Govt scheme like UDAY to improve health of
• IPDS, rural electrification programme,
• Allotment of funds into Clean energy fund,
• Improvement in per capita consumption
• MVA/MW ratio
• Inter-regional transmission capacity
• Improvement in the last mile connectivity.
inadequate transmission will act as the biggest bottleneck as
renewable capacity addition takes just months to come up against
years for the supporting power evacuation infrastructure. Hence,
those transmission players with a strong focus on ahead-of-time
delivery will be able to meet this challenge.
As per the CEA estimate, India would need 100,000 circuit km
(ckm) of transmission lines and 2,00,000 MVA transformer capacity of
substations at 220 kv and above voltage in the 13th plan. The
transmission sector will see investments worth Rs 2,60,000 crore over
the next five years to ensure that government’s vision of power for all
is met. Private sector will have a huge role to play in this and we are
confident of winning a fair share of this market.
Indian power grid will see massive changes on both
ends – demand will see a phenomenal growth due to
Power for All and UDAY. Renewable integration will
change generation footprint and profile. Transmission
sector will have to make both ends meet – large scale
new capacity will be needed.
Sterlite Power is the first power sector company and the
second infrastructure player to launch the initial public
offering of its infrastructure investment trust (InvIT). How
much funds did you raise through this IPO? What are the
transmission projects in pipeline for which the company will
utilize these funds?
We are happy and proud that the first transmission sector InvIT done by
us. We raised Rs 2,250 crore through the listing of India Grid Trust (IndiGrid).
The issue was subscribed 1.3 times.
IndiGrid currently has two revenue earning projects in its portfolio and
it plans to acquire its sponsor’s, which is Sterlite Power, four additional interstate power transmission projects. These four projects have a topline of Rs
300 crore and would add around 50-60% growth in topline post acquisition.
The acquisition will add 3-5% growth in distribution per unit.
What kind of opportunities would you envisage for your
company with the government’s reforms such as ‘Power for
all’ and plans to add 88.5 GW of capacity by 2017 and 93 GW
by 2022?
Indian power grid will see massive changes on both ends –
demand will see a phenomenal growth due to Power for All and
UDAY. Renewable integration will change generation footprint and
profile. Transmission sector will have to make both ends meet – large
scale new capacity will be needed.
With renewables taking centre stage in new capacity addition,
What are the hurdles the company face while executing the
projects? So, what kind of support would you expect from the
While the Ministry of Power has introduced policy for incentivizing
early commissioning projects, issues related to revised SCOD
(Scheduled Commercial Operational Date), upstream/downstream
readiness are yet to be resolved. Deliberation on early commissioning
policy and emulation of international best practices will make the
standard bid document more effective. Developers like us who invest
a lot in technology and project management to deliver projects ahead
of schedule will be greatly encouraged if early commissioning is
While in principal the states have agreed to move to TBCB, a push
is required for its implementing. Competitive bidding will benefit
consumers through reduced tariffs. Defining threshold limit for
competitive bidding is also required at this stage. One of the key issues
faced by infrastructure developers are those related to ROW and Forest
clearances. Simplifying these clearances process will reduce the
timelines involved and speed up the execution of the project.
Players from nations which don’t allow Indian developers to
participate in their market should face similar restrictions. While FDI
is important for the overall growth of power transmission sector,
government should keep in mind the reciprocity given by other
countries to us.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Grid Support
Ancillary services through Microgrid
for Grid Security & Reliability
Prof. Mrs. Kalyani
M. Kurundkar
Assistant Professor
PVG’s College of Engineering
and Technology, Pune
Dr. Mrs. G. A.
Professor and Head of Electrical
Engineering Department, PVG’s
College of Engineering and
Technology, Pune
Microgrids can provide
potential Ancillary services
to the power system for
maintaining its voltage
profile and frequency. These
services also improve
stability, security of system
and reduce congestion.
These will be source of
revenue generation for
microgrid owner’s in near
future and will be of great
importance to the power
market players…
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
ndia’s sustained growth has led to supply
demand imbalance with the peak deficit of
12.7%, which could further increase. Large
fraction of population depends on fossil fuels for
their energy needs, which increase the green
house gas emissions. The government has
recognized the importance of renewable energy
and it is seen as the environment friendly
solution to the problem of increase in energy
demand. According to the strategic plan of MNRE
for the period of 2011-2017, 20 million solar
lights are estimated to avoid the use 1 billion
liters of kerosene per annum in 2020 and 5
million sq.m. thermal collectors are expected to
save fuel oil of about 350 million liters per
annum in 2020. The government is also working
towards installation of 10,000 Renewable energy
based microgrids in the next five years which will
provide access to electricity to 237 million
Indians. Government of India has planned for
renewable energy (RE) capacity addition of 175
GW by 2022. With technological advances,
market shifts, and policy changes that support
increasing levels of distributed generation based
on renewable energy sources the Indian
electricity system is evolving rapidly. Without a
proper integration into network operation,
Distributed Generation (DGs) based on
intermittent energy might jeopardise the
stability of the network at higher penetration
levels. The possible impacts on power system
operation specifically at distribution level due to
high penetration of renewable energy sources
are discussed below.
Bidirectional Power Flows
While distribution feeders were initially
designed for unidirectional power flow,
integration of DG units at low voltage levels can
cause reverse power flows and lead to
complications in protection coordination,
undesirable power flow patterns, fault current
distribution, and voltage control.
Power Quality Issues
Two main aspects are usually considered
under power quality issues: transient voltage
variations and voltage harmonic distortion.
Depending on several issues such as capacity,
<< Grid Support
type of prime mover, interface, location, etc. the
effect of DG on network voltage can be either
positive or negative. In practice, meeting the
required standards either from the energy
converter side or from the grid side causes no
problems to grid operation.
Stability Issues
The presence of DG may have a considerable
impact on the stability of the electric power
system since the networks are no longer passive.
Congestion Problems
In some scenarios, DG may alter branch flows
significantly, which may pose additional
problems in terms of managing energy flows.
This may ultimately cause branch overload,
especially, in the case of high levels of renewablebased DG integration, which may inject large
amounts of energy into the distribution system.
Protection issues
Protection of the generation equipment
from internal faults; protection of the faulted
distribution network from fault currents supplied
by DG; loss-of-mains protection and impact of DG
on existing distribution system protection.
Low inertia
Unlike bulk power systems where high
number of synchronous generators ensures a
relatively large inertia, DG system might show a
low-inertia characteristic, especially, if there is a
significant share of power electronic-interfaced
DG units.
The economical and reliable operation of DG
system requires a certain level of coordination
among different sources. This coordination
becomes more challenging when taking into
account the uncertainty of parameters such as
load profile and weather forecast.
This impact of distributed generation
penetration in the grid can be reduced without
compromising the quality of supply and reliability
by ancillary services for grid support. Reliability
of supply with best power quality has become the
highest priority of consumers. Ancillary Services in
power system (or grid) operation are support
services necessary to support the power system (or
grid) operation for maintaining power quality,
reliability and security of the grid, e.g. active power
support for load following, reactive power support,
black start, etc. For secure and reliable operation of
power system in restructured environment, there
is a need for ancillary services more at distribution
level than at transmission level.
Ancillary Services consist of services required for:
a) Maintaining load – generation balance
(frequency control)
b) Maintaining voltage and reactive power
c) Maintaining generation and transmission
Traditionally, ancillary services were provided
by the supply authority itself, in a re-regulated
regime, where customers are energy producers
too, these may be provided by both supply
authorities and microgrid owners. 'Microgrid'
fundamentally consist of controlled Distributed
Energy Resources (DER’s) which include a master
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Grid Support
Table 1: Microgrid components and the corresponding ancillary services
Microgrid Components
Ancillary services to main grid
All DER systems, WTGs, PV systems and hydro power plants, loads with storage system units but not
thermal-driven combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP)
Frequency regulation
Inverter and SG-coupled DG/storage units and Loads but not IG coupled DG
Voltage Control, Congestion Management,
Optimization of Grid losses
WT’s Coupled with Inverters, SGs, PV with Inverter, Micro-Hydro with Inverter/ SG and Storage
Black Start
WT’s With DFIG/ Inverter, PV with Inverter, Micro-Hydro with inverter, CCHP with Inverter, Storage
Fault Ride through Capability
of Grid Losses can be provided by controlling
the reactive power which not only depends
on control capability of the grid-coupling
technology but also on the active power
control capability of the DER unit. Reactive
power and voltage control are needed for
regulating distribution voltage within
specified limits. Microgrid can perform
smooth voltage regulation locally in response
to controller settings. Moreover, local supply
of real and reactive power from microsources
of Microgrid significantly reduces feeder
losses and is useful for congestion reduction.
For power utilities, reactive power and
voltage control is generally accomplished at
the cost of generating capacity. If Microgrids
provide this service, it would help the utility
generators to generate at their maximum
capacities, thus enhancing overall generation.
The Improvement of Voltage Quality depends
on the grid-coupling technology.
3. Supply of reserves: Microgrids can sell
three ancillary services, viz. (i) frequency
responsive spinning reserve, (ii)
supplemental reserve and (iii) backup supply
in open competitive market. These services
are aimed at restoring the real-time energy
balance between generators and loads in
case of any sudden contingency.
Network Restoration / Black Start: Black
start is defined as the capability of a power
system to restart its generation after a total
system collapse, without importing any
external power. Microgrids can easily sell
power for system black start.
The Fault-Ride-Through Capability
depends on the grid-coupling technology
which has to balance the power flow on the
grid-side and the DC-side in case of voltage
Islanded Operation: Islanded Operation
requires the capability to control active
power, reactive power, voltage and
frequency. Active power control can be done
by control of the distributed generation.The
reactive power control is possible by proper
grid coupling technology.Distributed storage
is mostly designed for islanded operation for
uninterruptible power supplies.
Network Stability: Microgrids are capable
of sensing the low-frequency oscillations
and providing adequate damping. This may
controller with its control system, microsource
controller, microsource or distributed generation,
storage units and loads. Microgrids can be
operated interconnected to the main power grid or
in an autonomous mode (standalone or Islanded
Mode). The major Ancillary services that are
provided by Microgrid to the power system are:
1. Frequency regulation: This service is
based on active power control which can be
done by controlling the output of DER.
Adjusting generation to load minute by
minute to maintain specified system
frequency within the control area , is known
as ‘regulation’. This service can be provided
efficiently by the microsources (DG’s) of
Microgrid, which are connected to the grid
and at the same time located close to the
load pockets. Load following takes place over
longer periods. Load following is the
capability of on-line generation equipment
to track customer load variations and control
the load as per the requirement.
