IPX Administrative Reference Manual
IPX Administrative Reference Manual
Version 3.14
Simton Technologies, Inc
August 2014
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
IPX Administrative Reference Manual
About the Manual
The IPX administrative reference manual is applicable to the IPX P200, IPX H600, IPX
B1000, and IPX E3000 product series only.
The intended readers of this manual include three types of IPX users: the administrator
who has full power to setup IPX systems, the operator who has limited power and is able
to configure the operational parts of IPX systems, and the phone user, also called the
extension user, who is allowed to manage his/her own phone set. The readers are
assumed to have some knowledge of IP routing, VoIP technologies, and telecom PBX
systems.
The reference manual provides detailed instructions on how to use IPX products. The
table of contents, list of figures and tables, or indices at the end of the reference manual
can be used for searching for specific IPX concepts, usages, interests, concerns, or
examples. Acronyms are listed in the appendix.
All information in the manual is subject to change without notice.
Copyright
The IPX hardware, software, technical documents, and trademark are properties of
original vendor of IPX systems and they are protected by the copyright laws. It is illegal
to copy a part or whole of the products without prior written permission.
Safety Recommendation
It is recommended that users read the IPX manual before using IPX products. Do not
open IPX devices. Keep IPX devices in a clean and dry environment with temperatures
°
between 0 and 45 C. Keep the devices out of the reach of the children. The IPX vendor
does not carry any liability for property damage or loss of life due to improper use of IPX
products.
Warranty
The original vendor of IPX products provides a one year warranty of the IPX hardware
and software that was specified at the time of purchase.
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
IPX Administrative Reference Manual
Table of Contents
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
Introduction to IPX Systems .......................................................................................12
General Information .......................................................................................................12
Standards ........................................................................................................................12
Key Features ..................................................................................................................13
Typical IPX Networks....................................................................................................13
Application Examples ....................................................................................................14
Basic IPX Setup ............................................................................................................16
Simple Installation .........................................................................................................16
IPX Management Access ...............................................................................................16
IPX GUI Structure .........................................................................................................17
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
Administration GUI Structure .....................................................................................................17
Operation GUI Structure .............................................................................................................19
Extension GUI Structure .............................................................................................................20
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
System Default and Quick Setup ...................................................................................20
Save Configuration.........................................................................................................21
Online Help ....................................................................................................................21
Reboot and Reset IPX System .......................................................................................21
System Management ....................................................................................................22
Product Information .......................................................................................................22
Administration Accounts ...............................................................................................22
Backup Configuration ....................................................................................................23
Software Upgrade...........................................................................................................23
3.4.1
3.4.2
IPX Software Upgrade .................................................................................................................24
IPX Rescue ..................................................................................................................................24
3.5
System Settings ..............................................................................................................24
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
Clock Setting ............................................................................................................................... 24
Email Server ................................................................................................................................ 25
Billing ..........................................................................................................................................26
Ports .............................................................................................................................................26
System Name ............................................................................................................................... 27
3.6
3.7
Software License ............................................................................................................27
Voice Collection ............................................................................................................28
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
Voice Pieces Used in IPX ............................................................................................................28
Interactive Voice Format .............................................................................................................29
Add Voice to Voice Database......................................................................................................29
Manage Voice Collection ............................................................................................................30
3.8
4
4.1
4.2
Management Server .......................................................................................................30
Basic IP Network ..........................................................................................................31
Concept of IP Access Router .........................................................................................31
WAN Setup ....................................................................................................................31
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
WAN Interface ............................................................................................................................31
WAN DNS Server Address .........................................................................................................32
Configure Behind DSL Router ....................................................................................................32
Customized Domain Name Service .............................................................................................33
4.3
LAN Setup .....................................................................................................................33
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
LAN Interface ..............................................................................................................................33
LAN DHCP Service ....................................................................................................................33
LAN DNS Service .......................................................................................................................34
4.4
IP Routing ......................................................................................................................34
4.4.1
IP Forwarding Options ................................................................................................................34
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IPX Administrative Reference Manual
4.4.2
Routing Table ..............................................................................................................................35
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
IPX Voice Overview .....................................................................................................36
IPX – Hybrid IP PBX .....................................................................................................36
Built-in VoIP Servers .....................................................................................................36
Three Voice Networks ...................................................................................................37
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
Voice Intranet – A Complete Internal Voice Network ................................................................ 37
Voice Extranet – To Be Part of Public Voice Network ............................................................... 37
##NET – Flat IPX Device Network .............................................................................................38
Between Three Networks ............................................................................................................38
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
6
6.1
6.2
Summary of IPX Identifiers ...........................................................................................39
DID Concept in IPX .......................................................................................................39
Lines and Trunks ............................................................................................................40
Partition and Manage IPX Resources ............................................................................40
IPX Clusters ...................................................................................................................41
IPX Call Routing ............................................................................................................41
PBX Services and Authorization ...................................................................................42
VoIP Security .................................................................................................................43
Network and Voice Quality Control ..............................................................................43
Basic Voice ....................................................................................................................44
Local IPX Code ..............................................................................................................44
Extensions ......................................................................................................................45
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
6.2.9
6.2.10
Extension Number: Phone ID and Service Code .........................................................................45
Access and Service Control of Extensions ..................................................................................45
Analog Phone Extension .............................................................................................................45
IP Extension.................................................................................................................................48
Batch-Add IP Extensions .............................................................................................................50
IP Phones General .......................................................................................................................51
T2X IP Phones Specifics .............................................................................................................51
IP Extension ad VoIP Subscribe Lines ........................................................................................53
Dynamic Extension......................................................................................................................53
Virtual Extension .........................................................................................................................54
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
Region and Language Customization ............................................................................56
Phone Book for IP Phones .............................................................................................57
Dialing Prefix .................................................................................................................58
External Call Types ........................................................................................................59
Groups in IPX ................................................................................................................60
6.7.1
6.7.2
6.7.3
6.7.4
Concept of IPX Group .................................................................................................................60
Create a Group .............................................................................................................................60
Group Members ...........................................................................................................................61
Per Group Routing .......................................................................................................................61
6.8
Voice Parameters ...........................................................................................................62
6.8.1
6.8.2
6.8.3
6.8.4
Voice Options ..............................................................................................................................62
SIP Proxy Optimization ...............................................................................................................63
Disconnection Tone Parameters ..................................................................................................64
DSP Group Setting ......................................................................................................................64
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
8
8.1
Extension Management ...............................................................................................65
Phone User Login...........................................................................................................65
User Setting ....................................................................................................................65
Phone Setting .................................................................................................................65
Manage Messages in Mailbox ........................................................................................67
Change Extension Password ..........................................................................................67
Extended PBX Features ...............................................................................................68
Call ID ............................................................................................................................68
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
IPX Administrative Reference Manual
8.1.1
8.1.2
Call ID in Outbound Calls ...........................................................................................................68
Call ID in Inbound Calls ..............................................................................................................69
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
Auto Attendant ...............................................................................................................70
Call Forwarding .............................................................................................................70
Call Transfer ..................................................................................................................70
3-Way Calls....................................................................................................................71
Call Waiting ...................................................................................................................71
Call Holding ...................................................................................................................72
Call Park and Retrieve ...................................................................................................72
Do Not Disturb ...............................................................................................................73
Absent Service ...............................................................................................................73
Pick Up Neighbor’s Calls...............................................................................................73
Call Blocking .................................................................................................................73
Call Back ........................................................................................................................74
Environment Monitoring................................................................................................74
Number Manipulation .................................................................................................75
Source and Destination ..................................................................................................75
Prefix Pattern..................................................................................................................75
Digit Collection ..............................................................................................................76
Number Translation .......................................................................................................77
Voice Intranet Basics ...................................................................................................79
Internal Voice Network ..................................................................................................79
Intranet Number Planning ..............................................................................................79
Voice Intranet Option.....................................................................................................80
10.3.1
Peer List – Mesh Intranet .............................................................................................................81
10.4
Star Shaped Voice Intranet.............................................................................................83
10.4.1
10.4.2
Server IPX ...................................................................................................................................83
Client IPX ....................................................................................................................................84
10.5
11
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
Mix of Mesh and Star.....................................................................................................85
Intranet Call Routing...................................................................................................87
Intranet Call Routing Concept .......................................................................................87
Internal Call Routing Rules ............................................................................................87
Implicit Call Routing Rules ...........................................................................................88
Advanced Internal Call Routing.....................................................................................88
11.4.1
11.4.2
Divide Large Network into Small Ones ......................................................................................88
Aggregate Small Networks into a Large Network .......................................................................89
11.5
12
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
Migrate Internal Calls to External Calls.........................................................................90
NAT Traversal..............................................................................................................92
Why NAT Traversal.......................................................................................................92
NAT Changes for IPX Peer-Peer Voice Intranet ...........................................................92
IPX Server for Star Voice Intranet .................................................................................93
IPX as Server for IP Phones and IPX.............................................................................93
Voice Extranet ..............................................................................................................94
Connecting to External Networks ..................................................................................94
Lines v.s Trunks .............................................................................................................94
PSTN Lines ....................................................................................................................95
VoIP Lines/Accounts .....................................................................................................97
VoIP Trunks ...................................................................................................................99
13.5.1
13.5.2
13.5.3
13.5.4
VoIP Trunk to VoIP Carriers .....................................................................................................100
VoIP Trunk to Neighbor IPX Intranet .......................................................................................101
Stamp Source Number in Outbound Calls .................................................................................101
Reroute Incoming Calls .............................................................................................................102
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
IPX Administrative Reference Manual
14
14.1
14.2
15
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
Incoming Call Routing...............................................................................................103
Incoming Calls from Outside .......................................................................................103
Usages of Incoming Call Routing ................................................................................103
External Call Routing ................................................................................................105
Selection of Egress Path ...............................................................................................105
Call Destinations ..........................................................................................................105
Digit Manipulations .....................................................................................................106
Source Routing .............................................................................................................107
Exit Interfaces ..............................................................................................................107
Next Hop (Neighbor) IPX ............................................................................................107
Reach Out via VoIP Trunk...........................................................................................108
15.7.1
15.7.2
Trunk to Other VoIP System .....................................................................................................109
Trunk to another IPX .................................................................................................................109
15.8
15.9
15.10
Secondary Route ..........................................................................................................110
Extranet Call Routing Table.........................................................................................111
External Call Route Examples .....................................................................................112
15.10.1
15.10.2
15.10.3
Add Extra Digits for PSTN Calls .............................................................................................. 112
Delegate an IPX for a Region ....................................................................................................113
Stacking IPX .............................................................................................................................. 113
16
16.1
Voice Mail Service ......................................................................................................115
Voice Mail and Voice Email ........................................................................................115
16.1.1
16.1.2
Mailbox Allocation ....................................................................................................................115
Change Personal Greeting .........................................................................................................115
16.2
User Mailbox Operation...............................................................................................116
16.2.1
16.2.2
16.2.3
Mailbox Management by Phone ................................................................................................ 116
Mailbox Operation Commands..................................................................................................116
Online Mailbox Management ....................................................................................................117
16.3
16.4
17
17.1
17.2
Message Format and IPX Player Tool .........................................................................117
Voice Email..................................................................................................................118
Fax over IP ..................................................................................................................119
Fax over IP in IPX .......................................................................................................119
Real-time Fax v.s. Reliable Fax ...................................................................................120
17.2.1
17.2.2
T.38 Fax.....................................................................................................................................120
T.37 Fax.....................................................................................................................................120
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
18
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
19
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6
19.7
Intranet Fax v.s. Extranet Fax ......................................................................................120
Fax Terminals ..............................................................................................................121
Fax Over IP ..................................................................................................................121
Typical Cases of Fax Usages .......................................................................................121
Call Distribution .........................................................................................................124
Who Takes the Call ......................................................................................................124
Define a Call Distribution ............................................................................................124
Distribution Strategies..................................................................................................125
ACD and Absent Service .............................................................................................126
Action when Ending Calls in ACD ..............................................................................126
Interactive Voice Responses (IVR) ...........................................................................127
Introduction to IVR ......................................................................................................127
Define an IVR Entry ....................................................................................................128
Build an IVR Tree ........................................................................................................129
IVR Widgets ................................................................................................................130
IVR Tips.......................................................................................................................130
IVR Example – a Town Office ....................................................................................131
Super IVR ....................................................................................................................133
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
IPX Administrative Reference Manual
19.8
20
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
21
22
22.1
22.2
23
23.1
23.2
24
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
25
25.1
25.2
26
26.1
Survey – Example of ACD and IVR ............................................................................134
Call Recording ............................................................................................................135
Live Record Conversations ..........................................................................................135
Internal Call Recording ................................................................................................135
External Call Recordings .............................................................................................136
Recording Server..........................................................................................................137
Broadcast ....................................................................................................................138
Alarm and Announcement Service ...........................................................................139
Alarm Service ..............................................................................................................139
Schedule Announcement ..............................................................................................140
Easy Conference .........................................................................................................141
Why Easy Conference ..................................................................................................141
Easy Conference Code .................................................................................................141
Resource Sharing .......................................................................................................142
Call Authentication ......................................................................................................142
Authentication Account ...............................................................................................143
Trusted Sites .................................................................................................................144
VIP Numbers................................................................................................................144
Interwork with Legacy PBX .....................................................................................145
PBX Interwork Port......................................................................................................145
IPX Call Agent for Working with PBX .......................................................................146
IP Security ..................................................................................................................148
Security Policy Elements .............................................................................................148
26.1.1
26.1.2
26.1.3
Service Applications ..................................................................................................................148
IP Address Book ........................................................................................................................148
MAC Address Book ..................................................................................................................149
26.2
NAT – Network Address Translation ..........................................................................149
26.2.1
26.2.2
IP Address Mapping ..................................................................................................................149
Port Mapping ............................................................................................................................. 150
26.3
Security Rules ..............................................................................................................151
26.3.1
26.3.2
26.3.3
26.3.4
26.3.5
Directions of IP Connections .....................................................................................................151
Security Rule Definition ............................................................................................................151
Inbound Rules ............................................................................................................................152
Outbound Rules .........................................................................................................................152
Visiting This IPX .......................................................................................................................153
26.4
VPN Configuration ......................................................................................................153
26.4.1
26.4.2
IP Tunnel ...................................................................................................................................153
IP Subnet and IPX Based VPN ..................................................................................................154
27
System Status ..............................................................................................................156
27.1
IP Network ...................................................................................................................156
27.2
System Logs .................................................................................................................156
27.3
Call Logs ......................................................................................................................157
27.4
Vote Logs .....................................................................................................................157
27.5
Voice Status .................................................................................................................158
28
Tools ............................................................................................................................159
28.1
Network Quality Test ...................................................................................................159
28.2
System Check ...............................................................................................................159
28.3
Network Traffic Capture ..............................................................................................159
Appendix A Voice Operation ................................................................................................160
A.1 Basic Call Operation............................................................................................................160
A.2 A Call Example ...................................................................................................................161
A.3 Service Activation and Deactivation ...................................................................................162
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
IPX Administrative Reference Manual
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D
Factory Defaults ...............................................................................................163
Acronyms ..........................................................................................................164
Index ..................................................................................................................166
List of Figures
Figure 1.1
Figure 1.2
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
Figure 2.3
Figure 2.4
Figure 3.1
Figure 3.2
Figure 3.3
Figure 3.4
Figure 3.5
Figure 3.6
Figure 3.7
Figure 3.8
Figure 3.9
Figure 3.10
Figure 4.1
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.3
Figure 4.4
Figure 4.5
Figure 4.6
Figure 4.7
Figure 4.8
Figure 5.1
Figure 5.2
Figure 5.3
Figure 5.4
Figure 5.5
Figure 6.1
Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3
Figure 6.4
Figure 6.5
Figure 6.6
Figure 6.7
Figure 6.8
Figure 6.9
Figure 6.10
Figure 6.11
Figure 6.12
Figure 6.13
Figure 6.14
Single Local SMB IPX Network ............................................................................. 13
Voice Intranet Concept ............................................................................................ 14
IPX Installation - Add-on Only ............................................................................... 16
IPX Installation with QoS for Voice........................................................................ 16
IPX Login Screen .................................................................................................... 16
Quick Setup ............................................................................................................. 20
Product Information ................................................................................................. 22
Admin Account List ................................................................................................ 22
Backup Configuration.............................................................................................. 23
System Clock ........................................................................................................... 25
Email Server ............................................................................................................ 25
Setup Billing Server's Address ................................................................................ 26
System Port .............................................................................................................. 27
Record Voice to IPX ................................................................................................ 29
Upload Voice Piece from PC ................................................................................... 29
Management Server............................................................................................. 30
Static IP Address Setup ........................................................................................... 31
WAN DNS Server Address ..................................................................................... 32
Customer DDNS Service ......................................................................................... 33
Change LAN IP Address ......................................................................................... 33
DHCP Service.......................................................................................................... 34
IP Forwarding Mode ................................................................................................ 34
Subnet in LAN ......................................................................................................... 35
IP Routing Table ...................................................................................................... 35
Hybrid IP PBX ......................................................................................................... 36
Three Networks – Voice Intranet ............................................................................ 37
Three Networks - Voice Extranet ............................................................................ 38
Three networks - Flat IPX ##NET........................................................................... 38
IPX Clusters ............................................................................................................. 41
IPX Code ................................................................................................................. 44
Analog Extension Number List ............................................................................... 46
Analog Extension..................................................................................................... 46
IP Extension List ..................................................................................................... 48
IP Extension Setup................................................................................................... 49
Batch Add IP extensions.......................................................................................... 51
IP Ext. as VoIP Subscribe Lines .............................................................................. 53
Dynamic Extension and Call Back .......................................................................... 53
Virtual Extension ..................................................................................................... 54
Virtual Extensions ............................................................................................... 56
Region and Language Customization.................................................................. 57
Phone Book ......................................................................................................... 58
Dialing Prefix ...................................................................................................... 58
External Call Types ............................................................................................. 59
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
IPX Administrative Reference Manual
Figure 6.15
Figure 6.16
Figure 6.17
Figure 6.18
Figure 6.19
Figure 7.2
Figure 7.1
Figure 7.3
Figure 7.4
Figure 8.1
Figure 8.2
Figure 8.3
Figure 10.1
Figure 10.2
Figure 10.3
Figure 10.5
Figure 10.4
Figure 10.6
Figure 10.8
Figure 10.7
Figure 10.9
Figure 10.10
Figure 10.11
Figure 11.1
Figure 11.2
Figure 11.4
Figure 11.3
Figure 11.5
Figure 11.6
Figure 12.1
Figure 13.1
Figure 13.2
Figure 13.3
Figure 13.4
Figure 13.5
Figure 13.6
Figure 13.7
Figure 14.1
Figure 15.1
Figure 15.2
Figure 15.3
Figure 15.4
Figure 15.5
Figure 15.6
Figure 15.7
Figure 15.8
Figure 15.9
Figure 16.1
Figure 16.2
Figure 16.3
Figure 16.4
Create a Group .................................................................................................... 61
Voice Options ...................................................................................................... 62
DTMF Digits ....................................................................................................... 63
Direct RTP Media ............................................................................................... 63
DSP Parameter Groups........................................................................................ 64
Extension User Settings ........................................................................................... 65
Extension Login ....................................................................................................... 65
Extension Phone Setting .......................................................................................... 66
Online Voice Mailbox ............................................................................................. 67
Change Caller ID in Trunk Definition ..................................................................... 68
Change Caller ID via Internal Call Routing ............................................................ 69
Route for Keep DID................................................................................................. 69
Voice Internet General Option ............................................................................ 80
IPX Peer to Peer .................................................................................................. 81
Add a VoIP Peer .................................................................................................. 81
Voice Intranet Peer List ....................................................................................... 82
Same LAN Option ............................................................................................... 82
Mesh Intranet....................................................................................................... 82
Client IPX List in Server IPX.............................................................................. 83
Star Shape Intranet .............................................................................................. 83
Add a Client IPX ................................................................................................. 84
Configure Server IPX Server in Client IPX ........................................................ 84
Mix of Mesh and Star Topology ......................................................................... 85
Intranet Call Routing ........................................................................................... 87
Divide Large Intranet .......................................................................................... 88
Aggregate Small Networks ................................................................................. 89
Internal Call Routing ........................................................................................... 89
Cluster Call Routing ............................................................................................ 90
Intranet over E1Link ........................................................................................... 91
Extranet Links ..................................................................................................... 92
Extranet Links ..................................................................................................... 94
PSTN Line ........................................................................................................... 96
VoIP Account Setup ............................................................................................ 98
VoIP Account List ............................................................................................... 99
List of VoIP Trunks ........................................................................................... 100
Add a new VoIP trunk ....................................................................................... 101
VoIP trunk between two IPX systems ............................................................... 101
Incoming Call Routing Rule.............................................................................. 103
Redirect Call to Neighbor IPX .......................................................................... 108
External route through VoIP trunk .................................................................... 109
External Call Route via Trunk to neighbor IPX ................................................ 110
Backup Route .................................................................................................... 110
External Call Routing Table .............................................................................. 111
External Route Example - Add 9 for PSTN lines.............................................. 112
External Route Example - Redirect Calls.......................................................... 113
IPX Stacking ..................................................................................................... 113
Second Route to Share PSTN lines ................................................................... 114
Voice Mailbox Setting....................................................................................... 115
Mailbox Operations ........................................................................................... 116
User Setting for Voice Mailbox ........................................................................ 117
Check Message Online ...................................................................................... 117
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IPX Administrative Reference Manual
Figure 17.1
FoIP Use Cases.................................................................................................. 119
Figure 17.2
FoIP with VoIP Line ......................................................................................... 121
Figure 17.3
Local Fax ........................................................................................................... 121
Figure 17.4
Intranet Fax ....................................................................................................... 122
Figure 17.5
Local Fax ........................................................................................................... 123
Figure 18.1
Define an ACD .................................................................................................. 124
Figure 19.1
IVR for Reaching Departments ......................................................................... 127
Figure 19.2
IVR Entry Definition ......................................................................................... 128
Figure 19.3
IVR Options ...................................................................................................... 128
Figure 19.4
IVR Example Accounting ................................................................................. 131
Figure 19.5
IVR Example Newtown Sport ........................................................................... 131
Figure 19.6
IVR Example Newtown School ........................................................................ 132
Figure 19.7
IVR Example Newtown .................................................................................... 132
Figure 19.8
Super IVR .......................................................................................................... 133
Figure 19.9
Vote IVR ........................................................................................................... 134
Figure 19.10 ACD Hang up Action ........................................................................................ 134
Figure 20.1
Internal Call Recording ..................................................................................... 135
Figure 20.2
External Recording Server ................................................................................ 136
Figure 20.3
External Call Recording Schedule .................................................................... 137
Figure 20.4
Call Recording Server - Windows..................................................................... 137
Figure 21.1
Broadcast Definition.......................................................................................... 138
Figure 21.2
Broadcast Tree................................................................................................... 138
Figure 22.1
Alarm List ......................................................................................................... 139
Figure 22.2
Setup an Alarm .................................................................................................. 139
Figure 22.3
Schedule an Announcement .............................................................................. 140
Figure 23.1
Easy Conference Code ..................................................................................... 141
Figure 23.2
Easy Conference Code ..................................................................................... 141
Figure 24.1
Call Authentications .......................................................................................... 142
Figure 24.2
Authentication Account..................................................................................... 143
Figure 24.3
Tructed ##NET List........................................................................................... 144
Figure 24.4
VIP Numbers ..................................................................................................... 144
Figure 25.1
PBX inter-work agents ...................................................................................... 145
Figure 25.2
Call Agent for PBX ........................................................................................... 146
Figure 26.1
Predefined IP services ....................................................................................... 148
Figure 26.2
IP Address Book................................................................................................ 149
Figure 26.3
IP Address Mapping .......................................................................................... 150
Figure 26.4
NAT and Port Mapping ..................................................................................... 150
Figure 26.5
Inbound Security Rule ....................................................................................... 152
Figure 26.6
Outbound Security Rule .................................................................................... 152
Figure 26.7
IP Tunnel ........................................................................................................... 153
Figure 26.8
IP Subnet and IPX VPN .................................................................................... 154
Figure 26.9
Configure security rule for VPN ....................................................................... 154
Figure 26.10 Security rules for VPN ...................................................................................... 155
Figure 27.1
IP Network Status.............................................................................................. 156
Figure 27.2
Log Control ....................................................................................................... 156
Figure 27.3
Call Logs ........................................................................................................... 157
Figure 27.4
Vote Logs .......................................................................................................... 157
Figure 28.1
IP Network Quality Testing .............................................................................. 159
Figure 28.2
System Check .................................................................................................... 159
Figure 28.3
Network Packet Traffic Capture........................................................................ 159
Figure 0.1 Call Example ......................................................................................................... 161
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IPX Administrative Reference Manual
List of Tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Table 15
Table 16
IPX Management Menu Tree ....................................................................................... 19
Extension GUI Menu ................................................................................................... 20
BLF Meanings ............................................................................................................. 52
Prefix Patter and Numbers ........................................................................................... 76
Digit Translations......................................................................................................... 78
Numbering Plan Example ............................................................................................ 79
Configuration of Mix Topologies ................................................................................ 85
Compare VoIP line and VoIP trunk ............................................................................. 95
Call Destination Examples ......................................................................................... 106
External Route Examples ...................................................................................... 113
Configuration of Stacked IPX ............................................................................... 114
Mailbox IVR .......................................................................................................... 130
Goodbye IVR ......................................................................................................... 130
Call Agent Rule for PBX ....................................................................................... 147
Default Security Rules ........................................................................................... 151
Sample Network .................................................................................................... 161
Phone Command List ............................................................................................ 162
Factory Defaults .................................................................................................... 163
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IPX Administrative Reference Manual
1
Introduction to IPX Systems
1.1
General Information
The IPX products are designed for building convergent communication platforms for
enterprise as well as small and medium businesses (SMB). The IPX products can also be
used in call centers and emerging IP telephony service provider (ITSP) networks. Each
IPX has a rich set of built-in capabilities including PBX, IP PBX, VoIP gateway, Unified
communication services, IP router, and NAT firewall.
As an all-in-one system, the IPX can be a stand-alone device for small and medium
business (SMB) communications. The IPX can interwork with both traditional telephone
networks (PSTN) and new VoIP service provider networks (ITSP) using VoIP lines or
trunks. The IPX supports both analog phones and IP phones in office environment. For a
business with multiple locations, a voice intranet with multiple IPX systems to connect
remote locations can be easily designed, deployed, and maintained.
The IPX has the following types of physical interfaces:

Ethernet Uplink Interface (WAN interface, RJ45)
It is used to connect to public IP networks and supports IEEE 802.3 10/100Base-TX.
The IP address on the WAN interface can be statically configured or dynamically
acquired through DHCP or PPPoE protocols.

Ethernet LAN Interface (RJ45)
It is used to connect to a PC or an Ethernet switch for multiple PCs. The IPX
provides DHCP, DNS, and IP routing services to LAN PC and IP stations including
IP phones and video phones.

PSTN Interface (RJ11)
The ports support FXO signaling protocols and are generally used to connect to the
public switch telephone network (PSTN) or existing legacy PBX.

Analog Phone Interface (RJ11)
The ports support FXS signaling protocols and are used to connect to analog phones,
FAX machines, or legacy PBX.
The number of physical ports on the IPX varies for different models of the IPX systems.
1.2
Standards
The IPX follows the international standards defined in the ITU, IEEE, IETF, and various
national and international standards, and it works with existing IP networks and PSTN.
IEEE-802.3 10/100Base-TX
ITU POTS FXS and FXO (loop-start), FSK, DTMF
IETF ARP, IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, NAT, DHCP, DNS, PPPoE, SSH, SMAIL,
HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TFTP
IETF SIP, RTP, RTCP, G.711, G.722, G.723, G.726, G.729 and variations, G.168
EC, T.38, T.37, T.30
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1.3
Key Features
The IPX has a rich set of features enabling a wide range of value-added services.
The IPX supports analog phones, analog trunks to PSTN, IP phones, Video phones, VoIP
subscriber lines, and VoIP trunks. Depending on call routing policies, outgoing voice calls
can use local PSTN or VoIP interfaces; they can also be rerouted through neighbor IPX
systems.
The IPX PBX features include Auto Attendant, Call Forwarding, Call Transfer, Call
Blocking, Call Waiting, Call Holding, Call Parking, Call Back, 3-Way Call, Do-NotDisturb, Pickup Others, Call ID, CDR Generation, and Life-Line.
The IPX advanced PBX features include Voice Mail, Voice Email, Customizable IVR
(Interactive Voice Response), ACD (Auto Call Distribution), Voice Recording; Wake-up
Call, Fax over IP, Broadcast and Paging, Small Conference Bridge, Group Rings,
Resource Partitioning and Separate Billing, and the intelligence to work with legacy PBX.
The IPX peer-to-peer VoIP mechanism can be used to construct a voice intranet with a
mesh topology; the IPX proxy-routed mechanism allows an IPX to work as a server to
form a star-shaped voice intranet allowing IPX systems behind firewall to join a voice
intranet easily.
As an IP router, the IPX supports LAN stations with DHCP and DNS services; with NAT
capability, it allows the PC and other IP systems in a private LAN to share Internet access.
The IPX as a QoS router ensures to give voice communication with higher priority in
using the limited bandwidth.
The IPX embedded security firewall has a set of flexible and powerful packet filtering
rules. Users can define security policies to protect LAN resources from external attacks
and to restrict inside stations access to the Internet. Simple IP data VPN between remote
IPX systems can be formed.
The IPX web-based system management has a vivid graphical user interface. It allows
administrators to locally or remotely manage the IPX systems and allows individual
extension users to manage their phone sets and voice mailboxes.
1.4
Typical IPX Networks
One IPX can satisfy both voice and data communication needs of a SMB at a location.
Figure 1.1 Single Local SMB IPX Network
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The PSTN lines can be used for emergency calls, sending and receiving FAX, and local
calls. The regular inbound and outbound voice calls can go through the ITSP network
over the Internet. A VoIP line (also called IP line, VoIP account in the document) from
ITSP can support multiple voice connections at the same time, which is more
advantageous than analog lines.
When an enterprise group has multiple branch offices in different locations, it can have
one IPX at each location. The IPX systems within the organization can join together to
form a voice intranet, a bigger virtual IP PBX.
Figure 1.2 Voice Intranet Concept
In this diagram, the four cities could be spread all over the world. The four IPX have a
peer-to-peer relationship over the Internet. Calls from an extension at one location to an
extension at another location are the same as the calls to the next desk in the same
location. The PBX services can transcend geographical boundaries. All local PSTN and
ITSP resources can be shared by all extensions of the entire organization. Virtually, the
four IPX work together as if it is a wide area IPX.
1.5
Application Examples
The IPX is scalable, stackable, flexible, and rich in features. With the proper selections
and combinations of IPX capabilities, many voice network applications can be defined.

An ITSP network uses the IPX as an IP PBX on business customer premises. The
ITSP can offload PBX service traffic from its central server. Distributed IP PBX can
reduce the bandwidth usage and increase network reliability.

A call center with one or multiple IPX can be easily established. When an IPX is
located in a remote country, labor cost and investment can be minimized.

A chained business such as retail shops, organizations with remote offices or stations
can form an IPX-based internal communication network to enhance overall
productivity and operation efficiency.

A security sensitive enterprise can employ its own security mechanism into the IPX
so that it can establish its own secured voice communication network between remote
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offices.

Local numbers can be ported to foreign countries when using multiple IPX. Travel
agents, logistics firms, or international traders can have numbers of many countries.

For a franchised shop or service company that has hundreds of locations, customer’s
calls to a single 800 number can be routed to a right shop near the caller.

Internet café, calling card providers, and hotels can offer public and guests with
international calls by using VoIP trunk capability that can reroute all voice traffic over
Internet with lower rates.

