24-Port Intelligent Workgroup Switch Management Guide

24-Port Intelligent Workgroup Switch
Management Guide
Management Guide
24-Port Intelligent Workgroup Switch
with 24 10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX (RJ-45) Ports,
and 2 Slots for 100BASE-FX or Gigabit Uplink Modules
SF-0204F
E122003-R01
F2.0.3.9
150XXXXXXXXXX
Contents
Chapter 1: Switch Management
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
Required Connections
Remote Connections
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
Setting Passwords
Setting an IP Address
Enabling SNMP Management Access
Saving Configuration Settings
Managing System Files
System Defaults
Chapter 2: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Home Page
Configuration Options
Panel Display
Main Menu
Basic Configuration
Displaying System Information
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
Setting the IP Address
Managing Firmware
Downloading System Software from a Server
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
Setting the Startup Configuration File
Copying the Running Configuration to a File
System Logs Configuration
Logs
Remote Logs Configuration
Reset
Setting the System Clock
Configuring SNTP
Setting the Time Zone
Configuring SNMP
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Setting Community Access Strings
Specifying Trap Managers
Security
Configuring the Logon Password
Configuring RADIUS/TACACS Logon Authentication
Configuring HTTPS
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
Configuring SSH
Configuring Port Security
Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
Displaying 802.1x Global Settings
Configuring Global dot1x Parameters
Displaying 802.1x Statistics
Access Control Lists
Configuring Access Control Lists
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
Configuring Interface Connections
Trunk Configuration
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Dynamically Configuring a Trunk
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Configuring Port Mirroring
Configuring Rate Limits
Rate Limit Granularity
Rate Limit Configuration
Showing Port Statistics
Address Table Settings
Setting Static Addresses
Displaying the Address Table
Changing the Aging Time
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
Displaying Global Settings
Configuring Global Settings
Displaying Interface Settings
Configuring Interface Settings
VLAN Configuration
Overview
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
Displaying Basic VLAN Information
Displaying Current VLANs
Creating VLANs
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Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
Private VLANs
Displaying Current Private VLANs
Configuring Private VLANs
Associating VLANs
Displaying Private VLAN Interface Information
Configuring Private VLAN Interfaces
Class of Service Configuration
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
Selecting the Queue Mode
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Port Priority
ACL CoS Mapping
Multicast Filtering
Configuring IGMP Snooping Parameters
Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
Adding Multicast Addresses to VLANs
Chapter 3: Command Line Interface
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
Console Connection
Telnet Connection
Entering Commands
Keywords and Arguments
Minimum Abbreviation
Command Completion
Getting Help on Commands
Partial Keyword Lookup
Negating the Effect of Commands
Using Command History
Understanding Command Modes
Exec Commands
Configuration Commands
Command Line Processing
Command Groups
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General Commands
enable
disable
configure
show history
reload
prompt
end
exit
quit
Flash/File Commands
copy
delete
dir
whichboot
boot system
System Management Commands
hostname
username
enable password
logging on
logging history
logging host
logging facility
logging trap
clear logging
show logging
show startup-config
show running-config
show system
show users
show version
Web Server Commands
ip http port
ip http server
ip http secure-server
ip http secure-port
Secure Shell Commands
ip ssh server
ip ssh
show ip ssh
disconnect ssh
show ssh
Port Security
SNTP Commands
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sntp client
sntp server
sntp poll
sntp broadcast client
show sntp
clock timezone
calendar set
show calendar
SNMP Commands
snmp-server community
snmp-server contact
snmp-server location
snmp-server host
snmp-server enable traps
show snmp
IP Interface Commands
ip address
ip dhcp restart
ip default-gateway
show ip interface
show ip redirects
ping
Line Commands
line
login
password
exec-timeout
password-thresh
silent-time
databits
parity
speed
stopbits
show line
Interface Commands
interface
description
speed-duplex
negotiation
capabilities
flowcontrol
clear counters
shutdown
switchport broadcast octet-rate
show interfaces status
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show interfaces counters
show interfaces switchport
Address Table Commands
mac-address-table static
show mac-address-table
clear mac-address-table dynamic
mac-address-table aging-time
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree
spanning-tree mode
spanning-tree forward-time
spanning-tree hello-time
spanning-tree max-age
spanning-tree priority
spanning-tree pathcost method
spanning-tree transmission-limit
spanning-tree cost
spanning-tree port-priority
spanning-tree portfast
spanning-tree edge-port
spanning-tree protocol-migration
spanning-tree link-type
show spanning-tree
VLAN Commands
vlan database
vlan
interface vlan
switchport mode
switchport acceptable-frame-types
switchport ingress-filtering
switchport native vlan
switchport allowed vlan
switchport forbidden vlan
show vlan
Private VLAN Commands
private-vlan
private-vlan association
switchport mode private-vlan
switchport private-vlan host-association
switchport private-vlan mapping
show vlan private-vlan
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
switchport gvrp
show gvrp configuration
garp timer
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show garp timer
bridge-ext gvrp
show bridge-ext
Mirror Port Commands
port monitor
show port monitor
Link Aggregation Commands
channel-group
lacp
Rate Limit Commands
rate-limit
rate-limit granularity
show rate-limit
Authentication Commands
authentication login
radius-server host
radius-server port
radius-server key
radius-server retransmit
radius-server timeout
show radius-server
tacacs-server host
tacacs-server port
tacacs-server key
show tacacs-server
authentication dot1x default
dot1x default
dot1x max-req
dot1x port-control
dot1x re-authenticate
dot1x re-authentication
dot1x timeout quiet-period
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
dot1x timeout tx-period
show dot1x
Access Control List Commands
IP ACLs
access-list ip
permit, deny (Standard ACL)
permit, deny (Extended ACL)
ip access-group
show ip access-group
show ip access-list
map access-list ip
show map access-list ip
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MAC ACLs
access-list mac
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
mac access-group
show mac access-group
show mac access-list
ACL Information
show access-list
show access-group
Priority Commands
switchport priority default
queue mode
queue bandwidth
queue cos-map
show queue mode
show queue bandwidth
show queue cos-map
map ip port (Global Configuration)
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
show map ip port
show map ip precedence
show map ip dscp
Multicast Filtering Commands
ip igmp snooping
ip igmp snooping vlan static
ip igmp snooping version
show ip igmp snooping
show mac-address-table multicast
ip igmp snooping querier
ip igmp snooping query-count
ip igmp snooping query-interval
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
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Contents
Glossary
Index
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Contents
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Chapter 1: Switch Management
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
This 24-port Layer 2 switch includes a built-in network management agent. The
agent offers a variety of management options, including SNMP, RMON and a
Web-based interface. A PC may also be connected directly to the switch for
configuration and monitoring via a command line interface (CLI).
Note: The IP address for this switch is assigned via DHCP by default. To change this
address, see “Setting an IP Address” on page 1-4.
The switch’s HTTP Web agent allows you to configure switch parameters, monitor
port connections, and display statistics graphically using a standard Web browser
such as Netscape Navigator version 6.2 and higher or Microsoft IE version 5.0 and
higher. The switch’s Web management interface can be accessed from any
computer attached to the network.
The switch’s management agent is based on SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol). This SNMP agent permits the switch to be managed from any system in
the network using management software.
The CLI program can be accessed by a direct connection to the RS-232 serial
console port on the switch, or remotely by a Telnet connection over the network.
The switch’s CLI configuration program, Web interface, and SNMP agent allow you
to perform the following management functions:
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Set user names and passwords
Set an IP interface for a management VLAN
Configure SNMP parameters
Enable/disable any port
Set the speed/duplex mode for any port
Configure the bandwidth of any port by rate limiting
Configure up to 255 IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enable GVRP automatic VLAN registration
Configure IGMP multicast filtering
Upload and download system firmware/switch configuration files via TFTP
Configure Spanning Tree parameters
Configure Class of Service (CoS) priority queuing
Configure up to four static or LACP trunks
Enable port mirroring
Enable broadcast storm control
Display system information and statistics
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Switch Management
Required Connections
The switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a PC or
terminal for monitoring and configuring the switch. A null-modem console cable is
provided with the switch.
Attach a VT100-compatible terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation program
to the switch. You can use the console cable provided with this package, or use a
null-modem cable that complies with the wiring assignments shown in “Console Port
Pin Assignments” on page B-1 of the Installation Guide.
To connect a terminal to the console port, complete the following steps:
1.
Connect the console cable to the serial port on a terminal, or a PC running
terminal emulation software, and tighten the captive retaining screws on the
DB-9 connector.
2.
Connect the other end of the cable’s to the RS-232 serial port on the switch.
3.
Make sure the terminal emulation software is set as follows:
• Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2).
• Set the data rate to 9600 baud.
• Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
• Set flow control to none.
• Set the emulation mode to VT100.
• When using HyperTerminal, select Terminal keys, not Windows keys.
Notes: 1. When using HyperTerminal with Microsoft® Windows® 2000, make sure that
you have Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 or later installed. Windows 2000
Service Pack 2 fixes the problem of arrow keys not functioning in
HyperTerminal’s VT100 emulation. See www.microsoft.com for information
on Windows 2000 service packs.
2. Refer to “Line Commands” on page 3-57 for a complete description of
console configuration options.
3. Once you have set up the terminal correctly, the console login screen will be
displayed.
For a description of how to use the CLI, see “Using the Command Line Interface” on
page 3-1. For a list of all the CLI commands and detailed information on using the
CLI, refer to “Command Groups” on page 3-8.
Remote Connections
Prior to accessing the switch’s onboard agent via a network connection, you must
first configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using a
console connection, DHCP or BOOTP protocol.
The IP address for this switch is assigned via DHCP by default. To manually
configure this address or enable dynamic address assignment via DHCP or BOOTP,
see “Setting an IP Address” on page 1-4.
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Basic Configuration
Note: This switch supports four concurrent Telnet sessions.
After configuring the switch’s IP parameters, you can access the onboard
configuration program from anywhere within the attached network. The onboard
configuration program can be accessed using Telnet from any computer attached to
the network. The switch can also be managed by any computer using a Web
browser (Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above), or
from a network computer using network management software.
Note: The onboard program only provides access to basic configuration functions. To
access the full of SNMP management functions, you must use SNMP-based
network management software.
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
The CLI program provides two different command levels — normal access level
(Normal Exec) and privileged access level (Privileged Exec). The commands
available at the Normal Exec level are a limited subset of those available at the
Privileged Exec level and allow you to only display information and use basic
utilities. To fully configure switch parameters, you must access the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level.
Access to both CLI levels are controlled by user names and passwords. The switch
has a default user name and password for each level. To log into the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level using the default user name and password, perform these
steps:
1.
To initiate your console connection, press <Enter>. The “User Access
Verification” procedure starts.
2.
At the Username prompt, enter “admin.”
3.
At the Password prompt, also enter “admin.” (The password characters are not
displayed on the console screen.)
4.
The session is opened and the CLI displays the “Console#” prompt indicating
you have access at the Privileged Exec level.
Setting Passwords
Note: If this is your first time to log into the CLI program, you should define new
passwords for both default user names using the “username” command, record
them and put them in a safe place.
Passwords can consist of up to 8 alphanumeric characters and are case sensitive.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch, set the passwords as follows:
1.
Open the console interface with the default user name and password “admin” to
access the Privileged Exec level.
2.
Type “configure” and press <Enter>.
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Switch Management
3.
Type “username guest password 0 password,” for the Normal Exec level, where
password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “username admin password 0 password,” for the Privileged Exec level,
where password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the SF-2024F is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#configure
Console(config)#username guest password 0 [password]
Console(config)#username admin password 0 [password]
Console(config)#
Setting an IP Address
You must establish IP address information for the switch to obtain management
access through the network. This can be done in either of the following ways:
Manual — You have to input the information, including IP address and subnet mask.
If your management station is not in the same IP subnet as the switch, you will also
need to specify the default gateway router.
Dynamic — The switch sends IP configuration requests to BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network.
Note: Only one VLAN interface can be assigned an IP address (the default is VLAN 1).
This defines the management VLAN, the only VLAN through which you can gain
management access to the switch. If you assign an IP address to any other VLAN,
the new IP address overrides the original IP address and this becomes the new
management VLAN.
Manual Configuration
You can manually assign an IP address to the switch. You may also need to specify
a default gateway that resides between this device and management stations that
exist on another network segment.
Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
Anything outside this format will not be accepted by the CLI program.
Note: The IP address for this switch is assigned via DHCP by default.
Before you can assign an IP address to the switch, you must obtain the following
information from your network administrator:
• IP address for the switch
• Default gateway for the network
• Network mask for this network
To assign an IP address to the switch, complete the following steps:
1.
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From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“interface vlan 1” to access the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
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Basic Configuration
2.
Type “ip address ip-address netmask,” where “ip-address” is the switch IP
address and “netmask” is the network mask for the network. Press <Enter>.
3.
Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt. Press <Enter>.
4.
To set the IP address of the default gateway for the network to which the switch
belongs, type “ip default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the IP address
of the default gateway. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
Dynamic Configuration
If you select the “bootp” or “dhcp” option, IP will be enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. You therefore need to use the “ip dhcp
restart” command to start broadcasting service requests. Requests will be sent
periodically in an effort to obtain IP configuration information. (BOOTP and DHCP
values can include the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.)
If the “bootp” or “dhcp” option is saved to the startup-config file, then the switch will
start broadcasting service requests as soon as it is powered on.
To automatically configure the switch by communicating with BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“interface vlan 1” to access the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
At the interface-configuration mode prompt, use one of the following
commands:
• To obtain IP settings through DHCP, type “ip address dhcp” and press
<Enter>.
• To obtain IP settings through BOOTP, type “ip address bootp” and press
<Enter>.
3.
Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “ip dhcp restart” to begin broadcasting service requests. Press <Enter>.
5.
Wait a few minutes, and then check the IP configuration settings by typing the
“show ip interface” command. Press <Enter>.
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6.
Switch Management
Then save your configuration changes by typing “copy running-config
startup-config.” Enter the startup file name and press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP interface vlan
IP address and netmask: 10.1.0.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: User specified.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
Console#
Enabling SNMP Management Access
The switch can be configured to accept management commands from Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) applications. You can configure the switch
to (1) respond to SNMP requests or (2) generate SNMP traps.
When SNMP management stations send requests to the switch (either to return
information or to set a parameter), the switch provides the requested data or sets the
specified parameter. The switch can also be configured to send information to
SNMP managers (without being requested by the managers) through trap
messages, which inform the manager that certain events have occurred.
Community Strings
Community strings are used to control management access to SNMP stations, as
well as to authorize SNMP stations to receive trap messages from the switch. You
therefore need to assign community strings to specified users or user groups, and
set the access level.
The default strings are:
• public - Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only
able to retrieve MIB objects.
• private - Specifies read-write access. Authorized management stations are able to
both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Note: If you do not intend to utilize SNMP, it is recommended that you delete both of the
default community strings. If there are no community strings, then SNMP
management access to the switch is disabled.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch via SNMP, it is recommended that you
change the default community strings.
To configure a community string, complete the following steps:
1.
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From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“snmp-server community string mode,” where “string” is the community access
string and “mode” is rw (read/write) or ro (read only). Press <Enter>.
1
Basic Configuration
2.
To remove an existing string, simply type “no snmp-server community string,”
where “string” is the community access string to remove. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#snmp-server community abc rw
Console(config)#snmp-server community private
Console(config)#
Trap Receivers
You can also specify SNMP stations that are to receive traps from the switch.
To configure a trap receiver, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“snmp-server host host-address community-string,” where “host-address” is the
IP address for the trap receiver and “community-string” is the string associated
with that host. Press <Enter>.
2.
In order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at
least one snmp-server enable traps command. Type “snmp-server enable traps
type,” where “type” is either authentication or link-up-down. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
Saving Configuration Settings
Configuration commands only modify the running configuration file and are not
saved when the switch is rebooted. To save all your configuration changes in
nonvolatile storage, you must copy the running configuration file to the start-up
configuration file using the “copy” command.
To save the current configuration settings, enter the following command:
1.
From the Privileged Exec mode prompt, type “copy running-config
startup-config” and press <Enter>.
2.
Enter the name of the start-up file. Press <Enter>.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
Console#
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1
Switch Management
Managing System Files
The switch’s flash memory supports three types of system files that can be managed
by the CLI program, Web interface, or SNMP. The switch’s file system allows files to
be uploaded and downloaded, copied, deleted, and set as a start-up file.
The three types of files are:
• Configuration — These files store system configuration information and are
created when configuration settings are saved. Saved configuration files can be
selected as a system start-up file or can be uploaded via TFTP to a server for
backup. A file named “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” contains all the system default
settings and cannot be deleted from the system. See “Saving or Restoring
Configuration Settings” on page 2-15 for more information.
• Operation Code — System software that is executed after boot-up, also known as
run-time code. This code runs the switch operations and provides the CLI, Web
and SNMP management interfaces. See “Managing Firmware” on page 2-14 for
more information.
• Diagnostic Code — Software that is run during system boot-up, also known as
POST (Power On Self-Test).
Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two operation
code files, and two diagnostic code files. However, you can have as many
configuration files as available flash memory space allows.
In the system flash memory, one file of each type must be set as the start-up file.
During a system boot, the diagnostic and operation code files set as the start-up file
are run, and then the start-up configuration file is loaded.
Note that configuration files should be downloaded using a file name that reflects the
contents or usage of the file settings. If you download directly to the running-config,
the system will reboot, and the settings will have to be copied from the
running-config to a permanent file.
1-8
System Defaults
1
System Defaults
The switch’s system defaults are provided in the configuration file
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg.” To reset the switch defaults, this file should be set as
the startup configuration file.
(See “Setting the Startup Configuration File” on page 2-16.)
The following table lists some of the basic system defaults.
Function
IP Settings
Web Management
SNMP
Security
Console Port
Connection
Parameter
Default
Management VLAN
1
DHCP
Enabled
BOOTP
Disabled
User Specified
Disabled
IP Address
0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask
255.0.0.0
Default Gateway
0.0.0.0
HTTP Server
Enabled
HTTP Port Number
80
Community Strings
“public” (read only)
“private” (read/write)
Authentication Failure Traps
Enabled
Link-up-Down Traps
Enabled
Privileged Exec Level
Username “admin”
Password “admin”
Normal Exec Level
Username “guest”
Password “guest”
Enable Privileged Exec from Normal
Exec Level
Password “super”
Authentication
Local
Baud Rate
9600
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Parity
none
Local Console Timeout
0 (disabled)
1-9
1
Switch Management
Function
Port Status
Link Aggregation
Parameter
Default
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto-negotiation
Enabled
Flow Control
Disabled
Capabilities
10BASE-T –
10 Mbps half duplex
10 Mbps full duplex
Full-duplex flow control disabled
100BASE-TX/FX –
10 Mbps half duplex
10 Mbps full duplex
100 Mbps half duplex
100 Mbps full duplex
Full-duplex flow control disabled
1000BASE-T –
10 Mbps half duplex
10 Mbps full duplex
100 Mbps half duplex
100 Mbps full duplex
1000 Mbps full duplex
Full-duplex flow control disabled
Symmetric flow control disabled
1000BASE-X –
1000 Mbps full duplex
Full-duplex flow control disabled
Symmetric flow control disabled
Static Trunks
None
LACP (all ports)
Disabled
Spanning Tree
Protocol
Status
Enabled
(Defaults: All parameters based on
IEEE 802.1w)
Fast Forwarding
Disabled
Address Table
Aging Time
300 seconds
Virtual LANs
Default VLAN
1
Class of Service
1-10
PVID
1
Acceptable Frame Type
All
Ingress Filtering
Disabled
GVRP (global)
Disabled
GVRP (port interface)
Disabled
Private VLAN
No Private VLAN
Ingress Port Priority
0
Weighted Round Robin
1:2:4:6
IP Precedence Priority
Disabled
IP DSCP Priority
Disabled
IP Port Priority
Disabled
System Defaults
Function
Multicast Filtering
Parameter
1
Default
IGMP Snooping
Enabled
Act as Querier
Enabled
Broadcast Storm
Protection
Status
Enabled (all ports)
Broadcast Limit Rate
32000 octets/second
System Log
Status
Enabled
Messages Logged
Levels 0-7 (all)
Messages Logged to Flash
Levels 0-3
Rate Limit
Status
Disabled
802.1x
Re-authentication
Disabled
Status
Disabled
Mode
Force-Authorized (all ports)
1-11
1
1-12
Switch Management
Chapter 2: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
This switch provides an embedded HTTP Web agent. Using a Web browser you can
configure the switch and view statistics to monitor network activity. The Web agent
can be accessed by any computer on the network using a standard Web browser
(Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above).
Note: You can also use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to manage the switch over a
serial connection to the console port or via Telnet. For more information on using
the CLI, refer to Chapter 3: “Command Line Interface.”
Prior to accessing the switch from a Web browser, be sure you have first performed
the following tasks:
1.
Configure the switch with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway
using an out-of-band serial connection, BOOTP or DHCP protocol.
(See “Setting the IP Address” on page 2-11.)
2.
Set user names and passwords using an out-of-band serial connection. Access
to the Web agent is controlled by the same user names and passwords as the
onboard configuration program. (See “Configuring the Logon Password” on
page 2-25.)
Note: If you log into the Web interface as guest (Normal Exec level), you can view page
information but only change the guest password. If you log in as admin (Privileged
Exec level), you can apply changes on all pages.
3.
After you enter a user name and password, you will have access to the system
configuration program.
Note: If the path between your management station and this switch does not pass
through any device that uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm, then you can set the
switch port attached to your management station to fast forwarding to improve the
switch’s response time to management commands issued through the Web
interface. (See “Displaying Interface Settings” on page 2-72.)
2-1
2
Configuring the Switch
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the Web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration parameters
and statistics. The default user name and password for the administrator is “admin.”
Home Page
When your Web browser connects with the switch’s Web agent, the home page is
displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side
of the screen and System Information on the right side. The Main Menu links are
used to navigate to other menus, and display configuration parameters and
statistics.
If this is your first time to access the management agent, you should define a new
Administrator user name and password, record them and put them in a safe place.
Select Security from the Main Menu, and then enter a new user name and password
for the Administrator. Note that user names and passwords can consist of up to 8
alphanumeric characters and are case sensitive.
You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third failed
attempt the current connection is terminated.
2-2
2
Panel Display
Configuration Options
Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a configuration
change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the Apply button to confirm
the new setting. The following table summarizes the Web page configuration
buttons.
Button
Action
Apply
Sets specified values for the system.
Revert
Cancels specified values and restores current values prior to pressing
Apply.
Help
Links directly to webhelp.
Panel Display
The Web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports, indicating whether each link
is up or down. Clicking on the image of a port opens the Port Configuration page as
described on page 2-49.
2-3
2
Configuring the Switch
Main Menu
Using the onboard Web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and
control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The following
table briefly describes the selections available from this program.
Menu
Description
System
Page
2-7
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information
2-7
Switch Information
Shows the number of ports, hardware/firmware version numbers,
and power status
2-8
Bridge Extension
Configuration
Shows the configuration for bridge extension commands; enables
GVRP multicast protocol
2-10
IP Configuration
Sets the IP address for management access
2-11
Firmware
Manages code image files
2-14
Configuration
Manages switch configuration files
File
2-14
Log
2-15
2-18
System Logs
Sends error messages to a logging process
Logs
Stores and displays error messages
2-19
Remote Logs
Configures the logging of messages to a remote logging process
2-19
Restarts the switch
2-21
Reset
SNTP
2-18
2-21
Configuration
Configures SNTP client settings, including broadcast mode or a
specified list of servers
2-21
Clock Time Zone
Sets the local time zone for the clock
2-22
SNMP
SNMP
2-23
Configures community strings and related trap functions
2-23
Passwords
Assigns a new password for the logon user name
2-25
Authentication Settings
Configures RADIUS/TACACS+ authentication parameters
2-26
Security
2-25
HTTPS Settings
Configures secure HTTP settings
2-29
SSH Settings
Configures Secure Shell settings
2-31
Port Security
Configures port security
2-32
802.1X
2-4
2-34
Information
Displays general port authentication status information
2-35
Configuration
Enables the changing of general port authentication features
2-36
Port Configuration
Enables the changing of port authentication features
2-37
Statistics
Displays a per-port statistical readout
2-39
2
Main Menu
Menu
Description
ACL
Page
2-40
Configuration
Configures packet filtering based on IP or MAC addresses
2-40
Port Binding
Binds a port to the specified ACL
2-47
Displays port connection status
2-48
Port
2-48
Port Information
Trunk Information
Displays trunk connection status
2-48
Port Configuration
Configures port connection settings
2-49
Trunk Configuration
Configures trunk connection settings
2-51
Trunk Membership
Specifies ports to group into static trunks
2-52
Allows ports to dynamically join trunks
2-53
LACP
Configuration
2-53
Port Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold
2-54
Mirror Port Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring
2-55
Enables or disables the rate limit feature
2-57
Rate Limit
Granularity
Rate Limit Configuration
Port Statistics
2-56
Sets the rate limit for each port
2-57
Lists Ethernet and RMON port statistics
2-58
Displays entries for interface, address or VLAN
2-63
Address Table
Static Addresses
2-63
Dynamic Addresses
Displays or edits static entries in the Address Table
2-64
Address Aging
Sets timeout for dynamically learned entries
2-65
Spanning Tree
2-66
STA
2-66
Information
Displays STA values used for the bridge
2-66
Configuration
Configures global bridge settings for STA
2-66
Port Information
Displays individual port settings for STA
2-72
Trunk Information
Displays individual trunk settings for STA
2-72
Port Configuration
Configures individual port settings for STA
2-76
Trunk Configuration
Configures individual trunk settings for STA
2-76
VLAN
2-78
802.1Q VLAN
2-78
Basic Information
Displays basic information on the VLAN type supported by this
switch
2-81
Current Table
Shows the current port members of each VLAN and whether or not
the port is tagged or untagged
2-81
Static List
Used to create or remove VLAN groups
2-83
Static Table
Modifies the settings for an existing VLAN
2-84
2-5
2
Configuring the Switch
Menu
Description
Page
Static Membership by Port Configures membership type for interfaces, including tagged,
2-86
Port Configuration
Specifies default PVID and VLAN attributes
2-87
Trunk Configuration
Specifies default trunk VID and VLAN attributes
2-87
Displays Private VLAN feature information
2-89
untagged or forbidden
Private VLAN
Information
Configuration
This page is used to create/remove primary or community VLANs
2-90
Association
Each community VLAN must be associated with a primary VLAN
2-91
Port/Trunk Information
Displays the interfaces associated with private VLANs
2-92
Port/Trunk Configuration Sets the private VLAN interface type, and associates the interfaces
with a private VLAN
Priority
Default Port Priority
2-93
2-95
Sets the default priority for each port
2-95
Default Trunk Priority
Sets the default priority for each trunk
2-95
Traffic Classes
Maps IEEE 802.1p priority tags to output queues
2-97
Queue Mode
Sets queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
Queue Scheduling
Configures Weighted Round Robin queueing
2-100
2-99
IP Precedence/DSCP
Priority Status
Globally selects IP Precedence or DSCP Priority, or disables both
2-101
IP Precedence Priority
Sets IP Type of Service priority, mapping the precedence tag to a
class-of-service value
2-102
IP DSCP Priority
Sets IP Differentiated Services Code Point priority, mapping a
DSCP tag to a class-of-service value
2-104
IP Port Priority Status
Globally enables or disables IP Port Priority
2-106
IP Port Priority
Sets TCP/UDP port priority, defining the socket number and
associated class-of-service value
2-106
ACL CoS Mapping
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for packets
matching an ACL rule
2-107
IGMP Configuration
Enables multicast filtering; configures parameters for multicast
query
2-109
Multicast Router
Port Information
Displays the ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast
router/switch for each VLAN ID
2-110
IGMP Snooping
Static Multicast Router Port Assigns ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast router/
Configuration
switch
2-111
IP Multicast Registration
Table
Displays all multicast groups active on this switch, including
multicast IP addresses and VLAN ID
2-112
IGMP Member Port Table
Indicates multicast addresses associated with the selected VLAN
2-113
2-6
2
Basic Configuration
Basic Configuration
Displaying System Information
You can easily identify the system by providing a descriptive name, location and
contact information.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
System Name – Name assigned to the switch system.
Object ID – MIB II object ID for switch’s network management subsystem.
Location – Specifies the system location.
Contact – Administrator responsible for the system.
System Up Time – Length of time the management agent has been up.
Web – Click System, System Information. Specify the system name, location, and
contact information for the system administrator, then click Apply. (This page also
includes a Telnet button that allows you to access the Command Line Interface via
Telnet.)
2-7
2
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Specify the hostname, location and contact information.
Console(config)#hostname SF-2024F
Console(config)#snmp-server location [NONE]
Console(config)#snmp-server contact [NONE]
Console#show system
System description: Intelligent Switching Hub - SF-2024F
System OID string: 1.3.6.1.4.1.4537.56
System information
System Up time: 0 days, 0 hours, 55 minutes, and 10.30 seconds
System Name
: SF-2024F
System Location
: [NONE]
System Contact
: [NONE]
MAC address
: 5A-A5-AA-55-4C-45
Web server
: enable
Web server port
: 80
Web secure server
: enable
Web secure server port : 443
POST result
UART Loopback Test......................PASS
Timer Test..............................PASS
DRAM Test ..............................PASS
I2C Initialization......................PASS
Runtime Image Check ....................PASS
PCI Device Check .......................PASS
Switch Driver Initialization............PASS
Switch Internal Loopback Test...........PASS
------------------- DONE -------------------Console#
3-20
3-49
3-48
3-31
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Use the Switch Information page to display hardware/firmware version numbers for
the main board and management software, as well as the power status of the system.
Command Attributes
Main Board
•
•
•
•
•
Serial Number – The serial number of the switch.
Number of Ports – Number of built-in RJ-45 ports and expansion ports.
Hardware Version – Hardware version of the main board.
Internal Power Status – Displays the status of the internal power supply.
Redundant Power Status* – Displays the status of the redundant power supply.
* CLI only.
Management Software
• Loader Version – Version number of loader code.
• Boot-ROM Version – Version number of Power-On Self-Test (POST) and boot
code.
• Operation Code Version – Version number of runtime code.
• Role – Shows if the switch is stacked or operating stand-alone.
2-8
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
2
Expansion Slot
• Expansion Slot 1/2 – Slots for expansion modules.
Web – Click System, Switch Information.
CLI – Use the following command to display version information.
Console#show version
Unit1
Serial number
Service tag
Hardware version
Module A type
Module B type
Number of ports
Main power status
Redundant power status
Agent(master)
Unit id
Loader version
Boot rom version
Operation code version
Console#
3-33
:ag1005
:
:
:not present
:not present
:24
:up
:not present
:1
:2.1.0.0
:2.0.0.7
:2.0.3.1
2-9
2
Configuring the Switch
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Multicast
Filtering, Traffic Classes, and Virtual LANs. You can access these extensions to
display default settings for the key variables, or to configure the global setting for
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP).
Command Attributes
• Extended Multicast Filtering Services – This switch does not support the filtering
of individual multicast addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration
Protocol).
• Traffic Classes – This switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple traffic
classes. (Refer to “Class of Service Configuration” on page 2-95.)
• Static Entry Individual Port – This switch allows static filtering for unicast and
multicast addresses. (Refer to “Setting Static Addresses” on page 2-63.)
• VLAN Learning – This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), where each
port maintains its own filtering database.
• Configurable PVID Tagging – This switch allows you to override the default Port
VLAN ID (PVID used in frame tags) and egress status (VLAN-Tagged or
Untagged) on each port. (Refer to “VLAN Configuration” on page 2-78.)
• Local VLAN Capable – This switch does not support multiple local bridges
(i.e., multiple Spanning Trees).
• GMRP – GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to
register endstations with multicast groups. This switch does not support GMRP; it
uses the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to provide automatic
multicast filtering.
• GVRP – GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to register necessary VLAN members on
ports across the network. This function should be enabled to permit VLAN groups
which extend beyond the local switch.
2-10
2
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
Web – Click System, Bridge Extension Configuration.
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Enabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
3-108
Setting the IP Address
An IP address may be used for management access to the switch over your
network. By default, the switch uses DHCP to assign IP settings to VLAN 1 on the
switch.
You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an
address from a BOOTP or DHCP server when it is powered on. Valid IP addresses
consist of four decimal numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside
this format will not be accepted by the CLI program.
2-11
2
Configuring the Switch
Command Attributes
• Management VLAN – This is the only VLAN through which you can gain
management access to the switch. By default, all ports on the switch are members
of VLAN 1, so a management station can be connected to any port on the switch.
However, if other VLANs are configured and you change the Management VLAN,
you may lose management access to the switch. In this case, you should reconnect
the management station to a port that is a member of the Management VLAN.
• IP Address Mode – Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual
configuration (Static), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or Boot
Protocol (BOOTP). If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, IP will not function until a reply has
been received from the server. Requests will be broadcast periodically by the
switch for an IP address. (DHCP/BOOTP values can include the IP address,
subnet mask, and default gateway.)
• IP Address – Address of the VLAN interface that is allowed management access.
Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
• Subnet Mask – This mask identifies the host address bits used for routing to
specific subnets.
• Gateway IP Address – IP address of the gateway router between this device and
management stations that exist on other network segments.
• MAC Address – The MAC address of this switch.
Manual Configuration
Web – Click System, IP Configuration. Specify the management interface, IP
address and default gateway, then click Apply.
2-12
2
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
CLI – Specify the management interface, IP address and default gateway.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.2.13.30 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
3-53
3-54
Using DHCP/BOOTP
If your network provides DHCP/BOOTP services, you can configure the switch to be
dynamically configured by these services.
Web – Click System, IP Configuration. Specify the Management VLAN, set the IP
Address Mode to DHCP or BOOTP. Then click Apply to save your changes. The
switch will broadcast a request for IP configuration settings on the next power reset.
Otherwise, you can click Restart DHCP to immediately request a new address.
If you lose your management connection, use a console connection and enter “show
ip interface” to determine the new switch address.
