Overview of Net Zero Energy Buildings in the US

Overview of Net Zero Energy Buildings
in the US
ZVKKW Symposium October 2012
Jiazhen Ling, Reinhard Radermacher
raderm@umd.edu
CEEE Organization
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Education MS, PHD Progr., Internships, Visiting Researchers,
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Research
Service
2
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Contents
•
Building Energy Ratings
•
Net Zero Energy Buildings and Examples
•
Economics
•
CEEE Research
•
Other Examples
Building Energy Ratings
•
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
(LEED)
•
•
Green Globes
•
•
One Globe (350-540 points); Two Globes (550-690
points); Three Globes (700-840 points); Four Globes
(850-1000 points)
Home Energy Rating System (HERS)
•
•
Certified (40-49 points); Silver (50 – 59 points); Gold
(60-79 points); Platinum (80 – 110 points)
Scale from 0 to 100; 0 indicates the building uses no
net purchased energy; the lower the value, the better
International Green Construction Code (IGCC)
includes ANSI/ASHRAE/IES/USGBC Stand.189.1
LEED Scoreboard
Source: http://www.usgbc.org
Green Globes® Overview
•
•
A web-based program for green building guidance
and certification
The program supports new construction, existing
buildings and healthcare buildings
Environmental
Assessment Area
New Construction
points
Environmental Assessment
Area
Existing
Buildings Points
Energy
380
Energy
350
Water
85
Water
80
Resources
100
Resources
110
Emissions
70
Emissions
175
Indoor Environment
200
Indoor Environment
185
Project Management
50
Environmental Management
100
Site
115
Total Points
1000
Source: http://www.thegbi.org/green-globes/new-construction.shtml
1000
Green Globes Versus LEED
Criteria
Green Globes
LEED
1000
110
Program Delivery
Web enabled interactive questionnaire
Online forms
Incorporate Life
Cycle Assessment
YES
NO
Certification Process
Assessor assigned/on-site building audit with
team
Fill out
assessment form,
submit, await
results
Certification Ratings
4 Globes
3 Globes
2 Globes
1 Globe
LEED Platinum
LEED Gold
LEED Silver
Certified LEED
$
$$$
Program Points
Time Required to
Complete
Documentation
Cost to Certify a
Typical Bldg. >
100,000 sq. ft.
Source: http://www.thegbi.org/green-globes/green-globes-leed-green-building-certification.shtml
A Few Numbers
•
•
•
•
LEED Certified (as of: 10/2/2012)[1]
LEED Platinum: 945 ; LEED Gold: 6215; LEED Silver:
5042; LEED Certified; 3023
Green Globes:(as of: 10/2/2012)[2]
New Constructions:
•
•
4 Globes: 4; 3 Globes: 29; 2 Globes: 52; 1 Globes: 30
Existing Constructions:
•
4 Globes: 10; 3 Globes: 228; 2 Globes: 87; 1 Globes: 10
[1]: Public LEED Project Directory (http://www.usgbc.org/LEED/Project/CertifiedProjectList.aspx)
[2]: Green Globes Overview (http://www.thegbi.org/green-globes/)
LEED Gold Buildings at UMCP
9
Current NZE Buildings Efforts in US
•
•
•
ZEB (or better: low energy buildings)
research is supported by US DOE Building
America Program
Other industry-based consortia and national
laboratories such as NREL, LBNL, NIST and
ORNL are involved
President Obama set up the goal that 100%
of all new federal buildings achieve Zero-NetEnergy by 2030
US Roadmap towards nZEB
•
DOE defined two milestones
•
•
Marketable Net Zero Energy Homes by the year
2020
Commercial Net Zero Energy Buildings at low
incremental cost by the year 2025
Approach for Achieving NZEB
Source: National Science and Technology Council, Federal Research and Development Agenda for Net-zero
Energy, High-Performance Green Builings,2008
Earlier NZE Houses – PVRES, Florida
Lakeland Zero Energy Home (solid
circle);
control home (dotted circle), built
Lakeland, FL in 1998
• Single family home (one story, 3BR,
2425 sq. ft.)
