GWR
USER MANUAL
GWR Cellular Router Series
Device firmware version: 3.0
Document version: 3.3
Date: April 2014
USER MANUAL
GWR Router Series
Content
LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................................................4
LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................................................................7
DESCRIPTION OF THE GPRS/EDGE/HSPA ROUTER SERIES ......................................................................8
TYPICAL APPLICATION ................................................................................................................................. 9
TECHNICAL PARAMETERS ......................................................................................................................... 10
PROTOCOLS AND FEATURES ...................................................................................................................... 11
PRODUCT OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 13
Front panel.......................................................................................................................................................13
Back panel........................................................................................................................................................13
Top Panel .........................................................................................................................................................14
PUTTING INTO OPERATION ........................................................................................................................ 15
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY ................................................................................................................. 16
DEVICE CONFIGURATION .................................................................................................................................17
DEVICE CONFIGURATION USING WEB APPLICATION.............................................................................17
ADD/REMOVE/UPDATE MANIPULATION IN TABLES ....................................................................................... 18
SAVE/RELOAD CHANGES ........................................................................................................................... 18
STATUS INFORMATION .............................................................................................................................. 19
Status – General ..............................................................................................................................................19
Status – Network Information ......................................................................................................................19
Status – DHCP.................................................................................................................................................20
Status – WAN Information............................................................................................................................20
Status – Firewall..............................................................................................................................................21
SETTINGS – NETWORK.............................................................................................................................. 22
SETTINGS – DHCP SERVER...................................................................................................................... 23
SETTINGS – WAN SETTING ....................................................................................................................... 25
SETTINGS – ROUTING ............................................................................................................................... 30
Port translation................................................................................................................................................31
SETTINGS – DYNAMIC ROUTING PROTOCOL ............................................................................................... 32
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) .............................................................................................................32
RIP routing engine for the GWR Router........................................................................................................................ 33
SETTINGS – VPN SETTINGS ...................................................................................................................... 35
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) ........................................................................................................35
GRE Keepalive................................................................................................................................................................ 36
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) .................................................................................................................37
OpenVPN.........................................................................................................................................................42
SETTINGS – FIREWALL – IP FILTERING....................................................................................................... 46
SETTINGS – FIREWALL – MAC FILTERING .................................................................................................. 48
DMZ HOST .............................................................................................................................................. 48
SETTINGS – DYNDNS............................................................................................................................... 49
SETTINGS – SERIAL PORT ......................................................................................................................... 51
Serial port over TCP/UDP settings..............................................................................................................51
Modbus Gateway settings .............................................................................................................................53
SMS – SMS REMOTE CONTROL ............................................................................................................... 55
SMS – SEND SMS ................................................................................................................................... 56
Maintenance ....................................................................................................................................................57
Maintenance – Device Identity Settings.......................................................................................................57
Maintenance – Router Management ............................................................................................................57
Maintenance – Date/Time Settings..............................................................................................................58
Maintenance – Diagnostics ............................................................................................................................60
Maintenance – Update Firmware .................................................................................................................60
Maintenance – Settings Backup ....................................................................................................................61
Import Configuration File .............................................................................................................................................. 61
Export Configuration File .............................................................................................................................................. 61
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Maintenance – Default Settings ....................................................................................................................62
Maintenance – System Reboot ......................................................................................................................62
MANAGEMENT – COMMAND LINE INTERFACE .............................................................................................. 63
MANAGEMENT – REMOTE MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................... 64
MANAGEMENT – CONNECTION MANAGER................................................................................................... 65
Getting started with the Connection Wizard..............................................................................................65
MANAGEMENT – SIMPLE MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (SNMP) ...................................................................... 69
MANAGEMENT – LOGS .............................................................................................................................. 70
LOGOUT ................................................................................................................................................... 71
CONFIGURATION EXAMPLES ...........................................................................................................................72
GWR ROUTER AS INTERNET ROUTER ....................................................................................................... 72
GRE TUNNEL CONFIGURATION BETWEEN TWO GWR ROUTERS .................................................................. 73
GRE TUNNEL CONFIGURATION BETWEEN GWR ROUTER AND THIRD PARTY ROUTER ................................... 77
IPSEC TUNNEL CONFIGURATION BETWEEN TWO GWR ROUTERS ................................................................ 80
Scenario #1.......................................................................................................................................................81
Scenario #2.......................................................................................................................................................87
IPSEC TUNNEL CONFIGURATION BETWEEN GWR ROUTER AND CISCO ROUTER .......................................... 93
IPSEC TUNNEL CONFIGURATION BETWEEN GWR ROUTER AND JUNIPER SSG FIREWALL ............................. 98
OPENVPN TUNNEL BETWEEN GWR ROUTER AND OPENVNP SERVER ...................................................... 108
PORTFORWARDING – EXAMPLE................................................................................................................ 112
SERIAL PORT – EXAMPLE......................................................................................................................... 113
FIREWALL – EXAMPLE ............................................................................................................................. 116
SMS MANAGEMENT – EXAMPLE ............................................................................................................... 125
DEFINING KEEPALIVE FUNCTIONALITY....................................................................................................... 126
APENDIX ................................................................................................................................................................127
A. HOW TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM SIGNAL STRENGTH WITH GWR ROUTER?................................................. 127
Antenna placement.......................................................................................................................................127
Antenna Options...........................................................................................................................................127
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List of Figures
Figure 1 – GWR Router...................................................................................................................................................8
Figure 2 – GWR Router front panel ............................................................................................................................13
Figure 3 – GWR Router back panel (GPRS and EDGE) ...........................................................................................13
Figure 4 – GWR Router back panel (HSPA) ..............................................................................................................14
Figure 5 – GWR Router top panel side .......................................................................................................................14
Figure 6 – Declaration of conformity ..........................................................................................................................16
Figure 7 – User authentication.....................................................................................................................................17
Figure 8 – General router information........................................................................................................................19
Figure 9 – Network Information .................................................................................................................................20
Figure 10 – DHCP Information....................................................................................................................................20
Figure 11 – WAN Information.....................................................................................................................................21
Figure 12 – Firewall Information.................................................................................................................................21
Figure 13 – Network parameters configuration page...............................................................................................22
Figure 14 – DHCP Server configuration page ...........................................................................................................24
Figure 15 – WAN Settings configuration page..........................................................................................................25
Figure 16 – Routing configuration page .....................................................................................................................30
Figure 17 – RIP configuration page.............................................................................................................................32
Figure 18 – GRE tunnel parameters configuration page..........................................................................................36
Figure 19 – IPSec Summary screen .............................................................................................................................37
Figure 20 – IPSec Settings .............................................................................................................................................38
Figure 21 – OpenVPN example ...................................................................................................................................42
Figure 22 – OpenVPN Summary screen.....................................................................................................................42
Figure 23 – OpenVPN configuration page.................................................................................................................45
Figure 24 – OpenVPN network topology...................................................................................................................45
Figure 25 – Firewall configuration page.....................................................................................................................47
Figure 26 – MAC filtering configuration page ..........................................................................................................48
Figure 27 – DMZ Host configuration page ................................................................................................................49
Figure 28 – DynDNS settings.......................................................................................................................................49
Figure 29 – Serial Port Settings initial menu..............................................................................................................51
Figure 30 – Serial Port configuration page.................................................................................................................52
Figure 31 – Modbus gateway configuration page.....................................................................................................54
Figure 32 – SMS remote control configuration..........................................................................................................56
Figure 33 – Send SMS....................................................................................................................................................56
Figure 34 – Device Identity Settings configuration page .........................................................................................57
Figure 35 – Router Management configuration page ...............................................................................................58
Figure 36 – Date/Time Settings configuration page ................................................................................................59
Figure 37 – Diagnostic page .........................................................................................................................................60
Figure 38 – Update Firmware page.............................................................................................................................60
Figure 39 – Export/Import the configuration on the router....................................................................................61
Figure 40 – File download ............................................................................................................................................61
Figure 41 – Default Settings page................................................................................................................................62
Figure 42 – System Reboot page..................................................................................................................................62
Figure 43 – Command Line Interface .........................................................................................................................63
Figure 44 – Remote Management................................................................................................................................64
Figure 45 – Connection Manager ................................................................................................................................65
Figure 46 – Connection Wizard – Initial Step ............................................................................................................66
Figure 47 – Connection Wizard – Router Detection .................................................................................................67
Figure 48 – Connection Wizard – LAN Settings .......................................................................................................67
Figure 49 – Connection Wizard – WAN Settings......................................................................................................68
Figure 50 – SNMP configuration page........................................................................................................................69
Figure 51 – Syslog configuration page........................................................................................................................70
Figure 52 – GWR Router as Internet router ...............................................................................................................72
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Figure 53 – GRE tunnel between two GWR Routers ................................................................................................73
Figure 54 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 1...................................................................................73
Figure 55 – GRE configuration page for GWR Router 1 ..........................................................................................74
Figure 56 – Routing configuration page for GWR Router 1 ....................................................................................74
Figure 57 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 2...................................................................................75
Figure 58 – GRE configuration page for GWR Router 2 ..........................................................................................75
Figure 59 – Routing configuration page for GWR Router 2 ....................................................................................76
Figure 60 – GRE tunnel between Cisco router and GWR Router ...........................................................................77
Figure 61 – Network configuration page ...................................................................................................................78
Figure 62 – GRE configuration page ...........................................................................................................................79
Figure 63 – Routing configuration page .....................................................................................................................79
Figure 64 – IPSec tunnel between two GWR Routers...............................................................................................80
Figure 65 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 1...................................................................................81
Figure 66 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router 1 .....................................................................................82
Figure 67 – IPSec configuration page II for GWR Router 1 .....................................................................................83
Figure 68 – IPSec configuration page III for GWR Router 1 ....................................................................................83
Figure 69 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router 1 ...............................................................................................84
Figure 70 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 2...................................................................................84
Figure 71 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router 2 .....................................................................................85
Figure 72 – IPSec configuration page II for GWR Router 2 .....................................................................................85
Figure 73 – IPSec configuration page III for GWR Router 2 ....................................................................................86
Figure 74 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router 2 ...............................................................................................86
Figure 75 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 1...................................................................................87
Figure 76 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router 1 .....................................................................................88
Figure 77 – IPSEC configuration page II for GWR Router 1....................................................................................89
Figure 78 – IPSEC configuration page III for GWR Router 1 ..................................................................................89
Figure 79 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router 1 ...............................................................................................89
Figure 80 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 2...................................................................................90
Figure 81 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router 2 .....................................................................................91
Figure 82 – IPSEC configuration page II for GWR Router 2....................................................................................91
Figure 83 – IPSEC configuration page III for GWR Router 2 ..................................................................................92
Figure 84 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router 1 ...............................................................................................92
Figure 85 – IPSec tunnel between GWR Router and Cisco Router.........................................................................93
Figure 86 – Network configuration page for GWR Router......................................................................................93
Figure 87 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router ........................................................................................95
Figure 88 – IPSec configuration page II for GWR Router ........................................................................................95
Figure 89 – IPSec configuration page III for GWR Router.......................................................................................96
Figure 90 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router ..................................................................................................96
Figure 91 – IPSec tunnel between GWR Router and Cisco Router.........................................................................98
Figure 92 – Network configuration page for GWR Router......................................................................................99
Figure 93 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router ......................................................................................100
Figure 94 – IPSec configuration page II for GWR Router ......................................................................................100
Figure 95 – IPSec configuration page III for GWR Router.....................................................................................101
Figure 96 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router ................................................................................................101
Figure 97 – Network Interfaces (list).........................................................................................................................102
Figure 98 – Network Interfaces (edit) .......................................................................................................................102
Figure 99 – AutoKey Advanced Gateway................................................................................................................103
Figure 100 – Gateway parameters.............................................................................................................................103
Figure 101 – Gateway advanced parameters...........................................................................................................104
Figure 102 – AutoKey IKE..........................................................................................................................................104
Figure 103 – AutoKey IKE parameters .....................................................................................................................105
Figure 104 – AutoKey IKE advanced parameters ...................................................................................................105
Figure 105 – Routing parameters ..............................................................................................................................106
Figure 106 – Policies from untrust to trust zone .....................................................................................................107
Figure 107 – Policies from trust to untrust zone .....................................................................................................107
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Figure 108 – Multipoint OpenVPN topology ..........................................................................................................108
Figure 109 – OpenVPN application settings............................................................................................................109
Figure 110 – OpenVPN GWR settings......................................................................................................................111
Figure 111 – Static routes on GWR............................................................................................................................111
Figure 112 – Starting OpenVPN application ...........................................................................................................111
Figure 113 – OpenVPN status on PC ........................................................................................................................112
Figure 114 – OpenVPN status on GWR....................................................................................................................112
Figure 115– Portforwarding example .......................................................................................................................113
Figure 116– GWR portforwarding configuration ...................................................................................................113
Figure 117– Transparent serial connection ..............................................................................................................114
Figure 118– GWR Serial port settings .......................................................................................................................114
Figure 119– GWR settings for Serial-to-IP conversion ...........................................................................................114
Figure 120- Virtual COM port application...............................................................................................................115
Figure 121– Settings for virtual COM port ..............................................................................................................116
Figure 122 – Firewall example ...................................................................................................................................118
Figure 123 – Initial firewall configuration on GWR ...............................................................................................118
Figure 124 – Filtering of Telnet traffic.......................................................................................................................119
Figure 125 – Filtering of ICMP traffic .......................................................................................................................120
Figure 126 – Allowing ICMP traffic ..........................................................................................................................120
Figure 127 – IPSec firewall rules................................................................................................................................121
Figure 128 – Allowing WEB access ...........................................................................................................................122
Figure 129 – Outbound rule for WEB access ...........................................................................................................123
Figure 130 – Complete firewall configuration .........................................................................................................124
Figure 131– Configuration page for SMS management .........................................................................................125
Figure 132– Configuration page for GSM keepalive ..............................................................................................126
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List of Tables
Table 1 – Technical parameters....................................................................................................................................10
Table 2 – GWR Router features ...................................................................................................................................12
Table 3 – Network parameters.....................................................................................................................................22
Table 4 – DHCP Server parameters ............................................................................................................................23
Table 5 – WAN parameters ..........................................................................................................................................27
Table 6 – Advanced WAN Settings.............................................................................................................................29
Table 7 – Routing parameters ......................................................................................................................................31
Table 8 – RIP parameters ..............................................................................................................................................33
Table 9 – GRE parameters ............................................................................................................................................36
Table 10 – IPSec Summary ...........................................................................................................................................38
Table 11 – IPSec Parameters.........................................................................................................................................41
Table 12 – OpenVPN parameters ................................................................................................................................44
Table 13 – Firewall parameters....................................................................................................................................47
Table 14 - MAC filtering parameters ..........................................................................................................................48
Table 15 – DynDNS parameters ..................................................................................................................................50
Table 16 – Serial Port over TCP/UDP parameters....................................................................................................52
Table 17 – Modbus gateway parameters....................................................................................................................53
Table 18 – Device Identity parameters .......................................................................................................................57
Table 19 – Router Management ...................................................................................................................................58
Table 20 – Date/time parameters................................................................................................................................59
Table 21 – Command Line Interface parameters ......................................................................................................63
Table 22 – Remote Management parameters.............................................................................................................64
Table 23 – SNMP parameters.......................................................................................................................................69
Table 24 – Syslog parameters.......................................................................................................................................71
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GWR Router Series
Description of the GPRS/EDGE/HSPA Router Series
GWR routers represent a robust solution designed to provide remote connectivity across cellular
networks. Low transmission delay and very high data rates offered by existing cellular networks completely
eliminate the need for expensive wired infrastructure. GWR series brings scalability of even most
demanding corporate networks on highest possible level. Installing a reliable, high performance backup
solution for existing land lines or satellite networks is now a simple task thanks to modern cellular
networks. Therefore, no matter if the goal is to provide primary internet access or backup solution for
already existing network GWR router series represents a top rated solution.
Figure 1 – GWR Router
There are practically no limits when it comes to possible application of GWR routers. Wired
infrastructure is no longer necessary for building scalable and high performance systems. GWR routers will
reduce the costs and speed up the ROI process for each one of possible applications. The list of most
common GWR router applications is presented bellow.
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Typical application
Data collection and system supervision
• Extra–high voltage equipment monitoring,
• Running water, gas pipe line supervision,
• Centralized heating system supervision,
• Environment protection data collection,
• Flood control data collection,
• Alert system supervision,
• Weather station data collection,
• Power Grid,
• Oilfield,
• Light Supervision,
• Solar PV Power Solutions.
Financial and department store
• Connection of ATM machines to central site,
• Vehicle based bank service,
• POS,
• Vending machine,
• Bank office supervision.
Security
• Traffic control,
• Video Surveillance Solutions,
Other
• Remote Office Solution,
• Remote Access Solution.
There are numerous variations of each and every one of above listed applications. Therefore
GENEKO formed highly dedicated, top rated support team that can help you analyze your requirements
and existing system, chose the right topology for your new system, perform initial configuration and tests
and monitor the complete system after installation. Enhance your system performance and speed up the
ROI with high quality cellular routers and all relevant knowledge of GWR support team behind you.