2. Voltage
management and optimization of grid
losses: Ancillary service of voltage control,
Congestion Management and Optimisation
Figure 1: Technological Framwork For Ancillary Services through Microgrid
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Grid Support
Figure 2: Functions of Energy Management System for Microgrid
be accomplished by making the microsource
supply power at 180 degree out of phase
from the oscillation.
Harmonic compensation and peak shaving
are some of the other ancillary services that can
be provided by microgrid.
The Table no 1 shows the Microgrid
components and the corresponding ancillary
services provided by them. The cost reduction in
Information and Communication technology has
given the boost to increase the capability of the
microgrid master controller (MC) to control the
output of DER in Standalone and grid-connected
mode. The capability of the microgrid as a whole
to provide the ancillary service depends on the
grid coupling technologies used to couple DER
with the main Grid and also the Controlled DER in
the Microgrid. There are different types of grid
coupling technologies used like Doubly Fed
Induction generators(DFIG),directly coupled
Synchronous Generators(SG), directly coupled
Induction generators(IG), Inverters (Including
Inverter coupled IG or SG). The grid coupling
technologies transform the available power
input into a power output of a different
Fig 1. shows the technological framework,
for providing ancillary services through microgrid
to main grid. In order to analyze the technological
capability of a microgrid to provide the ancillary
service, firstly the Grid coupling technology is to
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
be analyzed and then the controlled DER as a
whole. Economic Framework of Provision of
ancillary services through microgrid depends
upon decision making capacity of Energy
Management System (EMS) that will suggest
most promising technologies for the provision of
ancillary services and most feasible service which
will result in incremental revenue for community
microgrid owners, providing security of supply to
the customers. Microgrid’s Master controller has
Energy Management System (EMS).
The energy management system as shown in
figure 2 controls the power flows in the microgrid
by adjusting the power imported/exported from/
to the main grid, controls the dispatchable DERs,
the controllable loads based on the present and
forecasted information of the market, the
generations, and the loads in order to meet
certain operational objectives (e.g., minimizing
costs) and maximizing the financial gains. For
many ancillary services, the EMS would make a
decision in a day-ahead market as to whether it
would be profitable to supply the service, and at
what price. The EMS would then bid into the
market and find out if the bid was successful. If
successful, the EMS would plan to supply the
service the next day. Thus, ancillary service
market can be a large source of revenue
generation to Microgrid owners. In many parts of
the world the microgrid owners are presently
making profits from energy markets.
Market Perspective
The success of any technology depends upon its
commercial acceptance and use. Similar,
Microgrid technology will be completely
successful only if its participation in the energy
and ancillary services market will bring profit to
its market players without compromising on its
assets. For successful implementation of
microgrids, in India, the energy and ancillary
services market must come forward with strong
financial incentives for both i.e. microgrid owners
and power utilities. The independent system
operators, aggregators and market players will
play a very important role in this context. In this
case, it is the Microgrids EMS which responds to
the pricing signal and act accordingly. Thus, in an
Indian Power system with significantly increased
levels of renewable energy sources penetration
in distribution networks, the opportunities for
microgrids to provide ancillary services at
distribution level may increase. Ancillary services
provision at distribution level has manifold
advantages to utility as well as customers. With
ancillary services from microgrids, the utility
generators can be used to their full capacity for
generating electricity. If utility and microgrid
owners are able to participate in the ancillary
services market, it will bring a lot of benefit to all
the stakeholders, improving resource utilization,
security, power quality and increasing overall
system reliability.
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Smart Projects
50 lakh Smart Meters for
Reducing AT&C Losses
The meters are being procured for implementation of smart grid projects in the states of Haryana
and Uttar Pradesh. These meters will help these states in not only significantly reducing their
AT&C losses way of increased billing efficiency, but will completely change the way in which
electrical energy is presently being consumed and paid for by the ordinary consumers…
nergy Efficiency Services Ltd (EESL), under the Ministry of
Power, Government of India had put out a mega tender for
procurement of 50 lakh smart meters in July, which would
help in reducing AT&C losses, power theft and also help in monitoring
of round the clock power supply eventually leading to greater
efficiency and 24X7 power for all.
A pre-bid meeting was held by EESL recently for procurement of
50 lakh smart meters, which elicited a stellar response from the smart
meter manufacturers, system integrators and has also excited various
other stakeholders including World Bank and telecom operators etc.
The interest shown by the smart meter fraternity is also evident from
the participation of about 100 companies in the pre-bid meeting and
is a measure of the potential which smart projects have in India.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
EESL will be making the entire upfront investment as
well as maintain the whole infrastructure for the next ten
years. This approach has made the project feasible as most
of the state utilities are not in a position for such rollouts
due to their financial constraints. EESL will recover its
investment from the savings accruing to the DISCOMs in
subsequent years.
The meters are being procured for implementation of
smart grid projects in the states of Haryana and Uttar
Pradesh. These meters will help these states in not only
significantly reducing their AT&C losses way of increased
billing efficiency, but will completely change the way in
which electrical energy is presently being consumed and
paid for by the ordinary consumers.
Installation of these smart meters along with its
associated communication and IT infrastructure will enable
the DISCOMs to obtain real time energy consumption data
of each consumer for subsequent analysis and will pave
the way for initiating various smart measures by DISCOMs
like Time of Day (TOD)/Time Of Use (ToU) billing, prediction
and management of peak demand, providing real time
energy consumption data to consumer, prepaid billing
facility, remote connection and disconnection of load, accurate
billing, etc. Installation of these meters will also obviate the need for
the meter reader’s visit to each and every consumer. In order to make
the entire project feasible and affordable, EESL has unbundled the
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) project into two parts viz.
procurement of smart meter and arranging the system integrator.
EESL is also planning to issue the tender for selection of system
integrator early next month, as second part of the AMI project.
Senior officials of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh DISCOMs were
present in the pre-bid meeting along with representatives from
DISCOMs of Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha, as well as senior officials
from CEA, NSGM etc.
Machine Tools
MV Covered Conductors:
Safety Solution for Wildlife
Using Bare Conductors on the overhead distribution lines in
forest and wild life sanctuaries resulting fatal accidental death of
several wildlife animals and big birds due to electrocution
to withstand the phase‐to‐earth voltage
Construction of MVCC
resently, we are witnessing several
incidents where wild life has been fatally
electrocuted in India. 400 flamingos have
died in 10 days due to electrocution by high
tension cables near their breeding grounds in
Gujarat (2014). As many as 139 greater flamingos
were electrocuted in Kutch desert wildlife
sanctuary. On January 25, a female elephant died
due to electrocution in the forests of Odisha’s
Rourkela district. On the night of 4 September 15,
a large tusker was electrocuted by a sagging high
tension electric cable in Kaziranga National Park,
Assam. Two leopards, one tigress and two sambar
deer were also electrocuted between January 11
and 14(2011) in different forest divisions of
Maharashtra’s Nagpur district. As per Tito Joseph
of the Wildlife Protection Society of India (WPSI),
every year at least 20 elephants, 11 leopards die
due to electrocution.
According to CEA (Central Electricity
Authority) mandatory guidelines, Medium
Voltage Covered conductors should be used to
reduce the ROW (right of way) of HT lines which
are passing through the forest area for the safety
of wild life.
Apar has taken the lead from the MAKE IN
INDIA initiative to develop Medium Voltage
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Covered conductors (MVCC) which is currently
imported from overseas manufactures.
Conductor: Longitudinally water tight
Stranded All Aluminium Alloy (AAAC) or
Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR)
Challenges Faced by Indian
Outages due to temporary tree contact
Conductor slashing due to corrosion
Wide Right of Way (ROW)
Electromagnetic field effect on electronic
• Safety (Road /Rail/River crossings/Slums/
Congested residential areas etc.)
A. Conductor Screen: Water swellable semiconducting tape (if required) and extruded semiconducting compound
B. Inner Insulation: XLPE
C. Outer Insulation: UV protected and antitracking black coloured XLPE / HDPE
Anti-Tracking Properties
Covered conductors consist of a conductor
insulated by a covering made of insulating
material(s) as protection against accidental
contacts with other covered conductors and with
grounded parts such as tree branches, etc. In
comparison with insulated conductors, this
covering has reduced thickness, but is sufficient
Anti tracking property is must for MVCC
Outer XLPE/HDPE. As per the experience of
several international utilities, in the absence of
anti-tracking, XLPE /HDPE, MVCC fails within a
short time period of 5-6 months. Anti -tracking
jacketing has been specially designed to meet
the outdoor conditions & performance
requirements of 13.8KV to 34.5KV distribution
networks. The material has an excellent resistance
to arc, corrosion inhibitor, fungicide activity, oil
resistance, and weather conditions like humidity,
pollution, presence of salt in atmosphere etc.
There is a special test method for carrying out the
tests for the anti-tracking in SS EN 50397-1.
<< Machine Tools
Applicable Standards
Compression Joints
SS EN 50397-1, BS EN 50182, IS 398-2, IS
398-4, IEC 61089
Salient Features of MVCC
1. Rare Interruptions on transient faults
(contact of tree branches or creepers etc.) that
contribute the majority of total faults occurred
in overhead distribution lines. 2. Less Power shut downs for clearing of the
lane from growing trees e.g. Branches or
trees can be cut and moved away under live
working conditions.
3. No faults due to momentary clashing of
phase conductors during wind and stormy
4. Reduced tower related cost due to reduced
Phase to Phase conductor distance.
5. Ideal and safer solution for installations over
river / lake/ railway / road slums / congested
residential areas and in polluted areas
Accessories used by MVCC
Tension clamps
Cables ties
Suspension Clamps
Benefits of MVCC
Moreover, lighting protection, earthing and arc
protection accessories are available.
Easy Installation
Covered Conductors can be installed in an
easy and fast manner; Normal pole to pole
spacing can be between 50-70 meters, standard
poles of bare conductor can be used for covered
conductors as the weight of covered conductors
is only about 10-12% higher than bare conductor
due to insulation. For fast installation, even
existing poles of bare conductors can be used
without changing the cross arms and other
fitting with covered conductor and its accessories.
• No interruptions by contact of tree branches.
• No faults with short duration touching of
phase conductors during wind conditions.
• Phase to Phase conductor distance can be
reduced (reduce the Tower costs)
• Ideal and safer solution for installations for
river/lake/ railway/ road crossings and in
populated areas.