• Two houses, one PVRES and one
control home, have the same floor
plan
• PVRES has a 4 kW PV system (2.7
kW facing south, 1.3 kW facing
west)
Source: Parker D., Very low energy homes in the United States:
Perspectives on performance from measured data, Energy and
Buildings, Volume 41, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 512-520,
PVRES Home Features
Control Home Features
White reflective roof with R-30
ceiling insulation
Gray/brown asphalt shingle
roof, R-30 ceiling insulation
Exterior insulation over
concrete block system (R-10)
R-4 wall insulation on interiror
of concrete block walls
Advanced solar control doubleglazed windows
Single glazed windows with
aluminum frames
Down-sized SEER 14.4
variable speed AC
4-ton Trane heat pump (SEER
= 10; HSFP = 7)
Field-verified cooling coil air
flow
Low friction loss and sealed
duct system within the
conditioned space
R-6 ducts located in attic
Programmable thermostat
High efficiency refrigerator
Standard appliances (electric
range, refrigerator and electric
dryer)
High efficiency compact
Fluorescent lighting
Standard incandescent lighting
(30 recessed can lights)
PVRES, Florida (Cont.)
Baseline home
PVRES home
Thermal and visible images of west-facing windows and shadows in the afternoon
Source: Parker et al., Field Evaluation of Efficient Building Technology with Photovoltaic Power Production in New Florida Residential Housing, Florida Solar
Energy Center, FSEC-CR-1044-98
PVRES, Florida (Cont.)
Thermal and visible images of west-facing windows and shadows in the afternoon
Source: Parker et al., Field Evaluation of Efficient Building Technology with Photovoltaic Power Production in New Florida Residential Housing,
Florida Solar Energy Center, FSEC-CR-1044-98
PVRES, Florida (Cont.)
Thermal images of air being drawn from the attic to the AHU in the
baseline house (center). The interior duct system in the PVRES shows
no problem
Source: Parker et al., Field Evaluation of Efficient Building Technology with Photovoltaic Power Production in New Florida Residential
Housing, Florida Solar Energy Center, FSEC-CR-1044-98
NZE House in Charlotte, VT
Elements
Specifications
Slab Floors
None
Bldg. Orientation
True south, daylighting
Layout
Open plan
Conditioned Area
2800 sq. ft. (260 m2)
Framing
2 by 6 at 24” O.C.
Type
Single-family detached
Materials
FSC Certified wood
Local crafted concrete
countertops
Local sustainable harvested
maple
Flooring & hardwoods
Cellulose & denim insulation
Reclaimed fir columns
LEED certification
LEED Platinum
m2K/W)
Foundation Walls
R-19 (3
Basement Ceiling
R-19 (3 m2K/W)
Above Grade Walls
R-40 (7 m2K/W)
Roof
R-56 (10 m2K/W)
Windows
R-10 (2 m2K/W)
Relative Humidity
40-50%
Infiltration Rate
2.0 ACH@50Pa
Source: Hoque, S., 2010, Net zero energy homes: an evaluation of two homes in the northwestern United States,
Journal of Green Building, Vol. 5 (2), pp. 79-90.
NZE House in Charlotte, VT (cont.)
Energy Systems
Energy Consumption
Heating
Radiant (Ground source
HP)
AC
None
Water Heating
Instantaneous (ondemand)
Ventilation
HRV
Energy Generation
Passive Solar
Heating
No
PV
None
Wind
10 kW
Solar Thermal
Hybrid (GHP + ondemand)
Source: Hoque, S., 2010, Net zero energy homes: an evaluation of two homes in the northwestern United States, Journal of
Green Building, Vol. 5 (2), pp. 79-90.
EcoTerra HouseTM, Canada
http://sbrn.solarbuildings.ca/main.php?l=e&d=1&i=3&t=demoproje
cts
• Built in November, 2007
• Two-story detached home, 234
m2
• 3 kW BIPV/Thermal system on a
55 m2 south-facing roof (22
amorphous silicon 135W cells)
• 10 kW solar thermal generation
• Two-stage Geothermal heat
pump
Source: Noguchi et al., 2008, Net zero energy homes of the future: a case study of the EcoTerraTM House in Canada, Presented at the
Renewable Energy Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, July 19-25, 2008
EcoTerra HouseTM, Canada
Source: Noguchi et al., 2008, Net zero energy homes of the future: a case study of the EcoTerraTM House in Canada,
Presented at the Renewable Energy Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, July 19-25, 2008
Non-Residential Examples: Lewis Center, Ohio
Source:
http://www.oberlin.edu/archive/resources/phot
oguide/lewis_center.html
• Two-story, 13,600 sq. ft.
• Renovation completed in
2000
• Building includes
classrooms, offices, an
auditorium, an atrium
• 60-kW PV system covers
the entire roof (690 85-Watt
single crystalline modules)
Source: Pless and Torcellini, 2004, Energy Performance
Evaluation of an Educational Facility: The Adam Joseph
Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College,
Oberlin, Ohio, NREL Technical Report, NREL/TP-550-33180
For classrooms,
offices and corridors For auditorium
Zone-decentralized heating and cooling system
Lewis Center, Ohio (Cont.)