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Technical Parameters
EMC
LVD
Complies with
standards
R&TTE
Directive 2004/108/EC
EN 301 489–1 V1.6.1(2005–09)
EN 301 489–7 V1.3.1(2005–11)
EN 60950–1:2001(1st Ed.) and/or EN 60950–1:2001
Directive 1999/05/EC
ETSI EN 301 511 V9.0.2
EN 301 908–1 & EN 301 908–2(v2.2.1)
Directive 2002/95/EC
RoHS
EU Commission 2005/618/EC, 2005/717/EC, 2005/747/EC,
2006/310/EC, 2006/690/EC, 2006/691/EC and 2006/692/EC
Ethernet interface
Connector RJ–45
Standard: IEEE 802.3
Physical layer: 10/100Base–T
Speed: 10/100Mbps
Mode: full or half duplex
Other interfaces
1 x UART(RS–232C)
1 x USB Host
GWR202
GPRS
GWR252
GPRS
EDGE
GWR352
GPRS
EDGE
UMTS
HSPA
RF characteristics
Tri–band: 900/1800/1900
GPRS multi–slot class 10, mobile station class B
GPRS DL: 85.6Kbps, UL: 42.8Kbps
Quad band: GSM 850/900/1800/1900MHz
GPRS/EDGE multi–slot class 12, mobile station class B
EDGE DL: 236.8Kbps, UL: 236.8Kbps
GPRS DL: 85.6Kbps, UL: 85.6Kbps
UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA: Quad band,
850/900/1900/2100MHz
GSM/GPRS/EDGE: Quad band,
850/900/1800/1900MHz
GPRS/EDGE multi–slot class 12, mobile station class B
HSUPA DL: 7.2Mbps, HSDPA: UL: 5.76Mbps
UMTS DL: 384Kbps, UL: 384Kbps
EDGE DL: 236.8Kbps, UL: 236.8Kbps
GPRS DL: 85.6Kbps, UL: 85.6Kbps
RF Connector
SMA, 50Ω
Status LED
Ethernet activity/network traffic
Power on
GSM link activity
Signal quality
Reset
Power requirements
9 – 12VDC / 1000mA
Environmental
Operation: –10° C to 55° C (14° F to 131° F)
Storage: –20° C to +85° C (–4° F to +185° F)
Relative humidity: 5% to 95% (non–condensing)
Dimensions and
weight
Width/Length/Height: 95mm/135mm/35mm
Weight: 380g
Table 1 – Technical parameters
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Protocols and features
Features
Short description
Network
Routing
DHCP Server:
•
Static lease reservation
•
Address exclusions
RIP
IP forwarding
DMZ support
SNMP v1,2c
NTP(RFC1305)
DynDNS
Firewall:
•
NAT
•
PAT
•
IP filtering
•
MAC filtering
Serial over TCP/UDP
Modbus serial/IP gateway
Static
DHCP Server support.
The Routing Information Protocol is a dynamic routing protocol
used in local and wide area networks.
IP, TCP, UDP packets from WAN to LAN.
DMZ host is a host on the internal network that has all ports
exposed, except those ports otherwise forwarded.
Simple Network Management Protocol is used in network
management systems to monitor network–attached devices for
conditions that warrant administrative attention.
The Network Time Protocol is a protocol for synchronizing the
clocks of router.
Client for various dynamic DNS services. This is a small utility
for updating your host name for the any of the dynamic DNS
service offered at: http://www.ez–ip.net,
http://www.justlinux.com, http://www.dhs.org,
http://www.dyndns.org, http://www.ods.org,
http://www.dyn.ca, http://www.tzo.com,
http://www.easydns.com, http://www.dyns.cx,
http://www.zoneedit.com, http://www.no–ip.com.
IP address / Network filtering
Serial to Ethernet converter
The serial server will perform conversion from Modbus/TCP to
Modbus/RTU, allowing polling by a Modbus/TCP master. The
Modbus IP–Serial Gateway carries out translation between
Modbus/TCP and Modbus/RTU. This means that Modbus
serial slaves can be directly attached to the unit's serial ports
without any external protocol converters.
VPN
GRE
GRE keepalive
GRE – max. number of tunnels
IPSec pass–through
IPsec
Data integrity
IKE features
Generic Routing Encapsulation is a tunneling protocol that can
encapsulate a wide variety of network layer protocol packet
types inside IP tunnels.
•
Keepalive for GRE tunnels,
•
Cisco compliant.
50
ESP tunnels.
Internet Protocol Security is a suite of protocols for securing IP
communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP
packet of a data stream.
•
HMAC–MD5, SHA–1,
•
Authentication and key management.
•
Perfect Forward Secrecy,
•
Diffie–Hellman Group 1,2,5,
•
DPD for constant connection,
•
NAT Traversal,
•
Send Initial Contact,
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IPSec keepalive
IPSec IKE failover
IPSec tunnel failover
IPSec – max. number of tunnels
OpenVPN
OpenVPN – max. number of tunnels
GWR Router Series
•
IP Payload Compression Protocol.
Keepalive messages for IPSec tunnel state detecting.
Defines number of failed IKE negotiation attempts before
failover.
Switches to another provider because of poor tunnel
performance.
5
OpenVPN site to site graphical user interface (GUI)
implementation allows connecting two remote networks via
point–to–point encrypted tunnel. OpenVPN implementation
offers a cost–effective simply configurable alternative to other
VPN technologies.
5
GSM/UMTS features
Dual SIM support
SIM card detection
PIN enabler
SIM Failover
Advanced CHAT script settings
Auto–reconnect or manual
GSM/UMTS keepalive
For operator backup.
Status of active SIM card.
Enable locking of SIM card with PIN code.
Automatic change of SIM card after defined number of failed
attempts.
Advanced chat settings for ppp connection.
Selection between automatic and manual re–connection.
Keepalive messages for link state detecting.
Management
User–friendly WEB GUI
CLI:
•
SSH
•
telnet
•
serial
Traffic and event log
HTTP based.
Remote management over SSH.
Remote management over Telnet.
Log tracing.
Maintenance
Diagnostic
Settings backup
Factory default settings
Ping utility.
Export of configuration.
External taster and configuration application.
Table 2 – GWR Router features
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Product Overview
Front panel
•
•
•
•
•
On the front panel (Figure 2) the following connectors are located:
one RJ45 connector – Ethernet port for connection into local computer network,
one RJ45 connector for RS232 serial communication,
reset button,
one USB connector for connection of additional device,
Power supply connector.
•
•
Ethernet connector LED:
ACT (yellow) on – Network traffic detected (off when no traffic detected),
Network Link (green LED) on – Ethernet activity or access point engaged.
Figure 2 – GWR Router front panel
The Reset button can be used for a warm reset or a reset to factory defaults.
Warm reset: If the GWR Router is having problem connecting to the Internet, press and hold the
reset button for a second using the tip of a pen.
Reset to Factory Defaults: To restore the default settings of the GWR Router, hold the RESET button
pressed for a few seconds. Restoration of the default configuration will be signaled by blinks of the first and
last signal strength LED on the top panel. This will restore the factory defaults and clear all custom settings
of the GWR Router. You can also reset the GWR Router to factory defaults using the Maintenance > Default
Settings screen.
Back panel
On the back panel of device (Figure 3 and Figure 4) the following connectors are located:
• slot for SIM cards,
• SMA connector for connection of the GSM/UMTS antenna.
Figure 3 – GWR Router back panel (GPRS and EDGE)
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Figure 4 – GWR Router back panel (HSPA)
Top Panel
There is a sequence of 8 LED indicators on the top of this device by which the indication of the
system current state, device power supply and presence of GSM/UMTS network as well as signal level is
performed.
Figure 5 – GWR Router top panel side
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LED Indicator Description:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Reset (red LED) on – the GWR Router reset state.
Power status (green LED) on – Power supply. Power status LED will blink when the GWR Router is
in initializing state.
Link (red LED) will blink when connection is active.
Signal strength LED indicator:
•
–107 or less dBm = Unacceptable (1 LED),
•
–107 to –98 dBm = Weak (2 LED),
•
–98 to –87 dBm = Moderate (3 LED),
•
–87 to –76 dBm = Good (4 LED),
•
–76 or better dBm = Excellent (5 LED).
•
0 is not known or not detectable (running LED).
Signal strength LED will blink when GPRS/EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+/LTE connection is not active.
When connection is active Signal strength LED is on. Reset condition will be indicated by blinks of
the first and last Signal strength LED. When signal quality is not known or not detectable there will
be running LED indication.
Putting Into Operation
Before putting the GWR Router in operation it is necessary to connect all components needed for the
operation:
• GSM antenna,
• Ethernet cable and
• SIM card must be inserted.
And finally, device should have powered up using power supply adaptor.
Power consumption of GWR router is 2W in standby and 3W in burst mode.
SIM card must not be changed, installed or taken out while device operates. This procedure is
performed when power supply is not connected.
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Declaration of conformity
Figure 6 – Declaration of conformity
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Device Configuration
There are two methods which can be used to configure the GWR Router. Administrator can use
following methods to access router:
•
•
Web browser,
Command line interface.
Default access method is by web interface. This method provides administrator full set of privileges
for configuring and monitoring the router. Configuration, administration and monitoring of the GWR
Router can be performed through the web interface. The default IP address of the router is 192.168.1.1.
Another method is by command line interface. This method has limited options for configuring the GWR
Router but still represents a very powerful tool when it comes to router setup and monitoring. Another
document deals with CLI commands and instructions.
Device configuration using web application
The GWR Router’s web–based utility allows you to set up the Router and perform advanced
configuration and troubleshooting. This chapter will explain all of the functions in this utility.
For local access to the GWR Router’s web–based utility, launch your web browser, and enter the
Router’s default IP address, 192.168.1.1, in the address field. A login screen prompts you for your User name
and Password. Default administration credentials are admin/admin.
If you want to use web interface for router administration please enter IP address of router into web
browser. Please disable Proxy server in web browser before proceed.
Figure 7 – User authentication
After successfully finished process of authentication of Username/Password you can access Main
Configuration Menu.
You can set all parameters of the GWR Router using web application. All functionalities and
parameters are organized within few main tabs (windows).
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Add/Remove/Update manipulation in tables
To Add a new row (new rule or new parameter) in the table please do following:
• Enter data in fields at the bottom row of the table (separated with a line).
• After entering data in all fields click Add link.
To Update the row in the table:
•
Change data directly in fields you want to change.
To Remove the row from the table:
• Click Remove link to remove selected row from the table.
Save/Reload changes
To save all the changes in the form press Save button. By clicking Save data are checked for validity. If they
are not valid, error message will be displayed. To discard changes press the Reload button. By clicking
Reload, previous settings will be loaded in the form.
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Status Information
The GWR Router’s Status menu provides general information about router as well as real–time
network information. Status information is divided into following categories:
General Information,
Network Information (LAN),
DHCP,
WAN Information,
Firewall
Status – General
General Information Tab provides general information about device type, device firmware version,
kernel version, CPU vendor, Up Time since last reboot, hardware resources utilization and MAC address of
LAN port. Screenshot of General Router information is shown at Figure 8. Data in Status menu are read only
and cannot be changed by user. If you want to refresh screen data press Refresh button.
SIM Card detection is performed only at time booting the system, and you can see the status of SIM
slot by checking the Enable SIM Card Detection option.
Figure 8 – General router information
Status – Network Information
Network Information Tab provides information about Ethernet port and Ethernet traffic statistics in
bytes) Screenshot of Network Router information is shown in Figure 9.
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Figure 9 – Network Information
Status – DHCP
DHCP Information Tab provides information about DHCP clients with IP addresses gained from
DHCP server, MAC addresses, expiration period, and lease status.
Figure 10 – DHCP Information
Status – WAN Information
WAN Information Tab provides information about GPRS/EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+/LTE connection
and traffic statistics. WAN information menu has three submenus which provide information about:
GPRS/EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+/LTE mobile module(manufacturer and model),
Mobile operator and signal quality,
Mobile traffic statistics (in bytes)
Screenshot of WAN information from the router is shown in Figure 11.
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Figure 11 – WAN Information
As a primary and secondary DNS are always displayed DNS servers assigned by provider. They are
not necessarily used by the router. If Local DNS is configured it has priority to those DNS servers.
Status – Firewall
Firewall Information Tab provides information about active firewall rules divided in three groups:
INPUT, FORWARD and OUTPUT chain. Each of these groups has packet counter which can be cleared with
one of three displayed button: Reset INPUT, Reset FORWARD and Reset OUTPUT.
Figure 12 – Firewall Information
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Settings – Network
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN network screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings.
Network Tab Parameters
Label
Description
Use the following IP
address
Choose this option if you want to manually configure TCP/IP parameters of
Ethernet port.
IP Address
Type the IP address of your GWR Router in dotted decimal notation.
192.168.1.1 is the factory default IP address.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. The
GWR Router support sub–netting. You must specified subnet mask for your
LAN TCP/IP settings.
Primary Local DNS
IP address of your primary local DNS server
Secondary local DNS
IP address of your secondary local DNS server
Local Gateway
All incoming packets are forwarded to IP address defined in this field
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save button to save your changes back to the GWR Router. Whether you
make changes or not, router will reboot every time you click Save.
Table 3 – Network parameters
In the Figure 13 you can see screenshot of Network Tab configuration menu.
Figure 13 – Network parameters configuration page
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Settings – DHCP Server
The GWR Router can be used as a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server on your
network. A DHCP server automatically assigns available IP addresses to computers on your network. If you
choose to enable the DHCP server option, all of the computers on your LAN must be set to obtain an IP
address automatically from a DHCP server. (By default, Windows computers are set to obtain an IP
automatically.)
To use the GWR Router as your network’s DHCP server, click DHCP Server Tab for DHCP Server
setup. The GWR Router has built–in DHCP server capability that assigns IP addresses and DNS servers to
systems that support DHCP client capability.
DHCP Server Parameters
Label
Description
Enable DHCP Server
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) allows individual clients
(workstations) to obtain TCP/IP configuration at startup from a server.
When configured as a server, the GWR Router provides TCP/IP configuration for
the clients. To activate DHCP server, click check box Enable DHCP Server. To
setup DHCP server fill in the IP Starting Address and IP Ending Address fields.
Uncheck Enable DHCP Server check box to stop the GWR Router from acting as a
DHCP server. When Unchecked, you must have another DHCP server on your
LAN, or else the computers must be manually configured.
IP Starting Address
(From)
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
IP Ending Address (To) This field specifies last of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Lease Duration
This field specifies DHCP session duration time.
Primary DNS,
Secondary DNS
This field specifies IP addresses of DNS server that will be assigned to systems
that support DHCP client capability.
Select None to stop the DHCP Server from assigning DNS server IP address.
When you select None, computers must be manually configured with proper DNS
IP address.
Select Used by ISP to have the GWR Router assign DNS IP address to DHCP
clients. DNS address is provided by ISP (automatically obtained from WAN side).
This option is available only if GSM connection is active. Please establish GSM
connection first and then choose this option.
Select Used Defined to have the GWR Router assign DNS IP address to DHCP
clients. DNS address is manually configured by user.
Static Lease
Reservation
This field specifies IP addresses that will be dedicated to specific DHCP Client
based on MAC address. DHCP server will always assign same IP address to
appropriate client.
Address Exclusions
This field specifies IP addresses that will be excluded from the pool of DHCP IP
address. DHCP server will not assign this IP to DHCP clients.
Add
Click Add to insert (add) new item in table to the GWR Router.
Remove
Click Remove to delete selected item from table.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Table 4 – DHCP Server parameters
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Figure 14 – DHCP Server configuration page
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Settings – WAN Setting
Click WAN Settings Tab, to open the Wireless screen. Use this screen to configure the GWR Router
GPRS/EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+/LTE parameters (Figure 15).
Figure 15 – WAN Settings configuration page
WAN Settings
Label
Description
Provider
This field specifies name of GSM/UMTS ISP. You can setup any name for
provider.
Authentication
This field specifies password authentication protocol. Select the appropriate
protocol from drop down list. (PAP, CHAP, PAP – CHAP).
Username
This field specifies Username for client authentication at GSM/UMTS network.
Mobile provider will assign you specific username for each SIM card.
Password
This field specifies Password for client authentication at GSM/UMTS network.
Mobile provider will assign you specific password for each SIM card.
APN
This field specifies APN.
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Dial String
This field specifies Dial String for GSM/UMTS modem connection initialization.
In most cases you have to change only APN field based on parameters obtained
from Mobile Provider. This field cannot be altered.
Number of retry
Number of unsuccessful connection attempts after which router switches to
second SIM
PIN enabled
Option used when SIM card is locked with PIN code
Enable network
locking
Option that allows a user to lock a SIM card for a desired operator by specifying
PLMN id of the operator. This option is very useful in border areas since you can
avoid roaming expenses.
Enable Failover
Check this field in order to enable failover feature. This feature is used when
both SIM are enabled. You specify the amount of time after which Failover
feature brings down current WAN connection (SIM2) and brings up previous
WAN connection (SIM1).
Persistent connection
Keep connection alive, after Do not exit after a connection is terminated. Instead
try to reopen the connection.
Reboot after failed
connections
Reboot after n consecutive failed connection attempts.
Enable SIM1/SIM2
keepalive
Make some traffic periodically in order to maintain connection active. You can
set keepalive interval value in minutes.
Ping target
This field specifies the target IP address for periodical traffic generated using
ping in order to maintain the connection active.
Ping interval
This field specifies ping interval for keepalive option.
Advanced ping
interval
This field specifies the time interval of advanced ping proofing.
Advanced ping wait
for a response
This field specifies the timeout for advanced ping proofing.
Maximum number of
failed packets
This field specifies maximum number of failed packets in percent before
keepalive action is performed.
Keepalive action
This menu provides a choice between two possible keepalive actions in case
maximum number of failed packets is exceeded. If Switch SIM option is selected
router will try to establish the connection using the other SIM card after the
maximum number of failed packets is exceeded. If Current SIM option is selected
router will only restart the PPP connection.
Enable SIM1/SIM2
data limit
Enable traffic data limit per SIM.
Traffic limit
Defines maximum data amount transferred over SIM card. When traffic limit is
reached SIM card cannot be longer used for network connection. Traffic limit can
be defined in units of KB (from 1 to 1024), MB (from 1 to 1024) or GB (from 1 to
1024).
In case of reaching defined data traffic limit one of two possible actions will be
performed:
SIM1/SIM2 data limit 1) Switch SIM – switches network connection from the SIM card on which data
action
traffic limit has been reached to another SIM card,
2) Disconnect – disconnects network connection over the SIM card on which data
traffic limit has been reached.
Current traffic
Displays amount of traffic that has been transferred over SIM card from the
moment of enabling "SIM data limit" option.
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In order to refresh the displayed value in the "Current traffic" field please click on
Refresh.