Emergency response department can build cascaded IPX network to broadcast voice
messages, to receive calls from wide area audiences.
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2
Basic IPX Setup
2.1
Simple Installation
The administrator can add the IPX to
an existing enterprise IP network
without changing the existing
network topology.
In this setup, the IPX may need to
compete for bandwidth with the PC.
Therefore, the voice quality might be
impacted by heavy Internet usage
from PC.
An alternative setup is to place the
IPX near the Internet WAN access
point and before LAN stations so that
the Internet bandwidth can be
managed by the IPX QoS facility and
voice quality can be ensured by the
IPX.
2.2
Figure 2.1 IPX Installation - Add-on Only
IPX Management Access
A PC can directly connect to the IPX
LAN port and use DHCP to acquire
an IP address from the IPX. The IPX
management default URL from the
PC is http://192.168.6.1:8080/
Figure 2.2 IPX Installation with QoS for Voice
The first and important user of the IPX is the administrator. The default user name is
admin and the default password is admin. Administrator has the power to setup and
change anything in the IPX, including creating, deleting, and managing operator user
accounts, and extension numbers. For
security reasons, it is highly recommended to
change the IPX administrator default
password.
Figure 2.3 IPX Login Screen
Multiple administrative user account can be
created, but at a given time, only one
administrative session is allowed for system
integrity reason. The second administrator
can log in the IPX and automatically kick the
first one out of the IPX management.
The second type of IPX user is the operator. The operator user account is created by an
administrator. The user name and password are determined by administrators. An
operator is able to set up and to change PBX settings such as organization greetings, IVR
menus, voice mail box assignments, and extension number planning.
The third type of IPX users is the extension user, or phone user. An extension number is
used as user name when a phone user logs into the IPX. Usually, the initial password is
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empty. The password can be changed by an administrator, operator, or phone user. The
phone user can manage his or her own phone set by setting up call forwarding,
personalizing a greeting, or managing the voice mail box.
The IPX can also be accessed from the IPX WAN port. If the IPX domain name is valid
in the Internet, a user may be able to access the IPX using http://abcd.myIPX.net:8080/
In case the LAN IP address or port number had been changed or admin password got lost,
admin has no way to logon the running IPX. In this case admin can only reset the IPX to
factory default by pressing through a small hole near the power socket at the back of the
IPX.
2.3
IPX GUI Structure
2.3.1 Administration GUI Structure
Minimal configuration for ISP/PSTN/ITSP
Quick Setup
System
Product Info
Admin Accounts
Configuration File
Software Upgrade
IPX serial#, software version, domain name
Add/change accounts for IPX management
Backup/restore IPX configuration to/from PC
Upgrade IPX firmware
System Settings
Clock
Email Server
Billing
Ports
System Name
Software License
Voice Collection
Management Server
Customer Info
NTP server and daylight saving settings
Email server info for email delivery from IPX
Send IPX CDR to billing servers
Change SIP, RTP, HTTP, SSH port settings
Define IPX system name
IPX software and service license info
Simple IPX voice database management
IPX central server for the IPX to be managed
IPX user contact information
Basic Voice
Local IPX Code
One or multiple IPX codes as IPX id in intranet
Extensions
Analog Extensions
IP Extensions
Dynamic Extensions
Virtual Extensions
Region and Language
Analog extension settings
IP (SIP) phones settings
External (mobile) phone as internal extension
Aliases of phones or IPX services
Languages, common greetings
Dialing Prefix
Local phone directory, prepared for IP phones
Prefix to tell if calling outside or internally
Ext. Call Types
Give a meaning of international calls
Phone Book
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Partition the IPX resources and users
Groups
Voice Parameters
Voice Option
Disconnection Tone
DSP Parameter
Flash key, key delay timer, ringing timr
Tone parameters to tell if line is released
DSP parameter value groups (EC, Jitter, …)
Voice Intranet
Intranet Option
Peer List
IPX Server
IPX Clients
Internal Call Routing
Intranet call encryption, IP fax mode
List of IPX peers at remote locations
IP address of IPX server that serves this IPX
List of IPX clients that are served by this IPX
Advanced routing rules for intranet calls
Voice Extranet
PSTN Lines
VoIP Accounts
VoIP Trunks
Outgoing Call Routing
Incoming Call Routing
PSTN line service from old phone company
VoIP line service from new ITSP
IP voice trunk to other VoIP domain, e.g. ITSP
Powerful call routing rules for outbound calls
Redirect incoming calls per calling source info
Advanced Voice
Resource Sharing
Call Authentication
VIP Numbers
Trusted IPX
Authenticate caller for toll calls
User exemptions for call authentications
IPX exemptions for call authentications
IVR Definitions
Super IVRs
IVR List
Call Distributions
Alarm Services
Call recording
Broadcast
PBX Interwork
Easy Conferences
Schedules of IVR
Customized IVR and IVR menu tree
Simple call center with ACD
Wakeup calls/announcements per schedules
Record live calls and deliver/email out
Cascaded paging groups
Group analog lines as trunks to legacy PBX
Simple audio conference up to 12 parties
Network
LAN
DHCP Server
LAN port IP address and subnet
DHCP service for LAN computers
DNS Server
DNS relay services through the IPX
WAN Interface
DHCP client, static IP, PPPoE link to ISP
DNS server IP addresses from ISP
LAN Interface
WAN
DNS
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Dynamic DNS binding with user’s choice
DDNS
IP Routing
Forwarding Option
Routing Table
Routing, Bridging, or NAT firewall
Manually updated IP routing table
Security
Policy Element
Application Service
Address Book
MAC Groups
Define TCP/UDP application names
Name IP addresses and subnets
Name MAC addresses ranges
NAT
Address Mapping
Port Mapping
Map each WAN IP address to an internal server
Map an application to an application server
Security Rules
Visit this IPX
Firewall policy for incoming connectoins
Firewall policy for outgoing connections
Security rules for connection the IPX itself
IP Tunnels
Secured IP tunnels for building IPX VPN
Inbound
Outbound
VPN
Status
Current LAN, WAN, DHCP and DNS info
IP network
System Logs
Voice Status
Selection of system logs
Display logs on screen or backup to PC
Voice call logs
Display live line and extension status
Network Quality Test
Check if remote IPX is online and what quality
System Check
Verify external DNS, DHCP, Email servers
Log Settings
Show Logs
Call Logs
Tools
Table 1
IPX Management Menu Tree
2.3.2 Operation GUI Structure
When an operator user logs into the IPX management, the user will see the operator GUI
interface that is a subset of the GUI interface for system administrator users.
Operator users have a limited power to manage the IPX:
 managing extensions
 changing system greetings
 defining IVR menu trees
 creating ACD
 checking some system status
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2.3.3 Extension GUI Structure
When an extension user login the IPX using extension number, the user sees the GUI as
following:
User Settings
Phone Settings
Message List
Extension Password
Change mailbox greetings and parameters, ring back music
Change call forwarding options, enable/disable services
List of messages in voice mail box, listen, forward, delete
Reset personal extension password
Table 2
2.4
Extension GUI Menu
System Default and Quick Setup
The IPX has a set of built-in configurations, called the factory default configuration,
which is listed at the end of this manual. The default configuration should satisfy the
needs of basic usages. However, if a working environment of the IPX is slightly different
from what the factory default assumes, some minimal configuration will be needed. For
simple usage of the IPX, the minimal setup includes:



The WAN IP address for an Internet connection of the IPX
The VoIP accounts for voice calls through ITSP (VoIP service providers)
The PSTN lines for external PSTN phone calls and Fax services
Figure 2.4 Quick Setup
The quick setup page provides some shortcuts to the most common configurations of the
IPX system. With the basic setup, every PC in local area network should have Internet
connection through the IPX; every internal phone should be able to make internal and
external phone calls.
To find out an extension number of a phone, user can simply dials *25# on the phone.
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2.5
Save Configuration
Any configuration changes made to the IPX will take effect as soon as they are submitted.
A configuration can survive over system reboot only if it is saved to the IPX permanent
memory using the save button. It is recommended to back up a good configuration to a
PC file.
2.6
Online Help
There is specific help info for each configuration page in the IPX system. By clicking on
the “Help” at the top right corner, a user could see a window showing the description and
instruction on the subject of the current configuration.
2.7
Reboot and Reset IPX System
It is common practice to reboot the IPX when user observes something wrong but does
not want spend time to investigate. Rebooting the system often brings the system to
working order.
The best and safest way to reboot the IPX system is to click on the reboot button at the
top right corner of the IPX management page. Another way is to power off and to power
on the system by unplugging and plugging the power cord.
Pressing the reset button through the tiny hole not only reboots the system, but also resets
the system back to the factory default configurations. This is needed only when the
administrator user has no way to get in the IPX, for example, user forgot IP address, port
number of the IPX, or password.
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3
System Management
3.1
Product Information
Product data sheet contains read-only information about the IPX system.
Figure 3.1 Product Information
The domain name and ##Net numbers are derived from the serial number of the IPX. If
the IPX system is in the public Internet, it can be accessed by using the domain name
anywhere in the world. From any other IPX system, this IPX can be called by using the
##Net number. Dynamic domain name registration for xxxx.myIPX.net and ##Net voice
calls are the courtesy of the myIPX.net community. Please note that the availability and
the quality of the services are not guaranteed.
Note that dialing ##5799# and dialing **5799# are the same for dialing to the IPX in the
above figure. Some IP phone reserved # and therefore you may only ** for ##NET calls.
Users are encouraged to use other domain name for the IPX from some DDNS service.
Users also encouraged to build their own voice intranet or to acquire services from
Internet telephony service providers (ITSP).
3.2
Administration Accounts
The IPX allows multiple administrative level accounts and multiple operator level
accounts. At any given time, only one administrator can login to the IPX system.
Figure 3.2 Admin Account List
Clicking on the little “lock” symbol, administrator user can reset passwords.
Note that operator users can only modify small portion of configuration data that is
related to extension assignment, greeting, IVR, and ACD configuration changes.
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3.3
Backup Configuration
Whenever a user makes configuration changes, the user should save it to the IPX
permanent memory by clicking on save button at the top right corner. Please note that the
IPX does not have a rollback function to undo the last change.
Further, a proven working configuration should be backed up to a PC file. If the current
changes mess up the system or if the user would like to recover a certain configuration,
the user can restore a saved configuration back to the system.
A saved configuration file can be imported (restored) to another IPX that must be the
same model as the one that the configurations file was from.
Figure 3.3 Backup Configuration
The IPX system reverts to the factory default setting if the user:


Clicks the Restore Factory Setting button;
Or presses the reset pin through the hole next to the power plug.
User can also reset the IPX to factory default setting except the WAN and LAN port IP
addresses. This provides convenience to user to remotely reset the IPX to factory default
and to access it after such reset.
If a saved configuration file was based on very outdated IPX software that differs greatly
from the newly upgraded IPX software, it is very likely that the restored configuration
file would not work well. For this reason, it is recommended for the user to copy some
key configuration changes into a text file and to do new configuration manually.
If auto configuration is enabled, the IPX will upload the current configuration to a
configuration server and download a new configuration from the configuration server to
the IPX during every reboot of the IPX. If there are no configuration changes, such
upload or download would not occur. The configuration server is a free CFG tool and the
server needs to be accessible by the managed IPX system.
The auto configuration is typically useful when some managed IPX systems are in private
networks and the administrator cannot access them from the public network.
Refer to the CFG tool manual or help text for detailed information on the feature.
3.4
Software Upgrade
It is not necessary to upgrade IPX software versions if the current IPX software is
working well. Note that a newer version of IPX software may not always work for the
current deployment.
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When some new features and services are purchased or some important improvements
become available, an upgrade to the IPX software may be needed.
3.4.1 IPX Software Upgrade
Before making a full software upgrade, administrators are strongly recommended to save
the current working configuration to a PC file. Generally speaking, the existing
configuration will be kept the same after a full software upgrade. If the new software has
significant difference from the previous version, the old configuration might not work.
The voice collection (voice database) should be exported to local PC before software
upgrade. During an IPX upgrade, the voice collection could be cleaned up if its size is
bigger than 3M. After software upgrade, the voice collection can be imported back to the
IPX. Refer to 3.7.4 for more details.
Software upgrades between some versions are not allowed. For example, IPX software
2.x cannot be upgraded to IPX software version 3.x because of technical reasons. Please
check the vendor of the IPX if this occurs.
Some new features available in a new version of software might not be available to the
users of the IPX since the new features might require new licenses from the vendor. The
IPX users are only warranted for the capabilities the user originally purchased.
The size of IPX software is over 12 MB even after compression. Uploading the package,
validating the software and associated data, writing the software and data into permanent
memory, migrating configurations, and then rebooting the system itself would take 20
minutes in total. Administrators must be patient during the software upgrade process:
1. The package should be downloaded and saved to a local PC. The full software
upgrade should be done from a local PC. Full upgrade from a remote PC is
allowed, but it may not success due to the size of the package.
2. DO NOT TURN OFF THE POWER once the software is uploaded and validated.
Writing the software into permanent memory takes a long time. If the system is
powered off in the middle, no working software will be available in the IPX
permanent memory.
3. When the IPX is being updated, Internet browser on a PC would lose the
connection to the IPX. To check if the IPX is ready after 30 minutes, dial *25 on
an attached telephone. If an announcement is heard, the system is ready.
3.4.2 IPX Rescue
If the IPX software is severely damaged during a software upgrade, the IPX cannot boot
up any more. In this case, the lights for WAN and LAN will not light up steadily.
The user is encouraged to send email to local distributors, resellers, or authorized support
agents of the IPX system for a rescue method.
A rescue package IPXinstall can be obtained from distributor or vendor. It contains the
detail instructions on how to rescue the IPX.
3.5
System Settings
3.5.1 Clock Setting
Setting up the IPX system with an accurate date and time is important since many
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features and services in the IPX rely on a correct clock. The IPX system clock can be set
manually or dynamically by NTP (Network Time Protocol).
Figure 3.4 System Clock
Enabling NTP is recommended. The IPX can get the exact time from an NTP server
automatically. Administrators should also adjust the time zone to local one.
If a desired country or region is not listed, please choose the one in the same time zone. If
none of the listed countries or regions fit well, the user needs to set the time manually.
Some models of IPX systems do not have on board battery clock to main accurate
clocking after system power off. It must be noticed that manually configured date and
time could be invalid after a system reboot.
Please note that NTP protocol may not reflect daylight saving. Therefore you may need to
give the start date and end date of the daylight saving of the current year for your country.
The IPX does not have ability discover the start date and end date of light saving for each
country.
3.5.2 Email Server
An email server should be configured since a few IPX features such as voice email and
voice recording need to use email server to deliver messages.
Just like the configuration of Microsoft Outlook mail account, the settings include: Email
SMTP server and Email account information.
Figure 3.5 Email Server
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Email server information includes a SMTP server IP address or domain name, port
number (usually 25), and authentication data, which must follow the settings on the
SMTP server for the account.
It has been reported that not every SMTP server is working with the IPX since some
email server employs some extra restrictions. Gmail and hotmail email servers have been
verified working well with the IPX.
It is highly recommended to have a special email account created on the email server just
for the IPX system. In this way, the receiver of emails would know the emails are from
the IPX system, not from any other people.
3.5.3 Billing
Billing servers are separate billing software running on Linux or Windows. The IPX
sends call detail records (CDR) to the servers immediately after a call is completed.
Figure 3.6 Setup Billing Server's Address
A free version of billing software CDR Display Tool can be installed on a Windows PC.
A commercial version of billing server for VoIP service provider is also available. The
commercial IPX billing server supports the Windows and Linux operating systems.
A CDR can be delivered to multiple billing servers at the same time. If delivery to one of
the configured billing servers fails, the CDR will be kept in the IPX for the next attempt.
If there are too many CDRs accumulated in the IPX and an overflow occurs, the oldest
CDR will be purged out.
Accurately determining the end point of a voice call is sometime tricky. For VoIp calls,
the signaling is general accurate. For calls being involved with analog line, sometime, the
IPX is hard to know the remote side hanged up the call. To be accurate, polarity reversal
should be enabled on the PSTN port configuration in order to know disconnection of a
call.
If a third party billing server is used, the CDR format of the IPX is not guaranteed to be
consistent.
Some IPX Billing servers have ability to authorize the IPX to accept or reject a request of
a toll call. When some billing servers in the configuration page are enabled and Billing
Authentication is enabled, the IPX could receive from billing servers a list of unqualified
callers who are not allowed to make toll calls. This is typically used in prepay
applications managed by billing servers.
3.5.4 Ports
The IPX uses several IP protocols for communicate with other systems. The TCP/UDP
sockets consist of IP addresses and port numbers. The IPS system has a preset of choice
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of communication ports. The administrators can change some of these important
TCP/UDP port numbers, usually to prevent conflicts with other applications or to avoid
VoIP blockage by ISP.
Figure 3.7 System Port
VoIP signaling port is the port number that the IPX is listening for VoIP signaling such
registration and call setup. Modification of VoIP signaling port will change the signaling
port of the voice intranet and IP extensions registration. Changes to this VoIP signaling
port significantly impact the entire voice communication. The IPX will use this port to
receive connection requests from its peer IPX’s, client IPX’s, server IPX’s, and remote
trunk endpoints. The IPX will also use this port to receive registrations from IP
extensions.
The RTP port range defines the local port numbers that VoIP media connections use;
changes to this are needed ONLY if (1) the IPX is behind a firewall and the firewall only
forwards packets for certain port numbers; (2) some application ports have been used by
other applications and the VoIP media have to stay away from such applications. Note
that when a user sets up port forwarding on an external NAT/firewall, only the first 16
RTP ports need to be forwarded if the maximum number of concurrent calls is less than 8.
The default port number for the IPX web based management GUI is 8080. It can be
changed to a different port number - for example 80 or 8888. After the port number is
changed, the current HTTP session will not work. The user needs to login again with the
new port number.
The IPX has SSH port open for technical debug purpose. The open port is safe since the
no one can get into the IPX through the SSH without knowing comprehensive security
credentials. However, administrator is allowed to shut off the port to block any potential
hole anyways.
3.5.5 System Name
System name is a name given to the IPX. This is used to differentiate this IPX from other
IPX systems. The name could be used in several places such as email messages from the
IPX, DHCP, and the IPX management center.
3.6
Software License
The IPX product including both hardware and software components are all copyrighted.
The user is allowed to use the features and services that were purchased and licensed for.
The software license is used to ensure the IPX copyright by verifying usage permission of
each module.
The IPX license has three types: Demo, Limited Time, and Permanent. A demo license
is for trial only; the permanent license is granted to the purchased products.
A demo or limited license needs to be renewed or upgraded before it expires. A few days
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before the license gets expired, operator users (the user at extension 0) could hear an
announcement reminding for upgrading IPX software license. When the license is expired,
all led lights at the front panel will be in yellow color. If the license is expired, all
capabilities, except for accessing the IPX management pages from IPX LAN port, will be
blocked.
The administrator user can check the status of the license:
Figure 3.8 Software License
To avoid service interruption, the administrator user should upgrade the software license
a few days before its expiration. Once a license is upgraded, the IPX system should be
rebooted to make the new license effective.
Some users might only purchase a subset of IPX features and services. When a feature is
found not working properly, user should check if the IPX has sufficient license for the
feature. For example, if a license only allows 16 IP extensions, user might need to
purchase a new license to expand the capacity of supporting IP extensions. Another
example, to allow more users to use easy conference facility at the same time, a license
for more conferences will be needed.
A software license is bound to the serial number of each IPX product and cannot be used
in different IPX systems.
Please keep the permanent license in a safe place for future use.
3.7
Voice Collection
3.7.1 Voice Pieces Used in IPX
During an interaction process between phone user and the IPX system, the user often
heard some voice from the IPX including:






A piece of music that is played back to the callers on hold;
A sentence that the machine composed, e.g. extension number after dialing *25#;
A system built-in voice piece such as asking user account number and password;
A business specific voice such as company greeting or advertisement;
A prompt voice that are used in IVR and ACD for user interactions;
A user specific voice such as ring back music and voice mail greeting.
The IPX has already built-in a set of voice pieces in different languages include English,
Chinese, Spanish, Germany, and Arabic. They are permanent content of the IPX. If
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different language needs to be supported, the same package with a new language should
be loaded to the system through Region and Language management page. The individual
built-in voice pieces are not changeable on the IPX management page.
In addition to built-in packages, Voice Collection is a facility to allow administrator users
to load, record, add, update, verify, and delete individual voice pieces in any languages.
Voice Collection is sort of voice pieces database management tool in the IPX.
Each voice piece has a unique id (a number). User can check the voice using phone set by
using the voice id. Each voice piece has a unique name. The name is used as id in the IPX
applications that require playing the voice piece, such as in IVR menu.
3.7.2 Interactive Voice Format
An audio file can be in very different format. The IPX is a telecom system; speaker and
microphone are on telephone set. To get the most compatibility and to get the best result
on most phone set, the voice should use WAV file in the following encode format:
CCITT PCM A-Law, 8000Hz, 8 Bit, Mono
If an audio voice is in different format, it should be converted to this format using some
popular audio software.
Usually each voice piece should be less than one minute. Maximum is 3 minutes which is
about size of 1.5M bytes. The memory in embedded system is limited. Big voice/sound
pieces in voice collection are not encouraged.
3.7.3 Add Voice to Voice Database
There are two ways to add voice pieces to the IPX voice collection. One is to record from
a phone set. On any extension, using command *26# to record voice, after hanging up,
user will see voice pieces in voice database as in the following figure.
Figure 3.8 Record Voice to IPX
From any phone set, using command *27*1001#, user can listen the recorded voice with
id 1001. By editing the voice piece, user can give a more meaningful name to it.
Another way to add voice piece to the IPX is to load an audio file from a PC by clicking
on Add button in the above figure.
Figure 3.9 Upload Voice Piece from PC
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It is a good practice to give a proper name since the name will used in other places. It is
highly recommended to write a detail note such as the text form of the voice content. The
voice id will be assigned by the IPX automatically. Again the audio file must be in format
of CCITT PCM A-Law, 8000Hz, 8 Bit, Mono.
3.7.4 Manage Voice Collection
Voice collection can be exported to a PC for backup. The saved voice collection package
can be imported back to the IPX. The files in the package are not editable on PC.
When imported back, some files could be renamed if a name has confliction with an
existing voice piece in the IPX.
Please note that the voice collection could be completely lost after an IPX software
upgrade. This is typically true when the size of voice collection database is bigger than
3M. Therefore, exporting (backing up) the voice collection to PC before software upgrade
is very important. After a software upgrade, the saved voice collection can be imported
(restored) back to the IPX.
3.8
Management Server
If the IPX can be directly accessed from the public Internet, administrators can log into
the IPX to mange it remotely. When the IPX is in a private IP network, how is the IPX
managed from the public Internet? Management Server is a solution for this. Before the
IPX is delivered to a remote site, the IPX should be configured with a management server
address as in the following figure:
Figure 3.10 Management Server
From the management server, the IPX systems can be managed regardless whether they
are is in public networks or private networks.
Furthermore, the management server can monitor the status of network links and the
status of VoIP accounts of each managed IPX system. Refer to management server
product and user guide for more details.
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4
Basic IP Network
4.1
Concept of IP Access Router
The IPX is designed to be an IP access router. The WAN port connects to the public IP
network, the Internet. The LAN port connects a local PC or an Ethernet switch or hub,
which is used to connect multiple PC.
As an access router, the IPX should have a public IP address on the WAN side; it should
have default router and DNS server address information from an ISP. Without this
information, the IPX will not be able to communicate with the Internet. The information
can be statically configured or automatically obtained using PPPoE or DHCP protocol.
On the WAN side, the IPX behaves as a DHCP client or a PPPoE client; as a client, it
automatically requests for the basic IP information from ISP.
As an access router, the IPX serves IP stations in the LAN. The IPX has a DHCP server
and a DNS server built-in. It assigns every PC with a local private IP address. For a PC in
the LAN, the IPX is a DHCP server, a default router, and a DNS server. The IPX LAN
port has an IP address that is in the same subnet as every other PC in the LAN.
The PC in the LAN must use private IP addresses, which are defined by IETF as:
192.168.x.y; 172.16~32.x.y, 10.x.y.z. When a PC communicates with the Internet, the
IPX must do a Network Address Translation (NAT) for every incoming IP packet and
every outgoing IP packet.
4.2
WAN Setup
4.2.1 WAN Interface
The IPX provides three Internet connection methods: Static IP, DHCP, and PPPoE.
Static IP is used when a public IP address is known and fixed. In this case the user needs
to get the following information from ISP: IP address, net mask, and default IP router and
DNS server addresses. The information should be properly configured in quick setup
section or in the WAN interface section.
Figure 4.1 Static IP Address Setup
PPPoE is commonly used for an Internet connection using DSL or FTTB which require
PPPoE authentication. The user should have a PPPoE account (name and password) from
ISP. Before configuring a PPPoE account on the IPX, the user should make sure (1) the
DSL modem is working in bridge mode1; (2) the DSL account works if it was configured
on a PC. Using the PPPoE protocol, the IPX will automatically obtain an IP address,
default router, and DNS server address.
1
Some DSL modems have a router embedded. User can verify this by checking the IP address of the PC
that connects to the DSL modem. If the PC has a private IP address such as 192.168.x.y, user should reset
the DSL modem to a bridge mode before using the IPX as an access router.
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DHCP is the default selection of the WAN interface. By selecting the DHCP protocol, the
IPX will automatically acquire an IP address from a DHCP server in the WAN. DHCP is
commonly used in cable networks. If the IPX connects a router through the WAN port,
DHCP or a static IP configuration might be the choices.
To know if the configured WAN interface is working, user can go to Status > IP Network
page to check the current state of the interfaces and other IP information.
It is a trade-off whether you put the IPX outside of the existing access router or you put
the IPX behind the existing access router, in latter case the IPX is the same as other IP
stations in the LAN. When the IPX is outside, it is reachable from the Internet and thus
easy for the construction of voice intranet (internal voice network across enterprise
locations) easy since the IPX can be accessed by its neighbor IPX if the IPX has a public
IP address. When the IPX is inside, no network topology changes to the existing network
would be needed. For more detail, please refer to 2.1Simple Installation, 10.3.1Peer List –
Mesh Intranet.
Please note that if the Internet connection requires web-based authentication, in most
cases, the IPX may not be able to be used as an access router.
4.2.2 WAN DNS Server Address
When the WAN interface of the IPX uses
DHCP or PPPoE, the DNS server address
information is automatically obtained from
the ISP. The user is still able to manually
configure the DNS server addresses to
override the ones acquired through protocols.
Figure 4.2 WAN DNS Server Address
If the WAN interface is configured with a static IP address, the DNS server addresses
must be configured manually.
If DHCP or PPPoE is used on the WAN port, and at the same time DNS server addresses
are manually configured, the manually configured addresses will override the ones
acquired through DHCP or PPPoE protocol. DNS servers from local ISP are preferred. If
such information is not available, some well known DNS servers such as 4.2.2.2, …
4.2.2.6 can be used.
User can use the IPX network tool (refer to: 28.1 Network Quality Test) to ping
www.google.com to verify if DNS servers are working properly. Without a working DNS
server, the IPX will not function as expected.
4.2.3 Configure Behind DSL Router
DSL routers are common device for small business to access the Internet. The Figure 2.1
and Error! Reference source not found.Figure 2.2 represent typical network setup in
SMB environment.
In both setups, the IPX WAN IP address should be better to be configured with static IP
address. If IP address of the DSL router is 192.168.0.1 and the router has DNS relay
service, the IPX WAN port can be configured as:
IP address:
Default Gateway:
Subnet Mask:
DNS Server:
192.168.0.100
192.168.0.1
255.255.255.0
192.168.0.1
(or a DNS server address from local ISP)
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In the DSL router, a DMZ host should be set to the IPX, i.e. 192.168.0.100 in the
example.
4.2.4 Customized Domain Name Service
As mentioned in Product Information page, every IPX system has a built-in domain
name, e.g. abcd.myIPX.net. This domain name is bound to a public IP address when the
IPX is able to reach the Internet.
In a big enterprise environment or a special carrier environment (e.g. 3G network with
10.x.x.x addresses), many IPX systems are deployed and they should be assigned with
domain names within the environment, which is served by a DDNS in that environment.
Another case is that a customer has own domain name from a DDNS service provider and
wishes the IPX to use the domain
name.
In both cases, the user could
override the default myIPX.net
DDNS service with a customized
one. In the figure, the IPX has its
domain name c0267.ctc.net. The
abcd.myIPX.net becomes invalid.
4.3
Figure 4.3 Customer DDNS Service
LAN Setup
4.3.1 LAN Interface
By the default, the IPX LAN interface has the
predefined IP address of 192.168.6.1. The IP
subnet for the LAN segment is 192.168.6.0/24,
i.e. 192.168.6.1~254. It is not recommended
for the user to change the IP address unless it
is necessary.
After the change of the IPX LAN IP address,
the PC in the LAN may lose the web
connection to the IPX configuration since the PC and the IPX might not be in the same IP
sub-network. In this case, the user needs to do the following:
Figure 4.4 Change LAN IP Address


If the PC uses a static IP address for the local connection, change the address
according to the new setting of the IPX LAN address.
If the PC uses DHCP (automatically obtains an IP address), disable and enable the
local connection to refresh the IP configuration of the PC.
Web browser can point to the new IPX LAN address 2 to access the IPX again.
Modification of the IPX LAN interface address automatically changes DHCP address
range, which is used for assigning LAN PC with proper IP addresses.
4.3.2 LAN DHCP Service
2
In the MS Windows, the user can open a cmd window and type the command: ipconfig; in the Linux, the
user can open an xterm and type the command: ifconfig to check the IP address, default router address.
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The IPX has a built-in DHCP server. It provides DHCP service for PC in the LAN. The
PC can automatically obtain an IP address, as well as default IP router and DNS server
information from the IPX.
The DHCP server of the IPX is automatically
started when the IPX is powered on. It can
also be manually stopped or restarted.
The DHCP address range is derived from the
LAN IP address. The user is still able to
modify the IP address range, as long as the
range is consistent with the IP subnet of the
LAN segment. The addresses between the
start address and the end address can be
allocated to client PC’s in the LAN; at the
Figure 4.5 DHCP Service
same time, the DHCP server will lease the
network address to the client. At the end of
the leasing, the DCHP server will take them back and give a new lease with a new IP
address (usually the same one). The DHCP server assigns IP addresses in descending
numerical order.
The DHCP server can reserve some IP addresses to specific IP stations such as
application servers. The reservations are based the MAC addresses of those IP stations.
Reserved IP addresses will not be dynamically assigned to any other PC.
Hint: Another way doing this is that the user can configure the IP station with a static IP
address; in the IPX, make that IP address out of DHCP range so that it would never be
assigned to other PC.
The list of PC and IP stations that are served by the IPX DHCP can be found in Status >
IP Networks.
4.3.3 LAN DNS Service
To access the Internet, every PC needs a DNS server that maps URL domain names to
numerical IP addresses. By default, the IPX is a DNS server for every PC on the LAN.
User is allowed to choose different DNS servers in the local network environment. For
example, an organization may have set up an internal DNS server for internal name
services and external DNS relay.
Usually, it is sufficient just to use the IPX as the DNS server for the LAN.
4.4
IP Routing
4.4.1 IP Forwarding Options
The IPX supports two IP forwarding
modes: bridge mode and router mode.
Bridge Mode
In bridge mode, the IPX behaves as an
Ethernet switch. The “LAN” and the
“WAN” of the IPX are in the same
LAN segment.
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Figure 4.6 IP Forwarding Mode
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The IPX only has one IP address representing the IPX system. The address is associated
with the “WAN” interface: it can be statically configured or dynamically acquired using
DHCP3. The address can also be accessed from both “WAN” and “LAN” interface of the
IPX. The IPX itself is a simple IP station in the local network. The IPX’s address is used
for VoIP communication and IPX management.
An IPX with bridge mode is not recommended to use. It can be used only if the PC
behind the IPX wants to be in the same IP subnet as the front network of the IPX.
Router Mode
Routing mode indicates that the IPX behaves as a router. The LAN interface and the
WAN interface will be in different network IP segments. The IPX is responsible for IP
packet forwarding between the LAN and the WAN.
The IPX provides two options for IP packet routing between the LAN and the WAN:
NAT: IP forwarding + NAT, the IP addresses and UDP/TCP port numbers in IP packets
may get translated before the packets are forwarded from the IPX to the LAN or WAN;
Firewall: NAT + firewall, before the addresses in packets are translated, the packets must
be examined by security rules configured by network administrators.
If neither option is selected, the IPX behaves as a simple router. In this case, no address
translation and no security rule examination are performed.
4.4.2 Routing Table
The IPX provides an integral routing function. The current routing information is listed in
an IP routing table as in Figure 4.8. Some of the routes are derived from the WAN and the
LAN interface. These routes cannot be changed. If there is another IP router is used in the
local area network, as in the following diagram, a static route should be added.
192.168.6.101
192.168.6.1
Router
192.168.10.X
IPX
Internet
192.168.6.X
Figure 4.7 Subnet in LAN
Figure 4.8 IP Routing Table
Note: The routing table is not available when bridge mode is selected in the IP forwarding
option.
3
In bridge mode, PPPoE is not supported. PPPoE is specifically used for the Internet access, while bridge
mode is not designed for Internet access.
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5
IPX Voice Overview
5.1
IPX – Hybrid IP PBX
The IPX is a hybrid IP PBX. The IPX supports analog phones (FXS ports), PSTN lines
(FXO ports), IP phones (IP extensions), VoIP lines (VoIP subscriber accounts from ITSP),
and VoIP trunks (unnumbered links to VoIP carriers or neighbor VoIP domains).
Figure 5.1 Hybrid IP PBX
Analog extensions and IP extensions (including IP phones, PC soft phones, WiFi phones,
soft phones on mobile terminals) can reach each other in normal way regardless the
technologies in use and the locations they are placed in.
Analog PSTN lines, VoIP lines and VoIP trunks all are external resources for extensions
to make outbound voice calls. Calls from any extensions can use any of these lines or
trunks to reach out based on the configured IPX call routing policies.
The IPX is said a hybrid IP PBX because it supports both analog telephony and IP
telephony; the two type of devices and the two type of connections can work together
seamlessly.
5.2
Built-in VoIP Servers
The IPX is a FXS VoIP gateway; it allows analog phones and attached legacy PBX to
connect with IP voice networks. The IPX is a FXO VoIP gateway; it bridges a local PSTN
to IP voice networks so that anyone from PSTN can call into the IPX and then get on
VoIP networks.
More importantly, the IPX is a VoIP server that supports standard SIP protocol suite
defined by IETF. The IPX is a SIP server and it provides SIP registration services,
location services, proxy services, and trunk services.
IP phones and third party VoIP gateways can register with the IPX from local LAN, from
VPN or from the Internet. The IPX maintains links to the registered VoIP devices and sets
up connections with them per call requests.
The IPX keeps link status with neighbor IPX systems and other VoIP service platform.
The IPX reroutes some call requests to other VoIP server in other locations; during the
process the call requests can be filtered or modified per preconfigured policies.
The IPX is a VoIP proxy for analog/IP extensions and for neighbor IPX systems.
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The IPX can provide trunk services to other VoIP domains. With this trunk service,
neighbor VoIP domain could send traffic through the VoIP network of this IPX system.
The traffic could be terminated in this VoIP network or be forwarded further. Using the
IPX VoIP trunks, the network topologies can be hidden from other VoIP networks.
The IPX listens at single UDP port for all of these services. The clients and neighbor IPX
systems must use the same port number to send VoIP signaling data. The default is 8060.
It can be changed to a different port number. But if it is changed, all IP extensions, remote
VoIP trunk ends, neighbor IPX systems must send signaling data using the new port
number.
5.3
Three Voice Networks
5.3.1 Voice Intranet – A Complete Internal Voice Network
Multiple IPX systems can work together to form a standalone and complete internal voice
network as in the following diagram.
Figure 5.2 Three Networks – Voice Intranet
In this organizational internal voice network, the IPX A,B,C,D know each other after
configuration of each other domain names. The IPX code is an identifier of an IPX
system, e.g. the IPX code 1 is the identifier of IPX A in the voice intranet. Extension
numbers are the identifiers of phone terminals in the internal voice network. The
extension numbers must use an IPX code as prefix – first a few digits in the extension
number.
When a phone user dials 401 from the extension number 101, the IPX A knows where
extension number 401 is since it knows that the IPX code 4 is associated with IPX D.
5.3.2 Voice Extranet – To Be Part of Public Voice Network
An organization can have multiple IPX systems in different locations and the IPXs work
together to form a wide area IP PBX – a virtual IPX. This virtual IPX has PSTN lines
with public phone numbers from local phone companies, maybe in different countries;
the virtual IPX has VoIP lines, i.e. VoIP accounts from ITSPs anywhere in the world; the
virtual IPX has VoIP trunks with some VoIP trunk service providers, VoIP whole sellers,
or neighbor organizations.
The voice network outside of the organization voice network is called voice extranet. The
public phone numbers, VoIP line numbers, and VoIP trunk addresses are the identifiers of
the virtual IPX (organization voice network) in the public voice network. External caller
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can reach the virtual IPX through one of the external interfaces. Once a call reaches the
virtual IPX at any entry points, the call can be transferred to any extensions of the virtual
IPX.
Figure 5.3 Three Networks - Voice Extranet
When a call is initiated from an internal extension for an external public number, the
virtual IPX will follow extranet call routing policy to find an appropriate external links to
reach out. Easily some international calls become local calls automatically.
In the context of voice extranet, the organization voice intranet is one integral unit
although it consists of many IPX systems at different locations.
5.3.3 ##NET – Flat IPX Device Network
Another IPX voice network is based on a complete different concept, called ##NET.
Every IPX has a serial number, e.g. 0000-7802-P280-A3NU. To reach the IPX from any
other IPX anywhere in the world, user just dials ##00007802 or ##7802 by omitting the
leading 0s. ## can be replaced with **, in other words, dialing **7802.
Figure 5.4 Three networks - Flat IPX ##NET
The ##NET has no concept of intranet or extranet, no concept of company, organization,
or even countries. Every IPX is equal to another. So, The ##NET is a complete flat IPX
network built-in the IPX. The IPX that can be reached by ##Net dialing must connect to
the Internet.
5.3.4 Between Three Networks
The three voice networks have different concepts and they are in the different voice
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administrative domains. However, they can be related in some ways.
When an external caller dials a public phone number on IPX A, auto attendant in IPX A
could guide the caller to dial an extension, which can be a remote extension 401 on IPX
D. So, the entire call path includes both an external part in extranet and an internal part in
intranet.
When a user dials a ##Net number to reach an IPX of some organization, the user can
further dial *9+external_number to reach outside. This call involves ##NET and local
PSTN of the target IPX.
A call from a local extension goes through a neighbor IPX and reaches out to the public
network. The call has an intranet portion and an extranet portion.
5.4
Summary of IPX Identifiers
In the Internet
The IPX domain name, e.g. wxyz.myIPX.net, is the unique id of the IPX in the
Internet if the last 4 characters of its serial number are wxyz.
The IPX WAN IP address or LAN IP address are the IDs of the IPX in local IP network.
Using the domain name or IP address of the IPX, a user can access the IPX
management; IP phones can register; a neighbor can establish peer relationship with it;
and a VoIP trunk can be setup.
In the ##NET
The ## number of the IPX is identifier of the IPX in ##NET. When a user dials this
number from any other IPX, the user can reach this IPX system. ##NET is the id of
IPX system, not an id of any extension terminals. After reaching the IPX system, the
user can further dial extension numbers to reach individual phone devices.
In an Voice Intranet
The IPX code is an identifier of an IPX in voice intranets. From any extension, a user
dials an IPX code to reach the IPX system. Auto attendant can help the user to further
reach extension devices. IPX codes are used as prefix of extension numbers. Since the
IPX codes are part of extensions, when a user dials a local or remote extension number,
the system knows which IPX has the extension.
In Voice Extranets
In the public voice network, PSTN numbers are the identifiers of the IPX. A public
phone number is associated to a PSTN line linked to a PSTN port of the IPX. When an
external user calls this number, the user will reach the IPX system and then further
dials an extension number.
In Internet telephony service provider (ITSP) network, a VoIP account name (usually a
public DID number) is the identifier of the IPX. Calling this DID number from any
external network will reach the IPX.
A VoIP trunk is an unnumbered link to the IPX system. A VoIP trunk is identified by
the IP address and port number of the IPX.
5.5
DID Concept in IPX
DID stands for Direct Inward Dialing. In PSTN world, DID means a logic number that
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can be used in the same way as normal PSTN phone number. Calls to a DID number will
be directly forwarded a device other than a PSTN line card in a central office (CO).
In the context of IPX systems, DID means a mapping between the IPX system identifiers
and the IPX extensions. When a call comes at the IPX system, the call can be directly
forwarded to an extension device.