• Can protectbig birds like peacocks, flamingos
etc. Ideal for installations in forest areas and
in bird sanctuaries.
• Covered conductors are a cheaper alternative
to underground cable and also to ABC cables,
especially, in difficult terrain and in densely
populated areas.
• Lines nearby areas where the public visits are
not so dangerous because of accidental
• Overcomes costly Right of Way issues and
line can be commissioned faster.
Covered conductors are the best economical
solutions where ever the safety of human and
wildlife has been challenged or compromised by
bare conductors. It gives maintenance free
overhead line reliability. Service calls will
drastically reduced which means an uninterrupted
power supply adding more revenues to the
utility. It is a safe, economical, environmental
friendly, reliable solution for utility to protect the
wildlife from being electrocuted.
Manish Patel
Apar Industries Ltd.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Electrifying Women
A. Lalitha, the first Indian woman engineer:
Love of Electrical Engineering was in her blood
By reading true life stories like that of A. Lalitha, many girls will be inspired to study engineering and more
importantly once entering the work force find a way to stay and contribute to technical fields…
Attendees First International Conference of Women Engineers and
Scientists (WES). Lalitha on the far left. Image courtesy of Society of
Women Engineers National Records, Walter P. Reuther Library and
Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University
n 1940, Lalitha Rao made history as the first
woman engineer of India, and the first
woman to graduate from one of the oldest
Indian technical institution, my alma mater,
College of Engineering, Guindy (CEG), University
of Madras.
Lalitha was born on August 27, 1919 in
Chennai (then Madras). She had a middle class
upbringing in a Telugu speaking family (Chennai
is predominantly a Tamil speaking city). She had
four older and two younger siblings. Lalitha was
married in 1934, when she was fifteen. Her
studies continued even after marriage, but came
to a stop after receiving the Secondary School
Leaving Certificate (SSLC or Class X). Her daughter
Syamala was born in 1937 and was only four
months old when Lalitha’s husband passed away.
As a young widow with a baby, Lalitha wanted to
go back to college and get a professional degree
that would allow her to be self-sufficient.
Lalitha joined Queen Mary’s College in
Chennai and completed her intermediate exam
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
with first class. Lalitha thought about medicine
as a career, but the rigors of being a doctor, while
taking care of a young child didn’t appeal to her.
The other option was to become an engineer, and
follow in the footsteps of her father and brothers,
but even though Lalitha was a brilliant student
and getting into CEG today would have been a
breeze, this seemed impossible in an age where
technical education was considered a male
prerogative. Luckily her father, a professor of
electrical engineering at CEG, took up her
daughter’s cause and spoke to the then principal
of the college, Dr. K.C. Chacko and also got the
approval from Director for Public Instruction.
Lalitha entered CEG in 1940 as a student of
the four year electrical engineering program. Two
more women Leelamma George and P.K. Thressia
joined CEG to study civil engineering in 1940. All
of them graduated in 1943, the first batch of
women to do so from CEG. Lalitha’s Honors
degree in Electrical Engineering was awarded in
February of 1944.
After completing her qualifying examinations
for Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electrical
Engineering in 1943, Lalitha completed her one
year apprenticeship in Jamalpur Railway
Workshop, which was a major repair and overhaul
In 1944 Lalitha joined the Central Standards
Organisation of India, Simla, as an engineering
assistant. She stayed in the job until December
1946. She also took the Graduateship Exam of
the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London,
In 1946 Lalitha left her job in order to help
him with his research. She couldn’t continue this
beyond 1948 due to financial reasons, and joined
the Associated Electrical Industries (AEI) . The
post was to be in Calcutta, and Lalitha’s second
brother lived there, which was fortunate, since
living by herself would have been problematic as
a widow in those days. In AEI, Lalitha worked in
the engineering department, and sales division,
Calcutta branch.
She had a very satisfying job there as a
design engineer designing transmission lines.
Her work also spanned solving problems of
protective gear, substation layouts, and execution
of contracts. A notable project was the Bhakra
Nangal dam. Lalitha moved on to contract
engineering, serving as an intermediary between
the equipment manufacturers in England and
the local installation and servicing engineers.
Being a widow with a child, Lalitha’s work was
confined to providing the expertise and
assistance to those who were above her in
seniority and she did this with great efficiency
and satisfaction.
In 1953, the Council of the Institution of
Electrical Engineers (IEE), London, elected her to
be an associate member and in 1966 she became
a full member.
One of the highlights of Lalitha’s career was
<< Electrifying Women
Note: They had to strike out ‘He’
and write in ‘She’
being invited to the First International
Conference of Women Engineers and
Scientists (WES) in New York which
took place in June 1964.
On her way back to India, Lalitha
spent three weeks touring UK, visiting
AEI factories including Trafford Park
(Manchester) and Rugby works.
Lalitha became a full member of
the Women’s Engineering Society of
London in 1965, and acted as their
representative in India for the Second
International Conference of Women
Engineers & Scientists, held in
Cambridge, England in July 1967.
Lalitha’s accomplishments at the
time she achieved them are awe
inspiring. They would not have been
possible without the extensive
support structure she had.
She retired from working in 1977.
In 1979, when she was only 60 years old, she was
struck with a brain aneurism and passed away
after a couple of weeks on October 12.
Lalitha once said, “Electrical Engineering
runs in my blood. My father, four brothers,
nephew and son-in-law are all electrical
engineers”. Today, many girls get a STEM
education – both in India, and elsewhere. For
any number of reasons many of them decide to
drop out of their fields. It takes grit and interest
in the field to stay the course. Lalitha’s life is a
beacon for all the women who came after her in
the 50’s but also today.
Shantha Mohan
An ISO 9001:2008 Company
— Microprocessor controlled Menu driven.
— Power Supply with Rechargeable Battery.
— Test Insulation Resistance upto 10TW
— Voltmeter : AC Voltage : 30 ~ 600V;
500V, 1000V, 2500V & 5000V.
— Short circuit current upto 5mA.
DC Voltage : 30 ~ 600V
— Accuracy : ±(2.0%rdg + 3dgts);
— 4 Insulation Test Voltages :
— PI, DAR, Auto-ranging & Auto-hold Function. — Resolution : 1V
— Optical USB to RS-232 data transmission.
— 2 built-in optical LEDs for data transfer.
— Adjustable testing duration : 1 ~ 30 minutes.
— Internal memory for data storage.
— Displays testing duration for insulation
— Current Measurement : 0.5nA ~ 0.55mA
(Depending on the insulation resistance)
— 200 measurement results can be saved
in memory & recalled on display.
— Auto-off function.
G-17, Bharat Industrial Estate, T. J. Road, Sewree (W), Mumbai - 400015. India.
Tel. : 2412 4540, 2418 1649, 2775 0662 Fax :022-2414 9659, 27751612 E-mail : [email protected]
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Rishabh CTs – A Technological Excellence
CT Basics
Measurement of energy flow is extremely
important to monitor and protect the power
system. Current Transformer is widely used for
this purpose.
It becomes practically impossible for any
measuring instrument to handle the high current
values and hence Current Transformer comes as a
handy solution. Current transformer produces a
reduced current accurately proportional to the
current in the circuit, which can be conveniently
connected to measuring and recording
instruments. A current transformer isolates the
measuring instruments from very high voltage in
the monitored circuit.
Engineers often tend to think of a current
transformer as an ideal device. Hence let’s have a
look at ideal CT.
Ideal Current Transformer
n1 V1 l2
= =
n2 V2 l1
where: a = turns ratio of transformer
n1 = number of turns on primary
n2 = number of turns on secondary
V1 = primary voltage
V2 = secondary voltage
I1 = primary current
I2 = secondary current
An ideal current transformer would
proportionally scale down the value of the power
system current to a useable known value. Second,
the scale-down output should faithfully
reproduce the power system current waveform.
An ideal current transformer should perform
these two tasks over the range of a few amps up
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
through ten thousands amps. The ideal current
transformer should be able to meet these
requirements. In reality, a current transformer
has limitations.
Today’s current transformer hasn’t changed
since it was developed. A current transformer
consists of the following components:
• A laminated steel core
• A secondary winding around the core
• Insulating material
When current travels through a current
carrying device, such as a cable or bus duct it
develops a magnetic field at right angles to the
flow of current. The strength of the magnetic
field varies as the current magnitude changes
during all operating conditions. As learnt in
transformer theory, when a magnetic field strikes
a wire, it will cause a current to flow in the wire.
By using the strength of the magnetic field and
knowing the turns ratio, we can obtain a value of
current that is useable for meters, relays and
other current sensing devices.
In order to scale a value of high current
flowing in a conductor, the engineer needs to
introduce a specific number of uniformly
distributed turns of wire around the core to scale
down the system current. This will ensure that
the output current is always proportional to the
current flowing in the conductor.
The current carrying conductor is referred to
as a primary or P1 and the ends of the wire
surrounding the core are referred to as a
secondary or S1 and S2 for single winding current
In the past, there were two main values of
secondary current typically used in measuring
current. In India and most of Asian countries and
also in the United States, engineers typically use
a 5-amp output. Other countries have adopted a
1-amp output.
Rishabh Current Transformers are
manufactured to meet indoor or internal devices
for switchgear, distribution systems, generator
sets and control panels. Rishabh CTs are intended
for supplying measuring instruments and
protection circuits of electrical power devices
with a maximum operating voltage of 0.72KV
and frequency of 50Hz or 60Hz. These current
transformers are supplied in ring/rectangular/
split core type in a wide range of ratios and
accuracies with primary current ranging from 1A
up to 7500A and with secondary current of 5A
and 1A.
CT Assembly
Accuracy of CT depends on the magnetic
performance of the steel core. Hence, we can call
it as a heart of CT. Torridly wound cores with high
permeability and low loss are used to optimize
performance and physical size of the
transformers. High grade insulation is used to
insulate between the windings and the core and
between winding layers.
Maximum mechanical and electrical
performance is achieved by distributing all
windings evenly around periphery of core.
The casing of the CTs is made with UL 94 V-0
approved 10% glass filled Polycarbonate material
having self-extinguishing and non-drip feature
that provides an excellent mechanical / fire
protective body & look and long term dielectric
CT Selection
Factors to be considered while selection of
the current transformer.
1. Primary Current: The nominal value of the
primary current (Ipn) should be selected
from the offered series range of available
<< Outlook
Accuracy Class
+/- Percentage Current (ratio) error at
Percentage of Rated Current Shown Below
+/- Phase Displacements at percentage of rated current Shown below
In Minutes
In centiradian
types to provide the closest match with the
expected primary current of the system.