CLI – Specify the management interface, and set the IP Address Mode to DHCP or
BOOTP.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 10.1.0.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: User specified.
Console#
3-66
3-53
3-54
3-55
Renewing DCHP – DHCP may lease addresses to clients indefinitely or for a
specific period of time. If the address expires or the switch is moved to another
network segment, you will lose management access to the switch. In this case, you
can reboot the switch or submit a client request to restart DHCP service.
Web – If the address assigned by DHCP is no longer functioning, you will not be
able to renew the IP settings via the Web interface. You can only restart DHCP
service via the Web interface if the current address is still available.
CLI – Enter the following command to restart DHCP service.
Console#ip dhcp restart
3-54
2-13
2
Configuring the Switch
Managing Firmware
You can upload/download firmware to or from a TFTP server. By saving runtime
code to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be downloaded to the switch to
restore operation. You can also set the switch to use new firmware without
overwriting the previous version.
Command Attributes
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• Destination File Name – The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the
leading letter of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length
for file names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on
the switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: Up to two copies of the system software (i.e., the runtime firmware) can be stored
in the file directory on the switch. The currently designated startup version of this
file cannot be deleted.
Downloading System Software from a Server
When downloading runtime code, you can specify the Destination File Name to
replace the current image, or first download the file using a different name from the
current runtime code file, and then set the new file as the startup file.
Web – Click System, File, Firmware. Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, enter
the file name of the software to download, select a file on the switch to overwrite or
specify a new file name, then click Transfer from Server. To start the new firmware,
reboot the system via the System, Reset menu.
If you download to a new destination file, then select the file from the drop-down box
for the operation code used at startup, and click Apply Changes. To start the new
firmware, reboot the system via the System, Reset menu.
2-14
2
Managing Firmware
CLI – Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, select “config” or “opcode” file type,
then enter the source and destination file names, set the new file to start up the
system, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: LEO_X_PCI_V2039.bix
Destination file name: LEO_X_PCI_V2039.bix
/
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system opcode: LEO_X_PCI_V2039.bix
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
3-14
3-18
3-12
To start the new firmware, enter the “reload” command or reboot the system.
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
You can upload/download configuration settings to/from a TFTP server. The
configuration file can be later downloaded to restore the switch’s settings.
Command Attributes
• TFTP Server IP Address — The IP address of a TFTP server.
• Destination File Name — The configuration file name should not contain slashes
(\ or /), the leading letter of the file name should not be a period (.), and the
maximum length for file names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31
characters for files on the switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited only by
available flash memory space.
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
You can save the configuration file under a new file name and then set it as the
startup file, or you can specify the current startup configuration file as the destination
file to directly replace it. Note that the file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” can be
copied to the TFTP server, but cannot be used as a destination file name on the
switch.
2-15
2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click System, File, Configuration. Enter the IP address of the TFTP server,
enter the name of the file to download, select a file on the switch to overwrite or
specify a new file name, and then click Transfer from Server.
Setting the Startup Configuration File
If you download to a new file name, then select the new file from the drop-down box
for Startup Configuration File, and press Apply Changes. To use the new settings,
reboot the system via the System, Reset menu.
CLI – Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, specify the source file on the server,
set the startup file name on the switch, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 192.168.1.19
Source configuration file name: startup2.0
Startup configuration file name [startup] : startup2.0
/
Console#
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system config: startup2.0
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
2-16
3-14
3-18
2
Managing Firmware
Copying the Running Configuration to a File
You can copy the running configuration to a file.
CLI – If you copy the running configuration to a file, you can set this file as the
startup file at a later time, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy running-config file
destination file name : 051902.cfg
/
Console#
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system config: 051902.cfg
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
3-14
3-18
3-12
2-17
2
Configuring the Switch
System Logs Configuration
The system can be configured to send debug and error messages to a logging
process. This logging process controls the type of error messages that are stored in
switch memory or sent to a remote syslog server.
The system allows you to specify which levels are logged to RAM or flash memory.
Severe error messages that are logged to flash memory are permanently stored in
the switch to assist in troubleshooting network problems. Up to 4096 log entries can
be stored in the flash memory, with the oldest entries being overwritten first when the
available log memory (256 kilobytes) has been exceeded.
The System Logs page allows you to configure and limit system messages that are
logged to flash or RAM memory. The default is for levels 0 to 3 to be logged to flash
and levels 0 to 7 to be logged to RAM.
Command Attributes
• System Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages to
the logging process.
• Flash Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s permanent flash memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 3 will be logged to flash.
• RAM Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s temporary RAM memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 7 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 7 will be logged to RAM.
Note: The Flash Level must be equal to or less than the Ram Level.
Web – Click System, Log, System Logs. Specify System Log Status, then change
the level of messages, and click Apply.
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Logs
CLI – Specify the hostname, location and contact information.
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging: Disable
History logging in FLASH: level errors
Console#
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Logs
The Logs page allows you to scroll through the logged system and event messages.
The switch can store up to 2048 log entries in temporary random access memory
(RAM; i.e., memory flushed on power reset) and up to 4096 entries in permanent
flash memory.
Web – Click System, Log, Logs.
Remote Logs Configuration
The Remote Logs page allows you to configure the logging of messages that are
sent to syslog servers or other management stations. You can also limit the error
messages sent to only those messages of a specified level.
Command Attributes
• Remote Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages
to the remote logging process.
(Default: enabled)
• Logging Facility (16-23) – Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog
messages. There are eight facility types specified by values of 16 to 23. The facility
type is used by the syslog server to dispatch log messages to an appropriate
service. (Default: 23)
• Logging Trap (0-7) – Limits log messages that are sent to the remote syslog
server for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 3 will be sent to the remote server.
(Default: 3)
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Configuring the Switch
• Host IP List – Displays the list of remote server IP addresses that receive the
syslog messages. The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
• Host IP Address – Specifies a new server IP address to add to the Host IP List.
Web – Click System, Log, Remote Logs. To add an IP address to the Host IP List,
type the new IP address in the Host IP Address box, and then click Add IP Host. To
delete an IP address, click the entry in the Host IP List, and then click
Remove Host IP.
CLI – Enter the syslog server host IP address, choose the facility type and set the
logging trap.
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.9
Console(config)#logging facility 23
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging: Enable
REMOTELOG status: enable
REMOTELOG facility type: local use 7
REMOTELOG level type: Warning conditions
REMOTELOG server ip address: 10.1.0.9
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
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2
Reset
Reset
Web – Select System, Reset to reboot the switch. When prompted, confirm that you
want to reset the switch.
CLI – Use the reload command to reboot the system.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
Console#
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Setting the System Clock
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) allows the switch to set its internal clock
based on periodic updates from a time server (SNTP or NTP). Maintaining an
accurate time on the switch enables the system log to record meaningful dates and
times for event entries. You can also manually set the clock using the CLI.
(See “calendar set” on page 45.) If the clock is not set, the switch will only record the
time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
This switch acts as an SNTP client in two modes:
Unicast – The switch periodically sends a request for a time update to a configured
time server. You can configure up to three time server IP addresses. The switch will
attempt to poll each server in the configured sequence.
Broadcast – The switch sets its clock from an time server in the same subnet that
broadcasts time updates. If there is more than one SNTP server, the switch accepts
the first broadcast it detects and ignores broadcasts from other servers.
Configuring SNTP
You can configure the switch to send time synchronization requests to specific time
servers (i.e., client mode), update its clock based on broadcasts from time servers,
or use both methods. When both methods are enabled, the switch will update its
clock using information broadcast from time servers, but will query the specified
server(s) if a broadcast is not received within the polling interval.
Command Attributes
• SNTP Client – Configures the switch to operate as an SNTP unicast client. This
mode requires at least one time server to be specified in the SNTP Server field.
• SNTP Broadcast Client – Configures the switch to operate as an SNTP broadcast
client. This mode requires no other configuration settings; the switch will obtain
time updates from time server broadcasts (using the multicast address 224.0.1.1).
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Configuring the Switch
• SNTP Poll Interval (16-16284) – Sets the interval between sending requests for a
time update from a time server when set to SNTP Client mode.
(Range: 16-16284 seconds; Default: 16 seconds)
• SNTP Server – In unicast mode, sets the IP address for up to three time servers.
The switch attempts to update the time from the first server, if this fails it attempts
an update from the next server in the sequence.
Web – Select SNTP, SNTP Configuration. Modify any of the required parameters,
and click Apply.
CLI – This example configures the switch to operate as an SNTP multicast client.
Console(config)#sntp
Console(config)#sntp
Console(config)#sntp
Console(config)#sntp
Console(config)#
client
poll 16
server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
broadcast client
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Setting the Time Zone
SNTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time,
or GMT) based on the time at the Earth’s prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To
display a time corresponding to your local time, you must indicate the number of
hours and minutes your time zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Current Time – Displays the current time.
Name – Assigns a name to the time zone.
Hours (0-23) – The number of hours before/after UTC.
Minutes (0-59) – The number of minutes before/after UTC.
Direction – Configures the time zone to be before (east) or after (west) UTC.
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Configuring SNMP
Web – Select SNTP, Clock Time Zone. Set the offset for your time zone relative to
the UTC, and click Apply.
CLI - This example shows how to set the time zone for the system clock.
Console(config)#clock timezone Dhaka hours 6 minute 0 after-UTC
Console#
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Configuring SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a communication protocol
designed specifically for managing devices on a network. Equipment commonly
managed with SNMP includes switches, routers and host computers. SNMP is
typically used to configure these devices for proper operation in a network
environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate performance or detect potential
problems.
The switch includes an onboard agent that continuously monitors the status of its
hardware, as well as the traffic passing through its ports, based on the Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP). A network management station can access
this information using software such as HP OpenView. Access rights to the onboard
agent are controlled by community strings. To communicate with the switch, the
management station must first submit a valid community string for authentication.
The options for configuring community strings and related trap functions are
described in the following sections.
Setting Community Access Strings
You may configure up to five community strings authorized for management access.
All community strings used for IP Trap Managers should be listed in this table. For
security reasons, you should consider removing the default strings.
Command Attributes
• SNMP Community Capability – Indicates that the switch supports up to five
community strings.
• Community String – A community string that acts like a password and permits
access to the SNMP protocol.
Default strings: “public” (read-only access), “private” (read/write access)
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
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Configuring the Switch
• Access Mode
- Read-Only – Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are
only able to retrieve MIB objects.
- Read/Write – Specifies read-write access. Authorized management stations are
able to both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMP Configuration. Add new community strings as required,
select the access rights from the Access Mode drop-down list, then click Add.
CLI – The following example adds the string “spiderman” with read/write access.
Console(config)#snmp-server community spiderman rw
Console(config)#
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Specifying Trap Managers
Traps indicating status changes are issued by the switch to specified trap managers.
You must specify trap managers so that key events are reported by this switch to
your management station (using network management platforms such as
HP OpenView). You can specify up to five management stations that will receive
authentication failure messages and other trap messages from the switch.
Command Usage
• You can enable or disable authentication messages via the Web interface.
• You can enable or disable authentication messages, link-up-down messages, or
all notification types via the CLI.
Command Attributes
• Trap Manager Capability – Indicates that the switch supports up to five trap
managers.
• Current – Displays a list of the trap managers currently configured.
• Trap Manager IP Address – IP address of a new management station to receive
trap messages.
• Trap Manager Community String – Specifies a valid community string for the
new trap manager entry. Though you can set this string in the Trap Managers table,
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Security
we recommend that you define this string in the SNMP Protocol table as well.
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
• Trap Version – Indicates if the user is running version 1 or version 2c.
• Enable Authentication Traps – Issues a trap message to specified IP trap
managers whenever authentication of an SNMP request fails.
(The default is enabled.)
• Enable Link-up and Link-down Traps – Issues a trap message whenever a port
link is established or broken.
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Fill in the Trap Manager IP Address box and the
Trap Manager Community String box, mark Enable Authentication Traps if required,
and then click Add.
CLI – This example adds a trap manager and enables authentication traps.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps authentication
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Security
Use the Passwords or RADIUS/TACACS+ menu to restrict management access
based on specified user names and passwords. You can manually configure access
rights on the switch (using the Passwords menu), or you can use a remote access
authentication server based on the RADIUS/TACACS+ protocol. You can also use
IEEE 802.1x port authentication to control access to specific ports (dot1X menu).
Configuring the Logon Password
The guest only has read access for most configuration parameters. However, the
administrator has write access for all parameters governing the onboard agent. You
should therefore assign a new administrator password as soon as possible, and
store it in a safe place. (If for some reason your password is lost, you can delete all
the user-defined configuration files to restore the factory defaults and the default
password as described in “Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port” on A-1.)
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Configuring the Switch
The default guest name is “guest” with the password “guest.” The default
administrator name is “admin” with the password “admin.” Note that user names can
only be assigned via the CLI.
Command Attributes
• User Name* – The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters; maximum number of users: 5)
• Access Level* – Specifies the user level.
(Options: Normal and Privileged)
• Password – Specifies the user password.
(Range: 0-8 characters plain text, case sensitive)
* CLI only.
Web – Click Security, Passwords. Enter the old password, enter the new password,
confirm it by entering it again, then click Apply.
CLI – Assign a user name to access-level 15 (i.e., administrator), then specify the
password.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
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Configuring RADIUS/TACACS Logon Authentication
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local, RADIUS, or TACACS+ authentication methods.
RADIUS and TACACS+ are logon authentication protocols that use software
running on a central server to control access to RADIUS-aware or TACACS+-aware
devices on the network. An authentication server contains a database of multiple
user name/ password pairs with associated privilege levels for each user that
requires management access to a switch.
Like RADIUS, Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+)
is a system that uses a central server to control authentication for access to
switches on the network.
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Security
2
Command Usage
• By default, management access is always checked against the authentication
database stored on the local switch. If a remote authentication server is used, you
must specify the authentication sequence and the corresponding parameters for
the remote authentication protocol.
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS
encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the client to the
server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication control management access via the
console port, Web browser, or Telnet. These access options must be configured
on the authentication server.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assign a specific privilege level for
each user name/password pair. The user name, password, and privilege level
must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify up to three authentication methods for any user to indicate the
authentication sequence. For example, if you select (1) RADIUS, (2) TACACS+
and (3) Local, the user name and password on the RADIUS server is verified first.
If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted using the
TACACS+ server, and finally the local user name and password is checked.
Command Attributes
• Authentication – Select the authentication, or authentication sequence required:
- RADIUS – User authentication is performed using a RADIUS server only.
- TACACS – User authentication is performed using a TACACS+ server only.
- Local – User authentication is performed only locally by the switch.
- [authentication sequence] – User authentication is performed by up to three
authentication methods in the indicated sequence.
RADIUS Settings
• Server IP Address – Address of the RADIUS server.
(Default: 10.1.0.1)
• Server Port Number – Network (UDP) port of the RADIUS server used for
authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 1812)
• Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client.
Do not use blank spaces in the string.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
• Number of Server Transmits (1-30) – Number of times the switch will try to
authenticate logon access via the RADIUS server.
(Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
• Timeout for a reply (1-65535 sec) – The number of seconds the switch waits for
a reply from the RADIUS server before it resends the request.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
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Configuring the Switch
TACACS Settings
• Server IP Address – Address of the TACACS+ server.
(Default: 10.11.12.13)
• Server Port Number (1-65535) – Network (TCP) port of TACACS+ server used
for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 49)
• Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client.
Do not use blank spaces in the string.
(Maximum length: 32 characters)
Note: The local switch user database has to be set up by manually entering user names
and passwords using the CLI.
Web – Click Security, Authentication Settings. Specify the authentication sequence,
server address, port number and other parameters, then click Apply.
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Configuring HTTPS
CLI – Specify all the required parameters to enable login authentication.
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#radius-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console#show radius-server
Server IP address: 192.168.1.25
Communication key with radius server: green
Server port number: 181
Retransmit times: 5
Request timeout: 10
Console(config)#
Console(config)#authentication login tacacs
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 10.20.30.40
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 200
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console#show tacacs-server
Server IP address: 10.20.30.40
Communication key with tacacs server: green
Server port number: 200
Console(config)#
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Configuring HTTPS
You can configure the switch to enable the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTPS) over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an
encrypted connection) to the switch’s Web interface.
Command Usage
• Both the HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure both services to use the same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your
browser: https://device[:port_number].
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x and
Netscape Navigator 4.x.
• The following Web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 4.76 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
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2
Configuring the Switch
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” on page 2-30.
Command Attributes
• HTTPS Status – Allows you to enable/disable the HTTPS server feature on the
switch.
(Default: Enabled)
• Change HTTPS Port Number (1-65535) – Specifies the UDP port number used
for HTTPS/SSL connection to the switch’s Web interface.
(Default: Port 443)
Web – Click Security, HTTPS Settings. Enable HTTPS and specify the port number,
then click Apply.
CLI – This example enables the HTTP secure server and modifies the port number.
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 443
Console(config)#
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Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
When you log onto the Web interface using HTTPS (for secure access), a Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate appears for the switch. By default, the certificate that
Netscape and Internet Explorer display will be associated with a warning that the
site is not recognized as a secure site. This is because the certificate has not been
signed by an approved certification authority. If you want this warning to be replaced
by a message confirming that the connection to the switch is secure, you must
obtain a unique certificate and a private key and password from a recognized
certification authority.
Caution: For maximum security, we recommend you obtain a unique Secure
Sockets Layer certificate at the earliest opportunity. This is because the
default certificate for the switch is not unique to the hardware you have
purchased.
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Configuring SSH
When you have obtained these, place them on your TFTP server, and use the
following command at the switch's command-line interface to replace the default
(unrecognized) certificate with an authorized one:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: <server ip-address>
Source certificate file name: <certificate file name>
Source private file name: <private key file name>
Private password: <password for private key>
3-14
Note: The switch must be reset for the new certificate to be activated. To reset the
switch, type: Console#reload
Configuring SSH
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet.
When the client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch generates a
public-key that the client uses along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
This section describes the commands used to configure the SSH server. However,
note that you also need to install a SSH client on the management station when
using this protocol to configure the switch.
Note: The switch supports only SSH Version 1.5.
Command Attributes
• SSH Server Status – Allows you to enable/disable the SSH server feature on the
switch. (Default: Enabled)
• SSH Authentication Timeout – Specifies the time interval in seconds that the
SSH server waits for a response from a client during an authentication attempt.
(Range: 1 to 120 seconds; Default: 120 seconds)
• SSH Authentication Retries – Specifies the number of authentication attempts
that a client is allowed before authentication fails and the client has to restart the
authentication process. (Range: 1-5 times; Default: 3)
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Security, SSH Settings. Enable SSH and adjust the authentication
parameters as required, then click Apply.
CLI – This example enables SSH, sets the authentication parameters, and displays
the current configuration. It shows that the administrator has made a connection via
SHH, and then disables this connection.
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 100
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retries 5
Console(config)#
Console#show ip ssh
Information of secure shell
SSH status: enable
SSH authentication timeout: 100
SSH authentication retries: 5
Console#show ssh
Information of secure shell
Session Username Version Encrypt method Negotiation state
------- -------- ------- -------------- ----------------0
admin
1.5
cipher-3des
session-started
Console#disconnect ssh 0
Console#
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3-39
Configuring Port Security
Port security is a feature that allows you to configure a switch port with one or more
device MAC addresses that are authorized to access the network through that port.
When port security is enabled on a port, the switch stops learning new MAC
addresses on the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum
number. Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic
or static address table will be accepted as authorized to access the network through
that port.
To use port security, specify a maximum number of addresses to allow on the port
and then let the switch dynamically learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair for
frames received on the port. When the port has reached the maximum number of
MAC addresses the selected port will stop learning. The MAC addresses already in
the address table will be retained and will not age out. Any other device that
attempts to use the port will be prevented from accessing the switch.
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Configuring Port Security
Command Usage
• Note that a secure port has the following restrictions:
- It should not be connected to a network interconnection device.
- It cannot be configured as a member of a static trunk.
- It can be configured as an LACP trunk port, but the switch does not allow the
LACP trunk to be enabled.
• A port that is already configured as an LACP or static trunk port cannot be enabled
as a secure port.
• The default maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a secure port is zero.
You must configure a maximum address count from 1 - 20 for the port to allow
access.
Command Attributes
• Status – Enables or disables port security on the port. (Default: disabled)
• Max MAC Count (0-20) – Sets the maximum number of MAC addresses that can
be learned on a port when port security is enabled. (Range: 0 - 20, Default: 0)
Web – Click Security, Port Security Configuration. In the Status column for a port,
select Enabled, then set the required Max MAC Count and click Apply.
u
CLI – This example selects the target port, then uses the port security
max-mac-count command to set the maximum MAC addresses allowed on that
port. Use the port security command to enable security for the port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security max-mac-count 10
Console(config-if)#port security
Console(config-if)#
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2
Configuring the Switch
Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
Network switches can provide open and easy access to network resources by
simply attaching a client PC. Although this automatic configuration and access is a
desirable feature, it also allows unauthorized personnel to easily intrude and
possibly gain access to sensitive network data.
The IEEE 802.1x (dot1x) standard defines a port-based access control procedure
that prevents unauthorized access to a network by requiring users to first submit
credentials for authentication. Access to all switch ports in a network can be
centrally controlled from a server, which means that authorized users can use the
same credentials for authentication from any point within the network.
This switch uses the
Extensible Authentication
Protocol over LANs (EAPOL)
802.1x
to exchange authentication
client
protocol messages with the
client, and a remote RADIUS
1. Client attempts to access a switch port.
authentication server to verify
2. Switch sends client an identity request.
3. Client sends back identity information.
RADIUS
user identity and access
4. Switch forwards this to authentication server.
server
5. Authentication server challenges client.
rights. When a client (i.e.,
6. Client responds with proper credentials.
7. Authentication server approves access.
Supplicant) connects to a
8. Switch grants client access to this port.
switch port, the switch (i.e.,
Authenticator) responds with an EAPOL identity request. The client provides its
identity (such as a user name) in an EAPOL response to the switch, which it
forwards to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies the client identity and
sends an access challenge back to the client. The EAP packet from the RADIUS
server contains not only the challenge, but the authentication method to be used.
The client can reject the authentication method and request another, depending on
the configuration of the client software and the RADIUS server. The authentication
method can be MD5, TLS (Transport Layer Security), TTLS (Tunneled Transport
Layer Security), or other. The client responds to the appropriate method with its
credentials, such as a password or certificate. The RADIUS server verifies the client
credentials and responds with an accept or reject packet. If authentication is
successful, the switch allows the client to access the network. Otherwise, network
access is denied and the port remains blocked.
The operation of 802.1x on the switch requires the following:
• The switch must have an IP address assigned.
• RADIUS authentication must be enabled on the switch and the IP address of the
RADIUS server specified.
• Each switch port that will be used must be set to dot1x “Auto” mode.
• Each client that needs to be authenticated must have dot1x client software
installed and properly configured.
• The RADIUS server and 802.1x client support EAP. (The switch only supports
EAPOL in order to pass the EAP packets from the server to the client.)
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Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
• The RADIUS server and client also have to support the same EAP authentication
type – MD5, TLS, TTLS, PEAP, etc. (Some clients have native support in Windows,
otherwise the dot1x client must support it.)
Displaying 802.1x Global Settings
The dot1x protocol includes global parameters that control the client authentication
process that runs between the client and the switch (i.e., authenticator), as well as
the client identity lookup process that runs between the switch and authentication
server. These parameters are described in this section.
Command Attributes
• dot1x Re-authentication - Indicates if switch ports require a client to be
re-authenticated after a certain period of time.
• dot1x Max Request Count - The maximum number of times the switch port will
retransmit an EAP request packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session.
• Timeout for Quiet Period - Indicates the time that a switch port waits after the Max
Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client.
• Timeout for Re-authentication Period - Indicates the time period after which a
connected client must be re-authenticated.
• Timeout for TX Period - The time period during an authentication session that the
switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet.
• Supplicant timeout - The time the switch waits for a client response to an EAP
request.
• Server timeout - The time the switch waits for a response from the RADIUS server
to an authentication request.
• Re-authentication Max Count - The number of times the switch will attempt to
re-authenticate a connected client before the port becomes unauthorized.
Web - Click 802.1X, Information.
2-35
2
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example shows the default protocol settings for dot1x. For a description
of the additional entries displayed in the CLI, see “show dot1x” on 3-127.
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
reauth-enabled: no
reauth-period: 3600
quiet-period:
60
tx-period:
30
supp-timeout:
30
server-timeout: 30
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
3-127
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
Status
Mode
Authorized
1
disabled
ForceAuthorized
n/a
2
disabled
ForceAuthorized
yes
3
disabled
ForceAuthorized
n/a
4
disabled
ForceAuthorized
n/a
................................................
23
disabled
ForceAuthorized
n/a
24
disabled
ForceAuthorized
n/a
Console#
Configuring Global dot1x Parameters
The dot1x protocol includes global parameters that control the client authentication
process that runs between the client and the switch (i.e., authenticator), as well as
the client identity lookup process that runs between the switch and authentication
server. The configuration options for parameters are described in this section.
Command Attributes
• dot1X Re-authentication - Sets the client to be re-authenticated after the interval
specified by the Timeout for Re-authentication Period. Re-authentication can be
used to detect if a new device is plugged into a switch port.
(Default: Disabled)
• dot1X Max Request Count (1-10) - Sets the maximum number of times the switch
port will retransmit an EAP request packet to the client before it times out the
authentication session.
(Range: 1-10; Default 2)
• Timeout for Quiet Period (1-65535) - Sets the time that a switch port waits after
the dot1X Max Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a
new client.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
• Timeout for Re-authentication Period (1-65535) - Sets the time period after
which a connected client must be re-authenticated.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 3600 seconds)
• Timeout for TX Period (1-65535) - Sets the time period during an authentication
session that the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 30 seconds)
2-36
2
Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
• authentication dot1x* – Sets the default authentication server type. Note the
specified authentication server type must be enabled and properly configured for
dot1x to function properly. (Options: radius)
* CLI only.
Web - Select 802.1X, Configuration. Enable dot1x globally for the switch, modify any
of the parameters as required, and then click Apply.
.
CLI – This example enables re-authentication and sets all of the global parameters
for dot1x.
Console(config)#dot1x max-req 5
Console(config)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 40
Console(config)#dot1x timeout re-auth 5
Console(config)#dot1x timeout tx-period 40
Console(config)#authentication dot1x default radius
Console(config)#
3-124
3-125
3-126
3-126
3-127
3-123
Configuring Port Authorization Mode
When dot1x is enabled, you need to specify the dot1x authentication mode
configured for each port.
Command Attributes
• Status - Indicates if authentication is enabled or disabled on the port.
• Mode – Sets the authentication mode to one of the following options:
- Auto – Requires a dot1x-aware client to be authorized by the authentication
server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
- Force-Authorized – Forces the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
- Force-Unauthorized – Forces the port to deny access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
• Authorized –
- Yes – Connected client is authorized.
- No – Connected client is not authorized.
- Blank – Displays nothing when dot1x is disabled on a port.
• Supplicant – Indicates the MAC address of a connected client.
• Trunk – Indicates if the port is configured as a trunk port.
2-37
2
Configuring the Switch
Web - Select 802.1X, Port Configuration.
CLI - In Interface mode type dot1x port-control auto, or use the no form to disable.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#
2-38
3-124
2
Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
Displaying 802.1x Statistics
This switch can display statistics for dot1x protocol exchanges for any port.
Statistical Values
Parameter
Description
Rx EXPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been received
by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/Id frames)
that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recently received EAPOL
frame.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recently received EAPOL
frame.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been transmitted by
this Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted by this
Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames) that have
been transmitted by this Authenticator.
2-39
2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Select 802.1X, Statistics. Select the required port and then click Query.
Click Refresh to update the statistics.
CLI – This example displays the dot1x statistics for port 2.
Console#show dot1x statistics
Eth 1/2
Rx: EXPOL
Start
0
Last
EAPOLVer
0
Tx: EAPOL
Total
29
Console#
EAPOL
Logoff
0
EAPOL
Invalid
0
3-127
EAPOL
Total
0
EAP
Resp/Id
0
EAP
EAP
Resp/Oth LenError
0
0
Last
EAPOLSrc
30-30-30-30-30-30
EAP
Req/Id
21
EAP
Req/Oth
0
Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address,
protocol, TCP/UDP port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based on MAC
address or Ethernet type). To filter incoming packets, first create an access list, add
the required rules, and then bind the list to a specific port.
Configuring Access Control Lists
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests incoming packets
against the conditions in an ACL one by one. If a list contains all permit rules, a
packet will be accepted as soon as it passes any of the rules. If a list contains all
deny rules, a packet will be rejected as soon as it fails any one of the rules. In other
words, if no rules match for a permit list, the packet is dropped; and if no rules match
for a deny list, the packet is accepted.
2-40
2
Access Control Lists
Note: An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Command Attributes
ACL Configuration – Setting the Name and Type
• Name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• Type – There are three filtering modes:
- Standard: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on the source IP address.
- Extended: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on source or destination IP
address, as well as protocol type and TCP/UDP port number. If the “TCP”
protocol type is specified, then you can also filter packets based on the TCP
control code.
- MAC: MAC ACL mode that filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
ACL Configuration – Configuring a Standard IP ACL
• Action – An ACL can contain all permit rules or all deny rules.
(Default: Permit rules)
• IP – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses,
“Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a
range of addresses with the Address and SubMask fields.
(Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
• Address – Source IP address.
• SubMask – A subnet mask containing four integers from 0 to 255, each separated
by a period. The mask uses 1 bit to indicate “match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.”
The mask is bitwise ANDed with the specified source IP address, and compared
with the address for each IP packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been
assigned.
2-41
2
Configuring the Switch
ACL Configuration – Configuring an Extended IP ACL
• Action – An ACL can contain all permit rules or all deny rules.
(Default: Permit rules)
• Src/Dst IP – Specifies the source or destination IP address. Use “Any” to include
all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address
field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the Address and SubMask fields.
(Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
• Src/Dst Address – Source or destination IP address.
• Src/Dst SubMask – Subnet mask for source or destination address.
(See SubMask in the preceding section.)
• Service Type – Specifies the service type.
(Options: TOS, Precedence, DSCP; Default: TOS)
• Protocol – Specifies the protocol type to match as TCP, UDP or Others, where
others indicates a specific protocol number (0-255).
(Options: TCP, UDP, Others; Default: TCP)
• Src/Dst Port (0-65535) – TCP or UDP source/destination port number.
(Range: 0-65535)
• Control Code (0-63) – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies
flag bits in byte 14 of the TCP header.
(Range: 0-63)
• Control Bitmask (0-63) – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
The control bitmask is a decimal number (for an equivalent binary bit mask) that is
applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the equivalent binary
bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit. The following bits may
be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use “control-flag 2 2”
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use “control-flag 18 18”
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use “control-flag 2 18”
ACL Configuration – Configuring a MAC ACL
• Action – An ACL can contain all permit rules or all deny rules.
(Default: Permit rules)
• Source/Destination MAC – Source or destination MAC.
• Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC address.
• Source/Destination Bitmask – Binary mask for source or destination MAC
address.
2-42
2
Access Control Lists
• VID – ID of VLAN.
• Ethernet Type – This option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted
packets. (A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060.)
A few of the more common types include 0800 (IP), 0806 (ARP), 8137 (IPX).
Examples
Creating a New ACL
Web –
1. Click ACL, Configuration.
2. Enter an ACL List name in the Name field.
3. Select the list type (Standard, Extend, or MAC).
4. Click Add to open the configuration page for the new list.
CLI – This example creates a standard IP ACL named david.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard david
Console(config-std-acl)#
3-131
2-43
2
Configuring the Switch
Standard IP ACL
Web –
1.
2.
Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP), where Host means a specific
address, and IP means an address range.
3.
4.
If you selected “Host” – enter the host address.
If you selected “IP” – enter the subnet address and mask.
Click Add.
CLI – This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21
and another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
2-44
3-132
2
Access Control Lists
Extended IP ACL
Web –
1. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
2. Select the source IP (Any, Host, or IP), where Host means a specific address,
and IP means an address range.
3. If you selected “Host” – enter the host address.
If you selected “IP” – enter the subnet address and mask.
4. Select the destination IP (Any, Host, or IP).
5. Specify the service type (TOS, Precedence, or DSCP).
6. Select the protocol type (TCP, UDP, or Others), where the range for others
includes protocol numbers 0-255.
7. Enter the TCP/UDP source and destination port numbers. (Range: 0-65535)
8. If you selected TCP protocol type, then you can also specify the control code
and control bitmask. (Range: 0-63)
9. Click Add.
2-45
2
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example adds three rules:
1.
2.
3.
Accept any incoming packets if the source address is in subnet 10.7.1.x. For
example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0) equals
the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
Allow TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
Permit all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP
control code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-std-acl)#
3-133
MAC ACL
Web –
1. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
2. Select the Source MAC address using a dash to separate each two digits
(e.g., 11-22-33-44-55-66). Leave this field blank to specify any host address.
3. Specify the Source Mask using a binary bitmask to indicate an address range.
4. Specify the Destination MAC, and a Destination Mask if required.
5. Specify the VID and the Ethernet Type as a protocol number.
(Range: 1536-65535; Default: all)
6. Click Add.
2-46
2
Access Control Lists
CLI – This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination
address 00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de
ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
3-139
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
After configuring Access Control Lists (ACL), you should bind them to the ports that
need to filter traffic. You can only assign one IP access list and/or one MAC access
list to any port.
Command Attributes
• MAC – Specifies the MAC Access List to enable globally.
• IP – Specifies the IP Access List to enable for a port.
Web – Click Security, ACL, Port Binding. Mark the Enable field for the port you want
to bind to an ACL, select the required ACL from the drop-down list, then click Apply.
CLI – This example assigns an IP and MAC access list to port 1, and an IP access
list to port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#
3-66
3-135
3-140
2-47
2
Configuring the Switch
Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
You can use the Port Information or Trunk Information pages to display the current
connection status, including link state, speed/duplex mode, flow control, and
auto-negotiation.
Command Attributes
• Name – Interface label.