Average daily performance, March 1, 2001 through Feb. 28, 2002
Building electric system plan and DAQ meter locations
Source: Pless and Torcellini, 2004, Energy Performance Evaluation of an Educational Facility: The Adam Joseph Lewis Center
for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, NREL Technical Report, NREL/TP-550-33180
The Science House, Minnesota
Source:
http://leedresource.wordpress.com/2012/02/11/zeroenergy-buildings-myth-or-must
• New construction
completed in 2003
• Single-story, 1530 sq. ft.
• Occupied by 2 people; 795
visitors per week
• Wood-frame structure
• 8.8 kW PV system
• Project cost: $650,000
1) Science house changes from energy user to energy
producer 2) new equipment plugged into the Science
House 3) Science House goes into unoccupied mode,
equipment except for card reader is turned off 4)
Science House becomes net energy user
Weekly Energy Balance in 2005
NIST nZEH Test Facility
•
•
•
•
Located at Gaithersburg, MD
Designed to achieve LEED platinum
To demonstrate a residence, typical in DC area, can achieve nZEH
To provide “real world” field data for validation and improvement
http://www.nist.gov/el/building_environment/heattrans/upload/netzerofinal.pdf
NIST nZEH Test Facility-its Unique
Features
http://www.nist.gov/el/building_environment/heattrans/upload/netzerofinal.pdf
Technologies Available for NZEB
Source: http://www.ecofuturesbuilding.com/learn-zero/what-is-zero-net-energy/
Technology Penetration
Data is collected based on a database of 60 net zero energy/ net zero
energy capable commercial buildings
Source: Getting to zero 2012 status update: a first look at the costs and features of zero energy commercial
buildings, New Building Institute research report, March 2012
Cost/Performance Curve
Source: Anderson R. and Roberts D., Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy Home Technology Pathways,
NREL/TP-550-44547
ThermCom Development
29
Max Tech and Beyond: Ultra-Low
Energy Use Appliance Design
Competition for 2011-2012
30
SSLCAC Design Overview
Radiative Heat Exchanger: Cooling Wall
31
Other examples
Net Zero Homes
33
Net Zero home - Ft. Worth, Texas
Sep. 2010 R.
Radermacher
Net Zero Homes
Net
34 Zero “Beach House” - California
Sep. 2010 R.
Radermacher
Net Zero Homes
Net
35 Zero - Chicago
Sep. 2010 R.
Radermacher
Net Zero Homes
Net
36
Zero – Staplehurst, England
Sep. 2010 R.
Radermacher
Net Zero Homes
“Cannon Beach Residence”
Oregon coast
37
Sep. 2010
R.
Radermacher
Net Zero Homes
•
•
•
Yannell Residence, Illinois
38
Sep. 2010
R.
Radermacher
LEED Platinum
Currently holds
highest rating
for a Net Zero
residence in
the US
Produces 40%
more energy
than it
consumes
Belgian NZE station at Antartica
Sustainable Homes
NZE House in Lebanon, NJ
Specifications
4 bedrooms, 2.5 baths, living room,
dining room, kitchen, laundry room and
a basement
Elements
Bldg. Orientation
True south, Passive
solar heating, daylighting
Layout
Open plan
Conditioned Area
4200 sf (390 sm)
Framing
2 by 4 at 16” O.C.
Type
Single-family detached
Materials
Douglas fir; Southern
Pine
Slab Floors
R-35 (6 m2K/W)
Foundation Walls
R-35 (6 m2K/W)
Basement Ceiling
None
Above Grade Walls
R-35 (6 m2K/W)
Roof
R-35 (6 m2K/W)
Window
R-10 (2 m2K/W)
Relative Humidity
40-50%
Infiltration Rate
5.0 ACH@50Pa
Source: Hoque, S., 2010, Net zero energy homes: an evaluation of two homes in the northwestern United States, Journal of Green Building, Vol. 5 (2), pp. 79-90.
NZE House in Lebanon, NJ (cont.)
Energy Systems
Energy Consumption
Heating
Air(AHU) + Radiant
(Solar Thermal)
AC
None
Water Heating
Solar Thermal
Ventilation
Nature
Energy Generation
Passive Solar
Heating
Yes
PV
9.8 kW
Wind
None
Solar Thermal
Yes
Source: Hoque, S., 2010, Net zero energy homes: an evaluation of two homes in the northwestern United States,
Journal of Green Building, Vol. 5 (2), pp. 79-90.
ORNL Office Building 3156
• Two-story, 6,940 sq. ft.