All low voltage transformers manufactured
by Rishabh have an extended rating of 120%
which makes conversion possible within a
range 20% higher than the rated value.
2. Secondary Current: Secondary current
(Isn) is to adapt to the system found on the
secondary side of the transformer.
5A and 1A are the standardized secondary
current values.
Primary current/secondary current (Ipn/Isn)
is the standard transformation ratio.
3. Power – the transformer load: The total
load (VA) that will be connected to the
secondary side of the transformer should be
considered, including the load from the
connected device as well as losses on
connection leads and terminals. According to
standard IEC 60044-1 the current and phase
errors of the transformer should not exceed
values specified in below given table at any
secondary load in the range from 25% to
100% of the rated load.
4. Dimensions: Internal and external
dimensions of the transformer should be
specified to ensure the possibility to install
the transformer on the current circuit and
that it can be accommodated in the planned
5. Accuracy class to obtain satisfactory
measurement accuracy: In case of
metering CTs with accuracy class 0.2, 0.5, 1
or 3, CT has to be accurate from 5% to 120%
of the rated primary current and CTs with
accuracy class 0.2S and 0.5S, it has to be
accurate from 1% to 120% of the rated
primary current at 25% and 100% of the
rated burden at specified power factor.
Factors affecting CT prices
Selection CT VA burden and accuracy class
should be according to the actual requirement of
the application wherein the CT is going to be
installed. Selecting higher VA or Class than
necessary usually results in a higher cost. The cost
generally increases as the CT internal diameter
increases. 1A secondary CTs are usually more
expensive than 5A CTs.
Instrument Security Factor (FS)
In order to protect the instruments and
meters from being damaged by high currents
during fault conditions, a metering core must be
saturated typically between 5 and 20 times the
rated currents. The rated instrument security
factor (FS) indicates the over current as a multiple
of the rated current at which the metering core
will saturate. It is, thus, limiting the secondary
current to FS times the rated current. ISF for
Rishabh CTs are designed to 5 or less than 5. The
safety of the metering equipment is greatest
when Rishabh CTs are used.
CT Testing
Each and every CT is tested in accordance
with IEC 60044-1 or IS-2705 for ratio errors and
phase angle errors with microprocessor based
automatic transformer test set (Omicron make CT
Analyzer) with facilities for automatic printout of
test results. Test comparisons are made with
standard traceable NPL to validate ratio accuracy
performance for all CTs. For protection class CT
the performance is verified by excitation
Accuracy class characteristics
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Test Set up Photo used in Rishabh with Test Certificate supplied with each CT.
• Thermal Inverse time relays : 7.5VA class
• Low consumption relays : 2.5VA class
• Inverse definite min. time (IDMT) Over
current relays : 15VA class 10P10/15.
• IDMT earth fault relays with fault stability or
accurate time grading required : 15VA class 5P10.
Rish Xmer Sigma 75
Class PS CTs
Rish Xmer Sigma 150
Metering Class CTs
In general the following applies :
Accuracy class requirements:
0.1 or 0.2 for precision measurements.
0.5 for High grade killowatt-hour meters.
1.0 for commercial grade killowatt-hour meters.
1 or 3 for general industrial measurements.
3 or 5 for approximate measurements.
Burden requirements:
Ammeter :
Current coil of watt/var meter :
Current coil of energy meter :
Current coil of PF indicator :
Current coil of Tri-vector meter :
1.0 VA.
1.5 VA.
2.0 VA.
2.5 VA.
3.0 VA.
Protection Class CTs
In addition to general specification required
for CT design, protection CTs require an accuracy
limit factor (ALF). This is the multiple of rated
current up to which the CT will operate while
complying with the accuracy class requirements.
In general the following applies:
• Instantaneous over current relays & trip coils
: 2.5VA class 10P5.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Class PS CTs are special CTs used mainly in
balanced protection systems (including
restricted earth fault) where the system is
sensitively dependent on CT accuracy. Further
to the general CT specifications, we now need
to know:
• Vkp – Voltage knee point
• Io – Maximum magnetizing current at Vkp
• Rs – Maximum resistance of the secondary
Knee Point Voltage: That point on the
magnetizing curve where an increase of 10% in
the flux density (voltage) causes an increase of
50% in the magnetizing force (current).
Summation CTs
In electrical supply practice, it may become
necessary to obtain sum of currents in a number
of feeders. To achieve this, Summation CTs are
used. These CTs are used with feeder CTs. Which
may or may not have same ratios. Each feeder is
provided with its own CT and the secondary
windings of these are connected to the
appropriate primary windings of the Summation
CT. The summation CT has a single secondary
winding which is connected to the burden. It is
essential that Summation CTs are used on
currents of same frequency and phase.
Summation CTs are generally manufactured
confirming to IS 6949.
As Rishabh is having the complete basket of
low tension current transformers manufactured
in a world class CT manufacturing setup
consisting of an automatic testing facility for all
CTs with a printed Test Certificates, we have a real
technological excellence in current transformers.
1. GE consumer & Industrial Specification
Engineer Series,
2. abb-przekladniki en_01_16.11.pdf
3. CT theory – GR elect.pdf
Santosh R.
Product Manager – Analog Expertise
Rishabh Instruments Pvt. Ltd.
<< Modernisation
GE Continues to Modernise Generator
Units of Paks Nuclear Power Plant
GE is a global recognised company in services for the global nuclear
power industry. It has completed retrofits on 257 steam turbines
installed at 103 nuclear power plant units...
performed at GE’s services facility in Wroclaw, Poland, underscoring the
company’s regional supply chain capabilities and expertise.
GE is well known in services for the global nuclear power industry. It has
completed retrofits on 257 steam turbines installed at 103 nuclear power
plant units. While GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, the nuclear joint venture of GE
and Hitachi, is one of the world’s leading technology and services providers
for boiling water reactor stations, the Paks generator projects showcase GE’s
enhanced ability to service steam turbine-generators and other equipment
for pressurised water reactor (PWR) units, the nuclear industry’s largest
reactor segment.
Paks Nuclear Power Plant - Nuclear Hall
E’s Power Services has successfully modernised the fifth generator
at the 2,000-megawatt (MW) Paks Nuclear Power Plant, located
100 kilometers (62 miles) from Budapest, Hungary. The generator
refurbishment of the nation's only nuclear power station is expected to
extend the asset’s life and help increase the reliability of the plant. It also
demonstrates GE’s capabilities to service cross-fleet power generation
equipment across more than 90 brands. This generator refurbishment is part
of GE’s agreement to service eight generators—one per year through 2021.
Pascal Schweitzer, General Manager, GE’s Power Services, Europe, said,
“We are very excited to complete the fifth generator modernisation and
extend its life 20 years helping to support Hungary’s growing electricity
“The project showcases our ability to service other OEM generators in
existing nuclear power plants as well as our readiness to support modernising
Paks’ station generators,” he further added.
As part of the agreement, which began in 2013 and runs through 2021,
GE will service the station’s eight, 250-MW, Ganz-supplied generators in the
station’s four nuclear reactor units (Paks units 1-4), plus one spare generator.
The generators were commissioned between 1982 and 1987.
GE performed the work at its generator services facility in Budapest,
utilising the skills and expertise of both the GE Hungary teams as well as
several local subcontractors. High-speed balancing of the generators is
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Stay Protected from
Electrical Fires
Vimal Kumar
Associate V.P.
(Wires and Cables)
BCH Electric Limited
The BIS authorities, in order
to keep pace with the
changes in the International
specification, applications
and usage conditions in
India, have been revising the
IS 694 Standard from time to
time to keep the industry
and consumers abreast with
these changes. The last (4th)
revision of IS 694 took place
in the year 2010, and this
revision though long
overdue, sets norms which
are in tune with
international specifications.
The IS 694: Revision 4: 2010
forms a major basis of our
analysis in this article.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
he low voltage wires and cables market
in India comprises both organized and
unorganized players. Recent changes in
the governing regulatory and technical standards
for insulated electrical cable and cords used in
homes and offices are meant to ensure better
quality and higher flame withstand parameters
of these wires and cables. For the buyer or user,
knowledge of these changes and their
implications on the quality and safe life of cables,
would, make them well informed of the
precautions to take while deciding their purchase
or use, thereby, mitigating the risks and ensuring
their safety from electrical fires which occur due
to usage of low quality wires.
Evolving BIS Standards &
Effects on Markets
In the Indian electric power distribution
segment, where low voltage flexible cables and
cords are used, IS 694 is the most prevalent
specification. This is applicable for industries, in
house wirings as well as in appliances, as cords.
The IS 694 standard is in alignment with the IEC
and BS (British) standards, in specific IEC 60227
and BS 6500 and was first brought out in the year
1955. The BIS authorities, in order to keep pace
with the changes in the International
specification, applications and usage conditions
in India, have been revising the IS 694 Standard
from time to time to keep the industry and
consumers abreast with these changes. The last
(4th) revision of IS 694 took place in the year
2010, and this revision though long overdue, sets
norms which are in tune with international
specifications. The IS 694: Revision 4: 2010 forms
a major basis of our analysis in this article. This
<< Safety
Table 1: Additional Tests Conducted for FR & FRLS Wires & Cables
Test Method Specification Specified Values
Acid Gas generation (Only for FRLS)
To ascertain the amount of Hydrochloric acid gas evolved
from insulation of wire under fire
IS 10810 Part 59
Less than 20%
Critical Oxygen Index (For FR & FRLS)
To determine percentage of Oxygen required for
supporting combustion of insulating material at room
IS 10810 Part 58
More than 29%
To determine at what temperature, normal Oxygen
content of 21% in air will support combustion of
insulating material.
IS 10810 (Part 64)
More than 250° C
Temperature Index (For FR & FRLS)
revision, after due deliberations, was
implemented with effect from September 2016.
The latest revision of IS 694 specification
includes four new categories:
HR PVC (Heat Resistant PVC), FR (Flame
Retardant) and FRLS (Flame Retardant Low
Smoke and Halogen) cables and lastly, Type 'D'
insulation for general use.
Here, we would take up FR & FRLS categories:
categories generally referred to as 'House Wires'.
In the 2010 revision of IS 694, both Flame
Retardant (FR) & Flame Retardant Low Smoke &
Halogen categories have been added. This
inclusion of FR & FRLS by BIS is highly appreciable,
and a step in the right direction. It is in alignment
with the practise prevalent in developed
countries, as in European and US markets.