A PSTN line can be configured with either auto attendant or DID to an extension
A VoIP line can be configured with either auto attendant or DID to an extension
A VoIP trunk can be configured with either auto attendant or DID to an extension
An IPX code can be configured with either auto attendant or DID to an extension
##NET can be configured with either auto attendant or DID to an extension
A DID number can be defined as a remote extension. In this way, calls to a local public
number can be answered by an operator at remote location.
5.6
Lines and Trunks
PSTN lines are traditional services from local telephone companies. Analog lines follow
the local loop start signaling protocol to initiate and terminate calls. At a given time, only
one call can be carried over the wire at speed of 64kbps. If call waiting service is enabled,
two connections can be interleaved by switching back and forward manually. A PSTN
line can carry a caller ID (number and name) and can transmit DTMF digits. PSTN lines
are expensive resources in voice networks. For a given IPX model, the number of PSTN
lines is fixed by the number of physical ports.
A VoIP line, also called VoIP account in IPX systems, is a logic line over the Internet. The
voice connection is implemented over IP network. Each VoIP line can carry multiple calls
at the same time. Technically, maximum number of concurrent calls on a VoIP line is only
limited by the available Internet access bandwidth. But in the reality, many ITSP imposes
a limit for business reasons. Each VoIP line is associated with a public DID number. User
just views such public DID number as a normal phone number. Many services are
naturally available on VoIP lines since they are standard part of SIP signaling protocol.
Each IPX can support many VoIP lines. One or multiple DIDs can associate with each
VoIP line. Each VoIP lines can have multiple calls in and out at the same time. Comparing
to PSTN lines, VoIP lines are much more powerful and capable.
A VoIP trunk is a link between the two VoIP systems of two different administrative
domains. A VoIP trunk can also be established between the IPX and other VoIP carrier
networks such as whole sale VoIP traffic providers. A VoIP trunk is big pipe for
transparently transport voice traffic. There is no limit on concurrent calls in a trunk and
no limit on the number of trunks to be configured in an IPX. Many DID can be associated
with a VoIP trunk. The IPX VoIP trunk is a complete replacement of digital T1/E1 trunks.
Generally speaking VoIP line is for individuals or SMB; while VoIP trunks are for big
business; which is similar to analog PSTN lines and digital E1/T1 trunks.
5.7
Partition and Manage IPX Resources
Extranet interfaces are the resources of an IPX. Sometime it is desirable to allocate a
particular line resource to specific person to ensure the availability of the line. Sometime,
a business department may need a separate cost control and monthly billing. The IPX
provides ability to partition IPX resources into groups.
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A group consists of:
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A set of available resources such as PSTN lines, VoIP lines, VoIP trunks
A group of users (extensions) who are allowed to use the resources
A list of authorizations of services granted to the group of users
A IVR menu tree that processes incoming calls to the group
A call routing policy that determines how outbound calls should be handled
Besides the IPX extensions, callers from neighbor IPX and callers from external network
may be allowed to use local resources too. These callers should be also classified into a
group so that policy, restriction, and accounting rules can be applied to them as well.
Partitioning IPX basically divides the IPX into smaller ones. This concept can be used for
multiple small companies to share a big IPX system.
5.8
IPX Clusters
A voice intranet usually covers the entire organization under single administration.
However, in some very big enterprise groups with multi-nation companies, each company
has its own way to build voice intranet within its domain. The IPX cluster concept is used
when smaller voice intranets are connected together to form a bigger internal voice
network. The overall voice network for the big organization has two layers.
Figure 5.5 IPX Clusters
The voice intranet within smaller organization is called cluster. Within a cluster, user uses
short numbers to reach each other. If a user wants to call an extension of an IPX in
different cluster, the user would need to dial a prefix (cluster id) and the extension
number together. Each cluster must have an IPX representing the cluster for
communication with other clusters.
The concept of cluster in IPX is implemented by intranet routing, i.e. internal call routing
with number manipulations. There is no explicit cluster id concept per say in the IPX
configuration. Which IPX could represent a cluster for inter-cluster communication is
determined by internal call routing design.
5.9
IPX Call Routing
From the IPX point of view, a call can be: (1) incoming from an intranet extension; (2)
incoming from extranet through an external interface; (3) going out to other extension; (4)
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going out to extranet through an external interface. IPX call routing is about how to
handle a call in IPX.
For (1), the IPX does not need much specific processing.
For (2), the IPX has “Incoming Call Routing” capability. It can directly forward the calls
from outside to a specific extension, e.g. operator, as long as the call arrives at the
interface and regardless who is calling. It can also forward the incoming calls to different
extensions based who are calling. This is a source based incoming call routing. For
example, whole nation calls single 800-number for a chained Pizza service, but the calls
will be routed to a shop near the caller since the IPX forwards the call based on the caller
id.
For (3), the IPX has “Internal Call Routing” facility. When the IPX receives a call request
destination to an intranet extension (i.e. internal call), it first checks if there is a specific
rule regarding the caller and dialed extension number and then takes action per rule. For
example, CEO’s extension is 3000, all calls from 1xxx to 3000 should be redirected to
2001 which is the CEO assistant for department 1. The internal call routing rule examines
the source and changes the destination to new one. If there is no specific rule associated
with the caller and called number, the IPX takes the default action. It determines the
destination IPX based on IPX code that is part of called number; and then forwards the
call to the found IPX, including itself.
For (4), the IPX has a powerful “Outgoing Call Routing” feature. When user dials an
external number, usually with prefix 9 to indicate it is an outbound call to external
network, the IPX will follow extranet call routing policies and rules to process the call
request. The call routing rule is picked based on who is making call and where the call is
finally going to. If no specific rule is found, the default rule, i.e. from anyone to anywhere,
will be used. Per call routing rule, the call may be sent out through one of local interfaces
such as PSTN lines, VoIP lines, or VoIP trunks; the call may be redirected to a neighbor
IPX in the same voice intranet, from which the call could sent out of the intranet.
During call routing processing, a call could be filtered or blocked. If a call is allowed, the
source number and destination number can be modified. This can allow outgoing calls to
use company’s phone number as caller id or to use individual’s phone number as caller id.
5.10 PBX Services and Authorization
The IPX is an IP PBX and has many basic services and advanced services.
Basic services include:
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Call ID (FSK and DTMF call ID on PSTN lines; Call ID on VoIP lines)
Auto attendant
PSTN line and VoIP line hunting (auto selection based on availability and priority)
Call forwarding based busy, no answer, or predefined schedule
Call transfer, call hold, call wait, call park/retrieval
3-way calls
Speed calls
Call pick up (when hearing the ring of a neighbor desk phone)
Absent call, No disturb call, Call blocking
Call back later
Ring back music
Advanced services include:
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
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Group rings
Customizable IVR menu tree
Automatic call distribution
Alarm/Wakeup calls
Broadcast
Voice email, voice mail services
Live call recording
Easy conference
Some services are available for individual extension users to manage; and others are only
controlled by the IPX system administrators. The most services can be enabled or
disabled through web interfaces or a phone keypad.
The IP PBX service can be extended to remote IPX systems. From user’s perspective,
multiple IPX, either locally stacked up or remotely connected, work as a single IPX.
5.11 VoIP Security
VoIP communication consists of singling part and media part. By the default, the IPX
automatically encrypts the signaling data between IPX systems. Voice media can be
optionally encrypted in a similar way if administrator enables this. This is a proprietary
encryption algorithm with built-in keys. The IPX offers security API allowing some user
to develop security module based the IPX development guidelines and to replace the
built-in one.
Communication between IP phone (hardware IP phone, soft phone) and the IPX could be
secured depending on the capability of the IP phone. For example, RC4 encryption is
supported by the IPX. The soft phone developed by the IPX vendor uses the same
security facility as the one used for between IPX systems.
When the IPX connects to ITSP, no security is used.
Even if ISP in a country blocks VoIP traffic, the communication between two IPX should
works. But the ITSP service from another country cannot be configured on an IPX in
such country directly. Instead, the VoIP line should be configured on an IPX outside of
such country; the IPX is made to be part of voice intranet. In such way, the VoIP line can
be shared by the IPX extensions in the country where VoIP is blocked.
5.12 Network and Voice Quality Control
The IP extensions could register with the IPX through the Internet; remote IPX likely
connects to this IPX through the Internet; and the IPX gets service from ITSP through the
Internet. The Internet is a common and important media to carry VoIP data. Due to the
nature of IP networks – best effort forwarding, voice data transmission is not guaranteed.
The IPX provides ability to let user to select IP network quality level so that DSP and
other VoIP component could automatically adjust the signaling and voice media
processing mechanism to match the IP network condition to ensure a good voice
communication quality over the IP network.
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6
Basic Voice
6.1
Local IPX Code
IPX code is an important concept in the IPX based voice networks. The IPX codes are the
identifiers of IPX systems. In a voice network with multiple IPX systems, IPX codes are
used to identify the IPX systems.
A local extension number is formed by an IPX code and a suffix. For example, if an IPX
code is 1 and extension length is 3, then 101, 102, 151, 152 are valid extension numbers.
An IPX can have multiple IPX codes. For example, if an IPX system has IPX codes 10,
11 and 12 and the extension length is 4, then 1001, 1099, 1101, 1299 are valid extension
numbers on the IPX system. In an IPX system, all IPX codes must have the same length.
Figure 6.1 IPX Code
The primary IPX code can be changed, but cannot be deleted. When the primary IPX
code is changed, the analog extension number will be updated automatically while IP
extension numbers are kept the same. Therefore, changing IPX code could make the
extension number invalid. The administrator of the IPX is requested to validate all
extension numbers and manually change them as necessary.
The IPX code can be dialed from any remote extensions. For example, a person dials 10#
to reach this IPX that has IPX code 10, the person will hear auto attendant greeting; if the
person dials 11#, the person would reach the phone at port 3 since the IPX code has been
set with a DID (Direct Inward Dialing) mapping.
Note that in an IPX based voice intranet, an IPX code must not be a prefix of another IPX
code. For example, it is not allowed for IPX A to have IPX code 1 while a remote IPX B
has IPX code 10.
##Net call is supported by the myIPX.net community. Every IPX has one ##Net number.
Every IPX can communicate with other IPX’s by dialing its ##Net number, as long as
both IPX systems are connected to the Internet, with no cost and no restrictions on
date/time and locations. Alternatively, user can dial ** for ##NET dialing since some IP
phones reserve ## for other usages.
After dialing a remote IPX code or an ##Net number, a person hears an auto attendant
greeting and dials any extension numbers or dial *9 followed by a number to reach out.
This is a way to reach a country using an IPX in that country without setting peer
relationships.
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6.2
Extensions
6.2.1 Extension Number: Phone ID and Service Code
An extension number, formed by an IPX code and a local phone suffix, is an identifier of
a physical telephone. The extension is unique in the IPX system and as well as in a
simple flat voice intranet.
The IPX extensions can be analog extensions for analog phones locally attached to the
IPX. The IPX extensions can be IP extensions for IP phones (including PC soft phone,
WiFi phones) that can be local to the IPX system or on the Internet.
The IPX extensions can be a virtual extension of an IPX. This is an expanded concept of
extension numbers. Virtual extensions are local to the IPX and follow the same format
and usage as analog phones and IP phones. The administrator can define a virtual
extension number as:

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



An alias of an internal or external phone number
An alias of an IPX VoIP trunk
An access code to a shared voice mailbox
An entry point to an IVR menu tree
An alias of an ACD service
An alias of a broadcast service
The IPX extensions can be dynamic extensions that are bound to an external mobile
phone or PSTN phones. After a connection is established, the external phone device can
be viewed as a local analog phone.
The IPX extensions can be logic extensions that are derived from some configurations of
inter-work with a legacy PBX.
6.2.2 Access and Service Control of Extensions
There are three levels in granting and controlling services to IPX extensions.
Group Level. The IPX system administrator can set up calling groups. Each group has
certain privilege of using system resources such as using PSTN lines and making
international calls. If an extension is assigned to a group, the extension is bounded to the
rights and restrictions defined in the calling group.
Administrator Level per Extension. The IPX system administrator can further refine the
available privileges for a specific extension.
User Level per Extension. The phone user can use his telephone set keypad or login into
the IPX phone management page to change some granted services such as call forwarding
and speed call setup.
6.2.3 Analog Phone Extension
Analog telephones can be plugged into the phone ports of the IPX system. Users can dial
*25 on the attached analog phone to hear the extension number of the phone.
Before making changes to extension numbers, administrator should do some number
planning for the local site as well as the entire voice intranet. A user also needs to modify
the IPX code first before editing individual phone extension numbers. The change to the
primary IPX code will automatically change analog extension numbers. The newly
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automatically changed extensions are often not within your expectation. So, user needs to
do ‘Ext. number Setup” to change them further as in the follow figure.
Figure 6.2 Analog Extension Number List
By clicking on a pencil symbol, user can edit individual analog extensions as follows.
Figure 6.3 Analog Extension
Ext. User Password: individual phone users can log onto the IPX using the phone number
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(as user name) and this password. On the extension management page, a user can setup
some services for the extension. The password is usual a 3 or 4 digit password. It is also
used to lock/unlock some services such as call blocking and voice mailbox access
authentication.
Operator: any extension can be selected as a receptionist. A call can be forwarded to an
available receptionist if the caller dials a number, such as 0, for the operator, or if caller
does not dial an extension for a long period of time. If several analog extensions are
operators, the IPX selects a receptionist randomly.
Paging Port: the port can be connected to a special speaker for broadcasting. Instead of
ringing a phone set on the port, the IPX sends the voice stream directly to the speaker.
Ordinary telephone sets should not be used as a paging device. Consult the IPX vendor
for paging devices.
Group: it specifies the membership of a group. The selected group specifies the rights and
restrictions for the analog extension. If not specifically assigned, the extension will be in
the default group.
User Name: User name is used for caller id display, billing, and advanced features and
services such as directory service.
Email Address: When call forwarding to Voice Email is used, a caller can leave a voice
message to the user and an email with an attached voice message (.wav) will be sent to
this email address. Multiple email addresses can be separated by a comma “,” or space. A
user who receives such email can use an audio program to playback the message.
Fax Mail: A Fax machine can connect to the port for sending or receiving Fax. When a
Fax is received on the port, regardless if a Fax machine or a normal analog is attached to
the port, the received Fax pages will be emailed to the configured email address. The Fax
pages are TIFF files. Refer to chapter 17 Fax over IP for more details.
Voice Mail: By the default, the extension uses voice email facility, in which all recorded
messages will be sent out immediately through emails. If voice mail is used (by uncheck
Only Voice Email option), recorded messages will be kept in the IPX and in the voice
mail box of the extension. The maximum number of messages and the length of each
message are limited. When the voice mailbox overflows, the oldest message will be either
deleted silently or be moved out through emails.
Extension user should see indicator on the phone or hear announcement when there is a
new message in the voice mail box. User can dial *77# to access the voice mail box.
Extension user can replace the existing voice email prompt/greeting. The file can be WAV
format (CCITT PCM A-Law 8000Hz, 8Bit Mono); the file size should be less than 300k.
One way to replace the prompt is to record from a local extension by dialing *771#.
Ring Back Tone: Customized ring back tone can replace the system default ring tone. Due
to some limitation of the network in use, some callers may still hear standard ring back
tone. The WAV file which could be a piece of music. The WAV format should be CCITT
PCM A-Law 8000Hz, 8Bit Mono.
Call Forwarding: It can be configured for different cases: always forwarding, forwarding
only when not answered, forwarding when busy. The forwarded destination may be a
phone, voice mail box of this extension, or a virtual extension number which in turn may
be a service code. Forwarding loops should be avoided.
When setting up a call forwarding schedule, please use 24 hour format. The time 20:00-
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08:00 mean from 8PM evening to 8AM morning next day.
Service authorizations have been selected in the group. For individual extension, the
administrator can only enable or disable services that are permitted in the group. The
extension user will be able to use and manipulate the services that are granted to the user.
If a phone extension is in a blocking state, the phone user must follow the voice prompt
and enter the extension password in order to make calls. This feature is used to prevent
other people from using this phone to make calls without permission.
Voice volume can be adjusted for both speaker and microphone by adding or reducing
DB value.
6.2.4 IP Extension
An IP extension can be any SIP capable device or software such as IP phones, softphones, gateways, or remote IPXs. The devices associated with an IP extension of the
IPX can be anywhere such as in the local LAN or in the Internet, as long as they are able
to reach the IPX and to register with the IPX. IP extensions have better mobility than
local analog extensions.
The dialing method for IP extensions is the same as for analog extensions. Adding # at
the end of each dialing is recommended for speeding up dialing process.
When an IP extension registers with the IPX, it is treated as a local extension. The IP
extension uses the IPX code as a prefix of the extension number and the extension format
is the same as analog extensions. The IPX is a SIP registration server and a proxy server
for its IP extensions. The IP extension numbers are actually the SIP account numbers on
the IPX.
The number of analog extension is fixed per IPX model while the number of IP
extensions can be much more. The IP extensions can be defined by the administrator of
the IPX.
Figure 6.4 IP Extension List
The VoIP signaling port is configured in system setting section. The IPX listens on the
port for VoIP signaling messages from the IP extensions.
In the configuration of IP phone device, the registration interval should be within the
specified range.
In most cases, IP phones as the IPX extensions are within enterprise IP network. In some
cases, IP phone can be in the public Internet and still register with the IPX as its extension.
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The communication between the IPX and such IP phone in the public Internet can be
secured (encrypted) by using the RC4 algorithm. The key can be any alphabetic
characters.
The IPX uses RC4 to encrypt signaling data only, not the media data. This is sufficient in
most ISP environments. The IPX accepts both secured and non secured communication
requests from IP phones at the same time.
Administrator can add a new IP extension as in Figure 6.5.
Figure 6.5 IP Extension Setup
Ext. User Password: the IP extension user can log onto the IPX using the extension
number (as user name) and this password. On the extension management page, the
extension user can manage the extension. The password is also used to lock/unblock
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some services. The password usually has 3 or 4 digits.
Authentication Method and Ext. Device Password: when an IP phone registers with the
IPX, the IPX must authenticate it either using IP phone’s static IP address or the
configured password. Authentication with password is common; in this case, the IP phone
must send the password for registration. If an IP address authentication is used, the IP
phone will be allowed to register as long as the messages are is from the configured
address.
The IP extension can be selected as an operator. If both analog extensions and IP
extensions are selected to be operators, an available IP extension will be selected first.
Many IP phone devices have ability to set display name and pass this out as a part of
caller id. The IPX honors the name from the setting in the IP phone device. If such name
is not available from the device, the user name configured in the IP extension page will
be used as part of call id.
Although IP extension is a logic entity, i.e. without physical port, it is still able to receive
a Fax that destination to this IP extension. Fax pages received at the IPX will be emailed
to an email address of the extension. For example, the PSTN Fax line can have DID to a
virtual extension; the virtual extension is defined as T.37 Fax forwarding; the forwarding
destination can be the IP extension. In this way, an IPX that has no analog phone ports
can still receive Fax.
The IP extensions have many other settings similar to those for analog extensions. Please
note that when the IP extension is offline, the call forwarding when no answer would be
used. Refer to previous section on analog extensions for details.
The codec priority, DTMF priority, and network quality indicate the preference of this
IPX for VoIP communications with the IP extension.
The number of concurrent calls should match the capability of the physical device of the
IP extension. If an IP phone supports 4 lines, it should be configured as 4. When the 3rd
call for the extension arrives, the IPX continues to ring the IP phone. If the 5th call arrives,
the IPX knows the extension is truly busy and in this case, call forwarding (busy) setting
will be used. The default is 0, which means no limit on the concurrent calls to the IP
phone. Administrator should discover the capability of the VoIP device and configure the
number properly.
Many IP phone is able to host 3-way calls. To support the feature on the IP phone, the
concurrent call number in must be bigger than 1.
For hardware IP phones of T2x models, the IPX supports IP phone auto provisioning. See
section 6.2.7 below.
6.2.5 Batch-Add IP Extensions
In some cases, for example, IP extensions are IP panels along an inter-state highway,
administrator might like to add dozen or more IP extensions in batch mode to avoid the
work load of adding one by one. Batch-Add facility in the IPX provides such
convenience.
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Figure 6.6 Batch Add IP extensions
In the above figure, extension 201, 202, … 230 will be added once. The user name and
password will be the same as the extension number individually.
6.2.6 IP Phones General
IP phones and soft phones supported by the IPX must follow SIP standard. IP phones
must register with the IPX to become its extensions and to be served by the IPX.
Depending on the location of an IP phone, the VoIP register server and proxy server
address used in the IP phone configuration can be the IPX domain name, the IPX WAN
port IP address, or the IPX LAN port IP address. The default port number is 8060. So, it
is common in server and proxy setting of IP phone to use: 192.168.6.1:8060 if an IP
phone is in the IPX LAN.
In the IP phone configuration, the processing MWI (Message Waiting Indicator) should
be enabled. When the extension has new messages in the voice mail box, light on the
phone set will be blinking.
IP phones offer much more features than normal analog phones. Some features such as
call transfer and 3-way calls can be provided by IP phones directly. IP phones also have a
set of commands starting with *. Sometime, it conflicts with the IPX service commands.
In this case, user needs to read the IP phone menu to disable or redefine such *
commands.
The IPX could broadcast voice to a group of IP phones. For T2x model IP phones, the
signaling command from the IPX will automatically open the speaker of the phone. The
broadcast voice comes out while the phone is not picked up at all. For non T2x phones,
auto answer should be enabled on the phone in order to receive broadcast voice
automatically.
Echo cancellation, 3-way audio mix, and some other voice processing tasks are done in
the IP phone. So the quality of communication depends very much on the quality of the
IP phone itself.
6.2.7 T2X IP Phones Specifics
T2x enterprise IP phones have a set of capabilities that work in special ways with the
IPX. These features are only available when the IPX and T2x phones work together.
Auto Provisioning
Usually, an IP phone must be configured manually and the configuration data must be
consistent with the IP extension on the IPX, otherwise the IPX would refuse to serve the
IP phone.
Other info is not critical but also preferred, such as display name, registration interval,
and codec selection. The IPX auto provision is to let individual T2x IP phones to get
configuration data from the IPX. When brand new T2x IP phones are connected to the
same LAN as the IPX, they are auto configured and ready to use.
It works as following. In IP extension configuration of the IPX, the auto provision is
enabled and the Mac address of a designated T2x IP phone is configured. Refer to 6.2.4
IP Extension above for more details. When the IP phone boots up, it broadcasts
provisioning request with its MAC address. When the IPX receives such request, it sends
all necessary configuration data to the IP phone, including:
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 Extension user display name
 Extension number and device password, which is for authentication during phone
registration.
 IP address of the IPX, which is used VoIP server address from phone point of
view. If the IP phone is at the LAN side of the IPX, select LAN; if the IP phone
is in local area network but at the WAN side of the IPX, select WAN; if the IP
phone is in public Internet, select domain name. The IPX will give a proper
address as configuration data to the IP phone.
 Line position. Since T2x IP phone supports multiple lines The IPX also specifies
a position (1, 2, 3, … or 6) where this auto configuration data will be used.
If the T2x is not in a proper LAN environment in which the IPX could receive the
broadcast requests, a minimal configuration of IP address of the IPX on the T2x IP phone
is required so that the T2x IP phone could send unicast request to the IPX for auto
provision.
To use this auto provision capability, signaling port 8060 must be used.
Phone Book
The T2x IP phone has phone book facility. By using the touch screen or arrow buttons on
the T2x IP phones, user can select a phone book entry to make a call by name. The IPX
Phone Book service delivers the shared phone books to individual T2x IP phones when it
receives a request from an IP phone. Refer to 6.4 Phone Book for IP Phones for details.
Intercom
When a user makes a call by dialing *5*extension number# and the called extension is a
T2x IP phone, the voice will come out from the T2x phone directly without anyone to
pick up. Further the person near the called T2x phone can speak to the caller directly.
This intercom capability only applies to T2x IP phones or IP phones that have been set
with auto-answer, and the phone must be a local extension of the IPX. The extension can
be over the Internet. The capability is useful in the environment in which the called party
is not convenient to pick up calls.
BLF
BLF stands for Busy Lamp Field. It is a small button with LED on advanced business
phones and on some attached expansion panels. Such advanced phone with BLF is
commonly used by operators of organization or call center agents.
A BLF button is associated with an extension of the IPX. From the list of BLF buttons,
the operator or agent could know the live status of many extensions in the organization.
The button could be also defined as a service.
The LED on the BLF button supported by the IPX has the following meanings.
LED State
Meanings
Steady green
BLF is enabled; the extension is idle
Blinking red
The extension is being called and ringing
Steady red
The extension is having a conversation
Dark
The extension is offline; or BLF is not set
Table 3
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The IPX provides live status information of all requested IPX extensions. The business
phone poll such information from the IPX and the phone also sends commands to the IPX
by pressing the associated button of the target BLF, such as direct call or call transfer.
User can find more detail information from the manual of T2x phones.
T2x phone uses SIP message to request live BLF info from the IPX, and then port 8060 is
used for the purpose.
Broadcasting
The T2x IP phones can accept broadcast requests from the IPX without any configuration
on the IP phones. When broadcast voice comes to the T2x IP phone, the phone
automatically opens the speaker and relay the voice. When the broadcast finishes, the
phone is set back to original state.
Different from intercom, this is the capability for the IPX to many extensions at the same
time and it one way voice. If the person at the receiving phone likes to speak back, the
person needs to initiate a separate call back.
For IP phone other than T2x, auto-answer should be enabled on the phone.
6.2.8 IP Extension ad VoIP Subscribe Lines
The IPX is a SIP server and thus support
SIP clients including VoIP gateways. The
IP extensions of the IPX are actually the
VoIP subscribe lines. IP phones and soft
phone are two types of clients. VoIP
gateways can be also clients of the IPX.
The interworking with VoIP gateway can
expand the capacity of analog phones on
the IPX.
Figure 6.7 IP Ext. as VoIP Subscribe Lines
6.2.9 Dynamic Extension
A dynamic extension is an innovative concept in the IPX. It is a phone device of an
external network, such as a GSM phone in public GSM network or a normal line phone in
the local PSTN. But such phone is associated with the IPX and treated as a local
extension. Once a communication channel is established between this phone device and
the IPX, the phone is able to work in a similar way as other locally attached analog
extension. For example, the dynamic extension user on the mobile phone can transfer a
call and initiate a 3-way call session.
A dynamic extension consists of two parts, a physical phone in an external network and a
representative in the IPX. A dynamic extension is a local extension, must use an IPX code
as prefix, and the length must be the same as analog extensions.
The physical phone must be reachable
from the IPX through PSTN lines or
VoIP lines and must be recognizable by
the IPX using its call id when the phone
calls into the IPX. This is to say that the
PSTN lines must have call id service to
receive number of physical phone. The
IPX uses the last 6 digits to match the
Figure 6.8 Dynamic Extension and Call Back
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call id with dynamic extension.
The representative is the sole agent in the IPX for the external phone. The representative
knows the state of the external phone, how to reach it, and what to do if a call comes to
the dynamic extension while the physical phone cannot be reached.
The call back feature is useful if the external phone user does not want to incur phone
cost at the physical phone side. It is a new way to offer collect call service without the
involvement of local telephone companies or mobile phone companies.
If call back feature is enabled and the defined external physical phone calls in, the IPX
will hangs up after recognizing it, and immediately after, the IPX will call back to the
physical phone. The IPX uses a proper call route to call back to the physical phone. Once
the user picks up the call, the IPX plays a voice such as “This is a call back service of the
IPX, please dial your destination number”. When the user sends an extension number
such as 201, a long distance call (external) number such as *91234567, or an IPX service
code *77, the IPX will connect the user to the destination. For example, a mobile phone
user can make international phone calls using VoIP lines on the IPX.
When the dynamic extension user makes outbound calls from the IPX, the group policy
and rule will be applied.
The voice played can be customized per dynamic extension.
6.2.10 Virtual Extension
A virtual extension is an alias of a voice device or an IPX service. It is a short form and a
convenient way to use the target devices or the defined services.
Virtual extension numbers must have the IPX
code as their prefix and must be consistent
with other extensions of the IPX. The number
of virtual extensions is not limited.
To accommodate all kinds of local extensions,
multiple IPX codes can be defined in the IPX
system to expand the local extension number
space.
Figure 6.9 Virtual Extension
A virtual extension can be defined as the follow types.
 Telephone Number
When the selected destination type is a Telephone number, the target may be another
local extension, a remote extension, an external PSTN phone, or a mobile phone. If the
IPX is set to PBX mode, the prefix 9 should be added before the external phone number
in the virtual number definition.
When a virtual extension is called, the call will be always forwarded to the mapped phone
number. Dialing a virtual number from the IPX is the same as dialing the target number
directly.
Virtual extension can be used for hiding real phone numbers. When user has different
mobile numbers, the user just needs to change the virtual extension definition instead of
announce the real numbers from time to time.
In many IPX services such as ACD and alarm, the service can only be applied IPX
extensions. Using virtual extension, external PSTN or mobile phones can be included
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service.
A meaningful usage of virtual extension is that a virtual extension can be defined to
remote extension, DID mapping of a PSTN line or VoIP line can use the virtual extension
so that incoming calls can reach remote extension directly. With such usage, a reception
desk can be setup in a different country.
 SIP URI
The target of a virtual extension can be SIP URI. The virtual extension is mapped to a
user at a SIP device. Calling this virtual extension is basically calling the end point
specified by the SIP URI. The person at the device does not need to be in the IPX voice
intranet can be reached as if the person is in the organization. If the destination type is
SIP URI, the user needs to be sure that the domain used in the URI should be one of
domains used in a VoIP lines such as myIPX.net.
For example, if someone has an IPX (xyz.myIPX.net) and his extension number is 5023.
Virtual extension 117 can be defined as URI: SIP:101@xyz.myIPX.net
 Voice Mail Box
A selected destination type of virtual extension can be voice mailbox number, which
should be the same as a local analog extension or IP extension number. Dialing this
virtual extension will be getting into the voice mailbox directly, instead of ringing the
extension. This virtual extension actually defines a service.
User can define an IP extension and use the voice mailbox as common shared one. When
a message for the organization arrives, the message can be forwarded such virtual
extension, which means that the message can be placed into the common voice mailbox.
 IVR and Super IVR
IVR (Interactive Voice Response) is a menu tree and navigation on the tree is driven by
caller’s input digits. The IVR is not named or identified by digital number. Binding a
virtual extension number with a root of IVR tree provides a way to invoke the IVR
processing.
A virtual extension can be used to define as an entry point of an IVR menu tree. When a
user dials this virtual extension number, the voice configured at the root IVR will be
played out. If a PSTN line or a VoIP line has DID to be set to the virtual extension,
external callers will be directly guided to the IVR menu.
A virtual extension can be defined as a super IVR. Super IVR is a switching table
selecting an IVR based the time of day and the day of week. For example, during work
hours, the super IVR is the same as IVR1; during weekend, the same super IVR is
mapped to IVR2.
 ACD
ACD service (Automatic Call Distribution) defines a way how to dispatch an incoming
call to an extension. This is commonly used in small call center application. For example,
a group of agents is ACD list could take turn to answer incoming call.
A virtual extension number can be mapped to an ACD name. Calling such virtual
extension number will let the caller to get into the defined ACD. This virtual extension
becomes an entry point of small call center.
 Broadcast
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User can define a cascaded broadcast tree. A virtual extension can be defined to be a root
of a broadcast tree. After dialing to the virtual extension number, the caller will be
prompted to broadcast his voice to all audiences on the tree.
 T.37 Fax
A virtual extension number can be defined as T.37 fax service. Target can be an analog
extension or an IP extension. For the case of analog extension, the port might be
connected with a FAX machine and Fax pages can be printed out there. If the option of
“Copy T.37 Fax to Email” is selected in analog extension or IP configuration page, the
T.37 fax will be sent to the email address of the extension. Basically, calling such virtual
extension is the same as calling *37*target extension#.
For example, a PSTN line has DID setting to such virtual extension, targeting to an IP
extension. Any Fax coming to the PSTN line will become an email (with TIFF file pages)
to the email address of the IP extension.
Note that in IPX software version 3.0, G3 and super G3 Fax machine might not be
supported well.
The following is an example of virtual extensions.
Figure 6.10 Virtual Extensions
6.3
Region and Language Customization
Different countries may use different PSTN standards including tone frequencies and
impedance models. To achieve the best voice quality and reliability, using proper
standard is important. Generally, the IPX is able to automatically recognize local PSTN
signals for the most countries in the world. But, it is possible that a particular country is
not well covered. In this case, the administrator needs to select one close enough to the
real PSTN network. If the administrator is unsure about the local PSTN criterion, please
choose North America or try one after another.
The IPX has built-in voice packages in five languages including English, Chinese,
Spanish, Arabic, and German. The voice pieces are used for announcement, reporting,
and making up for longer sentences for different purposes. If a different language is
needed, the administrator should manually load a customized language package, which
might be available from the IPX vendor.
The selected package includes a default and neutral greeting, which is: “Hello, if you
know the extension, you can dial it now, or dial 0 for assistance”. It is a common practice
to replace the existing greeting voice with customized ones. One way to replace the
greeting is to record from a local extension by dialing *28#. While the greeting is being
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recorded through an extension, no other phone calls should be in progress.
Figure 6.11 Region and Language Customization
Another way of doing this is to use a recording device to record customized greetings into
a WAV file, up to two minutes in length, then to upload to the IPX. The IPX system takes
WAV files with format of CCITT PCM A-Law 8000 Hz 8 Bit Mono. The greeting or
music with this format should have good quality since it is suitable for telecom
applications. Please note that before the new greeting is loaded to the IPX, the factory
greeting should be restored. In other words, loading a new one at the top of customized
one might fail.
Many organizations want to use different greetings for working hours, for after working
hours, and for weekends. The IPX provides schedule greeting facility allowing using
different greetings at different dates and hours.
The music on hold can be any music and commercial announcement. It is played back
while caller are put on hold.
The greeting voice and music on hold provided in this configuration page are just for
replacing the ones in the default voice prompt package. They are not related to the IVR or
ACD.
6.4
Phone Book for IP Phones
Some IP phones and video phone have phone book facility. User could use touch screen
or arrow keys to browse over the phone book and to call a selected entry in the phone
book. For an organization, some contacts are common and can be shared.
A phone book in the IPX can be maintained for all extensions of the IPX. The IP phone
can download the shared phone book from the IPX.
The following figure shows a phone book in the IPX. Some entries are derived the
configurations of analog extensions and IP extensions.
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Figure 6.12 Phone Book
Administrator can add new entries such as external contact. These new entries can only
be used by the IP phone that has phone book facility and makes calls by name.
The derived entries can be edited as well. The manually edited content could be
overridden by auto-update.
6.5
Dialing Prefix
A dialing prefix is used to differentiate between an internal calls (including remote
internal extensions) and external calls.
By the default, the IPX is set to PBX mode, in which phone users need to dial a single
digit prefix such as ‘9’ to make external calls. In the PBX mode, phone users directly dial
internal extension numbers to reach other local or remote extensions, without any prefix.
The differentiation of internal calls (i.e. intranet calls) from external calls (extranet calls)
is critically important in the IPX. The IPX will go through completely different call
routing process to accomplish the call request.
Figure 6.13 Dialing Prefix
If a prefix for speed dial is defined, dialing the prefix plus a speed dial id will actually
reach the target that speed dial id is mapped to. Speed dial id is defined in the extension
configuration. For example, the speed dial prefix is 6 and speed dial id 10 is defined for
target 90101234567, dialing 610 is the same as dialing 90101234567. It is not encouraged
to use Speed Dial feature since it is a bit redundant with virtual extension and it could be
obsolete soon.
Note that no IPX code in the entire voice intranet should start with a defined dialing
prefix. For example, if the IPX uses digit 9 for external calls and an IPX used 94 as an
IPX code, it could be confusing when dialing 9411, an extension 9411 or an external
number 411.
If the ATA mode is selected, no prefix is needed for external calls; any dialed numbers
will go out as external calls. For internal calls, users need to dial the fixed prefix ‘#’
before an extension number. For example, #0 can reach a receptionist.
When a caller dials into the IPX from elsewhere (e.g. from a peer, from external PSTN,
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or from an inter-connected PBX), the caller usually dials 0 to reach operator or dial
9+number for external calls. If dialing prefix in this IPX got changed, dialing 9+number
might not work. If that is the case, the user could use *9+number for making external
calls and this should work.
*9 is a command used to dial outside of the voice intranet, regardless of the dialing mode
set in the IPX and regardless which digit to use for external calls in the IPX. When a
caller needs to call outside from a remote IPX, the caller does not need to know the
dialing mode setting of that remote IPX. The caller just uses *9 followed by the public
destination number. By the way, *8 is another command for selecting VoIP accounts to
call outside numbers.
6.6
External Call Types
The IPX has ability to control who can make international calls and who cannot. In
general, user needs to treat different type of calls differently. For examples, emergency
calls should go out from local PSTN lines; 800 calls should go through local lines since
they are free calls; 900 calls are expensive entertainments calls and should be blocked,
00/011 are international calls and should go through some inexpensive path.
The External Call Type definition is a facility to let administrator to give meanings to call
types and to define call destinations. An external call type is meaningful and usable only
if some destinations of the type are defined. Any call destinations must be classified into
call types.
Call types are used in the IPX service control. Without proper definition of some call
types, for example, general international calls, some authorization control would not
work as expected.
Call destinations are used in the external call routing policies and rules.
Figure 6.14 External Call Types
The common call types are:







International calls:
Domestic calls:
Regional calls:
Local calls:
Emergency calls:
Blocked calls:
Other calls:
calls to other countries, generally expensive
long distance calls within a country, sometime expensive
toll calls to neighbor cities
calls within a city, usually free or with flat rate
life saving (fire, crime, medical), free and urgent
forbidden calls
everything else, e.g. mobile numbers
The concept of toll calls in the IPX includes International calls, Domestic calls and
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Regional calls. Many other types of calls such as Toll Free calls (1800) and mobile phone
calls can be defined as local calls or “Other Calls” as appropriately.
In different countries, the definitions for these call types are different. For example, 011 is
used to define international calls in the North America while many other countries use 00
for international calls. The definitions for emergency calls are even further different from
one country to another.
Based on the call types, many destinations can be further defined. For example,
destination prefix 011 is for any international calls, destination prefix 01186 is
international calls for China, and destination prefix 01144 is also international calls for
the UK. The destinations China and UK can be used in external call routing policy
definitions and calls to these two destinations could be processed differently from general
international calls.
External call destinations not only specify the destination digit pattern, but also define the
way how collect digits. Refer to chapter on digit collection for more details.
6.7
Groups in IPX
6.7.1 Concept of IPX Group
Group is a complex concept. Ultimately, a group is used to partition the IPX into smaller
virtual IPX sub-systems.
Voice communication using the IPX involves three main concepts:



Resources, which include PSTN lines, VoIP lines, VoIP trunks, and neighbor IPX
systems.
Users, which include analog extensions, IP extensions, remote IPX extensions, and
authorized dial-in users.
Policy rules, which specify what kind of calls should be permitted or rejected, what
services are allowed or disallowed, if allowed, how the external calls should be
processed.
A group consists of a subset of resources, a subset of users, and a set of policy rules that
specify what users in a group can do using the available resources.
First, in “Basic Voice > Groups” configuration page, administrator needs to create group
name, to assign resources, and to define some polices.
Secondly, administrator needs to select members into group in IPX extension definition.
These members, i.e. all kind of extensions, will follow the rules set in the group.
Last, many service and call routing policies will refer to the groups. For example,
external call routes are based on the group. A policy is only applied to the calls that are
originated from a specific group.
6.7.2 Create a Group
The IPX always has a built-in group, called the default group. All available resources and
newly created resources are the members of the default group.
When the administrator creates a new group, some resources can be picked from the
default group to the new group, as in Figure 6.15. The administrator can specify specific
PSTN lines and VoIP accounts for receiving and/or making calls for group members.
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Figure 6.15 Create a Group
Second, the user can define the calling policy. Toll calls mean long distance calls
including both international calls and domestic calls. Toll call priority is used for long
distance calls; default call priority is used for other call types such as local calls, regional
calls, emergency calls, etc. If the toll call priority is not set, the default call priority will
be used. For example, if VoIP First is selected in the priority setting, the outbound calls
will go through the VoIP lines in the group first. If for any reasons, no more VoIP lines
can be used, the new call request will have to go out through a PSTN line in the group.
Otherwise, the caller will hear a busy tone indicating that all local circuits are busy.
Thirdly, authorizations for certain types of calls should be selected for the group.
6.7.3 Group Members
Group defines a set of resources and policy in using the resources. Every user who tries to
use the IPX system resources should be a member of a group and follows the rule of the
group. The group members are:









Analog extensions
IP extensions
Dynamic extensions
Virtual extensions
Calling accounts (calling in from extranet, then using IPX resources to call out)
Peer IPX (calling in from neighbor IPX and then going out using local resources)
Server IPX (calling in from neighbor IPX and going out using local resources)
Client IPX (calling in from neighbor IPX and going out using local resources)
Remote trunk ends
The group selections for these members are in the related configuration sections.
6.7.4 Per Group Routing
External routing rules specify how to process external call requests based on destinations.
Per group routing, also called source routing, means the routing decision is made by
considering who made the call and where the call is go to. For example, users in sales
group make call 01144x…x, the call should go through VoIP line A; users in technical
support group call 01186x…x, the call should go through a neighbor IPX in China. Group
X and Group Y could have different routing policy for the same call destination.
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Refer to External Call Routing section for details.
6.8
Voice Parameters
These voice parameters are intended for VoIP experts who know how to tune a voice
network. The advanced parameters include busy tone, DSP parameters and other voice
options. It is recommended that inexperienced users do not modify these parameters.
6.8.1 Voice Options
Figure 6.16 Voice Options
Flash key on analog phone is used for call-transfer, call-waiting, 3-way-call. Some
traditional phones do not have a flash key; the “flash” is commonly simulated by clicking
the on-hook/off-hook spring. If the spring is pressed and released within the interval
(Max Flash Time), it is considered as “flash” key event (a service request). If the spring is
pressed and held for longer than the interval time, it is considered as on-hook (i.e. hangup) event. The default value is 800 milliseconds.
Max Key Interval is the maximum idle time allowed between two dialed digits. If an idle
period is longer than this interval, the system considers the dialing is completed. The
default value is 10 seconds. In the VoIP world, VoIP systems are not able to make any call
routing decisions before collecting all digits from a caller. Adding ‘#’ at the end of dialing
helps the system to void further waiting for next digit or waiting for the Max Key Interval
time out. For IP phones, it is always recommended to press # at the end of dialing.
No Reply Ringing Time specifies the duration of ringing before call forwarding takes
place when a phone is not answered.
If Intranet RTP Redundancy is enabled, VoIP voice quality will be significantly improved,
especially when the IP network condition is bad. If enabled, the VoIP connection could
consume a negligible more bandwidth.
DTMF Relay To FSX Port should be enabled if the IPX uses phone ports to interwork
with a legacy PBX. In-band digits can be relayed to the connected PBX. Usually, phone
ports are used to connect with analog phones or Fax, the IPX suppresses the hi-pitch
noise for the attached phones. Refer to the PBX inter-work chapter.
Caller ID to FXS ports specifies what signaling method should be used to pass caller id to
attached analog phone. Generally, every analog phone supports Bellcore FSK method.
SIP Proxy Optimization is detailed in the next section.
PSTN to PSTN is about to allow a PSTN incoming call to be forwarded out of the system
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through another PSTN line. For example, user can set “call forwarding” to his mobile
phone during off-work hours. When this option is enabled, the incoming calls from
outside through a PSTN line will be forwarded to outside through another PSTN line. It is
suggested not using this option since some PSTN lines could be locked up after such calls.
DTMF Generation Interval, DTMF Detection Interval are about the time duration of a
DTMF digit and interval between DTMF digits.
During a live phone call over analog line, digits are sent over the lines using special
electrical frequency. For example, when a person press digit ‘4’, the phone sends 770Hz
and 1209Hz at the same time, usually for a
duration of 70 ms. When the energy of the two
frequencies are hold for 70 ms, the PBX or central
switch system will be able to detect it correctly.
Figure 6.17 DTMF Digits
In the IPX, the same length is used for both
duration of single DTMF digit and the interval
between two digits. It has been discovered that
some low end devices are weak in detecting
DTMF digits. In this case, user might need to
change the Duration and interval for over 100ms.
DTMF Generation Interval is the parameter for the system generated DTMF digits sent
out through PSTN lines. DTMF Detection Interval is the parameter for detecting
incoming DTMF digits from the PSTN lines.
6.8.2 SIP Proxy Optimization
IP extensions of the IPX could be in any
places. Usually, the voice conversations
between the two IP extensions pass
through the IPX. In some cases, relay of
voice media by the IPX is not necessary
and it consumes bandwidth and
computing power of the IPX, especially
for the cases of video phone calls.
When SIP Proxy optimization is
enabled, the media traffic will not go
through the IPX and the media traffic
will be between the two IP extensions
directly, as the examples in the
diagrams.
Case A: two IP phones, A1 and A2, are
at the LAN side of the IPX, no NAT
between the IPX and the two IP phones;
Case B: two IP phones, B1 and B2, are
at the WAN side of the IPX, within local
private network. There is no NAT
between the IPX and the two IP phones.
Figure 6.18 Direct RTP Media
Case C: two IP phones, C1 and C2, are in the public Internet and they have public IP
addresses, i.e. not behind any NAT.
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Case D: two IP phones, D1 and D2, are behind the same NAT in the public Internet, i.e.
they use the same public address to access the Internet.
If the feature is enabled, the IPX automatically recognize the cases and let the two IP
phones to send voice/video media, i.e. RTP packets, between them directly. All the
signaling data must be sent to the IPX.
For all other cases, for example, the calls between B1 and D1, between C1 and D1 are
through the media proxy, the IPX.
6.8.3 Disconnection Tone Parameters
Disconnection tone and busy tone usually use the same frequencies. It is supplied on the
analog wire to indicate the line is not usable or not connected. Different PSTN and PBX
in different countries may follow different standards. Disconnection tone signaling is the
important telecom parameter that is used for the IPX to detect various events on the wire.
The IPX has default settings for busy tone frequencies, which cover most of countries in
the world. Unless a very experienced user knows how to tune the system, please leave the
default unchanged.
In some countries, the PSTN service providers use polarity reverse signal to indicate the
hang-up event at the remote end. This might be also true for fiber access box to attached
voice devices. Refer to PSTN configuration section 13.3 for more details.
However, if a user encounters serious problems for the IPX to work with the local PSTN,
such as that the PSTN lines remain occupied after external phone calls are completed.
Please send a report to the IPX technical support staff.
6.8.4 DSP Group Setting
The IPX system has five pre-defined DSP parameter groups for six different network
conditions. However, actual IP network conditions could be more complicated than these
five predefined conditions.
The DSP parameter groups can be used in the configuration of IP phones, VoIP accounts,
VoIP trunks, and voice intranets. Experienced administrator can modify the definition of
groups such as User Define 1 through 4, to match the local Internet situations.
Figure 6.19 DSP Parameter Groups
By using proper DSP parameter group, the IPX voice processing can be adjusted
accordingly to achieve the best voice quality for the underline public Internet network
conditions. For example, if the IP connection is going through satellite networks, the jitter
buffer and echo length can be increased to bigger length.
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7
Extension Management
7.1
Phone User Login
An extension user can log onto the IPX extension management page from a local PC, e.g.
http://192.168.6.1:8080/ or from the Internet using the IPX domain name. In the login
window, extension number can be used as login user name. The initial password is the
one set in the extension configuration page, the
default is empty.
Figure 7.1 Extension Login
7.2
The extension user can manage the extension
using web browser to change the settings of the
phone, to reset password, to update personal
information, or to manage voice box of the
extension. The user can view the service
privileges and restrictions.
User Setting
The system administrator gives initial settings for each extension. The extension user can
further change some personal settings such as email address, voice mailbox greeting, and
ring back music.
Figure 7.2 Extension User Settings
Both greeting voice and ring back music should be wav file in the format of CCITT PCM
A-Law 8000Hz 8 Bit Mono. Please note that due to some limitation of the public voice
network in use, some callers may still hear standard ring back tone.
T.37 Fax to the extension is used for receiving Fax by email.
Once the changes are submitted, they are saved automatically.
7.3
Phone Setting
When the IPX administrator defines groups, the administrator gives authorization to the
group members, for example whether they can make international calls and long distance
calls. Further, the administrator can remove some authorizations or disable some services
for an individual extension in the extension configuration.
For an extension phone user, if an authorization is not given, if a service is not granted,
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the user cannot do anything about it. If an authorization is given or if a service is
available to the extension phone user, the user could temporary disable it or enable it
back.
For example, an extension user is allowed to make international calls. But the user does
not want other people to use his desk phone to make international calls while he is away.
So, the user could login to his extension management page and block the international
calls.
If call blocking is made effective by the extension user, no calls would be allowed unless
the person who makes the calls from the extension phone is able to provide the extension
password. Here explains why extension password must be in digits.
For another example, the administrator grants service “allow other to pick” to the
extension. The extension user could disable it so that nobody will be able to pick up the
calls arriving on his extension.
Figure 7.3 Extension Phone Setting
The common and useful setting on the extensions is call forwarding. The extension user
knows the best how to and under what condition to forward incoming calls. Please note
that when call waiting is enable, forwarding on busy will not be effective.
Alternatively an extension user can use phone commands to configure some simple call
forwarding settings:
Unconditional call forwarding:
When no answer, call forwarding:
When busy, call forwarding:
enable: *47*xx…xx#, cancel: *48#
enable: *41*xx…xx#, cancel: *42#
enable: *43*xx…xx#, cancel: *44#
Speed call is not commonly used nowadays. When the extension user needs to define
speed call number, the user can define short number and real number. For example, short
number 10 to be defined as 90016177109400. After this definition, the user at the
extension can dial 610#, which is the same as dialing 90016177109400#.
Speed call can be defined using phone command: enable: *51*xx*y…y#, cancel:
*52*xx#
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7.4
Manage Messages in Mailbox
The voice mailbox content can be reviewed online. The user can download a message,
delete a message, or forward a message to email address of the extension.
The messages downloaded or emailed out are in .ipx format and they can only be played
back by a free .ipx playback tool.
Figure 7.4 Online Voice Mailbox
The voice mailbox can be managed using extension phone keypad with command *77#.
Refer to chapter on Voice Mailbox.
7.5
Change Extension Password
Extension password can be changed by the extension user. The password usually is a 3 or
4 digit number since it is used for service authentication sometime.
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8
Extended PBX Features
8.1
Call ID
Call ID (also referred as Caller id) information include both the caller’s number and
caller’s name.
8.1.1 Call ID in Outbound Calls
When an extension calls another extension within an IPX internal voice network, both
extension number and extension user name will be displayed on the called extension
device.
When an extension calls to an external public phone, what caller id will be displayed on
the phone that receives the call?

If the call is going out through a local PSTN line, the number and name of the
subscriber of a PSTN service will be the caller id. This is determined by the
PSTN service provider network.

If the call is going out through a local VoIP line, the caller id information is
provided by the VoIP service provider. Usually it is a public DID number
associated with the VoIP line so that calling back to the DID could reach the IPX.

If the call is going out through a local VoIP trunk, the peer at the other end would
not change any caller id information. VoIP trunk is considered as unnumbered
pipe. The originator is responsible for the source information. In the IPX, if it is
not set properly, the phone in the public network will see the extension number of
the originator.
Administrator could use the main number (16262348000) of company as the call
id of all outbound calls through a trunk as in the following diagram:
…..
Figure 8.1 Change Caller ID in Trunk Definition
Another example, 100 users have public numbers 16268100 … 16168199.
Internally, only the last 3 digits are needed in the calls, i.e. 100, 101, … 199.
When they make outbound calls, they may want the receiver to see their
individual numbers, e.g. 16168100, instead of the company main number.
This requirement can be fulfilled by the following steps:
First, a special prefix is selected for such requirement, say digit 8. So the external
calls will be like: 8+external number.
Second, an internal call routing rule is needed for changing extension numbers to
public numbers to make call id in public DID form. The rule also converts the
faked internal calls back to external calls by changing the destination number
prefix from 8 to *98, as in the following diagram.
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Figure 8.2 Change Caller ID via Internal Call Routing
Thirdly, a VoIP trunk without changing source is needed.
Fourthly, a call type with prefix 8 is needed for classifying external calls using
prefix 8.
Finally, an external call routing rule is also needed to make sure that all calls
starting with 8 will use the specific trunk to go out. At the same time, the digit 8
will be deleted before sending the calls over to the trunk.
Figure 8.3 Route for Keep DID
8.1.2 Call ID in Inbound Calls
When the IPX receives a call from a VoIP line, the caller id and caller’s name should be
always available, unless the caller requests for anonymous service from the provider.
When the IPX receives a call from a PSTN line, the availability of caller id depends on
(1) if the line has call id service from a local PSTN network, (2) if the caller uses
anonymous service, and (3) if the call id signaling protocol is supported by the IPX.
The IPX supports the following call id signaling standards:








Bellcore FSK: Call id info comes after the first ring;
BT FSK/ETSI FSK with PR: Call id info comes before the first ring (British
Telecom Standard);
ETSI FSK after ring: Call id info comes after the first ring;
ETSI DTMF after ring: Call id info comes after the first ring;
ETSI DTMF with PR: Call id info comes before the first ring;
DTMF Indian: Call id standard for India;
DTMF Brazilian: Call id standard for Brazil
DTMF Danish: Call id standard for Denmark.
The IPX administrator must configure PSTN lines with proper call id signaling method
selection.
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External call id is automatically passed along with an incoming call gets transferred again
and again within voice intranet.
Call id is important for the IPX to offer some services. Without call id, the IPX will not
be able to authenticate the caller and many services will be not granted to the caller. The
dynamic extension is a typical example.
8.2
Auto Attendant
The destination target of voice calls are phone device, i.e. people who own the phones.
When an external incoming call arrives at the IPX, which is a system, not a phone device,
the IPX needs to know how to further handle it.
The following are cases in which incoming calls arrive at the IPX system:





Calls come from PSTN lines;
Calls come from VoIP lines;
Calls come from VoIP trunks;
Calls come from an IPX using ##Net dialing;
Calls come from an IPX using IPX code dialing (without extension)
One way to handle the incoming calls is to have DID mapping to operator, to individuals
based incoming call routing, to IVR service, or to ACD call center service.
Another common and simple way is the Auto Attendant service of the IPX. The IPX has
built-in auto attendant in different language. It plays out greeting voice, asks caller to key
in an extension number, and then forwards the call to the desired extension.
The greeting voice can be customized, refer to 6.3 Region and Language Customization
for details. Please note that the same greeting voice will be used at every spot where Auto
Attendant is selected.
8.3
Call Forwarding
The IPX call forwarding is a feature configured on each IPX extension. Call forwarding
is used for diverting incoming calls to different destinations under certain conditions.
When a condition is met, an incoming call will be forwarded without ringing the
extension.
Both administrators and extension users can setup the forwarding conditions such as
forwarding when no one answers the phone, forwarding when the extension is busy, or
forwarding all the time (unconditionally). A forwarding schedule can also be setup so that
at different time periods, incoming calls can be forwarded to different destinations.
For analog extension, if the phone is in use, it is considered as busy. Some IP phone can
take multiple calls at the same time. In IP extension configuration, administrator can tell
the IPX how many concurrent calls the IP phone can handle. The IPX considers the IP
phone is busy only if the number of live connections on the IP phone reaches the
concurrency limit.
The destination of call forwarding can be operator, another extension, external number, or
a voice mailbox.
8.4
Call Transfer
After an extension user picked up a call, the user can manually transfer the call to the
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third person to let the other two people to have conversation alone. This is a manual call
transfer after a conversation is started.
Assume that person A is using an analog phone and A is having conversation with person
B. If A wants to transfer the call to party C, A can press the flash key (or the link key) on
the analog phone. The person A hears a dial tone while B is put on hold and hears music
sound. A can dial a number to reach person C. When A hears a ring back tone, A can hang
up. Up to this point, B will be hearing the ring back tone to wait for C to pick up.
During this process, A can choose to wait C to pick up and may talk to C a bit. Once A
hangs up, B and C are connected automatically. If C refuses to take the call before A
hangs up, A and B resume the call.
If the analog phone does not have flash key nor link key, the user can quickly click the
hook spring. Quickly clicking on hook spring is the same as pressing a flash key.
Call transfer from an IP phone is simpler since all IP phone has a transfer key (sometime
labeled as Xfer). When a user wants to transfer a live call to the third person, the user
presses the transfer key and dials the third person’s number. When hearing ring back, the
user just hangs up the phone or hangs up after talking to the third person a bit. On some
IP phone, the user needs to press transfer key again.
Call transfer on different IP phone might require different operation sequence. Please read
the user manual of the IP phone in use.
8.5
3-Way Calls
The 3-way call feature allows 3 parties to have a small conference. When two parties are
having a conversation, the third party can be brought in the conversation so that 3 parties
can talk to each other.
If a user uses analog phone and like to bring the third person in, the user can press flash
key, after hearing dial tone, then press *03*x..x# to call number x..x. The third person at
number x..x picks up the phone to join the conference. For example, *03*2001# is to
bring extension 2001 to the conference; *03*912345678# is to being external number
12345678 to the conference.
If the third person does not answer the call, the person who initiates the 3-way call can
press flash key again to resume the 2 way call. If the third person hangs up the phone
after a conference call, the call becomes 2-way conversation again.
Many IP phones have 3-way conference capability built-in. If a user is using an IP phone
and wants to initiate a 3-way conference call, the user just press conference key, dials the
third party number, talks to the third party, then press conference key again to connect all
three parties together.
Different IP phone may have different operation sequence. Please refer to the manual of
the IP phone in use.
8.6
Call Waiting
In analog voice networks, a phone line is a 64kbps channel and can only carry one
conversation at a time. If a line is in use, and a newer caller reaching the same number
would get line busy tone. Call waiting service is provided by central switch or PBX.
When a line is busy and new call request on the same line arrives, the switch will inject a
special tone (call waiting tone) into the live conversation channel to tell the person on the
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busy line about new coming call. When the user who is on his line hears the call waiting
tone, he can press call wait key (or flash key) and *64# to switch his connection to the
new caller while putting the old one on hold. The code *64# is optional on some analog
phone. Afterwards, the user can switch back and forth between two other people by
pressing call-wait/flash key.
By the default, call waiting service is enabled on each IPX extension. When call waiting
service is enabled, call forwarding on busy will be ignored.
Many IP phones can have multiple connections at the same time. The IPX can connect
the 2nd, 3rd, … (until reach maximum concurrency limit) incoming calls to the same IP
phone. On the IP phone, user will hear call waiting tone or see a blinking led to pick a
new call while putting the active one on hold. User can switch between connections by
pressing the corresponding line buttons.
8.7
Call Holding
During a conversation, a user may need to put the live call on hold so that he can search
for some information or call other people, then he comes back to resume the
conversation.
If an analog extension user wants to put a call on hold to do something else,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The user presses the flash key (or click hook spring) to get special dial tone;
The user presses *65# to put other party on-hold;
The user places handset aside of the phone (both play back music on hold);
Within 10 minutes, the user presses flash key again to resume the call;
If the user hangs up (on hook) while other party is still on-hold, the phone rings.
He picks up the phone to resume the call.
If an analog phone user wants to put a call on hold to make a new call,
1. The user presses the flash key (or click hook spring) to get special dial tone;
2. The user presses *65*x…x# to put the call on-hold and makes new call to x…x;
3. The user can presses flash key to switch between two calls. The party on-hold
hears music on-hold;
4. When one call is finished, another one will be automatically resumed.
5. If the user hangs up (on hook) while a party is still on-hold, the phone rings. He
picks up the phone to resume the call.
IP phones often accept multiple calls at the same time. User will be easily to switch
between calls by pressing the corresponding line buttons (or soft key) on the IP phone.
8.8
Call Park and Retrieve
When an analog phone extension user talks to a party A, the user can park the call at a
selected parking lot N. The user is completely released from the call. Any extension can
retrieve the call from the parking lot N and continue the conversation with party A.
This is commonly used in two cases. Case one is when the user needs to handle
something else including making or receiving a few phone calls. After a while the user
comes back to the customer who was parked. Case two is that a call should be transferred
to someone who is not immediately available (e.g. the person went to coffee room or
wash room), the user parks the incoming call at a parking lot and tells (in some way
including by the phone) the third party to pick up call at the parking lot.
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The operation sequence of Call Park and Retrieve is as follows.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The user presses the flash key (or click hook spring) to get special dial tone;
The user presses *66*x…x# to park the call at parking lot x…x;
The user hears busy tone and hangs up. The other party hears music on-hold.
At a later time, anyone can dial *67*x…x# to pick the call at the parking lot.
Multiple calls can be parked at the same lot at the same time. In this case, it is up to the
system which call will be retrieved first.
Parking lot numbers can be any numbers. It is suggested to use extension number or
similar number if the call is for the user of that extension to retrieve.
8.9
Do Not Disturb
If a user does not want to be disturbed by incoming calls, the user can dial *55# to
register for do-not-disturb service. After this, when other people call the user, the caller
will hear “Do not disturb, please call back later”. The user’s phone would not ring when
the service is enabled.
The user can dial *56# to deregister the service.
8.10 Absent Service
If a user is going to be absent from his desk and the user wants any operator could take
call on behalf of him, the user can dial *53# to register the absent service. The incoming
calls to the user will be redirected to one of available operator extensions.
The user can dial *54# to cancel the service.
This is a simple way to unconditionally redirect calls. The difference from always call
forwarding is that in absent service the destination is a set of operation extensions.
8.11 Pick Up Neighbor’s Calls
When a user notices the phone at coworker’s desk is ringing but the coworker is not
available to take the call, the user can use his own phone to pick up the call. This is
commonly used in customer support team.
If the coworker is in the same group of the user, the user just dials *61# on his phone to
seize the call ringing his group member. The short form of this is *#.
If the coworker is in a different group of the user, the user can dials *61*x…x# where
x…x is the ringing extension.
8.12 Call Blocking
An extension user could block certain type of external calls from his extension. Refer to
7.2 User Setting, where the extension user could disable international calls, domestic long
distance etc. In this way, no one else would be able to make such calls from his extension
without his permission. When the user himself makes this type of calls, the user will be
prompted to input the extension password, the same password for login to the extension
management page.
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8.13 Call Back
The IPX provides a simple call back service. It is part of dynamic extension concept of
the IPX. Refer to 6.2.9 Dynamic Extension for more detail.
When call back is enabled, the IPX hangs up the incoming call before a real connection is
made, i.e. no toll charge would occur. Right after the disconnection, the IPX selects a
proper route to call the previous caller back.
The call back service is only for configured dynamic extensions, not for any anonymous
callers.
8.14 Environment Monitoring
The IPX has a monitoring feature to allow a user to hear the environment where the target
IP extension is in. When the user dials *70*extension number#, the target IP extension
will open automatically its microphone and send back any voice and sound in its
environment. The target extension will not get any voice back from the caller. It is one
way voice. This feature is commonly used when wall-mounted handless IP units are
deployed at remote locations.
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9
Number Manipulation
9.1
Source and Destination
Two phone numbers are involved in a phone call, source number and destination number.
Source number is the phone number of the originating phone and destination number is
the phone number being called.
Source number is part of caller id. In the IPX, it can be used for call authorization, policy
validation, and route selection. Destination number is the key in the process of call
routing. In order to define policies and call routes for a group of source or destination
numbers, a way to specify a set of numbers is needed. In the IPX, prefix pattern is such
specification language. Prefix pattern is a simple expression for specifying a set of
numbers with common prefix.
Some call processing rules need to modify source and/or destination number. The IPX
provides number translation mechanism for digit mapping and manipulation.
The number specification and number manipulation are used in many areas such as:
9.2

Extension to extension calls. In some cases, the local extension numbers of the
IPX should be presented to other IPX in different way; in other cases, the dialed
destination extension numbers must be modified in order to be processed by
neighbor IPX successfully. Refer to the chapter Intranet Call Routing for details.

Calls to external long distance numbers. Sometime when calling a public number
in a remote country, a user dials 011+country code+phone number and wishes the
call to be completed by an IPX in that remote country. The number to be received
by the remote IPX should not have 011+country code. In order words, the received
number should be as if dialed from local extension. This means that this IPX
should modify the destination number before sending the call to the remote IPX.
Refer to the chapter External Call Routing for more details.

Calls from the IPX to a legacy PBX connected through PSTN ports or phone ports.
The called destination number is a logical extension of the IPX, but actual
destination is an extension of legacy PBX. The logical number has to be
manipulated by the IPX and dialed to the PBX by the IPX. Refer to the chapter of
PBX Interwork for more details.