• Type – Indicates the port type (10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX,
1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX, or 1000BASE-GBIC).
• Admin Status – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled.
Web: Displays Enabled or Disabled.
CLI: Displays Port Admin (up or down).
• Oper Status – Indicates if the link is Up or Down.
• Speed Duplex Status – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
•
•
•
•
Flow Control Status – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
Autonegotiation – Shows if auto-negotiation is enabled or disabled.
Trunk Member – Shows if port is a trunk member. (Port Information only.)
Creation – Shows if a trunk is manually configured. (Trunk Information only.)
Web – Click Port, Port Information or Trunk Information. Modify the required
interface settings, and click Apply.
2-48
2
Port Configuration
CLI – This example shows the connection status for Port 13.
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/13
Information of Eth 1/13
Basic information:
Port type: 100tx
Mac address: 00-30-f1-47-58-46
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full,
Broadcast storm: Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 packets/second
Flow control: Disabled
Lacp: Disabled
Current status:
Link status: Down
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type: None
Console#
3-73
Configuring Interface Connections
You can use the Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration page to enable/disable an
interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface capabilities to advertise, or manually
fix the speed, duplex mode, and flow control.
Command Attributes
• Name – Allows you to label an interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Admin – Allows you to manually disable an interface. You can disable an interface
due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the
problem has been resolved. You may also disable an interface for security
reasons.
• Speed/Duplex – Allows manual selection of port speed and duplex mode (i.e., with
auto-negotiation disabled).
• Flow Control – Allows automatic or manual selection of flow control.
• Autonegotiation (Port Capabilities) – Allows auto-negotiation to be enabled/
disabled. When auto-negotiation is enabled, you need to specify the capabilities to
be advertised. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you can force the settings for
speed, mode, and flow control.The following capabilities are supported.
- 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
- Sym (Gigabit only) - When specified, the port transmits and receives pause
frames; when not specified, the port will auto-negotiate to determine the sender
and receiver for asymmetric pause frames.
(The current switch chip only supports symmetric pause frames.)
- FC - Supports flow control
2-49
2
Configuring the Switch
Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for full-duplex
operation. (Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is
actually required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals
may degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.)
(Default: Autonegotiation enabled; Advertised capabilities for;
100BASE-TX – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full;
1000BASE-T – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full;
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH – 1000full)
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To create trunks and select port
members, see “Trunk Configuration” on page 2-51.
Note: Autonegotiation must be disabled before you can configure or force the interface
to use the Speed/Duplex Mode or Flow Control options.
Web – Click Port, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify the required
interface settings, and click Apply.
2-50
2
Trunk Configuration
CLI – Select the interface, and then enter the required settings.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#description RD SW#13
Console(config-if)#shutdown
.
Console(config-if)#no shutdown
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
.
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
3-66
3-71
3-68
3-67
3-70
3-69
Trunk Configuration
You can create multiple links between devices that work as one virtual, aggregate
link. A port trunk offers a dramatic increase in bandwidth for network segments
where bottlenecks exist, as well as providing a fault-tolerant link between two
devices. You can create up to six trunks at a time.
The switch supports both static trunking and dynamic Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP). Static trunks have to be manually configured at both ends of the
link, and the switches must comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
On the other hand, LACP configured ports can automatically negotiate a trunked link
with LACP-configured ports on another device. You can configure any number of
ports on the switch as LACP, as long as they are not already configured as part of a
static trunk. If ports on another device are also configured as LACP, the switch and
the other device will negotiate a trunk link between them. If an LACP trunk consists
of more than four ports, all other ports will be placed in a standby mode. Should one
link in the trunk fail, one of the standby ports will automatically be activated to
replace it.
Command Usage
Besides balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the other ports provide
redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk fails. However, before
making any physical connections between devices, use the Web interface or CLI to
specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a port trunk, take note of
the following points:
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• You can create up to six trunks on the switch, with up to four ports per trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• When configuring static trunks on switches of different types, they must be
compatible with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
• When configuring static trunks, you may not be able to link switches of different
types, depending on the manufacturer's implementation.
2-51
2
Configuring the Switch
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN
assignments, and CoS settings.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
or deleted from a VLAN.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk.
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Command Usage
• When configuring static trunks, you may not be able to link switches of different
types, depending on the manufacturer’s implementation. However, note that the
static trunks on this switch are Cisco EtherChannel compatible.
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure you add a static trunk via the
configuration interface before connecting the ports, and also disconnect the ports
before removing a static trunk via the configuration interface.
Web – Click Port, Trunk Membership. Enter a trunk ID of 1-4 in the Trunk field,
select any of the switch ports from the scroll-down port list, and click Add. After you
have completed adding ports to the member list, click Apply.
2-52
2
Trunk Configuration
CLI – This example creates trunk 1 with ports 11 and 12. Just connect these ports to
two static trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 100tx
Mac address: 22-22-22-22-22-2c
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin status: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full,
Flow control status: Disabled
Current status:
Created by: User
Link status: Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/11, Eth1/12,
Console#
3-66
3-112
3-73
Dynamically Configuring a Trunk
Command Usage
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure you enable LACP before
connecting the ports, and also disconnect the ports before disabling LACP.
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk will
be activated automatically.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned the
next available trunk ID.
• If more than four ports attached to the same target switch have LACP enabled, the
additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will only be enabled if one of
the active links fails.
• All ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex, either
by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
2-53
2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Port, LACP, Configuration. Select any of the switch ports from the
scroll-down port list and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the
member list, click Apply.
CLI – The following example enables LACP for ports 17 and 18. Just connect these
ports to two LACP-enabled trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/17
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/18
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 100tx
Mac address: 22-22-22-22-22-2d
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin status: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full,
Flow control status: Disabled
Current status:
Created by: Lacp
Link status: Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/17, Eth1/18,
Console#
3-112
3-73
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Broadcast storms may occur when a device on your network is malfunctioning, or if
application programs are not well designed or properly configured. If there is too
much broadcast traffic on your network, performance can be severely degraded or
everything can come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from broadcast storms by setting a threshold for
broadcast traffic. Any broadcast octets exceeding the specified threshold will then
be dropped.
2-54
2
Trunk Configuration
Command Usage
• Broadcast Control is enabled by default.
• The default threshold is 32000 octets per second.
• Broadcast control does not effect IP multicast traffic.
• The specified threshold applies to all ports on the switch.
Command Attributes
• Threshold (64-95232000) – Threshold as percentage of port bandwidth.
(Options: 64-95232000 octets per second; Default: 32000 octets per second)
• Broadcast Control Status – Shows whether or not broadcast storm control has
been enabled. (Default: Enabled)
Web – Click Port, Broadcast Control. Set the threshold for all ports, click Apply.
CLI – Specify an interface, and then enter the threshold. This threshold will then be
set for all ports. The following sets broadcast suppression at 1000 octets per
second.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast octet-rate 1000
Console(config-if)#
3-72
Configuring Port Mirroring
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a target port for real-time analysis. You
can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the target port and study the
traffic crossing the source port in a completely unobtrusive manner.
Command Usage
• Monitor port speed should match or exceed source port speed, otherwise traffic
may be dropped from the monitor port.
• All mirror sessions have to share the same destination port.
• When mirroring port traffic, the target port must be included in the same VLAN as
the source port.
Command Attributes
• Mirror Sessions – Displays a list of current mirror sessions.
• Source Unit – The unit whose traffic will be monitored.
2-55
2
Configuring the Switch
• Source Port – The port whose traffic will be monitored.
• Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx (receive),
or Tx (transmit).
• Target Port – The port that will “duplicate” or “mirror” the traffic on the source port.
Web – Click Port, Mirror Port Configuration. Specify the source port, the traffic type
to be mirrored, and the monitor port, then click Add.
CLI – Use the interface command to select the monitor port, then use the port
monitor command to specify the source port. Note that default mirroring under the
CLI is for both received and transmitted packets.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#
3-109
Configuring Rate Limits
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on a port. Rate limiting is configured on ports at the edge of
a network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within the rate limit
is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are
dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
2-56
2
Trunk Configuration
Rate Limit Granularity
Rate limit granularity is an additional feature enabling the network manager greater
control over traffic on the network. The "rate limit granularity" is multiplied by the
"rate limit level" (page 2-57) to set the actual rate limit for an interface. Granularity is
a global setting that applies to Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.
Command Usage
• For Fast Ethernet interfaces, the rate limit granularity is 512 Kbps, 1 Mbps, or
3.3 Mbps.
• For Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, the rate limit granularity is 33.3 Mbps.
Web - Click Port, Rate Limit, Granularity. Choose the required rate limit granularity
for Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, and click Apply.
CLI - This example displays Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet granularity.
Console(config)#rate-limit fastethernet granularity 1000
Console(config)#rate-limit gigabitethernet granularity 33300
Console(config)#exit
Console#show rate-limit
Fast ethernet granularity:
3-115
3-115
3-115
1000
Gigabit ethernet granularity:
Console#
33300
Rate Limit Configuration
Use the rate limit configuration pages to apply rate limiting.
Command Usage
• Input and output rate limit can be enabled or disabled for individual interfaces.
Command Attributes
• Port/Trunk– Displays the port number.
• Rate Limit Status – Enables or disables the rate limit.
• Rate Limit Level (1-30) – Sets the rate limit level. (Range: 1-30; Default: 30)
Note: Actual rate limit = Rate Limit Level * Granularity
2-57
2
Configuring the Switch
Web - Click Port, Rate Limit, Input/Output Port/Trunk Configuration. Enable the Rate
Limit Status for the required interfaces, set the Rate Limit Level, and click Apply.
CLI - This example sets the rate limit level for input and output traffic passing
through port 3 and 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input level 3
Console(config-if)#rate-limit output level 3
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input level 6
Console(config-if)#rate-limit output level 6
Console(config-if)#
3-66
3-114
3-114
Showing Port Statistics
You can display standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces Group and
Ethernet-like MIBs, as well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on the RMON
MIB. Interfaces and Ethernet-like statistics display errors on the traffic passing
through each port. This information can be used to identify potential problems with
the switch (such as a faulty port or unusually heavy loading). RMON statistics
provide access to a broad range of statistics, including a total count of different
frame types and sizes passing through each port. All values displayed have been
accumulated since the last system reboot, and are shown as counts per second.
Statistics are refreshed every 60 seconds by default.
Note: RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software.
2-58
2
Trunk Configuration
Statistical Values
Parameter
Description
Interface Statistics
Received Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
Received Unicast Packets
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
Received Multicast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer.
Received Broadcast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer.
Received Discarded Packets
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a
higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for discarding such a packet
could be to free up buffer space.
Received Unknown Packets
The number of packets received via the interface which were discarded
because of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Received Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them
from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Transmit Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including
framing characters.
Transmit Unicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Transmit Multicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a multicast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Broadcast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a broadcast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Discarded Packets
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted. One
possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer
space.
Transmit Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of
errors.
Etherlike Statistics
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times into
the transmission of a packet.
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an integral
number of octets in length but do not pass the FCS check. This count does
not include frames received with frame-too-long or frame-too-short error.
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to excessive collisions. This counter does not increment when the interface
is operating in full-duplex mode.
2-59
2
Configuring the Switch
Parameter
Description
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Internal MAC Transmit Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to an internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
Multiple Collision Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by more than one collision.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never
asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
SQE Test Errors
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the
PLS sublayer for a particular interface.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed the
maximum permitted frame size.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Internal MAC Receive Errors
A count of frames for which reception on a particular interface fails due to
an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
RMON Statistics
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can be
used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this
multicast address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
2-60
Trunk Configuration
Parameter
2
Description
64 Bytes Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
1519-1536 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted where the number of octets fall within the specified range
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Web – Click Port, Port Statistics. Select the required interface, and then click Query.
You can also use the Refresh button at the bottom of the page to update the screen.
2-61
2
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example shows statistics for port 13.
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/13
3-74
Ethernet 1/13
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 868453, Octets output: 3492122
Unicast input: 7315, Unicast output: 6658
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 17027
Broadcast input: 231, Broadcast output: 7
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 4422579, Packets: 31552
Broadcast pkts: 238, Multi-cast pkts: 17033
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 25568, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 1616
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 1249, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 1449
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 802, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets:
871
Console#
2-62
2
Address Table Settings
Address Table Settings
Switches store the addresses for all known devices. This information is used to route
traffic directly between the inbound and outbound ports. All the addresses learned
by monitoring traffic are stored in the dynamic address table. You can also manually
configure static addresses that are bound to a specific port.
Setting Static Addresses
A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static
addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved. When a static
address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and will not be
written to the address table.
Command Attributes
• Static Address Counts* – The number of manually configured addresses.
• Current Static Address Table – Lists all the static addresses.
• Interface – Port or trunk associated with the device assigned a static address.
• MAC Address – Physical address of a device mapped to this interface.
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
* Web Only.
Web – Click Address Table, Static Addresses. Specify the interface, the MAC
address and VLAN, then click Add Static Address.
2-63
2
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example adds an address to the static address table, but sets it to be
deleted when the switch is reset.
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
3-77
Console(config)#
Displaying the Address Table
The Dynamic Address Table contains the MAC addresses learned by monitoring the
source address for traffic entering the switch. When the destination address for
inbound traffic is found in the database, the packets intended for that address are
forwarded directly to the associated port. Otherwise, the traffic is flooded to all ports.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
MAC Address – Physical address associated with this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
Address Table Sort Key – You can sort the information displayed based on
interface (port or trunk) or MAC address.
• Dynamic Address Counts – The number of addresses dynamically learned.
• Current Dynamic Address Table – Lists all the dynamic addresses.
Web – Click Address Table, Dynamic Addresses. Specify the search type
(i.e., Interface, MAC Address, or VLAN), the method of sorting the displayed
addresses, then click Query.
2-64
2
Address Table Settings
For example, the following screen shows the dynamic addresses for port 7.
CLI – This example also displays the address table entries for port 11.
Console#show mac-address-table ethernet 1/11
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/11 00-10-b5-62-03-74
1 Learned
Console#
3-78
Changing the Aging Time
You can change the aging time for entries in the dynamic address table.
Command Attributes
• Aging Time (10-30000) – The time after which a learned entry is discarded.
(Range: 10-30000 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
Web – Click Address Table, Address Aging. Specify the new aging time, then click
Apply.
CLI – This example sets the aging time to 300 seconds.
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 300
Console(config)#
Console#
Console#show mac-address-table aging-time
Aging time: 300 sec.
Console#
3-79
3-78
2-65
2
Configuring the Switch
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network
loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows
the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch,
bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any
two stations on the network, and provide backup links which automatically take over
when a primary link goes down.
The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these versions:
• STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
STA uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STA-compliant switch,
bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It selects a
root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs the lowest
path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device.
It selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest path
cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. It then selects a port
on the designated bridging device to communicate with each attached LAN or host
device as a designated port. After determining the lowest cost spanning tree, it
enables all root ports and designated ports, and disables all other ports. Network
packets are therefore only forwarded between root ports and designated ports,
eliminating any possible network loops.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge
does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge
assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid
network topology.
RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy STP. RSTP
achieves must faster reconfiguration (i.e., around one tenth of the time required by
STP) by reducing the number of state changes before active ports start learning,
predefining an alternate route that can be used when a node or port fails, and
retaining the forwarding database for ports insensitive to changes in the tree
structure when reconfiguration occurs.
Displaying Global Settings
Command Attributes
• Spanning Tree State – Shows if the switch is enabled to participate in an
STA-compliant network.
• Bridge ID – A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority and
MAC address (where the address is taken from the switch system).
2-66
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
2
• Max Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except
for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at regular intervals.
Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a
new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the network.
(References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes both ports
and trunks.)
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Designated Root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
• Root Port – The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This
switch communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no root port,
then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the Spanning Tree
network.
• Root Path Cost – The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root device.
• Root Hello Time* – Interval (in seconds) at which this device transmits a
configuration message.
• Root Maximum Age* – The maximum time (in seconds) this device can wait
without receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All
device ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages
at regular intervals. If the root port ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message), a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network. (References to “ports” in this section means “interfaces,”
which includes both ports and trunks.)
• Root Forward Delay* – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait
before changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is
required because every device must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for
conflicting information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise,
temporary data loops might result.
• Root Hold Time* – The interval (in seconds) during which no more than two bridge
configuration protocol data units shall be transmitted by this node.
• Configuration Changes – The number of times the Spanning Tree has been
reconfigured.
• Last Topology Change – Time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
* CLI only.
2-67
2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Information.
CLI – This command displays global STA settings, followed by settings for each
port.
Console#show spanning-tree
Bridge-group information
-------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree protocol :IEEE Std 8021D
Spanning tree enable/disable :enable
Priority :32768
Hello Time (sec.) :2
Max Age (sec.) :20
Forward Delay (sec.) :15
Designated Root :32768.0030f147583a
Current root port :0
Current root cost :0
Number of topology changes :1
Last topology changes time (sec.):26696
Hold times (sec.) :1
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
-------------------------------------------------------------Admin status : enable
STA state : broken
Path cost : 18
Priority : 128
Designated cost : 0
Designated port : 128.1
Designated root : 32768.0030f147583a
Designated bridge : 32768.0030f147583a
Fast forwarding : disable
Forward transitions : 0
...
3-90
Note: The current root port and current root cost display as zero when this device is not
connected to the network.
2-68
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
2
Configuring Global Settings
Global settings apply to the entire switch.
Command Usage
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the
incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol
messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
• STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (i.e., STP BPDU) after a port’s
migration delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D
bridge and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
• RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP
BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay timer
and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
Command Attributes
Basic Configuration of Global Settings
• Spanning Tree State – Enables/disables STA on this switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Spanning Tree Type – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D; i.e., when this option is selected,
the switch will use RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode)
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w) RSTP is the default.
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root device.
- Default: 32768
- Range: 0-61440, in steps of 4096
- Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440
2-69
2
Configuring the Switch
Root Device Configuration
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which this device transmits a configuration
message.
- Default: 2
- Minimum: 1
- Maximum: The lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1]
• Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is
a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the
network. (References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes
both ports and trunks.)
- Default: 20
- Minimum: The higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)]
- Maximum: The lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)]
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
- Default: 15
- Minimum: The higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1]
- Maximum: 30
Advanced Configuration Settings for RSTP
• Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
- Long: Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
- Short: Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
• Transmission Limit – The maximum transmission rate for BPDUs is specified by
setting the minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive protocol
messages. (Range: 1-10; Default: 3)
2-70
2
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Configuration. Modify the required attributes, click
Apply.
CLI – This example enables Spanning Tree Protocol, and then sets the indicated
attributes.
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#
mode stp
priority 40000
hello-time 5
max-age 38
forward-time 20
pathcost method long
transmission-limit 5
3-80
3-81
3-84
3-83
3-83
3-82
3-84
3-85
2-71
2
Configuring the Switch
Displaying Interface Settings
The STP Port Information and STP Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the Spanning Tree.
Command Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA Status – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
- Discarding – Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
- Learning – Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
- Forwarding – Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
- A port on a network segment with no other STA compliant bridging device is
always forwarding.
- If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no other
STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID forwards
packets and the other is discarding.
- All ports are discarding when the switch is booted, then some of them change
state to learning, and then to forwarding.
• Forward Transitions – The number of times this port has changed from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state.
• Designated Cost – The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the
current Spanning Tree configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
• Designated Bridge – The bridge priority and MAC address of the device through
which this port must communicate to reach the root of the Spanning Tree.
• Designated Port – The port priority and number of the port on the designated
bridging device through which this switch must communicate with the root of the
Spanning Tree.
• Oper Link Type – The operational point-to-point status of the LAN segment
attached to this interface. This parameter is determined by manual configuration or
by auto-detection, as described for Admin Link Type in STA Port Configuration on
page 2-76.
• Oper Edge Port – This parameter is initialized to the setting for Admin Edge Port
in STA Port Configuration on page 2-76 (i.e., true or false), but will be set to false
if a BPDU is received, indicating that another bridge is attached to this port.
• Port Role – Roles are assigned according to whether the port is part of the active
spanning tree topology:
- Root: The port is connecting the bridge to the root bridge.
- Designated: The port is connecting a LAN through the bridge to the root bridge.
- Alternate or Backup: A port that may provide connectivity if other bridges,
bridge ports, or LANs fail or are removed.
2-72
2
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
- Disabled: The role is set to disabled if a port has no role within the spanning
tree.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Information only)
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Admin status – Shows if STA has been enabled on this interface.
• Path Cost – This parameter is used by the STA to determine the best path
between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to
faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. (Path cost
takes precedence over port priority.)
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Algorithm. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch is the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Algorithm is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Designated root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
• Fast forwarding – This field provides the same as Admin Edge port, and is only
included for backward compatibility with earlier products.
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
- Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
- Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
- Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media.
• Admin Edge Port – You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN
segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes
cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for devices
such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding database to reduce
the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address tables during
reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to initiate reconfiguration
when the interface changes state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout
problems. However, remember that Edge Port should only be enabled for ports
connected to an end-node device.
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2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Information or Trunk Information.
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2
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
CLI – This example shows general STA configuration and attributes for all ports.
Console#show spanning-tree ethernet 1/5
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:RSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Designated Root
:32768.00A0CA445566
Current root port
:0
Current root cost
:0
Number of topology changes
:2
Last topology changes time (sec.):2209
Transmission limit
:5
Path Cost Method
:long
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: disable
State
: discarding
Path cost
: 100000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 0
Designated port
: 128.1
Designated root
: 32768.00A0CA445566
Designated bridge
: 32768.00A0CA445566
Forward transitions : 0
Fast forwarding
: disable
Admin edge port
: disable
Oper edge port
: disable
Admin Link type
: auto
Oper Link type
: point-to-point
---More---
3-90
2-75
2
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Interface Settings
You can configure RSTP attributes for specific interfaces, including port priority, path
cost, link type, and edge port. You may use a different priority or path cost for ports
of same media type to indicate the preferred path, link type to indicate a
point-to-point connection or shared-media connection, and edge port to indicate if
the attached device can support fast forwarding. (References to “ports” in this
section means “interfaces,” which includes both ports and trunks.)
Command Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• Port – Ports only; i.e., no trunks or trunk port members.
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the spanning tree:
- Discarding – Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
- Learning – Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
- Forwarding – Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. (STA Port Configuration only)
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• Priority (0-240) – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree
Protocol. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the
highest priority (i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the
Spanning Tree. This makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the
Spanning Tree Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is
assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
- Default: 128
- Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
• Path Cost (1-200000000) – This parameter is used by the STP to determine the
best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media.
(Path cost takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost
Method is set to short (page 3-84), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
- Range –
- Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
- Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
- Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
- Default –
- Ethernet – half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
- Fast Ethernet – half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
- Gigabit Ethernet – full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
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2
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
- Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
- Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
- Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media.
• Admin Edge Port (Fast Forwarding) – You can enable this option if an interface
is attached to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node.
Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to
the spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker
convergence for devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current
forwarding database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild
address tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port should
only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device. (Default: Disabled)
• Migration – If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration
or Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the Protocol
Migration button to manually re-check the appropriate BPDU format (RSTP or
STP-compatible) to send on the selected interfaces. (Default: Disabled)
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify
the required attributes, then click Apply.
CLI – This example sets STA attributes for port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree portfast
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3-86
3-87
2-77
2
Configuring the Switch
VLAN Configuration
Overview
In large networks, routers are used to isolate broadcast traffic for each subnet into
separate domains. This switch provides a similar service at Layer 2 by using VLANs
to organize any group of network nodes into separate broadcast domains. VLANs
confine broadcast traffic to the originating group, and can eliminate broadcast
storms in large networks. This also provides a more secure and cleaner network
environment.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the
network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a
new VLAN without having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily
organized to reflect departmental groups (such as Marketing or R&D), usage groups
(such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia applications such as
videoconferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and allow
you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses or IP subnets.
VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security since traffic must pass
through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a different VLAN.
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
• Up to 255 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
• Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit tagging
and GVRP protocol
• Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
• End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
• Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
• Priority tagging
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to the VLAN
group(s) in which it will participate. By default all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 as
untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port if you want it to carry traffic for one or
more VLANs, and any intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of
the connection supports VLANs. Then assign ports on the other VLAN-aware
network devices along the path that will carry this traffic to the same VLAN(s), either
manually or dynamically using GVRP. However, if you want a port on this switch to
participate in one or more VLANs, but none of the intermediate network devices nor
the host at the other end of the connection supports VLANs, then you should add
this port to the VLAN as an untagged port.
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2
VLAN Configuration
Note: VLAN-tagged frames can pass through VLAN-aware or VLAN-unaware network
interconnection devices, but the VLAN tags should be stripped off before passing
it on to any end-node host that does not support VLAN tagging.
VLAN Classification – When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in
one of two ways. If the frame is untagged, the switch assigns the frame to an
associated VLAN (based on the default VLAN ID of the receiving port). But if the
frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast
domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping – Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly
shared network resources among different VLAN groups, such as file servers or
printers. Note that if you implement VLANs which do not overlap, but still need to
communicate, you can connect them by enabled routing on this switch.
Untagged VLANs – Untagged (or static) VLANs are typically used to reduce
broadcast traffic and to increase security. A group of network users assigned to a
VLAN form a broadcast domain that is separate from other VLANs configured on the
switch. Packets are forwarded only between ports that are designated for the same
VLAN. Untagged VLANs can be used to manually isolate user groups or subnets.
However, you should use IEEE 802.3 tagged VLANs with GVRP whenever possible
to fully automate VLAN registration.
Automatic VLAN Registration – GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol)
defines a system whereby the switch can automatically learn the VLANs to which
each end station should be assigned. If an end station (or its network adapter)
supports the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN protocol, it can be configured to broadcast a
message to your network indicating the VLAN groups it wants to join. When this
switch receives these messages, it will automatically place the receiving port in the
specified VLANs, and then forward the message to all other ports. When the
message arrives at another switch that supports GVRP, it will also place the
receiving port in the specified VLANs, and pass the message on to all other ports.
VLAN requirements are propagated in this way throughout the network. This allows
GVRP-compliant devices to be automatically configured for VLAN groups based
solely on endstation requests.
To implement GVRP in a network, first add the host devices to the required VLANs
(using the operating system or other application software), so that these VLANs can
be propagated onto the network. For both the edge switches attached directly to
these hosts, and core switches in the network, enable GVRP on the links between
these devices. You should also determine security boundaries in the network and
disable GVRP on ports to prevent advertisements being propagated, or forbid ports
from joining restricted VLANs.
Note: If you have host devices that do not support GVRP, you should configure static or
untagged VLANs for the switch ports connected to these devices (as described in
“Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)” on page 2-84). But you can still
enable GVRP on these edge switches, as well as on the core switches in the
network.
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2
Configuring the Switch
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for devices attached directly to a
single switch, you can assign ports to the same untagged VLAN. However, to
participate in a VLAN group that crosses several switches, you should create a
VLAN for that group and enable tagging on all ports.
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the
switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. When forwarding
a frame from this switch along a path that contains any VLAN-aware devices, the
switch should include VLAN tags. When forwarding a frame from this switch along a
path that does not contain any VLAN-aware devices (including the destination host),
the switch must first strip off the VLAN tag before forwarding the frame. When the
switch receives a tagged frame, it will pass this frame onto the VLAN(s) indicated by
the frame tag. However, when this switch receives an untagged frame from a
VLAN-unaware device, it first decides where to forward the frame, and then inserts a
VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port’s default VID.
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to exchange
VLAN information in order to register VLAN members on ports across the network.
VLANs are dynamically configured based on join messages issued by host devices
and propagated throughout the network. GVRP must be enabled to permit automatic
VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which extend beyond the local switch.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Click System, Bridge Extension Configuration. Enable or disable GVRP, click
Apply.
CLI – This example enables GVRP for the switch.
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
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3-108
2
VLAN Configuration
Displaying Basic VLAN Information
The VLAN Basic Information page displays basic information on the VLAN type
supported by the switch.
Command Attributes
• VLAN Version Number* – The VLAN version used by this switch as specified in
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
• Maximum VLAN ID – Maximum VLAN ID recognized by this switch.
• Maximum Number of Supported VLANs – Maximum number of VLANs that can
be configured on this switch.
* Web only.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Basic Information.
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Enabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
3-108
Displaying Current VLANs
The VLAN Current Table shows the current port members of each VLAN and
whether or not the port supports VLAN tagging. Ports assigned to a large VLAN
group that crosses several switches should use VLAN tagging. However, if you just
want to create a small port-based VLAN for one or two switches, you can disable
tagging.
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2
Configuring the Switch
Command Attributes (Web)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
• Up Time at Creation – Time this VLAN was created (i.e., System Up Time).
• Status – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic GVRP: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Permanent: Added as a static entry.
• Egress Ports – Shows all the VLAN port members.
• Untagged Ports – Shows the untagged VLAN port members.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Current Table. Select any ID from the scroll-down
list.
Command Attributes (CLI)
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• Type – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Static: Added as a static entry.
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
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VLAN Configuration
• Status – Shows if this VLAN is enabled or disabled.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Ports / Channel groups – Shows the VLAN interface members.
CLI – Current VLAN information can be displayed with the following command.
Console#show vlan id 1
VLAN Type
Name
1 Static DefaultVlan
3-99
Status
Ports/Channel groups
Suspended Eth1/ 1 Eth1/ 2 Eth1/ 3
Eth1/ 5 Eth1/ 6 Eth1/ 7
Eth1/ 9 Eth1/10 Eth1/11
Eth1/13 Eth1/14 Eth1/15
Eth1/17 Eth1/18 Eth1/19
Eth1/21 Eth1/22 Eth1/23
Eth1/ 4
Eth1/ 8
Eth1/12
Eth1/16
Eth1/20
Eth1/24
Console#
Creating VLANs
Use the VLAN Static List to create or remove VLAN groups. To propagate
information about VLAN groups used on this switch to external network devices, you
must specify a VLAN ID for each of these groups.
Command Attributes
• Current – Lists all the current VLAN groups created for this system. Up to 255
VLAN groups can be defined. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN.
• New – Allows you to specify the name and numeric identifier for a new VLAN
group. (The VLAN name is only used for management on this system; it is not
added to the VLAN tag.)
• VLAN ID (1-4094) – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status (Web) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• State (CLI) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Add – Adds a new VLAN group to the current list.
• Remove – Removes a VLAN group from the current list. If any port is assigned to
this group as untagged, it will be reassigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
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2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static List. To create a new VLAN, enter the
VLAN ID and VLAN name, mark the Enable checkbox to activate the VLAN, and
then click Add.
CLI – This example creates a new VLAN.
Console(config)#vlan database
3-92
Console(config)#vlan 2 name R&D media ethernet state active
3-93
Console(config)#end
Console#show vlan
3-99
VLAN Type
Name
Status
Ports/Channel groups
---- ------- ---------------- --------- --------------------------------------1 Static
DefaultVlan
Active Eth1/ 1 Eth1/ 2 Eth1/ 3 Eth1/ 4 Eth1/ 5
Eth1/ 6 Eth1/ 7 Eth1/ 8 Eth1/ 9 Eth1/10
Eth1/11 Eth1/12 Eth1/13 Eth1/14 Eth1/15
Eth1/16 Eth1/17 Eth1/18 Eth1/19 Eth1/20
Eth1/21 Eth1/22 Eth1/23 Eth1/24 Eth1/25
Eth1/26
2 Static
R&D
Active
Console(config-vlan)
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Use the VLAN Static Table to configure port members for the selected VLAN index.
Assign ports as tagged if they are connected to 802.1Q VLAN compliant devices, or
untagged they are not connected to any VLAN-aware devices. Or configure a port
as forbidden to prevent the switch from automatically adding it to a VLAN via the
GVRP protocol.
Notes: 1. You can also use the VLAN Static Membership by Port page to configure
VLAN groups based on the port index. (See “Adding Static Members to
VLANs (Port Index)” on page 2-86.) However, note that this configuration
page can only add ports to a VLAN as tagged members.
2. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN containing all ports on the switch, and
can only be modified by first reassigning the default port VLAN ID as
described under “Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces” on page 2-87.
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VLAN Configuration
2
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Port – Port identifier.
• Trunk – Trunk identifier.
• Membership Type – Select VLAN membership for each interface by marking the
appropriate radio button for a port or trunk:
- Tagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the port
will be tagged, that is, carry a tag and therefore carry VLAN or CoS information.
- Untagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the
port will be untagged, that is, not carry a tag and therefore not carry VLAN or
CoS information. Note that an interface must be assigned to at least one group
as an untagged port.
- Forbidden: Interface is forbidden from automatically joining the VLAN via
GVRP. For more information, see “Automatic VLAN Registration” on page 2-79.
- None: Interface is not a member of the VLAN. Packets associated with this
VLAN will not be transmitted by the interface.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Table. Select a VLAN ID from the
scroll-down list. Modify the VLAN name and status if required. Select the
membership type by marking the appropriate radio button in the list of ports or
trunks. Click Apply.
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2
Configuring the Switch
CLI – The following example adds tagged and untagged ports to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 untagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
3-97
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Use the VLAN Static Membership by Port menu to assign VLAN groups to the
selected interface as a tagged member.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
• Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is a tagged member.
• Non-Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is not a tagged member.
Web – Open VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Membership by Port. Select an interface
from the scroll-down box (Port or Trunk). Click Query to display membership
information for the interface. Select a VLAN ID, and then click Add to add the
interface as a tagged member, or click Remove to remove the interface. After
configuring VLAN membership for each interface, click Apply.
CLI – This example adds Port 3 to VLAN 1 as a tagged port, and removes Port 3
from VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1 tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan remove 2
2-86
3-97
VLAN Configuration
2
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
You can configure VLAN behavior for specific interfaces, including the default VLAN
identifier (PVID), accepted frame types, ingress filtering, GVRP status, and GARP
timers.
Command Usage
• GVRP – GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to automatically register VLAN members on
interfaces across the network.
• GARP – Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP to register or
deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The default
values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access method or data
rate. These values should not be changed unless you are experiencing difficulties
with GVRP registration/deregistration.
