Paper Industry Challenges and Opportunities

Paper Industry
Challenges and
Opportunities
Charles P. Klass
Klass Associates Inc.
Redington Beach, FL
C. P. Klass Background
¾ Western Michigan University – BS in Pulp
and Paper Technology
¾ Pace University – MBA in Marketing
Management
¾ 50 years in paper industry and TAPPI
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Process engineer and production management
Paper chemicals and equipment marketing
22 years as a consultant
¾ Adjunct Professor at Western Michigan
Summary of Presentation
¾ Overall trends in printing, writing and
packaging papers
¾ Digital printing an impact on paper industry
¾ Trends in packaging
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RFID tags
Recyclable barrier coatings
¾ New materials and technologies
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Nanoparticle biopolymer latex
Zeolite pigments
Overall Trends
¾ Becoming a global market
¾ Increased brightness in both uncoated
and coated papers
¾ Neutral/alkaline papermaking
¾ Calcium carbonate replacing kaolin clay
¾ Blurring distinction between coated and
uncoated
Uncoated Free Sheet Papers
¾ Higher brightness and whiteness
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Increased OBA use
¾ Neutral/alkaline sized
¾ Must be multifunctional
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Offset
Laser toner bond and xerography
Ink jet printability
Opacity
¾ Internal bond and surface strength critical
Uncoated Free Sheet
Process & Quality Trends
¾ High filler levels - >18% PCC
¾ Surface sizing
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Starch with good strength and film forming
Synthetic surface size
Cationic additive for ink jet
¾ Pigment addition to surface size
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Porosity control
Ink receptivity
Free Sheet Alternative
¾ Uses a combination of bleached kraft and
mechanical pulp
¾ Light metered size press coating and soft
nip calendering
¾ Multipurpose equivalent to uncoated free
sheet office papers
¾ Brightness equivalent or higher
¾ Lower priced but better profit margin
Film Coated Offset
¾ Made by metered size press coating and
soft nip calendering on a highgroundwood content sheet
¾ Better quality and runnability than SCA in
heatset offset
¾ Displacing both SCA and No. 5 LWC
¾ Growing market in inserts and cost
conscious magazines
Summary of Coated Paper
Quality Trends
Coated Board Quality Trends
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Increased brightness
Increased smoothness
Low pps10
Increased gloss
Move toward a blue shade
Need to develop digital printability
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Ink jet
LEP
Coated Offset Printing Papers
¾ Growth of heat set web offset
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Lighter weights - ULWC
Blister and print-through concerns
¾ More colors
¾ More ink coverage and trapped areas
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Increased mottle potential
¾ Finer line screens
Offset Printing Papers Emerging
Trend Stochastic Screening
Stochastic Screening
¾ Paper surface quality implications
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Holdout critical
Surface uniformity critical
Requires excellent film former
Pigmented surface size on uncoated papers
¾ Pigment choices
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Brazilian clays well suited
Aragonite PCC well suited
Flexo Printing
¾ Fastest growing impact printing process
¾ More colors
¾ Finer screens
¾ Need for open coating structure
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Pigment choices
Binder systems
Synthetic rather than stearate lubricant
Graphic Quality Linerboard
Grade Spectrum
High Performance
*Kraft Liner
*Coated SUS
*Mottled White
(Less bleached pulp on top)
*Coated Recycled
*White Top
*Coated SBS
*Bleached Liner
(uncoated)
Low Cost
Low Print Quality
High Print Quality
High Cost
New Coated Linerboard
Positioning
High Performance
*Kraft Liner
New Coated
Linerboard
*Coated SUS
*Mottled White
(Less bleached pulp on top)
*Coated Recycled
*White Top
*Coated SBS
*Bleached Liner
(uncoated)
Low Cost
Low Print Quality
High Print Quality
High Cost
High Graphic Quality Corrugated
Growth Patterns
High Graphic Quality
Corrugated Growth
Beverage
Carriers
Existing High Graphic
Quality Corrugated
Upgrade from White
Top/Mottled
Upgrade from Brown
Folding Cartons
Microflute Corrugated
¾ Competes with coated multi-ply recycled
paperboard
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Lighter weight ~35 – 40%
Stronger
¾ Can be converted in regular folding carton
machinery
¾ Requires coated surface for offset printing
¾ Lighter weight than regular linerboard
Digital Printing of Corrugated
¾ Likely to grow rapidly over the next
decade
¾ Fiber top linerboard not adequate
¾ Will require new coated linerboard
grades
¾ Ink jet likely to be the dominant