Reset current traffic
value
Click on Reset resets a value of the current traffic to zero.
Reset current traffic
Every month, on the specified day, a value of the current traffic will be reset to
value on specified day
zero. The day of reset is specified by ordinal number.
of the month
Connection type
Specifies the type of connection router will try to establish. There are three
available options: only GSM, only UMTS and AUTO. For example, if you select
Only GSM option, router will not try to connect to UMTS, instead router will
automatically try to connect to GSM. By selecting AUTO option, router will first
try to establish UMTS connection and if it fails, router will go for GSM
connection.
Mobile status
Displays data related to mobile connection. (current WAN address, uptime,
connection status…)
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Switch SIM
Click Switch SIM try to establish the connection using the other SIM card.
Refresh
Click Refresh to see updated mobile network status.
Connect/
Disconnect
Click Connect/Disconnect to connect or disconnect from mobile network.
Table 5 – WAN parameters
Figure 15 shows screenshot of GSM/UMTS tab configuration menu. GSM/UMTS menu is divided into two
parts.
•
Upper part provides all parameters for configuration GSM/UMTS connection. These parameters
can be obtained from Mobile Operator. Please use exact parameters given from Mobile Operator.
•
Bottom part is used for monitoring status of GSM/UMTS connection (create/maintain/destroy
GSM/UMTS connection). Status line show real–time status: connected/disconnected.
If your SIM Card credit is too low, the GWR Router will performed periodically connect/disconnect actions.
WAN Settings(advanced)
Label
Description
Enable
This field specifies if Advanced WAN settings is enabled at the GWR Router.
Accept Local IP
Address
With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of our local IP address, even if
the local IP address was specified in an option.
Accept Remote IP
Address
With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of its (remote) IP address, even
if the remote IP address was specified in an option.
Idle time before
disconnect ( sec)
Specifies that pppd should disconnect if the link is idle for n seconds. The link is
idle when no data packets are being sent or received.
Refuse PAP
With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using PAP.
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Require PAP
Require the peer to authenticate using PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
authentication.
Refuse CHAP
With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using
CHAP.
Require CHAP
Require the peer to authenticate using CHAP (Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol) authentication.
Max. CHAP challenge
Set the maximum number of CHAP challenge transmissions to n (default 10).
transmissions
CHAP restart interval Set the CHAP restart interval (retransmission timeout for challenges) to n
sec
seconds (default 3).
Refuse MS–CHAP
With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using MS–
CHAP.
Refuse MS–CHAPv2
With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using MS–
CHAPv2.
Refuse EAP
With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using EAP.
Connection debugging
Enables connection debugging facilities. If this option is selected, pppd will log
the contents of all control packets sent or received in a readable form.
Maximum Transmit
Unit ( bytes)
Set the MTU (Maximum Transmit Unit) value to n. Unless the peer requests a
smaller value via MRU negotiation, pppd will request that the kernel networking
code send data packets of no more than n bytes through the PPP network
interface.
Maximum Receive
Unit (bytes)
Set the MRU (Maximum Receive Unit) value to n. Pppd will ask the peer to send
packets of no more than n bytes. The value of n must be between 128 and 16384;
the default is 1500.
VJ–Compression
Disable Van Jacobson style TCP/IP header compression in both directions.
VJ–Connection–ID
Compression
Disable the connection–ID compression option in Van Jacobson style TCP/IP
header compression. With this option, pppd will not omit the connection–ID byte
from Van Jacobson compressed TCP/IP headers.
Protocol Field
Compression
Disable protocol field compression negotiation in both directions.
Address/Control
Compression
Disable Address/Control compression in both directions.
Predictor–1
Compression
Disable or enable accept or agree to Predictor–1 compression.
BSD Compression
Disable or enable BSD–Compress compression.
Deflate Compression
Disable or enable Deflate compression.
Compression Control
Protocol negotiation
Disable CCP (Compression Control Protocol) negotiation. This option should
only be required if the peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from pppd
for CCP negotiation.
Magic Number
negotiation
Disable magic number negotiation. With this option, pppd cannot detect a
looped–back line. This option should only be needed if the peer is buggy.
Passive Mode
Enables the “passive” option in the LCP. With this option, pppd will attempt to
initiate a connection; if no reply is received from the peer, pppd will then just
wait passively for a valid LCP packet from the peer, instead of exiting, as it
would without this option.
Silent Mode
With this option, pppd will not transmit LCP packets to initiate a connection
until a valid LCP packet is received from the peer (as for the “passive” option
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with ancient versions of pppd).
Append domain name Append the domain name d to the local host name for authentication purposes.
Show PAP password
in log
When logging the contents of PAP packets, this option causes pppd to show the
password string in the log message.
Specifies how many seconds to wait before re–initiating the link after it
Time to wait before re–
terminates. The holdoff period is not applied if the link was terminated because it
initiating the link (sec)
was idle.
LCP–Echo–Failure
If this option is given, pppd will presume the peer to be dead if n LCP echo–
requests are sent without receiving a valid LCP echo–reply. If this happens, pppd
will terminate the connection. This option can be used to enable pppd to
terminate after the physical connection has been broken (e.g., the modem has
hung up) in situations where no hardware modem control lines are available.
LCP–Echo–Interval
If this option is given, pppd will send an LCP echo–request frame to the peer
every n seconds. Normally the peer should respond to the echo–request by
sending an echo–reply. This option can be used with the lcp–echo–failure option to
detect that the peer is no longer connected.
Use Peer DNS
With this option enabled, router resolves addresses using ISP’s DNS servers.
Modem Initialization
This field provides an option to directly specify AT commands.
String
Roaming Mode
By enabling this option router will be able to connect to roaming network.
Reset Location
Information
By enabling this option router will erase LOCI Elementary File in SIM card. This
will cause SIM card to scan all available networks when registering.
Table 6 – Advanced WAN Settings
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Settings – Routing
The static routing function determines the path that data follows over your network before and after
it passes through the GWR Router. You can use static routing to allow different IP domain users to access
the Internet through the GWR Router. Static routing is a powerful feature that should be used by advanced
users only. In many cases, it is better to use dynamic routing because it enables the GWR Router to
automatically adjust to physical changes in the network’s layout.
The GWR Router is a fully functional router with static routing capability. Figure 16 shows
screenshot of Routing page.
Figure 16 – Routing configuration page
Use this menu to setup all routing parameters. Administrator can perform following operations:
• Create/Edit/Remove routes (including default route),
• Port translation – Reroute TCP and UPD packets to desired destination inside the network.
Routing Settings
Label
Description
Enable
This check box allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Source IP
Source IP address from which portforwarding is allowed, all other traffic is
denied.
Source Netmask
Subnet mask for allowed IP subnet.
Dest Network
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
Routing is always based on network number. If you need to specify a route to a
single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to
force the network number to be identical to the host ID.
Netmask
This parameter specifies the IP netmask address of the final destination.
Routing Table
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Gateway
This is the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch (next
hope) on the same network segment as the device’s LAN or WAN port. The
gateway helps forward packets to their final destinations.
For every routing rule enter the IP address of the gateway. Please notice that
ppp0 interface has only one default gateway (provided by Mobile operator) and
because of that that there is no option for gateway when you choose ppp0
interface.
Metric
Metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing
uses hop count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly
connected networks. Enter a number that approximates the cost for this link.
The number need not be precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2
or 3 is usually a good number.
Interface
Interface represents the “exit” of transmission for routing purposes. In this case
Eth0 represents LAN interface and ppp0 represents GSM/UMTS mobile
interface of the GWR Router.
TCP/UDP Traffic forwarding
Enable
This check box allows you to activate/deactivate this static port translation.
Protocol
Choose between TCP and UDP protocol.
Destination IP
This field specifies IP address of the incoming traffic.
Destination Netmask
This field specifies netmask for the previous address.
Destination Port
This is the TCP/UDP port of application.
Forward to IP
This filed specifies IP address where packets should be forwarded.
Forward to port
Specify TCP/UDP port on which the traffic is going to be forwarded.
Interface
Select interface where portforwarding is done. Portforwarding from outside
(WAN) interface to inside (LAN) interface is done on PPP, and in reverse
direction on Ethernet interface.
Add
Click Add to insert (add) new item in table to the GWR Router.
Remove
Click Remove to delete selected item from table.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router. After pressing Save
button it make take more than 10 seconds for router to save parameters and
become operational again.
Table 7 – Routing parameters
Port translation
For incoming data, the GWR Router forwards IP traffic destined for a specific port, port range or
GRE/IPsec protocol from the cellular interface to a private IP address on the Ethernet “side” of the GWR
Router.
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Settings – Dynamic Routing Protocol
Dynamic routing performs the same function as static routing except it is more robust. Static routing
allows routing tables in specific routers to be set up in a static manner so network routes for packets are set.
If a router on the route goes down the destination may become unreachable. Dynamic routing allows
routing tables in routers to change as the possible routes change.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic routing protocol used in local and wide area
networks. As such it is classified as an interior gateway protocol (IGP) using the distance–vector routing
algorithm. The Routing Information Protocol provides great network stability, guaranteeing that if one
network connection goes down the network can quickly adapt to send packets through another connection.
Click RIP Tab, to open the Routing Information Protocol screen. Use this screen to configure the
GWR Router RIP parameters (Figure 17).
Figure 17 – RIP configuration page
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RIP Settings
Label
Description
Routing Manager
Hostname
Prompt name that will be displayed on telnet console.
Password
Login password.
Enable log
Enable log file.
Port to bind at
Local port the service will listen to.
RIPD
Hostname
Prompt name that will be displayed on telnet console of the Routing
Information Protocol Manager.
Password
Login password.
Port to bind at
Local port the service will listen to.
Routing Information Protocol Status
Start
Start RIP.
Stop
Stop RIP.
Restart
Restart RIP.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Table 8 – RIP parameters
RIP routing engine for the GWR Router
Use telnet to enter in global configuration mode.
telnet 192.168.1.1 2602
// telnet to eth0 at TCP port 2602///
To enable RIP, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:
router# router rip
To associates a network with a RIP routing process, use following commans:
router# network [A.B.C.D/Mask]
By default, the GWR Router receives RIP version 1 and version 2 packets. You can configure the
GWR Router to receive an send only version 1. Alternatively, you can configure the GWR Router to receive
and send only version 2 packets. To configure GWR Router to send and receive packets from only one
version, use the following command:
router# rip version [1|2]
// Same as other router //
Enable route redistribution:
router# redistribute kernel
// Redistribute routes defined on WEB interface //
router# redistribute static
// Redistribute routes defined locally in RIP configuration //
router# redistribute connected // Redistribute directly connected routes //
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Disable RIP update (optional):
router# passive–interface ppp_0
router# no passive–interface ppp_0
RIP is commonly used over Ethernet interface and PPP interface should be set up as passive.
Routing protocols use several timer that determine such variables as the frequency of routing
updates, the length of time before a route becomes invalid, an other parameters. You can adjust these timer
to tune routing protocol performance to better suit your internetwork needs. Use following command to
setup RIP timer:
router# timers basic [UPDATE–INTERVAL] [INVALID] [TIMEOUT] [GARBAGE–COLLECT]
router# no timers basic
Configure interface for RIP protocol
router# interface greX
router# ip rip send version [VERSION]
router# ip rip receive version [VERSION]
Disable rip authentication at all interface.
Router(interface)# no ip rip authentication mode [md5|text]
Debug commands:
router#
router#
router#
router#
debug rip
debug rip events
debug rip packet
terminal monitor
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Settings – VPN Settings
Virtual private network (VPN) is a communications network tunneled through another network
and dedicated to a specific network. One common application of VPN is secure communication through the
public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content
encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an
underlying network with strong security features.
A VPN may have best–effort performance, or may have a defined Service Level Agreement (SLA)
between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex
than point–to–point. The distinguishing characteristics of VPNs are not security or performance, but that
they overlay other network(s) to provide a certain functionality that is meaningful to a user community.
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)
Originally developed by Cisco, generic routing encapsulation (GRE) is now a standard, defined in
RFC 1701, RFC 1702, and RFC 2784. GRE is a tunneling protocol used to transport packets from one network
through another network.
If this sounds like a virtual private network (VPN) to you, that’s because it theoretically is:
Technically, a GRE tunnel is a type of a VPN — but it isn’t a secure tunneling method. However, you can
encrypt GRE with an encryption protocol such as IPSec to form a secure VPN. In fact, the point–to–point
tunneling protocol (PPTP) actually uses GRE to create VPN tunnels. For example, if you configure Microsoft
VPN tunnels, by default, you use PPTP, which uses GRE.
Solution where you can use GRE protocol:
• You need to encrypt multicast traffic. GRE tunnels can carry multicast packets — just like real
network interfaces — as opposed to using IPSec by itself, which can’t encrypt multicast traffic. Some
examples of multicast traffic are OSPF, EIGRP. Also, a number of video, VoIP, and streaming music
applications use multicast.
• You have a protocol that isn’t routable, such as NetBIOS or non–IP traffic over an IP network. You
could use GRE to tunnel IPX/AppleTalk through an IP network.
• You need to connect two similar networks connected by a different network with different IP
addressing.
Click VPN Settings Tab, to open the VPN configuration screen. In the Figure 18 you can see
screenshot of GRE Tab configuration menu.
VPN Settings / GRE Tunneling Parameters
Label
Description
Enable
This check box allows you to activate/deactivate VPN/GRE traffic.
Local Tunnel Address
This field specifies IP address of virtual tunnel interface.
Local Tunnel Netmask
This field specifies the IP netmask address of virtual tunnel. This field is
unchangeable, always 255.255.255.252
Tunnel Source
This field specifies IP address or hostname of tunnel source.
Tunnel Destination
This field specifies IP address or hostname of tunnel destination.
Interface
This field specifies GRE interface. This field gets from the GWR Router.
KeepAlive Enable
Check for keepalive enable.
Period
Defines the time interval (in seconds) between transmitted keepalive packets.
Enter a number from 3 to 60 seconds.
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Retries
Defines the number of retries when failed keepalives are detected before
determining that the tunnel endpoint is down. Enter a number from 1 to 10 times.
Add
Click Add insert new item in table.
Remove
Click Remove to delete selected item from table.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Table 9 – GRE parameters
Figure 18 – GRE tunnel parameters configuration page
GRE Keepalive
GRE tunnels can use periodic status messages, known as keepalives, to verify the integrity of the
tunnel from end to end. By default, GRE tunnel keepalives are disabled. Use the keepalive check box to
enable this feature. Keepalives do not have to be configured on both ends of the tunnel in order to work; a
tunnel is not aware of incoming keepalive packets. You should define the time interval (in seconds) between
transmitted keepalive packets. Enter a number from 1 to 60 seconds, and the number of times to retry after
failed keepalives before determining that the tunnel endpoint is down. Enter a number from 1 to 10 times.
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Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol communication
by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a data stream.
Click VPN Settings - IPSec, to open the VPN configuration screen. At the Figure 19 – IPSec Summary
screen you can see IPSec Summary. This screen gathers information about settings of all defined IPSec
tunnels. Up to 5 IPSec tunnels can be defined on GWR router.
If you cannot use IP address as a peer identifier at one side of the tunnel (private IP subnet)
aggressive mode has to be utilized.
IPSec Summary and IPSec Settings are briefly displayed in following figures and tables.
Figure 19 – IPSec Summary screen
VPN Settings / IPSec Summary
Label
Description
Tunnels Used
This is the number of defined IPSec tunnels.
Maximum number of
tunnels
This is the maximum number of tunnels which can be defined.
No
This filed indicates the number of the IPSec tunnel.
Name
Field shows the Tunnel Name that you gave to the IPSec tunnel.
Enabled
This field shows if tunnel is enabled or disabled. After clicking on Start button,
only enabled tunnels will be started.
Status
Field indicates status of the IPSec tunnel. Click on Refresh button to see current
status of defined IPSec tunnels.
Enc/Auth/Grp
This field shows both Phase 1 and Phase 2 details, Encryption method
(DES/3DES/AES), Authentication method (MD5/SHA1), and DH Group number
(1/2/5) that you have defined in the IPSec Setup section.
Advanced
Field shows the chosen mode of IPSec and options from IPSec Advanced section
by displaying the first letters of enabled options.
Local Group
Field shows the IP address and subnet mask of the Local Group.
Remote Group
Field displays the IP address and subnet mask of the Remote Group.
Remote Gateway
Field shows the IP address of the Remote Device.
Action - Edit
This link opens screen where you can change the tunnel’s settings.
Action - Delete
Click on this link to delete the tunnel and all settings for that particular tunnel
Connection mode
Field displays connection mode of the current tunnel.
Connect – IPSec tunnel initiating side in negotiation process.
Wait – IPSec tunnel responding side in negotiation process.
Log level
Set IPSec log level.
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Add New Tunnel
Click on this button to add a new Device–to–Device IPSec tunnel. After you have
added the tunnel, you will see it listed in the Summary table.
Start
This button starts the IPSec negotiations between all defined and enabled tunnels.
If the IPSec is already started, Start button is replaced with Restart button.
Stop
This button will stop all IPSec started negotiations.
Refresh
Click on this button to refresh the Status field in the Summary table.
Table 10 – IPSec Summary
To create a tunnel click Add New Tunnel button. Depending on your selection, the Local Group
Setup and Remote Group Setup settings will differ. Proceed to the appropriate instructions for your
selection.
Figure 20 – IPSec Settings
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VPN Settings / IPSec Settings
Label
Description
Tunnel Number
This number will be generated automatically and it represents the tunnel number.
Tunnel Name
Enter a name for the IPSec tunnel. This allows you to identify multiple tunnels
and does not have to match the name used at the other end of the tunnel.
Enable
Check this box to enable the IPSec tunnel.
When SIM Card is selected the WAN (or Internet) IP address of the Router
Local Security gateway
automatically appears. If the Router is not yet connected to the GSM/UMTS
type
network this field is without IP address.