In the Indian scenario, data shows that the
majority of industrial disasters and commercial
or household fires are a result of electrical short
circuits. These electrical short circuits cause fires
in the electrical appliances or electrical fittings,
which rapidly spread through flames via the
connecting electrical wires to the surrounding
rooms or halls and combustible furniture, etc.
Apart from igniting the combustible furniture,
other connected electrical equipment, these
'under fire' cables emit thick smoke from the
burning insulating compounds in the wires,
which cause asphyxia in humans, if exposed to
such hazardous environments for prolonged
periods lead to their falling into coma or their
death if unattended or untreated. The Uphaar
Cinema tragedy happened almost two decades
back, in that perspective this revision of BIS was
long, long overdue! Considering the safety of
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
users and public and a safer environment, it is felt
by the author that the FR and FRLS categories’
inclusion should have come much earlier. As a
matter of fact, FR and FRLS insulated cables had
become the compulsory in the Nineteen eighties,
in Europe and the US in all LV applications.
In the case of electrical short circuit
conditions, wherever good quality and genuine
FR and FRLS cables are in use, the cables when
exposed to the flames, self-extinguish the flames
in a short time and emit much lesser toxic smoke.
This is the primary reason why FR and FRLS
cables should be the singular specification for LV
applications used in densely populated areas like
commercial complexes, houses, hospitals, office
buildings, theatres, and in industries.
It would be interesting to know the Tests
conducted on FR and FRLS cables:
Despite the fact that regulatory standards
are in place, it is felt by the author that compliance
to the standards should be tightened. Unfair
trade practices and lower quality manufacturing
of wires by the unorganised cable manufacturers
makes the competition unhealthy and the
consumers unsafe.
Challenges in Indian Market
In India, the harsh environmental conditions
of ambient temperatures (up to 55° C) and high
humidity (>90%), which are common in
summers and monsoons, mandate unambiguous
and strict standards for the conductors and
insulation. The basic purpose of the insulation is
to provide a safe and non–deteriorating jacket
over the conductor for the life of the cables. In
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
addition, the FR and FRLS insulations have flame
retardant and reduced smoke emission properties
which protect human lives and property in case
of fires arising from electrical faults or short
circuits. (Refer Table 1 above)
(Let Buyer Beware)
For the average Indian consumer or specifier
, it is pertinent to know that:
By merely confirming their cables are FR or
FRLS compliant is not the assurance that the
cables would perform their roles in times of such
hazards or calamities!
In the Indian Wire and Cable industry, it is well
known that the unorganized sector cable- wire
manufacturers use cheap and inferior PVC FR
insulation, which would not genuinely pass the
Critical Oxygen Index and Temperature Index Tests.
In case of FRLS cables, their cables are seen to fail in
the Acid Gas Generation tests. Further, an industry
knowledge that the unorganised sector
manufacturers get their cable samples passed at
the threshold limits or at the time of Inspection by
BIS or by their customers. The buyers need to
understand that the latest BIS revision although
mandatory for FR and FRLS cables, is not fully
sufficient to ensure that the FR and FRLS cables
would maintain their integrity over their lives. There
are plenty of avenues available for the manufacturers
to thwart the specifications or testing criteria as
explained above. Moreover, the additives like
antimony are quite expensive, which are absolutely
essential to enhance the flame retarding and smoke
inhibiting properties of PVC, these are substituted
by cheaper varieties. The life of the FR / FRLS cables
and their enhanced Flame Retarding or Smoke
Inhibiting properties to remain intact throughout
their lives are, thus, severely compromised.
One way the specifier or user can protect
himself or herself is by restricting his choice to
only the organised sector players. Secondly, they
must insist on a valid IS license number (It would
be as CM/L number of the manufacturer) along
with the FR / FRLS ( as the case may be) printed
legibly on the cables at every one metre length.
Thirdly, at least the bulk buyers must demand
and get an FR or FRLS Test report (recent) from
the suppliers.
These measures, will go a long way in
educating the buyers or decision makers or
specifiers on the recent changes in the BIS
standards and the regulations, as well as taking
the necessary safeguards while deciding on the
purchase or use. They can have the assurance
about the cable quality for which they are paying
are good value -for-their money. If they follow
the guidelines, they can be 100% sure that these
cables are genuinely going to provide the safety
of lives and properties in case of electrical fires
under electrical short circuit or other fire hazards
in the vicinity of such electrical wires. Otherwise,
as has been happening time and again in the
Indian scenario, use of sub-standard FR / FRLS
wires, which is the norm in the unorganized
sector in India, or normal ( Non FR / non FRLS )
PVC wires, would regularly appear as news
headlines , and pose far more losses to lives and
property, and valuable GDP.
<< Machine Tools
New Chip-Repellent
e-tubes from igus
The R2.1 series product range expanded again – Easy filling
thanks to lids that are openable from both sides...
t EMO 2017, igus is presenting its R2.1
series energy-tubes, which are available
immediately in new sizes and with even
more accessories. In a test in the igus laboratory,
it was shown that the tubes of the R2.1 series are
among the best sealed energy-tubes for use in
moving applications – In permanent movement
with continuous exposure to metal chips
weighing 2 kilograms in total, only 0.5 grams
penetrated into the tubes after 100,000 cycles. In
spite of being sealed, the tubes of the R2.1 series
can be opened very easily, which makes assembly
work even easier.
Doubly easy – This is the slogan for the R2.1
series energy-tubes from the motion plastics
specialist igus. Easy because the tubes, which
keep chips out, only consist of two parts: a link
and a crossbar that functions as a form-fit lid.
Easy because these lids can be opened very easily
from both sides – now, this can be done along
either the inner or outer radius. Users can choose
the type that is best for their needs, which makes
assembly and maintenance work even easier.
"The chip-proof e-tubes from igus are
primarily of interest in the area of machine tool
making as a reliable energy supply in an
environment where chips are often present ",
explains Lukas Czaja, Head of Industry
Management Machine Tools at igus. ”This
industry is faced with the enormous challenge of
mastering the increasing pressure of prices
combined with rapidly growing technical
requirements. The R2.1 series provides
outstanding chip protection, can be assembled
efficiently and stands out due to its very good
price/performance ratio.” During the chip test in
the 2,750 square metre igus test laboratory, it
was shown that the tubes of the R2.1 series are
among the tightest sealed energy-tubes on the
market. During this
laboratory test, the
continuously in a chip
drum filled with two
kilograms of metal
chips of very different
sizes and shapes. After
100,000 cycles, the size
40 e-tube R2.1 only let
0.5 grams of chips
accumulate inside.
Expansion of
Range for
At EMO 2017, igus is presenting its R2.1 series
energy-tubes, which are available immediately in
new sizes. (Source: igus GmbH)
At EMO 2017, igus
is presenting the R2.1 in
new sizes. A completely new size with an inner
height of 48 millimetres is available as a version
with lids that can be opened along the inner
radius. The sizes with an inner height of 26
millimetres or 40 millimetres are also available as
versions that can be opened along the outer
radius. Due to this expansion of the igus product
range, users can always determine the filling
method that is the best for them. Assembly or
later filling can, therefore, be carried out very
Technical Features for
Cable-Friendly Energy
The lids of all the versions of the R2.1 series
are openable and do not have to be removed
completely in order to fill the tube. Their contours
are smooth and the curvature and tight
manufacturing tolerances guarantee that chips
do not accumulate between the stops. In
addition, the smooth inner contours of the R2.1
and the rounded latching separators made of
identical material ensure that the cables on the
inside are not damaged or abraded. The
integrated grid design also ensures a firm hold of
the interior separation, even in side-mounted
applications. Due to a brake in the stop-dogs of
the individual chain links, operation of the chain
is considerably quieter. Less vibration means
more precise work on the workpiece. And due to
the double stop-dogs, the energy-tube can
absorb high fill weights and can even master
long unsupported lengths. With the universal
connecting elements of the R2.1, the strain on
the cables can be relieved either inside or outside
the chain cross-section.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Digital Earth Resistance
Measurement System
Earth faults are dangerous
that’s why it requires proper
earthing to prevent
undesired current from
passing through body of
personnel, nearby metallic
object and other critical
equipment. In this paper, we
present the impact of soil
resistivity on earth electrode
grounding by carrying out
extensive measurement of
resistance of earth electrode,
using the Fall-of-Potential
method. Thus, the study
revealed that the values of
earth electrode resistance
should be within range of 1
to 10 Ohms and the results
also confirmed that earth
electrode resistance has great
impact on types of soil in
which the earth rod was
grounded and hence efforts
should be made to improve
soil resistivity for effective
earthing of the system.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
arthing is very important, since a large
number of faults involve earth are caused
due to thunderstorm or lighting strokes.
The term earthing and grounding have the
similar meaning and it means of making a
connection between the equipment under
protection and the general mass of the earth.
The main purpose of grounding is to minimize
the effect of transient overvoltage occurred due
to lightning stroke, in accordance with the
standards for personnel safety and for assisting
the rapid detection and isolation of the fault
areas. Earthing connections are accomplished by
driving earth electrode into several differentdifferent places of the earth. Earth electrode is of
a metal plate, metal pipe or metal conductors
electrically connected to the earth and the
equipment to be earthed. The material used for
earth electrodes is made up of copper, aluminum,
mild steel and galvanized iron. The factors that
affect the earth resistance of an electrode or
group of electrodes includes the composition of
the soil in the immediate neighborhood, the
temperature of the soil, the moisture content of
the soil and the depth of the electrode. Thus, the
composition of a soil gives an indication about
good soil resistivity. Soil resistivity measurement
is normally carried out for determining the
actual value of the soil resistivity under the
changing weather conditions in which an
electrode is installed.
We know that the resistance of an earth
electrode depends upon the resistivity of the soil
in which the electrode is inserted and hence, soil
resistivity measurement is an important
parameter when designing earthing
installations. In this paper, fall-of-potential
method is used for the measurement of effective
resistance of earth terminals.
Resistance is that property of a conductor
which opposes the flow of electric current when
a potential difference is applied across the two
ends of that conductor. Resistance is the ratio of
the applied voltage (V) to the flow of electric
<< Earthing
of the electrode and the depth to which it is
buried into the ground. The most commonly used
method for measuring the earth resistance of an
earth electrode is the fall-of- Potential method. It
is the most recognized method for measuring the
resistance of the earth of an earthing system.
This method is based on IEEE standards. It is
suitable for use in circumstances such as
transmission line structure.