technology
Ink Jet Printing Papers
¾ Market tiers
¾ Coated and uncoated
¾ Quality pyramid
Ink Jet Papers Market
Quality
Cost
Photo
Quality
Silica Coated
GAP
Market Potential
Synthetic Surface Sized Plain
Need for Dual Purpose Papers
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Driven by changes in direct mail and financial
media
Combination offset preprint with variable digital
printing a single high-speed line
Paper must provide high quality multi-color
printing by both offset and digital
No papers currently on the market meet this
need
Likely to be a high growth market
Trend Toward Digital Printing
¾ Digital printing growing as a commercial
printing method
¾ Driver is desire for customization and shorter
press runs
¾ Digital printing eliminates prepress and
make ready
¾ Will grow rapidly in direct mail, publications
and packaging
Global Printed and Imaged Pages
2010
2005
Conventional 92%
Digital 8%
48 Trillion Pages
Conventional 90%
Digital 10%
54 Trillion Pages
Digital page growth = 600 Billion pages in 5 years
Digital Printing Trends
¾ Continuous ink jet will be the fastest growing
area
¾ Prototype ink jet web press running at
commercial speed and width – quality
equivalent to offset
¾ Web ink jet will replace sheet-fed and web
offset – likely to expand into newspaper and
magazines
¾ Will require new grades of paper with
cationic surface functionality
RFID Tags
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Wal-Mart and other large retailers mandating
that packages have RFID tags to automate
logistics
Requires inserting a chip in the package surface
to be read by a scanner
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Chips are expensive
Inserting the chip is cumbersome
Research at WMU is developing economical
print-on RFID tags as part of the regular
packaging material printing process
Extension into printed electronic circuits
Recyclable Barrier Coating Drivers
¾ Cost of disposal
¾ Availability of OCC
¾ Environmental concerns
¾ Overseas regulations
¾ Concerns about fluorochemicals
Drivers - Cost of Disposal and
Availability of OCC
¾ Cost of disposal
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Tipping fees range from $40 to $160 per ton
Need to segregate recyclable from nonrecyclable waste increases handling cost
¾ Availability of OCC
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About 20% of OCC goes to landfill or burning
Mini-mills and export demand keep OCC
supply tight
Drivers - Environmental
Concerns Recovery/Recycling
¾ Repulpability
¾ Biodegradability
¾ Minimal impact on reprocessing
¾ Energy recovery
¾ Low environmental impact
¾ Chlorine free
Drivers - Concern about Use of
Fluorochemicals
¾ Major food packagers and fast food chains
looking for alternatives
¾ Concern about liability and litigation
¾ Paper mill concern about exposure to
workers
¾ Concern extends to new fluorochemicals
¾ Search for alternative OGR treatments
Wax Replacement in
Corrugated
¾ A major opportunity for recyclable barrier
coatings
¾ A lot of attempts over the past decade but
no large scale commercialization
¾ Cost is still a major concern - wax is
cheap!
¾ Separation and disposal cost is also a
major concern
Waxed Corrugated by Product
10%
5%
12%
49%
24%
Produce
Poultry
Seafood
Meat
Other
Waxed Corrugated Market
Overview
¾ Market size about 1.5 million tons of
containerboard
¾ Two methods of waxing
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Curtain coating: 12 - 15% wax content
Cascade waxing: 35 - 50% wax content
¾ Upcharge for waxing
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Curtain coating $9 - $15/MSF
Cascade waxing $24 - $31/MSF
Waxed Corrugated
Performance Requirements
¾ Curtain wax coated boxes: Retain 60% of
original strength after 1 hour water soak
¾ Cascade waxed boxes: Retain 90% of
original strength after 8 to 24 hour water
soak
¾ Cold humid compression: Retain specified
percentage of strength after exposure to
90% RH at 40°F (5°C) for 24 hours
Waxed Corrugated
Performance Requirements
¾ Cyclic humidity performance: Retain 80%
of original strength after exposure to:
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“Jungle conditions” 90% RH at 100°F (38°C)
for 8 or 24 hours
Followed by exposure for same period of time
to:
50% RH at 72°F (22°C)
Costs of Using Waxed
Corrugated
¾ Higher cost boxes
¾ Cost of sorting at supermarket: $15 - $25
per ton
¾ Hauling cost and tipping fees: $55 - $130
per ton
Benefits of Wax Replacement
¾ Reduce the amount of material in box
designs - most coatings would add 4 - 5%
to weight compared to 12 - 50% addition
by waxing
¾ Reduce labor along the supply chain
¾ Better graphics and box appeal
¾ Reduced disposal cost
¾ Increased recycling
Biopolymer Nanoparticle Latex Technology
New properties from re-engineering biopolymers
into nanoparticles
30 µm
Size reduced
300-600x
200 nm
Effective surface
>200 m2/g (est.)