Local ID Type
Authentication identity for one of the participant. Can be an IP address or fully–
qualified domain name preceded by @.
IP Address From
Select SIM card over which the tunnel is established.
Local Security Group
Type
Select the local LAN user(s) behind the Router that can use this IPSec tunnel.
Select the type you want to use: IP or Subnet.
NOTE: The Local Security Group Type you select should match the Remote Security
Group Type selected on the IPSec device at the other end of the tunnel.
IP Address
Only the computer with a specific IP address will be able to access the tunnel.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask.
Remote Security
Gateway Type
Select the remote IP address behind the Router at the other end that can use this
IPSec tunnel. Select the type you want to use: IP or Subnet
IP Address
Only the computer with a specific IP address will be able to access the tunnel.
Remote ID Type
Authentication identity for one of the participant. Can be an IP address or fully–
qualified domain name preceded by @.
Select the remote IP address/hostname behind the Router at the other end that
Remote Security Group can use this IPSec tunnel. Select the type you want to use: IP Only or hostname.
Type
NOTE: The Remote Security Group Type you select should match the Local Security
Group Type selected on the IPSec device at the other end of the tunnel.
IP Address
Only the computer with a specific IP address will be able to access the tunnel.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask.
IPSec Setup
In order to establish an encrypted tunnel, the two ends of an IPSec tunnel must
agree on the methods of encryption, decryption and authentication. This is done
by sharing a key to the encryption code. For key management, the Router uses
only IKE with Preshared Key mode.
Key Exchange mode
IKE with Preshared Key
IKE is an Internet Key Exchange protocol used to negotiate key material for
Security Association (SA). IKE uses the Preshared Key to authenticate the remote
IKE peer. Both ends of IPSec tunnel must use the same mode of key management.
Mode
One of following IPSec modes can be choosed: MAIN or AGGRESSIVE
Phase 1 DH Group
Phase 1 is used to create the SA. DH (Diffie–Hellman) is a key exchange protocol
used during Phase 1 of the authentication process to establish pre–shared keys.
There are three groups of different prime key lengths. Group 1 is 768 bits, Group
2 is 1024 bits and Group 5 is 1536 bits long. If network speed is preferred, select
Group 1. If network security is preferred, select Group 5.
Phase 1 Encryption
Select a method of encryption: DES (56–bit), 3DES (168–bit) or AES–128 (128–bit).
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The method determines the length of the key used to encrypt or decrypt ESP
packets. AES–128 is recommended because it is the most secure. Make sure both
ends of the IPSec tunnel use the same encryption method.
Select a method of authentication: MD5 or SHA1. The authentication method
determines how the ESP packets are validated. MD5 is a one–way hashing
Phase 1 Authentication algorithm that produces a 128–bit digest. SHA1 is a one–way hashing algorithm
that produces a 160–bit digest. SHA1 is recommended because it is more secure.
Make sure both ends of the IPSec tunnel use the same authentication method.
Phase 1 SA Life Time
Configure the length of time IPSec tunnel is active in Phase 1. The default value is
28800 seconds. Both ends of the IPSec tunnel must use the same Phase 1 SA Life
Time setting.
Perfect Forward
Secrecy
If the Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) feature is enabled, IKE Phase 2 negotiation
will generate new key material for IP traffic encryption and authentication, so
hackers using brute force to break encryption keys will not be able to obtain
future IPSec keys. Both ends of the IPSec tunnel must enable this option in order
to use the function.
Phase 2 DH Group
If the Perfect Forward Secrecy feature is disabled, then no new keys will be
generated, so you do not need to set the Phase 2 DH Group. There are three
groups of different prime key lengths. Group 1 is 768 bits, Group 2 is 1024 bits,
and Group 5 is 1536 bits long. If network speed is preferred, select Group 1. If
network security is preferred, select Group 5. You do not have to use the same
DH Group that you used for Phase 1, but both ends of the IPSec tunnel must use
the same Phase 2 DH Group.
Phase 2 Encryption
Phase 2 is used to create one or more IPSec SAs, which are then used to key IPSec
sessions. Select a method of encryption: NULL, DES (56–bit), 3DES (168–bit) or
AES–128 (128–bit). It determines the length of the key used to encrypt or decrypt
ESP packets. AES–128 is recommended because it is the most secure. Both ends of
the IPSec tunnel must use the same Phase 2 Encryption setting.
NOTE: If you select a NULL method of encryption, the next Phase 2 Authentication
method cannot be NULL and vice versa.
Select a method of authentication: NULL, MD5 or SHA1. The authentication
method determines how the ESP packets are validated. MD5 is a one–way
hashing algorithm that produces a 128–bit digest. SHA1 is a one–way hashing
algorithm that produces a 160–bit digest. SHA1 is recommended because it is
Phase 2 Authentication
more secure. Both ends of the IPSec tunnel must use the same Phase 2
Authentication setting.
NOTE: If you select a NULL method of authentication, the previous Phase 2 Encryption
method cannot be NULL.
Phase 2 SA Life Time
Configure the length of time an IPSec tunnel is active in Phase 2. The default is
3600 seconds. Both ends of the IPSec tunnel must use the same Phase 2 SA Life
Time setting.
Preshared Key
This specifies the pre–shared key used to authenticate the remote IKE peer. Enter
a key of keyboard and hexadecimal characters, e.g., Ay_%4222 or 345fa929b8c3e.
This field allows a maximum of 1023 characters and/or hexadecimal values. Both
ends of the IPSec tunnel must use the same Preshared Key.
NOTE: It is strongly recommended that you periodically change the Preshared Key to
maximize security of the IPSec tunnels.
Enable IKE failover
Enable IKE failover option which try periodically to
association.
eestablish security
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IKE SA retry
GWR Router Series
Number of IKE retries, before failover.
Restart PPP After IKE
With this option enabled PPP connection is restarted when IKE SA retry reaches
SA Retry Exceeds
defined number of failed attempts. After restart SIM1 is used for connection.
Specified Limit
Enable tunnel failover
Enable tunnel failover. If there is more than one tunnel defined, this option will
failover to other tunnel in case that selected one fails to established connection.
Ping IP or Hostname
IP address/Hostname at remote side of tunnel which will be pinged in order to
determine current state.
Ping interval
Specify time period in seconds between two ping.
Packet size
Specify packet size for ping message.
Advanced Ping Interval Time interval between advanced ping packets.
Advanced Ping Wait
For A Response
Advanced ping proofing timeout.
Maximum number of
failed packets
Set percentage of failed packets until failover action is performed.
Compress (IP Payload IP Payload Compression is a protocol that reduces the size of IP datagram. Select
Compression Protocol this option if you want the Router to propose compression when it initiates a
(IP Comp))
connection.
Dead Peer Detection
(DPD)
When DPD is enabled, the Router will send periodic HELLO/ACK messages to
check the status of the IPSec tunnel (this feature can be used only when both peers
or IPSec devices of the IPSec tunnel use the DPD mechanism). Once a dead peer
has been detected, the Router will disconnect the tunnel so the connection can be
re–established. Specify the interval between HELLO/ACK messages (how often
you want the messages to be sent). The default interval is 20 seconds.
NAT Traversal
Both the IPSec initiator and responder must support the mechanism for detecting
the NAT router in the path and changing to a new port, as defined in RFC 3947.
NOTE: NAT–T function is enabled by default and cannot be disabled. The default interval
for keep–alive packets is 20 seconds.
Send initial contact
The initial–contact status message may be used when one side wishes to inform
the other that this is the first SA being established with the remote system. The
receiver of this Notification Message might then elect to delete any existing SA's it
has for the sending system under the assumption that the sending system has
rebooted and no longer has access to the original SA's and their associated keying
material.
NOTE: Send initial contact function is enabled by default and cannot be disabled.
Back
Click Back to return on IPSec Summary screen.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router. After that router
automatically goes back and begin negotiations of the tunnels by clicking on the
Start.
Table 11 – IPSec Parameters
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OpenVPN
OpenVPN site to site allows connecting two remote networks via point–to–point encrypted tunnel.
OpenVPN implementation offers a cost–effective simply configurable alternative to other VPN technologies.
OpenVPN allows peers to authenticate each other using a pre–shared secret key, certificates, or
username/password. When used in a multiclient–server configuration, it allows the server to release an
authentication certificate for every client, using signature and Certificate authority. It uses the OpenSSL
encryption library extensively, as well as the SSLv3/TLSv1 protocol, and contains many security and control
features. The server and client have almost the same configuration. The difference in the client configuration
is the remote endpoint IP or hostname field. Also the client can set up the keepalive settings. For successful
tunnel creation a static key must be generated on one side and the same key must be uploaded on the
opposite side.
Figure 21 – OpenVPN example
Click VPN Settings -OpenVPN, to open the VPN configuration screen. At the Figure 19 – IPSec
Summary screen you can see OpenVPN Summary. This screen gathers information about settings of all
defined OpenVPN tunnels. Up to 5 OpenVPN tunnels can be defined on GWR router.
OpenVPN Summary and OpenVPN Settings are briefly displayed in following figures and tables.
Figure 22 – OpenVPN Summary screen
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OpenVPN
Label
Description
IP Filtering
Tunnel Number
Automatically assigned number of the tunnel.
Tunnel Name
This field specifies tunnel name.
Enable
Check this setting in order to enable OpenVPN tunnel.
Allow access from the following devices
Interface Type
There are two modes of OpenVPN tunnel, routed and bridged mode.
For routed mode select option TUN, and for bridged TAP
Authenticate Mode
Choose one of the following options:
• none (Select this option if you do not want to use any kind of
authentication),
• pre–shared secret (Select this option if you want to use PSK as a
authentication method),
• username/password (Select this option if you want to use
username/password along with CA Certificate as a authentication
method),
• X.509 cert. (client) (Select this option if you want to use X.509
certificates as a authentication method in client mode),
• X.509 cert. (server) (Select this option if you want to use X.509
certificates as a authentication method in server mode).
Encryption Cipher
Encrypt packets with cipher algorithm. The default is BF-CBC, an abbreviation
for Blowfish in Cipher Block Chaining mode. Blowfish has the advantages of
being fast, very secure, and allowing key sizes of up to 448 bits. Blowfish is
designed to be used in situations where keys are changed infrequently.
OpenVPN supports the CBC cipher mode.
Hash Algorithm
Authenticate packets with HMAC using message digest algorithm. The default
is SHA1. HMAC is a commonly used message authentication algorithm (MAC)
that uses a data string, a secure hash algorithm, and a key, to produce a digital
signature. OpenVPN's usage of HMAC is to first encrypt a packet, then HMAC
the resulting ciphertext. In TLS mode, the HMAC key is dynamically generated
and shared between peers via the TLS control channel. If OpenVPN receives a
packet with a bad HMAC it will drop the packet. HMAC usually adds 16 or 20
bytes per packet. Set none to disable authentication.
NOTE: Depending on the options selected in the previous steps, some of the following options will be
available for configuration.
Protocol
Selection between TCP in server or client mode and UDP protocol in connect or
wait mode.
TCP/UDP port
Depending on the selected protocol, port number should be specified.
LZO Compression
Check the box to enable fast adaptive LZO compression.
NAT Rules
Enables NAT through the tunnel.
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Keep Alive
Check the box if you want to use keepalive.
Ping Interval
This field specifies the target IP address for periodical traffic generated using
ping in order to maintain the connection active.
Ping Timeout
This field specifies ping interval for keepalive option.
Pre–shared Secret
Generate or Paste the Pre–shared Secret. You have an additional option to
Export the PSK.
Max Fragment Size
If you select UDP protocol whether in connect or wait mode you must specify
Max Fragment Size (default is 1300 bytes). If you prefer to keep fragmentation
disabled enter 0
Renegotiate interval
Specify renegotiate interval if username/password is selected as authentication
method.
CA Certificate
Specify the CA Certificate.
Username
Specify the username.
Password
Specify the password.
Local Certificate
Specify the local certificate.
Local Private Key
Specify the local private key.
DH Group
Choose the DH Group from the following: 786 bits, 1024 bits, 1536 bits, 2048
bits.
Remote Host or IP
Address
Specify server IP address or hostname.
Redirect Gateway
This option allows usage of OpenVPN tunnel as a default route.
Tunnel Interface
Configuration
Pull tunnel interface configuration from server side.
Manual configuration
Local Interface IP
Address
Specify the IP address of the local VPN tunnel endpoint.
Remote Interface IP
Address
Specify the IP address of the remote VPN tunnel endpoint.
Pull from server
Network Topology
Specify topology of OpenVPN interfaces – NET30, P2P or SUBNET
Back
Click Back to return on IPSec Summary screen.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router. After that router
automatically goes back and begin negotiations of the tunnels by clicking on
the Start button.
Table 12 – OpenVPN parameters
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Figure 23 – OpenVPN configuration page
Figure 24 – OpenVPN network topology
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Settings – Firewall – IP Filtering
TCP/IP traffic flow is controlled over IP address and port number through router’s
interfaces in both directions. With firewall options it is possible to create rule which exactly
matches traffic of interest. Traffic can be blocked or forward depending of action selected. It is
important when working with firewall rules to have in mind that traffic for router management
should always be allowed to avoid problem with unreachable router. Firewall rules are checked by
priority from the first to the last. Rules which are after matching rule are skipped.
Firewall
Label
Description
Firewall General Settings
Enable
This field specifies if Firewall is enabled at the router
Add New Rule
Applies configured rules to router
Firewall rules
Priority
Firewall rules are evaluated from the top down. The first rule to match is
executed immediately and the rest are skipped
Name
Description of applied rule
Enabled
This field specifies if rule is enabled in the firewall
Chain
There are three options available in this section: INPUT (for traffic going to the
interface), OUTGOING (for traffic originated at the router going out of the
interface) and FORWARD (for traffic routed from one interface to another,
originated outside the router)
Service
Predefined list of well-known ports and Custom option for user defined
services
Protocol
Type of protocol – TCP, UDP, UDPLITE, AH, SCTP, ESP, ICMP, Custom
Port
Number of port. Four options are available (FULL/UNDEF-all port numbers,
RANGE -for range of ports, CSV multiport - for defining more than one
noncontinuous port numbers, CUSTOM-for single port)
ICMP-type (ICMP
protocol is selected)
List of ICMP packet types are displayed. ICMP is filtered in general or by
specific type.
Protocol number
(Custom protocol is
selected)
Protocol number is chosen between 1 and 255
Input Interface
Selection of firewall input inspection interface (when OUTPUT chain is selected
this field cannot be chosen)
Output Interface
Selection of firewall output inspection interface (when INPUT chain is selected
this field cannot be chosen)
Source address
This field specifies packets with source IP address on which firewall rule is
applied
Destination address
This field specifies packets with destination IP address on which firewall rule
is applied
Inverted destination
For defined IP address in Source or Destination IP address inverts logic of the
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USER MANUAL
address rule logic
GWR Router Series
filter. Instead of applying firewall rule on defined IP addresses all IP addresses
EXCEPT defined are covered by firewall rule.
Packet state
Selection of traffic by packet state. INVALID is for unrecognized packet state
traffic
Policy
Options for firewall rule action: ACCEPT (forward traffic), REJECT (deny
traffic with ICMP error returned), DROP (drop traffic)
Reject-with
Select the reject type of the rule. The default
error message is to send a portunreachable to the host. This field is visible only if selected policy is
REJECT.
Enable
This box enables Distributed DOS
Maximum average
matching rate
Maximum average matching rate: specified as a number, with an optional time
unit: second, minute, hour, or day; the default is 3/hour
Maximum initial
number of packets to
match
Maximum initial number of packets to match: this number gets recharged by
one every time the limit specified above is not reached, up to this number; the
default is 5
Distributed DoS
Action
Back
Click Back to return on firewall home page
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router
Add New Rule
New rule to firewall table is added
Apply Rules
Save changes to table of firewall rules
Table 13 – Firewall parameters
Figure 25 – Firewall configuration page
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Settings – Firewall – MAC Filtering
MAC filtering can be used to restrict which Ethernet devices can send packets to the router.
If MAC filtering is enabled, only Ethernet packets with a source MAC address that is configured in
the MAC Filter table will be allowed. If the source MAC address is not in the MAC Filter table, the
packet will dropped.
MAC Filtering Settings
Label
Description
Enable MAC Filtering
This field specifies if MAC Filtering is enabled at the router
Enable
Enable MAC filtering for a specific MAC address
Name
Field shows the Rule Name that is given to the MAC filtering rule
MAC address
The Ethernet MAC source address to allow
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings
Save
Click Save to save changes back to the GWR router
Table 14 - MAC filtering parameters
Figure 26 – MAC filtering configuration page
DMZ Host
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) allows one IP Address to be exposed to the Internet. Because some
applications require multiple TCP/IP ports to be open, DMZ provides this function by forwarding all the
ports to one computer at the same time. In the other words, this setting allows one local user to be exposed
to the Internet to use a special–purpose services such as Internet gaming, Video–conferencing and etc. It is
recommended that you set your computer with a static IP if you want to use this function.
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Figure 27 – DMZ Host configuration page
Settings – DynDNS
Dynamic DNS is a domain name service allowing to link dynamic IP addresses to static hostname.
To start using this feature firstly you should register to DDNS service provider. Section of the web interface
where you can setup DynDNS parameters is shown in Figure 28.
Figure 28 – DynDNS settings
DynDNS
Label
Description
Enable DynDNS Client Enable DynDNS Client.
Service
The type of service that you are using, try one of: no–ip, dhs, pgpow, dyndns,
dyndns–static, dyndns–custom, ods, easydns, dyns, justlinux and zoneedit.
Custom Server IP
The server IP to connect to.
Custom Server port
The server port to connect to.
Hostname
String to send as host parameter.
Username
User ID
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Password
User password.
Update cycle
Defines interval between updates of the DynDNS client. Default and minimum
value for all DynDNS services, except No–IP service, is 86400 seconds. Update
cycle value for No–IP service is represented in minutes and minimum is 1
minute.
Number of tries
Number of tries (default: 1) if network problem.