Command Attributes
• PVID – VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on the interface.
(Default: 1)
- If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this VLAN,
the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged member.
For all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an untagged
member before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• Acceptable Frame Type – Sets the interface to accept all frame types, including
tagged or untagged frames, or only tagged frames. When set to receive all frame
types, any received frames that are untagged are assigned to the default VLAN.
(Option: All, Tagged; Default: All)
• Ingress Filtering – If ingress filtering is enabled, incoming frames for VLANs
which do not include this ingress port in their member set will be discarded at the
ingress port. (Default: Disabled)
- Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
- If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
- If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
- Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP
or STP. However, it does affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
• GVRP Status – Enables/disables GVRP for the interface. GVRP must be globally
enabled for the switch before this setting can take effect. (See “Displaying Bridge
Extension Capabilities” on page 2-10.) When disabled, any GVRP packets
received on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations will be
propagated from other ports. (Default: Disabled)
• GARP Join Timer* – The interval between transmitting requests/queries to
participate in a VLAN group. (Range: 20-1000 centiseconds; Default: 20)
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2
Configuring the Switch
• GARP Leave Timer* – The interval a port waits before leaving a VLAN group. This
time should be set to more than twice the join time. This ensures that after a Leave
or LeaveAll message has been issued, the applicants can rejoin before the port
actually leaves the group. (Range: 60-3000 centiseconds; Default: 60)
• GARP LeaveAll Timer* – The interval between sending out a LeaveAll query
message for VLAN group participants and the port leaving the group. This interval
should be considerably larger than the Leave Time to minimize the amount of traffic
generated by nodes rejoining the group.
(Range: 500-18000 centiseconds; Default: 1000)
* Timer settings must follow this rule: 2 x (join timer) < leave timer < leaveAll timer
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
• Mode – Indicates VLAN membership mode for an interface. (Default: 1Q Trunk)
- 1Q Trunk – Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify the
source VLAN. However, note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN
(i.e., associated with the PVID) are sent untagged.
- Hybrid – Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged or
untagged frames.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Fill in
the required settings for each interface, click Apply.
CLI – This example sets port 1 to accept only tagged frames, assigns PVID 3 as the
native VLAN ID, enables GVRP, sets the GARP timers, and then sets the switchport
mode to hybrid.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 20
Console(config-if)#garp timer leave 90
Console(config-if)#garp timer leaveall 2000
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
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3-95
3-96
3-97
3-105
3-106
3-106
3-106
3-95
2
Private VLANs
Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. This switch supports three types of private VLAN ports:
promiscuous, isolated, and community ports. A promiscuous port can communicate
with all interfaces within a private VLAN. An isolated port can only communicate with
promiscuous ports within its own VLAN. Community ports can only communicate
with other ports in their own community VLAN, and with their designated
promiscuous ports. (Note that private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist
simultaneously within the same switch.)
Each private VLAN consists of three components: a primary VLAN, an isolated
VLAN, and one or more community VLANs. A primary VLAN allows traffic to pass
between promiscuous ports, and between promiscuous ports and isolated or
community ports subordinate to the primary VLAN. An isolated VLAN allows traffic to
pass only between isolated ports and promiscuous ports, all other traffic between
ports in the VLAN is blocked. A community VLAN conveys traffic between
community ports, and from the community ports to their associated promiscuous
ports. Multiple primary VLANs can be configured on this switch, and multiple
community VLANs can be configured within each primary VLAN. However, only one
isolated VLAN can be associated with each primary VLAN.
To configure private VLANs, follow these steps:
1.
Use the Private VLAN Configuration menu (page 2-90) to designate one or
more isolated and community VLANs, and the primary VLAN that will channel
traffic outside of the VLAN groups.
2.
Use the Private VLAN Association menu (page 2-91) to map the secondary
(i.e., isolated and community) VLAN(s) to the primary VLAN.
3.
Use the Private VLAN Port Configuration menu (page 2-93) to set the port type
to promiscuous (i.e., having access to all ports in the primary VLAN), isolated
(i.e., having access only to promiscuous ports in its own VLAN), or host
(i.e., having access restricted to community VLAN members, and channeling all
other traffic through a promiscuous port). Then assign any promiscuous ports to
a primary VLAN and any host ports a secondary VLAN (i.e., community VLAN).
Displaying Current Private VLANs
The Private VLAN Information page displays information on the private VLANs
configured on the switch, including primary and community VLANs, and their
associated interfaces.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• Primary VLAN – The primary VLAN with which the selected VLAN is associated.
(Note that this displays as VLAN 0 if the selected VLAN is itself a primary VLAN.)
• Ports List – The list of ports (and assigned type) in the selected private VLAN.
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2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Information. Select the desired port from the
VLAN ID drop-down menu.
CLI – This example shows the switch configured with primary VLAN 5 and
secondary VLAN 6. Port 3 has been configured as a promiscuous port and mapped
to VLAN 5, while ports 4 and 5 have been configured as a host ports and are
associated with VLAN 6. This means that traffic for port 4 and 5 can only pass
through port 3.
Console#show vlan private-vlan
Primary
Secondary
Type
-------- ----------- ---------5
primary
5
6
community
Console#
3-104
Interfaces
-------------------------------------Eth1/ 3
Eth1/ 4 Eth1/ 5
Configuring Private VLANs
The Private VLAN Configuration page is used to create/remove primary or
community VLANs.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• Type – There are three types of VLANs within a private VLAN:
- Primary VLANs - Conveys traffic between promiscuous ports, and to
community ports within secondary VLANs.
- Isolated VLANs - Conveys traffic only between the VLAN’s isolated ports and
promiscuous ports. Traffic between isolated ports within the VLAN is blocked.
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2
Private VLANs
- Community VLANs - Conveys traffic between community ports, and to their
associated promiscuous ports.
• Current – Displays a list of the currently configured VLANs.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Configuration. Enter the VLAN ID number, select
Primary, Isolated, or Community type, then click Add. To remove a private VLAN
from the switch, highlight an entry in the Current list box and then click Remove.
Note that all member ports must be removed from the VLAN before it can be
deleted.
CLI – This example configures VLAN 5 as a primary VLAN, and VLAN 6 and 7 as
community VLANs.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 5 primary
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 6 community
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 7 community
Console(config-vlan)#
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3-101
Associating VLANs
Each community or isolated VLAN must be associated with a primary VLAN.
Command Attributes
• Primary VLAN ID – ID of primary VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• Association – Community or isolated VLANs associated with the selected primary
VLAN.
• Non-Association – Community or isolated VLANs not associated with the
selected primary VLAN.
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2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Association. Select the required primary VLAN
from the scroll-down box, highlight one or more VLANs in the Non-Association list
box, and click Add to associate these entries with the selected primary VLAN.
(An isolated or community VLAN can only be associated with one primary VLAN.)
CLI – This example associates community VLANs 6 and 7 with primary VLAN 5.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 5 association 6
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 5 association 7
Console(config)#
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3-101
Displaying Private VLAN Interface Information
Use the Port Information and Trunk Information menus to display the interfaces
associated with private VLANs.
Command Attributes
• Port/Trunk – The switch interface.
• PVLAN Port Type – Displays private VLAN port types.
- Normal – The port is not configured in a private VLAN.
- Host – The port is a community port and can only communicate with other ports
in its own community VLAN, and with the designated promiscuous port(s).
- Promiscuous – A promiscuous port can communicate with all the interfaces
within a private VLAN.
• Primary VLAN – Conveys traffic between promiscuous ports, and between
promiscuous ports and community ports within the associated secondary VLANs.
• Community VLAN – A community VLAN conveys traffic between community
ports, and from community ports to their designated promiscuous ports.
• Isolated VLAN – Conveys traffic only between the VLAN’s isolated ports and
promiscuous ports. Traffic between isolated ports within the VLAN is blocked.
• Trunk – The trunk identifier. (Port Information only)
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2
Private VLANs
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Port Information or Trunk Information.
CLI – This example shows the switch configured with primary VLAN 5 and
secondary VLAN 6. Port 3 has been configured as a promiscuous port and mapped
to VLAN 5, while ports 4 and 5 have been configured as a host ports and associated
with VLAN 6. This means that traffic for port 4 and 5 can only pass through port 3.
Console#show vlan private-vlan
Primary
Secondary
Type
-------- ----------- ---------5
primary
5
6
community
Console#
3-104
Interfaces
-------------------------------------Eth1/ 3
Eth1/ 4 Eth1/ 5
Configuring Private VLAN Interfaces
Use the Private VLAN Port Configuration and Private VLAN Trunk Configuration
menus to set the private VLAN interface type, and associate the interfaces with a
private VLAN.
Command Attributes
• Port/Trunk – The switch interface.
• PVLAN Port Type – Sets the private VLAN port types.
- Normal – The port is not configured into a private VLAN.
- Host – The port is a community port and can only communicate with other ports
in its own community VLAN, and with the designated promiscuous port(s).
- Promiscuous – A promiscuous port can communicate with all interfaces within
a private VLAN.
• Primary VLAN – Conveys traffic between promiscuous ports, and between
promiscuous ports and community ports within the associated secondary VLANs.
If PVLAN type is “Promiscuous,” then specify the associated primary VLAN.
For “Host” type, the Primary VLAN displayed is the one to which the selected
secondary VLAN has been associated.
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2
Configuring the Switch
• Secondary VLAN – On this switch, all secondary VLANs are community VLANs.
A community VLAN conveys traffic between community ports, and from community
ports to their designated promiscuous ports. If PVLAN Port Type is “Host,” then
specify the associated secondary VLAN.
• Isolated VLAN – Conveys traffic only between the VLAN’s isolated ports and
promiscuous ports. Traffic between isolated ports within the VLAN is blocked.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Set the
PVLAN Port Type for each port that will join a private VLAN. For promiscuous ports,
set the associated primary VLAN. For host ports, set the associated secondary
VLAN. For isolated ports, set the associated isolated VLAN. After all the ports have
been configured, click Apply.
CLI – This example shows the switch configured with primary VLAN 5 and
secondary VLAN 6. Port 3 has been configured as a promiscuous port and mapped
to VLAN 5, while ports 4 and 5 have been configured as a host ports and associated
with VLAN 6. This means that traffic for port 4 and 5 can only pass through port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport mode private-vlan promiscuous
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan mapping 5
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#switchport mode private-vlan host
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan host-association 6
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport mode private-vlan host
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan host-association 6
Console(config-if)#
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3-102
3-103
3-102
3-103
Class of Service Configuration
2
Class of Service Configuration
Class of Service (CoS) allows you to specify which data packets have greater
precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion. This switch
supports CoS with four egress (output) queues for each port. Data packets in a
port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority
queues. The switch forwards packets onto the network based on traffic classes. The
switch places packets into outgoing queues by mapping each of the eight incoming
priority levels to one of four outgoing traffic classes. (See “Mapping CoS Values to
Egress Queues” on page 2-97.) You can set the default priority for each interface,
and configure the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s traffic classes.
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
You can specify the default port priority for each interface on the switch. All untagged
packets entering the switch are tagged with the specified default port priority, and
then sorted into the appropriate egress queue at the output port.
Command Usage
• This switch provides four egress queues for each port. It uses Weighted Round
Robin to prevent head-of-queue blockage.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to accept
all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This priority does
not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming frame is an IEEE
802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority bits will be used.
• If the output port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are
stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.
Command Attributes
• Default Priority (0-7)* – The priority that is assigned to untagged frames received
on the specified interface.
(Range: 0 - 7, Default: 0)
• Number of Egress Traffic Classes – The number of queue buffers provided for
each port.
* CLI displays this information as “Priority for untagged traffic.”
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2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Priority, Default Port Priority or Default Trunk Priority. Modify the default
priority for any interface, then click Apply.
CLI – This example assigns a default priority of 5 to port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
Broadcast threshold: Enabled, 500 packets/second
Lacp status: Disabled
VLAN membership mode: Hybrid
Ingress rule: Disabled
Acceptable frame type: All frames
Native VLAN: 1
Priority for untagged traffic: 5
Gvrp status: Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Console#
2-96
3-143
3-75
2
Class of Service Configuration
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
This switch processes Class of Service (CoS) priority tagged traffic by using four
egress queues for each port, with service schedules based on Weighted Round
Robin (WRR). Up to eight separate traffic priority levels are defined in IEEE 802.1p.
The default priority levels are assigned according to recommendations in the IEEE
802.1p standard as shown in the following table.
Egress Queue
0
1
2
3
0
Priority Level
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The priority levels recommended in the IEEE 802.1p standard for various network
applications are shown in the following table. However, you can map the priority
levels to the switch’s output queues in any way that benefits application traffic for
your own network.
Priority Level
Traffic Type
1
Background
2
(Spare)
0 (default)
Best Effort
3
Excellent Effort
4
Controlled Load
5
Video, less than 100 milliseconds latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10 milliseconds latency and jitter
7
Network Control
Command Attributes
• Priority – CoS value.
(Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
• Traffic Class (0-3)* – Output queue buffer.
(Range: 0-3, where 3 is the highest CoS egress queue)
* CLI shows Queue ID.
2-97
2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Priority, Traffic Classes. Mark an interface and click Select to display
the current mapping of CoS values to output queues. Assign priorities to the traffic
classes (i.e., output queues) for the selected interface, then click Apply.
CLI – The following example shows how to map CoS values 1 and 2 to CoS egress
queue 0, value 0 and 3 to CoS egress queue 1, values 4 and 5 to CoS egress queue
2, and values 6 and 7 to CoS egress queue 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 1 2
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 0 3
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 4 5
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 3 6 7
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Traffic Class : 1 0 0 1 2 2 3 3
Console#
2-98
3-145
3-147
2
Class of Service Configuration
Selecting the Queue Mode
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that requires all
traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower priority queues are
serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing that specifies a relative
weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative weight for each queue that
determines the percentage of service time the switch services each queue before
moving on to the next queue. This prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur
with strict priority queuing.
Command Attributes
• WRR - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 1, 4, 16 for egress queues 0 through 3 respectively.
• Strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all traffic in the
higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
Web – Click Priority, Queue Mode. Select Strict or WRR, then click Apply.
CLI – The following sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode.
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue mode
3-144
3-147
Queue mode: strict
Console#
2-99
2
Configuring the Switch
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
This switch uses the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithm to determine the
frequency at which it services each egress queue. As described in “Mapping CoS
Values to Egress Queues” on page 2-97, the traffic classes are mapped to one of the
four egress queues provided for each port. You can assign a weight to each of these
queues (and thereby to the corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets the
frequency at which each queue will be polled for service, and subsequently affects
the response time for software applications assigned a specific priority value.
Command Attributes
• WRR Setting Table* – Displays a list of weights for each traffic class (i.e., queue).
• Weight Value (1-31) – Sets a new weight for the selected traffic class.
(Range: 1-31)
* CLI shows Queue ID.
Web – Click Priority, Queue Scheduling. Select a traffic class (i.e., output queue),
enter a weight, then click Apply.
CLI – The following example shows how to assign WRR weights of 1, 1, 4 and 16 to
the output queues 0, 1, 2 and 3.
Console(config)#queue bandwidth 1 1 4 16
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue bandwidth
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
1
2
4
3
16
Console#
2-100
3-144
3-147
Class of Service Configuration
2
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
This switch supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to meet
application requirements. Traffic priorities can be specified in the IP header of a
frame, using the priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the
TCP/UDP port. If priority bits are used, the ToS octet may contain three bits for IP
Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service.
When these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service
value by the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Because different priority information may be contained in the traffic, this switch
maps priority values to the output queues in the following manner:
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port Priority, IP Precedence or DSCP
Priority, and then Default Port Priority.
• IP Precedence and DSCP Priority cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other.
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
The switch allows you to choose between using IP Precedence or DSCP priority.
Select one of the methods or disable this feature.
Command Attributes
• Disabled – Disables both priority services. (This is the default setting.)
• IP Precedence – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using IP Precedence.
• IP DSCP – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Differentiated Services Code Point
Mapping.
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status. Select Disabled,
IP Precedence or IP DSCP from the scroll-down menu.
CLI – The following example enables IP Precedence service on the switch.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
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2-101
2
Configuring the Switch
Mapping IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The default IP Precedence values are
mapped one-to-one to Class of Service values (i.e., Precedence value 0 maps to
CoS value 0, and so forth). Bits 6 and 7 are used for network control, and the other
bits for various application types. ToS bits are defined in the following table.
Priority Level
Traffic Type
7
Network Control
6
Internetwork Control
5
Critical
4
Flash Override
3
Flash
2
Immediate
1
Priority
0
Routine
Command Attributes
• IP Precedence Priority Table – Shows the IP Precedence to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value (0-7) – Maps a CoS value to the selected IP Precedence
value. Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note:
2-102
IP Precedence settings apply to all interfaces.
Class of Service Configuration
2
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence Priority. Select a port or trunk from the Interface
field. Select an entry from the IP Precedence Priority Table, enter a value in the
Class of Service Value field, and then click Apply.
* Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Precedence service on the switch,
maps IP Precedence value 1 to CoS value 0 on port 5, and then displays all the IP
Precedence settings.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/5
Precedence mapping status: disabled
3-149
3-150
3-153
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 5
0
0
Eth 1/ 5
1
0
Eth 1/ 5
2
2
Eth 1/ 5
3
3
Eth 1/ 5
4
4
Eth 1/ 5
5
5
Eth 1/ 5
6
6
Eth 1/ 5
7
7
Console#
* Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
2-103
2
Configuring the Switch
Mapping DSCP Priority
The DSCP is six bits wide, allowing coding for up to 64 different forwarding
behaviors. The DSCP replaces the ToS bits, and it retains backward compatibility
with the three precedence bits so that non-DSCP compliant, ToS-enabled devices,
will not conflict with the DSCP mapping. Based on network policies, different kinds of
traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. The DSCP default values are
defined in the following table. Note that all the DSCP values that are not specified
are mapped to CoS value 0.
IP DSCP Value
0
CoS Value
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Attributes
• DSCP Priority Table – Shows the DSCP Priority to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected DSCP Priority value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note:
2-104
IP DSCP settings apply to all interfaces.
Class of Service Configuration
2
Web – Click Priority, IP DSCP Priority. Select a Port or Trunk from the Interface field.
Select an entry from the DSCP table, enter a value in the Class of Service Value
field, then click Apply.
* Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
CLI – The following example globally enables DSCP Priority service on the switch,
maps DSCP value 1 to CoS value 0 on port 5, and then displays all the DSCP
Priority settings.
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/5
DSCP mapping status: disabled
3-151
3-151
3-154
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 5
0
0
Eth 1/ 5
1
0
Eth 1/ 5
2
0
Eth 1/ 5
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 5
Eth 1/ 5
Eth 1/ 5
Console#
61
62
63
0
0
0
* Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
2-105
2
Configuring the Switch
Mapping IP Port Priority
You can also map network applications to Class of Service values based on the IP
port number (i.e., TCP/UDP port number) in the frame header. Some of the more
common TCP service ports include: HTTP: 80, FTP: 21, Telnet: 23 and POP3: 110.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
IP Port Priority Status – Enables or disables the IP port priority.
Interface – Selects the port or trunk interface to which the settings apply.
IP Port Priority Table – Shows the IP port to CoS map.
IP Port Number (TCP/UDP) – Set a new IP port number.
Class of Service Value (0-7) – Sets a CoS value for a new IP port. Note that “0”
represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note:
IP Port Priority settings apply to all interfaces.
Web – Click Priority, IP Port Priority Status. Set IP Port Priority Global Status to
Enabled.
Web – Click Priority, IP Port Priority. Select a Port or Trunk from the Interface field.
Highlight the port in the IP Port Priority Table, and then click Remove IP Port.
* Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
2-106
Class of Service Configuration
2
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Port Priority service on the switch,
maps HTTP traffic on port 5 to CoS value 0, and then displays all the IP Port Priority
settings for that port.
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip port ethernet 1/5
TCP port mapping status: disabled
3-148
3-148
3-152
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
* Mapping specific values for IP Port Priority is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
ACL CoS Mapping
Use the ACL CoS Mapping page to set the output queue for packets matching an
ACL rule as shown in the following table. Note that the specified CoS value is only
used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it is not written to the packet
itself. For information on mapping the CoS values to output queues, see 2-97.
Priority
Level
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Output
Queue
1
0
0
1
2
2
3
3
Command Attributes
• IP ACL Name* – Name of the IP ACL.
• IP CoS (0-7) – CoS value used for packets matching an IP ACL rule.
(Range: 0-7)
• MAC ACL Name* – Name of the MAC ACL.
• MAC CoS (0-7) – CoS value used for packets matching a MAC ACL rule.
(Range: 0-7)
*
For information on configuring ACLs, see 2-40.
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2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Priority, ACL CoS Mapping. Enable mapping for any port, select an ACL
from the scroll-down list, then click Apply.
CLI – This example assigns a CoS value of zero to packets matching rules within
the specified ACL on port 25.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#map access-list ip bill cos 0
Console(config-if)#
3-136
Multicast Filtering
Multicasting is used to support real-time applications such as video conferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have to establish a separate
connection with each client. It merely broadcasts its service to the network, and any
hosts that want to receive the multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the network overhead required by a
multicast server, the broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at every multicast
switch/router it passes through to ensure that traffic is only passed on the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any
attached hosts that want to receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the ports
containing hosts requesting to join the service and sends data out to those
ports only. It then propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast
switch/router to ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service. This
procedure is called multicast filtering.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s
performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing
multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead of flooding traffic to all
ports in the subnet (VLAN).
2-108
Multicast Filtering
2
Configuring IGMP Snooping Parameters
You can configure the switch to forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the
IGMP query and report messages, the switch forwards traffic only to the ports that
request multicast traffic. This prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic to all
ports and possibly disrupting network performance.
Command Usage
• IGMP Snooping – This switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report
packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast host
groups to identify the IP multicast group members. It simply monitors the IGMP
packets passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and
configures multicast filters accordingly.
• IGMP Query – A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask their
hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/switch
on the LAN performing IP multicasting, one of these devices is elected “querier”
and assumes the role of querying the LAN for group members. It then propagates
the service requests on to any adjacent multicast switch/router to ensure that it will
continue to receive the multicast service.
Note: Multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing protocol such
as DVMRP or PIM, to support IP multicasting across the Internet.
Command Attributes
• IGMP Status — When enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine
which hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is also referred to as IGMP
Snooping. (Default: Disabled)
• Act as IGMP Querier — When enabled, the switch can serve as the Querier,
which is responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
(Default: Disabled)
• IGMP Query Count (2-10) — Sets the maximum number of queries issued for
which there has been no response before the switch takes action to drop a client
from the multicast group. (Default: 2, Range: 2-10)
• IGMP Query Interval (60-125) — Sets the frequency (in seconds) at which the
switch sends IGMP host-query messages. (Default: 125, Range: 60-125)
• IGMP Report Delay (5-30) — Sets the time (in seconds) between receiving an
IGMP Report for an IP multicast address on a port before the switch sends an
IGMP Query out of that port and removes the entry from its list.
(Default: 10, Range: 5-30)
• Query Timeout (300-500) — The time the switch waits after the previous querier
stops before it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been
receiving query packets) to have expired. (Default: 300 seconds, Range: 300-500)
• IGMP Version (1,2) — Sets the protocol version for compatibility with other
devices on the network. (Default: 2, Range: 1-2)
Notes: 1. All systems on the subnet must support the same version.
2. Some attributes are only enabled for IGMPv2, including IGMP Report Delay
and IGMP Query Timeout.
2-109
2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Configuration. Adjust the IGMP settings as
required, and then click Apply.
CLI – This example modifies the settings for multicast filtering, and then displays the
current status.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-time-out 300
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status
: Enabled
Querier status
: Enabled
Query count
: 10
Query interval
: 100 sec
Query max response time : 20 sec
Query time-out
: 300 sec
IGMP snooping version
: Version 2
Console#
3-155
3-158
3-159
3-160
3-160
3-161
3-156
3-157
Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Multicast routers that are attached to ports on the switch use information obtained
from IGMP, along with a multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP, to support IP
multicasting across the Internet. These routers may be dynamically discovered by
the switch or statically assigned to an interface on the switch.
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
You can use the Multicast Router Port Information page to display the ports on this
switch attached to a neighboring multicast router/switch for each VLAN ID.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
• Multicast Router List – Multicast routers dynamically discovered by this switch or
those that are statically assigned to an interface on this switch.
2-110
Multicast Filtering
2
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router Port Information. Select the required
VLAN ID from the scroll-down list to display the associated multicast routers.
CLI – This example shows that Port 11 has been statically configured as a port
attached to a multicast router.
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
3-162
Specifying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able to
locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known multicast router/
switch connected over the network to an interface (port or trunk) on your switch, you
can manually configure that interface to join all the current multicast groups. This
can ensure that multicast traffic is passed to all the appropriate interfaces within the
switch.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router/switch.
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
2-111
2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Static Multicast Router Port Configuration. Specify the
interfaces attached to a multicast router, indicate the VLAN which will forward all the
corresponding multicast traffic, and then click Add. After you have completed adding
interfaces to the list, click Apply.
CLI – This example configures port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
3-162
3-162
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
You can display the port members associated with a specified VLAN and multicast
IP address.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN in which to display port members.
• Multicast IP Address – The IP address for a specific multicast service
• Multicast Group Port List – Ports propagating a multicast service; i.e., ports that
belong to the indicated VLAN group.
2-112
Multicast Filtering
2
Web – Click IGMP, IP Multicast Registration Table. Select the VLAN ID and multicast
IP address. The switch will display all the ports that are propagating this multicast
service.
CLI – This example displays all the known multicast services supported on VLAN 1,
along with the ports propagating the corresponding services. The type field shows if
this entry was learned dynamically or was statically configured.
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.0.0.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
3-158
Adding Multicast Addresses to VLANs
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using IGMP Snooping and IGMP
Query messages as described in “Configuring IGMP Snooping Parameters” on page
2-109. For certain applications that require tighter control, you may need to statically
configure a multicast service on the switch. First add all the ports attached to
participating hosts to a common VLAN, and then assign the multicast service to that
VLAN group.
Command Usage
• Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
• When a multicast address is assigned to specific VLAN, the corresponding traffic
can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router/switch.
• Multicast IP – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
2-113
2
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member Port Table. Specify the interface
attached to a multicast service (via an IGMP-enabled switch or multicast router),
indicate the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service, specify the multicast IP
address, and then click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the member
list, click Apply.
CLI – This example assigns a multicast address to VLAN 1, and then displays all the
known multicast services supported on VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.0.0.12
ethernet 1/12
Console(config)#exit
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.0.0.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
2-114
3-156
3-158
Chapter 3: Command Line Interface
This chapter describes how to use the Command Line Interface (CLI).
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
When accessing the management interface for the switch over a direct connection
to the server’s console port, or via a Telnet connection, the switch can be managed
by entering command keywords and parameters at the prompt. Using the switch's
command-line interface (CLI) is very similar to entering commands on a UNIX
system.
Console Connection
To access the switch through the console port, perform these steps:
1.
At the console prompt, enter the user name and password. (The default user
names are “admin” and “guest” with corresponding passwords of “admin” and
“guest.”) When the administrator user name and password is entered, the CLI
displays the “Console#” prompt and enters privileged access mode
(i.e., Privileged Exec). But when the guest user name and password is entered,
the CLI displays the “Console>” prompt and enters normal access mode
(i.e., Normal Exec).
2.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
3.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After connecting to the system through the console port, the login screen displays:
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the SF-2024F is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
3-1
3
Command Line Interface
Telnet Connection
Telnet operates over the IP transport protocol. In this environment, your
management station and any network device you want to manage over the network
must have a valid IP address. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255,
separated by periods. Each address consists of a network portion and host portion.
For example, the IP address assigned to this switch, 10.1.0.1, consists of a network
portion (10.1.0) and a host portion (1).
Caution: The IP address for this switch is unassigned by default.
To access the switch through a Telnet session, you must first set the IP address for
the switch, and set the default gateway if you are managing the switch from a
different IP subnet. For example:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
If your corporate network is connected to another network outside your office or to
the Internet, you need to apply for a registered IP address. However, if you are
attached to an isolated network, then you can use any IP address that matches the
network segment to which you are attached.
After you configure the switch with an IP address, you can open a Telnet session by
performing these steps.
1.
From the remote host, enter the Telnet command and the IP address of the
device you want to access.
2.
At the prompt, enter the user name and system password. The CLI will display
the “Vty-0#” prompt for the administrator to show that you are using privileged
access mode (i.e., Privileged Exec), or “Vty-0>” for the guest to show that you
are using normal access mode (i.e., Normal Exec).
3.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
4.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After entering the Telnet command, the login screen displays:
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the Intelligent Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
Caution: You can open up to four sessions to the device via Telnet.
3-2
Entering Commands
3
Entering Commands
This section describes how to enter CLI commands.
Keywords and Arguments
A CLI command is a series of keywords and arguments. Keywords identify a
command, and arguments specify configuration parameters. For example, in the
command “show interfaces status ethernet 1/5,” show interfaces and status are
keywords, ethernet is an argument that specifies the interface type, and 1/5
specifies the unit/port.
You can enter commands as follows:
• To enter a simple command, enter the command keyword.
• To enter multiple commands, enter each command in the required order. For
example, to enable Privileged Exec command mode, and display the startup
configuration, enter:
Console>enable
Console#show startup-config
• To enter commands that require parameters, enter the required parameters after
the command keyword. For example, to set a password for the administrator,
enter:
Console(config)#username admin password 0 smith
Minimum Abbreviation
The CLI will accept a minimum number of characters that uniquely identify a
command. For example, the command “configure” can be entered as con. If an
entry is ambiguous, the system will prompt for further input.
Command Completion
If you terminate input with a Tab key, the CLI will print the remaining characters of a
partial keyword up to the point of ambiguity. In the “logging history” example, typing
log followed by a tab will result in printing the command up to “logging.”
Getting Help on Commands
You can display a brief description of the help system by entering the help
command. You can also display command syntax by using the “?” character to list
keywords or parameters.
3-3
3
Command Line Interface
Showing Commands
If you enter a “?” at the command prompt, the system will display the first level of
keywords for the current command class (Normal Exec or Privileged Exec) or
configuration class (Global, Interface, Line, or VLAN Database). You can also
display a list of valid keywords for a specific command. For example, the command
“show ?” displays a list of possible show commands:
Console#show ?
access-group
access-list
bridge-ext
calendar
dot1x
garp
gvrp
history
interfaces
ip
line
logging
mac
mac-address-table
map
port
queue
radius-server
rate-limit
running-config
snmp
sntp
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
system
tacacs-server
users
version
vlan
Console#show
Access groups
Access lists
Bridge extend information
Date information
Show 802.1x content
Garp property
Show gvrp information of interface
Information of history
Information of interfaces
IP information
TTY line information
Show the contents of logging buffers
MAC access lists
Set configuration of the address table
Map priority
Characteristics of the port
Information of priority queue
Radius server information
Config rate-limit
The system configuration of running
SNMP statistics
Sntp
Specify spanning-tree
Secure shell
The system configuration of starting up
Information of system
Login by tacacs server
Display information about terminal lines
System hardware and software status
Switch VLAN Virtual Interface
The command “show interfaces ?” will display the following information:
Console>show interfaces ?
counters
Information of interfaces counters
status
Information of interfaces status
switchport Information of interfaces switchport
Partial Keyword Lookup
If you terminate a partial keyword with a question mark, alternatives that match the
initial letters are provided. (Remember not to leave a space between the command
and question mark.) For example “s?” shows all the keywords starting with “s.”
Console#show s?
snmp
spanning-tree
3-4
startup-config
system
Entering Commands
3
Negating the Effect of Commands
For many configuration commands you can enter the prefix keyword “no” to cancel
the effect of a command or reset the configuration to the default value. For example,
the logging command will log system messages to a host server. To disable
logging, specify the no logging command. This guide describes the negation effect
for all applicable commands.
Using Command History
The CLI maintains a history of commands that have been entered. You can scroll
back through the history of commands by pressing the up arrow key. Any command
displayed in the history list can be executed again, or first modified and then
executed.
Using the show history command displays a longer list of recently executed
commands.
Understanding Command Modes
The command set is divided into Exec and Configuration classes. Exec commands
generally display information on system status or clear statistical counters.
Configuration commands, on the other hand, modify interface parameters or enable
certain switching functions. These classes are further divided into different modes.
Available commands depend on the selected mode. You can always enter a
question mark “?” at the prompt to display a list of the commands available for the
current mode. The command classes and associated modes are displayed in the
following table:
Class
Mode
Exec
Normal
Privileged
Configuration
Global*
Interface
Line
VLAN Database
* You must be in Privileged Exec mode to access any of the configuration modes.
You must be in Global Configuration mode to access any of the other configuration modes.
Exec Commands
When you open a new console session on the switch with the user name and
password “guest,” the system enters the Normal Exec command mode (or guest
mode), displaying the “Console>” command prompt. Only a limited number of the
commands are available in this mode. You can access all commands only from the
Privileged Exec command mode (or administrator mode). To access Privilege Exec
mode, open a new console session with the user name and password “admin.” The
system will now display the “Console#” command prompt. You can also enter
Privileged Exec mode from within Normal Exec mode, by entering the enable
command, followed by the privileged level password “super” (page 3-9).
3-5
3
Command Line Interface
To enter Privileged Exec mode, enter the following commands and passwords:
Username: admin
Password: [system login password]
CLI session with the Intelligent Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
Username: guest
Password: [system login password]
CLI session with the Intelligent Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#enable
Password: [privileged level password if so configured]
Console#
Configuration Commands
Configuration commands are privileged level commands used to modify switch
settings. These commands modify the running configuration only and are not saved
when the switch is rebooted. To store the running configuration in nonvolatile
storage, use the copy running-config startup-config command.
The configuration commands are organized into different modes:
• Global Configuration - These commands modify the system level configuration,
and include commands such as hostname and snmp-server community.
• Access Control List Configuration - These commands are used for packet filtering.
• DHCP Configuration - These commands are used to configure the DHCP server.