Incoming calls to specific internal extensions. There might be many public DIDs
associated with a VoIP trunk. When incoming calls through the trunk arrive at the
IPX, the calls should be distributed to corresponding internal extension. The
destination number in such call should be modified internal extension number
before forwarding the call to voice intranet.
Prefix Pattern
A prefix pattern is an expression to represent a set of numbers. Prefix pattern consists of:




Single digit 0, 1, ... 9, *, #;
X represents any single digit of 0, 1, … 9;
(234) represents a digit group of 234. The group can be referenced by digit
mapping, otherwise, “(“ and “)” are meaningless;
[2-4] represents single digit of 2, 3, 4.
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
$ means the precise ending the digits. If $ is used, the prefix pattern is actually a
complete number.
The $ symbol or the length of number is used to specify the total digits of phone numbers.
If the length is variable, use “any” for the length. Here are some examples with
explanation of prefix patterns.
Prefix
Length
Defined Numbers
Notes
626
10
6260000000, …, 6269999999
626xxxxxxx
1X3
4
1030, …1039, 1130, …1139, ….,1930,…,1939
1x3x
0020
any
0020, 00200, 00201, …., 0020999999999,….
0020xx….xx
7[2-3]
6
720001,…729999, 730000,…739999
72xxxx, 73xxxx
4[0-1]5
4
4050,…,4059, 4150,…,4159
405x, 415x
911
3
911
911 only
80XX$
any
8000, …, 8099
80xx
80
4
8000, …, 8099
80xx
1([5-7])8
any
158, 168, 178, 1580, 1589, … 178999999999,…
1(X)4(X)
7
1234560, … 1234569
Group 1=5,6,7
Group 1= 0,..9,
Group 2 = 0,..9
Table 4
Prefix Patter and Numbers
Prefix pattern is usually used to specify destination numbers. For example prefix pattern
011 means all international calls.
In the table, <80, 4> will match numbers starting with 80, but only 4 digits will be used.
For example, it matches 801234, but only 8012 will be used and 34 will be ignored.
In the table, <80XX$ , any> will match 4 digit number only that starts with 80. For
example, it does not match 801234 since it is not a 4 digit number.
9.3
Digit Collection
Based on the dialing prefix, a call can be identified as intranet internal call to another
extension or an external call to outside of intranet. By the default, dialing ‘9’ means
external calls. The digit collection processes for these two types of calls are different.
Intranet Calls
If a user is using an IP phone, the IP phone collects complete digits when keypad dial
times out or a ‘#’ key is received. The IP phone sends the collected number to the IPX.
The IPX gets complete numbers from IP phones.
If a user is using an analog phone, the IPX collects digit one by one while the user presses
each digit based on the following process: If the received digits match a prefix and length
definition, the IPX will not collect further digits since the received digits are enough to
determine a destination. Otherwise, it will wait for timeout or a ‘#’ key.
In this process, single digit 0 is an exception since it is to ring operator and no other
intranet destination could start with 0.
Once the IPX gets a complete number from IP phone or analog phone, the IPX uses the
longest match first algorithm to match the number with destination prefix in intranet call
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routing table, peer list, client IPX list etc.
If the received digits starts with *, the IPX digit collection will receive entire sequence of
digits and hands it over to a corresponding IPX service module.
It is always recommended to add ‘#’ at the end of any dialing.
External Calls
On analog phone extension, as soon as a user dials 9, the IPX knows to collect an external
number. The external call digit collection starts from the digit after the 9 on the analog
phone. While the IPX collects the digits of 0,1,..9,*,# one by one, it searches for
appropriate destination prefix definition. If the end is met, e.g. length is fulfilled or $
indicator is hit, the digit collection process is completed. Otherwise, the IPX will keep
collecting more digits until either the user press # or time out occurs.
If a user uses an IP phone, the digit collection process is handled by the IP phone. The IP
phone will send the entire number including the leading digit 9 to the IPX. The IPX
knows it is an external call because of the leading digit 9 and use the rest digit to match a
destination prefix.
Generally, key # means the end of dialed number. Using # could speed up dialing since
the IPX and IP phone would not need to wait for timeout.
9.4
Number Translation
In most cases, a number received by the IPX is the number to dial out. But in some cases,
a received number has to be changed to a different one for dialing out.
Example 1: a user in the USA uses a long distance carrier (access code 5566) for calls to
the UK. The IPX can have a number translation to map 01144x…x to 556601144x…x
automatically. Thus, the user dials a UK number as usual, i.e. 01144x…x, but when the
call goes out from a PSTN line, the number to send out will have prefix 5566.
Example 2: a large organization uses 6 digit extensions. One small site in the organization
only has 10 extensions, e.g. 200010,…, 200019. If two digits 1x can be translated to
20001x, local calls will be easy and convenient.
Example 3: a user in the USA makes a call to Shanghai China 011-86-21-66667777, in
the way that the user is used to. Since there is an IPX in Beijing China, the call can be
actually going out from the IPX in Beijing In this case, the IPX in the USA just needs to
send the call to the IPX in Beijing with destination number 0-21-66667777. In other
words, some leading digits 01186 should be replaced by 0.
Actions in number manipulation



Add an extra digits in the front of source or destination number
Delete the matched prefix
Modified portions of the matched source or destination number
Digit translation rules





0…9, *, # are literal digits
P is a pause for 0.5 second. E.g. PP is for a 1 second pause.
R repeats the matched prefix
M repeats the all digits after the matched prefix
W repeats the whole dialed number, i.e. RM, all digits
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

(1) repeats the first digit group, (2) repeats the second digit group, etc
$ means the end of translated number
The following table contains the examples that translate the prefix and received numbers
into new ones using corresponding digit mapping rules.
Prefix
Mapping
Meaning
Examples
011852
0
Replace prefix 011852 with 0
011852 999888  0 999888
20(X)1
(1)
Delete 20 and 1
2091 2345  9 2345
70
1170
Add extra leading digits
70 1234  1170 1234
1[3-5]6
RPP10
Insert PP and 10 after prefix
146 9988  146 PP 10 9988
1(X3)(X)
0(2)(1)$
Swap groups, Ignore the tails
1234 567  0423
110
W303
Add suffix 303
110 9988  1109988303 9988
110
W303$
Add suffix 303, Ignore the tails
110 9988  1109988303
0086
01186M#
Add postfix #
00862112345678
011862112345678#
500
*9W$
Add *9 in the front
10X$
200R
Add 200 in the front
10X
200R
Add 200 in the front
800
W
Repeat tails
Table 5
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500222  *9500222
10112  not a match
101  200100
10112  20010112
101  200101
800 12345  80012345 12345
Digit Translations
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10 Voice Intranet Basics
10.1 Internal Voice Network
One of the most attractive features of the IPX is the capability of building an enterprise
voice intranet, also called voice VPN. With the IPX distributed VoIP technologies, the
IPX voice intranet can be any size. Phone calls between remote offices are the same as
phone calls between two rooms next to each other.
A voice intranet can include sites in different countries. All calls within a voice intranet
are free internal calls. Furthermore, IP PBX features and services can be extended to the
entire voice intranet so that the organization can have a virtual wide-area PBX over the
Internet.
There are two ways to form a voice intranet: a mesh network or a star shaped network. If
there are only few sites, a mesh voice intranet is preferred; when the number of sites is
large, a star shaped voice intranet is a better choice. For some large organizations, the two
options can be mixed for a balance of reliability and flexibility.
10.2 Intranet Number Planning
The planning and design of a voice intranet are important. This includes the IPX code
assignments, extension length selection, toll call policies, and consideration of future
expansions including new sites, mobile offices, and even home offices.
As described in section 6.1, the length of internal phone numbers should be the same for
a simple and flat voice intranet. One IPX system can have multiple IPX codes, which
should have the same length. However, different IPX can have IPX codes with different
lengths. One IPX code cannot be a prefix of another IPX code. Under these conditions,
we will get:
 If the capacity of IPX is big, the length of IPX code should be less. In this way
the room for extensions can be bigger.
 If there are many small IPXs (in terms of capacity), the length of IPX codes for
such IPXs should longer. In this way, more IPXs can be part of the voice intranet.
The following table shows an example of number planning.
System Capacity
IPX
Analog
Ports
IPX L1
Extension Number Assignments
IP Ext
Capacity
IPX Codes
Analog
Extensions
IP
Extensions
Dynamic
Extensions
Virtual
Extensions
16
64
1
1001~1016
1101~1164
1201~1299
1301~1399
IPX L2
16
64
30,31
3001~3016
3021~3084
3101~3130
3151~3199
IPX M3
8
32
40
4001~4008
4011~4042
4051~4070
4071~4099
IPX M4
8
32
41
4101~4108
4111~4142
4145~4160
4161~4199
IPX S5
1
8
511
5110
5111~5118
-
5119
IPX S6
1
8
513,514
5130
5131~5138
5140~5143
5144~5149
IPX S7
1
8
521,522,523
5210
5211~5218
5220~5229
5230~5239
Table 6
Numbering Plan Example
In this example, 2xxx, 32xx, … 39xx, 42xx, … 49xx are still available for future use for
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large IPX. Since 3 digits IPX codes for small IPX are used, adding more small IPX
systems to the network is not a problem. IPX codes 515, … 519, 524, … 529, 53x,…59x,
are still available for future use.
IPX code should stay away from prefix 9 and 6 which could be reserved for external calls
and speed calls respectively.
10.3 Voice Intranet Option
When an IPX sets up a VoIP call to its peers, the IPX by default uses an IPX Ethernet port
IP address as the VoIP signaling address. If the peer is at the LAN side of this IPX, this
IPX will use its LAN port IP address as its VoIP signaling address. If the peer is at the
WAN side of this IPX, this IPX will use its WAN port IP address as its VoIP signaling
address.
The problem is, if the peer is in the Internet and this IPX is behind DSL router, the WAN
port IP address of this IPX is a private IP address. If this IPX uses the WAN IP address as
VoIP signaling address, the peer would not be able to send VoIP signaling back. To solve
this problem, the administrator just manually configure a VoIP signaling address for this
IPX to be the DSL public IP address, which is the domain name of the IPX, as in the
following figure.
Figure 10.1 Voice Internet General Option
This IPX listens on the signaling port and peers should use this port number to send VoIP
signaling data. If this IPX listens on one port while a peer sends a message to a different
port, a call cannot be established.
If the IPX does not accept calls from an anonymous IPX, both this IPX and the remote
IPX should be configured in each other’s peer list respectively, i.e. making them known
to each other. In other words, such an IPX only makes and takes calls with a known peer
IPX in the voice Intranet. If the IPX is configured to accept calls from an anonymous IPX,
a calling IPX is treated as if it were a peer configured in this IPX without authentication.
The VoIP calls within the voice intranet can be encrypted to protect the calls from hostile
attacks in the public network, to prevent the VoIP communication blockage from some
ISP, and to protect the privacy of VoIP conversations. The encryption mechanism 4 is
predefined in the IPX system and not changeable by end users.
By the default, the IPX signaling encryption is enabled, while the IPX media encryption
4
If an organization wishes to change encryption methods and keys, please contact local IPX
distributor.
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is disabled. When the call volume is big and the media encryption is complex, the media
encryption could be time consuming and may impact on voice quality sometime.
When an IPX, says IPX-1, has VoIP signaling encryption enabled while another IPX, says
IPX-2, has VoIP signaling encryption disabled, if a call is initiated by IPX-1, the signaling
data between IPX-1 and IPX-2 in both directions will be encrypted. If a call is initiated
from IPX-2, the signaling data between IPX-1 and IPX-2 in both directions will not be
encrypted.
If the signaling encryption is not used, the media encryption will not be used either.
Regardless the setting for signaling encryption, if one of IPX-1 and IPX-2 does not have
media encryption enabled the voice media data between IPX-1 and IPX-2 will not be
encrypted.
IP Fax mode specifies the options for intranet T.38 fax. Refer to chapter 17 Fax over IP
for more details.
10.3.1 Peer List – Mesh Intranet
Peering relationships between IPX systems form a mesh voice intranet of an organization.
Every IPX in a voice Intranet has one or more IPX codes. Every IPX code is unique in
the voice intranet. The IPX codes, a prefix in extension numbers, are used to identify and
to locate the IPX. For this reason, an IPX code can be not a prefix of another IPX code.
The IPX systems that can have peer to peer relationship must be able to reach each other.
If an IPX is behind NAT/firewall router, a DMZ or port forwarding setting on the
NAT/firewall is necessary to make the IPX as if it is in the public network.
Figure 10.2 IPX Peer to Peer
The IPX usually uses their domain name when setting up peering relationship so that the
configuration will be valid even if the public IP addresses get changed by ISP.
In Figure 10.1, the signaling port is what this IPX is listening at. In the configuration of a
peer as in Figure 10.3, the VoIP signaling port is the one the peer is listening at. In other
words, the port numbers in peer to peer relationship can be asymmetric. However, it is
recommended to use the same signaling port number for entire voice intranet for easy
support and maintenance.
Figure 10.3 Add a VoIP Peer
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A call from the peer “Green” can be re-routed to the outside of this IPX in many ways.
For example, a user from a peer IPX “Green” can get into the auto attendant of this IPX
and then dial “*9xx…xx” to leave the IPX. Therefore, the peer “Green” must be in one of
local IPX groups so that calls originated from the peer will be subject to the restriction
checks of the IPX group.
Usually the Same LAN Segment option No should be
selected. As in the following Figure, IPX-A is
behind a DSL router. In IPX-A, the VoIP signaling
address needs to be manually set to the DSL router’s
public IP address, which is the domain name of the
IPX-A. IPX-A uses DSL router IP address to setup
peer relationship with IPX-C. Now, IPX-A also
needs to setup peer relationship with IPX-B through
IPX-A WAN port. The IPX-A cannot use the
manually configured DSL router IP address to
communicate with IPX-B. Therefore, when
configuring peer IPX-B in the IPX-A peer list, the
option for Same LAN segment must be checked
with Yes. In this way, IPX-A uses its WAN IP
address, which is a private IP address to
communicate with IPX-B.
Figure 10.4 Same LAN Option
The table of peers includes status for each peer, which indicates if the remote IPX’s are
reachable through the peer to peer relationships.
Figure 10.5 Voice Intranet Peer List
If a peer is online, the internal voice calls to the
peer will be using the direct link. If it is offline,
the neighbor is not reachable through the direct
peering relationship. In this case, the neighbor
might be still reachable using another method.
The peer configuration is simple. There is no
limit on the number of peers. When one of IPXs
in the mesh network is down, other IPX can be
still working fine.
However, there are two disadvantages with mesh
voice Intranet. First, it requires IPX systems to
be able to see each other in the Internet.
Secondly, it requires a lot of configuration effort
when the number of IPXs in the Intranet
becomes big, e.g. over ten nodes.
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Figure 10.6 Mesh Intranet
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10.4 Star Shaped Voice Intranet
An alternative to a mesh voice intranet is a star shape voice intranet, in which, one IPX
plays an important role and helps others to communicate as in the following figure.
In this network topology, the Red IPX 10 helps others
to reach each other. When a new IPX is added to the
network, only relationship needs to be configured is
between the new IPX and the Red IPX 10. Expansion
of voice intranet becomes easy.
Further, a remote IPX can be behind NAT/firewall
and no DMZ/port forward setting is needed on the
NAT/firewall at remote site. This significantly
reduces the complexity of deployment and network
maintenance.
Figure 10.7 Star Shape Intranet
The disadvantage is the dependency on the IPX at the
center, e.g. Red IPX 10. The VoIP signaling will need
to go through this IPX when two remote extensions call each other. Once call is set up,
the voice media will not go through the center IPX in most cases.
The IPX in the serving role is called “Server IPX”. The IPX at remote site being served is
called “Client IPX”. The terms of server and client might be misleading. Essentially, the
IPX systems are establishing neighbor relationships. From extension user perspective, the
end result is the same as mesh network topology.
10.4.1 Server IPX
Any IPX can be configured as a server IPX. If an IPX is chosen to be a server IPX in a
voice intranet, it will help other IPX (client IPX) to be connected to the voice intranet
even if a client IPX is in a private network. The server IPX helps voice connections to
traverse through NAT/firewalls to reach a client IPX. The server IPX must be in the
public Internet and be easily reachable by all client IPXs.
All client IPXs to be served by this server IPX should be in the IPX client list of the
server IPX. The follow figure shows a table of client IPX’s.
Figure 10.8 Client IPX List in Server IPX
When adding a new IPX to the client IPX list, IPX code and serial number of the IPX are
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the two pieces of basic information. In addition, a password is used for a strong
authentication when the client IPX comes to the server for setting up a neighbor
relationship.
If a call comes from this client IPX and then
go out from a local interface of the server
IPX, the group setting will be used for
restriction and policy checking.
Any IPX can be a server IPX, but it is better
to select an IPX with big capacity.
The intranet options that apply to a mesh
Figure 10.9 Add a Client IPX
voice intranet also apply to the star shape
voice intranet, including VoIP signaling port number and VoIP encryption.
The IPX client list includes a column of online status. If a client IPX is online, the client
IPX has successfully connected to the server IPX.
10.4.2 Client IPX
To be part of star shape voice intranet, a client IPX should have the server IPX
information. A client IPX sends its serial number, IPX code, and password to the server
IPX for establishing neighbor relationship with the server IPX. Through the server IPX,
the client IPX will be able to communicate with other neighbors. This is only
configuration required for reaching entire voice intranet.
Figure 10.10
Configure Server IPX Server in Client IPX
The client IPX with this configuration can be deployed to any network including private
network. Star shape voice intranet significantly reduces the amount of maintenance work
for a large voice intranet.
For the best reliability of VoIP network, two IPX servers can be configured in the client
IPX. When the primary IPX server is online, it uses and only uses the primary IPX server.
Only when the primary IPX server is offline, the secondary IPX server would be used.
Whenever the primary IPX server comes back online, the client IPX will use the primary
IPX server again. The secondary IPX server is really used as a backup.
Any IPX system can be an IPX server. Because IPX server could be a bottle neck of
voice intranet, the IPX server should use big system in general. For a larger network over
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100 nodes, IPX server S6300 is recommended to be used as server IPX. Please refer to
IPX server S6300’s user manual for more information.
10.5 Mix of Mesh and Star
A mix of mesh and star shape voice intranet is possible, but requires careful planning and
deployment. In the following example, the core network is a mesh and at each site, it is a
star or a local mesh.
Figure 10.11
Mix of Mesh and Star Topology
In the above figure, IPX A1 is a server IPX; it has A2, A3, A4 in its IPX client list. Its
peer list contains B1 and C1. Note that IPX A1 reaches IPX B2-B4 via IPX B1, reaches
C2-C4 through C1. IPX B4 can reach any other IPX via its server IPX B1. In IPX B4, it
only has one piece of configuration that is server IPX is B1.
IPX C3 has 3 peers in its peer list, i.e. IPX C1, C2, and C4. It can reach site B and site A
via IPX C1. Therefore the IPX codes for peer C1 should be specially configured. Instead
of using 31, it should be 31,1,2. The following table lists some typical neighbor
configuration s of some IPX in the above diagram.
The technique is also commonly used for local stacking of IPX systems. For example,
site B could be one big office and the office needs a lot of extensions and lot of external
lines. So, multiple IPXs can be stacked in the same office to meet the scale requirement.
IPX Name
Configuration Area
IPX A1
Client List
Peer List
IPX B4
IPX C1
Server Info
Peer List
IPX C3
Peer List
Table 7
Neighbor IPX
Neighbor IPX Code
A2
A3
A4
B1
C1
B1
C2
C3
C4
A1
B1
C1
C2
C4
12
13
14
2
3
32
33
34
1
2
31,1,2
32
34
Configuration of Mix Topologies
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In the above table, IPX A1 has B1 in its peer list. The IPX code for B1 is 21, but in IPX
A1’s peer list, it is configured as 2 because A1 uses B1 to reach 21, 22, 23, 24, i.e. 2X.
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11 Intranet Call Routing
11.1 Intranet Call Routing Concept
For single IPX system, intranet calls, also called internal calls, are very simple extension
to extension call. When multiple IPX systems are stacked together or multiple IPX
systems at different locations are linked together to form voice intranet, the extension to
extension internal calls become a bit complicated. At least, the originating IPX needs to
find out which IPX is hosting the called extension. Furthermore, some big enterprises and
organizations have some autonomy divisions, which have different extension number
planning, e.g. different length, same number 101 is used in different division. In this case,
internal call becomes really complicated.
Intranet call routing in the IPX is about how route internal calls from the source IPX to
destination IPX. The IPX works as the following:
1) If there is a manually configured internal call routing rule that matches well with
a dialed destination number. The internal call will be processed by using the rule.
This includes possible manipulation of source and/or destination number, and
then forwarding the call to next IPX that possible to handle further, or this IPX to
handle it directly.
2) If there is no proper internal call routing rules matching the call, the IPX implicit
intranet call routing policy will be used, which is a routing based on IPX code
embedded in the dialed number.
11.2 Internal Call Routing Rules
An internal call routing rule can defined in the following figure.
Figure 11.1 Intranet Call Routing
This matches calls to 30XXX, prefix 30, length 5 from any local source number. If the
length cannot be certain, use the number 20 or more to cover all cases. If a long length is
used, user should press # at the end of dialing so that the IPX would know the end of
dialing before time out.
The dialed number can be kept as dialed, or the prefix of the dialed number can be
deleted, or the dialed number can be completed modified to new destination umber. Refer
to section 9.4 Number Translation for detail able number manipulation.
The source number can be changed too, including addition with a new prefix or
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modification based on prefix match. After the destination and source number changes, the
internal call will be forwarded to neighbor IPX, or IPX server, or local (itself).
If this rule hands over the processing to the IPX itself, the IPX will use implicit call
routing rule to continue the routing processing.
11.3 Implicit Call Routing Rules
If the IPX is configured with some peers, a server IPX and some client IPXs, a voice
intranet call routing rules are implicitly created. If there is no proper explicit rule to use
or after the preprocessing with explicit rules, the IPX will use the implicit intranet call
routing rules based on the called destination in the following order:




Local extension: if the destination matches local IPX code, it is a local analog
extension, an IP extension, a dynamic extension, a virtual extension.
Peer list: if the destination matches a peer’s IPX code and the peer is online, it is a
remote extension on that peer. The IPX tries to set up the call with the peer.
Client IPX list: if the destination matches a client’s IPX code and the client is
online, the IPX tries to set up the call with the client.
Server IPX: if the server IPX is available and it is online, the IPX will forward the
call setup request to the server IPX.
This means that the server IPX is used as default internal call route when no manually
configured neighbor can be used.
Once a neighbor IPX is identified for a call setup, it will be up to the neighbor to process
the request based the neighbor’s own configuration and routing policy. If a call setup fails
with a neighbor, the originating IPX will not try to find another neighbor IPX. Instead,
the originating IPX will give the caller a busy tone or unreachable announcement.
11.4 Advanced Internal Call Routing
Normally a voice intranet consists of many IPX systems that are under the same
numbering plan and have the same extension length. For a large voice intranet, the
network topology and number planning could be complex. The complexity could
introduce inconvenience of dialing even for internal extension.
11.4.1 Divide Large Network into Small Ones
For large network, the extension length could be 7-digit long. A large network can be
partitioned into smaller clusters of IPX systems. Within each cluster, people wish to dial
short numbers, e.g. 3 or 4 digit numbers.
Figure 11.2 Divide Large Intranet
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Let us say IPX A1, A2, and A5 belong to cluster A. “888” is an id for the cluster. The
extensions at A1 are 88811xx, at A2 are 88812xx … at A5 are 88815xx. To allow
extension users to dial last 4 digits to reach any extensions within cluster A, e.g. 1101,
1120, 1201, 1535, the administrator needs to configure internal call routing policy in IPX
A1, … A5 as in the figure.
When a user at extension 8881101
dials 1208, the IPX automatically
dial 8881208. When the phone
8881208 rings, it gets caller id 1101.
The result is as if 1101 dials 1208.
The called party can call back at
1101, the phone at 8881101 rings.
Large organization and government
ministry that need a large network
can use the technique to provide
convenience to the local departments.
Figure 11.3 Internal Call Routing
Another good example of this application is ITSP network. An ITSP can host services for
business customers. The ITSP has its internal “global” numbering plan using 7 digits for
the ITSP internal phone numbers. But for a big business customer, the last 4 digits can be
used for calls within the business customer network; for a small business customer, the
last 3 digits can be used for calls within the business customer network.
11.4.2 Aggregate Small Networks into a Large Network
The advanced internal call routing can be used to aggregate small voice intranet into a
large voice intranet. Assume an organization has 3 departments X1, X2, X3 and they
already have respective voice intranets as the following:
 Department X1: 3 IPX systems, extensions are 101, …108, 201, …220, 301, … 308;
 Department X2: 2 IPX systems, extension are 5101, … 5164, 6001, … 6032;
 Department X3: 3 IPX systems, extensions are 101, … 110, 201, .. 208, 401, … 420.
Figure 11.4 Aggregate Small Networks
Now the organization would like to link the 3 departments together to form a bigger voice
intranet without changing any IPX codes and local dialing method within each
department.
This can be implemented by introducing a cluster concept:

X1 is a cluster, 11 is the cluster id, IPX 1 represents X1 for both X2 and X3;
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

X2 is a cluster, 2 is the cluster id, IPX 51 is the representative of X2 for X1, and
IPX 60 is the representative of X2 for X3;
X3 is a cluster, 33 is the cluster id, IPX 4 representats X3 for both X1 and X2.
Within a cluster, dialing from one extension to another extension is the same as before,
i.e. short numbers.
Dialing from an extension in one cluster to an extension in another cluster, user should
dial 5 digits, i.e. cluster id plus internal extension number. For example, from 101 in
cluster X1 to dial 101 in cluster X3, user should dial 33101.
The following figure shows how to configure advanced internal call routing policy in IPX
1 of cluster X1 for the route to X3.
Figure 11.5 Cluster Call Routing
When a user at extension 108 of IPX 1 of X1 dials extension 33420, the IPX 1 will delete
33 and send the remaining 3 digit 420 to IPX4 of X3. At the same time, the caller
extension number 108 will be added with 11 in the front to become 11108. From user’s
perspective, user calls 33420, the destination phone rings, the called party sees the caller
id 11108.
As for IPX 2 in X1, the call routing rules are simple: for any extension with length 5 and
prefix 2 (and 3), the call will be sent to IPX 1 in X1. No source or destination number
changes are needed. This means, all across cluster calls (i.e. 2xxxx, 3xxxx) will be
handled by the representative of this cluster.
It must be noticed that IPX 1 in X3 cannot be the representative facing X1 because the
IPX code 1 conflicts with an IPX code in X1.
11.5 Migrate Internal Calls to External Calls
Here are some common cases in which the internal call routing table is used to convert
“internal calls” to “external calls”.
 Additional Prefix for External Calls
User usually uses prefix 9 to make external calls. If user needs special treatment for some
external calls, the user wants to use prefix 7 to make such external calls. For example, 7
is a prefix for sending Fax using local PSTN line all the time; while 9 is a prefix for
normal external calls. To achieve this, an internal call routing should be configured as:
Dest. Prefix Pattern:
Dest. Number Length:
Dest. Number Translation: (advanced)
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20
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Source Translation: (no translation)
Next IPX: (IPX Name)
Local
Where *9555 replaces 7. The dialed number 71234567 becomes *95551234567, which
means the external call 5551234567. In extranet call routing, a specific route will be
selected for 555, and then 555 is deleted at the end.
 Join 2 Internal Networks with E1 or Analog links
An IPX based VoIP intranet and a legacy PBX based voice network need to join together
as a hybrid voice network. The link
between the two networks is a digital
E1 trunk. Since this is one
organization, user wants the calls IPX
extensions to legacy PBX extensions
in the same way as the user calls
location extension, vise verse. In the
diagram, the user at 1001 just dials
number 3001 and the phone at 3001
Figure 11.6 Intranet over E1Link
rings.
To achieve this, configuration in the internal call routing of the IPX is needed:
Dest. Prefix Pattern:
Dest. Number Length:
Dest. Number Translation: (advanced)
Source Translation: (no translation)
Next IPX: (IPX Name)
3
4
*93
Local
Also external route is needed for destination 3XXX to go through the E1 link or a
gateway that has E1 link to the legacy PBX.
 Send Full Public Caller Id to Outside
A VoIP trunk can be associated with many DID numbers. Let us say, the organization got
51 public DIDs, 6178883300, 6178883301, …. 6178883350, where 6178883300 for the
IVR and others for 50 staff. User at extension 301 has DID 6178883301. When users
want to make phone calls to outside, they want the called party to see their individual
public DIDs. For example, if user at 301 makes a call to outside mobile phone, the caller
id on the receiving mobile phone should be 6178883301.
First, user needs to redefine dialing prefix for change ‘9’ to other digit, such as ‘8’ for
external calls. In this way, 9xxxxx is an “internal call”. The internal call routing will be
used for the calls starting with ‘9’.
Secondly, user needs to define an internal call route:
Dest. Prefix Pattern:
Dest. Number Length:
Dest. Number Translation: (advanced)
Source Translation: (advanced) Prefix Pattern
Translation Rule
Next IPX: (IPX Name)
9
20
*9
3
61788833
Local
In a call from 301, the source number is changed to 6178883301.
Thirdly, an external call route should use the desired trunk.
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12 NAT Traversal
12.1 Why NAT Traversal
The NAT (Network Address Translation) technology helps to reduce the usage of public
IP addresses (IPv4). By separating private networks from the public network, NAT
provides security for private networks.
DSL and EPON devices are very commonly used as Internet access devices for business
and homes. If the device is configured as a bridge device, the IPX behind it can be
configured as the Internet access router. In this way, the IPX has public IP address and
there will be no such NAT traversal issue. However, in
most cases, the DSL and EPON devices have been
integrated with IP router capability and used as Internet
access router, as in the diagram on the right.
NAT introduces many problems to the applications that
have their data channels different from their control
channels. VoIP is one of such applications.
The IPX can initiate a call to the public network from the
private LAN. The IPX also need to accept voice calls
from the public network. This means the IPX is a
“server” that must accept connection requests from the
Internet. The IPX is in the private LAN but must be
visible from the public.
Figure 12.1 Extranet Links
Further, during a voice call setup, the IPX and remote end point must negotiate the voice
channel connection parameters, including their end point IP address and UDP port
numbers. The IPX may only knows about its own IP address and port numbers valid only
in the private LAN, which could be useless for the other end in the public Internet.
To avoid any problems caused by NAT, users should, when possible, try to put IPX
systems in the public network or a place that can be reached by another IPX directly. If an
IPX has to be in a private network behind NAT, some techniques described in this section
can help to resolve related problems.
It is possible that in some very restrictive environments, such as an institution with very
tight security control, there may be no good way from outside to travel through the
security firewall. In this case, some special session border control system needs to be
used, which is beyond the scope of this document.
12.2 NAT Changes for IPX Peer-Peer Voice Intranet
Two IPX systems, IPX1 and IPX2, can form a peer relationship, as part of a voice
intranet. Assume that IPX1 is in the public network, while IPX2 is behind a NAT/Firewall.
Refer to Figure 10.2
IPX Peer to Peer. IPX1 would not be able to reach IPX2 directly.
To make peer to peer voice communication working between IPX1 and IPX2, the user
needs to do the following:

If a user is allowed to change the settings of the NAT, the user can set DMZ host to
be IPX2.