Timeout
The amount of time to wait on I/O (network problem).
Period
Time between update retry attempts, default value is 1800.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Table 15 – DynDNS parameters
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Settings – Serial Port
Using the router’s serial port it is possible to perform serial–to–ethernet conversion (Serial port over
TCP/UDP) and ModbusRTU–to–TCP conversion (Modbus gateway). Initial Serial Port Settings page is
shown in figure bellow. By default above described features are disabled. Selecting one of two possible
applications of Serial port opens up additional options available for configuration.
Figure 29 – Serial Port Settings initial menu
Serial port over TCP/UDP settings
The GWR Router provides a way for a user to connect from a network connection to a serial port. It
provides all the serial port setup, a configuration file to configure the ports, a control login for modifying
port parameters, monitoring ports, and controlling ports. The GWR Router supports RFC 2217 (remote
control of serial port parameters).
Serial Port over TCP/UDP Settings
Label
Description
Bits per second
The unit and attached serial device, such as a modem, must agree on a speed or
baud rate to use for the serial connection. Valid baud rates are 300, 1200, 2400,
4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 or 115200.
Data bits
Indicates the number of bits in a transmitted data package.
Parity
Checks for the parity bit. None is the default.
Stop bits
The stop bit follows the data and parity bits in serial communication. It
indicates the end of transmission. The default is 1.
Flow control
Flow control manages data flow between devices in a network to ensure it is
processed efficiently. Too much data arriving before a device is prepared to
manage it causes lost or retransmitted data. None is the default.
Protocol
Choose which protocol to use [TCP/UDP].
Mode
Select server mode in order to listen for incoming connection, or client mode to
establish one.
Bind to TCP/UDP port
Number of the TCP/UDP port to accept connections for this device. (Only on
server side)
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Server IP address
Specify server IP address. (Only on client side).
Connect to TCP/UDP
port
Number of the TCP/UDP port to accept connections from this device. (Only on
client side).
Type of socket
Either raw or telnet. Raw enables the port and transfers all data like between the
port and the log. Telnet enables the port and runs the telnet protocol on the
port to set up telnet parameters.
Enable local echo
Enable the local echo feature.
Enable timeout
After defined period of inactivity port is closed, default is 1 hour
Check TCP connection
Enable connection checking.
Keepalive idle time
Set keepalive idle time in seconds.
Keepalive interval
Set time period between checking.
Log level
Set importance level of log messages.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save button to save your changes back to the GWR Router and
activate/deactivate serial to Ethernet converter.
Table 16 – Serial Port over TCP/UDP parameters
Click Serial Port Tab to open the Serial Port Configuration screen. Use this screen to configure the
GWR Router serial port parameters (Figure 30).
Figure 30 – Serial Port configuration page
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Modbus Gateway settings
The serial server will perform conversion from Modbus/TCP to Modbus/RTU, allowing polling by
a Modbus/TCP master. The Modbus Gateway carries out translation between Modbus/TCP and
Modbus/RTU. This means that Modbus serial slaves can be directly attached to the unit's serial ports
without any external protocol converters.
Click Serial Port Tab to open the Modbus Gateway configuration screen. Choose Modbus Gateway
options to configure Modbus. At the Figure 31 – Modbus gateway configuration page you can see screenshot
of Modbus Gateway configuration menu.
Modbus Gateway Parameters
Label
Description
Bits per second
The unit and attached serial device, such as a modem, must agree on a speed or
baud rate to use for the serial connection. Valid baud rates are 300, 1200, 2400,
4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 or 115200.
Data bits
Indicates the number of bits in a transmitted data package. Valid data bits are:
8 and 7.
Parity
Checks for the parity bit. Valid parity are: none, even and odd. None is the
default.
Stop bits
The stop bit follows the data and parity bits in serial communication. It
indicates the end of transmission. Valid stop bits are: 1 and 2. The default is 1.
Flow control
Flow control manages data flow between devices in a network to ensure it is
processed efficiently. Too much data arriving before a device is prepared to
manage it causes lost or retransmitted data. None is the default.
TCP accept port
This field determines the TCP port number that the serial server will listen for
connections on. The value entered should be a valid TCP port number. The
default Modbus/TCP port number is 502.
Connection timeout
When this field is set to a value greater than 0, the serial server will close
connections that have had no network receive activity for longer than the
specified period.
Transmission mode
Select RTU, based on the Modbus slave equipment attached to the port.
Response timeout
This is the timeout (in milliseconds) to wait for a response from a serial slave
device before retrying the request or returning an error to the Modbus master.
Maximum number of
retries
Should no valid response be received from a Modbus slave, the value in this
field determines the number of times the serial server will retransmit request
before giving up.
Log level
Set importance level of log messages.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save button to save your changes back to the GWR Router and
activate/deactivate serial to Ethernet converter.
Table 17 – Modbus gateway parameters
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Figure 31 – Modbus gateway configuration page
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SMS – SMS Remote Control
SMS remote control feature allows users to execute a short list of predefined commands by sending SMS
messages to the router. GWR router series implement following predefined commands:
1. In order to establish PPP connection, user should send SMS containing following string:
:PPP–CONNECT
After the command is executed, router sends a confirmation SMS with “OK” if the command is
executed without errors or “ERROR” if something went wrong during the execution of the
command.
2.
In order to disconnect the router from PPP, user should send SMS containing following string:
:PPP–DISCONNECT
After the command is executed, router sends a confirmation SMS with “OK” if the command is
executed without errors or “ERROR” if something went wrong during the execution of the
command.
3.
In order to reestablish (reconnect the router) the PPP connection, user should send SMS containing
following string:
:PPP–RECONNECT
After the command is executed, router sends a confirmation SMS with “OK” if the command is
executed without errors or “ERROR” if something went wrong during the execution of the
command.
4.
In order to obtain the current router status, user should send SMS containing following string:
:PPP–STATUS
After the command is executed, router sends one of the following status reports to the user:
– CONNECTING
– CONNECTED, WAN_IP: {WAN IP address or the router}
– DISCONNECTING
– DISCONNECTED
5.
In order to establish PPP connection over the other SIM card, user should send SMS containing
following string:
:SWITCH-SIM
After the command is executed, router sends a confirmation SMS with “OK” if the command is
executed without errors or “ERROR” if something went wrong during the execution of the
command.
6.
In order to restart whole router user should send SMS containing following string:
:REBOOT
After the command is executed, router sends a confirmation SMS with “OK” if the command is
executed without errors or “ERROR” if something went wrong during the execution of the
command.
Remote control configuration page is presented on the following figure. In order to use this feature,
user must enable the SMS remote control and specify the list of SIM card numbers that will be used for SMS
remote control. The SIM card number should be entered in the following format: {Country Code}{Mobile
Operator Prefix}{Phone Number} (for example +38164111222). SMS service centre number can be obtained
automatically (option “Use default SMSC is enabled”) or manually by entering number under field “Custom
SMSC”.
As presented in the figure configuration should be performed separately for both SIM cards. After
the configuration is entered, user must click on Save button in order to save the configuration.
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Figure 32 – SMS remote control configuration
SMS – Send SMS
SMS send feature allows users to send SMS message from WEB interface. In following picture is page
from where SMS can be sent. There are two required fields on this page: Phone number and Message.
Figure 33 – Send SMS
SMS Gateway is used for sending SMS with GET query. Command format is following:
192.168.1.1/cgi/send_exec.lua?group=sms&phone=%2B38164112233&message="hello
world"&auth="YWRtaW46YWRtaW4="
Field marked with red are changeable . First field is phone number where is sent SMS to. Second field is
message itself. Third field is authorization (username:password) encrypted in BASE64. Link for online
BASE64 encryption is following http://www.base64encode.org. Username and password has to be written in
format username:password.
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Maintenance
The GWR Router provides administration utilities via web interface. Administrator can setup basic
router’s parameters, perform network diagnostic, update software or restore factory default settings.
Maintenance – Device Identity Settings
Within Device Identity Settings Tab there is an option to define name, location of device and
description of device function. These data are kept in device permanent memory. Device Identity Settings
window is shown on Figure 34.
Device Identity Settings
Label
Description
Name
This field specifies name of the GWR Router.
Description
This field specifies description of the GWR Router. Only for information purpose.
Location
This field specifies location of the GWR Router. Only for information purpose.
Save
Click Save button to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Table 18 – Device Identity parameters
Figure 34 – Device Identity Settings configuration page
Maintenance – Router Management
By Administrator Password Tab it is possible to activate and deactivates device access system
through Username and Password mechanism. Within this menu change of authorization data
Username/Password is also done. Administer Password Tab window is shown on Figure 35.
NOTE: The password cannot be recovered if it is lost or forgotten. If the password is lost or
forgotten, you have to reset the Router to its factory default settings; this will remove all of your
configuration changes.
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Figure 35 – Router Management configuration page
Administrator Password
Label
Description
Enable Password
Authentication
By this check box you can activate or deactivate function for authentication when
you access to web/console application.
Username
This field specifies Username for user (administrator) login purpose.
Old Password
Enter the old password. The default is admin when you first power up the GWR
Router.
New Password
Enter a new password for GWR Router. Your password must have 20 or fewer
characters and cannot contain any space.
Confirm Password
Re–enter the new password to confirm it.
HTTP
Bind HTTP to specified port
HTTPS
Bind HTTPS to specified port
HTTP/HTTPS
Bind HTTP and HTTPS to specified port
WEB GUI Timeout
WEB session timeout
Save
Click Save button to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Table 19 – Router Management
Maintenance – Date/Time Settings
To set the local time, select Date/Time Settings using the Network Time Protocol (NTP)
automatically or Set the local time manually. Date and time setting on the GWR Router are done through
window Date/Time Settings.
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Figure 36 – Date/Time Settings configuration page
Date/Time Settings
Label
Description
Manually
Sets date and time manually as you specify it.
From time server
Sets the local time using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) automatically.
Time/Date
This field species Date and Time information. You can change date and time by
changing parameters.
Sync Clock With Client Date and time setting on the basis of PC calendar.
Time Protocol
Choose the time protocol.
Time Server Address
Time server IP address.
Time Zone
Select your time zone.
Automatically
synchronize NTP
Setup automatic synchronization with time server.
Update time every
Time interval for automatic synchronization.
Enables daylight saving time.
On the date specified as start date, clock on the GWR router will be adjusted for
Update for Daylight
one hour in advance.
Saving Time
On the date specified as stop date, clock on the GWR router will be adjusted for
one hour backward.
Save
Click Save button to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Table 20 – Date/time parameters
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Maintenance – Diagnostics
The GWR Router provide built–it tool, which is used for troubleshooting network problems. The
ping test bounces a packet of machine on the Internet back to the sender. This test shows if the GWR Router
is able to connect the remote host. If users on the LAN are having problems accessing service on the
Internet, try to ping the DNS server or other machine on network.
Click Diagnostic tab to provide basic diagnostic tool for testing network connectivity. Insert valid IP
address in Hostname box and click Ping. Every time you click Ping router sends four ICMP packets to
destination address.
Before using this tool make sure you know the device or host’s IP address.
Figure 37 – Diagnostic page
Maintenance – Update Firmware
You can use this feature to upgrade the GWR Router firmware to the latest version. If you need to
download the latest version of the GWR Router firmware, please visit Geneko support site. Follow the on–
screen instructions to access the download page for the GWR Router.
If you have already downloaded the firmware onto your computer, click Browse button, on Update
firmware Tab, to look for the firmware file. After selection of new firmware version through Browse button,
mechanism the process of data transfer from firmware to device itself should be started. This is done by
Upload button. The process of firmware transfer to the GWR device takes a few minutes and when it is
finished the user is informed about transfer process success.
NOTE: The Router will take a few minutes to upgrade its firmware. During this process, do not
power off the Router or press the Reset button.
Figure 38 – Update Firmware page
In order to activate new firmware version it is necessary that the user performs system reset. In the
process of firmware version change all configuration parameters are not changed and after that the system
continues to operate with previous values.
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Maintenance – Settings Backup
This feature allows you to make a backup file of complete configuration or some part of the
configuration on the GWR Router. In order to backup the configuration, you should select the part of
configuration you would like to backup. The list of available options is presented on the Figure 39. To use
the backup file, you need to import the configuration file that you previously exported.
Figure 39 – Export/Import the configuration on the router
Import Configuration File
To import a configuration file, first specify where your backup configuration file is located. Click Browse,
and then select the appropriate configuration file.
After you select the file, click Import. This process may take up to a minute. Restart the Router in order to
changes will take effect.
Export Configuration File
To export the Router’s current configuration file select the part of the configuration you would like to
backup and click Export.
Figure 40 – File download
Select the location where you want to store your backup configuration file. By default, this file will be called
confFile.bkg, but you may rename it if you wish. This process may take up to a minute.
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Maintenance – Default Settings
Use this feature to clear all of your configuration information and restore the GWR Router to its
factory default settings. Only use this feature if you wish to discard all the settings and preferences that you
have configured.
Click Default Setting to have the GWR Router with default parameters. Keep network settings
check–box allows user to keep all network settings after factory default reset. System will be reset after
pressing Restore button.
Figure 41 – Default Settings page
Maintenance – System Reboot
If you need to restart the Router, Geneko recommends that you use the Reboot tool on this screen.
Click Reboot to have the GWR Router reboot. This does not affect the router’s configuration.
Figure 42 – System Reboot page
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Management – Command Line Interface
CLI (command line interface) is a user text–only interface to a computer's operating system or an
application in which the user responds to a visual prompt by typing in a command on a specified line and
then receives a response back from the system.
In other words, it is a method of instructing a computer to perform a given task by "entering" a command.
The system waits for the user to conclude the submitting of the text command by pressing the Enter or
Return key. A command–line interpreter then receives, parses, and executes the requested user command.
On router's Web interface, in Management menu, click on Command Line Interface tab to open the
Command Line Interface settings screen. Use this screen to configure CLI parameters Figure 43 – Command
Line Interface.
Command Line Interface
Label
Description
CLI Settings
Enable
Enable or disable CLI
CLI on
Telnet, SSH, Serial
View Mode Username
Login name for View mode
View Mode Password
Password for View mode
Confirm Password
Confirm password for View mode
View Mode Timeout
Inactivity timeout for View mode in seconds. After timeout, user will be put in
Main mode.
Edit Mode Timeout
Inactivity timeout for Edit mode in seconds. Note that Username and Password
for Edit mode are the same as Web interface login parameters. After timeout,
user will be put in Main mode.
Console Type
Windows, other.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Table 21 – Command Line Interface parameters
Figure 43 – Command Line Interface
Detailed instructions related to CLI are located in other document (Command_Line_Interface.pdf file on CD
that goes with the router). You will find detailed specifications of all commands you can use to configure the
router and monitor routers performance.
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Management – Remote Management
Remote Management Utility is a standalone Windows application with many useful options for
configuration and monitoring of GWR routers. More information about this utility can be found in other
document (Remote_Management.pdf). In order to use this utility user has to enable Remote Management on
the router Figure 44.
Figure 44 – Remote Management
Command Line Interface
Label
Enable Remote
Management
Description
Enable or disable Remote Management.
Protocol
Choose between Geneko and Sarian protocol.
Bind to
Specify the interface.
TCP port
Specify the TCP port.
Username
Specify the username.
Password
Specify the password.
Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the GWR Router.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Table 22 – Remote Management parameters
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Management – Connection Manager
Enabling Connection Manager will allow Connection Wizard (located on setup CD that goes with
the router) to guide you step–by–step through the process of device detection on the network and setup of
the PC–to–device communication. Thanks to this utility user can simply connect the router to the local
network without previous setup of the router. Connection Wizard will detect the device and allow you to
configure some basic functions of the router. Connection Manager is enabled by default on the router and if
you do not want to use it you can simply disable it Figure 45.
Figure 45 – Connection Manager
Getting started with the Connection Wizard
Connection Wizard is installed through few very simple steps and it is available immediately upon
the installation. After starting the wizard you can choose between two available options for configuration:
•
•
GWR Router’s Ethernet port – With this option you can define LAN interface IP address and
subnet mask.
GWR router’s Ethernet port and GPRS/EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+/LTE network connection – Selecting
this option you can configure parameters for LAN and WAN interface
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Figure 46 – Connection Wizard – Initial Step
Select one of the options and click Next. On the next screen after Connection Wizard inspects the network
(whole broadcast domain) you’ll see a list of routers present in the network, with following information:
-
Serial number,
Model,
Ethernet IP,
Firmware version,
Pingable (if Ethernet IP address of the router is in the same IP subnet as PC interface then this field
will be marked, i.e. you can access router over web interface).
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Figure 47 – Connection Wizard – Router Detection
When you select one of the routers from the list and click Next you will get to the following screen.
Figure 48 – Connection Wizard – LAN Settings
If you selected to configure LAN and WAN interface click, upon entering LAN information click Next and
you will be able to setup WAN interface.
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Figure 49 – Connection Wizard – WAN Settings
After entering the configuration parameters if you mark option Establish connection router will start with
connection establishment immediately when you press Finish button. If not you have to start connection
establishment manually on the router’s web interface.
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Management – Simple Management Protocol (SNMP)
SNMP, or Simple Network Management Protocol, is a network protocol that provides network
administrators with the ability to monitor the status of the Router and receive notification of any critical
events as they occur on the network. The Router supports SNMP v1/v2c and all relevant Management
Information Base II (MIBII) groups. The appliance replies to SNMP Get commands for MIB II via any
interface and supports a custom MIB for generating trap messages.
Figure 50 – SNMP configuration page
SNMP Settings
Label
Description
Enable SNMP
SNMP is enabled by default. To disable the SNMP agent, click this option to
unmark.
Get Community
Create the name for a group or community of administrators who can view
SNMP data. The default is public. It supports up to 64 alphanumeric characters.
Service Port
Sets the port on which SNMP data has been sent. The default is 161. You can
specify port by marking on user defined and specify port you want SNMP data
to be sent.