• Interface Configuration - These commands modify the port configuration such as
speed-duplex and negotiation.
• Line Configuration - These commands modify the console port and Telnet
configuration, and include commands such as parity and databits.
• Router Configuration - These commands configure global settings for unicast and
multicast routing protocols.
• VLAN Configuration - Includes the command to create VLAN groups.
To enter the Global Configuration mode, enter the command configure in Privileged
Exec mode. The system prompt will change to “Console(config)#” which gives you
access privilege to all Global Configuration commands.
Console#configure
Console(config)#
3-6
Entering Commands
3
To enter the other modes, at the configuration prompt type one of the following
commands. Use the exit or end command to return to the Privileged Exec mode.
Mode
Command
Prompt
Console(config-line)#
Page
Line
line {console | vty}
3-57
Interface
interface {ethernet port | port-channel id| vlan id}
Console(config-if)#
3-65
VLAN
vlan database
Console(config-vlan)
3-92
For example, you can use the following commands to enter interface configuration
mode, and then return to Privileged Exec mode.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
.
.
.
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#
Command Line Processing
Commands are not case sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters
as long as they contain enough letters to differentiate them from any other currently
available commands or parameters. You can use the Tab key to complete partial
commands, or enter a partial command followed by the “?” character to display a list
of possible matches. You can also use the following editing keystrokes for
command-line processing:
Keystroke
Function
Ctrl-A
Shifts cursor to start of command line.
Ctrl-B
Shifts cursor to the left one character.
Ctrl-E
Shifts cursor to end of command line.
Ctrl-F
Shifts cursor to the right one character.
Ctrl-P
Shows the last command.
Ctrl-U
Deletes the entire line.
Ctrl-W
Deletes the last word typed.
Delete key or backspace key
Erases a mistake when entering a command.
3-7
3
Command Line Interface
Command Groups
The system commands can be broken down into the functional groups shown below.
Command Group
Description
Page
General
Basic commands for entering privileged access mode, restarting the
system, or quitting the CLI
3-9
Flash/File
Manages code image or switch configuration files
3-14
System Management
Controls system logs, system passwords, user name, browser
management options, and a variety of other system information
3-19
SNTP
Configures SNTP client settings, including broadcast mode or a
specified list of servers
3-41
SNMP
Activates authentication failure traps; configures community access
strings, and trap managers
3-47
IP Interface
Configures the IP address and gateway for management access,
DHCP server and relay service for server blades, displays the default
gateway, or pings a specified device
3-52
Line
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including baud
rate and console time-out
3-58
Interface
Configures the connection parameters for all Ethernet ports,
aggregated links, and VLANs
3-65
Address Table
Configures the address table for filtering specified addresses,
displaying current entries, clearing the table, or setting the aging time
3-77
Spanning Tree
Configures Spanning Tree settings for the switch
3-80
VLANs
Configures VLAN settings, and defines port membership for VLAN
groups
3-92
PVLAN
Enables or configures private VLANs
3-100
GVRP and
Bridge Extension
Configures GVRP settings that permit automatic VLAN learning;
shows the configuration for bridge extension MIB
3-105
Mirror Port
Mirrors data to another port for analysis without affecting the data
passing through or the performance of the monitored port
3-109
Link Aggregation
Statically groups multiple ports into a single logical trunk; configures
Link Aggregation Control Protocol for port trunks
3-111
Rate Limiting
Controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on a port
3-114
Authentication
Configures RADIUS and TACACS+ client-server authentication for
logon access and commands for IEEE 802.1x port access control.
3-117
Access Control Lists
Provides filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/
UDP port number or TCP control code) or non-IP frames (based on
MAC address or Ethernet type)
3-130
Priority
Sets port priority for untagged frames, relative weight for each priority
queue, also sets priority for TCP/UDP traffic types, IP precedence,
and DSCP
3-142
Multicast Filtering
Configures IGMP multicast filtering, query parameters, and specifies
ports attached to a multicast router
3-155
3-8
General Commands
3
The access mode shown in the following tables is indicated by these abbreviations:
NE (Normal Exec)
PE (Privileged Exec)
GC (Global Configuration)
IC (Interface Configuration)
LC (Line Configuration)
VC (VLAN Database Configuration)
General Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
enable
Activates privileged mode
NE
3-9
disable
Returns to normal mode from privileged mode
PE
3-10
configure
Activates global configuration mode
PE
3-10
show history
Shows the contents of the command history buffer
NE, PE
3-11
reload
Restarts the system
PE
3-12
prompt
Customizes the CLI prompt
GC
3-12
end
Returns to Privileged Exec mode
any config.
mode
3-12
exit
Returns to the previous configuration mode, or exits the CLI
any
3-13
quit
Exits a CLI session
NE, PE
3-13
help
Shows how to use help
any
NA
?
Shows options for command completion (context sensitive)
any
NA
enable
Use this command to activate Privileged Exec mode. In privileged mode, additional
commands are available, and certain commands display additional information.
See page 3-5.
Syntax
enable [level]
level - Privilege level to log into the device.
The device has two predefined privilege levels: 0: Normal Exec,
15: Privileged Exec. Enter level 15 to access Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
Level 15
Command Mode
Normal Exec
Command Usage
• “super” is the default password required to change the command mode from
Normal Exec to Privileged Exec. (To set this password, see the enable
password command on page 3-22.)
3-9
3
Command Line Interface
• The “#” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in privileged access mode.
Example
Console> enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Related Commands
disable (3-10)
enable password (3-22)
disable
Use this command to return to Normal Exec mode from privileged mode. In normal
access mode, you can only display basic information on the switch's configuration or
Ethernet statistics. To gain access to all commands, you must use the privileged
mode. See page 3-5.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The “>” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in normal access mode.
Example
Console#disable
Console>
Related Commands
enable (3-9)
configure
Use this command to activate Global Configuration mode. You must enter this mode
to modify any settings on the switch. You must also enter Global Configuration mode
prior to enabling some of the other configuration modes, including Interface
Configuration, Line Configuration, and VLAN Database Configuration. See page
3-5.
Default Setting
None
3-10
General Commands
3
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#configure
Console(config)#
Related Commands
end (3-12)
show history
Use this command to show the contents of the command history buffer.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The history buffer size is fixed at 10 Execution commands and
10 Configuration commands.
Example
In this example, the show history command lists the contents of the command
history buffer:
Console#show history
Execution command history:
2 config
1 show history
Configuration command history:
4 interface vlan 1
3 exit
2 interface vlan 1
1 end
Console#
The ! command repeats commands from the Execution command history buffer
when you are in Normal Exec or Privileged Exec Mode, and commands from the
Configuration command history buffer when you are in any of the configuration
modes. In this example, the !2 command repeats the second command in the
Execution history buffer (config).
Console#!2
Console#config
Console(config)#
3-11
3
Command Line Interface
reload
Use this command to restart the system.
Caution: When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will
also retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory by the
copy running-config startup-config command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command resets the entire system.
Example
This example shows how to reset the switch:
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
prompt
Use this command to customize the CLI prompt. Use the no form to revert to the
default prompt.
Syntax
prompt string
no prompt
string - Any alphanumeric string to use for the command prompt.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
Console
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#prompt ES3526X-ZZ
ES3526X-ZZ(config)#
end
Use this command to return to Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
None
3-12
General Commands
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration, Interface Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN
Database Configuration
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Interface
Configuration mode:
Console(config-if)#end
Console#
exit
Use this command to return to the previous configuration mode or exit the
configuration program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Any
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Global
Configuration mode, and then quit the CLI session:
Console(config)#exit
Console#exit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
quit
Use this command to exit the configuration program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The quit and exit commands can both exit the configuration program.
3-13
3
Command Line Interface
Example
This example shows how to quit a CLI session:
Console#quit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
Flash/File Commands
These commands are used to manage the system code or configuration files.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
copy
Copies a code image or a switch configuration to or from
flash memory or a TFTP server
PE
3-14
delete
Deletes a file or code image
PE
3-16
dir
Displays a list of files in flash memory
PE
3-17
whichboot
Displays the files booted
PE
3-18
boot system
Specifies the file or image used to start up the system
GC
3-18
copy
Use this command to move (upload/download) a code image or configuration file
between the switch’s flash memory and a TFTP server. When you save the system
code or configuration settings to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be
downloaded to the switch to restore system operation. The success of the file
transfer depends on the accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the
network connection.
Syntax
copy
copy
copy
copy
file {file | running-config | startup-config | tftp}
running-config {file | startup-config | tftp}
startup-config {file | running-config | tftp}
tftp {file | running-config | startup-config | https-certificate}
• file - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a file.
• running-config - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from the current
running configuration.
• startup-config - The configuration used for system initialization.
• tftp - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a TFTP server.
• https-certificate - Copies a HTTPS certificate from a TFTP server to the
switch.
3-14
Flash/File Commands
3
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The system prompts for data required to complete the copy command.
• The destination file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter
of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file
names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the
switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
• Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two
operation code files.
• The maximum number of user-defined configuration files depends on
available memory.
• You can use “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” as the source to copy from the
factory default configuration file, but you cannot use it as the destination.
• To replace the startup configuration, you must use startup-config as the
destination.
• The Boot ROM image cannot be uploaded or downloaded from the TFTP
server. You must use a direct console connection and access the download
menu during a boot up to download the Boot ROM (or diagnostic) image. See
“Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port” on page A-1.
Example
The following example shows how to upload the configuration settings to a file on
the TFTP server:
Console#copy file tftp
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: startup
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Destination file name: startup.01
/
Console#
The following example shows how to copy the running configuration to a startup file.
Console#copy running-config file
destination file name : startup
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
3-15
3
Command Line Interface
The following example shows how to download a configuration file:
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Source configuration file name: startup.01
Startup configuration file name [startup]:
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
delete
Use this command to delete a file or image.
Syntax
delete filename
filename - Name of the configuration file or image name.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If the file type is used for system startup, then this file cannot be deleted.
• “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” cannot be deleted.
Example
This example shows how to delete the test2.cfg configuration file from flash memory.
Console#delete test2.cfg
Console#
Related Commands
dir (3-17)
3-16
Flash/File Commands
3
dir
Use this command to display a list of files in flash memory.
Syntax
dir [boot-rom | config | opcode [:filename]]
The type of file or image to display includes:
• boot-rom - Boot ROM (or diagnostic) image file
• config - Switch configuration file
• opcode - Run-time operation code image file.
• filename - Name of the file or image. If this file exists but contains errors,
information on this file cannot be shown.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If you enter the command dir without any parameters, the system displays all
files.
• File information is shown below:
Column Heading
Description
file name
The name of the file.
file type
File types: Boot-Rom, Operation Code, and Config file.
startup
Shows if this file is used when the system is started.
size
The length of the file in bytes.
Example
Console#dir
file name
file type startup size (byte)
-------------------------------- -------------- ------- ----------diag_0060 Boot-Rom image
Y
111360
run_01642 Operation Code
N
1074304
run_0200 Operation Code
Y
1083008
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config File
N
2574
startup
Config File
Y
2710
------------------------------------------------------------------Total free space:
0
Console#
3-17
3
Command Line Interface
whichboot
Use this command to display which files were booted when the system powered up.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the information displayed by the whichboot command. See
the table under the dir command for a description of the file information displayed by
this command.
Console#whichboot
file name
file type startup size (byte)
----------------- -------------- ------- ----------diag_0060 Boot-Rom image
Y
111360
run_0200 Operation Code
Y
1083008
startup
Config File
Y
2710
Console#
boot system
Use this command to specify the file or image used to start up the system.
Syntax
boot system {boot-rom| config | opcode}: filename
The type of file or image to set as a default includes:
• boot-rom - Boot ROM
• config - Configuration file
• opcode - Run-time operation code
The colon (:) is required.
filename - Name of the configuration file or image name.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A colon (:) is required after the specified file type.
• If the file contains an error, it cannot be set as the default file.
3-18
System Management Commands
3
Example
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#
Related Commands
dir (3-17)
whichboot (3-18)
System Management Commands
These commands are used to control system logs, passwords, user names, browser
configuration options, and display or configure a variety of other system information.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Device Designation Command
hostname
Specifies the host name for the switch
GC
3-20
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
3-48
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
3-49
username
Establishes a user name-based authentication system at
login
GC
3-21
enable password
Sets a password to control access to various Privileged
Exec levels
GC
3-22
logging on
Controls logging of error messages
GC
3-23
logging history
Limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on GC
severity
3-23
logging host
Adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive
logging messages
GC
3-24
logging facility
Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages GC
3-25
logging trap
Limits syslog messages saved to a remote server based on GC
severity
3-26
clear logging
Clears messages from the logging buffer
PE
3-27
show logging
Displays the state of logging
PE
3-27
show startup-config
Displays the contents of the configuration file (stored in flash PE
memory) that is used to start up the system
3-28
show running-config
Displays the configuration data currently in use
PE
3-29
show system
Displays system information
NE, PE
3-31
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user NE, PE
name, idle time, and IP address of Telnet client
3-32
User Access Commands
Event Logging Commands
System Status Commands
3-19
3
Command Line Interface
Command
show version
Function
Displays version information for the system
Mode
NE, PE
Page
3-33
Web Server Commands
ip http port
Specifies the port to be used by the Web browser interface GC
3-34
ip http server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from a
browser
GC
3-34
ip http secure-server
Enables HTTPS/SSL for encrypted communications
GC
3-35
ip http secure-port
Specifies the UDP port number for HTTPS/SSL
GC
3-36
ip ssh server
Enables the SSH server on the switch
GC
3-37
ip ssh
Specifies the authentication timeout for the SSH server and GC
the number of retries allowed by a client
3-38
show ip ssh
Displays the status of the SSH server and the configured
values for authentication timeout and retries
PE
3-39
disconnect ssh
Terminates an SSH connection
PE
3-39
show ssh
Displays the status of current SSH sessions
PE
3-40
Secure Shell Commands
hostname
Use this command to specify or modify the host name for this device. Use the no
form to restore the default host name.
Syntax
hostname name
no hostname
name - The name of this host. (Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#hostname ES3526X-ZZ
Console(config)#
3-20
System Management Commands
3
username
Use this command to add named users, require authentication at login, specify or
change a user's password (or specify that no password is required), or specify or
change a user's access level. Use the no form to remove a user name.
Syntax
username name {access-level level | nopassword |
password {0 | 7} password}
no username name
• name - The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters, case sensitive. Maximum users: 16)
• access-level level - Specifies the user level.
• The device has two predefined privilege levels:
0: Normal Exec, 15: Privileged Exec.
• nopassword - No password is required for this user to log in.
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password password - The authentication password for the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default access level is Normal Exec.
• The factory defaults for the user names and passwords are:
username
access-level
password
guest
admin
0
15
guest
admin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during
system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP server.
There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
This example shows how to set the access level and password for a user.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
3-21
3
Command Line Interface
enable password
After initially logging onto the system, you should set the Privileged Exec password.
Remember to record it in a safe place. Use this command to control access to the
Privileged Exec level from the Normal Exec level. Use the no form to reset the
default password.
Syntax
enable password [level level] {0 | 7} password
no enable password [level level]
• level level - Level 15 for Privileged Exec. (Levels 0-14 are not used.)
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password - password for this privilege level.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default is level 15.
• This default password is “super”
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot set a null password. You will have to enter a password to change
the command mode from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec with the enable
command (page 3-9).
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during
system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP server.
There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config)#enable password level 15 0 admin
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable (3-9)
3-22
System Management Commands
3
logging on
Use this command to control logging of error messages. This command sends
debug or error messages to a logging process. The no form disables the logging
process.
Syntax
logging on
no logging on
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The logging process controls error messages saved to switch memory or sent
to remote syslog servers. You can use the logging history command to
control the type of error messages that are stored in memory. The logging
trap command controls the type of error messages that are sent to specified
syslog servers.
Example
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#
Related Commands
logging history (3-23)
logging trap (3-26)
clear logging (3-27)
logging history
Use this command to limit syslog messages saved to switch memory based on
severity. The no form returns the logging of syslog messages to the default level.
Syntax
logging history {flash | ram} level
no logging history {flash | ram}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
3-23
3
Command Line Interface
• level - One of the level arguments listed in the following table. Messages
sent include the selected level down to level 0.
Level Argument
debugging
Level
7
Description
Debugging messages
informational
6
Informational messages only
notifications
5
Normal but significant condition, such as cold
start
warnings
4
Warning conditions (e.g., return false,
unexpected return)
errors
3
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default
used)
critical
2
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or
free memory error - resource exhausted)
alerts
1
Immediate action needed
emergencies
0
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
Default Setting
Flash: errors (level 3 - 0)
RAM: warnings (level 7 - 0)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The message level specified for flash memory must be a higher priority
(i.e., numerically lower) than that specified for RAM.
Example
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
logging host
Use this command to add a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages. Use the no form to remove a syslog server host.
Syntax
logging host host_ip_address
no logging host host_ip_address
host_ip_address - The IP address of a syslog server.
Default Setting
None
3-24
System Management Commands
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• By using this command more than once you can build up a list of host IP
addresses.
• The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
Example
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.3
Console(config)#
logging facility
Use this command to set the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages.
Use the no form to return the type to the default.
Syntax
logging facility type
no logging facility type
type - A number that indicates the facility used by the syslog server to
dispatch log messages to an appropriate service.
(Range: 16-23)
Default Setting
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#logging facility 19
Console(config)#
3-25
3
Command Line Interface
logging trap
Use this command to limit syslog messages saved to a remote server based on
severity. Use the no form to return the remote logging of syslog messages to the
default level.
Syntax
logging trap level
no logging trap level
level - One of the level arguments listed below. Messages sent include the
selected level up through level 0.
Level Argument
debugging
Level
7
Description
Debugging messages
informational
6
Informational messages only
notifications
5
Normal but significant condition, such as cold
start
warnings
4
Warning conditions (e.g., return false,
unexpected return)
errors
3
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default
used)
critical
2
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or
free memory error - resource exhausted)
alerts
1
Immediate action needed
emergencies
0
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
Default Setting
Level 3 - 0
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#
3-26
System Management Commands
3
clear logging
Use this command to clear messages from the log buffer.
Syntax
clear logging [flash | ram]
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
Flash and RAM
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear logging
Console#
Related Commands
show logging (3-27)
show logging
Use this command to display the logging configuration, along with any system and
event messages stored in memory.
Syntax
show logging {flash | ram | trap}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
• trap - Messages sent to remote syslog servers.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command shows the following information:
• Syslog logging – Whether or not system logging has been enabled via the
logging on command.
3-27
3
Command Line Interface
• History logging in FLASH/RAM – The message level(s) that are reported
based on the logging history command.
• Any system and event messages stored in memory.
• Remote logging – Whether logging to remote syslog servers has been
enabled via the logging host command, the message level(s) that are sent,
and a list of configured syslog server IP addresses.
Example
The following example shows that system logging is enabled, the message level for
flash memory is “errors” (i.e., default level 3 - 0), the message level for RAM is
“debugging” (i.e., default level 7 - 0), and lists one sample error.
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging: Enable
History logging in FLASH: level errors
[0] 0:0:5 1/1/1
"PRI_MGR_InitDefault function fails."
level: 3, module: 13, function: 0, and event no.: 0
Console#show logging ram
Syslog logging: Enable
History logging in RAM: level debugging
[0] 0:0:5 1/1/1
"PRI_MGR_InitDefault function fails."
level: 3, module: 13, function: 0, and event no.: 0
Console#
show startup-config
Use this command to display the configuration file stored in non-volatile memory that
is used to start up the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show running-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
3-28
SNMP community strings
Users (names and access levels)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
System Management Commands
3
- IP address configured for VLANs
- Spanning tree settings
- Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
Example
Console#show startup-config
building startup-config, please wait.....
!
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 0 admin
!
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 0 guest
!
enable password level 15 0 super
!
snmp-server community public ro
snmp-server community private rw
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
interface vlan 1
ip address 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
ip address dhcp
!
line console
!
line vty
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show running-config (3-29)
show running-config
Use this command to display the configuration information currently in use.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
3-29
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show startup-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
3-30
SNMP community strings
Users (names, access levels, and encrypted passwords)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
IP address configured for VLANs
Spanning tree settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
System Management Commands
3
Example
Console#show running-config
building running-config, please wait.....
!
!
snmp-server community private rw
snmp-server community public ro
!
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
!
interface vlan 1
ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.255.0
!
!
authentication login local
!
!
line console
!
line vty
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show startup-config (3-28)
show system
Use this command to display system information.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
3-31
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• For a description of the items shown by this command, refer to “Displaying
System Information” on page 2-7.
• The POST results should all display “PASS.” If any POST test indicates
“FAIL,” contact your distributor for assistance.
Example
Console#show system
System description: ES3526X-ZZ
System OID string: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.45
System information
System Up time: 0 days, 1 hours, 1 minutes, and 1.93 seconds
System Name
: [NONE]
System Location
: [NONE]
System Contact
: [NONE]
MAC address
: 00-30-F1-6E-0D-E0
Web server
: enable
Web server port
: 80
POST result
UART Loopback Test......................PASS
Timer Test..............................PASS
DRAM Test ..............................PASS
I2C Initialization......................PASS
Runtime Image Check ....................PASS
PCI Device Check .......................PASS
Switch Driver Initialization............PASS
Switch Internal Loopback Test...........PASS
------------------- DONE -------------------Console#
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user name, idle time, and IP
address of Telnet client.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The session used to execute this command is indicated by a “*” symbol next to
the Line (i.e., session) index number.
3-32
System Management Commands
3
Example
Console#show users
Username accounts:
Username Privilege
-------- --------guest
0
admin
15
Online users:
Line
Username Idle time (h:m:s) Remote IP addr.
----------- -------- ----------------- --------------* 0
console
admin
0:00:00
1
vty 0
admin
0:04:37
10.1.0.19
Console#
show version
Use this command to display hardware and software version information for the
system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions” on page 2-8 for detailed
information on software items.
Example
Console#show version
Unit1
Serial number
Service tag
Hardware version
Module A type
Module B type
Number of ports
Main power status
Redundant power status
Agent(master)
Unit id
Loader version
Boot rom version
Operation code version
Console#
:ag1005
:
:
:not present
:not present
:24
:up
:not present
:1
:2.1.0.0
:2.0.0.7
:2.0.3.1
3-33
3
Command Line Interface
Web Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip http port
Specifies the port to be used by the Web browser interface
GC
3-34
ip http server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser GC
3-34
ip http secure-server
Enables HTTPS/SSL for encrypted communications
GC
3-35
ip http secure-port
Specifies the UDP port number for HTTPS/SSL
GC
3-36
ip http port
Use this command to specify the TCP port number used by the Web browser
interface. Use the no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip http port port-number
no ip http port
port-number - The TCP port to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
80
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip http port 769
Console(config)#
Related Commands
logging on (3-23)
ip http server
Use this command to allow this device to be monitored or configured from a
browser. Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
3-34
Web Server Commands
3
Example
Console(config)#ip http server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http port (3-34)
ip http secure-server
Use this command to enable the secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS) over
the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an encrypted
connection) to the switch’s Web interface. Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http secure-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Both HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the
same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in
your browser: https://device[:port_number]
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting
data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x and
Netscape Navigator 4.x or later versions.
• The following Web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 4.76 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
• To specify a secure-site certificate, page 2-30. Also refer to the copy
command on page 3-14.
3-35
3
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-port (3-36)
copy tftp https-certificate (3-14)
ip http secure-port
Use this command to specify the UDP port number used for HTTPS/SSL connection
to the switch’s Web interface. Use the no form to restore the default port.
Syntax
ip http secure-port port_number
no ip http secure-port
port_number – The UDP port used for HTTPS/SSL.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
443
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same port.
• If you change the HTTPS port number, clients attempting to connect to the
HTTPS server must specify the port number in the URL, in this format:
https://device:port_number
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 1000
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-server (3-35)
3-36
Secure Shell Commands
3
Secure Shell Commands
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet.
When the client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch generates a
public-key that the client uses along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
This section describes the commands used to configure the SSH server. However,
note that you also need to install a SSH client on the management station when
using this protocol to configure the switch.
Caution: The switch supports only SSH Version 1.5.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip ssh server
Enables the SSH server on the switch
GC
3-37
ip ssh
Specifies the authentication timeout for the SSH server and the GC
number of retries allowed by a client
3-38
show ip ssh
Displays the status of the SSH server and the configured values PE
for authentication timeout and retries
3-39
disconnect ssh
Terminates an SSH connection
PE
3-39
show ssh
Displays the status of current SSH sessions
PE
3-40
ip ssh server
Use this command to enable the Secure Shell (SSH) server on this switch. Use the
no form to disable this service.
Syntax
[no] ip ssh server
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
3-37
3
Command Line Interface
• The SSH server uses RSA for key exchange when the client first establishes
a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to select
either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ssh (3-40)
ip ssh
Use this command to configure authentication control parameters for the Secure
Shell (SSH) server on this switch. Use the no form to restore the default settings.
Syntax
ip ssh {[timeout seconds] | [authentication-retries count]}
no ip ssh {[timeout] | [authentication-retries]}
• seconds – The timeout for client response during SSH negotiation.
(Range: 1-120)
• count – The number of authentication attempts permitted after which the
interface is reset.
(Range: 1-5)
Default Setting
timeout: 120 seconds
retries: 3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The timeout specifies the interval the switch will wait for a response from the
client during the SSH negotiation phase. Once an SSH session has been
established, the timeout for user input is controlled by the exec-timeout
command for vty sessions.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 60
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retires 2
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip ssh (3-39)
3-38
Secure Shell Commands
3
show ip ssh
Use this command to display the connection settings used when authenticating
client access to the Secure Shell (SSH) server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip ssh
Information of secure shell
SSH status: enable
SSH authentication timeout: 120
SSH authentication retries: 3
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh (3-38)
disconnect ssh
Use this command to terminate a Secure Shell (SSH) client connection.
Syntax
disconnect ssh connection-id
connection-id – The session identifier as displayed in the show ip ssh
command.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#disconnect ssh 0
Console#
Related Commands
show ip ssh (3-39)
3-39
3
Command Line Interface
show ssh
Use this command to display the current Secure Shell (SSH) server connections.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ssh
Information of secure shell
Session Username Version Encrypt method Negotiation state
------- -------- ------- -------------- ----------------0
admin
1.5
cipher-3des
session-started
Console#
Field
Session
Description
The session number. (Range: 0-3)
Username
The user name of the client.
Version
The Secure Shell version number.
Encrypt method
The encryption method. (Options: cipher-des, cipher-3des)
Negotiation state
The authentication negotiation state.
Port Security
Use this command to enable and configure port security on a port. Use the no form
to disable port security and reset the maximum addresses to the default.
Syntax
port security [max-mac-count address-number]
no port security [max-mac-count]
address-number - Sets the maximum number of MAC addresses that can
be learned on a port. (Range: 0 - 20)
Default Setting
Status: Disabled
Maximum Addresses: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• If you enable port security on a specified port, the switch will dynamically learn
MAC addresses until the specified number has been reached and then stop.
Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic or
static address table will be accepted.
• To use port security, specify a maximum number of addresses to allow on the
port and then let the switch dynamically learn the <source MAC address,
3-40
SNTP Commands
3
VLAN> pair for frames received on the port. You can also manually add
secure addresses to the port with the mac-address-table static command.
• First use the port security max-mac-count command to set the number of
addresses, and then use the port security command to enable security on
the port.
• Use the no port security max-mac-count command to disable port security
and reset the maximum number of addresses to the default.
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- Cannot be connected to a network interconnection device.
- Cannot be a member of a static trunk.
- It can be configured as an LACP trunk port, but the switch does not allow
the LACP trunk to be enabled.
• A port that is already configured as an LACP or static trunk port cannot be
enabled as a secure port.
Example
This example sets the maximum MAC addresses and enables port security for
port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security max-mac-count 10
Console(config-if)#port security
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
mac-address-table static (3-77)
SNTP Commands
The system clock can be dynamically set by polling a set of specified time servers
(NTP or SNTP), or by using information broadcast by local time servers.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
sntp client
Accepts time from specified time servers
GC
sntp server
Specifies one or more time servers
GC
3-42
3-43
sntp poll
Sets the interval at which the client polls for time
GC
3-43
sntp broadcast client
Accepts time from any time broadcast server
GC
3-44
show sntp
Shows current SNTP configuration settings
NE, PE
3-44
clock timezone
Sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock
GC
3-45
calendar set
Sets the system date and time
PE
3-45
show calendar
Displays the current date and time setting
NE, PE
3-46
3-41
3
Command Line Interface
sntp client
Use this command to enable SNTP client requests for time synchronization from
NTP or SNTP time servers specified with the sntp servers command. Use the no
form of this command to disable SNTP client requests.
Syntax
[no] sntp client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and
times for log events. Without SNTP, the switch only records the time starting
from the factory default set at the last bootup (i.e., 00:00:00, Jan. 1, 2001).
• This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the
sntp servers command. It issues time synchronization requests based on the
interval set via the sntp poll command.
• The SNTP time query method is set to client mode when the first sntp client
command is issued. However, if the sntp broadcast client command is
issued, then the no sntp broadcast client command must be used to return
the switch to SNTP client mode.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#end
Console#show sntp
Current time: Dec 23 02:52:44 2002
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
Console#
Related Commands
sntp server (3-43)
sntp poll (3-43)
sntp broadcast client (3-44)
show sntp (3-44)
3-42
SNTP Commands
3
sntp server
Use this command to set the IP address of the servers to which SNTP time requests
are issued. Use the this command with no arguments to clear all time servers from
the current list.
Syntax
sntp server [ip1 [ip2 [ip3]]]
ip - IP address of an time server (NTP or SNTP).
(Range: 1 - 3 addresses)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command specifies time servers from which the switch will poll for time
updates when set to SNTP client mode. The client will poll the time servers in
the order specified until a response is received. It issues time synchronization
requests based on the interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (3-42)
sntp poll (3-43)
show sntp (3-44)
sntp poll
Use this command to set the interval between sending time requests when the
switch is set to SNTP client mode. Use the no form to restore to the default.
Syntax
sntp poll seconds
no sntp poll
seconds - Interval between time requests. (Range: 16-16384 seconds)
Default Setting
16 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
3-43
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
This command is only applicable when the switch is set to SNTP client mode.
Example
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (3-42)
sntp broadcast client
Use this command to synchronize the switch’s clock based on time broadcast from
time servers (using the multicast address 224.0.1.1). Use the no form to disable
SNTP broadcast client mode.
Syntax
[no] sntp broadcast client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#sntp broadcast client
Console#
show sntp
Use this command to display the current time and configuration settings for the
SNTP client, and whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending
time synchronization requests (when the switch is set to SNTP client mode),
and the current SNTP mode (i.e., client or broadcast).
Example
Console#show sntp
Current time: Dec 23 05:13:28 2002
Poll interval: 16
Current mode: unicast
Console#
3-44
SNTP Commands
3
clock timezone
Use this command to set the time zone for the switch’s internal clock.
Syntax
clock timezone name hour hours minute minutes {before-utc | after-utc}
•
•
•
•
•
name - Name of timezone, usually an acronym. (Range: 1-29 characters)
hours - Number of hours before/after UTC. (Range: 1-12 hours)
minutes - Number of minutes before/after UTC. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
before-utc - Sets the local time zone before (east) of UTC.
after-utc - Sets the local time zone after (west) of UTC.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the local time zone relative to the Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time or GMT), based on the earth’s
prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To display a time corresponding to
your local time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time
zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Example
Console(config)#clock timezone Japan hours 8 minute 0 after-UTC
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show sntp (3-44)
calendar set
Use this command to set the system clock.
Syntax
calendar set hour min sec {day month year | month day year}
•
•
•
•
•
hour - Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0 - 23)
min - Minute. (Range: 0 - 59)
sec - Second. (Range: 0 - 59)
day - Day of month. (Range: 1 - 31)
month - january | february | march | april | may | june | july | august |
september | october | november | december
• year - Year (4-digit). (Range: 2001 - 2101)
3-45
3
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows how to set the system clock to 15:12:34, February 1st, 2003.
Console#calendar set 15 12 34 1 February 2003
Console#
show calendar
Use this command to display the system clock.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show calendar set
15:12:34 February 1 2003
Console#
3-46
SNMP Commands
3
SNMP Commands
Controls access to this switch from management stations using the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), as well as the error types sent to trap managers.
Command
snmp-server community
Function
Sets up the community access string to permit access to
SNMP commands
Mode
GC
Page
3-47
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
3-48
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
3-49
snmp-server host
Specifies the recipient of an SNMP notification operation
GC
3-49
snmp-server enable traps Enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications)
GC
3-50
show snmp
NE, PE
3-51
Displays the status of SNMP communications
snmp-server community
Use this command to define the community access string for the Simple Network
Management Protocol. Use the no form to remove the specified community string.
Syntax
snmp-server community string [ro|rw]
no snmp-server community string
• string - Community string that acts like a password and permits access to
the SNMP protocol.
(Maximum length: 32 characters, case sensitive; Maximum number of
strings: 5)
• ro - Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only
able to retrieve MIB objects.
• rw - Specifies read/write access. Authorized management stations are able
to both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Default Setting
• public - Read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
• private - Read-write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The first snmp-server community command you enter enables SNMP
(SNMP v1 and v2c). The no snmp-server community command disables
SNMP.
3-47
3
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server community alpha rw
Console(config)#
snmp-server contact
Use this command to set the system contact string. Use the no form to remove the
system contact information.
Syntax
snmp-server contact string
no snmp-server contact
string - String that describes the system contact information.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Paul
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server location (3-49)
3-48
SNMP Commands
3
snmp-server location
Use this command to set the system location string. Use the no form to remove the
location string.
Syntax
snmp-server location text
no snmp-server location
text - String that describes the system location.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC-19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server contact (3-48)
snmp-server host
Use this command to specify the recipient of a Simple Network Management
Protocol notification operation. Use the no form to remove the specified host.
Syntax
snmp-server host {host-addr community-string} [version 1 | 2c]
no snmp-server host host-addr
• host-addr - Internet address of the host (the targeted recipient).