• Last renovation completed
in 2009
• 31 occupants; 23 offices +
1 conference room
• Commercial office, campus
• 51-kW PV system
• High efficiency packaged
terminal heat pumps
• Total project cost (land
excluded): $660,000
http://femp.buildinggreen.com/energy.cfm?ProjectID=1585
Renovation Highlights:
•R-23 roof insulation with a highperformance reflective membrane
added
•High efficacy T8 lighting using
electronic ballasts
•Occupancy sensors to control
both HVAC and lighting
•A energy consumption monitoring
system to better understand
energy use profile of the building
NZE House in Stow, MA
Source: Engelmann, P., Roth, K., 2011, IEQ/IAQ and Energy Performance of Very Low-Energy Homes, Summer 2011 Residential
Ener. Eff. Tech. Update Meeting, Aug. 2011. web source:
http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/building_america/ns/eemtg082011_c4_very_lowe_homes.pdf
NZE House in Stow, MA (cont.)
End-energy usage breakdown
Energy production and consumption
Source: Engelmann, P., Roth, K., 2011, IEQ/IAQ and Energy Performance of Very Low-Energy Homes, Summer 2011 Residential
Ener. Eff. Tech. Update Meeting, Aug. 2011. web source:
http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/building_america/ns/eemtg082011_c4_very_lowe_homes.pdf
NZEB Database from DOE
LEED Platinum
LEED Platinum
LEED Platinum
LEED Platinum
• Source: http://zeb.buildinggreen.com/
• 10 projects from DOE Zero Energy Buildings database
• Building types include: commercial offices, recreation, education/lab,
residential, interpretive center and retail
• Some of them are also LEED platinum rating and HERS level 0
Summary of the Main Technologies for
NZEB
Proven technologies
Still developing
technologies
Technologies on the
horizon
Thermal
insulation
Low conductivity
materials; Reflective
materials
Reflective roofs;
green roofs;
exploring new
materials for thermal
insulation
Smart reflective roofs; cool
colored paints (with IR
reflective pigments); nano
materials for thermal
insulation; highly insulation
façade systems
Windows
Multi-layer windows;
Low-e glazing; gas filled
air gaps; thermal break
frames
Glazings with
dynamic properties
(e.g.
electrochromics)
BIPV glazings; solar
glazing; solar curtain walls
Lighting
CFL; LED; daylight
harvest through
transparent envelope
CFL; LED;
intelligent, dynamic
and/or lightredirecting facades
with automated
lighting controls
Intelligent natural
daylighting distributing
systems
Source: Maria Kapsalaki & Vitor Leal (2011): Recent progress on net zero energy buildings, Advances in Building
Energy Research, 5:1, 129-162
Summary of the Main Technologies for NZEB
Proven technologies
Still developing
technologies
Technologies on the horizon
Heating and
cooling
equipment
Condensing gas boilers;
biomass boilers; high
EER chillers and heat
pumps (ground and air
source)
Micro CHP
Solar CHP; thermally activated
HP; TE cooling; frostless HP;
distributed refrigeration/watersource HP
Ventilation
Mixed mode natural and
mechanical with heat
recovery (HR); nightly
cooling; stack effect
ventilation
Hybrid ventilation systems
with automatic controls;
displacement ventilation
Heat recovery windows;
personalized ventilation
Renewable
technologies
Thermal solar; biomass
heating; PV systems;
PV thermal solar
systems; air solar
collectors
PV systems (increased
efficiency); PV thermal
solar systems
BIPV systems, wind turbines
(WT) and micro WT
Building energy
management
systems
Sensors; energy control
(zone heating and
cooling) and monitoring
systems
Monitoring and control
systems running on IP
communication
infrastructure
Improved management
systems with grid/consumer
supply-demand integration
Source: Maria Kapsalaki & Vitor Leal (2011): Recent progress on net zero energy buildings, Advances in Building
Energy Research, 5:1, 129-162
ZEB Renewable Energy Options
Highly
preferred Option Number
ZEB Supply-Side Options
Examples
Reduce site energy use lowenergy building technologies
Daylighting, high-eff. HVAC equip.,
natural ventilation, evaporative cooling…
(Hierarchy)
0
On-site Supply Options
1
Use renewable energy sources
within the building’s footprint
PV, solar hot water, and wind located on
the building
2
Use renewable energy sources
available at the site
PV, solar hot water, low-impact hydro,
and wind located on-site, but not on the
building
Off-site Supply Options
3
Use renewable energy sources
available off site to generate
energy on site
Biomass, wood pellets, ethanol…
4
Purchase off-site renewable
energy sources
Utility-based wind, PV, emissions
credits, other “green” purchasing
options
preferred
Source: Torcellini et al., 2006, Zero energy buildings: a critical look at the definition, ACEEE Summer Study, Aug. 1418, Pacific Gove, CA
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