Service Access
Sets the interface enabled for SNMP traps. The default is Both.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save button to save your changes back to the GWR Router and
enable/disable SNMP.
Table 23 – SNMP parameters
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Management – Logs
Syslog is a standard for forwarding log messages in an IP network. The term "syslog" is often used
for both the actual syslog protocol, as well as the application or library sending syslog messages.
Syslog is a client/server protocol: the syslog sender sends a small (less than 1KB) textual message to
the syslog receiver. Syslog is typically used for computer system management and security auditing. While
it has a number of shortcomings, syslog is supported by a wide variety of devices and receivers across
multiple platforms. Because of this, syslog can be used to integrate log data from many different types of
systems into a central repository.
Figure 51 – Syslog configuration page
The GWR Router supports this protocol and can send its activity logs to an external server.
Syslog Settings
Label
Description
Disable
Mark this option in order to disable Syslog feature.
Local syslog
Start logging facility locally.
Remote + local syslog
Mark this option in order to enable logging on remote machine.
Remote Syslog
Service Server IP
The GWR Router can send a detailed log to an external Syslog server. The
Router’s Syslog captures all log activities and includes this information about
all data transmissions: every connection source and destination IP address, IP
service, and number of bytes transferred. Enter the Syslog server name or IP
address.
Service Port
Sets the port on which Syslog data has been sent. The default is 514.
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You can specify port by marking on user defined and specify port you want
Syslog data to be sent.
User defined
Set manually port number.
Default
Use standard port number for this service. [514]
Local syslog
Log to
Local – Syslog file is stored locally on the router
USB Flash – Syslog file is stored on flash memory attached to USB interface
Syslog file size
Set log size on one of the six predefined values. [10/20/50/100/200/500]kb
Event log
Choose which events to be stored. You can store System, Ipsec events or both of
them.
Enable syslog saver
Save logs periodically on filesystem.
Save log every
Set time duration between two saves.
Reload
Click Reload to discard any changes and reload previous settings.
Save
Click Save button to save your changes back to the GWR Router and
enable/disable Syslog.
Table 24 – Syslog parameters
Logout
The Logout tab is located on the down left–hand corner of the screen. Click this tab to exit the web–
based utility. (If you ex it the web–based utility, you will need to re–enter your User Name and Password to
log in and then manage the Router.)
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Configuration Examples
GWR Router as Internet Router
The GWR Routers can be used as Internet router for a single user or for a group of users (entire
LAN). NAT function is enabled by default on the GWR Router. The GWR Router uses Network Address
Translation (NAT) where only the mobile IP address is visible to the outside world. All outgoing traffic uses
the GWR Router mobile IP address.
Figure 52 – GWR Router as Internet router
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings. Configure IP address and Netmask.
•
IP address: 10.1.1.1,
•
Netmask: 255.255.255.0.
Press Save to accept the changes.
Use SIM card with a dynamic/static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator. (Note the default
gateway may show, or change to, an address such as 10.0.0.1; this is normal as it is the GSM/UMTS
provider’s network default gateway).
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be provided by your mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Check Routing Tab to see if there is default route (should be there by default).
Router will automatically add default route via ppp0 interface.
Optionally configure IP Filtering and TCP service port settings to block any unwanted incoming
traffic.
Configure the GWR Router LAN address (10.1.1.1) as a default gateway address on your PCs.
Configure valid DNS address on your PCs.
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GRE Tunnel configuration between two GWR Routers
GRE tunnel is a type of a VPN tunnel, but it is not a secure tunneling method. Simple network with
two GWR Routers is illustrated on the diagram below (Figure 53). Idea is to create GRE tunnel for LAN to
LAN (site to site) connectivity.
Figure 53 – GRE tunnel between two GWR Routers
The GWR Routers requirements:
•
Static IP WAN address for tunnel source and tunnel destination address;
•
Source tunnel address should have static WAN IP address;
•
Destination tunnel address should have static WAN IP address;
GSM/UMTS APN Type: For GSM/UMTS networks GWR Router connections may require a Custom
APN. A Custom APN allows for various IP addressing options, particularly static IP addresses, which are
needed for most VPN connections. A custom APN should also support mobile terminated data that may be
required in most site–to–site VPNs.
The GWR Router 1 configuration:
•
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings. Configure IP address and Netmask.
•
IP Address: 192.168.4.1,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0,
•
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 54 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 1
•
Use SIM card with a static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator. (Note the default gateway
may show, or change to, an address such as 10.0.0.1; this is normal as it is the GSM/UMTS
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•
•
•
GWR Router Series
provider’s network default gateway).
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > GRE to configure GRE tunnel parameters:
•
Enable: yes,
•
Local Tunnel Address: 10.10.10.1,
•
Local Tunnel Netmask: 255.255.255.252 (Unchangeable, always 255.255.255.252),
•
Tunnel Source: 10.251.49.2 (select HOST from drop down menu if you want to use host
name as peer identifier),
•
Tunnel Destination: 10.251.49.3 (select HOST from drop down menu if you want to use host
name as peer identifier),
•
KeepAlive enable: no,
•
Period:(none),
•
Retries:(none),
•
Press ADD to put GRE tunnel rule into GRE table.
•
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 55 – GRE configuration page for GWR Router 1
•
Click Routing on Settings Tab to configure GRE Route. Parameters for this example are:
•
Destination Network: 192.168.2.0,
•
Netmask: 255.255.255.0,
•
Interface: gre_x.
Figure 56 – Routing configuration page for GWR Router 1
•
•
Optionally configure IP Filtering and TCP service port settings to block any unwanted incoming
traffic.
On the device connected on GWR router 1 setup default gateway 192.168.4.1
The GWR Router 2 configuration:
•
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
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settings. Configure IP address and Netmask.
•
IP Address: 192.168.2.1,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0,
•
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 57 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 2
•
•
•
•
Use SIM card with a static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator. (Note the default gateway
may show, or change to, an address such as 10.0.0.1; this is normal as it is the GSM/UMTS
provider’s network default gateway).
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > GRE to configure GRE tunnel parameters:
•
Enable: yes,
•
Local Tunnel Address: 10.10.10.2,
•
Local Tunnel Netmask: 255.255.255.252 (Unchangeable, always 255.255.255.252),
•
Tunnel Source: 10.251.49.3 (select HOST from drop down menu if you want to use host
name as peer identifier),
•
Tunnel Destination: 10.251.49.2 (select HOST from drop down menu if you want to use host
name as peer identifier),
•
KeepAlive enable: no,
•
Period:(none),
•
Retries:(none),
•
Press ADD to put GRE tunnel rule into GRE table,
•
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 58 – GRE configuration page for GWR Router 2
•
Configure GRE Route. Click Routing on Settings Tab. Parameters for this example are:
•
Destination Network: 192.168.4.0,
•
Netmask: 255.255.255.0.
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Figure 59 – Routing configuration page for GWR Router 2
•
•
Optionally configure IP Filtering and TCP service port settings to block any unwanted incoming
traffic.
On the device connected on GWR router 2 setup default gateway 192.168.2.1.
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GRE Tunnel configuration between GWR Router and third party router
GRE tunnel is a type of a VPN tunnels, but it isn't a secure tunneling method. However, you can
encrypt GRE packets with an encryption protocol such as IPSec to form a secure VPN.
On the diagram below (Figure 60) is illustrated simple network with two sites. Idea is to create GRE
tunnel for LAN to LAN (site to site) connectivity.
Figure 60 – GRE tunnel between Cisco router and GWR Router
GRE tunnel is created between Cisco router with GRE functionality on the HQ Site and the GWR
Router on the Remote Network. In this example, it is necessary for both routers to create tunnel interface
(virtual interface). This new tunnel interface is its own network. To each of the routers, it appears that it has
two paths to the remote physical interface and the tunnel interface (running through the tunnel). This tunnel
could then transmit unroutable traffic such as NetBIOS or AppleTalk.
The GWR Router uses Network Address Translation (NAT) where only the mobile IP address is
visible to the outside. All outgoing traffic uses the GWR Router WAN/VPN mobile IP address. HQ Cisco
router acts like gateway to remote network for user in corporate LAN. It also performs function of GRE
server for termination of GRE tunnel. The GWR Router act like default gateway for Remote Network and
GRE server for tunnel.
1.
HQ router requirements:
HQ router require static IP WAN address,
Router or VPN appliance has to support GRE protocol,
Tunnel peer address will be the GWR Router WAN's mobile IP address. For this reason, a static
mobile IP address is preferred on the GWR Router WAN (GPRS) side,
•
Remote Subnet is remote LAN network address and Remote Subnet Mask is subnet of remote
LAN.
•
•
•
2.
The GWR Router requirements:
Static IP WAN address,
•
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•
•
GWR Router Series
Peer Tunnel Address will be the HQ router WAN IP address (static IP address),
Remote Subnet is HQ LAN IP address and Remote Subnet Mask is subnet mask of HQ LAN.
GSM/UMTS APN Type: For GSM/UMTS networks GWR Router connections may require a Custom
APN. A Custom APN allows for various IP addressing options, particularly static IP addresses, which are
needed for most VPN connections. A custom APN should also support mobile terminated data that may be
required in most site–to–site VPNs.
Cisco router sample Configuration:
Interface FastEthernet 0/1
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
description LAN interface
interface FastEthernet 0/0
ip address 172.29.8.4 255.255.255.0
description WAN interface
interface Tunnel0
ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.252
tunnel source FastEthernet0/0
tunnel destination 172.29.8.5
ip route 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 tunnel0
The GWR Router Sample Configuration:
•
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings. Configure IP address and Netmask.
•
IP Address: 10.1.1.1,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0,
•
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 61 – Network configuration page
•
•
•
•
Use SIM card with a dynamic/static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator. (Note the default
gateway may show, or change to, an address such as 10.0.0.1; this is normal as it is the GSM/UMTS
provider’s network default gateway).
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > GRE Tunneling to configure new VPN tunnel parameters:
•
Enable: yes,
•
Local Tunnel Address: 10.10.10.1,
•
Local Tunnel Netmask: 255.255.255.252 (Unchangeable, always 255.255.255.252),
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
GWR Router Series
Tunnel Source: 172.29.8.5,
Tunnel Destination: 172.29.8.4,
KeepAlive enable: no,
Period:(none),
Retries:(none),
Press ADD to put GRE tunnel rule into VPN table,
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 62 – GRE configuration page
•
Configure GRE Route. Click Routing on Settings Tab. Parameters for this example are:
•
Destination Network: 10.2.2.0,
•
Netmask: 255.255.255.0.
Figure 63 – Routing configuration page
•
Optionally configure IP Filtering and TCP service port settings to block any unwanted incoming
traffic.
User from remote LAN should be able to communicate with HQ LAN.
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IPSec Tunnel configuration between two GWR Routers
IPSec tunnel is a type of a VPN tunnels with a secure tunneling method. Simple network with two GWR
Routers is illustrated on the diagram below Figure 64. Idea is to create IPSec tunnel for LAN to LAN (site to
site) connectivity.
Figure 64 – IPSec tunnel between two GWR Routers
The GWR Routers requirements:
•
Static IP WAN address for tunnel source and tunnel destination address,
•
Dynamic IP WAN address must be mapped to hostname with DynDNS service (for
synchronization with DynDNS server SIM card must have internet access),
GSM/UMTS APN Type: For GSM/UMTS networks GWR Router connections may require a
Custom APN. A Custom APN allows for various IP addressing options, particularly static IP addresses,
which are needed for most VPN connections. A custom APN should also support mobile terminated data
that may be required in most site–to–site VPNs.
For the purpose of detailed explanation of IPSec tunnel configuration , two scenarios will be examined and
network illustrated in the Figure 62 will be used for both scenarios.
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Scenario #1
Router 1 and Router 2 , presented in the Figure 64, have firmware version that provides two modes of
negotiation in IPSec tunnel configuration process:
•
•
Aggressive,
Main,
In this scenario, aggressive mode will be used. Configurations for Router 1 and Router 2 are listed below.
The GWR Router 1 configuration:
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings. Configure IP address and Netmask:
•
IP Address: 10.0.10.1,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0,
•
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 65 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 1
•
•
•
•
Use SIM card with a static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator.
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > IPSEC to configure IPSEC tunnel parameters. Click Add New Tunnel button to
create new IPSec tunnel. Tunnel parameters are:
•
Add New Tunnel
•
Tunnel Name: IPsec tunnel,
•
Enable: true,
• Local Group Setup
•
Local Security Gateway Type: SIM card,
•
Local ID Type: IP Address,
•
IP Address From: SIM 1 (WAN connection is established over SIM 1),
•
Local Security Group Type: Subnet,
•
IP Address: 10.0.10.0,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0.
• Remote Group Setup
•
Remote Security Gateway Type: IP Only,
•
IP Address: 172.29.8.5,
•
Remote ID Type: IP Address,
•
Remote Security Group Type: IP,
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.1.
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•
•
•
GWR Router Series
IPSec Setup
•
Key Exchange Mode: IKE with Preshared key,
•
Mode: aggressive,
•
Phase 1 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 1 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 1 Authentication: MD5,
•
Phase 1 SA Life Time: 28800,
•
Perfect Forward Secrecy: true,
•
Phase 2 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 2 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 2 Authentication: MD5,
•
Phase 2 SA Life Time: 3600,
•
Preshared Key: 1234567890.
Failover
•
Enable Tunnel Failover: false,
Advanced
•
Compress(Support IP Payload Compression Protocol(IPComp)): false,
•
Dead Peer Detection(DPD): false,
•
NAT Traversal: true,
•
Send Initial Contact: true.
Figure 66 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router 1
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Figure 67 – IPSec configuration page II for GWR Router 1
NOTE : Options NAT Traversal and Send Initial Contact are predefined
Figure 68 – IPSec configuration page III for GWR Router 1
Click Start button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel.
NOTE: Firmware version used in this scenario also provides options for Connection mode of IPSec tunnel.
If connection mode Connect is selected that indicates side of IPSec tunnel which sends requests for
establishing of the IPSec tunnel.
If connection mode Wait is selected that indicates side of IPSec tunnel which listens and responses to IPSec
establishing requests from Connect side.
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Figure 69 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router 1
Click Start button and after that Connect button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel
•
On the device connected on GWR router 1 setup default gateway 10.0.10.1
The GWR Router 2 configuration:
•
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings. Configure IP address and Netmask.
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.1,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0,
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 70 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 2
•
•
•
•
Use SIM card with a static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator.
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > IPSEC to configure IPSEC tunnel parameters. Click Add New Tunnel button to
create new IPSec tunnel. Tunnel parameters are:
•
Add New Tunnel
•
Tunnel Name: IPsec tunnel,
•
Enable: true.
• Local Group Setup
•
Local Security Gateway Type: SIM card,
•
Local ID Type: IP Address,
•
IP Address From: SIM 1 (WAN connection is established over SIM 1),
•
Local Security Group Type: IP,
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.1.
• Remote Group Setup
•
Remote Security Gateway Type: IP Only,
•
IP Address: 172.29.8.4,
•
Remote ID Type: IP Address,
•
Remote Security Group Type: Subnet,
•
IP Address: 10.0.10.0,
•
Subnet: 255.255.255.0.
• IPSec Setup
•
Keying Mode: IKE with Preshared key,
•
Mode: aggressive,
•
Phase 1 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 1 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 1 Authentication: MD5,
•
Phase 1 SA Life Time: 28800,
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Perfect Forward Secrecy: true,
Phase 2 DH group: Group 2,
Phase 2 Encryption: 3DES,
Phase 2 Authentication: MD5,
Phase 2 SA Life Time: 3600,
Preshared Key: 1234567890.
Failover
Enable Tunnel Failover: false.
Advanced
•
Compress(Support IP Payload Compression Protocol(IPComp)): false,
•
Dead Peer Detection(DPD): false,
•
NAT Traversal: true,
•
Send Initial Contact: true,
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 71 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router 2
Figure 72 – IPSec configuration page II for GWR Router 2
NOTE : Options NAT Traversal and Send Initial Contact are predefined.
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Figure 73 – IPSec configuration page III for GWR Router 2
Click Start button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel.
NOTE: Firmware version used in this scenario also provides options for Connection mode of IPSec tunnel.
If connection mode Connect is selected that indicates side of IPSec tunnel which sends requests for
establishing of the IPSec tunnel.
If connection mode Wait is selected that indicates side of IPSec tunnel which listens and responses to IPSec
establishing requests from Connect side.
Figure 74 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router 2
Click Start button and after that Wait button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel.
•
On the device connected on GWR router 2 setup default gateway 192.168.10.1.
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Scenario #2
Router 1 and Router 2, presented in the Figure 64, are configured with IPSec tunnel in Main mode.
Configurations for Router 1 and Router 2 are listed below.
The GWR Router 1 configuration:
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP settings.
Configure IP address and Netmask:
•
•
•
IP Address: 10.0.10.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 75 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 1
•
•
•
•
Use SIM card with a static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator.
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > IPSEC to configure IPSEC tunnel parameters. Click Add New Tunnel button to
create new IPSec tunnel. Tunnel parameters are:
•
Add New Tunnel
•
Tunnel Name: IPsec tunnel,
•
Enable: true.
• IPSec Setup
•
Keying Mode: IKE with Preshared key,
•
Mode: main
•
Phase 1 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 1 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 1 Authentication: MD5,
•
Phase 1 SA Life Time: 28800,
•
Perfect Forward Secrecy: true,
•
Phase 2 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 2 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 2 Authentication: MD5,
•
Phase 2 SA Life Time: 3600,
•
Preshared Key: 1234567890.
• Local Group Setup
•
Local Security Gateway Type: SIM card,
•
Local ID Type: IP Address
•
IP Address From: SIM 1 (WAN connection is established over SIM 1),
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Local Security Group Type: Subnet,
IP Address: 10.0.10.0,
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0.
Remote Group Setup
•
Remote Security Gateway Type: IP Only,
•
IP Address: 172.29.8.5,
•
Remote ID Type: IP Address
•
Remote Security Group Type: IP,
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.1.