(Maximum host addresses: 5 trap destination IP address entries)
• community-string - Password-like community string sent with the
notification operation. Although you can set this string using the
snmp-server host command by itself, we recommend that you define this
string using the snmp-server community command prior to using the
snmp-server host command. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
• version - Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1 or SNMP v2c
traps.
Default Setting
Host Address: None
SNMP Version: 1
3-49
3
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server host command, no notifications are sent.
In order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at
least one snmp-server host command. In order to enable multiple hosts, you
must issue a separate snmp-server host command for each host.
• The snmp-server host command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server enable traps command. Use the snmp-server enable traps
command to specify which SNMP notifications are sent globally. For a host to
receive notifications, at least one snmp-server enable traps command and
the snmp-server host command for that host must be enabled.
• The switch can send SNMP version 1 or version 2c traps to a host IP address,
depending on the SNMP version that the management station supports. If the
snmp-server host command does not specify the SNMP version, the default
is to send SNMP version 1 traps.
• However, some notification types cannot be controlled with the snmp-server
enable traps command. For example, some notification types are always
enabled.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server enable traps (3-50)
snmp-server enable traps
Use this command to enable this device to send Simple Network Management
Protocol traps (SNMP notifications). Use the no form to disable SNMP notifications.
Syntax
snmp-server enable traps [authentication | link-up-down]
no snmp-server enable traps [authentication | link-up-down]
• authentication - Keyword to issue authentication failure traps.
• link-up-down - Keyword to issue link-up or link-down traps.
The link-up-down trap can only be enabled/disabled via the CLI.
Default Setting
Issue authentication and link-up-down traps.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
3-50
SNMP Commands
3
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server enable traps command, no notifications
controlled by this command are sent. In order to configure this device to send
SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server enable traps
command. If you enter the command with no keywords, both authentication
and link-up-down notifications are enabled. If you enter the command with a
keyword, only the notification type related to that keyword is enabled.
• The snmp-server enable traps command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server host command. Use the snmp-server host command to
specify which host or hosts receive SNMP notifications. In order to send
notifications, you must configure at least one snmp-server host command.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (3-49)
show snmp
Use this command to check the status of SNMP communications.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command provides information on the community access strings, counter
information for SNMP input and output protocol data units, and whether or not
SNMP logging has been enabled with the snmp-server enable traps
command.
3-51
3
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show snmp
SNMP traps:
Authentication: enable
Link-up-down: enable
SNMP communities:
1. private, and the privilege is read-write
2. public, and the privilege is read-only
0 SNMP packets input
0 Bad SNMP version errors
0 Unknown community name
0 Illegal operation for community name supplied
0 Encoding errors
0 Number of requested variables
0 Number of altered variables
0 Get-request PDUs
0 Get-next PDUs
0 Set-request PDUs
0 SNMP packets output
0 Too big errors
0 No such name errors
0 Bad values errors
0 General errors
0 Response PDUs
0 Trap PDUs
SNMP logging: disabled
Console#
IP Interface Commands
An IP address may be used for management access to the switch over your
network. By default, the switch uses DHCP to assign IP settings to VLAN 1 on the
switch.
You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an
address from a BOOTP or DHCP server when it is powered on. Valid IP addresses
consist of four decimal numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside
this format will not be accepted by the CLI program.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip address
Sets the IP address for the current interface
IC
3-53
ip dhcp restart
Submits a BOOTP or DCHP client request
PE
3-54
ip default-gateway
Defines the default gateway through which an in-band
management station can reach this device
GC
3-54
show ip interface
Displays the IP settings for this device
PE
3-55
show ip redirects
Displays the default gateway configured for this device
PE
3-55
ping
Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the
network
NE, PE
3-56
3-52
IP Interface Commands
3
ip address
Use this command to set the IP address for the currently selected VLAN interface.
Use the no form to restore the default IP address.
Syntax
ip address {ip-address netmask | bootp | dhcp}
no ip address
• ip-address - IP address
• netmask - Network mask for the associated IP subnet. This mask identifies
the host address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
• bootp - Obtains IP address from BOOTP.
• dhcp - Obtains IP address from DHCP.
Default Setting
DHCP is enabled by default.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
• You must assign an IP address to this device to gain management access
over the network. You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct
the device to obtain an address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP
addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything
outside this format will not be accepted by the configuration program.
• If you select the bootp or dhcp option, IP is enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. Requests will be broadcast
periodically by this device in an effort to learn its IP address. (BOOTP and
DHCP values can include the IP address, default gateway, and subnet mask).
• You can start broadcasting BOOTP or DHCP requests by entering an ip dhcp
restart command, or by rebooting the switch.
Caution: Only one VLAN interface can be assigned an IP address (the default is VLAN
1). This defines the management VLAN, the only VLAN through which you can
gain management access to the switch. If you assign an IP address to any
other VLAN, the new IP address overrides the original IP address and this
becomes the new management VLAN.
Example
In the following example, the device is assigned an address in VLAN 1.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
3-53
3
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart (3-54)
ip dhcp restart
Use this command to submit a BOOTP or DCHP client request.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command issues a BOOTP or DHCP client request for any IP interface
that has been set to BOOTP or DHCP mode via the ip address command.
• DHCP requires the server to reassign the client’s last address if available.
• If the BOOTP or DHCP server has been moved to a different domain, the
network portion of the address provided to the client will be based on this new
domain.
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP interface vlan
IP address and netmask: 10.1.0.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: Dhcp.
Console#
Related Commands
ip address (3-53)
ip default-gateway
Use this command to a establish a static route between this device and
management stations that exist on another network segment. Use the no form to
remove the static route.
Syntax
ip default-gateway gateway
no ip default-gateway
gateway - IP address of the default gateway
3-54
IP Interface Commands
3
Default Setting
No static route is established.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A gateway must be defined if the management station is located in a different
IP segment.
Example
The following example defines a default gateway for this device:
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip redirects (3-55)
show ip interface
Use this command to display the settings of an IP interface.
Default Setting
All interfaces
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: User specified.
Console#
Related Commands
show ip redirects (3-55)
show ip redirects
Use this command to show the default gateway configured for this device.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
3-55
3
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show ip redirects
ip default gateway 10.1.0.254
Console#
Related Commands
ip default-gateway (3-54)
ping
Use this command to send ICMP echo request packets to another node on the
network.
Syntax
ping host [count count][size size]
• host - IP address or IP alias of the host.
• count - Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16, default: 5)
• size - Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 32-512, default: 32)
The actual packet size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified
because the switch adds header information.
Default Setting
This command has no default for the host.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the ping command to see if another site on the network can be reached.
• Following are some results of the ping command:
- Normal response -The normal response occurs in one to ten seconds,
depending on network traffic.
- Destination does not respond - If the host does not respond, a “timeout”
appears in ten seconds.
- Destination unreachable - The gateway for this destination indicates that
the destination is unreachable.
- Network or host unreachable - The gateway found no corresponding entry
in the route table.
• Press <Esc> to stop pinging.
3-56
Line Commands
3
Example
Console#ping 10.1.0.9
Type ESC to abort.
PING to 10.1.0.9, by 5 32-byte payload ICMP packets, timeout is 5 seconds
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 0 ms
Ping statistics for 10.1.0.9:
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received (100%), 0 packets lost (0%)
Approximate round trip times:
Minimum = 0 ms, Maximum = 10 ms, Average = 8 ms
Console#
Line Commands
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the server’s serial port. These commands are used to set
communication parameters for the serial port or Telnet (i.e., a virtual terminal).
Command
Function
Mode
Page
line
Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line
configuration mode
GC
3-58
login
Enables password checking at login
LC
3-58
password
Specifies a password on a line
LC
3-59
exec-timeout
Sets the interval that the command interpreter waits until user
input is detected
LC
3-60
password-thresh
Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the number of LC
failed logon attempts
3-61
silent-time*
Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible LC
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the
threshold set by the password-thresh command
3-61
databits*
Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and LC
generated by hardware
3-62
parity*
Defines the generation of a parity bit
LC
3-63
speed*
Sets the terminal baud rate
LC
3-63
stopbits*
Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte
LC
3-64
show line
Displays a terminal line's parameters
NE, PE
3-64
* These commands only apply to the serial port.
3-57
3
Command Line Interface
line
Use this command to identify a specific line for configuration, and to process
subsequent line configuration commands.
Syntax
line {console | vty}
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
There is no default line.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Telnet is considered a virtual terminal connection and will be shown as “Vty” in
screen displays such as show users. However, the serial communication
parameters (e.g., databits) do not affect Telnet connections.
Example
To enter console line mode, enter the following command:
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
show line (3-64)
show users (3-32)
login
Use this command to enable password checking at login. Use the no form to disable
password checking and allow connections without a password.
Syntax
login [local]
no login
local - Selects local password checking. Authentication is based on the
user name specified with the username command.
Default Setting
login local
Command Mode
Line Configuration
3-58
Line Commands
3
Command Usage
• There are three authentication modes provided by the switch itself at login:
- login selects authentication by a single global password as specified by the
password line configuration command. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
- login local selects authentication via the user name and password
specified by the username command (i.e., default setting). When using this
method, the management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) or Privileged
Exec (PE) mode, depending on the user’s privilege level (0 or 15
respectively).
- no login selects no authentication. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
• This command controls login authentication via the switch itself. To configure
user names and passwords for remote authentication servers, you must use
the RADIUS/TACACS software installed on those servers.
Example
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
username (3-21)
password (3-59)
password
Use this command to specify the password for a line. Use the no form to remove the
password.
Syntax
password {0 | 7} password
no password
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password
• password - Character string that specifies the line password.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
No password is specified.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• When a connection is started on a line with password protection, the system
prompts for the password. If you enter the correct password, the system
shows a prompt. You can use the password-thresh command to set the
3-59
3
Command Line Interface
number of times a user can enter an incorrect password before the system
terminates the line connection and returns the terminal to the idle state.
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
login (3-58)
password-thresh (3-61)
exec-timeout
Use this command to set the interval that the system waits until user input is
detected. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
exec-timeout seconds
no exec-timeout
seconds - Integer that specifies the number of seconds.
(Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; 0: no timeout)
Default Setting
CLI: No timeout
Telnet: 10 minutes
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• If user input is detected within the timeout interval, the session is kept open;
otherwise the session is terminated.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
• The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 120
Console(config-line)#
3-60
Line Commands
3
password-thresh
Use this command to set the password intrusion threshold which limits the number
of failed logon attempts. Use the no form to remove the threshold value.
Syntax
password-thresh threshold
no password-thresh
threshold - The number of allowed password attempts.
(Range: 1-120; 0: no threshold)
Default Setting
The default value is three attempts.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the system interface becomes
silent for a specified amount of time before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Use the silent-time command to set this interval.) When this threshold is
reached for Telnet, the Telnet logon interface shuts down.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
Example
To set the password threshold to five attempts, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
silent-time (3-61)
silent-time
Use this command to set the amount of time the management console is
inaccessible after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the threshold
set by the password-thresh command. Use the no form to remove the silent time
value.
Syntax
silent-time seconds
no silent-time
seconds - The number of seconds to disable console response.
(Range: 0-65535; 0: no silent-time)
Default Setting
The default value is no silent-time.
3-61
3
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To set the silent time to 60 seconds, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
password-thresh (3-61)
databits
Use this command to set the number of data bits per character that are interpreted
and generated by the console port. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax
databits {7 | 8}
no databits
• 7 - Seven data bits per character.
• 8 - Eight data bits per character.
Default Setting
8 data bits per character
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
The databits command can be used to mask the high bit on input from
devices that generate 7 data bits with parity. If parity is being generated,
specify 7 data bits per character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per
character.
Example
To specify 7 data bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#databits 7
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
parity (3-63)
3-62
Line Commands
3
parity
Use this command to define generation of a parity bit. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
parity {none | even | odd}
no parity
• none - No parity
• even - Even parity
• odd - Odd parity
Default Setting
No parity
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Communication protocols provided by devices such as terminals and modems
often require a specific parity bit setting.
Example
To specify no parity, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#parity none
Console(config-line)#
speed
Use this command to set the terminal line's baud rate. This command sets both the
transmit (to terminal) and receive (from terminal) speeds. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
speed bps
no speed
bps - Baud rate in bits per second.
(Options: 9600, 57600, 38400, 19200, 115200 bps)
Default Setting
9600 bps
Command Mode
Line Configuration
3-63
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to the serial
port. Some baud rates available on devices connected to the port might not be
supported. The system indicates if the speed you selected is not supported.
Example
To specify 57600 bps, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#speed 57600
Console(config-line)#
stopbits
Use this command to set the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte. Use the
no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
stopbits {1 | 2}
• 1 - One stop bit
• 2 - Two stop bits
Default Setting
1 stop bit
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To specify 2 stop bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#stopbits 2
Console(config-line)#
show line
Use this command to display the terminal line's parameters.
Syntax
show line [console | vty]
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access.
Default Setting
Shows all lines
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
3-64
Interface Commands
3
Example
To show all lines, enter this command:
Console#show line
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Silent time: Disabled
Baudrate: 9600
Databits: 8
Parity: none
Stopbits: 1
Vty configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 65535
Console#
Interface Commands
These commands are used to display or set communication parameters for an
Ethernet port, aggregated link, or VLAN.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
interface
Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration
mode
GC
3-66
description
Adds a description to an interface configuration
IC
3-66
speed-duplex
Configures the speed and duplex operation of a given interface
when autonegotiation is disabled
IC
3-67
negotiation
Enables autonegotiation of a given interface
IC
3-68
capabilities
Advertises the capabilities of a given interface for use in
autonegotiation
IC
3-69
flowcontrol
Enables flow control on a given interface
IC
3-70
clear counters
Clears the statistics on a given interface
PE
3-71
shutdown
Disables an interface
IC
3-71
switchport broadcast
octet-rate
Configures broadcast storm control
IC
3-72
show interfaces status Displays status for the specified interface
NE, PE
3-73
show interfaces
counters
Displays statistics for the specified interfaces
NE, PE
3-74
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an interface NE, PE
3-75
3-65
3
Command Line Interface
interface
Use this command to configure an interface type and enter interface configuration
mode. Use the no form to remove a trunk.
Syntax
interface interface
no interface port-channel channel-id
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
To specify the port 25, enter the following command:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#
description
Use this command to add a description to an interface. Use the no form to remove
the description.
Syntax
description string
no description
string - Comment or a description to help you remember what is attached
to this interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
3-66
Interface Commands
3
Example
The following example adds a description to port 25.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#description RD-SW#3
Console(config-if)#
speed-duplex
Use this command to configure the speed and duplex mode of a given interface
when autonegotiation is disabled. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
speed-duplex {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half}
no speed-duplex
• 1000full - Forces 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 100full - Forces 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 100half - Forces 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
• 10full - Forces 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 10half - Forces 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
Default Setting
• Auto-negotiation is enabled by default.
• When auto-negotiation is disabled, the default speed-duplex setting is 100half
for 100BASE-TX ports and 1000full for Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• To force operation to the speed and duplex mode specified in a speed-duplex
command, use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To set the
speed/duplex mode under auto-negotiation, the required mode must be
specified in the capabilities list for an interface.
Example
The following example configures port 5 to 100 Mbps, half-duplex operation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
3-67
3
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
negotiation (3-68)
capabilities (3-69)
negotiation
Use this command to enable autonegotiation for a given interface. Use the no form
to disable autonegotiation.
Syntax
negotiation
no negotiation
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• When auto-negotiation is enabled the switch will negotiate the best settings
for a link based on the capabilities command. When auto-negotiation is
disabled, you must manually specify the link attributes with the speed-duplex
and flowcontrol commands.
• If autonegotiation is disabled, auto-MDI/MDI-X pin signal configuration will
also be disabled for the RJ-45 ports.
Example
The following example configures port 11 to use autonegotiation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (3-68)
speed-duplex (3-67)
3-68
Interface Commands
3
capabilities
Use this command to advertise the port capabilities of a given interface during
autonegotiation. Use the no form with parameters to remove an advertised
capability, or the no form without parameters to restore the default values.
Syntax
capabilities {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half | flowcontrol |
symmetric}
no capabilities [1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half | flowcontrol |
symmetric]
• 1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
• 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
• flowcontrol - Supports flow control
• symmetric (Gigabit only) - When specified, the port transmits and receives
pause frames; when not specified, the port will auto-negotiate to determine
the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames.
(The current switch ASIC only supports symmetric pause frames.)
Default Setting
• 100BASE-TX: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
• 1000BASE-T: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
• 1000BASE-SX/LX/LH: 1000full
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When auto-negotiation is enabled with the negotiation command, the switch
will negotiate the best settings for a link based on the capabilities command.
When auto-negotiation is disabled, you must manually specify the link
attributes with the speed-duplex and flowcontrol commands.
Example
The following example configures Ethernet port 5 capabilities to 100half, 100full and
flow control.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#
3-69
3
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
negotiation (3-68)
speed-duplex (3-67)
flowcontrol (3-70)
flowcontrol
Use this command to enable flow control. Use the no form to disable flow control.
Syntax
flowcontrol
no flowcontrol
Default Setting
Flow control enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for
full-duplex operation.
• To force flow control on or off (with the flowcontrol or no flowcontrol
command), use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To enable
flow control under auto-negotiation, “flowcontrol” must be included in the
capabilities list for any port.
• Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is actually
required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals may
degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.
Example
The following example enables flow control on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (3-68)
capabilities (flowcontrol, symmetric) (3-69)
3-70
Interface Commands
3
clear counters
Use this command to clear statistics on an interface.
Syntax
clear counters interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Statistics are only initialized for a power reset. This command sets the base
value for displayed statistics to zero for the current management session.
However, if you log out and back into the management interface, the statistics
displayed will show the absolute value accumulated since the last power reset.
Example
The following example clears statistics on Ethernet port 1/1.
Console#clear counters ethernet 1/1
Console#
shutdown
Use this command to disable an interface. To restart a disabled interface, use the no
form.
Syntax
shutdown
no shutdown
Default Setting
All interfaces are enabled.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
3-71
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
This command allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has been
resolved. You may also want to disable a port for security reasons.
Example
The following example disables port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#shutdown
Console(config-if)#
switchport broadcast octet-rate
Use this command to configure broadcast storm control. Use the no form to disable
broadcast storm control.
Syntax
switchport broadcast octet-rate rate
no switchport broadcast
rate - Threshold level as a rate; i.e., octets per second.
(Range: 64-95232000)
Default Setting
Enabled for all ports
Octet-rate limit: 32000 octets per second
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When broadcast traffic exceeds the specified threshold, octets above that
threshold are dropped.
• This command can enable or disable broadcast storm control for the selected
interface. However, the specified threshold value applies to all ports on the
switch.
Example
The following shows how to configure broadcast storm control at 600 octets per
second on port 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast octet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#
3-72
Interface Commands
3
show interfaces status
Use this command to display the status for an interface.
Syntax
show interfaces status [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Shows the status for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see “Displaying
Connection Status” on page 2-48.
Example
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
Basic information:
Port type: 100TX
Mac address: 00-00-AB-CD-00-01
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full,
Broadcast storm: Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 octets/second
Flow control: Disabled
Lacp: Disabled
Current status:
Link status: Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type: None
Console#show interfaces status vlan 1
Information of VLAN 1
MAC address: 00-00-AB-CD-00-00
Console#
3-73
3
Command Line Interface
show interfaces counters
Use this command to display interface statistics.
Syntax
show interfaces counters [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
Shows the counters for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see page 2-58.
Example
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/7
Ethernet 1/7
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 30658, Octets output: 196550
Unicast input: 6, Unicast output: 5
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 3064
Broadcast input: 262, Broadcast output: 1
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 227208, Packets: 3338
Broadcast pkts: 263, Multi-cast pkts: 3064
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 3150, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 139
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 49, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 0
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 0, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 0
Console#
3-74
Interface Commands
3
show interfaces switchport
Use this command to display the administrative and operational status of the
specified interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces switchport [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
Shows all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
Example
This example shows the configuration setting for port 25.
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/22
Information of Eth 1/22
Broadcast threshold: Enabled, 32000 octets/second
Lacp status: Disabled
Ingress rate limit: disable,100M bits per second
Egress rate limit: disable,100M bits per second
VLAN membership mode: Hybrid
Ingress rule: Disabled
Acceptable frame type: All frames
Native VLAN: 1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
Gvrp status: Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Private-vlan mode: NONE
Private-vlan host-association: NONE
Private-vlan mapping: NONE
Console#
Field
Description
Broadcast threshold
Shows if broadcast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it also
shows the threshold level (page 3-72).
Lacp status
Shows if Link Aggregation Control Protocol has been enabled or disabled
(page 3-112).
VLAN membership mode Indicates membership mode as Trunk or Hybrid (page 3-95).
3-75
3
Command Line Interface
Field
Description
Ingress rule
Shows if ingress filtering is enabled or disabled (page 3-96).
Acceptable frame type
Shows if acceptable VLAN frames include all types or tagged frames only
(page 3-95).
Native VLAN
Indicates the default Port VLAN ID (page 3-97).
Priority for untagged traffic Indicates the default priority for untagged frames (page 3-142).
Gvrp status
Shows if GARP VLAN Registration Protocol is enabled or disabled (page 3-105).
Allowed Vlan
Shows the VLANs this interface has joined, where “(u)” indicates untagged and
“(t)” indicates tagged (page 3-97).
Forbidden Vlan
Shows the VLANs this interface can not dynamically join via GVRP (page 3-98).
3-76
Address Table Commands
3
Address Table Commands
These commands are used to configure the address table for filtering specified
addresses, displaying current entries, clearing the table, or setting the aging time.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
mac-address-table
static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
3-77
show
mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
3-78
clear
mac-address-table
dynamic
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding database
PE
3-79
mac-address-table
aging-time
Sets the aging time of the address table
GC
3-79
show
mac-address-table
aging-time
Shows the aging time for the address table
PE
3-80
mac-address-table static
Use this command to map a static address to a destination port in a VLAN. Use the
no form to remove an address.
Syntax
mac-address-table static mac-address interface interface vlan vlan-id
[action]
no mac-address-table static mac-address vlan vlan-id
• mac-address - MAC address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• action - delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
- permanent - Assignment is permanent.
Default Setting
No static addresses are defined. The default mode is permanent.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
3-77
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
The static address for a host device can be assigned to a specific port within
a specific VLAN. Use this command to add static addresses to the MAC
Address Table. Static addresses have the following characteristics:
• Static addresses will not be removed from the address table when a given
interface link is down.
• Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be
ignored and will not be written to the address table.
• A static address cannot be learned on another port until the address is
removed with the no form of this command.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
Console(config)#
show mac-address-table
Use this command to view classes of entries in the bridge-forwarding database.
Syntax
show mac-address-table [address mac-address [mask]] [interface interface]
[vlan vlan-id] [sort {address | vlan | interface}]
• mac-address - MAC address.
• mask - Bits to match in the address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• sort - Sort by address, vlan or interface.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
3-78
Address Table Commands
3
Command Usage
• The MAC Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each
interface. Note that the Type field may include the following types:
- Learned - Dynamic address entries
- Permanent - Static entry
- Delete-on-reset - Static entry to be deleted when system is reset
• The mask should be hexadecimal numbers (representing an equivalent bit
mask) in the form xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx that is applied to the specified MAC
address. Enter hexadecimal numbers, where an equivalent binary bit “0”
means to match a bit and “1” means to ignore a bit. For example, a mask of
00-00-00-00-00-00 means an exact match, and a mask of
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF means “any.”
• The maximum number of address entries is 8191.
Example
Console#show mac-address-table
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-E0-29-94-34-DE
1 Delete-on-reset
Console#
clear mac-address-table dynamic
Use this command to remove any learned entries from the forwarding database and
to clear the transmit and receive counts for any static or system configured entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear mac-address-table dynamic
Console#
mac-address-table aging-time
Use this command to set the aging time for entries in the address table. Use the no
form to restore the default aging time.
Syntax
mac-address-table aging-time seconds
seconds - Time in number of seconds (10-30000).
Default Setting
300 seconds
3-79
3
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The aging time is used to age out dynamically learned forwarding information.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 300
Console(config)#
Spanning Tree Commands
This section includes commands that configure the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
globally for the switch, and commands that configure STA for the selected interface.
Command
Function
Mode
GC
Page
spanning-tree
Enables the spanning tree protocol
3-80
spanning-tree mode
Configures STP or RSTP mode
GC
3-81
spanning-tree forward-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge forward time
GC
3-82
spanning-tree hello-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge hello time
GC
3-83
spanning-tree max-age
Configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age
GC
3-83
spanning-tree priority
Configures the spanning tree bridge priority
GC
3-84
spanning-tree pathcost
method
Configures the path cost method for RSTP
GC
3-84
spanning-tree
transmission-limit
Configures the transmission limit for RSTP
GC
3-85
spanning-tree cost
Configures the spanning tree path cost of an interface
IC
3-86
spanning-tree port-priority
Configures the spanning tree priority of an interface
IC
3-86
spanning-tree portfast
Sets an interface to fast forwarding
IC
3-87
spanning-tree edge-port
Enables fast forwarding for edge ports
IC
3-88
spanning-tree
protocol-migration
Re-checks the appropriate BPDU format
PE
3-89
spanning-tree link-type
Configures the link type for RSTP
IC
3-89
show spanning-tree
Shows spanning tree configuration for the overall bridge or PE
a selected interface
3-90
spanning-tree
Use this command to enable the Spanning Tree Algorithm globally for the switch.
Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
spanning-tree
no spanning-tree
3-80
Spanning Tree Commands
3
Default Setting
Spanning tree is enabled.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable
network loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is,
an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only
one route exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup
links which automatically take over when a primary link goes down.
Example
This example shows how to enable the Spanning Tree Algorithm for the switch:
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mode
Use this command to select the spanning tree mode for this switch. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mode {stp | rstp}
no spanning-tree mode
• stp - Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• rstp - Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
Default Setting
rstp
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the
incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol
messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU after a port’s migration
delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge
and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
3-81
3
Command Line Interface
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an
RSTP BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration
delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
Example
The following example configures the switch to use the Rapid Spanning Tree
Protocol.
Console(config)#spanning-tree mode rstp
Console(config)#
spanning-tree forward-time
Use this command to configure the spanning tree bridge forward time globally for
this switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree forward-time seconds
no spanning-tree forward-time
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 4 - 30 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 4 or [(max-age / 2) + 1].
Default Setting
15 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait
before changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is
required because every device must receive information about topology
changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking state;
otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree forward-time 20
Console(config)#
3-82
Spanning Tree Commands
3
spanning-tree hello-time
Use this command to configure the spanning tree bridge hello time globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree hello-time time
no spanning-tree hello-time
time - Time in seconds, (Range: 1 - 10 seconds).
The maximum value is the lower of 10 or [(max-age / 2) -1].
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the time interval (in seconds) at which the root device
transmits a configuration message.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree hello-time 5
Console(config)#
spanning-tree max-age
Use this command to configure the spanning tree bridge maximum age globally for
this switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree max-age seconds
no spanning-tree max-age
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 6-40 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 6 or [2 x (hello-time + 1)].
The maximum value is the lower of 40 or [2 x (forward-time - 1)].
Default Setting
20 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
3-83
3
Command Line Interface
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If
it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree max-age 40
Console(config)#
spanning-tree priority
Use this command to configure the spanning tree priority globally for this switch. Use
the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree priority priority
no spanning-tree priority
priority - Priority of the bridge.
(Range – 0-61440, in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288,
16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152,
53248, 57344, 61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated
port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root device.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree priority 4096
Console(config)#
spanning-tree pathcost method
Use this command to configure the path cost method used for Rapid Spanning Tree.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree pathcost method {long | short}
no spanning-tree pathcost method
• long - Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
• short - Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
3-84
Spanning Tree Commands
3
Default Setting
short method
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The path cost method is used to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media,
and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. Note that path cost
(page 3-84) takes precedence over port priority (page 3-86).
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree pathcost method long
Console(config)#
spanning-tree transmission-limit
Use this command to configure the minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP BPDUs. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree transmission-limit count
no spanning-tree transmission-limit
count -The transmission limit in seconds. (Range: 1-10)
Default
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command limits the maximum transmission rate for BPDUs.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree transmission-limit 4
Console(config)#
3-85
3
Command Line Interface
spanning-tree cost
Use this command to configure the spanning tree path cost for the specified
interface. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree cost cost
no spanning-tree cost
cost - The path cost for the port. (Range: 1-200,000,000))
The recommended range is:
• Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
• Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
• Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
Default Setting
• Ethernet – half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
• Fast Ethernet – half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
• Gigabit Ethernet – full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command is used by the Spanning Tree Algorithm to determine the best
path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media.
• Path cost takes precedence over port priority.
• When the spanning-tree pathcost method (page 3-84) is set to short, the
maximum value for path cost is 65,535.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree port-priority
Use this command to configure the priority for the specified interface. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree port-priority priority
no spanning-tree port-priority
priority - The priority for a port. (Range: 0-240, in steps of 16)
3-86
Spanning Tree Commands
3
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of a port in the Spanning Tree
Algorithm. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with
the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as an active link in
the spanning tree.
• Where more than one port is assigned the highest priority, the port with the
lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree cost (3-86)
spanning-tree portfast
Use this command to set an interface to fast forwarding. Use the no form to disable
fast forwarding.
Syntax
spanning-tree portfast
no spanning-tree portfast
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command is used to enable/disable the fast spanning-tree mode for the
selected port. In this mode, ports skip the Discarding and Learning states, and
proceed straight to Forwarding.
• Since end-nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can be passed through
the spanning tree state changes more quickly than allowed by standard
convergence time. Fast forwarding can achieve quicker convergence for
end-node workstations and servers, and also overcome other STA related
timeout problems. (Remember that fast forwarding should only be enabled for
ports connected to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or for
an end-node device.)
3-87
3
Command Line Interface
• This command is the same as spanning-tree edge-port, and is only included
for backward compatibility with earlier products. Note that this command may
be removed for future software versions.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree portfast
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree edge-port (3-88)
spanning-tree edge-port
Use this command to specify an interface as an edge port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree edge-port
no spanning-tree edge-port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that
is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot
cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for
devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding
database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address
tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port
should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.
• This command has the same effect as the spanning-tree portfast.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree portfast (3-87)
3-88
Spanning Tree Commands
3
spanning-tree protocol-migration
Use this command to re-check the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected
interface.
Syntax
spanning-tree protocol-migration interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration or
Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the
spanning-tree protocol-migration command at any time to manually
re-check the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected interfaces
(i.e., RSTP or STP-compatible).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree protocol-migration
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree link-type
Use this command to configure the link type for Rapid Spanning Tree. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree link-type {auto | point-to-point | shared}
no spanning-tree link-type
• auto - Automatically derived from the duplex mode setting.
• point-to-point - Point-to-point link.
• shared - Shared medium.
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
3-89
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• Specify a point-to-point link if the interface can only be connected to exactly
one other bridge, or a shared link if it can be connected to two or more bridges.
• When automatic detection is selected, the switch derives the link type from the
duplex mode. A full-duplex interface is considered a point-to-point link, while
a half-duplex interface is assumed to be on a shared link.
• RSTP only works on point-to-point links between two bridges. If you designate
a port as a shared link, RSTP is forbidden.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type point-to-point
Console(config-if)#
show spanning-tree
Use this command to show the spanning tree configuration.
Syntax
show spanning-tree [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the show spanning-tree command with no parameters to display the
spanning tree configuration for the switch and for every interface in the tree.
• Use the show spanning-tree interface command to display the spanning tree
configuration for an interface.
• For a description of the items displayed under “Spanning-tree information,”
see “Configuring Global Settings” on page 2-69. For a description of the items
displayed for specific interfaces, see “Displaying Interface Settings” on page
2-72.
3-90
Spanning Tree Commands
3
Example
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:RSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Designated Root
:32768.0000ABCD0000
Current root port
:0
Current root cost
:0
Number of topology changes
:2
Last topology changes time (sec.):1718
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: disable
State
: discarding
Path cost
: 100000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 0
Designated port
: 128.1
Designated root
: 32768.0000ABCD0000
Designated bridge
: 32768.0000ABCD0000
Forward transitions : 0
Fast forwarding
: disable
Admin edge port
: disable
Oper edge port
: disable
Admin Link type
: auto
Oper Link type
: point-to-point
.
.
.
Console#
3-91
3
Command Line Interface
VLAN Commands
A VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the network, but
communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment. This section
describes commands used to create VLAN groups, add port members, specify how
VLAN tagging is used, and enable automatic VLAN registration for the selected
interface.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Edit VLAN Groups
vlan database
Enters VLAN database mode to add, change, and delete
VLANs
GC
3-92
vlan
Configures a VLAN, including VID, name and state
VC
3-93
interface vlan
Enters interface configuration mode for specified VLAN
IC
3-94
switchport mode
Configures VLAN membership mode for an interface
IC
3-95
switchport
acceptable-frame-types
Configures frame types to be accepted by an interface
IC
3-95
switchport ingress-filtering
Enables ingress filtering on an interface
IC
3-96
switchport native vlan
Configures the PVID (native VLAN) of an interface
IC
3-97
switchport allowed vlan
Configures the VLANs associated with an interface
IC
3-97
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
3-105
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
3-98
Configure VLAN Interfaces
Display VLAN Information
show vlan
Shows VLAN information
NE, PE
3-99
show interfaces status vlan
Displays status for the specified VLAN interface
NE, PE
3-73
show interfaces switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
3-75
vlan database
Use this command to enter VLAN database mode. All commands in this mode will
take effect immediately.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the VLAN database command mode to add, change, and delete VLANs.
After finishing configuration changes, you can display the VLAN settings by
entering the show vlan command.
3-92
VLAN Commands
3
• Use the interface vlan command mode to define the port membership mode
and add or remove ports from a VLAN. The results of these commands are
written to the running-configuration file, and you can display this file by
entering the show running-config command.