Components & Methods
current (I) as defined by Ohm’s Law i.e.,
.... (1)
V is the Potential Difference across the conductor
I is Current flowing through the conductor in
R is Resistance of the conductor in (Ohms)
The resistivity of the soil varies widely
throughout the world and changes throughout
the year. Soil resistivity is determined by the
content of its electrolyte which consists of
moisture, minerals, and the dissolved salt in it. It
impacts on the overall sub- station resistance
and how much earth electrode is required to
achieve the desired values of earth resistance.
The lower the resistivity the shorter electrode is
required to achieve the desired earth resistance
value. It is an advantage to know the resistivity at
the planning stage as it gives an indication for
how much electrode is required. When selecting
the test technique for soil resistivity, factors such
as probe depth, lengths of cable required,
efficiency of the measuring technique, cost and
ease of interpretation of the data need to be
Resistance of the earth of any earth electrode
is influenced by the resistivity of the surrounding
soil. This depends to a large extent on the nature
of the soil with its moisture content. Since soil
exhibits a resistance to the flow of electrical
current and is not an ideal conductor. There is
always some resistance between the earth
electrode and “true Earth”. This resistance is
called earth resistance of an electrode and it
depends on the soil resistivity, the type and size
Fall-of-Potential method is used to
determine the earth resistance. The following
listed equipment are used for the measurements
of resistance of earth electrode.
In this method, three points of ground
contacts are considered that consist of the earth
electrode under test, a current probe which is
inserted at adequate distance from the earth
electrode which is under test and voltage probe
which is inserted at some distance between the
probe under test and the current probe. With this
method, the Digital Earth Tester is used to inject
current into the tower footing earth electrode
under test. The current then flows through the
earth to the remote current probe and returns to
the tester. As the current flows through the earth
a voltage drop is created. This voltage drop is
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
proportional to the amount of current flow and
the resistance of the earth electrode to earth. The
voltage probe was used to measure this voltage
drop and the meter then displays both the
amount of current flow and the resulting voltage
drop. The resistance measured at several locations
moving the voltage probe at regular intervals,
each of them equal 10% distance of probe under
test and current probe. The resistance value then
displayed by display of Digital Earth Tester.
During measurement, the position of the
current probe was moved far enough away from
the earth electrode under test so that the voltage
probe can lie outside the effective resistance
areas of both the earth electrode and the other
test electrode. This is because there may be
overlapping of the resistance areas which can
cause a steep variation in the measured
• After this switch on the device and take
• After one reading, move the voltage rod and
observe the change.
• Take at least four readings for accuracy
• Thus readings are taken and the device is
switched off.
Depth of the
electrode (in
Distance to
the inner
stake (in
Distance to
the outer
stake (in
The Earth Resistance measurement could be
carried out at selected points along its route. The Earth
Resistance profile varies between 10 Ohms and 20
Ohms. Soil identifications as well as programmed
intensive field measurements of soil resistivity and
earthing system at selected sites proves that soil
resistivity values’ depend on the type of soil. In rocky
areas, the resistance could be lowered by a buried
network of well-designed earth mat or by a network
of buried counterpoise earth wire in order to reduce
the effect of lightning stroke. For better earthing of
electrical systems the soil resistivity should be
improved for effective earthing of system.
Procedure of Testing
Baljit Singh Tomar
UG Student
Dept of Electrical Engineering, ITM
Universe, Gujarat Technological
University, Gujarat, India
Hardik Rupreliya
Asst. Professor
Dept of Electrical Engineering, ITM
Universe, Gujarat Technological
University, Gujarat, India
Parth Pandya
UG Student
Dept of Electrical Engineering, ITM
Universe, Gujarat Technological
University, Gujarat, India
Akshat Patel
UG Student
Dept of Electrical Engineering, ITM
Universe, Gujarat Technological
University, Gujarat, India
Dhruv Patel
UG Student
Dept of Electrical Engineering, ITM
Universe, Gujarat Technological
University, Gujarat, India
• Three rods are inserted into the ground as
per norms of IEEE.
• One rod is reference rod and other two rods
are for current and voltage measurement
• The circuit is connected with the rods
through the clamps.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
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Strategy & Implementation
Rural Electrification:
Energising Villages
“It is home where he has opportunities to grow physically, mentally, intellectually and spiritually. Right
to shelter, therefore, includes adequate living space, safe and decent structure, clean and decent
surroundings, sufficient light, pure air and water, electricity, sanitation and other civic amenities like
roads etc. …….”
— Chameli Singh Vs State of UP (1996)-2 SCC 549
Aqeel Ahmad
Solar, Substation, T&D Expert
Working with US, MNC on Govt
of India’s project DDUGJY
India is agriculture based country;
more than 70% of India lives in
villages, and therefore, ‘Rural
Electrification’ is an important
step in the direction to uplift the
quality of life of common man
apart from ensuring rapid
economic development by
providing electricity as an input
for productive uses in agriculture,
rural industries, etc. It will also
reduce the mass migration to our
metros or urban areas.
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
lectricity is termed as the fundamental
‘Right’ to life and liberty of every Indian
citizen as per Article-21 of Constitution
of India …!
Access to electricity is necessary for modern
economic & overall social development of the
country. Electricity opens the new avenues of
technologies that promote education, public
health and mass communication. Without
electricity, communities are unable to participate
in the benefits of modern advances and may left
isolate, literally in the dark. Electricity is a neat
and clean, superior form of energy than heat and
easy to transport and storage with comparatively
lesser losses. It may generate heat, turn a motor
and may produce efficient lighting. India is
agriculture based country, more than 70% of
India lives in villages, and therefore, ‘Rural
Electrification’ is a key step in the direction to
uplift the quality of life of common man:
− To ensure rapid economic development by
providing electricity as an input for
productive uses in agriculture, rural
industries, etc. It will also reduce the mass
migration to our metros or urban areas.
− To improve the quality of life of the rural
people by supplying electricity for lighting of
rural areas etc.
Common man expectations are as follows
from electricity providing agency i.e. DISCOM:
• Easy accessibility
• Round the clock availability
• Reliability without frequent black-outs
• Affordability- reasonable within common
man’s reach or budget
• Quality without brown-outs and fluctuations
According to our Prime Minister on August
15, 2015 from Red Fort, “It is now the solemn
pledge of ‘Team India’ of 125 crore countrymen
that the target of providing electric poles, electric
wires and electricity to these 18,500 villages
would be achieved within next 1000 days”.
Young India is one of the strongest emerging
economies of the world today. Emerging
economy means ‘unquenchable’ thirst for
electricity of approximately 1,337,332,348
people of India, right now, with a population
growth of 1.2% (2016). India is the fifth largest
<< Strategy & Implementation
country in the world as far as power production is concerned as shown in the
chart below.
(Source: CIA World Fact Book website, 2014)
According to Ministry of Power (MoP), at present, all India installed
capacity is 314642.32 MW of power stations including thermal, hydroelectric,
nuclear and renewable energy sources (RES), whereas RES covers small
hydro power(<25KW), wind power, Bio-mass and Solar Power (PV).
Renewable Energy Production in 2016-17
Small Hydropower
Wind Power
Bio-mass Power
Solar Power
Production in MW
(Source: Ministry of Power)
The most significant year was 2015-16, so far 23,976 MW highest ever
power capacity addition,28,115 CKM highest ever increase Transmission
line, 1,28,403 MVA highest ever increase in Power Sub Station (PSS), 7108
villages electrified in 2015 out of 18,500 un-electrified villages (UEV) with
2.1% lowest ever energy deficit, according to MOP, India. Now, let us see the
other side during the Five-Year planning i.e. year 2012-17, the gap between
supply and demand was 46.9%, so approximately, every year we need to add
much more than what we are doing, still more than one third of our
population remains under dark every day during peak hours.
Comparison of World’s Per Capita Power
Rank Country
Power Consumption (KWh)
United Arab Emirates
United States
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Strategy & Implementation
Rank Country
Power Consumption (KWh)
Sri Lanka
(Source: CIA World Fact Book, 2014)
In last two years, India’s per capita consumption got almost doubled i.e.
1007 KWh, due to improvements in middle class power consumption but
still we are nowhere on global ranking as shown above; might be little
better than our Indian sub-continent neighbours like Sri Lanka, Pakistan or
Bangladesh. India suffers from chronic energy poverty. More than 300
million people have no access to electricity, yet. If we consider the hard fact
that 75% rural population, so far, connected to grid, get less than 5-6 hours
of electricity every day, then more than 750 million people are still ‘Power
Poor’. We use electricity for practically for all applications. Apart from
lighting, cooling & heating, electricity is now being used for cooking as well
i.e. induction & microwave cooking range. In transport sector also, there is
shift towards electricity from conventional fossil fuels in form of electric car,
auto and two wheelers to reduce pollution level.
Genesis of Rural Electrification in India
1. Stage I : Early Fifties 45,000 villages were covered.
2. Stage II: More than 2 lacs villages were covered and more than 1 crore
pump sets were energised in sixtees.
3. Stage III: During Eighties 2.20 lacs villages covered, 43 lacs pump sets
were energised
4. Stage-IV: During Nineties 41000 villages were covered only due to
serious financial constraints in SEBs
5. Stage-V: Minimum Needs Program- Started in Vth plan but
discontinued in 2004-05 due to lack of response from states
6. Stage-VI: Kutir Jyoti Program-Initiated in 1988-89 71.7 lacs BPL were
given connection, later merged with AREP in 2004 later in
a. Pradhan Mantri Gramoday Yojna- Launched in 2000-01,
discontinued in 2005.
b. Accelerated Rural Electrification Programme (AREP) –
Launched in 2002
7. Stage-VII: Rajiv Gandhi Gramin
Vidyut Yojna (RGGVY): Major
objectives were
a. Electrifying all villages and
b. Providing access to electricity to
all rural households.
c. Giving Electricity Connection to
Below Poverty Line (BPL) families
free of charge
d. Decentralized
Generations- Electrification of
villages which are not connected
to grid are taken in this project by
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
utilizing renewable energy, major features are as follows
• Projects can be based on conventional or renewable sources
• REC to be the Nodal Agency
• Ownership with State Governments
• Implementing agencies would be SREDAs / Depts dealing with
renewable / state utilities / CPSUs
• Projects will be approved and monitored by Monitoring
Committee of MoP
• With ‘Stand Alone- for single house’ and ‘Micro Grid- for group
of houses in villages’ where normal grid access is not available
8. Stage-VIII: Deen Dayal Upadhaye Gram Jyoti Yojna (DDUGJY)- It is
extension of RGGVY with following additions like
1. Separation of Agriculture and Non-Agriculture feeders.
2. Strengthening of ST&D infrastructure
3. Provide power to BPL connections.
It will not only facilitate the judicious rostering of power supply to
agriculture & non-agriculture consumers but will also be in line with
Government of India policy to provide 24x7x365 power supply to all along
with fixed hours of supply to agriculture. This will be of great help in
bringing down the cost of agriculture operations to the farmers and saving
in foreign exchange due to decreased diesel consumption.