Failover
•
Eanble IKE failover: false,
•
Enable Tunnel Failover: false.
Advanced
•
Compress(Support IP Payload Compression Protocol(IPComp)): false,
•
Dead Peer Detection(DPD): false,
•
NAT Traversal: true,
•
Send Initial Contact: true.
Figure 76 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router 1
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Figure 77 – IPSEC configuration page II for GWR Router 1
Figure 78 – IPSEC configuration page III for GWR Router 1
NOTE: Firmware version used in this scenario also provides options for Connection mode of IPSec tunnel.
If connection mode Connect is selected that indicates side of IPSec tunnel which sends requests for
establishing of the IPSec tunnel.
If connection mode Wait is selected that indicates side of IPSec tunnel which listens and responses to IPSec
establishing requests from Connect side.
Figure 79 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router 1
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Click Start button and after that Connect button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel
•
On the device connected on GWR router 1 setup default gateway 10.0.10.1.
The GWR Router 2 configuration:
•
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings. Configure IP address and Netmask.
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.1,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0.
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 80 – Network configuration page for GWR Router 2
•
•
•
•
Use SIM card with a static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator.
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > IPSEC to configure IPSEC tunnel parameters. Click Add New Tunnel button to
create new IPSec tunnel. Tunnel parameters are:
•
Add New Tunnel
•
Tunnel Name: IPsec tunnel,
•
Enable: true.
• IPSec Setup
•
Keying Mode: IKE with Preshared key,
•
Mode: main,
•
Phase 1 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 1 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 1 Authentication: MD5,
•
Phase 1 SA Life Time: 28800,
•
Perfect Forward Secrecy: true,
•
Phase 2 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 2 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 2 Authentication: MD5,
•
Phase 2 SA Life Time: 3600,
•
Preshared Key: 1234567890.
• Local Group Setup
•
Local Security Gateway Type: SIM card,
•
Local ID Type: IP Address,
•
IP Address From: SIM 1 (WAN connection is established over SIM 1),
•
Local Security Group Type: IP,
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.1.
• Remote Group Setup
•
Remote Security Gateway Type: IP Only,
•
IP Address: 172.29.8.4,
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Remote ID Type: IP Address,
Remote Security Group Type: Subnet,
IP Address: 10.0.10.0,
Subnet: 255.255.255.0.
Failover
Enable IKE failover: false,
Enable Tunnel Failover: false.
Advanced
•
Compress(Support IP Payload Compression Protocol(IPComp)): false,
•
Dead Peer Detection(DPD): false,
•
NAT Traversal: true,
•
Send Initial Contact: true.
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 81 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router 2
Figure 82 – IPSEC configuration page II for GWR Router 2
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Figure 83 – IPSEC configuration page III for GWR Router 2
NOTE: Firmware version used in this scenario also provides options for Connection mode of IPSec tunnel.
If connection mode Connect is selected that indicates side of IPSec tunnel which sends requests for
establishing of the IPSec tunnel.
If connection mode Wait is selected that indicates side of IPSec tunnel which listens and responses to IPSec
establishing requests from Connect side.
Figure 84 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router 1
Click Start button and after that Wait button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel.
•
On the device connected on GWR router 2 setup default gateway 192.168.10.1.
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IPSec Tunnel configuration between GWR Router and Cisco Router
IPSec tunnel is a type of a VPN tunnels with a secure tunneling method. On the diagram below
Error! Reference source not found. is illustrated simple network with GWR Router and Cisco Router. Idea
is to create IPSec tunnel for LAN to LAN (site to site) connectivity.
Figure 85 – IPSec tunnel between GWR Router and Cisco Router
The GWR Routers requirements:
•
Static IP WAN address for tunnel source and tunnel destination address,
•
Dynamic IP WAN address must be mapped to hostname with DynDNS service (for
synchronization with DynDNS server SIM card must have internet access).
GSM/UMTS APN Type: For GSM/UMTS networks GWR Router connections may require a Custom
APN. A Custom APN allows for various IP addressing options, particularly static IP addresses, which are
needed for most VPN connections. A custom APN should also support mobile terminated data that may be
required in most site–to–site VPNs.
The GWR Router configuration:
•
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings. Configure IP address and Netmask.
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.1,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0.
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 86 – Network configuration page for GWR Router
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USER MANUAL
•
•
•
GWR Router Series
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > IPSEC to configure IPSEC tunnel parameters. Click Add New Tunnel button to
create new IPSec tunnel. Tunnel parameters are:
•
Add New Tunnel
•
Tunnel Name: IPsec tunnel,
•
Enable: true.
• Local Group Setup
•
Local Security Gateway Type: SIM card,
•
Local ID Type: IP Address,
•
IP Address From: SIM 1 (WAN connection is established over SIM 1),
•
Local Security Group Type: Subnet,
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.0,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0.
• Remote Group Setup
•
Remote Security Gateway Type: IP Only,
•
IP Address: 150.160.170.1,
•
Remote ID Type: IP Address,
•
Remote Security Group Type: Subnet,
•
IP Address: 10.10.10.0,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0.
• IPSec Setup
•
Keying Mode: IKE with Preshared key,
•
Mode: aggressive,
•
Phase 1 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 1 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 1 Authentication: SHA1,
•
Phase 1 SA Life Time: 28800,
•
Phase 2 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 2 Authentication: SHA1,
•
Phase 2 SA Life Time: 3600,
•
Preshared Key: 1234567890.
• Failover
Enable Tunnel Failover: false.
• Advanced
•
Compress(Support IP Payload Compression Protocol(IPComp)): false,
•
Dead Peer Detection(DPD): false,
•
NAT Traversal: true,
•
Send Initial Contact Notification: true.
Press Save to accept the changes.
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Figure 87 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router
Figure 88 – IPSec configuration page II for GWR Router
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Figure 89 – IPSec configuration page III for GWR Router
•
Click Start button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel.
Click Start button and after that Connect button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel
Figure 90 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router
•
On the device connected on GWR router setup default gateway 192.168.10.1.
The Cisco Router configuration:
version 12.4
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password–encryption
!
hostname Cisco–Router
!
boot–start–marker
boot–end–marker
!
username admin password 7 ****************
!
enable secret 5 *********************
!
no aaa new–model
!
no ip domain lookup
!
!––– Keyring that defines wildcard pre–shared key.
!
crypto keyring remote
pre–shared–key address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
key 1234567890
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!
!––– ISAKMP policy
!
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr 3des
authentication pre–share
group 2
lifetime 28800
!
!––– Profile for LAN–to–LAN connection, that references
!––– the wildcard pre–shared key and a wildcard identity
!
crypto isakmp profile L2L
description LAN to LAN vpn connection
keyring remote
match identity address 0.0.0.0
!
!
crypto ipsec transform–set testGWR esp–3des esp–sha–hmac
!
!––– Instances of the dynamic crypto map
!––– reference previous IPsec profile.
!
crypto dynamic–map dynGWR 5
set transform–set testGWR
set isakmp–profile L2L
match address 121
!
!––– Crypto–map only references instances of the previous dynamic crypto map.
!
crypto map GWR 10 ipsec–isakmp dynamic dynGWR
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
description WAN INTERFACE
ip address 150.160.170.1 255.255.255.252
ip nat outside
no ip route–cache
no ip mroute–cache
duplex auto
speed auto
crypto map GWR
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
description LAN INTERFACE
ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
ip nat inside
no ip route–cache
no ip mroute–cache
duplex auto
speed auto
!
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 150.160.170.2
!
ip http server
no ip http secure–server
ip nat inside source list nat_list interface FastEthernet0/0 overload
!
ip access–list extended nat_list
deny
ip 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.255 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255
permit ip 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.255 any
ip access-list extended 121 permit ip 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.255 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255
!
access–list 23 permit any
!
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
access–class 23 in
privilege level 15
login local
transport input telnet ssh
line vty 5 15
access–class 23 in
privilege level 15
login local
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transport input telnet ssh
!
end
Use this section to confirm that your configuration works properly. Debug commands that run on the
Cisco router can confirm that the correct parameters are matched for the remote connections.
•
•
•
•
•
•
show ip interface—Displays the IP address assignment to the spoke router.
show crypto isakmp sa detail—Displays the IKE SAs, which have been set–up between the IPsec
initiators.
show crypto ipsec sa—Displays the IPsec SAs, which have been set–up between the IPsec initiators.
debug crypto isakmp—Displays messages about Internet Key Exchange (IKE) events.
debug crypto ipsec—Displays IPsec events.
debug crypto engine—Displays crypto engine events.
IPSec Tunnel configuration between GWR Router and Juniper SSG
firewall
IPSec tunnel is a type of a VPN tunnels with a secure tunneling method. On the diagram below
Figure 87 is illustrated simple network with GWR Router and Cisco Router. Idea is to create IPSec tunnel for
LAN to LAN (site to site) connectivity.
Figure 91 – IPSec tunnel between GWR Router and Cisco Router
The GWR Routers requirements:
•
Destination tunnel address should have public static WAN IP address.
GSM/UMTS APN Type: For GSM/UMTS networks GWR Router connections may require a Custom
APN. A Custom APN allows for various IP addressing options, particularly static IP addresses, which are
needed for most VPN connections. A custom APN should also support mobile terminated data that may be
required in most site–to–site VPNs.
The GWR Router configuration:
•
Click Network Tab, to open the LAN NETWORK screen. Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP
settings. Configure IP address and Netmask.
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USER MANUAL
•
•
•
GWR Router Series
IP Address: 192.168.10.1,
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0,
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 92 – Network configuration page for GWR Router
•
•
•
•
Use SIM card with a static IP address, obtained from Mobile Operator.
Click WAN Settings Tab to configure parameters necessary for GSM/UMTS connection. All
parameters necessary for connection configuration should be required from mobile operator.
Check the status of GSM/UMTS connection (WAN Settings Tab). If disconnected please click
Connect button.
Click VPN Settings > IPSEC to configure IPSEC tunnel parameters. Click Add New Tunnel button to
create new IPSec tunnel. Tunnel parameters are:
•
Add New Tunnel
•
Tunnel Name: IPsec tunnel,
•
Enable: true.
• IPSec Setup
•
Keying Mode: IKE with Preshared key,
•
Mode: aggressive,
•
Phase 1 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 1 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 1 Authentication: SHA1,
•
Phase 1 SA Life Time: 28800,
•
Perfect Forward Secrecy: true,
•
Phase 2 DH group: Group 2,
•
Phase 2 Encryption: 3DES,
•
Phase 2 Authentication: SHA1,
•
Phase 2 SA Life Time: 3600,
•
Preshared Key: 1234567890.
• Local Group Setup
•
Local Security Gateway Type: IP Only,
•
Local ID Type: Custom,
•
Custom Peer ID: 172.30.147.96,
•
IP Address: SIM 1,
•
Local Security Group Type: Subnet,
•
IP Address: 192.168.10.0,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0.
• Remote Group Setup
•
Remote Security Gateway Type: IP Only,
•
IP Address: 150.160.170.1,
•
Remote ID Type: IP Address,
•
Remote Security Group Type: Subnet,
•
IP Address: 10.10.10.0,
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0.
• Advanced
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USER MANUAL
•
•
•
•
GWR Router Series
Compress(Support IP Payload Compression Protocol(IPComp)): false,
Dead Peer Detection(DPD): false,
NAT Traversal: true,
Press Save to accept the changes.
Figure 93 – IPSEC configuration page I for GWR Router
Figure 94 – IPSec configuration page II for GWR Router
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Figure 95 – IPSec configuration page III for GWR Router
•
Click Start button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel.
Click Start button and after that Connect button on Internet Protocol Security page to initiate IPSEC tunnel
Figure 96 – IPSec start/stop page for GWR Router
•
On the device connected on GWR router setup default gateway 192.168.10.1.
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The Juniper SSG firewall configuration:
Step1 – Create New Tunnel Interface
• Click Interfaces on Network Tab.
Figure 97 – Network Interfaces (list)
•
•
Bind New tunnel interface to Untrust interface (outside int – with public IP addresss).
Use unnumbered option for IP address configuration.
Figure 98 – Network Interfaces (edit)
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Step 2 – Create New VPN IPSEC tunnel
•
Click VPNs in main menu. To create new gateway click Gateway on AutoKey Advanced tab.
Figure 99 – AutoKey Advanced Gateway
•
Click New button. Enter gateway parameters:
Gateway name: TestGWR,
Security level: Custom,
Remote Gateway type: Dynamic IP address( because your GWR router are hidden behind
Mobile operator router’s (firewall) NAT),
Peer ID: 172.30.147.96,
Presharedkey: 1234567890,
Local ID: 150.160.170.1.
Figure 100 – Gateway parameters
•
Click Advanced button.
Security level – User Defined: custom,
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Phase 1 proposal: pre–g2–3des–sha,
Mode: Agressive(must be aggressive because of NAT),
Nat–Traversal: enabled,
Click Return and OK.
Figure 101 – Gateway advanced parameters
Step 3 – Create AutoKey IKE
• Click VPNs in main menu. Click AutoKey IKE.
• Click New button.
Figure 102 – AutoKey IKE
AutoKey IKE parameters are:
-
VPNname: TestGWR,
Security level: Custom,
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USER MANUAL
-
GWR Router Series
Remote Gateway: Predefined,
Choose VPN Gateway from step 2.
Figure 103 – AutoKey IKE parameters
•
Click Advanced button.
Security level – User defined: custom,
Phase 2 proposal: pre–g2–3des–sha,
Bind to – Tunnel interface: tunnel.3(from step 1),
Proxy ID: Enabled,
LocalIP/netmask: 10.10.10.0/24,
RemoteIP/netmask: 192.168.10.0/24,
Click Return and OK.
Figure 104 – AutoKey IKE advanced parameters
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Step 4 – Routing
•
•
Click Destination tab on Routing menu.
Click New button. Routing parameters are:
IP Address: 192.168.10.0/24,
Gateway: tunnel.3(tunnel interface from step 1),
Click OK.
Figure 105 – Routing parameters
Step 5 – Policies
•
•
•
Click Policies in main menu.
Click New button (from Untrust to trust zone),
Source Address: 192.168.10.0/24,
Destination Address: 10.10.10.0/24,
Services: Any.
Click OK.
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Figure 106 – Policies from untrust to trust zone
•
•
•
Click Policies in main menu.
Click New button (from trust to untrust zone),
Source Address: 10.10.10.0/24,
Destination Address: 192.168.10.0/24,
Services: Any.
Click OK.
Figure 107 – Policies from trust to untrust zone
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OpenVPN tunnel between GWR router and OpenVNP server
Overview
OpenVPN site to site allows connecting two remote networks via point–to–point encrypted tunnel.
OpenVPN implementation offers a cost–effective simply configurable alternative to other VPN technologies.
OpenVPN allows peers to authenticate each other using a pre–shared secret key, certificates, or
username/password. When used in a multiclient–server configuration, it allows the server to release an
authentication certificate for every client, using signature and Certificate authority. It uses the OpenSSL
encryption library extensively, as well as the SSLv3/TLSv1 protocol, and contains many security and control
features. The server and client have almost the same configuration. The difference in the client configuration
is the remote endpoint IP or hostname field. Also the client can set up the keepalive settings. For successful
tunnel creation a static key must be generated on one side and the same key must be uploaded on the
opposite side
OpenVPN configuration
Open VPN is established between one central locations and three remote locations with Geneko router
configured in TCP client mode. Authentication used is pre-shared key.
Figure 108 – Multipoint OpenVPN topology
Configuration
1.
2
Open VPN server is in TCP listening mode and it is reachable from the internet over static public IP
address 134.45.22.1 and TCP port 1194 (default Open VPN port)
Configuration file in Open VPN server is applied in following way:
a) Open any Text Editor application and make configuration txt file.
In this example configuration file looks like this
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proto tcp-server
dev tun
ifconfig 2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2
dev-node adap1
secret key.txt
ping 10
comp-lzo
disable-occ
GWR Router Series
TCP server protocol mode
dev tun mod of Open VPN server
Local and remote IP address of the Open VPN
tunnel (both addresses must be within
255.255.255.252 subnet)
Selection of virtual network adapter named adap1
Implementing file with pre-shared secret named
key.txt
Keepalive
LZO compression enabled
disable option consistency
b) Save configuration file in C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\config as name.ovpn file.
It is OpenVPN configuration file directory and you can reach it directly through Start
menu>OpenVPN where you get options:
Figure 109 – OpenVPN application settings
c)
Generate a static OpenVPN key from the menu above. File will be automatically Saved in
Open VPN configuration file directory. Configuration file and pre-shared key must be in
same directory.
d) If you have more remote locations every location has to have its own configuration file with
different remote interface IP address and virtual network adapter. Second virtual network
adapter you can create by selecting “Add a new TAP-Win32 virtual ethernet adapter”. The
same way you can create the third virtual adapter . Name virtual adapters as adap1, adap2
and adap3 .
For example configuration file for second remote location can be:
proto tcp-server
dev tun
ifconfig 2.2.2.5 2.2.2.6
dev-node adap2
secret key.txt
ping 10
comp-lzo
disable-occ
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Only difference to previous configuration is 2.2.2.5, 2.2.2.6
(IP address of local and remote interface) and dev-node adap2.
Configuration file for third remote location is:
proto tcp-server
dev tun
ifconfig 2.2.2.9 2.2.2.10
dev-node adap3
secret key.txt
ping 10
comp-lzo
disable-occ
All three configuration files (e.g. Server1.ovpn, Server2.ovpn, Server3.ovpn)
have to be saved in same directory C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\config. Name
of configuration file is name of your OpenVPN tunnel.
e) Workstation where OpenVPN server is installed should have ip route to
subnet which is on the other end of the OpenVPN tunnel. This subnet is
reachable over remote OpenVPN interface which is in this case 2.2.2.2.
Enter following command in the command prompt:
route –p add 192.168.11.0 mask 255.255.255.0 2.2.2.2
first remote location
route –p add 192.168.12.0 mask 255.255.255.0 2.2.2.6
second remote location
route –p add 192.168.13.0 mask 255.255.255.0 2.2.2.10
third remote location
2.