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (3-99)
vlan
Use this command to configure a VLAN. Use the no form to restore the default
settings or delete a VLAN.
Syntax
vlan vlan-id [name vlan-name] media ethernet [state {active | suspend}]
no vlan vlan-id [name | state]
• vlan-id - ID of configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
- vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
• media ethernet - Ethernet media type.
• state - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN state.
- active - VLAN is operational.
- suspend - VLAN is suspended. Suspended VLANs do not pass packets.
Default Setting
By default only VLAN 1 exists and is active.
Command Mode
VLAN Database Configuration
Command Usage
• no vlan vlan-id deletes the VLAN.
• no vlan vlan-id name removes the VLAN name.
• no vlan vlan-id state returns the VLAN to the default state (i.e., active).
• You can configure up to 255 VLANs on the switch.
3-93
3
Command Line Interface
Example
The following example adds a VLAN, using VLAN ID 105 and name RD5. The VLAN
is activated by default.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 105 name RD5 media ethernet
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (3-99)
interface vlan
Use this command to enter interface configuration mode for VLANs, and configure a
physical interface.
Syntax
interface vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface configuration mode to
VLAN 1, and then assign an IP address to the VLAN:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
shutdown (3-71)
3-94
VLAN Commands
3
switchport mode
Use this command to configure the VLAN membership mode for a port. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport mode {trunk | hybrid}
no switchport mode
• trunk - Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify
the source VLAN. However, note that frames belonging to the port’s default
VLAN (i.e., associated with the PVID) are sent untagged.
• hybrid - Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged
or untagged frames.
Default Setting
All ports are in hybrid mode with the PVID set to VLAN 1.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following shows how to set the configuration mode to port 1, and then set the
switchport mode to hybrid:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport acceptable-frame-types (3-95)
switchport acceptable-frame-types
Use this command to configure the acceptable frame types for a port. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport acceptable-frame-types {all | tagged}
no switchport acceptable-frame-types
• all - The port accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
• tagged - The port only passes tagged frames.
Default Setting
All frame types
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
3-95
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged
are assigned to the default VLAN.
Example
The following example shows how to restrict the traffic passed on port 1 to tagged
frames:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport mode (3-95)
switchport ingress-filtering
Use this command to enable ingress filtering for an interface. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
switchport ingress-filtering
no switchport ingress-filtering
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
• If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
• If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
• Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as
GVRP or STA. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such
as GMRP.
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface to port 1 and then enable
ingress filtering:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#
3-96
VLAN Commands
3
switchport native vlan
Use this command to configure the PVID (i.e., default VLAN ID) for a port. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport native vlan vlan-id
no switchport native vlan
vlan-id - Default VLAN ID for a port. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
VLAN 1
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this
VLAN, the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged
member. For all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an
untagged member before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• If acceptable frame types is set to all or switchport mode is set to hybrid, the
PVID will be inserted into all untagged frames entering the ingress port.
Example
The following example shows how to set the PVID for port 1 to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
switchport allowed vlan
Use this command to configure VLAN groups on the selected interface. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport allowed vlan {add vlan-list [tagged | untagged] | remove vlan-list}
no switchport allowed vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4094).
Default Setting
All ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default.
The default frame type is untagged.
3-97
3
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• A port, or a trunk with switchport mode set to hybrid, must be assigned to at
least one VLAN as untagged.
• If a trunk has switchport mode set to trunk (i.e., 1Q Trunk), then you can only
assign an interface to VLAN groups as a tagged member.
• Frames are always tagged within the switch. The tagged/untagged parameter
used when adding a VLAN to an interface tells the switch whether to keep or
remove the tag from a frame on egress.
• If none of the intermediate network devices nor the host at the other end of the
connection supports VLANs, the interface should be added to these VLANs
as an untagged member. Otherwise, it is only necessary to add at most one
VLAN as untagged, and this should correspond to the native VLAN for the
interface.
• If a VLAN on the forbidden list for an interface is manually added to that
interface, the VLAN is automatically removed from the forbidden list for that
interface.
Example
The following example shows how to add VLANs 1, 2, 5 and 6 to the allowed list as
tagged VLANs for port 1:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1,2,5,6 tagged
Console(config-if)#
switchport forbidden vlan
Use this command to configure forbidden VLANs. Use the no form to remove the list
of forbidden VLANs.
Syntax
switchport forbidden vlan {add vlan-list | remove vlan-list}
no switchport forbidden vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4094).
Default Setting
No VLANs are included in the forbidden list.
3-98
VLAN Commands
3
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command prevents a VLAN from being automatically added to the
specified interface via GVRP.
• If a VLAN has been added to the set of allowed VLANs for an interface, then
you cannot add it to the set of forbidden VLANs for that same interface.
Example
The following example shows how to prevent port 1 from being added to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport forbidden vlan add 3
Console(config-if)#
show vlan
Use this command to show VLAN information.
Syntax
show vlan [id vlan-id | name vlan-name]
• id - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN ID.
- vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
- vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
Default Setting
Shows all VLANs.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows how to display information for VLAN 1:
Console#show
VLAN Type
---- ------1
Static
vlan id 1
Name
Status
Ports/Channel groups
----------- ----------------------------------------DefaultVlan Active Eth1/1 Eth1/2 Eth1/3 Eth1/4 Eth1/5
Eth1/6 Eth1/7 Eth1/8 Eth1/9 Eth1/10
Eth1/11 Eth1/12 Eth1/13 Eth1/14 Eth1/15
Eth1/16 Eth1/17 Eth1/18 Eth1/19 Eth1/20
Eth1/21 Eth1/22 Eth1/23 Eth1/24
Console#
3-99
3
Command Line Interface
Private VLAN Commands
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. This switch supports three types of private VLAN ports:
promiscuous, isolated, and community ports. A promiscuous port can communicate
with all interfaces within a private VLAN. An isolated port can only communicate with
promiscuous ports within its own VLAN. Community ports can only communicate
with other ports in their own community VLAN, and with their designated
promiscuous ports. This section describes commands used to configure private
VLANs.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Edit Private VLAN Groups
private-vlan
Adds or deletes primary and secondary VLANs
VC
3-101
private-vlan association
Associates a secondary with a primary VLAN
VC
3-101
Configure Private VLAN Interfaces
switchport mode
private-vlan
Sets an interface to host, isolated, or promiscuous mode
IC
3-102
switchport private-vlan
host-association
Associates an interface with a secondary VLAN
IC
3-103
switchport private-vlan
mapping
Maps an interface to a primary VLAN
IC
3-103
NE, PE
3-104
Display Private VLAN Information
show vlan private-vlan
Shows Private VLAN information
To configure private VLANs, follow these steps:
1.
Use the private-vlan command to designate one or more isolated or
community VLANs and the primary VLAN that will channel traffic outside the
community groups.
2.
Use the private-vlan association command to map the secondary
(i.e., isolated or community) VLAN(s) to the primary VLAN.
3.
Use the switchport mode private-vlan command to configure ports as
promiscuous (i.e., having access to all ports in the primary VLAN), isolated (i.e.,
having access only to promiscuous ports in its own VLAN), or host (i.e., having
access restricted to community VLAN members, and channeling all other traffic
through a promiscuous port).
4.
Use the switchport private-vlan host-association command to assign a port
to a secondary VLAN.
5.
Use the switchport private-vlan mapping command to assign a port to a
primary VLAN.
6.
Use the show vlan private-vlan command to verify your configuration settings.
3-100
Private VLAN Commands
3
private-vlan
Use this command to create a primary or secondary (i.e., isolated or community)
private VLAN. Use the no form to remove the specified private VLAN.
Syntax
private-vlan vlan-id {community | isolated | primary}
no private-vlan vlan-id
• vlan-id – ID of private VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• community – Specifies a community VLAN.
• isolated – Specifies an isolated VLAN.
• primary – Specifies a primary VLAN.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
VLAN Configuration
Command Usage
• Private VLANs are used to restrict traffic to ports within the same VLAN
“community,” and channel traffic passing outside the community through
promiscuous ports that have been mapped to the associated “primary” VLAN.
• Port membership for private VLANs is static. Once a port has been assigned
to a private VLAN, it cannot be dynamically moved to another VLAN via
GVRP.
• Private VLAN ports cannot be set to trunked mode. (See “switchport mode” on
page 3-95.)
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 2 primary
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 3 community
Console(config)#
private-vlan association
Use this command to associate a primary VLAN with a secondary (i.e., community)
VLAN. Use the no form to remove all associations for the specified primary VLAN.
Syntax
private-vlan primary-vlan-id association {secondary-vlan-id | add
secondary-vlan-id | remove secondary-vlan-id}
no private-vlan primary-vlan-id association
• primary-vlan-id - ID of private VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• secondary-vlan-id - ID of private (i.e., isolated or community) VLAN.
(Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes).
3-101
3
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
VLAN Configuration
Command Usage
Secondary VLANs provide security for group members. The associated
primary VLAN provides a common interface for access to other network
resources within the primary VLAN (e.g., servers configured with promiscuous
ports) and to resources outside of the primary VLAN (via promiscuous ports).
Example
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 2 association 3
Console(config)#
switchport mode private-vlan
Use this command to set the private VLAN mode for an interface. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
switchport mode private-vlan {host | promiscuous}
no switchport mode private-vlan
• host – This port type can communicate with all other host ports assigned to
the same secondary VLAN. All communications outside of this VLAN must
pass through a promiscuous port in the associated primary VLAN.
• promiscuous – This port type can communicate with all other promiscuous
ports in the same primary VLAN, as well as with all the ports in the
associated secondary VLANs.
Default Setting
Normal VLAN
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Promiscuous ports assigned to a primary VLAN can communicate with all
other promiscuous ports in the same VLAN, as well as with all the ports in the
associated secondary VLANs.
3-102
Private VLAN Commands
3
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet
Console(config-if)#switchport mode
Console(config)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet
Console(config-if)#switchport mode
Console(config)#
1/2
private-vlan promiscuous
1/3
private-vlan host
switchport private-vlan host-association
Use this command to associate an interface with a secondary VLAN. Use the no
form to remove this association.
Syntax
switchport private-vlan host-association secondary-vlan-id
no switchport private-vlan host-association
secondary-vlan-id – ID of secondary (i.e, isolated or community) VLAN.
(Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes).
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
All ports assigned to a secondary (i.e., community) VLAN can pass traffic
between group members, but must communicate with resources outside of the
group via a promiscuous port.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan host-association 3
Console(config)#
switchport private-vlan mapping
Use this command to map an interface to a primary VLAN. Use the no form to
remove this mapping.
Syntax
switchport private-vlan mapping primary-vlan-id
no switchport private-vlan mapping
primary-vlan-id – ID of primary VLAN.
(Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes).
Default Setting
None
3-103
3
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Promiscuous ports assigned to a primary VLAN can communicate with any
other promiscuous ports in the same VLAN, and with the group members
within any associated secondary VLANs.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan mapping 2
show vlan private-vlan
Use this command to show the private VLAN configuration settings on this switch.
Syntax
show vlan private-vlan [community | primary]
• community – Displays all community VLANs, along with their associate
primary VLAN and assigned host interfaces.
• isolated – Displays all isolated VLANs, along with their associate primary
VLAN and assigned host interfaces.
• primary – Displays all primary VLANs, along with any assigned
promiscuous interfaces.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
Example
Console#show vlan private-vlan
Primary
Secondary
Type
-------- ----------- ---------5
primary
5
6
community
Console#
3-104
Interfaces
-----------------------------Eth1/ 3
Eth1/ 4 Eth1/ 5
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
3
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN
information in order to automatically register VLAN members on interfaces across
the network. This section describes how to enable GVRP for individual interfaces
and globally for the switch, as well as how to display default configuration settings
for the Bridge Extension MIB.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Interface Commands
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
3-105
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
3-98
show gvrp configuration
Displays GVRP configuration for selected interface NE, PE
3-106
garp timer
Sets the GARP timer for the selected function
IC
3-106
show garp timer
Shows the GARP timer for the selected function
NE, PE
3-107
bridge-ext gvrp
Enables GVRP globally for the switch
GC
3-108
show bridge-ext
Shows the global bridge extension configuration
PE
3-108
Global Commands
switchport gvrp
Use this command to enable GVRP for a port. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
switchport gvrp
no switchport gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#
3-105
3
Command Line Interface
show gvrp configuration
Use this command to show if GVRP is enabled.
Syntax
show gvrp configuration [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
Shows both global and interface-specific configuration.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show gvrp configuration ethernet 1/7
Eth 1/ 7:
Gvrp configuration: Disabled
Console#
garp timer
Use this command to set the values for the join, leave and leaveall timers. Use the
no form to restore the timers’ default values.
Syntax
garp timer {join | leave | leaveall} timer_value
no garp timer {join | leave | leaveall}
• {join | leave | leaveall} - Which timer to set.
• timer_value - Value of timer.
Ranges:
join: 20-1000 centiseconds
leave: 60-3000 centiseconds
leavall: 500-18000 centiseconds
Default Setting
• join: 20 centiseconds
• leave: 60 centiseconds
• leaveall: 1000 centiseconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
3-106
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
3
Command Usage
• Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP and GMRP to register
or deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The
default values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access
method or data rate. These values should not be changed unless you are
experiencing difficulties with GMRP or GVRP registration/deregistration.
• Timer values are applied to GVRP for all the ports on all VLANs.
• Timer values must meet the following restrictions:
- leave >= (2 x join)
- leaveall > leave
Caution: Set GVRP timers on all Layer 2 devices connected in the same network to the
same values. Otherwise, GVRP may not operate successfully.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show garp timer (3-107)
show garp timer
Use this command to show the GARP timers for the selected interface.
Syntax
show garp timer [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
Shows all GARP timers.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
3-107
3
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show garp timer ethernet 1/1
Eth 1/ 1 GARP timer status:
Join timer: 20 centiseconds
Leave timer: 60 centiseconds
Leaveall timer: 1000 centiseconds
Console#
Related Commands
garp timer (3-106)
bridge-ext gvrp
Use this command to enable GVRP globally for the switch. Use the no form to
disable it.
Syntax
bridge-ext gvrp
no bridge-ext gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
GVRP defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to
register VLAN members on ports across the network. This function should be
enabled to permit automatic VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which
extend beyond the local switch.
Example
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
show bridge-ext
Use this command to show the configuration for bridge extension commands.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
3-108
Mirror Port Commands
3
Command Usage
See “Displaying Basic VLAN Information” on page 2-81 and “Displaying Bridge
Extension Capabilities” on page 2-10 for a description of the displayed items.
Example
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Disabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
Mirror Port Commands
This section describes how to mirror traffic from a source port to a target port.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
port monitor
Configures a mirror session
IC
3-109
show port monitor
Shows the configuration for a mirror port
PE
3-110
port monitor
Use this command to configure a mirror session. Use the no form to clear a mirror
session.
Syntax
port monitor interface [rx | tx | both]
no port monitor interface
• interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
- unit - Switch (unit 1).
- port - Port number.
• rx - Mirror received packets.
• tx - Mirror transmitted packets.
• both - Mirror both received and transmitted packets.
Default Setting
No mirror session is defined. When enabled, the default mirroring is for both
received and transmitted packets.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, destination port)
3-109
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• You can mirror traffic from any source port to a destination port for real-time
analysis. You can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
destination port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely
unobtrusive manner.
• The destination port is set by specifying an Ethernet interface.
• The mirror port and monitor port speeds should match, otherwise traffic may
be dropped from the monitor port.
• You can create multiple mirror sessions, but all sessions must share the same
destination port. However, you should avoid sending too much traffic to the
destination port from multiple source ports.
Example
The following example configures the switch to mirror all packets from port 6 to
port 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6 both
Console(config-if)#
show port monitor
Use this command to display mirror information.
Syntax
show port monitor [interface]
interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
• unit - Switch (unit 1).
• port - Port number.
Default Setting
Shows all sessions.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the currently configured source port, destination port,
and mirror mode (i.e., RX, TX, RX/TX).
3-110
Link Aggregation Commands
3
Example
The following shows mirroring configured from port 6 to port 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show port monitor
Port Mirroring
------------------------------------Destination port(listen port):Eth1/1
Source port(monitored port) :Eth1/6
Mode
:RX/TX
Console#
Link Aggregation Commands
Ports can be statically grouped into an aggregate link (i.e., trunk) to increase the
bandwidth of a network connection or to ensure fault recovery. Or you can use the
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) to automatically negotiate a trunk link
between this switch and another network device. For static trunks, the switches have
to comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. For dynamic trunks, the switches
have to comply with LACP. This switch supports up to six trunks. For example, a
trunk consisting of two 1000 Mbps ports can support an aggregate bandwidth of
4 Gbps when operating at full duplex.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Manual Configuration Commands
interface port-channel
Configures a trunk and enters interface configuration mode GC
for the trunk
channel-group
Adds a port to a trunk
3-66
IC
3-112
IC
3-112
Dynamic Configuration Command
lacp
Configures LACP for the current interface
Trunk Status Display Command
show interfaces status
port-channel
Shows trunk information
NE, PE
3-73
Guidelines for Creating Trunks
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• A trunk can have up to four 10/100 Mbps ports or up to two 1000 Mbps ports.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• All ports in a trunk must consist of the same media type (i.e., twisted-pair or
fiber).
3-111
3
Command Line Interface
• All ports in a trunk must be configured in an identical manner, including
communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN
assignments, and CoS settings.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to,
added or deleted from a VLAN via the specified port-channel.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk via the
specified port-channel.
channel-group
Use this command to add a port to a trunk. Use the no form to remove a port from a
trunk.
Syntax
channel-group channel-id
no channel-group
channel-id - Trunk index (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
The current port will be added to this trunk.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When configuring static trunks, the switches must comply with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard.
• Use no channel-group to remove a port group from a trunk.
• Use no interfaces port-channel to remove a trunk from the switch.
Example
The following example creates trunk 1 and then adds port 11:
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#
lacp
Use this command to enable 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for
the current interface. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
lacp
no lacp
3-112
Link Aggregation Commands
3
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• The ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex,
either by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned
the next available port-channel ID.
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk
will be activated automatically.
• If more than four ports attached to the same target switch have LACP
enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will only be
enabled if one of the active links fails.
Example
The following shows LACP enabled on ports 11 - 13. Because LACP has also been
enabled on the ports at the other end of the links, the show interfaces status
port-channel 1 command shows that Trunk1 has been established.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#exit
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 100tx
Mac address: 00-00-e8-00-00-0b
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin status: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full,
Flow control status: Disabled
Current status:
Created by: lacp
Link status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/11, Eth1/12, Eth1/13,
Console#
3-113
3
Command Line Interface
Rate Limit Commands
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at
the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within
the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of
traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
Rate limit granularity is an additional feature enabling the network manager greater
control over traffic on the network. The "rate limit granularity" is multiplied by the
"rate limit level" (page 3-114) to set the actual rate limit for an interface. Granularity
is a global setting that applies to Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
rate-limit
Configures the maximum input or output rate for a port
IC
3-114
rate-limit granularity
Sets the Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet granularity
IC
3-115
show rate-limit
Shows the rate limit granularity
PE
3-115
rate-limit
Use this command to define the rate limit level for a specific interface. Use this
command without specifying a rate to restore the default rate limit level. Use the no
form to restore the default status of disabled.
Syntax
rate-limit {input | output} [level]
no rate-limit {input | output}
• input – Input rate.
• output – Output rate.
• level – Rate limit level. (Range: 1 - 30)
Default Setting
30
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Actual rate limit = Rate limit level * Granularity
3-114
Rate Limit Commands
3
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input level 10
Console(config-if)#
rate-limit granularity
Use this command to define the rate limit granularity for the Fast Ethernet ports, and
the Gigabit Ethernet ports. Use the no form of this command to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
rate-limit {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} granularity [granularity]
no rate-limit {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} granularity
• fastethernet – Gigabit Ethernet granularity.
• gigabitethernet – Fast Ethernet granularity.
• granularity – Sets rate limit granularity for the system. For Fast Ethernet,
choose 512 Kbps,1000 Kbps, or 3300 Kbps. For Gigabit Ethernet, only
one granularity option is supported, 33300 Kbps.
Default Setting
Fast Ethernet interface – 3.3 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet interface – 33.3 Mbps
Command Mode
Global Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Actual rate limit = Rate limit level * Granularity
Example
The following sets Fast Ethernet granularity to 1 Mbps, and Gigabit Ethernet
granularity to 33.3 Mbps.
Console(config)#rate-limit fastethernet granularity 1000
Console(config)#rate-limit gigabitethernet granularity 33300
Console(config)#
show rate-limit
Use this command to display the rate limit granularity.
Default Setting
Fast Ethernet interface – 3.3 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet interface – 33.3 Mbps
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
3-115
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• For Fast Ethernet interfaces, the rate limit granularity is 512 Kbps, 1 Mbps, or
3.3 Mbps.
• For Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, the rate limit granularity is 33.3 Mbps.
Example
Console#show rate-limit
Fast ethernet granularity:
1000
Gigabit ethernet granularity:
Console#
3-116
33300
Authentication Commands
3
Authentication Commands
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local, RADIUS, or TACACS authentication methods. You
can also enable port-based authentication for network client access using IEEE
802.1x.
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) and Terminal Access
Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+) are logon authentication
protocols that use software running on a central server to control access to
RADIUS-aware or TACACS+-aware devices on the network. An authentication
server contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated
privilege levels for each user or group that require management access to a switch.
The switch supports IEEE 802.1x (dot1x) port-based access control that prevents
unauthorized access to the network by requiring users to first submit credentials for
authentication. Client authentication is controlled centrally by an authentication
server using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Authentication Method
authentication login
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
GC
3-118
RADIUS Client
radius-server host
Specifies the RADIUS server
GC
3-119
radius-server port
Sets the RADIUS server network port
GC
3-119
radius-server key
Sets the RADIUS encryption key
GC
3-120
radius-server retransmit
Sets the number of retries
GC
3-120
radius-server timeout
Sets the interval between sending authentication
requests
GC
3-121
show radius-server
Shows the current RADIUS settings
PE
3-121
TACACS+ Client
tacacs-server host
Specifies the TACACS+ server
GC
3-121
tacacs-server port
Specifies the TACACS+ server network port
GC
3-122
tacacs-server key
Sets the TACACS+ encryption key
GC
3-122
show tacacs-server
Shows the current TACACS+ settings
GC
3-123
authentication dot1x default
Sets the default authentication server type
GC
3-123
dot1x default
Resets all dot1x parameters to their default values.
GC
3-123
dot1x max-req
Sets the maximum number of times the switch will attempt GC
to send a request to the client before authentication fails
3-124
dot1x port-control
Sets dot1x mode for a port interface
IC
3-124
dot1x re-authenticate
Forces a re-authentication on specific ports
PE
3-125
dot1x re-authentication
Enables re-authentication for all ports
GC
3-125
Port Authentication
3-117
3
Command Line Interface
Command
Function
Mode
Page
dot1x timeout quiet-period
Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max
GC
Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to
acquire a new client
3-126
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
Sets the time period after which a connected client must GC
be re-authenticated
3-126
dot1x timeout tx-period
Sets the time period during an authentication session that GC
the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet
3-127
show dot1x
Shows all dot1x related information
3-127
PE
authentication login
Use this command to define the login authentication method and precedence. Use
the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication login {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication login
• local - Use local password only.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password only.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password only.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication can control management
access via the console port, a Web browser, or Telnet. These access options
must be configured on the authentication server.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication login
radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS server is
verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is
attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available,
the local user name and password is checked.
3-118
Authentication Commands
3
Example
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
username (3-21)
radius-server host
Use this command to specify the RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server host host_ip_address
no radius-server host
host_ip_address - IP address of server.
Default Setting
10.1.0.1
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
radius-server port
Use this command to set the RADIUS server network port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server port port_number
no radius-server port
port_number - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
1812
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#
3-119
3
Command Line Interface
radius-server key
Use this command to set the RADIUS encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server key key_string
no radius-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client.
Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#
radius-server retransmit
Use this command to set the number of retries. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server retransmit number_of_retries
no radius-server retransmit
number_of_retries - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate
logon access via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1 - 30)
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#
3-120
Authentication Commands
3
radius-server timeout
Use this command to set the interval between transmitting authentication requests
to the RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server timeout number_of_seconds
no radius-server timeout
number_of_seconds - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply
before resending a request. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
5
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#
show radius-server
Use this command to display the current settings for the RADIUS server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show radius-server
Remote radius server configuration:
Server IP address: 10.1.0.1
Communication key with radius server:
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 2
Request timeout: 5
Console#
tacacs-server host
Use this command to specify the TACACS+ server. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server host host_ip_address
no tacacs-server host
host_ip_address - IP address of a TACACS+ server.
3-121
3
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
10.11.12.13
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
tacacs-server port
Use this command to specify the TACACS+ server TCP port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
tacacs-server port port_number
no tacacs-server port
port_number - TACACS+ server TCP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
49
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 181
Console(config)#
tacacs-server key
Use this command to set the TACACS+ encryption key. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
tacacs-server key key_string
no tacacs-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for the
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string.
(Maximum length: 32 characters)
Default Setting
None
3-122
Authentication Commands
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#
show tacacs-server
Use this command to display the current settings for the TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS server configuration:
Server IP address: 10.11.12.13
Communication key with TACACS server: green
Server port number: 49
Console#
authentication dot1x default
Sets the default authentication server type. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication dot1x default radius
no authentication dot1x
Default Setting
RADIUS
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#authentication dot1x default radius
Console(config)#
dot1x default
Sets all configurable dot1x global and port settings to their default values.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
3-123
3
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#dot1x default
Console(config)#
dot1x max-req
Sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an EAP request
packet to the client before it times out the authentication session. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
dot1x max-req count
no dot1x max-req
count – The maximum number of requests (Range: 1-10)
Default
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x max-req 2
Console(config)#
dot1x port-control
Sets the dot1x mode on a port interface. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | force-unauthorized}
no dot1x port-control
• auto – Requires a dot1x-aware connected client to be authorized by the
RADIUS server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
• force-authorized – Configures the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
• force-unauthorized – Configures the port to deny access to all clients,
either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Default
force-authorized
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
3-124
Authentication Commands
3
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#
dot1x re-authenticate
Forces re-authentication on all ports or a specific interface.
Syntax
dot1x re-authenticate [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#dot1x re-authenticate
Console#
dot1x re-authentication
Enables periodic re-authentication globally for all ports. Use the no form to disable
re-authentication.
Syntax
dot1x re-authentication
no dot1x re-authentication
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config)#
3-125
3
Command Line Interface
dot1x timeout quiet-period
Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count has been
exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client. Use the no form of this
command to reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds
no dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
60 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 350
Console(config)#
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
Sets the time period after which a connected client must be re-authenticated.
Syntax
dot1x timeout re-authperiod seconds
no dot1x timeout re-authperiod
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
3600 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 3600
Console(config)#
3-126
Authentication Commands
3
dot1x timeout tx-period
Sets the time that the switch waits during an authentication session before
re-transmitting an EAP packet. Use the no form to reset to the default value.
Syntax
dot1x timeout tx-period seconds
no dot1x timeout tx-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout tx-period 300
Console(config)#
show dot1x
Use this command to show general port authentication related settings on the switch
or a specific interface.
Syntax
show dot1x [statistics] [interface interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the following information:
• Global 802.1X Parameters – Displays the global port access control
parameters that can be configured for this switch as described in the
preceding pages, including reauth-period (page 3-126), quiet-period (page
3-126), tx-period (page 3-127), and max-req (page 3-124). It also displays the
following global parameters which are set to a fixed value, including the
following items:
- supp-timeout – Supplicant timeout.
- server-timeout – Server timeout.
- reauth-max – Maximum number of reauthentication attempts.
3-127
3
Command Line Interface
• 802.1X Port Summary – Displays the port access control parameters for each
interface, including the following items:
- Status – Administrative state for port access control.
- Mode – Dot1x port control mode (page 3-124).
- Authorized – Authorization status (yes or n/a - not authorized).
• 802.1X Port Details – Displays detailed port access control settings for each
interface as described in the preceding pages, including administrative status
for port access control, Max request (page 3-124), Quiet period (page 3-126),
Reauth period (page 3-126), and Tx period (page 3-127). It also displays the
following information:
- Status – Authorization status (authorized or unauthorized).
- Supplicant – MAC address of authorized client.
• Authenticator State Machine
- State – Current state (including initialize, disconnected, connecting,
authenticating, authenticated, aborting, held, force_authorized,
force_unauthorized).
- Reauth Count – Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
• Backend State Machine
- State – Current state (including request, response, success, fail, timeout,
idle, initialize).
- Request Count – Number of EAP Request packets sent to the Supplicant
without receiving a response.
- Identifier(Server) – Identifier carried in the most recent EAP Success,
Failure or Request packet received from the Authentication Server.
• Reauthentication State Machine
- State – Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
3-128
Authentication Commands
3
Example
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
reauth-enabled: yes
reauth-period: 300
quiet-period:
350
tx-period:
300
supp-timeout:
30
server-timeout: 30
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
Status
1
disabled
2
disabled
.
.
.
25
disabled
26
enabled
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authorized
n/a
n/a
ForceAuthorized
Auto
yes
yes
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1
.
.
.
802.1X is enabled on port 26
Max request
2
Quiet period
350
Reauth period
300
Tx period
300
Status
Unauthorized
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-00-00-00-00-00
Authenticator State Machine
State
Connecting
Reauth Count
3
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 0
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
Console#
3-129
3
Command Line Interface
Access Control List Commands
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address,
protocol, TCP/UDP port number or TCP control code) or non-IP frames (based on
MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter incoming packets, first create an access list,
add the required rules, and then bind the list to a specific port.
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests incoming packets
against the conditions in an ACL one by one. If a list contains all permit rules, a
packet will be accepted as soon as it passes any of the rules. If a list contains all
deny rules, then a packet will be rejected as soon as it fails any one of the rules. In
other words, if no rules match for a permit list, the packet is dropped; and if no rules
match for a deny list, the packet is accepted.
There are three filtering modes:
• Standard IP ACL mode (STD-ACL) filters packets based on the source IP address.
• Extended IP ACL mode (EXT-ACL) filters packets based on source or destination
IP address, as well as protocol type and TCP/UDP port number. If the TCP
protocol type is specified, then you can also filter packets based on the TCP
control code.
• MAC ACL mode (MAC-ACL) filters based on the source, destination MAC address
and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
Caution: An access list can only contain all permit rules or all deny rules. In other words,
for performance reasons, you cannot mix permit and deny rules in the same list.
Command Groups
Function
Page
IP ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IP addresses, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
3-131
MAC ACLs
Configures ACLs based on hardware addresses and Ethernet type
3-138
ACL Information
Displays ACLs and associated rules; shows ACLs assigned to each port 3-141
3-130
Access Control List Commands
3
IP ACLs
Command
Function
Mode
access-list ip
Creates an IP ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
3-131
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IP address
STD-ACL
3-132
permit, deny
EXT-ACL
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including
source and destination IP address, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
3-133
ip access-group
Adds a port to an IP ACL
3-135
IC
Page
show ip access-group
Shows port assignments for IP ACLs
PE
3-135
show ip access-list
Displays the rules for configured IP ACLs
PE
3-136
map access-list ip
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
3-136
show map access-list ip
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface PE
3-137
access-list ip
Use this command to add an IP access list and enter configuration mode for
standard or extended IP ACLs. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
access-list ip {standard | extended} acl_name
no access-list ip {standard | extended} acl_name
• standard – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP
address.
• extended – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source or
destination IP address, and other more specific criteria.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• An ACL can contain either all permit commands or all deny commands.
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
3-131
3
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#access-list ip standard david
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny 3-132
ip access-group (3-135)
show ip access-list (3-136)
permit, deny (Standard ACL)
Use this command to add a rule to a Standard IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition
for packets emanating from the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
{permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
no {permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
•
•
•
•
any – Any source IP address.
source – Source IP address.
bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Standard ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are added to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bit to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21 and
another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (3-131)
3-132
Access Control List Commands
3
permit, deny (Extended ACL)
Use this command to add a rule to an Extended IP ACL. The rule sets a filter
condition for packets with specific source and destination IP addresses, protocol
types, source and destination TCP/UDP ports, or TCP control codes. Use the no
form to remove a rule.
Syntax
{permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
{any | destination bitmask | host destination} [protocol protocol-number]
no {permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
{any | destination bitmask | host destination} [protocol protocol-number]
{permit | deny} {tcp} {any | source bitmask | host source}
{any | destination bitmask | host destination}
[source-port source-port] [destination-port destination-port]
[control-flag control-flag flag-bitmask]
no {permit | deny} {tcp} {any | source bitmask | host source}
{any | destination bitmask | host destination}
[source-port source-port] [destination-port destination-port]
[control-flag control-flag flag-bitmask]
{permit | deny} {udp} {any | source bitmask | host source}
{any | destination bitmask | host destination}
[source-port source-port] [destination-port destination-port]
no {permit | deny} {udp} {any | source bitmask | host source}
{any | destination bitmask | host destination}
[source-port source-port] [destination-port destination-port]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
any – Any IP address (source if first field, destination if second field).
source – Source IP address.
destination – Destination IP address.
bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
source-port – TCP/UDP source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
destination-port – TCP/UDP destination port number. (Range: 0-65535)
protocol-number – A specific protocol number. (Range: 0-255)
control-flag – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag
bits in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• flag-bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Extended ACL
3-133
3
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• All new rules are added to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bit to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
• You can specify both Precedence and ToS in the same rule. However, if
DSCP is used, then neither Precedence nor ToS can be specified.
• The control-flag bitmask is a decimal number (representing an equivalent bit
mask) that is applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the
equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit.