e.g. Native Starch Granules
ECOSPHERE® Biopolymer Nanoparticles
Biopolymer Nanoparticle Dispersions
Particle Size Measurements
10 nm
100 nm
Biolatex
Dry paper coat
Starch granules
PVAc
SB latex
Biolatex
Range of emulsions
1000 nm
10,000 nm
100,000 nm
1 µm
10 µm
100 µm
Hypothesized Structure of a
Water-Swollen, Crosslinked Biopolymer
Nanoparticle
Water-Swollen, Crosslinked
Biopolymer Core: V(Core)
Bound and Adsorbed
Biopolymer Shell: V(Shell)
Effective volume factor, f, of biopolymer nanoparticles (relative viscosity method) is:
f = [V(Core) + V(Shell)]/V(Biopolymer) = 6.67
Assuming V(Shell) = 2 x V(Biopolymer), then swell ratio is:
V(Core-swollen)/V(Core-unswollen) = 4.67 for ECOSPHERE®
V(Core-swollen)/V(Core-unswollen) = 1.00 for S/B Latex Control
The Film Formation of Latex Particles: A Guide for
the Hypothesized Film Formation of Biolatex
Free-Flowing Dispersion
Aqueous Dispersion of Latex Particles
Drying/Compaction
Immobilization
Particle Compaction Caused
by Surface Tension
Particle Deformation & Further Coalescence
Consolidation
Deformation & Coalescence Caused by:
Surface Tension, Capillary Forces, and
Adhesion at the Particle Interfaces
Hypothesized Film Formation of
Water-Swollen, Crosslinked Biopolymer Nanoparticles
Free-Flowing
Dispersion
Aqueous dispersion of water-swollen
biopolymer nanoparticles
Drying/Compaction
Gelling/
Immobilization
Entanglement & insolubilizing
at the particle interfaces
Particle Deformation & Further Coalescence
Consolidation
with Partial Collapse
Water liberates, but biopolymer cores
do not collapse and form “nano-cellular
foam-like” film, yielding air voids
Stiff water-swollen crosslinked biopolymer nanoparticles do not collapse much during film formation.
Consequently, film shrinkage is much less than starch and more like S/B latex, yielding better gloss and
improved opacity under optimized calendering conditions.
Emerging Biopolymer Nanoparticle
Technology:
¾ Independent control of particle sizes
and swell ratios
¾ Surface modifications: e.g., Carboxyl,
amide, amine, amphoteric,
quaternary ammonium, etc.
¾ Formation of hybrid products: e.g.,
Starch/protein hybrids,
biopolymer/synthetic polymer
hybrids, etc.
Relative Comparisons of ECOSPHERE®, Starches, and
Synthetic Latexes
Properties of Paper
Coatings
Biolatex
Starches Synthetic
Latexes
Ease of Formulation
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-
+
Water Retention
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+
0
High-Solids Coater
Runnability
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-
+
Dry Strength
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-
++
Wet Strength
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-
++
Stiffness
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+
0
Coating and Print Gloss
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-
+
Brightness w/o & w/OBA
+ & ++
0 & ++
+&0
Whiteness w/o & w/OBA
+ & ++
0 & ++
+&0
Opacity
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-
+
Printability
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+
Relative Scores Based on Paper Coating Trials
Biolatex Benefits vs.
Emulsion Polymer Latex
Features
Benefits
Lower latex cost
Significant annual savings
Requires no cooking
Energy and labor savings
Renewable resource based
(modified biopolymer)
Price stability, not linked to rising
petroleum prices, carbon neutral
Substitute for latex binder
Similar performance in coating colors
Viscosity & ultra-high shear
rheology = synthetic latex
Simple adjustment of existing coating
recipe – similar or better runnability
Reduce rheological modifier
Additional potential saving
Available dry or liquid
Freight savings & formulation flexibility
Independent Analysis of
Biobased Carbon Content
Biolatex
Biolatex®
ECOSPHERE
Analysis by Beta Analytic Inc, Miami, FL
SBR Latex
100% SB Latex Control
What are Zeolites?