GWR router is configured with SIM card which has internet access. Configuration
of OpenVPN is following:
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Figure 110 – OpenVPN GWR settings
Where pre-shared secret you paste from the key.txt file which you generate on OpenVPN server.
In routing table static ip route to local OpenVPN server network (in this case it is 192.168.2.0/24) should be
entered.
Figure 111 – Static routes on GWR
TUN1 interface isn’t available before you start the OpenVPN tunnel so you must start it first
That accomplishes configuration of the GWR regarding establishing the OpenVPN and routing through it.
Implementation
You start Open VPN tunnel on server side by right click on the icon in notification bar. You choose Open
VPN tunnel (Server1) and click Connect. The same procedure repeat for Server2 and Server3.
Figure 112 – Starting OpenVPN application
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When OpenVPN tunnel is up on the Open VPN server you should get following notification:
Figure 113 – OpenVPN status on PC
On the GWR side status of the OpenVPN tunnel should be established.
Figure 114 – OpenVPN status on GWR
Portforwarding – example
Portforwarding feature enables access to workstations behind the router and redirecting traffic in
both traffic flow directions – inbound and outbound. Direction is selected by interface – PPP0 for inbound
(WAN -> ETH0) and ETH0 for outbound traffic (ETH0 ->WAN).
In the following example there are three types of access to LAN network enabled, every workstation
with different service allowed from the outside. LAN is accessed through the WAN IP of the router. Second
and forth rule have additional limitation per source IP address of the incoming packets. The forth defined
access flow is redirecting all WEB traffic from the local workstation to one outside IP address, web
authentication server for example.
Implemented rules are following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Traffic destined to WAN IP by port 5022 is forwarded to workstation 192.168.1.2 and port
22. Result – SSH is accessible from the outside to the first workstation
Traffic destined to WAN IP by port 8080 is forwarded to workstation 192.168.1.3 and port
80. Result – WEB is accessible from the outside to the second workstation. This rule is
limited only to traffic coming from the 172.16.234.0/24 subnet
Traffic destined to WAN IP from port range 300:400 is forwarded to workstation
192.168.1.4 to port 12345
WEB traffic from the workstation 192.168.1.5 is forwarded to one outside IP address
(212.62.49.109 for example)
If Source IP and Source Netmask fields are empty stated entry is applied to all incoming packets.
When PPP0 interface is selected Destination IP and Netmask are predefined to WAN IP and subnet 32 and
cannot be changed.
On the following picture are marked traffic flows stated above.
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Figure 115–
Portforwarding example
Portforwarding is configured on the ROUTING page selected from the main menu. Configuration
of the examples described above is presented in the following picture:
Figure 116– GWR portforwarding configuration
Serial port – example
For connecting serial devices from remote locations to central location serial transparent conversion
can be used. Serial communication is encapsulated in TCP/IP header and on the central location is
recognized by the Virtual COM port application. This way serial communication is enabled between two
distant locations.
In the picture below serial communication is achieved over GWR router in client mode on remote
location and Virtual COM port application on central side. As application is in server mode, IP address of
the workstation has to be accessible from the router. In this example that is IP address GWR routers
supports both server and client mode, so you can use one GWR router on both side of communication link
(one in server and one in client mode).
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Figure 117– Transparent serial connection
1.
Settings on GWR router
From the main menu on the left side of web interface option SERIAL PORT should be selected and
following page is displayed.
Figure 118– GWR Serial port settings
Option SERIAL PORT OVER TCP/UDP SETTINGS is used for configuration of transparent serial
communication. Configuration parameters are presented in picture below
Figure 119– GWR settings for Serial-to-IP conversion
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General Settings
• Serial port over TCP/UDP settings
Serial port settings
• Bits per second: 57600
• Data bits: 8
• Parity: none
• Stop bits: 1
• Flow control: none
TCP/UDP Settings
• Protocol: TCP
• Mode: client
• Server IP address: 96.34.56.2 (IP address of server)
• Connect to TCP port: 1234
• Type of socket: raw
• Enable local echo: Disabled
• Enable timeout: 3600 sec
Keepalive Settings
• Check TCP connection: Enable
• Keepalive idle time: 120 sec
• Keepalive interval: 60 sec
Log Settings
• Log level: level 1
When serial port is configured button SAVE should be selected and STATUS of the service should change to
started like on the picture above.
2.
Application settings
In this example is used application HW Virtual Serial Port which is installed on workstation on central
location. When application is started on Settings tab option “HW VSP works as the TCP Server only” should
be enabled.
Figure 120- Virtual COM port application
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In Virtual Serial Port tab settings should be following:
Figure 121– Settings for virtual COM port
•
•
•
•
IP address: - (not used in server mode)
Port: 1234
Server Port: 1234
Port Name: COM10 (random selected)
After “Create COM” is activated if everything is alright in log will be shown message that port
COM10 is created, like in picture above. In communication with remote serial device COM10 should be
selected on workstation.
Firewall – example
Firewall implemented in GWR routers has numerous options for matching interesting traffic. Traffic
flow is controlled through the router with three actions triggered by firewall:
1. ACCEPT – traffic is passed through the router without any changes implemented
2. REJECT – traffic is blocked with ICMP error messages
3. DROP – traffic is blocked without any error messages, connection is retried until
the threshold
for retransmission is exceeded
By default all traffic is PERMITTED. To block all the traffic not defined under stated rules last entry in
firewall table should be DROP ALL.
Rule priority defines order by which router matches inspected packets. After first match between rule
and packet, no other rule is compared against matched traffic.
Firewall has 17 predefined rules for the most common usage. These 17 rules are following:
1. Allow ALL from local LAN
All traffic originating from local subnet is allowed to access router Ethernet interface. It is important to
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USER MANUAL
GWR Router Series
keep this rule enabled to prevent losing local management interface.
2. Allow already established traffic
For inbound TCP only. Allows TCP traffic to pass if the packet is a response to an outbound-initiated
session.
3. Allow TELNET on ppp_0
Accepts telnet connection from the outside to router’s WAN interface, for management over CLI
interface
4. Allow HTTP on ppp_0
Accepts WEB traffic from the outside to router’s WAN interface, for management over WEB interface
5. Allow PING on ppp_0-with DDoS filter
ICMP traffic to WAN interface of the router is allowed with prevention of Distributed Denial-of-service
attack
Allow RIP protocol
6. Allow RIP on ppp_0
7. Allo RIP on ppp_0 – route
Allow GRE protocol
8. Allow GRE tunnels on ppp_0
9. Allow GRE Keepalive on ppp_0
Allow IPSec protocol
10. Allow IPSec tunnels on ppp_0 – protocol
11. Allow IPSec tunnels on ppp_0 – IKE
12. Allow IPSec tunnel on ppp_0 – IKE_NATt
Allow OpenVPN protocol
13. Allow OpenVPN tunnels on ppp_0 – UDP
14. Allow OpenVPN tunnels on ppp_0 – TCP
15. Allow SNMP on ppp_0
SNMP requests are allowed to be sent to the router over WAN interface
16. Allow MODBUS on ppp_0
MODBUS conversion over default port UDP 502 is permitted
17. REJECT all other traffic
All packets which are not stated as ACCEPT in previous rules are denied. If this rule is not enabled
all packets which are not stated as DROP/REJECT are permitted.
In following example 8 traffic flows are defined under firewall rules. In the picture presented with green
are marked permitted packets and with red blocked.
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Figure 122 – Firewall example
Firewall is enabled in SETTINGS>FIREWALL page. Page for firewall configuration is presented in the
following picture:
Figure 123 – Initial firewall configuration on GWR
Firstly firewall should be enabled, that is done by selecting:
Firewall General Settings>Enable
Firewall can be configured by enabling or editing existing, predefined rules or by adding new one.
Firewall is configured in following way:
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USER MANUAL
1.
GWR Router Series
Telnet traffic is denied
Select predefined rule number 3. Configuration page like on picture below is shown.
Figure 124 – Filtering of Telnet traffic
ENABLE option should be selected to have this rule active. To deny Telnet traffic POLICY should be
changed from ACCEPT to REJECT (ICMP error message type can be selected when policy reject is selected).
After that SAVE button should be pressed and user is returned to main configuration page.
2.
ICMP traffic is denied from all IP addresses except 212.62.38.196
New rule should be added by selecting ADD NEW RULE button. Policy should be configured in
following way:
-
Rule name: Deny PING to ppp_0 interface
Enable: selected
Chain: INPUT
Service: Custom
Protocol: ICMP
ICMP-Type: echo-request
Input interface: ppp_0
Source address: Single IP ; 212.62.38.196
Inverted source address rule logic: selected
Destination address: Any
Packet state: NEW
Policy: REJECT
Reject-with: icmp-port-unreachable
Configuration should be like on the picture below.
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Figure 125 – Filtering of ICMP traffic
After configuration is finished SAVE button should be selected and user is returned to main
configuration page. Priority of rule is changed by selecting number in drop-down menu. In this example
number 4 is selected.
3.
ICMP traffic is allowed from single IP addresses
With firewall rule configuration shown above, IP address stated in Source address field is excluded
from REJECT policy but in order to allow ping from that IP address it has to be matched with another rule.
Configuration of appropriate rule for allowing ping traffic originating from precise IP address is shown
below
Figure 126 – Allowing ICMP traffic
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USER MANUAL
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After configuration is finished SAVE button should be selected and user is returned to main
configuration page. Priority of rule is changed by selecting number in drop-down menu. In this example
number 5 is selected.
4.
Establishing of IPSec tunnel is allowed
Firewall has to allow IKE and ESP protocol for IPSec tunnel establishment. If NAT traversal is used one
additional port has to be allowed. All these rules are predefined and they have priorities 10, 11 and 12 in
default firewall configuration (they are named as Allow IPSec tunnels on ppp_0 –protocol, IKE and NATt). As
these rules are already configured it is enough just to enable them to have IPSec passed through firewall.
Figure 127 – IPSec firewall rules
These three rules are enabled in following way:
-
Select EDIT of the rule
Enable: selected
SAVE and exit
5.
SSH access is allowed from IP range 212.62.38.210-220
New rule should be added by selecting ADD NEW RULE button. Policy should be configured in
following way:
- Rule name: Allow SSH
- Enable: selected
- Chain: INPUT
- Service: Custom
- Protocol: TCP
- Port: Custom; 22
- Input interface: ppp_0
- Source address: Range ; 212.62.38.210 : 212.62.38.220
- Destination address: Any
- Packet state: NEW
- Policy: ACCEPT
After configuration is finished SAVE button should be selected and user is returned to main
configuration page. Priority of rule is changed by selecting number in drop-down menu. In this example
number 6 is selected.
6.
WEB access is allowed from 212.62.38.210 IP address
In default firewall configuration rule for allowing WEB traffic is predefined (rule with priority 4, named
Allow HTTP on ppp_0) This rule can be used in example with additional restriction in source IP address to
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212.62.38.210. Policy should be configured in following way:
-
Enable: selected
Source address: Single IP; 212.62.38.210
All other settings should remain the same like in the picture below
Figure 128 – Allowing WEB access
After configuration is finished SAVE button should be selected and user is returned to main
configuration page.
7.
FTP traffic is allowed
New rule should be added by selecting ADD NEW RULE button. Policy should be configured in
following way:
- Rule name: Allow FTP
- Enable: selected
- Chain: INPUT
- Service: FTP
- Protocol: TCP
- Port: 21
- Input interface: ppp_0
- Source address: Any
- Destination address: Any
- Packet state: NEW
- Policy: ACCEPT
After configuration is finished SAVE button should be selected and user is returned to main
configuration page. Priority of rule is changed by selecting number in drop-down menu. In this example
number 8 is selected.
8.
Access from LAN to router is allowed
This is first rule in predefined firewall settings (Allow ALL from local LAN). It is recommended to have
this rule enabled to allow access to management interfaces of the router. As this rules is already configured
it is enough just to enable it to have access to router from LAN:
-
Select EDIT of the rule
Enable: selected
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-
SAVE and exit
9.
WEB traffic is permitted only to 212.62.38.210 from LAN
This rule is example of traffic filtering in direction from inside to outside. New rule should be added by
selecting ADD NEW RULE button. Policy should be configured in following way:
-
Rule name: Allow HTTP from LAN
Enable: selected
Chain: FORWARD
Service: HTTP
Protocol: TCP
Port: 80
Input interface: eth0
Output interface: ppp_0
Source address: Any
Destination address: Any
Packet state: NEW
Policy: ACCEPT
Configuration is shown in following picture:
Figure 129 – Outbound rule for WEB access
After configuration is finished SAVE button should be selected and user is returned to main
configuration page. Priority of rule is changed by selecting number in drop-down menu. In this example
number 9 is selected.
Additionally to these 11 rules two more rules are enabled:
-
Allow already established traffic (priority number 2)
Reject all other traffic (priority number 22)
After all rules are configured and saved button APPLY RULES in bottom right corner should be selected
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to activate traffic filtering.
When all 13 rules from this example is configured firewall should look like this:
Figure 130 – Complete firewall configuration
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SMS management – example
GWR routers can be managed over the SMS messages. Commands from the SMS are executed on
the router with status report sent back to the sender.
On the picture below are settings for SMS management where three mobile phone numbers are
allowed to send commands to the router over first SIM card. In this example management over SIM2 is not
enabled. Please have in mind that router can receive messages only on SIM card which is currently selected.
This information is displayed in WAN settings page, Mobile Status, Current SIM card. SMS service center
number is automatically obtained.
Figure 131– Configuration page for SMS management
Settings are following:
•
•
•
Enable Remote Control: Enabled
Use default SMSC: Enabled
Phone Number 1,2…5: Allowed phone number
From the mobile phone user can send 6 different commands for router management. Commands are
following:
1. :PPP-CONNECT
2. :PPP-DISCONNECT
3. :PPP-RECONNECT
4. :PPP-STATUS
Reply to this command is one of four possible states:
- CONNECTING
- CONNECTED, WAN_IP:{WAN IP address}
- DISCONNECTING
- DISCONNECTED
5. :SWITCH-SIM, for changing SIM slot
6 :REBOOT, for router reboot
After every SMS sent to the router, reply is sent back with status information about SMS received by
the router.
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Defining keepalive functionality
Keep-alive mechanism works through two simple steps.
First step is STANDARD ping proofing. This ping periodically checks if link is alive. Standard
ping has 4 packets which are sent over the link and if all 4 are returned keep-alive remains in standard ping
proofing mode. If two or more of 4 packets are dropped keep-alive activates ADVANCED ping proofing.
ADVANCED ping proofing is second step in link quality detection. Advanced ping proofing sends
5 ping packets in short period of time and gives statistic how much packets are dropped (for example if 4
packets are dropped, ping lost is 80%). If this value is defined as 100% for example, that means only if all
packets are dropped action will be performed (switch SIM or PPP restart). Value which is entered here
depends on that how many packets can be tolerated to lose on the link. For example if value 60% is entered
2 packets of 5 (40%) are lost, keep-alive is returned to step one (standard ping proofing) with no action
performed. If PPP should be restarted only when all packets are dropped defined value should be 100%.
In following example keepalive is enabled on both SIM cards. Action defined is SWITCH SIM so router will
change SIM card when link failure is detected.
Settings are following:
SIM1
Ping target: 8.8.8.8
Ping interval: 120
Advanced ping interval: 10
Advanced ping wait for response: 5
Maximum number of failed packets: 80
Keepalive action: switch SIM
SIM2
Ping target: 212.62.32.1
Ping interval: 120
Advanced ping interval: 10
Advanced ping wait for response: 5
Maximum number of failed packets: 40 (more restrictive condition compared to SIM1)
Keepalive action: switch SIM
Figure 132–
Configuration page for GSM keepalive
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Apendix
A. How to Achieve Maximum Signal Strength with GWR Router?
The best throughput comes from placing the device in an area with the greatest Received Signal
Strength Indicator (RSSI). RSSI is a measurement of the Radio Frequency (RF) signal strength between the
base station and the mobile device, expressed in dBm. The better the signal strength, the less data
retransmission and, therefore, better throughput.
RSSI information is available from several sources:
• The LEDs on the device give a general indication.
• Via the GWR Router local user interface.
Signal strength LED indicator:
•
–101 or less dBm = Unacceptable (running LED),
•
–100 to –91 dBm = Weak (1 LED),
•
–90 to –81 dBm = Moderate (2 LED),
•
–80 to –75 dBm = Good (3 LED),
•
–74 or better dBm = Excellent (4 LED),
•
0 is not known or not detectable (running LED).
Antenna placement
Placement can drastically increase the signal strength of a cellular connection. Often times, just
moving the router closer to an exterior window or to another location within the facility can result in
optimum reception.
Another way of increasing throughput is by physically placing the device on the roof of the building
(in an environmentally safe enclosure with proper moisture and lightning protection).
• Simply install the GWR Router outside the building and run an RJ–45 Ethernet cable to your
switch located in the building.
• Keep antenna cable away from interferers (AC wiring).
Antenna Options
Once optimum placement is achieved, if signal strength is still not desirable, you can experiment
with different antenna options. Assuming you have tried a standard antenna, next consider:
• Check your antenna connection to ensure it is properly attached.
• High gain antenna, which has higher dBm gain and longer antenna. Many cabled antennas
require a metal ground plane for maximum performance. The ground plane typically
should have a diameter roughly twice the length of the antenna.
NOTE: Another way of optimizing throughput is by sending non–encrypted data through the device.
Application layer encryption or VPN put a heavy toll on bandwidth utilization. For example, IPsec ESP
headers and trailers can add 20–30% or more overhead.
127
GENEKO
Bul. Despota Stefana 59a
11000 Belgrade • Serbia
Phone: +381 11 3340-591, 3340-178
Fax: +381 11 3224-437
e-mail: gwrsupport@geneko.rs
www.geneko.rs
UM GWR Rev. A Apr 14
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