The following bits may be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use “control-flag 2 2”
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use “control-flag 18 18”
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use “control-flag 2 18”
Examples
This permits only 192.168.1.1 and 210.244.51.x.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 210.244.51.0 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#deny any any
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This example accepts any incoming packets if the source address is within subnet
10.7.1.x. For example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0)
equals the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This allows TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#
3-134
Access Control List Commands
3
This permits all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP
control code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (3-131)
ip access-group
Use this command to bind a port to an IP ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
ip access-group acl_name in
no ip access-group acl_name in
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to input packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/12
Console(config-if)#ip access-group mark in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ip access-list (3-136)
show ip access-group
Use this command to show the ports assigned to IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
IP standard access-list david
Console#
3-135
3
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
ip access-group (3-135)
show ip access-list
Use this command to display the rules for configured IP ACLs.
Syntax
show ip access-list {standard | extended} [acl_name]
• standard – Specifies a standard IP ACL.
• extended – Specifies an extended IP ACL.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-list standard
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 0.0.15.255
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 3-132
ip access-group (3-135)
map access-list ip
This command sets the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule. The
specified CoS value is only used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it
is not written to the packet itself. Use the no form to remove the CoS mapping.
Syntax
[no] map access-list ip acl_name cos cos-value
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• cos-value – CoS value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
3-136
Access Control List Commands
3
Command Usage
A packet matching a rule within the specified ACL is mapped to one of the
output queues as shown in the following table. For information on mapping the
CoS values to output queues, see queue cos-map on page 3-145.
Priority
Level
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Output
Queue
1
0
0
1
2
2
3
3
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#map access-list ip bill cos 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
queue cos-map (3-145)
show map access-list ip (3-137)
show map access-list ip
This command shows the CoS value mapped to an IP ACL for the current interface.
(The CoS value determines the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule.)
Syntax
show map access-list ip [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map access-list ip
Access-list to COS of Eth 1/24
Access-list ALS1 cos 0
Console#
Related Commands
map access-list ip (3-136)
3-137
3
Command Line Interface
MAC ACLs
Command
Function
Mode
Page
access-list mac
Creates a MAC ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
3-138
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source and destination MAC-ACL
address and Ethernet type
3-139
mac access-group
Adds a port to a MAC ACL
IC
3-140
show mac access-group
Shows port assignments for MAC ACLs
PE
3-140
show mac access-list
Displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs
PE
3-141
access-list mac
Use this command to add a MAC access list and enter MAC ACL configuration
mode. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
access-list mac acl_name
no access-list mac acl_name
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• An ACL can contain either all permit commands or all deny commands.
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list mac jerry
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny 3-139
mac access-group (3-140)
show mac access-list (3-141)
3-138
Access Control List Commands
3
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
Use this command to add a rule to a MAC ACL. The rule filters by matching a
specified MAC source or destination address (i.e., physical layer address), or
Ethernet protocol type. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
{permit | deny}
{any | host source | source bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination bitmask}
{any | ethertype protocol}
no {permit | deny}
{any | host source | source bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination bitmask}
{any | ethertype protocol}
•
•
•
•
•
•
any – Any MAC source address, destination address, or Ethernet protocol.
source – Source MAC address.
source bitmask – Binary mask for the source MAC address.
destination – Destination MAC address.
destination bitmask – Binary mask for the destination MAC address.
protocol – A specific Ethernet protocol number. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MAC ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are added to the end of the list.
• The ethertype option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted packets.
• A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few
of the more common types include the following:
- 0800 - IP
- 0806 - ARP
- 8137 - IPX
Example
This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination address
00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list mac (3-138)
3-139
3
Command Line Interface
mac access-group
Use this command to bind ports to a MAC ACL. Use the no form to remove the
ports.
Syntax
mac access-group acl_name in
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Note although this is a per-port setting, changes affect all ports.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show mac access-list (3-141)
show mac access-group
Use this command to show the ports assigned to MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
MAC access-list jerry
Console#
Related Commands
mac access-group (3-140)
3-140
Access Control List Commands
3
show mac access-list
Use this command to display the rules for configured MAC ACLs.
Syntax
show mac access-list [acl_name]
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-list
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 3-139
mac access-group (3-140)
ACL Information
Command
Function
Mode
Page
show access-list
Show all ACLs and associated rules
PE
3-141
show access-group
Shows the ACLs assigned to each port
PE
3-142
show access-list
Use this command to show all ACLs and associated rules.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any 00-30-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 0.0.15.255
IP extended access-list bob:
permit 10.7.1.1 0.0.0.255 any
permit tcp 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any destination-port 80
permit tcp 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any protocol tcp control-flag 2 2
Console#
3-141
3
Command Line Interface
show access-group
Use this command to show the port assignments of ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
Example
Console#show access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
IP standard access-list david
MAC access-list jerry in
Console#
Priority Commands
The commands described in this section allow you to specify which data packets
have greater precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion.
This switch supports CoS with four egress queues for each port. Data packets in a
port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority
queues. You can set the default priority for each interface, the relative weight of each
queue, and the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Layer 2 Priority Commands
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
3-143
queue mode
Sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted
Round-Robin (WRR)
GC
3-144
queue bandwidth
Assigns round-robin weights to the priority queues
GC
3-144
queue cos map
Assigns class of service values to the priority queues
IC
3-145
show queue mode
Shows the current queue mode
PE
3-147
show queue bandwidth
Shows round-robin weights assigned to the priority queues PE
3-147
show queue cos-map
Shows the class of service map
PE
3-147
PE
3-75
show interfaces switchport Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
Layer 3 and 4 Priority Commands
map ip port
Enables TCP class of service mapping
GC
3-148
map ip port
Maps TCP socket to a class of service
IC
3-148
map ip precedence
Enables IP precedence class of service mapping
GC
3-149
map ip precedence
Maps IP precedence value to a class of service
IC
3-150
map ip dscp
Enables IP DSCP class of service mapping
GC
3-151
map ip dscp
Maps IP DSCP value to a class of service
IC
3-151
show map ip port
Shows the IP port map
PE
3-152
3-142
Priority Commands
Command
Function
Mode
3
Page
show map ip precedence
Shows the IP precedence map
PE
3-153
show map ip dscp
Shows the IP DSCP map
PE
3-154
switchport priority default
Use this command to set a priority for incoming untagged frames. Use the no form
to restore the default value.
Syntax
switchport priority default default-priority-id
no switchport priority default
default-priority-id - The priority number for untagged ingress traffic.
The priority level is a number from 0 to 7. Seven is the highest priority.
Default Setting
The priority is not set, and the default value for untagged frames received on
the interface is zero.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to
accept all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This
priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming
frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority
bits will be used.
• This switch provides four egress queues (traffic classes) for each port. It is
configured to use Weighted Round Robin, which can be viewed with the show
queue bandwidth command. Inbound frames that do not have VLAN tags are
tagged with the input port’s default ingress user priority, and then placed in the
appropriate priority queue at the output port. The default priority for all ingress
ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that do not have priority tags will
be placed in queue 0 of the output port. (Note that if the output port is an
untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are stripped of all
VLAN tags prior to transmission.)
Example
The following example shows how to set a default priority on port 3 to 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console (config-if)#switchport priority default 5
3-143
3
Command Line Interface
queue mode
This command sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
(WRR) for the class of service (CoS) egress queues. Use the no form to restore the
default value.
Syntax
queue mode {strict | wrr}
no queue mode
• strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all
traffic in the higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
• wrr - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1~31 for queues 0 - 3 respectively.
Default Setting
Weighted Round Robin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that
requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower
priority queues are serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing
that specifies a relative weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative
weight for each queue that determines the percentage of service time the
switch services each queue before moving on to the next queue. This
prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
Example
The following example sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode:
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#
queue bandwidth
Use this command to assign weighted round-robin (WRR) weights to the four class
of service (CoS) egress queues. Use the no form to restore the default weights.
Syntax
queue bandwidth weight0...weight3
no queue bandwidth
weight0...weight3 - The ratio of weights for queues 0 - 3 determines the
weights used by the WRR scheduler. (Range: 1 - 31)
Default Setting
Weights 1, 2, 4 and 6 are assigned to queues 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
3-144
Priority Commands
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
WRR controls bandwidth sharing at the egress port by defining scheduling
weights.
Example
The following example shows how to assign WRR weights of 1, 1, 4 and 16 to the
CoS priority queues 0, 1, 2 and 3:
Console(config)#queue bandwidth 1 1 4 16
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show queue bandwidth (3-147)
queue cos-map
Use this command to assign Class of Service (CoS) values to the egress queues
(i.e., hardware output queues 0 - 3). Use the no form to set the CoS map to the
default values.
Syntax
queue cos-map queue_id [cos1 ... cosn]
no queue cos-map
• queue_id - The ID of the priority queue.
Range is 0 to 3, where 3 is the highest priority queue.
• cos1 .. cosn - The CoS values that are mapped to the queue ID. It is a
space-separated list of numbers. The CoS value is a number from 0 to 7,
where 7 is the highest priority.
3-145
3
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
This switch supports Class of Service by using four egress queues, with
Weighted Round Robin queuing for each port. Eight separate priority levels
are defined in IEEE 802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown in the following
table.
Egress Queue
0
1
2
3
0
Priority Level
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
CoS assigned at the ingress port is used to select a CoS priority at the egress
port.
Example
The following example shows how to map CoS values 0, 1 and 2 to egress queue 0,
values 0 and 3 to egress queue 1, values 4 and 5 to egress queue 2, and values 6
and 7 to egress queue 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 3
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show queue cos-map (3-147)
3-146
1/1
1 2
0 3
4 5
6 7
Priority Commands
3
show queue mode
This command shows the current queue mode.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue mode
Queue mode: wrr
Console#
show queue bandwidth
Use this command to display the weighted round-robin (WRR) bandwidth allocation
for the priority queues.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue bandwidth
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
1
2
4
3
16
Console#
show queue cos-map
Use this command to show the class of service priority map.
Syntax
show queue cos-map [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
3-147
3
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue
Information of Eth
Priority Queue: 0
Traffic Class : 1
Console#
cos-map ethernet 1/11
1/11
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 0 1 2 2 3 3
map ip port (Global Configuration)
Use this command to enable IP port mapping (i.e., class of service mapping for
TCP/UDP sockets). Use the no form to disable IP port mapping.
Syntax
map ip port
no map ip port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
Example
The following example shows how to enable TCP/UDP port mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
Use this command to set IP port priority (i.e., TCP/UDP port priority). Use the no
form to remove a specific setting.
Syntax
map ip port port-number cos cos-value
no map ip port port-number
• port-number - 16-bit TCP/UDP port number. (Range: 0-65535)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
3-148
Priority Commands
3
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• This command sets the IP port priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map HTTP traffic to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
Use this command to enable IP precedence mapping (i.e., IP Type of Service). Use
the no form to disable IP precedence mapping.
Syntax
map ip precedence
no map ip precedence
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP precedence mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
3-149
3
Command Line Interface
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
Use this command to set IP precedence priority (i.e., IP Type of Service priority).
Use the no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip precedence ip-precedence-value cos cos-value
no map ip precedence
• precedence-value - 3-bit precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
The list below shows the default priority mapping.
IP Precedence Value
CoS Value
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence values are mapped to default Class of Service values on a
one-to-one basis according to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard,
and then subsequently mapped to the four hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP Precedence for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP precedence value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
3-150
Priority Commands
3
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
Use this command to enable IP DSCP mapping (i.e., Differentiated Services Code
Point mapping). Use the no form to disable IP DSCP mapping.
Syntax
map ip dscp
no map ip dscp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP DSCP mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
Use this command to set IP DSCP priority (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
priority). Use the no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip dscp dscp-value cos cos-value
no map ip dscp
• dscp-value - 6-bit DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
The DSCP default values are defined in the following table. Note that all the
DSCP values that are not specified are mapped to CoS value 0.
IP DSCP Value
0
CoS Value
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
3-151
3
Command Line Interface
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• DSCP priority values are mapped to default Class of Service values according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard, and then subsequently
mapped to the four hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP DSCP priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP DSCP value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
show map ip port
Use this command to show the IP port priority map.
Syntax
show map ip port [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
3-152
Priority Commands
3
Example
The following shows that HTTP traffic has been mapped to CoS value 0:
Console#show map ip port
TCP port mapping status: disabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration) (3-148)
map ip port (Interface Configuration) (3-148)
show map ip precedence
Use this command to show the IP precedence priority map.
Syntax
show map ip precedence [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/5
Precedence mapping status: disabled
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 5
0
0
Eth 1/ 5
1
1
Eth 1/ 5
2
2
Eth 1/ 5
3
3
Eth 1/ 5
4
4
Eth 1/ 5
5
5
Eth 1/ 5
6
6
Eth 1/ 5
7
7
Console#
3-153
3
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
map ip precedence (Global Configuration) (3-149)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration) (3-150)
show map ip dscp
Use this command to show the IP DSCP priority map.
Syntax
show map ip dscp [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
Eth 1/ 1
Eth 1/ 1
Console#
61
62
63
0
0
0
Related Commands
map ip dscp (Global Configuration) (3-151)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration) (3-151)
3-154
Multicast Filtering Commands
3
Multicast Filtering Commands
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any
attached hosts that want to receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the ports
containing hosts requesting a service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Basic IGMP Commands
ip igmp snooping
Enables IGMP snooping
ip igmp snooping vlan static Adds an interface as a member of a multicast group
GC
3-155
GC
3-156
ip igmp snooping version
Configures the IGMP version for snooping
GC
3-156
show ip igmp snooping
Shows the IGMP snooping and query configuration
PE
3-157
show mac-address-table
multicast
Shows the IGMP snooping MAC multicast list
PE
3-158
ip igmp snooping querier
Allows this device to act as the querier for IGMP
snooping
GC
3-158
ip igmp snooping
query-count
Configures the query count
GC
3-159
ip igmp snooping
query-interval
Configures the query interval
GC
3-160
ip igmp snooping
query-max-response-time
Configures the report delay
GC
3-160
ip igmp snooping
router-port-expire-timeout
Configures the query timeout
GC
3-161
show ip igmp snooping
Shows the IGMP snooping configuration
PE
3-157
ip igmp snooping vlan
mrouter
Adds a multicast router port
GC
3-162
show ip igmp snooping
mrouter
Shows multicast router ports
PE
3-162
IGMP Querier Commands
Multicast Router Commands
ip igmp snooping
Use this command to enable IGMP snooping on this switch. Use the no form to
disable it.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping
no ip igmp snooping
Default Setting
Enabled
3-155
3
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example enables IGMP snooping.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan static
Use this command to add a port to a multicast group. Use the no form to remove the
port.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id static ip-address interface
no ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id static ip-address interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• ip-address - IP address for multicast group
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to statically configure a multicast group on a port:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.0.0.12 ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping version
Use this command to configure the IGMP snooping version. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping version {1 | 2}
no ip igmp snooping version
• 1 - IGMP Version 1
• 2 - IGMP Version 2
3-156
Multicast Filtering Commands
3
Default Setting
IGMP Version 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• All systems on the subnet must support the same version. If there are legacy
devices in your network that only support Version 1, you will also have to
configure this switch to use Version 1.
• Some commands are only enabled for IGMPv2, including ip igmp
query-max-response-time and ip igmp query-timeout.
Example
The following configures the switch to use IGMP Version 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 1
Console(config)#
show ip igmp snooping
Use this command to show the IGMP snooping configuration.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Configuring IGMP Snooping Parameters” on page 2-74 for a description
of the displayed items.
Example
The following shows the current IGMP snooping configuration:
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status: Enabled
Querier status: Enabled
Query count: 2
Query interval: 125 sec
Query max response time: 10 sec
Query time-out: 300 sec
IGMP snooping version: Version 2
Console#
3-157
3
Command Line Interface
show mac-address-table multicast
Use this command to show known multicast addresses.
Syntax
show mac-address-table multicast [vlan vlan-id] [user | igmp-snooping]
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (1 to 4094)
• user - Display only the user-configured multicast entries.
• igmp-snooping - Display only entries learned through IGMP snooping.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Member types displayed include IGMP or USER, depending on selected
options.
Example
The following shows the multicast entries learned through IGMP snooping for
VLAN 1:
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1 igmp-snooping
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/11
IGMP
Console#
ip igmp snooping querier
Use this command to enable the switch as an IGMP querier. Use the no form to
disable it.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping querier
no ip igmp snooping querier
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
If enabled, the switch will serve as querier if elected. The querier is
responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
3-158
Multicast Filtering Commands
3
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping query-count
Use this command to configure the query count. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-count count
no ip igmp snooping query-count
count - The maximum number of queries issued for which there has been
no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10)
Default Setting
2 times
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The query count defines how long the querier waits for a response from a
multicast client before taking action. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by this command, but a client has not responded, a countdown timer
is started using the time defined by ip igmp snooping query-maxresponse-time. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not
responded, then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the query count to 10:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time (3-160)
3-159
3
Command Line Interface
ip igmp snooping query-interval
Use this command to configure the query interval. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-interval seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-interval
seconds - The frequency at which the switch sends IGMP host-query
messages. (Range: 60-125)
Default Setting
125 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to configure the query interval to 100 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
Use this command to configure the snooping report delay. Use the no form of this
command to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
seconds - The report delay advertised in IGMP queries. (Range: 5-30)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The switch must be using IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
• This command defines the time after a query, during which a response is
expected from a multicast client. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by the ip igmp snooping query-count, but a client has not
responded, a countdown timer is started using an initial value set by this
command. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not responded,
then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
3-160
Multicast Filtering Commands
3
Example
The following shows how to configure the maximum response time to 20 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (3-156)
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time (3-160)
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
Use this command to configure the query timeout. Use the no form of this command
to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
seconds - The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops before
it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired.
(Range: 300-500)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The switch must use IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
Example
The following shows how to configure the default timeout to 300 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-time-out 300
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (3-156)
3-161
3
Command Line Interface
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
Use this command to statically configure a multicast router port. Use the no form to
remove the configuration.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
no ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is device 1.
- port - Port number.
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default Setting
No static multicast router ports are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be
able to locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known
multicast router/switch connected over the network to an interface (port or
trunk) on your switch, you can manually configure that interface to join all the
current multicast groups.
Example
The following shows how to configure port 11 as a multicast router port within
VLAN 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
Use this command to display information on statically configured and dynamically
learned multicast router ports.
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping mrouter [vlan vlan-id]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Displays multicast router ports for all configured VLANs.
3-162
Multicast Filtering Commands
3
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Multicast router port types displayed include Static or Dynamic.
Example
The following shows the ports in VLAN 1 which are attached to multicast routers:
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port
Type
---- ------------------- ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
3-163
3
Command Line Interface
3-164
Appendix A: Upgrading Firmware via the
Serial Port
The switch contains three firmware components that can be upgraded; the
diagnostics (or Boot-ROM) code, runtime operation code and the loader code. The
runtime code can be upgraded via the switch’s RS-232 serial console port, via a
network connection to a TFTP server, or using SNMP management software. The
diagnostics and the loader code can be upgraded only via the switch’s RS-232 serial
console port.
Note:
You can use the switch’s web interface to download runtime code via TFTP.
Downloading large runtime code files via TFTP is normally much faster than
downloading via the switch’s serial port.
You can upgrade switch firmware by connecting a PC directly to the serial Console
port on the switch’s front panel and using VT100 terminal emulation software that
supports the XModem protocol. (See “Required Connections” on page 1-2.)
1.
Connect a PC to the switch’s Console port using a null-modem or crossover
RS-232 cable with a female DB-9 connector.
2.
Configure the terminal emulation software’s communication parameters to 9600
baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, and set flow control to none.
3.
Power cycle the switch.
4.
When the switch initialization screen appears, enter firmware-download mode
by pressing <Ctrl><u> immediately after power on or rebooting the switch.
Screen text similar to that shown below displays:
File Name
--------------------------------$logfile_1
$logfile_2
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
diag1011
mdc0115
mdc0121.bix
startup
--------------------------------[X]modem Download [D]elete File
[C]hange Baudrate [Q]uit
Select>
5.
S/Up Type Size
---- ---- ---------0
3
64
0
3
64
0
5
2688
1
1
86944
0
2
1120008
1
2
1135548
1
5
2783
---- ---- ---------[S]et Startup File
Create Time
00:00:16
00:00:33
00:00:14
00:00:00
00:00:01
00:00:01
00:03:28
Press <C> to change the baud rate of the switch’s serial connection.
A-1
A
6.
Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port
Press <B> to select the option for 115200 baud.
There are two baud rate settings available, 9600 and 115200. Using the higher
baud rate minimizes the time required to download firmware code files.
7.
Set your PC’s terminal emulation software to match the 115200 baud rate.
Press <Enter> to reset communications with the switch.
Select>
Change baudrate [A]9600 [B]115200
Baudrate set to 115200
8.
Check that the switch has sufficient flash memory space for the new code file
before starting the download.
You can store a maximum of only two runtime and two diagnostic code files in
the switch’s flash memory. Use the [D]elete File command to remove a runtime
or diagnostic file.
9.
Press <X> to start to download the new code file.
If using Windows HyperTerminal, click the “Transfer” button, and then click
“Send File....” Select the XModem Protocol and then use the “Browse” button to
select the required firmware code file from your PC system. The “Xmodem file
send” window displays the progress of the download procedure.
Note:The download file must be a valid binary software file for this switch.
10. After the file has been downloaded, you are prompted with “Update Image File:”
to specify the type of code file. Press <R> for runtime code, <D> for diagnostic
code, or <L> for loader code.
Caution: If you select <L> for loader code, be sure the file is a valid loader code
file for the switch. If you download an invalid file, the switch will not be
able to boot. Unless absolutely necessary, do not attempt to
download loader code files.
11. Specify a name for the downloaded code file. File names are case-sensitive,
should be 1 to 31 characters, should not contain slashes (\ or /), and the leading
letter of the file name should not be a period (.). (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9,
“.”, “-”, “_”)
A-2
A
For example, the following screen text shows the download procedure for a
runtime code file:
Select>x
Xmodem Receiving Start ::
[R]untime
[D]iagnostic
[L]oader
Update Image File:r
Runtime Image Filename : run_1013
Updating file system.
File system updated.
[Press any key to continue]
12. To set the new downloaded file as the startup file, use the [S]et Startup File
menu option.
13. When you have finished downloading code files, use the [C]hange Baudrate
menu option to change the baud rate of the switch’s serial connection back to
9600 baud.
14. Set your PC’s terminal emulation software baud rate back to 9600 baud. Press
<Enter> to reset communications with the switch.
15. Press <Q> to quit the firmware-download mode and boot the switch.
A-3
A
A-4
Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using Telnet, • Be sure you have configured the agent with a valid IP address, subnet mask
Web browser, or SNMP
and default gateway.
software
• If you are trying to connect to the agent via the IP address for a tagged
VLAN group, your management station must include the appropriate tag in
its transmitted frames.
• Check that you have a valid network connection to the switch and that the
port you are using has not been disabled.
• Check network cabling between the management station and the switch.
• If you cannot connect using Telnet, you may have exceeded the maximum
number of concurrent Telnet sessions permitted. Try connecting again at a
later time.
Cannot access the on-board • Be sure you have set the terminal emulator program to VT100 compatible,
configuration program via a
8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity and 9600 bps.
serial port connection
• Check that the null-modem serial cable conforms to the pin-out connections
provided in Appendix B.
Forgot or lost the password
• Reinstall the switch defaults. Make a direct connection to the switch’s
console port and power cycle the switch. Immediately after powering on,
press <Ctrl><u> to access the system file menu. Select <D> to delete all
user-defined configuration files. Press <Q> to boot the switch.
B-1
B
B-2
Troubleshooting
Glossary
Access Control List (ACL)
ACLs can limit network traffic and restrict access to certain users or devices by
checking each packet for certain IP or MAC (i.e., Layer 2) information.
Boot Protocol (BOOTP)
BOOTP is used to provide bootup information for network devices, including IP
address information, the address of the TFTP server that contains the devices
system files, and the name of the boot file.
Class of Service (CoS)
CoS is supported by prioritizing packets based on the required level of service, and
then placing them in the appropriate output queue. Data is transmitted from the
queues using weighted round-robin service to enforce priority service and prevent
blockage of lower-level queues. Priority may be set according to the port default, the
packet’s priority bit (in the VLAN tag), TCP/UDP port number, IP Precedence bit, or
DSCP priority bit.
Differentiated Services Code Point Service (DSCP)
DSCP uses a six-bit tag to provide for up to 64 different forwarding behaviors. Based
on network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of
forwarding. The DSCP bits are mapped to the Class of Service categories, and then
into the output queues.
Domain Name Service (DNS)
A system used for translating host names for network nodes into IP addresses.
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
Provides a framework for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP
network. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), adding the capability
of automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration
options.
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL)
EAPOL is a client authentication protocol used by this switch to verify the network
access rights for any device that is plugged into the switch. A user name and
password is requested by the switch, and then passed to an authentication server
(e.g., RADIUS) for verification. EAPOL is implemented as part of the IEEE 802.1x
Port Authentication standard.
Glossary-1
Glossary
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
Defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to register
necessary VLAN members on ports along the Spanning Tree so that VLANs defined
in each switch can work automatically over a Spanning Tree network.
Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
GARP is a protocol that can be used by endstations and switches to register and
propagate multicast group membership information in a switched environment so
that multicast data frames are propagated only to those parts of a switched LAN
containing registered endstations. Formerly called Group Address Registration
Protocol.
Generic Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP)
GMRP allows network devices to register endstations with multicast groups. GMRP
requires that any participating network devices or endstations comply with the IEEE
802.1p standard.
Group Attribute Registration Protocol
See Generic Attribute Registration Protocol.
IEEE 802.1D
Specifies a general method for the operation of MAC bridges, including the
Spanning Tree Protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN Tagging—Defines Ethernet frame tags which carry VLAN information. It
allows switches to assign endstations to different virtual LANs, and defines a
standard way for VLANs to communicate across switched networks.
IEEE 802.1p
An IEEE standard for providing class of service priority in Ethernet networks. The
standard uses packet tags that define up to eight traffic classes and allows switches
to transmit packets based on the tagged priority value.
IEEE 802.1x
Port Authentication controls access to the switch ports by requiring users to first
enter a user ID and password for authentication.
IEEE 802.3
Defines carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access
method and physical layer specifications.
Glossary-2
Glossary
IEEE 802.3ab
Defines CSMA/CD access method and physical layer specifications for
1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet.
IEEE 802.3ac
Defines frame extensions for VLAN tagging.
IEEE 802.3u
Defines CSMA/CD access method and physical layer specifications for
100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet.
IEEE 802.3x
Defines Ethernet frame start/stop requests and timers used for flow control on
full-duplex links.
IEEE 802.3z
Defines CSMA/CD access method and physical layer specifications for 1000BASE
Gigabit Ethernet.
IGMP Snooping
Listening to IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP Multicast
Routers and IP Multicast host groups to identify IP Multicast group members.
IGMP Query
On each subnetwork, one IGMP-capable device will act as the querier — that is, the
device that asks all hosts to report on the IP multicast groups they wish to join or to
which they already belong. The elected querier will be the device with the lowest IP
address in the subnetwork.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
A protocol through which hosts can register with their local router for multicast
services. If there is more than one multicast router on a given subnetwork, one of the
routers is made the “querier” and assumes responsibility for keeping track of group
membership.
In-Band Management
Management of the network from a station attached directly to the network.
IP Multicast Filtering
A process whereby this switch can pass multicast traffic along to participating hosts.
Glossary-3
Glossary
IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The eight values are mapped one-to-one
to the Class of Service categories by default, but may be configured differently to
suit the requirements for specific network applications.
Layer 2
Data Link layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This is related
directly to the hardware interface for network devices and passes on traffic based on
MAC addresses.
Layer 3
Network layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This layer handles
the routing functions for data moving from one open system to another.
Link Aggregation
See Port Trunk.
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
Allows ports to automatically negotiate a trunked link with LACP-configured ports on
another device.
Media Access Control (MAC)
A portion of the networking protocol that governs access to the transmission
medium, facilitating the exchange of data between network nodes.
Management Information Base (MIB)
An acronym for Management Information Base. It is a set of database objects that
contains information about a specific device.
Multicast Switching
A process whereby the switch filters incoming multicast frames for services for
which no attached host has registered, or forwards them to all ports contained within
the designated multicast VLAN group.
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
NTP provides the mechanisms to synchronize time across the network. The time
servers operate in a hierarchical-master-slave configuration in order to synchronize
local clocks within the subnet and to national time standards via wire or radio.
Out-of-Band Management
Management of the network from a station not attached to the network.
Glossary-4
Glossary
Port Authentication
See IEEE 802.1x.
Port Mirroring
A method whereby data on a target port is mirrored to a monitor port for
troubleshooting with a logic analyzer or RMON probe. This allows data on the target
port to be studied unobstructively.
Port Trunk
Defines a network link aggregation and trunking method which specifies how to
create a single high-speed logical link that combines several lower-speed physical
links.
Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. Data traffic on downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from,
uplink ports.
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
RADIUS is a logon authentication protocol that uses software running on a central
server to control access to RADIUS-compliant devices on the network.
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
RMON provides comprehensive network monitoring capabilities. It eliminates the
polling required in standard SNMP, and can set alarms on a variety of traffic
conditions, including specific error types.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
RSTP reduces the convergence time for network topology changes to about 10% of
that required by the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard.
Secure Shell (SSH)
A secure replacement for remote access functions, including Telnet. SSH can
authenticate users with a cryptographic key, and encrypt data connections between
management clients and the switch.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
A standard host-to-host mail transport protocol that operates over TCP, port 25.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The application protocol in the Internet suite of protocols which offers network
management services.
Glossary-5
Glossary
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)
SNTP allows a device to set its internal clock based on periodic updates from a
Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. Updates can be requested from a specific NTP
server, or can be received via broadcasts sent by NTP servers.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
A technology that checks your network for any loops. A loop can often occur in
complicated or backup linked network systems. Spanning Tree detects and directs
data along the shortest available path, maximizing the performance and efficiency of
the network.
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+)
TACACS+ is a logon authentication protocol that uses software running on a central
server to control access to TACACS-compliant devices on the network.
Telnet
Defines a remote communication facility for interfacing to a terminal device over
TCP/IP.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Protocol suite that includes TCP as the primary transport protocol, and IP as the
network layer protocol.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
A TCP/IP protocol commonly used for software downloads.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP provides a datagram mode for packet-switched communications. It uses IP as
the underlying transport mechanism to provide access to IP-like services. UDP
packets are delivered just like IP packets – connection-less datagrams that may be
discarded before reaching their targets. UDP is useful when TCP would be too
complex, too slow, or just unnecessary.
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that share the same collision domain
regardless of their physical location or connection point in the network. A VLAN
serves as a logical workgroup with no physical barriers, and allows users to share
information and resources as though located on the same LAN.
XModem
A protocol used to transfer files between devices. Data is grouped in 128-byte
blocks and error-corrected.
Glossary-6
Index
Numerics
802.1x
commands 3-117
configure 2-36
default 3-123
dot1x default 3-123
downloading software 2-14
DSCP, enabling 2-101
E
edge port, STA 2-73
error message logging 3-23
A
Access Control List See ACL
ACL
Extended IP 2-41, 3-130, 3-131,
3-133
MAC 2-41, 3-130, 3-138,
3-138–3-141
Standard IP 2-41, 3-130, 3-131,
3-132
address table 2-63
authentication commands 3-117
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol See
GVRP
GVRP
global setting 2-80
B
H
F
firmware version, displaying 2-8
firmware, upgrade 2-14
G
BOOTP 2-13
BPDU 2-66
broadcast storm, threshold 2-54
hardware version, displaying 2-8
HTTPS 2-29, 3-35
HTTPS, secure server 2-29, 3-35
C
I
Class of Service
configuring 2-95
queue mapping 2-95
community string 2-23
configuration settings, saving or
restoring 2-15
CoS
IP precedence 2-102
queue mode 2-99, 3-144
D
default priority, ingress port 2-95
default settings 1-9
DHCP 2-13
Differentiated Code Point Service See
DSCP
Displaying Basic VLAN
Information 2-81
IEEE 802.1D 2-66, 3-81
IEEE 802.1w 2-66, 3-81
IGMP, configuring 2-108
ingress filtering 2-87
IP address
BOOTP/DHCP service 2-13
setting 2-11
IP precedence
enabling 2-101
mapping priorities 2-102
L
link type, STA 2-73, 2-77
log in
CLI interface 3-1
logging
enabling 3-23
syslog traps 3-26
to syslog servers 3-24
Index-1
Index
log-in
Web interface 2-2
logon authentication
RADIUS server 2-26
TACACS server 2-26
M
main menu 2-4
managing STA interface settings 2-72,
2-76
mirror port, configuring 2-55
multicast
configuring 2-108
router 3-162
P
passwords
administrator setting 2-25
path cost 2-73
method 3-84
STA 3-84
path cost, method 2-70
port priority
configuring 2-95
default ingress 2-95
port security, configuring 2-32
ports, configuring 2-48
priority, default port ingress 2-95
priority, STA 2-73
software downloads 2-14
software version, displaying 2-8
SSH, configuring 2-31, 3-38
STA
edge port 2-73
interface settings 3-90
link type 2-73, 2-77
path cost 2-73
priority 2-73
startup files
displaying 2-14
setting 2-14
statistics, switch 2-58
STP 2-69, 3-81
switchport mode 3-95
system clock, setting 2-21, 3-41
system software
downloading from server 2-14
T
TACACS 2-26
TACACS, logon authentication 2-26
time, setting 2-21, 3-41
trap manager 2-24
trunk
configuration 2-51
LACP 2-53
static 2-52
U
R
RADIUS 2-26
RADIUS, logon authentication 2-26
remote logging 3-26
RSTP 3-81
global configuration 3-81
upgrading software 2-14
user password 2-2, 2-25
V
VLANs
configuring 2-78
egress mode 2-88
S
secure shell 2-31, 3-37
Secure Shell configuration 2-31, 3-38
serial port
configuring 3-57
SNMP
community string 2-23
enabling traps 2-24
trap manager 2-24
Index-2
W
Web interface
access requirements 2-1
configuration buttons 2-3
home page 2-2
menu list 2-3, 2-4
panel display 2-3
SF-0204F
E122003-R01
150XXXXXXXXXX