¾ Crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates of
alkali and alkaline earth metals
¾ Structure - interlocking tetrahedrons of
SiO4 and AlO4
¾ Ratio of Si and Al to O 1/2
¾ Negatively charged with large internal
“cages” to facilitate exchange with large
cations and cationic molecules
Zeolite Structure
Zeolite Characteristics
¾ High degree of hydration
¾ Low density and large void volume when
dehydrated
¾ Stability of structure when dehydrated
¾ Uniform molecular sized channels
¾ Ability to absorb gases and vapors
¾ Cation exchange properties
Zeolites in Papermaking
¾ Historically used in Japan and Hungary as
filler to improve
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Bulk
Printability
¾ Low in brightness - not useful in USA
¾ Expensive synthetic zeolites are useful in
ink jet coatings but cannot be dispersed at
high solids or coated on machine
ZOBrite Pigment
¾ Clinoptilolite purified and modified by a
proprietary process
¾ Process works with only clinoptilolite
zeolite from the ZO Resources reserve in
west Texas
¾ Can make a product with 93 - 95% GE
Brightness and good rheology
ZOBrite Pigment Properties
¾ GE Brightness and Color
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GE Brightness
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93.5%
97.1
0.31
1.14
¾ BET Surface Area 37.7 m2/g
ZOBrite Pigment Properties
¾ Sedigraph Particle Size (%) - slurry at
50% solids
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<10 μm
<5 μm
<2 μm
<1 μm
<0.5 μm
99.6
99.1
92.0
69.5
43.9
¾ 325 mesh Residue
¾ Einlehner Abrasion
0.0014%
2.0 mg loss
ZOBrite Pigment Slurry
Properties
¾ Can be dispersed with either anionic or
cationic dispersant
¾ Stable dispersions at 54% solids
¾ Viscosity at 50% Solids
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Brookfield @ 20 RPM 114 cPs
Hercules at 1100 RPM 138 Kilodyne-cm
• Apparent viscosity
24.0 cPs
ZOBrite Coating Development
¾ Initial work targeted at ink jet and digital
printing
¾ Objective: Economical alternative to
silica that could be coated at higher
solids on machine
¾ First formulated with polyvinyl alcohol
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CPVC
= 1:1
No cracking or dusting at 14:1
pigment:binder
ZOBrite Ink Jet Coating
Development
¾ Drawdowns showed performance
comparable to silica at 2:1 pigment:binder
¾ CLC runnability excellent at 2500 fpm and
40 - 45% coating solids
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Typical solids for silica 14 - 18%
Engelhard DigitexTM solids 30 - 33%
¾ Rheology showed MSP coating feasible
Other Implications from Ink Jet
Coating Research
¾ Rapid drying time in ink jet prints and
water-fastness -> could be applicable to
direct post print flexo to prevent smudge
¾ Low abrasion -> minimize metal
marking
¾ Could also benefit water-based gravure
¾ Evaluate dynamic contact angle with 10
parts ZOBrite in linerboard top coat
Pigmented Size Press
¾ Pigmented size press trials at 2:1 ratio
with ethylated starch
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Good runnability
No dusting
Improved offset and ink jet printability
Wet End Filler Evaluations
¾ Trials on pilot paper machine
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Self retains at 2.5 to 4 time rate of PCC, GCC
and filler clay
Improved formation
Potential for microparticulate silica
replacement
¾ Higher tensile strength and stretch
¾ More open sheet
¾ Improved COF
Reduction in Print Through
¾ Sheet filled with 100 pounds ZOBrite per
ton (4.59% ash) showed no print through
¾ PCC, GCC and clay at 250 pounds per ton
showed print through
¾ Performance of zeolite at 100 pounds per
ton better than 200 pounds per ton calcined
clay - which required retention aid
Patents
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U.S. 6,679,973 - High Performance Purified
Natural Zeolite Pigment for Papermaking and
Paper Coating
U.S. 6,616,748 - High Performance Purified
Natural Zeolite Pigment for Papermaking and
Paper Coating
U.S. 7,201,826 – High Performance Natural
Zeolite Microparticle Retention Aid for
Papermaking
Thank you for your
attention!