Power Generation Problems
Total electricity generated (314642.32MW) in India, in the year 2016-17
as follows:
1. Hydroelectric Power (44189.43 MW)-14.04%
2. Thermal Power (214654.89 MW) -68.22%
3. Nuclear Power (5780.00 MW)-1.83%
4. Renewable Energy (50018.00MW)-15.8%
Hydroelectric Power (14.04%): Hydro takes a back seat, it was 40%
during eighties, though it is cheapest to produce but day by day its
production is falling due to unpredictable weather conditions. Besides, its
initial cost is high and it takes 5-10 years to complete a project. It is common
in hilly regions of the country but the catastrophe of 2013 in the Uttarakhand
is still alive in the minds of people. Political interference in rehabilitation of
masses due to the construction of dams is also a serious problem apart from
several clearances like forest, environment and pollution control department.
Thermal Power: Thermal power generation is highest (68.22%) in the
country from fossil fuels. Among the fossil fuels coal and gas are two major
components. Coal available in India is not sufficient enough to feed the
existing thermal power plants, in addition to the poor quality due to low
calorific value and high ash contents. That’s why, we need to import quality
coal from Australia. On the other hand, gas available is also not sufficient to
meet the future demand.
Nuclear Power (1.83%): It is also not suitable for us. Its raw material
and technology are imported. There are serious dangers in handling ‘’leftover” of nuclear fuel after processing. We did not forget the Chernobyl,
Russia and Japan’s recent nuclear power house cases. Chernobyl caused the
death of more than 200,000 persons, according to a report. Such incidents in
densely populated India may cause havoc.
Renewable Power (15%): Its production increased dramatically in
recent years in India too from few MW in 2009-10 to 9,000 MW in 2016-17.
Inspite of that, China (43.5GW) and Germany (39.7GW) are far-far ahead
than us (9.02GW), as far as renewable energy is concerned. Germany has
almost 50% of its requirements from solar while China is now number one
country in the world as far solar power production is concerned. The Govt
has set a prestigious target for solar power i.e.100 GW by 2022 (60 GW
Utility scale and 40 GW Roof top) in July 2015, it is a herculean task to
achieve. Adani power has planned to establish a 1 GW solar plant in Tamil
Nadu, out of which 765 MW already commissioned and connected to grid, it
is a ‘true’ engineering marvel, in spite of unprecedented rainy season and
flood in Tamil Nadu. The 150MW Andrasol Solar power station is a commercial
concentrated power plant located in Spain. The power plant uses molten salt
to store solar power energy. Solar power storage is the biggest challenge
now. A technical breakthrough in the problem will provide the giant leap to
this emerging technology and a viable solution of neat and clean energy.
Major Challenges of Rural Electrification
− Infrastructure projects need huge initial investments with slow returns,
that’s why PPP model was difficult to implement.
High cost per unit and difficult recovery of cost of operations
Sub-optimal and risky investment
Lack of clear vision for rural electrification upto the beginning of 21st
century. Major push for rural electrification was in National Electric
Policy 2005 onwards.
− Initially, rural electrification was assigned to state electricity boards
(SEB), which were in mess and bad financial health.
− Lack of co-ordination of fund management between central and state
governments due to socio-political and geographical reasons.
− Installation, erection, commissioning to operation and maintenance
were under SEBs, which were suffering acute man-power shortage.
− Impact of environmental regulations
Ministry of Power developed a mobile app ‘Garv’ to monitor the
development of rural electrification by us, as a step to enhance transparency
in the administration.
Possible Remedies & Solutions
Energy Conserved, Energy Produced: The potential for energy
saving during peak hours was 9,240 MW as estimated in the year 2000-01.
The need for efficient use of resources, energy conservation assume
significance and must be an integral part of the policy tools, consequently,
Energy Conservation Act 2001 passed on October 1,2001 with following key
features asSpecify the norms for processes and energy consumption standards for
any equipment, appliances which consume, generate, transmits or
supplies energy. Later some amendments were introduced to it. It was
the solid foundation for Electricity act 2003, 2005 and later on.
Mix of Renewable & Conventional Energy: Power For All (PFA) i.e.
supply of power 24x7x365 program is running in the country since 2006-07.
Therefore, average power availability improved all over the country, as it is
obvious from the per capita power consumption just got almost double in a
span of less than five years in India. We have to focus more on renewable
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Strategy & Implementation
energy production but we can’t afford to ignore other conventional sources
like hydro, thermal and nuclear due to the vast gap between supply and
Land availability for power substations (PSS), transmission & distribution
lines at a reasonable price is very important in the power sector. The
bench of Honourable Justice A K Sikri & Justice R. Banumathi of
Supreme Court gave a vital verdict on Dec14, 2016 in a case between
the Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd V/s Century Textile & Industries
Ltd & other i.e. “No Prior Consent, from the owner of the land, is
necessary before laying Electricity transmission line.”
Electricity sector – Introduction of Universal Service Obligation
(USO) era: As we have seen above, ‘Electricity’ is no more a luxury but a
fundamental need of every Indian citizen, so Universal Service Obligation
(USO), which is now a legal mandate as supported by honourable court’s
decision mentioned above. USO may be defined as “Minimum set of services
with well-defined quality to which all consumers have easy access at a
reasonable cost without hurting competitions between the “service
providers” for better quality and more competitive rates”. It is already a wellestablished concept in western world in power sector. In India, we have seen
it telecom sectors in the last two decades.
Exploring New Avenues (R&D): Our eastern world except Japan
spends very little on R&D, most of the time we have to rely on western world
and they provide us their obsolete technologies at the price of their own
choice along with arm-twisting as and when required. We need to break it
up as early as possible. Need to thrust more on quality of education to
produce world class scientists and engineers and give them due regard in
terms of salaries and perks and conducive working environment free from
nepotism and favouritism like Infosys and TCS in India. As we know, more
than 40% engineers of NASA are Indian, the economies of GCC and few
western countries are rolling due to Indian engineers. Now, Indian engineers
are a ‘force to reckon with’ globally.
Power Management Redefined
Demand Management (DSM): It is the management of consumer’s
demand of electricity through various methods such as financial
incentives and consumer education i.e. energy efficiency & bill
payments etc. Usually the goal of DSM is to encourage the bulk
consumers to use less energy during peak hours or to move the time
of energy use to the off-peak hour viz. night. For the purpose, a
different scheme such as Time of Day (TOD) tariff was introduced to
offer the monetary incentive to consumer to shift the load during
off- peak hours for example Ferro Alloy producers are advised to
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
shift the load of their submerged arc furnaces to night shift.
Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C) Losses: India is the fifth
largest country as far as electricity production is concerned as
mentioned above but probably we are at the top in the world on
sustained AT&C losses i.e. with average of 27% in 2013-14, while
world average is merely 9% and western world is maintaining it to
4-5%. Actually, at some places in India, it was found up to 50%. It
means whatever power we produces, only half of it reaches to
consumers or billed. It incurs huge losses to DISCOMS.
Ministry of Power (MoP) launched Ujjawal DISCOM Assurance Yojna
(UDAY) to resolve it by feeder & DTR metering for energy audit, rural
feeder segregation, more field vigilance, proper meter readings and
improved bill collections.
Efficient Billing: As mentioned earlier, billing is very important for the
financial health of our DISCOMS. Billing methods must be consumer
oriented like payments through mobile, bank or door to door
collection and other apps. Severe penalties for non-payments for
all. Our power policies need to be implemented on ground
religiously to yield results within a specific timeframe.
Deferred Payment: If consumer can’t pay entire bill, he must be
entitled to enter into ‘’Deferred Payment option’, if the utility
has not issued more than one ‘disconnection’ notices in the past
12 months or so, and the consumer has deposited all his
previous bills on time. One should contact the utility before due
date of the bill, if he needs a deferred payment option and his
services will not be disconnected. Likewise, there must be
incentives from utility for the regular payments customers.
‘Illegal connections’ must be recognized as serious or nonbailable offence through fast track courts.
– Reactive Power Management: Among huge T&D losses, power
factor is major contributor. So far, we have imposed restrictions on
industrial sector only to maintain higher power factor (>0.95) for
improved voltage regulation, more MVA utilization and less current
in our lines. It has to be implemented in domestic power distribution
network too by providing capacitors at load ends and capacitor
banks at distribution sub-stations.
Electricity is our ‘fundamental’ right, according to Constitution of India
but vis-a-vis responsibilities assigned should also be fulfilled by us before
demanding for right. Government make policies and plans; its successful
implementation is our responsibility as an engineer, planner, manager,
administrator or consumer.
<< Event Calender
Forthcoming Events At A Glance
electronica India
Venue: Pragati Maidan, New Delhi
Date: 14-16 September, 2017
Renewable Energy India Expo 2017
Venue: India Expo Centre, Greater Noida
Date: 20-22 September, 2017
Power Nigeria
Venue: Landmark Centre, Lagos
Date: 5-7 September 2017
Venue: Bielsko-Biala, Poland
Date: 12-14 September, 2017
SOx NOx 2017 - Misson Energy Foundation
Venue: Taj Vivanta, New Delhi
Date: 21-22 September, 2017
12th International Wire & Cable Trade Fair for Southeast Asia
Venue: BITEC Bangkok, Thailand
Date: 19-21 September 2017
Intersolar India 2017
Venue: Bombay Exhibition Centre, Mumbai
Date: 05-07 December, 2017
14th SOLAR Bangladesh 2017 International Expo
Venue: International Convention City, Bashundhara, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Date: 26-28 October 2017
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Facts & Figures
Executive Summary of Target & Achievement
of Sub-Stations During 2016-17
As on 30.09.2016
(All figs. In MVA)
Programme 2016-17 1500 0 1500 0
Sept, 2016 Programme
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
Upto Sept, Programme 1500 0 1500 0
Achievement 1500 0 1500 0
1500 2000 14000 9890 0
0 630 0
0 4500 2425 0
1500 2000 12500 4630 0
3000 1500 13500 7740 0
13015 2000 24905 0 0 0
0 1775 0 0 0
0 4585 0 0 0
6925 2000 13555 0 0 0
5680 2000 15420 0 0 0
0 4783 21890 0 21890
0 420 630 0 630
0 940 5425 0 5425
0 2800 15130 0 15130
0 7040 18240 0 18240
JV/Private Sector
State Sector
Total CS
Total CS
State Sector
JV/Private Sector
JV/Private Sector
Total CS
JV/Private Sector
State Sector
Central Sector
Programme /
765 kV
± 500
Central Sector
State Sector
Central Sector
JV/Private Sector
± 800 kV
400 kV
State Sector
Total Central, State & JV/ Private
220 kV
Private Total Central Sector Private
19298 4000
11225 4000
15720 3500
Executive Summary of Target & Achievement
of Transmission Lines During 2016-17
As on 30.09.2016
(All figures in circuit kms.)
Total Central, State & JV/ Private Sector
Grand Total
JV/Private Sector
State/ Private
State Sector
Total CS
Central Sector
JV/Private Sector
State Sector
Total CS
220 kV
JV/Private Sector
State Sector
Total CS
JV/Private Sector
State Sector
Programme /
400 kV
Central Sector Private
± 500 kV
Central Sector
State Sector
Central Sector
JV/Private Sector
Central Sector
± 800 kV
765 kV
Programme 2016-17
2597 0 2597 0 0 0 3123 750 1313 5186 3642 311 3953 5799 762 10514 78 0 78 5009 0 5087 9440 311 9751 11558 2075
24 0 24 0 0 0
0 13 0 13 114 576 703 0 0 0 587 0 587 37 0 37
701 576
Sept, 2016
Achievement 2574 0 2574 0 0 0 945 337 758 2040 581 0 581 457
0 1038 0 0 0 248 0 248 4100 0 4100 1042 758
Upto Sept, Programme 2597 0 2597 0 0 0 3123 750 1133 5006 1993
Achievement 2574 0 2574 0 0 0 2336 337 950 3623 2262
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
0 1993 3090 942 6025 0 0 0 2597 0 2597 7713
0 7713
6437 2075
0 2262 1754 1362 5378 28 0 28 3538 0 3566 7200
0 7200
5629 2312
Product Avenue
The voltage tester with the best display on the market
he three models
in the testo 750
voltage tester
family are the first
instruments with an allround LED display. The
display can be seen from
any position and
guarantees an ideal
voltage indication thanks
to its unique fibre optics.
All three models meet
the latest voltage tester
standard EN 61243-
3:2010 and have a safety specification according to CAT IV.
They have the most important functions for voltage testing,
continuity testing and rotating magnetic field measurement. The
testo 750-2 is also suitable for single pole voltage testing and has a
torch along with an RC trigger function. Vibrating load buttons
ensure that the trigger test cannot be carried out accidentally. In
addition, the testo 750-3 is fitted with an LC display to show the
current reading.
• Clear, patented all-round LED display
• Fibre-optic technology for optimum voltage indication
• Anti-slip ring for secure grip
• Ergonomic handle shape
• Measuring point illumination
For further information:
Gas Leak Detector reduces potential utility equipment damage due to gas leaks
dentifying leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), used
as an electrical insulator in extremely high-voltage
utilities applications, generally requires the
purchase or rental of an expensive gas detector or
hiring an outside consultant. The alternatives are
shutting down equipment and using a sniffer, which
after some time, can determine only the approximate
area of the leak, or coating the entire equipment in
soapy water and inspect, which is extremely time
consuming and requires the equipment to be powered
The new Fluke® Ti450 SF6 Gas Leak Detector
combines a high-quality infrared camera with an SF6
leak detector that visually pinpoints the location ofSF6
leaks without shutting equipment down. The Ti450
SF6 allows utility crews to include it as a normal part of
their maintenance routine, allowing them to conduct
both infrared and gas inspections whenever and
wherever necessary. It eliminates the need to wait for
special annual or bi-annual leak inspections — and
the corresponding expensive equipment rentals or
contractors — so maintenance work can be done as required, reducing
potential equipment damage.
“Leak detection in utility equipment has always been a disruptive
operation that requires expensive equipment and equipment downtime,”
said Brian Knight, Fluke Thermography Business Unit Manager. “The
Fluke Ti450 SF6 makes it incredibly convenient to make leak detection
part of regular maintenance identifying the problems so leak corrections
can be performed during a scheduled maintenance period.”
The pistol-grip Ti450 SF6 makes diagnoses of issues point-and-shoot
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
convenient, even in hard to reach or high
overhead locations. With the Ti450 SF6,
technicians can monitor leaks more
frequently allowing maintenance scheduled
at a convenient time without unplanned
downtime. The leak detector can also be
used to quickly verify that the repair was
The infrared camera includes the awardwinning LaserSharp® Auto Focus that
delivers instant focus on a single target
using a built-in laser distance meter to
calculate and display the distance to the
designated target with pinpoint accuracy.
LaserSharp Auto Focus enables technicians
to precisely target up to 100 feet away for
infrared readings and SF6 gas detection no
matter how awkward the position of the
target. This makes it safe to measure around
high voltage areas and potentially dangerous
areas. It also features Fluke IR-Fusion®
technology, which combines both digital and infrared images in one for
better clarity. By adjusting the blending of the image, technicians can
easily detect then pinpoint the exact location of the SF6 gas leak.
The Ti450 SF6 comes complete with 2x telephoto smart lens, tripod
holder for mounting to any industry standard tripod, eyepiece, cable,
viewer, batteries and chargers, all in a hard shell carrying case. SF6 gas
detection training tools, including a systematic instructional video, are
also available on the Fluke website.
For further information:
Product Avenue
Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge
odel Km‐8041, is a new
device introduced by
“Kusam‐Meco” an ISO
9001‐2008 certified company. This
ultrasonic device is used to measure
the thickness of various materials like
metals, glass or plastics pottery &
many more.
It has an adjustable ultrasonic
velocity adjustment. It is used to
measure velocity function. Thethickness
unit is in mm/inch which is convertible. It has a coupling indication.
It is build in a metalpiece for calibration. It has a low battery voltage
indication with auto power off. This ultrasonic thickness gauge is
designed according to European Unions CE Safety Norms .It has an
ultrasonic frequency of 5MHz. It has a digital display of 4 digits.
Its measuring range is between 1.2mm to 225mm & its Pipe has
a minimum diameter of 20*3mm. Its velocity range is between 1000
to 9999m/s. It has a resolution of 0.1mm & Accuracy of +‐1%H +
0.1mm. Its response time is 0.5S.It can be operated to an operating
temperature of 0 to40*C & operatingHumidityof10to90%RH.
For further information:
Kyoritsu Range of Insulation Testers
yoritsu range of Insulation Testers features more than 20 diverse
models, with test voltages ranging from 15V to 12KV, and
analogue or digital indicators. Battery-powered, compact and
user-friendly, each and every product is an industry standard today.
Kyoritsu’s 3125 is Defacto Standard in 5KV insulation testing in this
part of the world. In our endeavour to provide the best we have an
improved 3125A now with key differences between old & new being:
• Additional function of Dielectric Absorption Ratio(DAR)
• Increased Short Circuit Current to 1.5mA
• Additional open circuit voltage range of 250V
• Higher safety rating of CAT IV 300V/CAT III 600V
• New Form Factor to enable ease of Use
Other Features of 3125A are:
• Insulation resistance up to 1TΩ
• Short-circuit current up to
• Wide test voltage from 250V to
• Diagnosis function of PI and
• Newly-designed alligator clip
(27mm Jaw)
• It comes standard with a tough hard case
• Filter function reduces noise interference for obtaining stable measurement
• Large display with bar graph indication and backlight
• Live voltage warning
• Safety standard IEC61010-1 CAT IV 300V / CAT III 600V
For further information:
MG320 CAT IV Insulation Tester/ True RMS MultiMeter
ombines a portable 20GΩ/1000V
Insulation Tester with a True RMS
MultiMeter. Insulation tester
includes PI/DAR modes, programmable
timer, and a comparator for custom test
configurations and quick results.
Multimeter functions include AC/DC
Voltage, Resistance, and Continuity Test.
Manually store/recall up to 99 readings.
Designed with rugged housing and large
backlit 6,000 count LCD display with
analog bargraph. CAT IV-600V safety
category. Complete with test leads,
alligator clip, 6 x AA batteries, and soft
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Key Features
Measure Insulation Resistance to 20GΩ
5 Test Voltage ranges
Polarization Index (PI) and Dielectric Absorption Ratio measurements (DAR)
Low Resistance measurement with Zero function
Programmable Timer feature sets the duration of test
Comparison Mode allows user to set the Pass/Fail values for
insulation measurements
• Step Voltage (10% steps at 50% to 120% of range)
• Auto-discharge of voltage test signal
• Lock Power On Function for hands-free operation
• High voltage and overload indication
• Data Hold to freeze displayed reading
• Auto Power Off and Low battery indication
For further information:
Index to Advertisers
Company Name
Allied Power Solutions
Anchor Electricals Pvt. Ltd.
Apar Industries Ltd.
Brugg Cables India Pvt. Ltd.
Calter Ltd. _ STI Industries
Citizen Metalloys Ltd.
Dynamic Cables Pvt. Ltd.
Elcab Engineers Pvt. Ltd.
Electrical Research & Development Association
Epcos India Pvt. Ltd.
Flir Systems India Pvt. Ltd.
Fluke Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Frontier Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Greatwhite Global Pvt. Ltd.
Gupta Power Infrastructure ltd.
Hammond Power Solutions
Havells India Ltd.
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
Igus India Pvt. Ltd.
Inter Solar India
Page No.
21, 27, 29
Company Name
Page No.
Klauke India
Kusam Electricals Pvt. Ltd.
Kyoritsu Kew India Instruments Pvt. Ltd.
Larsen & Toubro Ltd.
M/s. Ramakrishna Electrical Winding Works
Mersen India Pvt. Ltd.
Nextgen Equipment Pvt. Ltd.
PCI Ltd.
Pepperl+ Fuchs ( India) Pvt. Ltd.
PS Power Controls
Riello Power India Pvt. Ltd.
Rishabh Instruments Pvt. Ltd.
Scope T&M Pvt. Ltd.
Sterlite Power
Sumip Composites Pvt. Ltd.
Suresh Enterprises
The Motwane Mfg. Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Transtron Electricals Pvt. Ltd.
Universal Cables Ltd.
17, 23
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
!"# Product Avenue
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Index to Advertisers
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
Product Avenue
ELECTRICAL INDIA | September 2017
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