If DMZ setting on the NAT is not available, the user can configure a port
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mapping/forwarding in the NAT for the IPX2.
TCP Ports:
UDP Ports:

8080
8060, 8086, 8087, 20000, 20001, … 20009
In IPX2, VoIP Signaling address in voice intranet option should be manually set to
the public IP address of device. Refer to Figure 10.1 Voice Internet General Option.
Voice communication between IPX1 and IPX2 uses the public IP addresses of IPX1
and the public IP address of NAT device in the front of IPX2. Both are represented by
the domain names of IPX1 and IPX2 respectively.
12.3 IPX Server for Star Voice Intranet
In many cases, user will not be able to do any changes to NAT device. Typical example is
the mDSL (CDMA EVDO service) network and 3G broadband network, in which user
can only get 10.x.x.x addresses and they are ISP’s big private network. Another example
is industrial campus environment where individual companies can only get Internet
service through landlord of the campus.
In these cases, a server IPX in public network would be needed. A server IPX in public
Internet access can help client IPX systems to traverse through NAT/firewalls without
touching NAT/firewall at the client sides. Basically, the client IPX reaches the server IPX
and maintains the path through the NAT and all follow-on voice calls will be along the
path. There is very small chance that some NAT/firewall breaks the path when it observes
port number changes, e.g. symmetric NAT/firewall.
This is also the best and simplest way to deploy IPX to remote office where no IT staff is
available. Refer to 10.4 for more details.
Although the names “server IPX” and “client IPX” are used, they are just a way to form
neighbor relationships between IPX systems. Every IPX is a server serving IP extensions.
12.4 IPX as Server for IP Phones and IPX
IP phones (including soft phones) can be in a LAN or in a remote location. When an IP
phone is at a remote location, it is very likely in a private network. There might be a few
NAT/Firewalls on the path to the IPX.
The IPX system will be able to help the IP phone to automatically travel through the
NAT/Firewall, if it encounters any. No special configurations for this regard would be
needed in both the IPX and the IP phones.
The idea of supporting IP phones in private network can be applied to supporting a
remote IPX in a private network. Assume that IPX-a is reachable from the public network,
but remote IPX-b is in a private network. In IPX-a, a user can create one IP extension for
each analog phone on IPX-b. In IPX-b, a user can configure VoIP accounts to register
with IPX-a as IP extensions. In each such VoIP account, set DID for the corresponding
analog extensions on the IPX-b.
In essence, the analog extensions on the remote IPX-b become the IP extensions of the
IPX-a. IPX-b can be viewed and used as a VoIP gateway.
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13 Voice Extranet
13.1 Connecting to External Networks
The IPX extensions in a voice intranet can conveniently reach each other even if they are
at different locations. In reality, internal extensions need to communicate with outside of
organization, such as public telephones, mobile phones, and other devices in different
voice networks.
Voice extranet in the IPX refers to external voice connections. The IPX has three types of
extranet links, PSTN lines, VoIP lines, and VoIP trunks as in the following Figure 13.1.
Figure 13.1 Extranet Links
With proper design and configurations of the IPX systems, all extensions will be equal
and all external links can be shared by entire intranet. This chapter describes how to
configure external links on individual IPX, and next chapter describes how to select
proper links for outbound voice calls.
13.2 Lines v.s Trunks
In PSTN, telephone line with 2 copper wires offers a 64kbps channel. At any time, only
one voice call can be on the wires. Telephone line is associated a public PSTN number. It
is indented for an individual user or a home.
If a small business has 6 people and they do not on phone calls at the same time. They
can share 3 telephone lines. These 3 telephone lines together can be viewed as a analog
trunk and it is implemented by a small PBX in the business office. From PSTN point of
view, they are just 3 telephone lines with 3 different numbers. Of course, both PSTN and
the PBX can support line hunting service on the 3 lines so that single numbers to
represents the three lines.
A true trunk concept is T1/E1 PRI. This is 4 copper wire digital line running ISDN PRI
protocol. It offers 24 (T1) or 30 (E1) voice calls at the same time. It can associate with as
many public phone numbers as needed. The E1 trunk service is for business office and
work with a PBX with E1 interfaces.
In the VoIP world, there are also the concept of VoIP lines and VoIP trunks. VoIP line is
also called VoIP account in the IPX. VoIP line is for an individual or a home. Technically
speaking, an identifier of a VoIP line is URI such as:
SIP:johnsmith@voipdomain.net
SIP:+86101234567@cmcc.com
SIP:16172345678@72.100.45.83
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A DID number, a valid public phone number, is usually associated a VoIP URI so that any
phone in PSTN can reach the device of the URI. When an outgoing call is made through
the VoIP line, the caller id is usually determined by the server side, i.e. ITSP, which the
associated DID number.
The device that has the URI keeps registration with its server to maintain the current
status. In this way, the server knows if the user device is online and ready to take calls.
The VoIP device is a client of the VoIP server. The client can be in a private network.
VoIP line is a simulation of analog telephone line in many ways. However, a VoIP line is
much more capable than a telephone line. Single VoIP line can support multiple voice
calls at the same time. Commonly, it can support 4 simultaneous calls. The limit is more
for business reason imposed by ITSP than technical reasons. Also, a VoIP line is
technically allowed to associate with multiple DID numbers, but ITSP usually does not
offer this.
VoIP trunk is very different from VoIP line in many ways. VoIP trunk is a simulation of
E1 trunk but even more powerful and flexible that E1 trunk.
A VoIP trunk can support unlimited number of concurrent voice calls. A VoIP trunk can
be associated with unlimited number of DID numbers. The two ends of a VoIP trunk are
two peers, in other words, the two systems are peer to peer relationship. They do not have
any keep alive/keep registration messages. They authenticate each other during each
voice call setup by validating IP addresses, UDP port numbers, and optionally number
prefix. Therefore, the two systems must be able to reach each other. Usually they both
should be on the public network. When making outgoing calls, the peer usually honors
the caller id that originator peer wants.
Here is a summary of difference between VoIP line and VoIP trunk:
VoIP Line
VoIP Trunk
user type
individuals, home users
business office, enterprises
DID numbers
usually one DID
as many DID numbers as needed
concurrent calls
usually 1-4
unlimited
end system relationship
client and server
peer to peer
NAT traversal
yes, client can be behind NAT
no, they usual on public Internet
authentication
account id/password
IP address, port number
link status
keep alive registration msg
no
caller id in outgoing calls
client has no control
originator can set to as needed
services
3way, xfer, vbox, many services
no service to each other
Table 8
Compare VoIP line and VoIP trunk
13.3 PSTN Lines
The IPX may have one or more PSTN ports, which are used for the connections to a local
traditional phone network. The phone extensions on the IPX can make outbound calls
through the PSTN lines. Basically, without enabling any IP and VoIP features, the IPX
can behave as a traditional PBX (although this does not represent the main value of the
IPX).
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In the PSTN line configuration, a user can give different priorities to different lines.
Outbound calls will go through available lines with higher priority. If several PSTN lines
have the same Priority level and they are all available when an outgoing call is being
placed, the IPX will pick one which is different from the one used in last outgoing call.
The IPX supports the following Caller ID signaling standards:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Bellcore FSK, after the first ring
ETSI FSK after the first ring
ETSI FSK with PR, before the first ring (BT FSK)
ETSI DTMF after the first ring
ETSI DTMF with PR, before the first ring
DTMF Indian
DTMF Brazilian
DTMF Danish
If none of these standards works, it should be set to no caller ID. If caller id information
comes after the first ring, the IPX will process the incoming call after two rings, which
means a delay for a conversation.
Please note that Caller ID might be a paid service from a local phone company. The
service must be enabled from the telephone company.
Polarity Reversal is commonly used
as a billing signal. A user can select
YES only if accurate billing is
mandatory and if this PSTN line
supports polarity reversal signal.
The IPX system will receive such
signal and relay the signal to an
extension for billing purpose. Please
note some IPX models do not
support this feature.
When polarity is not supported, the
IPX could start to count seconds
even before actual voice flow starts.
In this case, user can set the Billing
Delay to be some seconds to avoid
fake connections or over charge.
Figure 13.2 PSTN Line
Per ITU standard, when a call is
completed, a telephone system, such as a central switch, must supply a disconnection
tone to the line so that the IPX would know the call is hung up by the user at the PSTN
side. Some PSTN network supplies a simple polarity reversal signal to reset the line. In
this case, the Line Release method should be set to polarity reversal. Otherwise the PSTN
line could be occupied for long time (2 minutes) before the IPX knows the line is not
used any more.
The Outbound Call Prefix is a number, e.g. 16900. If an outbound call is a long distance
call and it is going through this PSTN line, this number will be added in front of the
dialed external number. In some countries, this can be an access code of a long distance
carrier. This can be also used in calling card applications.
The DID Mapping specify the way how to handle the incoming calls on the PSTN line.
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 Auto attendant of the IPX, this is the default and common usage;
 DID to an extension, which could be a local extension, remote extension, IVR
tree, ACD for call center, virtual extension for T.37 Fax, or other IPX services;
 DID to a physical port number;
 Incoming call routing, further routing the call based on source and destination
number inside of the call. Refer Chapter 14 Incoming Call Routing to for details.
The voice volume for incoming or outgoing calls through the PSTN port can be adjusted.
If a PSTN port is linked to an old PBX, this might need to be adjusted for a successful
inter-working.
Without configuring the PSTN phone number, the IPX is still able to receive calls coming
through the PSTN lines as long as they are physically connected. It is recommended that
the user configures all numbers on the connected ports for easy management. More
importantly, the IPX resource management needs to know the presence of each PSTN
line in order to set up policies including call authorization, call authentication, and call
routing for outbound calls.
In version 3.0 of the IPX, the feature of PSTN line and PSTN line out has been supported.
It is possible that user configures call forwarding for night time his mobile phone.
Someone calls at night through a PSTN line, and the call is forwarded out using another
available PSTN line.
13.4 VoIP Lines/Accounts
VoIP service providers, also called Internet Telephony Service Providers (ITSP), offer
more attractive voice communication service plans than traditional phone companies. By
setting up VoIP lines, also called VoIP accounts, IPX users can make phone calls at lower
rates and get more free services.
In addition to the benefits of low rates and free services, single VoIP line allows multiple
calls at the same time without paying extra line cost. Some ITSP limits to 4 concurrent
calls on single line, some ITSP does not have such limit. Further, the public DID number
is completely portable. The IPX device with VoIP line service can be moved to anywhere
in the world as long as the Internet is available.
Many ITSP have a program called BYOD (Bring Your Own Device), which means the
ITSP can work with any VoIP devices. Once a user subscribes to an ITSP, the VoIP
account information5 will be sent to the subscriber, usually by email. The user should
carefully configure the VoIP account as in Figure 13.3.
The key data for the IPX to register with ITSP server are: SIP URI as account id or
account name; password for authentication; ITSP registration server IP address. The ITSP
usually gives account name/id in one of the following forms:
 DID number, e.g. 16172349180, actual URI is SIP:16177234980@domainName.net;
 FQDN, e.g +86101234567@cmcc.com, where +86101234567 is a DID number;
 User name, e.g. jsmith, actual URI is SIP:jsmith@domainName.net, there will be a
DID associate with it.
5
There are two sets of user name and password. One set is for billing and account management through
ITSP’s portal. Another set is for configuration of SIP devices. The second set is needed for the IPX
configuration.
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Figure 13.3 VoIP Account Setup
In the VoIP account configuration, ISP name is just user to identifying the account in
other part of the IPX configuration.
Authentication user name is optional, unless it is specifically required by the ITSP. It can
be left blank or set to be the same as the user name if not required by the ITSP.
VoIP servers include both register servers and proxy servers. The server’s addresses
(numerical addresses or domain names) are also provided by the ITSP. Usually, the proxy
server is the same as the register server. The registration interval can be adjusted to a
small number (e.g. 30) if the IPX is behind multiple NAT/firewalls on the path to the
ITSP servers. The registration messages are used for maintaining the heart-beat with the
VoIP servers and also keeping a connection session with the server regardless of
NAT/firewalls in the middle.
If the account is set with high priority, it will be selected first for outbound calls.
If administrator knows that the access network is often in bad condition or unstable, the
administrator should select a proper network quality level so that the IPX can adjust the
voice processing parameters to compensate for the delay or loss of voice packets.
The codec priority and DTMF priority settings are the preference of this IPX. When a real
VoIP call occurs, the IPX will negotiate with the VoIP servers of the ITSP for codec
selection and DTMF relay method. Usually, the IPX respects the choice made by the VoIP
servers. By the default, the IPX prefers to use G729a codec, which offer good MOS value
(voice quality) and significant bandwidth saving. The IPX also prefer to use RFC2833
out-band DTMF relay method for reliable DTMF digit transmission.
Incoming calls can be answered by auto attendant, immediately can be redirected to an
extension, including analog extensions, IP extensions, or virtual extensions. Incoming
calls can also be processed by incoming call routing, which is based on the source and
destination numbers in the call. By using this facility, different callers in PSTN can be
served by different extensions even if the callers called the same number. By using the
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facility, two families can share the same VoIP line with two different DID numbers. Calls
arrive at the same VoIP line but with different destinations will be automatically
forwarded to different extensions. Refer to Chapter 14 Incoming Call Routing for more
details.
The user is recommended to test how many concurrent calls (incoming and outgoing) can
be made through the VoIP account, and then configure this number in the concurrent call
field. If the number of existing live connections using the VoIP line reaches the limit, a
new call request will be using other VoIP lines or PSTN lines. If the concurrent call
number is incorrectly set too big, the IPX would still places new calls through this VoIP
account, but the call may be rejected by the ITSP.
If the ITSP supports Fax over IP network, a user can select proper a Fax protocol, T.38 or
T.30, based on the requirements from the ITSP for sending and receiving Fax. Refer to
chapter 17 Fax over IP for more details.
The maximum number of VoIP lines varies per IPX model. For example, an IPX can have
32 VoIP lines and one for each IP extensions. This is a simulation of IP Centrex services.
Figure 13.4 VoIP Account List
Different ITSP often have different service plans. An IPX user can define call routing
policy and rules to select the best VoIP lines for different call destinations. Refer to
extranet call routing section for more details.
In the VoIP line list, a user can temporarily enable or disable a VoIP line by clicking on
the little “lock” symbol.
13.5 VoIP Trunks
Two independent VoIP domains (e.g. two different IPX voice intranets) usually reach
each other through PSTN or other public ITSP networks. With an IPX VoIP trunk, two
independent VoIP networks can be connected with each other directly.
An IPX VoIP trunk can also be used to connect to an up-level VoIP service provider or a
large VoIP carrier. From service provider perspective, an IPX VoIP trunk can be used to
offer trunk service to a downstream business customer. The IPX VoIP trunk can associate
with a set of public DID numbers. They can be used to replace today’s T1/E1 digital
trunks for business customers.
The IPX VoIP trunk can also be used in whole sale business model to pass voice traffic
through VoIP carriers.
The IPX VoIP trunk is a good way for hiding intranet voice network topology details
from external networks.
There are two kinds of remote end of the IPX VoIP trunks:
(1) The remote end of a VoIP trunk is also an IPX. The communication over the trunk
is automatically secured.
(2) The remote end of a VoIP trunk is a different VoIP service platform. The
communication over such trunk is not secured.
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An IPX VoIP trunk consists of two ends. Each end must know the public IP address and
the port number of the other end. A VoIP trunk uses the configured IP addresses and port
numbers to authenticate with each other. The end systems must be reachable from the
public network. If a system is in a private network, it must be configured as a DMZ host.
The difference between VoIP trunk and VoIP line is described in Table 8 Compare VoIP
line and VoIP trunk. A VoIP line maintains a link status with the service provider network
and it follows client and server model. It can be viewed as “connection oriented VoIP
service”. On the other hands, a VoIP trunk is “connectionless VoIP service”. Between the
two end systems, there is usually no keep-alive messages and do not maintain any status.
If the remote end is not an IPX system, this IPX would not know if the remote end is up
running or reachable until actually making a real call. If the remote end is an IPX system,
this IPX might know the availability of the remote IPX.
If some calls are configured to use the trunk to another IPX, but the trunk is not available,
this IPX might be able to find alternative trunk to complete the calls. If the remote end is
not an IPX, this IPX would not be able to know the availability of the trunk and it just
goes ahead to send call requests to the remote system. The calls could fail if the remote
system is down.
Figure 13.5 List of VoIP Trunks
13.5.1 VoIP Trunk to VoIP Carriers
Many VoIP carriers are now offering VoIP trunk services to business customers. This is
marketed as replacement of digital E1/T1 trunk in traditional telecom network. The IPX
VoIP trunk can work with such new VoIP trunk services.
To set a trunk to a public VoIP service provider, the IPX trunk should be created and
configured as in Figure 13.6.
Public VoIP trunk service providers often require adding a prefix in the front of
destination number of each call. For a call from the IPX to outside through the remote
end, the IPX needs to add the Send Prefix in the front of called number. When the IPX
receives a call from the remote end, the destination number in the call should contain the
Receive Prefix. The IPX should verify the Receive Prefix and strip it off before perform
further call processing. The prefix is optional. If used, it is for call authentication and
accounting purpose.
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Figure 13.6 Add a new VoIP trunk
13.5.2 VoIP Trunk to Neighbor IPX Intranet
If the remote end of a trunk is another IPX, the local IPX can use the VoIP trunk to reach
the partner’s voice intranet. The local IPX can use the partner’s intranet to go out further.
Figure 13.7 VoIP trunk between two IPX systems
The trunks between two IPX systems do not use Send Prefix and Receive Prefix. The IPX
serial numbers are implicitly used for accounting purpose.
The calls over VoIP trunks between IPX systems are secured.
13.5.3 Stamp Source Number in Outbound Calls
When a call is going out through VoIP trunk, the source number (the caller id) is the
number associated with the calling device such as local phone extension, remote phone
extension, or an external number if the call was originated from outside.
This source number can be changed, if needed. In the VoIP trunk configuration as in
Figure 13.6 Add a new VoIP trunk. If the source number in outbound calls is changed to
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a new number, all the calls using this trunk will use this number as the callers ids that
have been changed to. If a business customer wishes the called parties to call back with
the existing PSTN number, the PSTN number can be configured here. If every extension
has a public DID and they want the called parties outside to see the public DID, the
extension to public DID mapping can be done in the trunk configuration as in the
previous figure. Using internal call routing is another way to change source numbers for
outgoing calls. Refer to section 11.5 Migrate Internal Calls to External Calls for more
details on the method.
13.5.4 Reroute Incoming Calls
The incoming calls from the trunk can be answered by auto attendant, can be forwarded
to a specific extension. They can be rerouted based on the source and destination numbers
in the call, which is detailed in next chapter.
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14 Incoming Call Routing
Incoming calls from external networks could arrive at PSTN lines, VoIP lines, and VoIP
trunks. Each incoming call has source number, i.e. caller id, and destination number, i.e.
called number.
14.1 Incoming Calls from Outside
An incoming routing rule matches to an incoming call if the call arrives on the specified
interface, with matching source number, i.e. caller id. The interface could be:







Specific PSTN lines
Any PSTN lines
Specific VoIP lines
Any VoIP lines
Specific VoIP trunks
Any VoIP trunks
Any interface
The source number matching could be
based the prefix match or suffix
match. Due to caller id format could
Figure 14.1 Incoming Call Routing Rule
be in different forms from different
service provider networks. Examples
are: 1234567, 2121234567, +12121234567, which actually represent the same caller. The
caller id could be changed before the call is forwarded to final destination.
For the matched calls, the calls could be silently dropped. This is a way to build black-list
of voice callers or marketing fax callers, which periodically make solicitations from time
to time.
For the call accepted by the rule, the destination number in the call could be changed new
number before further being processed. If it is changed to an internal extension number,
the call will be further processed by internal call routing. If it is changed to an external
dialing pattern, e.g. *9xxxxxx, the will be will processed by external call routing. In the
latter case, this is from external call in to external call out. For example, incoming calls
from specific local PSTN numbers can be forwarded over VoIP trunk if they are
international calls.
It is always recommended to have a default incoming call routing rule that accept calls
from any interface and originated from any ones outside. The default action could be
forwarded to 0, the operator, or the IPX code, the auto attendant, as examples.
14.2 Usages of Incoming Call Routing
Here are some typical examples that make good use of the capabilities of incoming call
routing.
 An Agent to Take Care a Customer
A compABC is a big customer of this service company using the IPX. The service
company assigns agent 1001 to take care of the big customer compABC that has phone
numbers 6262224xxx. So, any incoming calls from compABC should be answered by
1001. An incoming call routing rule should be defined as:
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Name:
Arriving Interface:
Source Number:
compABC
any
Match (Prefix Pattern)
Change to
Action:
Permit
Destination Number: Match (Any)
Change to (Translate)
6262224
Keep
1001
 Forwarding Per Called DID
A business office has 50 employees with extension number 10xx. Each employee has a
public DID number, like 61730077xx, where xx is 01, 02, 50. The business uses a VoIP
trunk service from an ITSP and all 50 DIDs are associated with the VoIP trunk. When
incoming calls to any DID number over the VoIP trunk, the calls should be forwarded
based on the destination. The incoming call routing rule for this can be configured as:
Name:
Arriving Interface:
Source Number:
True DID Forwarding
VoIPTrunk_XOcomm
Match (Any)
Change to
Action:
Permit
Destination Number: Match (Prefix Pattern)
Change to (Translate)
Keep
61730077
10
So, when a call to 6173007705 arrives, it will be forwarded to 1005.
 800 Calls Distribution
Say NuPizzz is a chained pizza delivery shop. It has an 800 number, say 1-800-NuPizza
(1-800-68-74992). It has 10 shops in different area codes. Each shop has a local phone
number <area code>+68-74992. The requirement is that any calls to the 800 number
should be forwarded to the shop in the same area code.
Name:
Arriving Interface:
Source Number:
NuPizza212
Any VoIP Trunk
Match:
(Prefix Pattern) 212
Change to:(Keep)
Action:
Permit
Destination Number: Match:
(Prefix Pattern) 8006874992
Change to:(Translate)
*912126874992
Name:
Arriving Interface:
Source Number:
NuPizza619
Any VoIP Trunk
Match:
(Prefix Pattern) 619
Change to:(Keep)
Action:
Permit
Destination Number: Match:
(Prefix Pattern) 8006874992
Change to:(Translate)
*916196874992
One rule per area code is needed. If each shop has an internal extension, the calls is just
forwarded to the extension instead of forwarding out using *9.
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15 External Call Routing
15.1 Selection of Egress Path
A voice intranet could have many extranet interfaces for external voice connections as
described in Figure 13.1 Extranet Links. Some interfaces have better quality than others;
some interfaces have a lower cost service than others. Since the IPX systems in an
intranet could be in different countries, the calls to different countries are better to use an
IPX that is close to the final destination. All these lead to a question, how to select an
egress path for an outgoing call?
An IPX external call route needs to consider:




Where does the call come from, i.e. which group the caller is in?
What is the final destination of the call, i.e. where is the user calling?
Shall the call go out from this local IPX; if so, which interface the call exits from?
Shall the call go out through a neighbor IPX in the intranet; if so, does the
destination number need to be modified?
Source Groups
Recall that any extension must be a member of a group, a peer IPX must belong to a
group, and authenticated caller must be a member of group. The external call route
basically says if the caller is from a group, the rule defined for the group will be used for
selecting egress path.
External Call Types
Recall that external calls are classified as international calls, domestic calls, regional calls,
local calls, emergency calls, blocked calls, and other calls. Refer to section 6.6 for more
details. The call types are for call control. Based on call type, more specific call
destinations can be defined. Call destinations are used in defining external call routes. A
route is searched based destination number match, using the longest match algorithm.
Interfaces
Recall from the last chapter that three types of interfaces are available in the IPX, PSTN
lines, VoIP lines, and VoIP trunks. They can be all used as exit interface for outbound
calls.
Digit Translation
If an IPX extension user in the USA office dials a normal landline number in Mumbai of
India 011912233334444, a PSTN interface of a neighbor IPX in Mumbai is used, the
actual number that should be dialed from the neighbor IPX is 33334444. In other words,
the leading digits 0119122 should be deleted before the call leaves the voice intranet.
15.2 Call Destinations
If you live in the USA, all calls to the numbers like 011xx….xx are international
numbers. In other words, the prefix 011 defines an external call type, international calls.
Furthermore, <prefix 01191, length ‘any’> defines all international calls to India; <prefix
01186, length 16> defines all international calls to China. Both are subsets of all
international calls.
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If you live in Europe, international calls should be in the form of 00xx….xx. For
domestic long distance calls, regional calls, and calls from PSTN to mobile, different
countries could have very different dialing methods.
This means that administrator should define call types and call destinations based on local
PSTN environment in order to matching people’s dialing habit.
In the IPX, a call destination defines a set of numbers specified by: <prefix, length,
type>. The following table gives examples of call destinations in the USA.
Destination Name
Prefix Pattern
Total Length
Call Type
Local Emergency
911
3
Emergency Calls
Boston City
1617
11
Local Calls
Massachusetts
178[1-3]
11
Regional Calls
USA
1
11
Domestic Calls
Toll Free
1800
11
Local Calls
Premium Rate
1900
11
Blocked Calls
International
011
any
International Calls
UK
01144
any
International Calls
UAE Mobile
0119715[0,5]
15
International Calls
India
01191
any
International Calls
Mumbai India
0119122
15
International Calls
India Mobile
011919
15
International Calls
China
01186
any
International Calls
Shanghai China
0118621
15
International Calls
Table 9
Call Destination Examples
The IPX call destinations are defined in Basic Voice > Ext. Call Types. This is the place
to give the meanings of call types and to define different destinations.
The call destinations will be used in external call route definitions, which specify how to
process calls for such destinations.
15.3 Digit Manipulations
In most cases, the number (i.e. digits) received by the IPX is the number (i.e. digits) to be
used for dialing out. But in some cases, the number to be used or sent out should be
translated into a different number.
For example, if a user has a plan with a long distance carrier, the user will need to dial an
access code before actual dialing a destination number. Using the IPX digit manipulation
capability, such access code can be automatically inserted and dialed by the IPX on
behalf of users. A user just dials destination numbers in normal way.
Another common example, a call to an international public number should be redirected a
neighbor IPX in the same voice intranet because the neighbor IPX is near the final
destination. But the remote IPX uses different dialing pattern to reach the destination.
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Therefore the destination number will have to be modified before being sent out from the
local IPX to the neighbor IPX. Refer to the chapter Number Manipulation for more
details on digit manipulations.
15.4 Source Routing
The IPX source routing means that a route will only apply to calls from a specified set of
callers, which is an IPX group. For this reason, caller from different groups might use
different resources and routes even for the same destinations.
The entire call routing table can be viewed as collection of routes of individual groups.
“Default” is a real group name. “any” is not an actual group, it meant to any group.
15.5 Exit Interfaces
The IPX call route specifies how an external call leaves the IPX for an extranet
destination. Two possibilities are (1) redirecting to a neighbor IPX within voice intranet
and letting the neighbor IPX to further process; (2) using local extranet interface
resources and routing the call out of the intranet.
Local interfaces are the exit interfaces that can be:
PSTN line:
Any PSTN:
VoIP line:
Any VoIP:
Any in Group:
VoIP Trunk:
specially selected PSTN lines available on the IPX;
any available PSTN lines in the IPX;
specially selected VoIP accounts available in the IPX;
any available VoIP accounts in the IPX;
any VoIP lines or any PSTN lines that is available in the caller
group. It is up to the group definition and the availability of
interfaces to determine the interface to use.
a VoIP trunk in the IPX.
It must be noticed that when specific PSTN lines or VoIP lines are listed in the route, the
IPX system will select an available interface based on the order of list.
Except “any in group”, the IPX does not consider the caller group’s resource restriction
and policies; it considers resources in the scope of entire system.
15.6 Next Hop (Neighbor) IPX
It is common that a voice intranet has multiple IPX systems in different locations, some
time even in different countries. Each IPX has local interfaces to local PSTN/VoIP/Trunk
service providers. As described in section 13.1 and Figure 13.1
Extranet Links, such
local interfaces can be shared by entire intranet.
With a proper configuration of external call routing policies, outbound calls can go out of
voice intranet from the best global local interfaces as if the calls were made from a true
local extensions. There are three benefits:
1. An intranet becomes one virtual IP PBX across remote sites.
2. The IPX security and reliability ensure the high quality of cross site calls.
3. International calls become local calls, which could be free or cheaper.
Next hop IPX is the IPX that can complete a given call. For example, IPX-1 is in New
York USA, and IPX-2 (IPX Code 50) is in Dubai, UAE. The calls originated from an
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extension of IPX-1 in New York are for a PSTN phone in Dubai. From the perspective of
IPX-1, the IPX-2 is the next hop for such calls to Dubai since IPX-2 will be able to
complete the call using local interfaces on IPX-2.
Figure 15.1 Redirect Call to Neighbor IPX
In an IPX route, next hop IPX is identified by IPX code. The neighbor IPX must be
reachable by peer relationship or through server-client IPX configuration. If the neighbor
is selected but it is not reachable, the call could fail.
When a number is sent to a neighbor IPX, the neighbor IPX treats it as an external call
dialed from a local extension. Therefore, the originating IPX should make some
modification as necessary before redirecting the calls. Once a call is redirected to the next
IPX, it would be completely up to the policy defined on that IPX how to process the
external call request. Taking example in the figure, user dials 0097121234567, this IPX
will send digits *9 0 2 1234567 to the neighbor IPX 50. Digit *9 is automatically inserted
by this IPX. The remote IPX 50 makes external calls to 021234567.
If Next IPX code is “50,51”, the compound IPX code could represent a single IPX; it
could also represent two different IPX systems.
15.7 Reach Out via VoIP Trunk
VoIP trunk is a big VoIP pipe connecting two autonomous VoIP domains. If the second
VoIP network agrees to help the callers in the first VoIP network to reach out, the second
VoIP network becomes a transit network. In this case, external call routing using the VoIP
trunk should be configured.
It is a typical usage that an IPX has a VoIP trunk to a VoIP service provider network. The
VoIP service provider could offer whole-sale service for out bound VoIP traffic; the VoIP
service provider could offer VoIP trunk as business T1/E1 replacement, which means a
group of public DIDs can be associated with the VoIP trunk for incoming and outgoing
calls and other services.
Some external call routes should be configured so that for certain destinations the calls
will go out through the VoIP trunk as in the following figure.
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Figure 15.2 External route through VoIP trunk
The destination number could be modified by the call route before the call processing is
handed over to the trunk interface. In the trunk interface, the source and destination
numbers could be further modified.
15.7.1 Trunk to Other VoIP System
If the other end of the trunk is not an IPX system, this IPX will not know if the remote
system is up and ready to receive calls. This IPX will blindly send calls to it.
Conceptually, VoIP trunk is a connectionless or stateless VoIP link. The call could fail if
the remote system of the trunk is not ready.
Since this IPX does not know the trunk state, a configuration of backup trunk is
meaningless even if it is configured.
How to treat the source number and destination number of a call that are sent to the
remote system is completely up to the policy on that system. Therefore, it is important to
know what the remote system is actually expecting.
15.7.2 Trunk to another IPX
The remote end of a trunk could be an IPX system. The IPX uses a proprietary method to
know the readiness of the remote IPX of the trunk. This add-on state of the trunk provides
an ability of redundancy. If the primary trunk is not usable, the calls can go through the
back up trunk. This concept is not very consistent to “stateless” definition of VoIP trunk,
but critical for reliability of VoIP network.
When an IPX receives an incoming call over the trunk, first it will check if the destination
number of the call is in the form of *9xx...xx. If so, the number is treated as locally dialed
external call to xx…xx. If the destination number has no prefix *9, the destination
number is treated as an internal destination in the VoIP network of the receiving VoIP
domain. Refer to 13.5 for the processing of incoming calls through a trunk.
It is important to know that *9 should be added in digit mapping if the call route is
intended to use the trunk and remote IPX to make external calls, as in the following
figure.
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Figure 15.3 External Call Route via Trunk to neighbor IPX
When the trunk “Nbr X1” is offline, the trunk “Nbr X2” will be used for calls to 01163.
Since the digit mapping is the same for both trunks, the two remote IPX must use the
same processing method to handle *90 External calls there, in which 0 is required a
prefix for domestic long distance calls in the destination country.
A side note: if external calls are going through intranet network neighbor, refer to 15.6,
no *9 should be manually added in the route definition. Actually, *9 is added
automatically by the IPX in that case. The IPX system cannot automatically add *9 for
the case that uses a trunk since the remote end systems most likely not an IPX system.
15.8 Secondary Route
If a call is going out from local interfaces, but none of specified interfaces is available at
the time, for example, they are busy or offline, how can other IPX help on this? The IPX
provides secondary route facility for this purpose.
Let us say both IPX-1 and IPX-2 are at different locations within the same city. Each IPX
has 4 PSTN lines and 16 extensions. It is possible that 4 PSTN lines on IPX-1 are all in
use while someone makes another outbound call. At the same time, some PSTN lines of
IPX-2 might be available. If IPX-1 is configured with the secondary route using IPX-2,
the new call can be sent to IPX-2 automatically if all PSTN lines of IPX-1 are busy.
Figure 15.4 Backup Route
There are two differences between Next Hop Redirect and Secondary Backup Route.
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First, a secondary route is used only when the selected local interfaces are busy or
unavailable; while next hop will send all matched calls without consideration of local
interfaces. Moreover, the secondary IPX takes the destination number as it is. In other
words, when the call is sent to the backup IPX, the destination number is not changed.
Generally, the backup route configuration is used between two IPXs in the same office or
in the same city. The IPXs share the local interface resources as they are stacked up.
15.9 Extranet Call Routing Table
The IPX call routing table is a collection of call routing rules based on source group and
the destinations to call.
Figure 15.5 External Call Routing Table
When the IPX receives a call request with prefix 9 or *9, the digits that follow 9 or *9
are considered as an external destination number. For example, an extension user dials 9001-617-567-1200, and 001-617-1200 is the external number and will be processed by
the IPX external call routing policies as follows:
Step A: search for a proper external call route within a specific group
1. Based on the caller information of the call, find the source group.
2. Find route candidates of the group, if nothing is available, go to step B.
3. Use the longest match algorithm to search for a route matching the
destination number in the call. Default prefix matches all call destinations.
4. If no route can match, go to step B. If a route is found, go to step C.
Step B: search for a proper external route within ‘any’ group
1. Find route candidates with ‘any’ group, if nothing is available, claim failure.
2. Use the longest match algorithm to search for a route matching the
destination number in the call. Default prefix matches all call destinations.
3. If no route can match, claim failure.
Step C: determine the outgoing interface or next IPX
1. If using neighbor IPX, find the neighbor IPX information, go to step E.
2. If using VoIP trunk, get the trunk info, go to step E.
3. If using ‘any in group’, find the resource and policy in the caller’s group,
determine an available interface to use. Go to step D.
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4. If using ‘any VoIP’ (or ‘any PSTN’), find an available VoIP line (or an
available PSTN line) in the IPX. Go to step D.
5. If it using specific list of VoIP lines (or a specific list of PSTN lines), find an
available interface based on the order of the list. Go to step D.
Step D: use back up IPX
1. If no interface is available, e.g. all busy or offline, find a backup IPX for the
call, otherwise, claim failure.
Step E: destination digit translation
1. The destination number in the call can be modified based on the route.
Step F: send the call to neighbor IPX or make the call through selected interface.
15.10 External Call Route Examples
15.10.1 Add Extra Digits for PSTN Calls
A travel agent company of 4 people subscribed a Centrex service (i.e. virtual PBX) from
local telephone company. Each phone has a public number. Internally, they dial short
numbers to reach each other. To call outside, they must dial 9 first to exit from Centrex.
Now, the company needs to add an IPX so that majority of outgoing calls will go out
through VoIP network. The local PSTN will be used when VoIP lines are not available.
The IPX can have 2 VoIP lines that offer flat rate for local and long distance calls. It is
desirable if IPX extension users just dial 9+external number, the IPX will automatically
select VoIP lines if they are online and not busy. If no VoIP lines are available, the IPX
will automatically select a PSTN line. To get this result, the IPX needs to insert an extra 9
automatically when calls go out through PSTN.
Solution is that in the default group, set the call priority as “VoIP First”; in extranet
external call routing table, configure the following route.
Figure 15.6 External Route Example - Add 9 for PSTN lines
In the above figure, the digit 9 will be inserted only when PSTN lines are selected. This
digit 9 is used for exiting from the Centrex service.
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15.10.2 Delegate an IPX for a Region
An IPX-A is in the USA and an IPX-B is in Shanghai. The requirement is all calls from
IPX-A to Mainland China and Hong Kong should all go through IPX-B.
First, we need to know how people in Shanghai make phone calls. People there call local
city Shanghai by dialing local phone numbers directly, call other cities in China by
dialing 0+area code+phone number, call Hong Kong by dialing 00852+phone number.
Figure 15.7 External Route Example - Redirect Calls
The routing table should have the following entries:
Destination
Group
Name
Prefix
Type
Outgoing
IPX
Length
Prefix Digit
Mapping
any
World
011
any
international
local
-
any
China
01186
any
international
20
0
any
Hong Kong
011852
14
international
20
00852
any
Shanghai
0118621
15
international
20
delete
any
China Mobile
0118613
18
international
20
13
Table 10
External Route Examples
The IPX external call routing processing uses the longest match algorithm. The route
“World” will be used only if no other routes starting with 011 match the destination.
15.10.3 Stacking IPX
It is possible that at a site multiple IPX systems are needed because the number of users is
more than what single IPX can support. The multiple IPX systems can be stacked up to
any capacity. These IPX systems work together as if it is one big IPX system.
Figure 15.8 IPX Stacking
In the above figure, IPX B21, B22, B23 are stacked up. IPX B21 is the representative of
the site, i.e. it is a proxy for IPX B22 and B23 when they communicate with the IPX
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systems at remote sites such as IPX A10. The voice intranet peer list in these systems is
configured as following:
In IPX A10
In IPX B21
Peer
Peer IPX code
Peer IP Address
IPX B
2
B21.myIPX.net
IPX A10
10
A10.myIPX.net
IPX B22
22
192.168.1.22
IPX B23
23
192.168.1.23
IPX B21
10,21
192.168.1.21
IPX B23
23
192.168.1.23
IPX B21
10,21
192.168.1.21
IPX B22
22
192.168.1.222
In IPX B22
In IPX B23
Table 11
Configuration of Stacked IPX
When an extension 10xx of IPX A10 calls 22xx, IPX A10 sends call request to IPX B21.
IPX B21 redirects the call to IPX B22. When an extension 23xx calls 10xx, IPX B23
sends the call request to IPX B21. IPX B21 redirects the call to IPX A10.
The PSTN lines of B21, B22, and B23 can be shared by proper configuration of external
route of the stacked IPX systems. The following figure is a configuration on the IPX B21.
Figure 15.9 Second Route to Share PSTN lines
In this configuration, if all PSTN lines are busy, the call will be sent to B22. IPX B22 and
IPX B23 can have similar configurations.
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16 Voice Mail Service
16.1 Voice Mail and Voice Email
The IPX has built in on-board voice mail service with sufficient storage for common
usages. Each extension user can customize mailbox greeting, which is played back to a
caller who leaves a message to the mailbox. The extension user can access voice mailbox
using own phone set or using online web browser. The messages can be optionally sent to
extension user’s email box.
16.1.1 Mailbox Allocation
By the default, every extension uses voice email only. This means when a caller leaves a
message to an extension, the message will be sent to the configured email address of the
extension. In this case, no other copies of the message will be saved anywhere.
When “Only Voice Email” is unchecked, an on-board voice mailbox will be allocated for
the extension to use. Administrator can have initial setup of voice mailbox for individual
extensions in the configuration pages of analog and IP extensions.
Figure 16.1 Voice Mailbox Setting
Since the total storage on board is shared by all extensions and it is not expandable, based
on individual needs, the max message count and max length of each message should be
keep small but sufficient.
When an overflow occurs, e.g. the number of messages in the mailbox reaches the limit
when a new message arrives, the oldest one, which may be heard or might never be heard
yet, will be either deleted directly, or emailed out and then deleted.
If voice email is used, an email address for the extension must be configured.
16.1.2 Change Personal Greeting
The IPX has a standard greeting such as “The person you are calling is not available;
please leave a message after beep”. Administrator can customize a personal greeting for
every extension by loading a WAV file in the extension configuration page.
The extension user can change his personal greeting through web browser by login to his
extension management page. The extension user can also change the person greeting
from his extension.
The WAV file loaded from PC must be in format of CCITT PCM A-law 8000Hz 8Bit
Mono and total length should be less than 2 minutes. If using a PC file, a beep sound can
be optionally appended at the end by the IPX.
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16.2 User Mailbox Operation
16.2.1 Mailbox Management by Phone
From a phone extension, a user can issue commands for voice mailbox management.
*771#
*770#
*76#
*76*<ext>#
*77#
*77*<ext>#
to record a new greeting and to replace old one, max 2 minutes;
to restore the factory default greeting;
to leave a message to its own mailbox/email;
to leave a message to the mailbox/email of <ext>;
to access its own mailbox;
to access the mailbox of <ext>;
When there are new messages in the mailbox, the extension phone will light up as
indication. Meanwhile the user picks up the phone, he will hear an announcement. Then
he can dial *77# to access the mailbox. If he is away from his phone, he can dial into the
IPX system and then dial *77*<his extension># to access his mailbox.
If a user dials into the IPX and the IPX is asking for extension number, the user can dial
*77#, the IPX system will ask for extension number to access the mailbox.
The user must provide the extension password to access the mailbox of the extension.
The user can try 3 times if incorrect passwords are detected before he is rejected.
16.2.2 Mailbox Operation Commands
After a user successfully gets into his mailbox system, he can use the phone keypad to
listen or to delete messages as the following:
Figure 16.2 Mailbox Operations
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A message is considered new if it has never been heard. When a user is listening to new
messages, the message that was save latest will be heard first. When a user presses key 2
or 3, the previous and next messages are also the new messages if user started in listening
new messages.
If a user gets into play state in listening to old messages, the previous and next messages
all mean the old messages.
Key 4 is for delete/undelete current message toggles between two meanings. Pressing 4 at
the first time means to delete the current message. Immediately after, pressing 4 again
means to undelete the deleted message.
16.2.3 Online Mailbox Management
An extension user can login to his extension management page to change his email
address, personal greeting by load WAV file from his local PC. The user is able to change
the way of how to use email to deliver voice messages.
Figure 16.3 User Setting for Voice Mailbox
The user can check the message list online as in the following figure.
Figure 16.4 Check Message Online
To download a message to local PC, user can click on the music symbol. The downloaded
messages could be in “.ipx” format and can only be played back by an IPX Player.
To forward a message to an email box, user can click on the corresponding green arrow. A
few minutes after forwarding, the message will be deleted from the mailbox.
16.3 Message Format and IPX Player Tool
To save space and preserve sound quality, the IPX keeps voice messages in mailboxes
with a special telecom voice codec. When the messages are exported out from the IPX to
a PC folder, they have file type (suffix) “.ipx”. Such files can only be played back by IPX
Player, a free tool from the vendor of the IPX system.
However, it is possible that some message might be recorded in WAV file format, which
can be played back using any audio player.
If a mailbox is set to be voice email only, the attached messages could be in WAV format.
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16.4 Voice Email
The IPX can deliver voice message through an email which looks like:
Dear <IPX Name> user <User Name>:
You have a new voice message received at <IPX Name> system.
From:
617@147.135.32.221
To:
3105
Time:
05 Jan 2009 18:14:32
Duration:
31 seconds
The message is attached to this email. You can use an audio playback
program to listen to it. Please note that this is the only copy of
the message. This email was generated by the IPX, and a response is
not needed. Thank you for using <IPX Name> voice email service.
<Email Sender Name>
05 Jan 2009
As stated in the email, the attached wav is the only copy of voice message and it can be
played back using popular audio player tool or IPX player tool if the attachment is in IPX
audio format.
Since all emails are sent from the same email account configured in System > System
Settings > Email Server, it is recommended to have common email account solely for the
purpose of delivery the IPX voice email messages.
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17 Fax over IP
17.1 Fax over IP in IPX
People believe that Fax is going to be disappeared soon since more convenient ways in
exchanging documents are available using the Internet, for example, scanning a document
and emailing it to one or multiple recipients.
It will take time to fade out a technology and usage of the technology. Fax is still widely
used in business communication because of people’s habit, availability of fax machine,
time stamp of delivery, image of signatures, and legal requirements.
In traditional PSTN, wherever a phone can make a voice call, a Fax machine can be there
and used for sending and receiving document pages. Now, the IPX can achieve a similar
goal for sending and receiving Fax over IP (FoIP) as convenient as phone calls over IP.
In practices, Fax protocol is very restrictive. Every piece of data is context sensitive. This
is not a problem in PSTN since 64kbps dedicated channel guarantees reliability and on
time delivery of data. In the best effort IP network, packet loss is common when network
has congestion. A little loss of a packet over IP network could easily cause the failure of a
Fax transmission. This is very different from voice connection, which is very tolerant to
packet loss.
The typical use cases for Fax on the IPX are as shown in the following diagram.
Figure 17.1 FoIP Use Cases
Case (1): Fax transmission between analog Fax machine102 and external Fax 101234567
over local PSTN. No IP network is involved.
Case (2): Incoming Fax from local PSTN Fax 101234567 to “Fax to Email” of IP
extension 101. The IP phone itself does not receive Fax. It is the IPX that receives it on
behalf of 101 and converts it using T.37 to TIFF files for email.
Case (3): Between two remote extensions, e.g. between 102 and 201 (Fax email);
between 102 and 202 (Fax machine). This is over the IP network of voice intranet.
Case (4): Incoming Fax (201234567) from ITSP, i.e. over IP, can be forwarded by the
IPX-B to a remote extension on IPX-A such as 102 Fax machine and 101 “Fax to email”.
Case (5): Incoming Fax (201234567) from ITSP can be forwarded to local Fax machine.
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17.2 Real-time Fax v.s. Reliable Fax
17.2.1 T.38 Fax
One of key reasons that people use Fax is its real-time and reliability. The person who
sends Fax can get confirmation immediately after the completion of Fax transmission.
Because of this reason, Fax becomes legally accepted document.
IETF defines T.38 Fax protocol for simulating PSTN Fax transmission over IP network.
The sender side signals the network and the receiver for up-coming Fax connection.
When the first page is being sent out at the sender side, the receiving machine starts to
print it out. When the last page is sent out, the sender can expect to receive confirmation
from the receiver, which sends ACK after printing out the last page.
T.38 is called real-time Fax over IP. The IPX needs choose a proper way to interact with
attached Fax machine in order to transmit or receive T.38 Fax over IP.
T.38 Fax is very sensitive to the IP network quality. Sending Fax to remote offices in
different countries might have high failure rate.
17.2.2 T.37 Fax
To delivery Fax pages over bad IP network, user could use T.37 Fax facility in the IPX.
On a Fax machine, user dials *37*fax-extension# to send Fax to remote end using T.37
Fax feature of the IPX.
The IPX uses store-and-forward technologies. The local IPX accepts all Fax pages from
the attached Fax machine and saved in the local IPX. After it gets all pages, it tries to use
a reliable way (TCP transmission) to deliver the pages (TIF files) to the destination IPX.
After the destination gets all pages, it starts to initiate a fax connection to the attached Fax
machine extension, which the final destination of the Fax transmission. After the
completion of print pages on the receiving Fax machine, the destination IPX sends ACK
back to the originating IPX. At the end, the originating IPX initiates a Fax transaction to
send ACK information to the originating machine.
This is an asynchronous Fax. The sender does not know when the originating IPX is able
to send pages to the destination IPX; the sender does not know if the receiving Fax is
actually power off after the send finishes local sending. In other words, the user does not
when he would get a confirmation.
T.37 Fax is reliable over a bad IP network, but it is not real-time.
17.3 Intranet Fax v.s. Extranet Fax
Fax machines are attached to the IPX using analog phone ports (FXS ports). Similar to
voice phone calls, the Fax transmission can be between two internal extensions. Calling
from Fax machine extension to another Fax machine extension is the same as dialing
remote extension for a voice call. Fax calls between extensions are called intranet Fax.
Fax can coming from outside of IPX intranet through a PSTN line or a VoIP line.
Incoming Fax could be sent to a local extension or to a remote extension, depending on
the incoming call routing configuration.
Fax can be sent from an extension to outside of IPX intranet through a PSTN line or a
VoIP line. It is up to external call routing policy to decide which PSTN line or VoIP line,
local or remote, will be used for sending Fax out.
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This type of Fax transmission is called extranet Fax. Extranet Fax over VoIP line very
much depends on the ITSP network that provides the VoIP line service.
17.4 Fax Terminals
Analog Fax machines are group 2 (G2) fax, common in many developing countries. It
follows ITU T.30 protocol to handle the document images.
Digital Fax machines are group 3 (G3) fax and a faster one is called SG3 fax. This is a
popular high end Fax machine. Please note that in IPX software version 3.0, G3 type of
fax machine might not be supported well.
The IPX supports a virtual Fax receiver, which could be IP extension or analog extension,
but without Fax machine attached. When the virtual Fax receiver is associated with an
extension, the incoming fax pages will be sent to the owner of the extension as email
attachment.
17.5 Fax Over IP
In the IPX, the Fax over IP occurs in the following cases:
 Local IPX Fax extension to remote IPX Fax extension. If the destination
extension is dialed in a normal way, the fax will be sent using T.38 and this is
real-time fax over IP network. If the destination extension is dialed as *37*ext#,
the fax will be sent using T.37, the store and forward method.
 IPX Fax extension to outside of intranet through VoIP line. As in
……
Figure 17.2 FoIP with VoIP Line
If the ITSP supports Fax over IP network, the administrator can select proper a
Fax protocol, T.38 or T.30, based on the requirements from the ITSP for sending
and receiving Fax. The option T.30 is basic an in-band Fax method.
 When an incoming Fax from extranet, either from PSTN or VoIP, needs to
forward to remote extension, the Fax from local IPX to remote IPX will use T.37,
store-and-forward, to send over IP network.
17.6 Typical Cases of Fax Usages
 Fax with local PSTN line
If a physical Fax machine is attached to the IPX, any
incoming Fax from a local PSTN line to the Fax
machine and any outgoing Fax to a local PSTN line are
just normal traditional Fax. To send Fax, user just dials
a 9+external fax number as if he dials an external voice
call.
In the real world, some PSTN lines are designated for
sending and receiving fax. It is suggested to configure
special extranet call route for this purpose. For
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Figure 17.3 Local Fax
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example, special prefix 555 can be used for Fax route selection. On a Fax machine,
user dials 9+555+destination fax number#, the extranet call route in IPX will actually
send fax to “destination fax number” over the designated Fax PSTN line.
If an IPX has no analog phone ports (i.e. no FXS ports), the IPX is still able to receive
incoming Fax from local PSTN line. Administrator could define an IP extension, e.g.
101. It is not necessary to have a physical IP phone attached, but the option in “Fax to
Email” must be selected in the IP extension configuration.
A virtual extension should be defined such as 111, type: T.37 Fax, target: 101. In the
PSTN line configuration, set DID to 111. When a Fax comes at the PSTN line, the fax
will be received by the IPX. After the completion of receiving, the IPX will convert
the Fax into TIF files and email to the IP extension owner.
 Fax with local VoIP line
The IPX supports Fax with local VoIP line. The success rate is much depends on how
well the VoIP service provider handles the fax. As in Figure 17.2 FoIP with VoIP Line,
the VoIP line could support T.38 fax and T.30 fax. The IPX user should consult the
VoIP line provider (ITSP) for sure.
Besides a physical analog Fax machine, virtual Fax receiver, i.e. T.37 Fax to Email can
be used for receiving incoming Fax from external VoIP line.
 Fax between two IPX extensions
If the network condition is good enough, user just dials extension to extension Fax in a
normal way. This will use T.38 real-time fax. If such fax transmission fails, user can
try to dial *37*ext# to send Fax by using T.37 store-and-forward Fax.
The destination can be a virtual Fax receiver, Fax pages to email.
Figure 17.4 Intranet Fax
 Fax with remote PSTN or remote VoIP Line
Incoming Fax from extranet can be forwarded to a remote Fax machine or a remote
extension which can further forward the Fax to an email address. In the Figure below,
after local IPX receives a Fax from PSTN line or VoIP line, it uses T.37 store-andforward method to send the Fax to remote IPX. The remote IPX decides how forward
to the attached Fax machine or an email address.
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Figure 17.5 Local Fax
On the other hand, an outgoing Fax can be sent out via a remote IPX. The dialing
method determines the way (T.38 or T.37) how to send Fax from local IPX to the
remote IPX.
Two keys points must be made clear. One is that how to send or receive Fax on the
PSTN line and VoIP line is determined by the requirements of PSTN and VoIP line.
T.38 and T,37 choices are only for the transmission within intranet. Secondly, the
extranet call routing policy plays important role in routing Fax calls.
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18 Call Distribution
18.1 Who Takes the Call
Let us say that a support center has five service representatives. When a customer calls in
to seek helps, which agent should take the call?
There are could be different ways to select an available agent to take care of customers.
The system could ask a volunteer among available ones; the system could sequentially
select one based on the history; the system could select one who had the least workload in
the day.
If all service representatives are busy, the customers who cannot be served immediately
should be placed in a waiting queue. At certain time of intervals, system should come
back to give some status update or to guide a customer in waiting to take some other
actions.
The IPX call distribution service is a facility that allows system administrator to create
one or multiple small customer service groups.
18.2 Define a Call Distribution
To define a call distribution service, the administrator needs to consider:
1. Some voice pieces include voice pieces of greeting, announcement for status
update, background music or commercial info while callers are in waiting queue.
2. The list of service representatives can be local and remote extensions.
3. Based on the nature of business, the size of waiting queue should be determined.
4. Different actions should be planed, e.g. when does the system tell callers in
waiting queue to be patient? Ask callers in waiting queue to leave a message?
Figure 18.1 Define an ACD
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In the figure, a call center of 4 extensions serves customers. If all support agents are busy,
the callers will be placed in waiting queue. If there are 4 callers in the queue already, a
new caller will get busy tone.
For each caller in the waiting queue, the IPX system comes back to check if any agent
becomes available. At the 5th try, the system plays a predefined announcement, such as
“All agents are currently serving other customers; your call is important to us, please wait
until next agent becomes available. Thanks for your patience”. At the 10th try, the system
can play back a different announcement asking the caller to call back later. If the caller
did not hang up, the system will disconnect the caller at the next try.
During the time when the callers are in waiting queue, the system plays the music with
some commercial information.
An ACD action can be an IVR entry that provides flexible and powerful interactive
experience with customer. The IVR could transfer the customer to another ACD. The
combination of ACD and IVR provides a very powerful customer interactive system.
A virtual extension can be defined to be an ACD. Calling such virtual extension number
will get into the ACD. If a PSTN line or a VoIP line has DID that is set to the virtual
extension, the external callers will reach the ACD when they call the PSTN number or
VoIP number.
The pass-code in ACD configuration is usually disabled. If it is enabled, the callers will
be asked to input pass-code to get the service from the ACD. For example, if a special
service center is only for paid or designated callers, the pass-code could be enabled. The
pass-code must be a number.
18.3 Distribution Strategies
ACD in the IPX provides three ring strategies.
Cycle Ring:
Group Ring:
Balanced Ring:
Idle Ring:
The system picks next available extension in sequential and cycle way.
The system rings all available extensions at the same time. When one
of them picks up, the call is connected.
Among the available extensions, the one has the longest idle time
since the last hang-up will be selected.
The first idle/available extension in the list will be selected.
When system calculates the longest idle duration, the voice calls that were not initiated
within ACD are not counted.
An extension could be in one of following states: idle/available, busy/talking, or
unavailable for other reasons. “Unavailable” could be no answer, leave away, or mark
busy on purpose,
In the case of cycle ring, if the next candidate is absent, the ACD will try next available
one. If no one is able to serve the caller, the call will be placed in the waiting queue.
“Cycle Ring” remembers the history in selecting candidates. It always picks the next one
from the last connection.
In the case of group ring, all available extensions will be ringed at the same time. If none
of available extensions answers, the call will be placed in the waiting queue.
In balanced ring, ACD picks one available extension at a time, but picks the one with the
longest idle time since the completion of last call. If the first candidate is absent, the ACD
will try another extension with the second longest idle time.
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Idle Ring is similar to cycle ring, but has no history memory. This means that ACD
always selected the first available candidate from the list. Therefore, if a skillful
candidate was put at the top of list the candidate could be selected more frequently than
others.
The extensions can be local extensions including analog extensions, IP extensions, and
virtual extensions. For virtual extensions, the target can only be telephone numbers such
as remote extensions or external phone numbers.
The administrator must acknowledge that if an external phone number is used via a
virtual extension, auto answering on the external phone could be considered as a
successful connection.
18.4 ACD and Absent Service
With cyclic ring and balanced ring strategies, the ACD picks only one of available
extensions to serve a new incoming caller. If the extension does not answer the ring, the
ACD will keep ringing the extension.
The extension user essentially blocked the ACD service if he was picked but did not
answer the calls. If a neighbor hears the ringing, the neighbor could use *61# command
(or *# command) to pick the call.
If an extension activates absence service by using command *53#, the ACD will view it
as an unavailable extension. In other words, the ACD will skip it in selection process. The
extension user could use command *54# to cancel the absent service and join the ACD
selection again.
In a call center, an agent is responsible to use absence service command to inform the
IPX system about the agent’s availability to serve customers.
The IPX is not able to know any absence state of a remote extension. If a remote
extension (via virtual extension definition) is part of ACD agents, the ACD process could
be blocked at the remote extension that does not answer calls. It is highly suggested to
use simultaneous ring/group ring strategy if remote extensions are used in an ACD.
18.5 Action when Ending Calls in ACD
It is a requirement for one of ACD applications that after an agent/representative hangs
up a call, the customer should be asked for commenting the level of satisfactory of the
finished service.
A similar requirement is to allow an agent to hang up while the caller (customer) at other
end continues to get more services with other department.
To meet the special requirement, “Action When Hang up” in ACD configuration must be
set to a proper IVR. Refer to the example in IVR section.
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19 Interactive Voice Responses (IVR)
19.1 Introduction to IVR
IVR stands for Interactive Voice Reponses. It is an advanced subsystem in PBX systems
and it helps callers to reach right people or to get desired information without the
involvement of real operators.
For example, an organization has an accounting department, a sales department, and a
technical support department. The technical support department has an Internet support
team and a VoIP service support team. An IVR menu can guide callers to find specific
support staffs, e.g. Frank, in the VoIP service support team of the organization through a
few steps, e.g. 2, 2, 2.
Figure 19.1 IVR for Reaching Departments
In this example, when a caller reaches the organization, the caller will hear a welcome
words and instructions. The voice associated with “A” could be: “Welcome to ABC
company, please listen the menu carefully. For sales department, press 1; for technical
support department, press 2, for account department, press 3. At any time, press 0 for
operator assistance.”
After the caller pressed key 2, a voice associated with “A2” could be heard, such as: “You
have reached technical support department. Please press 1 for Internet data services; press
2 for Internet voice services. To go to the previous menu, press 9. At any time, press 0 for
operator assistance.”
If the caller pressed key 2 again, he could hear a voice associated with “A21” something
like: “This is the technical support team for Internet voice services. Please press 1 for Mr.
Edward Jones if you need helps on CPE devices; press 2 for Mr. Frank Lowe for any
VoIP account issues. You can go back to previous menu by pressing 9. At any time, press
0 for operator assistance.”
In the figure, the “grounding” symbol means key 0 for operator. This is a very common in
IVR definition.
The IPX IVR facility can help administrators to build IVR tree of any size.
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19.2 Define an IVR Entry
In the above IVR tree diagram, there are two types of nodes. The circles represent IVR
entries while the rectangles represent leaf actions, which are the ends of IVR instances.
An IVR entry uses other IVR entries to form IVR tree of any size. The following figure is
the definition of A2 – technical support team IVR sub-tree.
Figure 19.2 IVR Entry Definition
In the figure, A2 is the name of this IVR entry. Tech Support is name of pre-loaded voice
that will be played out when an IVR process is entering this IVR sub-tree. The voice
guides a caller to press valid key 1, 2, 9, or 0. If no digit is received within 6 seconds, the
IVR will play the voice again. If invalid key is pressed, the voice will played again also.
After 3 tries, the default action will be taken; in the figure the caller will be disconnected.
If key 1 is pressed, the caller will be transferred to IVR entry A21; if key 2 is pressed, the
caller will be transferred to IVR entry A22; if key 9 is pressed, the caller will be
transferred to IVR A. If key 0 is pressed, the caller will be connected to extension 1001.
In this case, the IVR navigation is completed.
The available choices of next options/actions are:
Figure 19.3 IVR Options
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
Disconnect: the caller will be disconnected (busy tone will be played); the IVR
ends.

Announcement: the preloaded voice will be played back; the IVR stays in the
same level, i.e. the IVR navigation goes to the start of this again.

Extension: the caller is connected to a specified extension directly. The IVR ends.
If it is a virtual extension defined as another IVR or ACD, a new instance of IVR
or ACD starts.

Internal Call Routing: the IVR can accept multiple digits starting with the ‘option
digit’. The IVR ends. For example, 1-8-9 in the above figure, starting with option
‘1’. The number is treated as an intranet call and subject to internal call routing to
destination 189. This allows an IVR to accept both single digit options and intranet
extensions.

Auto Attendant: the caller will hear system default greeting of auto attendant. Then
the caller can do whatever as instructed by the greeting message. The IVR ends.

IVR Definition: the caller is transferred to next IVR entry. The IVR navigates.

Call Distribution: the call distribution takes over the caller. The IVR ends.

VoiceEmail: the system plays a beep sound (but no extra prompt voice will be
played out) and then starts recording. The recorded message is sent to the
configured email address. It is suggested that this IVR voice should include
something like: “… after press 5, please go ahead to leave message after a beep;”.
The IVR ends.

VoiceMail: the prompt voice of the destination extension voice mailbox will be
played out. The system starts to recording and saves the message into the
configured mailbox. The IVR ends.

Vote: the system remembers the option digit, e.g. 7 or 8 in the figure. After playing
out the voice, the system disconnects the caller. The system will save the
information of caller, date and time, and caller’s choice of ‘vote’ in the system.
This feature is commonly used in customer survey or poll of public opinions.
19.3 Build an IVR Tree
A big IVR menu tree is made from smaller IVR trees. The smallest IVR tree is a single
IVR entry that contains no IVRs as next options.
The process to design and build a real IVR tree is as follows:
1. Design the user interactive system. Draw a diagram similar to Figure 19.1. Try it
on the paper to make sure navigation procedure is complete.
2. Compose the text of prompt voice of each IVR entry and record the voice pieces
into the IPX voice collection.
3. Prepare the leaf options such as announcement, ACD, voice mail that are needed
in the IVR tree.
4. Define IVR entries, the one with the least dependency can be defined first, in
other words, from the leaves to the root.
5. Define a virtual extension to be the root IVR.
The recursive references are allowed. Therefore, sometime, administrator needs to edit an
IVR entry multiple times to complete the definition of the IVR entry.
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Once an IVR is defined, it can be refereed and used in other places such as other IVR
entries, ACDs, and virtual extensions. When an IVR is referred, the sub-tree rooted by the
IVR is referred implicitly.
When an IVR is deleted, the places where the IVR was referred will be reset to the
system default based on the context of usage.
19.4 IVR Widgets
Some handy IVR widgets can be defined and the collection of such handy IVRs can be
used as an IVR library.
Common Voice Email
Common Voice Email is an IVR entry used for allowing callers to leave a voice message
to an email mailing list. Before such IVR is defined, a greeting voice piece should be
recorded or loaded to the IPX. Note that the IPX supplies “BEEP” sound. A mailing list
email address should be also defined.
Name
Common Voice Email
Prompt Voice
“No one is available at the moment, please leave message, someone will
get back to you shortly.”
Timeout
0
Max Attempts
0
Default
Voice Email
Table 12
voiceEmail@myCompany.com
Mailbox IVR
Say Goodbye
A friendly goodbye can be used to replace a silent disconnection.
Name
Say Goodbye
Prompt Voice
“Your call is appreciated. Thank you and goodbye.”
Timeout
0
Max Attempts
0
Default
Disconnect
Table 13
Goodbye IVR
19.5 IVR Tips
Transit to Auto Attendant
The IVR voice prompt should include “… If you know party’s extension, please press 0
to enter auto attendant. Then you can dial the extension number directly. …”.
A virtual extension, e.g. 1098, should be defined to be the local IPX code, e.g. 10. The
IPX code dialing mode should be set to be auto attendant.
In the IVR, next option 0 should be defined as extension 1098.
Transit to Operator
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The IVR voice prompt should include “… If you like to reach operator at any time,
please press 0. …”.
A virtual extension, e.g. 1097, should be defined to be 0.
In the IVR, next option 0 should be defined as extension 1097.
Jump to a Specific Extension
At the root IVR A, press key 1 to get to IVR B; at the IVR B, press key 2 to get to IVR C;
at the IVR C, press 3 to ring extension 2001 (John Smith).
This process has a short cut. At the root IVR A, press *123#, caller can directly to reach
extension 2001 (John Smith).
Therefore, the prompt voice of IVR A can include “… If you like to reach John Smith,
press * 1 2 3 followed by #. …”.
19.6 IVR Example – a Town Office
A small town, Newtown in California has residents who speak English, Spanish, and
Chinese. The town office has several offices. The accounting office has two staffs, one for
local property tax collection and another for sewerage fee collection. The sport office
takes care of sport facilities. The superintendent office manages five elementary schools,
two middle schools and one high school. The public service office takes care of a senior
center and a waste and recycling service. The planning and engineering office is
responsible for roads, zoning, and construction permissions.
The town uses a few IPX systems and has well planned four digit phone numbers for all
offices. All phone calls are coming in and going out through a voice trunk in town’s main
office. When residents call in, the callers will be guided to a right department staff or be
given the information that callers are looking for.
Step 1: Design IVR trees
Design IVR sub-trees for individual departments, and then construct the overall IVR tree.
The accounting office IVR sub-tree (English
AC_e, Spanish AC_s, Chinese AC_c) has the
following voice prompt: “You have reached the
accounting department of Newtown. If you are
calling about your sewerage bill, press 1. If you
are calling about property tax bill, press 2. At any
time, press 0 for the front desk of Newtown main
office.”
Figure 19.4 IVR Example Accounting
The sport office IVR sub-tree (English SP_e,
Spanish SP_s, Chinese SP_c) has the
following voice prompt: “To listen the
announcement of new schedule of swimming
pool, press 1. To book a tennis court, press 2.
To book other sport facility, press 3. To leave
a message to general mailbox of sport office,
press 4. To speak to the reception desk in the
Mayor’s office, press 0.”
Figure 19.5 IVR Example Newtown Sport
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The IVR sub-tree for schools is a little more complicated since each school has a set of
offices such as principle office, councilor office, and library. The voice at the root of
school sub-tree can be: “You have reached the Newtown school district. For the
superintendent office, press 1. For Newtown High School, press 2. For Beach Middle
School, press 3. For Hill Middle School, press 4. For Lakeshore Elementary School, press
5. To speak to the front desk of the Mayor’s office, press 0.”
Figure 19.6 IVR Example Newtown School
Similarly, the IVR trees for Newtown public service (PS_e) department and planning and
engineering department (PE_e) can be designed.
The root IVR (NT) can have voice prompt such as: “Welcome to Newtown. For service in
English, press 1. Bienvenido a Newtown. Para obtener servicio en español, pulse 2. 欢迎
致电纽屯镇。如需中文服务,请按 3.” The overall IVR tree for Newtown can be like:
Figure 19.7 IVR Example Newtown
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Note that the su-btrees rooted by NT_s, NT_c, … are not shown in the diagram.
Step 2, Load Voice Pieces and Prepare ACD
For each IVR entry, there will be a voice prompt piece. These are for permanent use and
some high quality recording should be loaded from local PC. The files must be WAV files
with the format of CCITT PCM A-Law 8000Hz 8bit Mono
Some announcement voice can be recorded using telephone set since they are changed
from time to time. ACD and general voice mailbox should be prepared accordingly.
Step 3: Determine IVR Action Rules
The settings for timeout, max attempts, and default option in IVR are better to be the
same in every IVR definition.
Step 4: Define IVR entries
The leaves elements are ready, such as extensions, announcements, and ACD. Basic IVR
entries that only use leaves can be defined first.
Recursively, all IVR entries can be defined for each department and for each language
until the root IVR entry NT can be defined.
Step 5: Test and Verification
The IVR menu tree must be well tested before deployed for public use. A virtual
extension number for the main IVR entry can be defined and used in a DID setting on the
trunk ports.
19.7 Super IVR
An organization can have different phone menu for working hours, for nights, or for
weekend. In other words, through the same IVR entrance from public PSTN or public
DID through VoIP line or trunks, callers can receive different information and services
through different IVRs.
Super IVR in the IPX is designed for such purpose.
Figure 19.8 Super IVR
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When no time and day in the schedule can match the current time, the default IVR will be
used. Super IVR can be used in virtual extension definition.
19.8 Survey – Example of ACD and IVR
A call center has 5 agents serving their customers. At the end of each session, agents hang
up the phone and the system will ask customers to give feedbacks, e.g. satisfactory level
survey.
Step 1: define a vote IVR, e.g. “survey”, the prompt voice could be “We appreciate your
feedback, if you satisfy our service, press 1, if you are not satisfy with our service, please
press 2; if you have no comments, press 3.”
Figure 19.9 Vote IVR
Step 2: define ACD. In the ACD, the “Action when hang up” should be configured with
the IVR, e.g. “survey”.
Figure 19.10
ACD Hang up Action
Step 3: Check vote result in Status>Vote Logs. Refer to “Vote Logs” section for more
information. The result can be exported to a PC text file.
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20 Call Recording
20.1 Live Record Conversations
When the IPX is used in customer service centers, law firms, or accounting offices, the
conversations are often needed to be saved and back up for training or legal purpose.
To avoid any potential violation of privacy and misuse of live recording in the IPX, the
IPX only allows the system administrator to configure and control such facility. It is the
administrator’s responsibility to follow policies and rules and to get permission from the
organization top management before taking any recording actions.
The IPX call recording is a schedule based recording facility. Which extensions and at
what time should the recordings take place are preconfigured.
Please note that the IPX is not able to record a conference. The call recording could be
temporarily cancelled if a conference call is started in the middle of a call. The IPX does
not provide the capability of on-demand recording through phone commands.
There are two types of call recording methods in the IPX. One is “internal call recording”
and another is “external call recording”, which will be detailed in the following sections.
20.2 Internal Call Recording
If internal call recording is used, conversations will be temporarily saved in the IPX.
When a conversation is ended, a completed voice file will be sent out to an email address.
Figure 20.1 Internal Call Recording
The figure shows an example of an internal call recording schedule. From 4/22012 to
4/11/2035, all intranet call in and out (both directions) concerning extension 1009 and
1098 will be recorded. The recorded voice pieces will be sent to the configured email
address in the schedule.
The email content looks like:
The attached audio file was from the recording of the following phone call:
Local extension: 1104
Other party: 1101
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Direction of Call: inbound
Start date: 2009-08-15
Start time: 20:47
Length(hh:mm:ss): 00:18:31
The .ipx file can only be played back by the free IPX audio tool. This message was
automatically generated, please do not reply.
Note: If the file name contains _part1, _part2, ..., the original audio has a long
duration and has been split into smaller parts for easy email delivery. Please save all
the parts into the same folder so that the IPX audio tool can automatically get all
parts to play back.
-IPX Voice Recording Service
The file name format of attached file is:
REC-<extension>-<otherParty>-<yyyymmdd>-<hhmm>-<hhmmss>-<IO>.ipx
For example, REC-1104-1101-20090815-2047-001831-I.ipx.
Voice files from IPX recordings mostly use IPX format. They can only be played back by
a free “IPX Player” tool. One of capabilities of the tool is to convert “.ipx” format to
regular WAV file.
In order for the IPX to send emails, an email server should be configured System>System
Settings>Email Server.
Please note that the feature of “Internal call recording” is not available in IPX P200
series. Internal call recording would consume a lot of DSP resources. When call recording
is in progress the concurrency level of the system will dramatically degraded.
External call recording will offload the work of recording on the IPX board. But it needs
a separate recording server.
20.3 External Call Recordings
While a call is in progress, the voice pieces can be duplicated and sent out to a separate
server, which uses soft DSP to rebuild the conversation based on the information in the
voice pieces. During this course, the IPX system has no extra cost of DSP, CPU, or
memory for the call recording.
The following figure shows a configuration of recording server information:
Figure 20.2 External Recording Server
A schedule of external call recording can be configured as in the following figure. All
extranet calls, in and out, of concerned extensions will be recorded by the external call
recording server.
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Figure 20.3 External Call Recording Schedule
20.4 Recording Server
IPX Call Recording Server, IPX R40, is server software running on Windows. The
Windows system must be reachable from the IPX, i.e. a direct IP connection for
transmitting voice data can be established between the IPX and the PC/Windows.
IPX R40 recording server is licensed software available from the IPX vendor. It looks
like:
Figure 20.4 Call Recording Server - Windows
You can search for a specific recorded voice, listen online, and export selected recordings
out from the database becoming normal WAV files.
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21 Broadcast
The IPX broadcast is a one-way voice transmission service. A person can dial a virtual
extension number that is defined as a broadcast service; the person talks to his
microphone, his voice will be broadcast to all audiences that are listed in the broadcast
service definition.
In the figure, the name of service is called
CEO_Talk. When a person starts such
broadcast, he needs to input his extension
password before he is actually allowed to
talk to his microphone.
For the target phones such as T2x IP
phones and vendor’s special phone device,
the voice will come out directly without
the phone being picked up. For other IP
Figure 21.1 Broadcast Definition
phones, user needs to turn on AA (Auto
Answer). Otherwise, the user needs to
manually pick up the phone to listen to receive the broadcast.
The person listens to the broadcast will not be able to talk back during the broadcast. If
the user needs to speak back, the user is required to make a separate phone call back.
The target extensions during a broadcast session have no any relationship with each other.
Whether an extension is offline or refuses to pickup, it will not impact on the broadcast
session.
The extension can be a virtual
extension, mapping to another
broadcast on another IPX. So, the
hierarchical broadcast tree can extend
the broadcast capability to big number
of audiences.
Figure 21.2 Broadcast Tree
In the figure, 150 is a broadcast service
definitions on IPX 1. Virtual extension
113 is defined to be a remote extension
203 on IPX 2 and 203 is a broadcast.
Again, 218 is a virtual extension on
IPX 2 and is defined as remote
extension 510 of IPX 3. 510 is a
broadcast on IPX 3.
When user dials 150 on IPX 1 and speaks to microphone, the voice will be transmitted to
110, 112, 116, 160, 165, 21, 215, 501, 506, and 509 at the same time.
Broadcast is often used for public announcement in schools, fire departments, hospitals,
factories, security and road petrol.
If user needs to schedule a broadcast and using pre-recorded voice, the user should use
alarm service, as described in the next chapter.
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22 Alarm and Announcement Service
Alarm service is also called announcement service or wakeup service. The scheduled
announcement service can be used in hotel environment, company environment, and
public room environment.
Administrator can record or load some voices into the IPX voice collection. Refer to the
chapter of voice collection for details. At a scheduled time, the IPX will call every target
extension. The IPX plays back the selected voice.
Figure 22.1 Alarm List
Each alarm and announcement has a schedule, a weekday based schedule, or a calendar
day based schedule. The weekday schedule is a recurring schedule, while calendar day
schedule is one-time-only schedule. For calendar day schedule, once it occurred, the
status of the service will be changed from active to finish. If a service is disabled, the
status becomes inactive.
22.1 Alarm Service
Typical usage of alarm service is the morning wake-up call in hotel. The system calls the
configured extension one by one. Once the extension is picked up, the system plays back
the prerecorded voice, such as “This is a wake up, thank you for staying with us, have a
nice day”, then the call with the extension gets disconnected. The system will try the next
extension in the list.
If the extension is busy or does not answer the call, the IPX will call back again later.
After three tries, if it is still not answered, the IPX gives up. In the first try, the ringing
time is the half of “no replies timer” (Refer to 6.8.1) and the second time will be doubled
before giving up. Call forwarding setting is ignored for the call from the alarm services.
Many alarms can be configured in the IPX as in the following figure.
Figure 22.2 Setup an Alarm
Once an alarm is completed, its status becomes ‘finished’ unless it is recursive alarm.
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22.2 Schedule Announcement
This is a broadcast service with a schedule. Different general broadcast, this broadcast
occurs at scheduled time. It can be one time or can be recursive at weekday basis. This
broadcast only plays a piece of prerecorded voice.
This is also different to alarm service. Schedule announcement broadcast the voice to all
configured extension at the same time (one for all). The system does expect individual
extension to answer the call.
This means the configured extension must has capability of “Auto Answer”. The
extension phone can be vendor’s T2x phone, specially made analog phone, or vendor’s
soft phone on PC or smart phone. For general IP phones, users should turn on AA feature.
Figure 22.3 Schedule an Announcement
For example, a school district office can send announcement after midnight to individual
student homes “A heavy snow storm is hitting the area now. School district decided to
close the elementary schools for a day. Schools will reopen tomorrow.”
For example, in a factory, mining field, construction site where only line phone is
convenient. The head office could send announcement “The management meeting has
been just rescheduled to 4:00pm. This is an announcement from the main office”.
In many situations, the telephone has different impact and is more direct and effective
communication methods than emails, SMS, and alarm clocks.
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23 Easy Conference
23.1 Why Easy Conference
A formal and large scale conference bridge is a sophisticated system, while a 3-way call
facility is too simple. It has been requested for the IPX to have easy conference capability
to host 5, 8, up to 12 participants.
A Window desktop client has been developed by the IPX vendor. Using the Windows
GUI, user can selected interested parties, up to 12 people (Intranet extensions and
external numbers), and start an easy conference session through an IPX. The user is one
of selected parties and his extension (a hardware phone on his desk or a soft phone) will
ring at the same time as all other invited parties.
The easy conference client on Windows is very handy to use. It is even simpler than a 3way using phone keypad. Easy conference polls the invited party into the conference. The
user will see the status of each party such as busy, idle, speaking, listening etc. User can
for any party to be out using GUI.
23.2 Easy Conference Code
The easy conference client on Windows must get actual service from the IPX. The easy
conference code is the id for the easy conference client. The client must present the
conference code and password to start a conference session.
Figure 23.1 Easy Conference Code
In the IPX, the number of conference codes is determined by software license. One
conference code is usually assigned to one extension user. If more than one conference
codes are needed, administrator should purchase more conference code.
The conference code follow the same format as extension numbers and it should not
conflict with any kind of extension numbers.
Figure 23.2 Easy Conference Code
From a table of Easy conferences, user can see if a conference is active.
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24 Resource Sharing
The PSTN lines and VoIP accounts are the resources of the IPX. These resources can be
shared with a neighbor IPX that can be either inside or outside of the voice intranet. The
resources can be also shared by people outside of the IPX network; they can dial into the
voice intranet and then dial out from one of the IPX systems in the voice intranet.
In order to have better management of resource sharing and to avoid any possible abuse,
the administrator should set up a call authentication mechanism in the IPX.
24.1 Call Authentication
The IPX based voice intranet can be viewed as a small long distance carrier network.
From one IPX in a location to another IPX at another location, voice communication can
be carried out on the internal voice intranet built at the top of the IP network. Outside
callers can take advantage of the intranet to make long distance calls including
international calls, but pay minimal cost of a local phone call. Such phone calls going out
from a remote IPX result in some toll charges; the bill is sent to the remote IPX by a
service provider at the remote location.
The IPX call authentication feature enables the administrator of the IPX to allow or
disallow callers to take advantage of the voice intranet. By setting up authentication
accounts and controls, local and remote extensions, as well as outside callers will be
subject to authentication before using local resources.
Figure 24.1 Call Authentications
Outgoing Call from Intranet refers to the calls originating from extensions (on the local
IPX or neighbor IPX) which try to use the local resources. If authentication is waived,
every extension in the voice intranet can use the local PSTN lines and VoIP accounts to
make outgoing calls from this IPX. If authentication is enforced, the extensions will be
prompted for an account number and password before the caller can be connected to a
dialed external number from the local IPX. In this case, such calls will be billed to the
authentication account.
From local extension, if a user uses local resources to make external calls directly, i.e.
dial 9+public number+#. The call authentication is not applicable in this case. Whether
local extensions can make such calls is subject to the policy definition of the group that
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the extensions belong to.
However, if a user dials the local IPX code or any other IPX code from the local
extension, e.g. 1#, the user may hear auto attendant, and then the user dials *9+public
number+#. In this case, call authentication (Outgoing Call from Intranet) will be checked.
If it is enforced, the user will be asked for a user account and a password. The call will be
billed to the authentication account. If the authentication is not enforced, the call will be
treated as if the user did not dial any IPX code at the first place.
Outgoing call from Extranet refers to the calls originated from outside of the voice
intranet. The caller dials into the voice intranet (via this IPX or a remote IPX) and then
directly or indirectly dials out from the local IPX using the local PSTN lines or VoIP
accounts or trunks. If authentication is enforced, the caller will be prompted for account
number and password before the caller can actually dial the final destination number.
It is highly recommended to enforce IPX call authentication. At the same time, some
special authentication accounts can be configured to provide some convenience to
internal people during a business trip, for example.
Once a caller reaches an IPX, he can dial “*9” or “*8” to try dial out using the resources
on the local IPX. Another way for a remote caller to dial out from this local IPX is to set a
call routing policy on the remote IPX. Both are subject to the call authentication of this
local IPX.
In addition to the policy to allow or disallow a call, the IPX will also consult with the
billing server to verify that the account, which the call belongs to, has sufficient credit for
the call. If the fund in the associated account is not sufficient, the IPX will play a voice
message (the reason) to the caller.
24.2 Authentication Account
An authentication account, including an account number and password, is used for
authenticating caller input when the local IPX enforces a call authentication.
The authentication account user name should be a 4 digit number; the account password
should be also a 4 digit number. When a caller is prompted for an account name and
password, all 8 digits are inputted together.
Figure 24.2 Authentication Account
The account can be administratively enabled or disabled. The account acts as a virtual
user in the IPX system and must be part of a calling group and is subject to the rules
defined in the calling group.
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24.3 Trusted Sites
Regardless of the authentication enforcement, the trusted sites can use the local resources
of the IPX, such as local PSTN lines and VoIP accounts, to make outbound toll calls.
Calls from trusted IPX will not be asked for authentication.
Currently, the IPX only supports ##Net trusted sites. If a remote IPX’s ##Net number is
in the trusted site list, the remote IPX can dial the ##Net number of this local IPX and
then use the local resources to dial out from this local IPX, without any authentication by
this local IPX, even if this local IPX has turned on call authentication enforcement.
Figure 24.3 Tructed ##NET List
To prevent unknown IPX from using your IPX, it is strongly recommended to enable
authentication (Outgoing Calls from Extranet). Then, some known IPX is placed in the
trusted IPX list. By default, the resource of the IPX is open to others since the default
configuration does not have the authentication enabled.
24.4 VIP Numbers
VIP numbers are external phone numbers that are granted the same privileges as local
extensions. In other words, such caller will be treated similarly to a local extension. The
VIP numbers should belong to a calling group since it is viewed as an internal user who
will use system and network resources.
The VIP number, the caller ID, must be recognizable by the IPX system. If the VIP comes
from PSTN line, the call ID service from a telephone company must be available. The
PSTN line configuration must allow the caller ID to pass in.
Regardless of authentication configuration, calls originating from such external VIP
numbers are allowed to use the network resources as local extensions would.
VIP numbers can be configured by prefix pattern in order to match many external phone
numbers using fewer lines of configurations.
Note that IPX will only check the last a few digits (up to 6) of incoming call id for
matching VIP list. So, both 008651012345678 and 051012345678 will match 345678 in
VIP list.
Figure 24.4 VIP Numbers
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25 Interwork with Legacy PBX
There are many legacy PBX systems in use today. These PBX systems may follow
different standards, and some of them are very proprietary. The IPX is compatible with
legacy PBX’s, but it is not recommended to work with them unless the user knows how to
use the PBX very well. Tuning signaling and electrical parameters on the physical ports
of the PBX and the IPX to get the best communication quality can be a tough job for a
user who does not have past experience in telecom.
The IPX can work with an existing PBX if the PBX uses an analog phone port or analog
trunk port. The existing PBX can take advantage of the IPX to make VoIP calls using the
VoIP accounts in the IPX. The existing PBX can be a part of the IPX based voice intranet.
Virtually, the IPX can convert the existing PBX to be a part of an IP PBX and allows the
PBX to be an IP capable device. The two systems work together to offer a larger capacity.
The compatibility of an IPX with a legacy PBX not only protects an existing investment,
but also smoothly helps the migration of a business communication from the legacy
analog world to the IP world.
The PBX inter-work configuration includes two parts:


Port connections: select the physical ports of IPX that connect to the PBX;
Proxy dialing setting: define how to automatically make calls to the PBX.
Figure 25.1 PBX inter-work agents
In Figure 25.1, each line defines a rule for how the IPX as a call agent should work with
the PBX.
25.1 PBX Interwork Port
The first step is to select the ports on the IPX to work with the PBX. The selected ports
form a trunk between the IPX and the PBX.
If an IPX phone port is selected to be used, the port should be linked to an external line of
the PBX. From the perspective of the PBX, the IPX call agent behaves as an external
caller of the PBX. When a call reaches the IPX and the called number (logical extension)
is designated to the PBX, the IPX call agent will automatically call into the PBX using
one of available phone ports in the inter-connection trunk.
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If an IPX external line is selected, the port should be linked to a phone port of the PBX.
From the perspective of the PBX, the IPX call agent behaves as an internal phone of the
PBX. The IPX is able to call any extension of the PBX on behalf of an incoming call
destination to the PBX extension.
The total number of such connection ports represents the maximum number of concurrent
calls between the IPX and the PBX.
25.2 IPX Call Agent for Working with PBX
Assume that the PBX has extensions 201 to 215, 220 to 230. For this case, the IPX codes
can be 1 and 2, where 101, 102… can be used for the analog extensions the IPX owns;
201 ... 230 are the logical extensions of the IPX, but they are only used for the PBX.
Assume the maximum concurrent calls from PBX to IP network via the IPX is 4.
When properly configured, the IPX call agent should be able to do the following:
When a call to any number in the range of 201 to 230 terminates at the IPX, the IPX call
agent selects one of the available lines to the PBX, opens the line to hear the dial tone,
dials the number, and connects the caller to the destination extension on the PBX. The
original caller would not even know the existence of the PBX. In other words, the caller
does not need to dial multiple times to reach the extension of the PBX.
Figure 25.2 Call Agent for PBX
It must be noted that all logical numbers (i.e. called number range in the rule) must start
with a local IPX code and the phone number length must be the same as the length of
local physical extension numbers.
Called number range: Defines a set of logical numbers that will be forwarded to the
connected PBX. The syntax is a prefix pattern. For example, 30X represents 300, … 309.
2[3-6]0 represents 230, 240, 250, and 260. 4(56)7 represents 4567, but (56) is a group to
be used in agent rule.
Incoming source type and Incoming source list: only calls from specified types of sources
will be forwarded to PBX. The default settings are recommended.
Outgoing port type: This specifies IPX ports that connect to PBX. It includes either phone
ports (FXS ports) or PSTN ports (FXO trunk ports) that are predefined as interwork ports.
Proxy agent rules: each letter ‘P’ represents a 0.5sec time delay; letter ‘W’ means redial
the received number (i.e. original number). So, the rule “PPW” means to redial the
received number after 1 second.
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Ideally, the extension numbers of PBX should be left unchanged, but this requires
availability of IPX codes and proper planning of voice intranet. If using an IPX code or
keeping extension length is not possible, the user needs to set up complex proxy rules as
shown in the follow table:
Numbers
Port type
Rule
Meaning
10(X)
PSTN
20(1)
Change 10 to 20, keep 3rd digit when dial to PBX
209
Phone
PP301
wait 1 sec, dial 301 when 209 is received
[4-9]11
PSTN
9PW
dial 9, wait 1 sec, dial 911 or 411 out
Table 14
Call Agent Rule for PBX
Note that it is necessary to enable DTMF relay to FXS port in Basic Voice > Voice
Parameters > Voice Options.
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26 IP Security
The IPX system provides a state-full firewall, NAT, VPN and other security functions. It
can monitor network activities, transport voice over the internet with quality control, and
filter IP packets based on the security policy and rules.
26.1 Security Policy Elements
Network security policy elements include IP addresses and services. These are the basic
elements of security policy and rules. The user needs to define these elements and then
use them in building the policy rules.
26.1.1 Service Applications
Application services represent the flow of application types. The services in Figure 26.1
are pre-defined in the IPX.
Figure 26.1 Predefined IP services
In the table, the number 6 is for TCP while the number 17 is for UDP. Application types
are defined based on the destination port numbers. If the source port range is 0-0, the data
flow classification process ignores the source port, i.e. match all source ports.
A user can add more service definitions by clicking “add”.
26.1.2 IP Address Book
The IP address book is a collection of interested IP stations and IP networks. They will be
used in the classification of IP data flow and security actions. The IPX has three built-in
names, InsideAny (any PC in the LAN), OutsideAny (any stations in the WAN), and
LocalHost (the IPX itself). A user can add more targets to the address book.
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Figure 26.2 IP Address Book
The name will be used in setting up a security policy. Note that two elements cannot have
the same address; an address cannot be a subnet of another.
If you like to configure a secured tunnel between two IPX systems to form a VPN, you
are better to define the two LAN subnets in this IP address book. You can use the names
when you configure VPN tunnels.
26.1.3 MAC Address Book
MAC addresses can be used for IP packet flow classification and the packet filtering in
the IPX. In order to use MAC addresses in security policy, a user needs to give a name to
a group of interested MAC addresses. Building a MAC address book is similar to
building an IP address book. Refer to Section 26.1.2 IP Address Book for more
information.
MAC addresses are often used to identify internal PC stations since the IP address of
LAN PC can be changed.
26.2 NAT – Network Address Translation
Public IP addresses are valuable resources. A PC in a LAN can only use a private IP
address as specified in IETF’s RFC 1918. Refer to Section 4.1 Concept of IP Access
Router, for more information about private IP addresses. With help from the IPX, all PC’s
in the LAN can share the single public IP address to access the Internet.
This is implemented by the NAT capability of the IPX, which translates the source IP
address and the source application port number for every packet from a local PC to the
Internet, and the destination IP address and destination port number for every response
packet from the Internet to the local PC.
However, if a server, such as a web server is placed in the LAN, external PC’s on the
Internet would not be able to visit the website since the server only has a private IP
address.
The IPX provides two methods which allow a server in the LAN to offer public service:
address mapping and porting mapping.
26.2.1 IP Address Mapping
If a user has multiple public IP addresses, the second public IP address on the IPX WAN
interface can be mapped to a host within the LAN segment so that the host can be used as
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a public server and still be protected by the IPX security policies.
All IP connections originated from the public network and addressing the second WAN IP
address are redirected to the mapped LAN host.
Figure 26.3 IP Address Mapping
IP address mapping allows an internal host to be part of a public network. This is
different from DMZ. DMZ works on the primary IP address and the DMZ host will
receive incoming connections only if there is no port forwarding for the application. IPX
does not provide DMZ facility
26.2.2 Port Mapping
Port mapping defines a one-to-one mapping between a TCP/UDP port on the IPX WAN
IP interface (the primary public IP address) and a specified TCP/UDP port on a
designated host in the LAN segment.
Port mapping is usually used for setting up a public web server, an email server, etc.
when there is only one public IP address is available.
Figure 26.4 NAT and Port Mapping
For example, let’s say the domain name for the IPX in the public network is
01XY.myIPX.net, and the 2nd IPX is behind the 1st IPX with a static IP address set to
192.168.6.2 on the WAN interface. Using the port mapping in Figure 26.4,
http://01xy.myIPX.net:8080/ will get into the management page of the 1st IPX; while
http://01xy.myIPX.net:8090/ will get into the 2nd IPX’s management page.
Besides the port mapping setup, the user also needs to add an inbound security rule to
allow the inbound connection. Refer to 26.3.3 for details.
Port mapping is similar to port forwarding in other IP access routers.
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26.3 Security Rules
26.3.1 Directions of IP Connections
Three types of IP connections are concerned most in the IPX security:

IP connection is initiated from an external system on the Internet and comes to a local
PC in the LAN. This is called inbound traffic, which has the highest security risk.

IP connection is originated from a local PC in the LAN and sent to an external
destination on the Internet. This is called outbound traffic, which is generally fine.
But leakage of inside information should be prevented.

IP connections originating from an external system or a local PC in the LAN are
terminated at the IPX itself. These usually are IPX applications themselves.
Security rules are defined based on the flow direction; security enforcement is based on
the flow direction as well.
26.3.2 Security Rule Definition
Security enforcement on an IP packet has three steps:
1. When the first IP packet of an IP connection is received, the IPX determines a flow
direction based on the source and destination IP addresses, and the source and
destination port numbers. Only the group of rules for the direction will be searched.
The IPX tries to match the IP packet with a security rule in the group. In the group of
rules, the matching is performed based on the order the specific rules appear in the
list. If no specific rules can be matched, it must match a default rule:
Source
MAC
Source IP
Address
Destination IP
Address
Application
Action
Outbound
InsideAny
InsideAny
OutsideAny
Any
Permit
Inbound
N/A
OutsideAny
InsideAny
Any
Reject
To this
IPX
InsideAny
InsideAny
OutsideAny
LocalHost
Any
Permit
Table 15
Default Security Rules
2. Once a security rule is matched, a precise data flow is identified; the actions defined
in the rule are applied to the IP packet. Rules include dropping the packet and passing
along the packet.
3. If the IP packet is acceptable, some protocol processing must be completed, which
includes masking some addresses, adding a tunnel header, or NAT address and port
translation, etc, before the packet is actually delivered.
In general, a security rule consists of:





Id: a unique identifier of the security rule.
Name: a name for the rule, for ease to remember.
Source MAC: a name defined in MAC address book for a group of MAC address.
Source IP address: a name defined in IP address book, used to match source IP
address in IP packets.
Destination IP address: a name defined in IP address book, used to match
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



destination IP address in IP packets;
Application: an application name defined in service application list.
Disposition: pass or drop.
Action: either using default NAT to translate the IP address and port number or
using a specifically defined mask method to change the source IP address.
VPN tunnel: send it through a predefined tunnel.
A security rule is valid only if the elements used in the rule are all valid. Configured
security rules can be enabled or disabled.
26.3.3 Inbound Rules
Inbound traffic means the connection is initiated by an external system. By default, the
IPX rejects all data traffic from visitors in external networks. A user can define rules
allowing the connections from some trusted IP network, e.g. a partner’s network. A user
can also define rules allowing connections of certain applications from a public network.
In addition to the definition of port mapping, user needs to define an inbound traffic rule
as in Figure 26.5.
Figure 26.5 Inbound Security Rule
26.3.4 Outbound Rules
Outbound security rules are used to control the data connection from an internal network
to an external network. In Figure 26.6, no connection to the game network is allowed.
Figure 26.6 Outbound Security Rule
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26.3.5 Visiting This IPX
The packets sent out from the IPX are all considered safe. Only the data connection to the
IPX would need to be considered for security. Visitors to the IPX can be either in the
local LAN or in the public network through the WAN interface of the IPX.
The security rule for visiting this IPX classifies the data flow based on source addresses,
and application types. If a packet matches a flow classification, the action defined in the
rule will be taken.
26.4 VPN Configuration
Assume that an enterprise network has two IPX systems at two different locations; each
has a LAN behind an IPX respectively. The two LAN’s have different IP subnets. Usually,
a PC at one location cannot conveniently communicate with a PC at another location
since both of them are in private networks. By configuring a VPN (Virtual Private
Network) tunnel, the two PC can share resources and services each other as if they were
at the same location. For example, if a directory in one PC is sharable, another PC can see
it from a remote location by pointing to the IP address of the first PC.
26.4.1 IP Tunnel
The IP tunnel is used to connect two remote IP subnets behind IPX systems to form a
simple VPN. Two IPX systems at the ends of a tunnel must use the same encryption key
to form a symmetric IP tunnel.
Figure 26.7 IP Tunnel
The user will need in IP address book to define the local IP subnet address and the remote
IP subnet address. The two IP subnets together form a VPN.
When multiple IPX systems join together with multiple IP tunnels between IPX systems,
users should make sure that the IP subnets at each site are different from the subnets at
other sites.
It is highly recommended to use the same key for the entire VPN network for easy
network management. The encryption key must be 8 hex digits.
The creation of a VPN implicitly creates a security rules automatically. Users should not
change the derived security rules.
Simple Steps of configuring VPN:
1. Make sure the two IPXs in different locations can reach each other. If an IPX is
in private network, it must be a DMZ host.
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2. Change IPX LAN IP addresses so that two IPX LANs have different IP subnets.
3. Determine the shared security key (8 HEX digits).
4. On each IPX do the step 5 to .
5. In Security > Policy Element > Address Book, define both local LAN and remote
LAN.
6. In Security > VPN > IP Tunnel, define a tunnel.
7. Go to Security > Security Rule > Inbound, check if a derived rule is generated. If
no, the IP tunnel is not configured properly.
26.4.2 IP Subnet and IPX Based VPN
In the following diagram, the PC in 192.168.8.x needs to communicate with servers in
192.168.7.x at the remote site. Since IPX-a and IPX-b do not automatically offer routing
interfaces, special configuration will be needed.
Figure 26.8 IP Subnet and IPX VPN
1. IPX-a and IPX-b need to set up a symmetric IPX VPN tunnel to connect
192.168.6.x and 192.168.7.x.
2. In Router-c, the default router is IPX-a, 192.168.6.1; In IPX-a, a static route for
192.168.8.x should be configured (next hop is 192.168.6.10).
3. In IPX-a, two security rules should be configured - one is to allow traffic coming
from 192.168.7.x to 192.168.8.x via the VPN tunnel; another is to allow outgoing
traffic to 192.168.7.x from 192.168.8.x via the VPN tunnel, as the in the following
diagram:
Figure 26.9 Configure security rule for VPN
To connect the three IPX subnets together, some security rules are implicitly and
automatically created, while others have to be added manually.
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Figure 26.10
Security rules for VPN
4. Similarly in IPX-b, the user needs to configure security rules for using the tunnel to
connect 192.168.7.x and 192.168.8.x
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27 System Status
27.1 IP Network
IP network status information includes the WAN and LAN IP interfaces, the default router,
and the DNS server information. If there are any PC and IP devices in LAN using DHCP
to obtain IP addresses from the IPX, the DHCP clients are listed6.
When PPPoE is configured on the WAN interface, the PPP virtual interface will be
created by the IPX and its state will be shown in the network interface as well. Default
router and DNS server addresses can be automatically obtained from DHCP or PPPoE
protocol on the WAN IP interface.
Figure 27.1 IP Network Status
27.2 System Logs
System logs can be used to observe the system’s internal behaviors or to check the
internal status and errors of the IPX system.
Producing large amount of logs can result in resource consumption and may impact
system performance. The system logs should be used only when there is a real need.
The administrator is able to choose what logs should be saved and where to save them.
The log levels, from the more important to the least important, are: emergency, alert,
critical, error, warning, notify, events, information, debug.
Figure 27.2 Log Control
The log control facility and log display are intended for advanced network administrators.
6
The refresh of the list is determined by the DHCP leasing time interval.
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At the debug level, a network administrator can examine the system and network when
data connections or voice calls have problems.
The system can keep about 1000 pieces of logs and oldest ones will be purged when
overflow occurs. The logs can be manually cleaned up, but the critical logs are kept in the
system during clean-up and even over reboot.
The system log can be sent to a separate syslog server using standard syslog protocol. In
the display facility, the user is also able to save the current log into a PC file. Please be
aware that the displayed log messages may not be complete since the buffer in the IPX
for system logs is limited.
27.3 Call Logs
The IPX records up to the most recent 500 calls of any kind. If newer calls occur after the
limit is reached, the oldest ones will be purged out.
In the record, *#*# means IPX code or IPX serial numbers.
Figure 27.3 Call Logs
Call logs are for system internal information only and should not be used as the basis of
billing and accounting.
27.4 Vote Logs
Vote results are saved in the IPX system and can be retrieved from Status>Vote Logs:
Figure 27.4 Vote Logs
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The system keeps the vote logs until they are manually cleaned up. In the above figure,
the vote IVR 1 is displayed. Each row is a vote event and the second part of the screen is
the summary of the vote IVR 1.
The vote result can be exported to a PC text file.
The IPX system also prove 3rd party soft link to read and clean the vote result. To read the
vote data, the following link can be used:
http://172.21.177.247:8080/webserver/csa/upload/vote?usr_name=admin&usr_pwd=admin/&id=xxx
where 172.21.177.247 should be replaced with actual IPX address and xxx should be
replaced with IVR id. The result from http could be:
20140718-03:15:50-203-146-0
20140718-03:16:44-203-146-7
20140720-22:02:04-123-null-1
20140720-22:05:12-123-null-4
……
The format is date-time-caller-callee-votekey.
To clean the vote data of a specific vote IVR, the following link can be used:
http://172.21.177.247:8080/webserver/csa/upload/vote?usr_name=admin&usr_pwd=admin&cmd=clear&id=xxx
The result from http could be: cleared!
Some other possible results from read/clear action are: No File (cleared already), Vote
File Locked (it is busy in writing), No Authentication (password error).
Please note that a full system software upgrade could wipe out the vote data completely.
27.5 Voice Status
This status page display the current state of:
PSTN lines:
which are in use or idle
VoIP lines:
which are online (idle or busy) or offline
IP extensions:
which are in talking or idle or offline
Analog extensions: which are in use or idle
User can set auto refresh of the screen to have updated view of voice lines and terminals.
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28 Tools
28.1 Network Quality Test
The network tool is used to test the reach-ability to a destination and the IP connection
quality between this IPX and a destination. The reference chart indicates the potential
results of voice quality for VoIP calls. If the network condition is in a poor condition,
configuration (network level) should be adjusted, or VoIP calls are not recommended.
The destination can be in the form of a domain name or a dot format IP address.
Figure 28.1 IP Network Quality Testing
It may take 30-60 seconds to complete a network quality test.
28.2 System Check
The IPX system works with other servers within an enterprise network or on the Internet.
When the IP network or voice communication has problems, a user can use this tool to
check whether some required servers are working. The tool will scan all configured
servers to report the status.
Figure 28.2 System Check
28.3 Network Traffic Capture
When the IPX system runs into some problems, administrator needs to debug the cause to
the problem. After administrator checked Internet connection and basic configurations,
further analysis in depth should be conducted based on network packet traffic analysis. To
capture VoIP related packets in and out from the IPX system, administrator can use the
follow tool available in the IPX.
Figure 28.3 Network Packet Traffic Capture
The file dump.pcap saved in PC can be displayed by free software called Wireshark.
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Appendix A
Voice Operation
A.1 Basic Call Operation
1. To call from one local extension to another extension within the same voice intranet,
if the IPX is in the PBX mode, directly dial the extension number; if the IPX is in
the ATA mode, dial #+extension number.
2. To call from a local extension to an external number, if the IPX is in the PBX mode,
dial 9+the external destination number+#; if the IPX is in ATA mode, directly dial
the external destination number+#. Regardless of the IPX dialing prefix setting, one
can always dial *9+external number to reach out; one can always use *8+external
number to force the use of a VoIP line to reach out.
3. To call from a local extension to any other IPX within or outside of enterprise
network, directly dial the that IPX’s ##(or ** )Net number+#.
4. To call from a PSTN phone into an enterprise, dial a main PSTN number associated
with an analog PSTN interface, and after hearing greeting messages, dial the
extension number.
5. To call from a local extension to a remote IPX, dial the remote IPX code+#, and
after hearing a greeting message, dial the extension number, or dial *9+the
destination number+#, or *8+the destination number to go out from there.
6. To call from a local PSTN to a remote extension number, dial a main PSTN number
associated with an analog PSTN interface of the local IPX, and after hearing
greeting messages, dial the remote extension number;
7. To transfer an incoming call, press the flash button on the phone (or a quick click on
the on-hook spring), then dial the destination number+#;
8. To initiate a 3-way conference call during a normal conversation, press the flash
button on the phone (or a quick click on the on-hook spring), then dial *03* + the
third party’s phone number+#.
9. To pick up a neighbor’s ringing phone, dial *63* and the target number. One can
also just dial *# or *61# directly if the neighbor is in the calling group.
10. To change the greeting message, dial *28# and follow the IVR to record and save a
voice greeting.
11. To find out the extension number, dial *25#. This is the simplest way to test if the
phone and the IPX are working.
12. To manage or check voice messages, dial *77# or *77* + voice mail number + #,
then follow the voice prompt to operate. To leave a message, dial *76# or *76*+
voice mail number+ #, then follow the voice prompt to operate.
Note that the above operations are based on the default configurations.
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A.2 A Call Example
Figure 0.1 Call Example
Three IPXs are in three locations (all use 9 to dial external numbers):
IPX
IPX code
IP address
PSTN line
Respond method
HQ
1
202.120.1.15/24
978-511-8087
Auto-attendant
Site A
2
196.73.129.199/24
650-643-8728
Auto-attendant
Site B
3
192.242.101.125/24
781-610-5412
Auto-attendant
Table 16
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Sample Network
1001 to call 1002
Dial 1002
1001 to call local outside PSTN number
Dial 9, and after hearing dial tone, dial 978-521-9595, OR
Dial 9-978521-9595#
1001 to call 2002
Dial 2002
978-521-9595 to call 1001
Dial 978-511-8087, and after hearing greeting, dial 1001
1001 to call 650-222-4444
Dial 2#, and after hearing dial tone, dial *9650-222-4444#
978-521-9595 to call 2002
Dial 978-511-8087, and after hearing greeting, dial 2002
1001 transfer a call to 2002
1001 is in the middle of conversation with someone, 1001 presses flash,
dials 2002, 2002 picks up, 1001 hangs up.
1001, 2001, 3001 have an 3-way call
1001 and 2001 are in the middle of conversation, 1001 presses flash, dials
*03*3001#, 3001 picks up.
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A.3 Service Activation and Deactivation
Enabling (Activation) and disabling (deactivation) service can be done using the web
management page or phone commands. Registration and cancellation command start with
*, end with #.
Services
CMD/Activation
Start a 3-way call (flash+)
*03* xxxx#
Check extension umber
*25#
Record voice to voice collection
*26#
Listen to a voice in the voice collection
*27*xxxx#
Record and change greeting
*28#
Call
Forwarding
Always
*47*xxxxxxxx#
*48#
No Answer
*41*xxxxxxxx#
*42#
Busy
*43*xxxxxxxx#
*44#
Speed dial
*51*xx*yyyyyyy#
*52*xx#
Absent service
*53#
*54#
Do Not Disturb
*55#
*56#
Pick up ringing phone in group
*61#
Call waiting switch (first time) (flash+)
*64#
Put caller on hold (to make another call)
*65#
Park a call/retrieve a call from park lot
*66*xxx#
Leave a message to mailbox/email
*76#
or *76*xxxx#
Access voice mailbox (number)
*77#
or *77*xxxx#
Record and change voicemail prompt
*771#
Force to use a VoIP account
*8xxxxxxx#
Dial out from an IPX
*9xxxxxxx#
Table 17
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
Cancel/Deactivation
or *63*xxxx#
or *65*xxxx#
*67*xxx#
*770#
Phone Command List
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Appendix B
Factory Defaults
Category
Default Value
Administrator
Phones extensions
User name: admin; password: admin
User name: extension number; password: none
WAN
WAN DNS
LAN
LAN DNS
LAN DHCP server
LAN DHCP range
Management web port
NTP
DHCP client
No
IP address: 192.168.6.1, net mask: 255.255.255.0
This IPX
On, Auto start
192.168.6.2 ~ 192.168.6.200, net mask 255.255.255.0
8080
Enabled
IP forwarding
Outbound IP
Inbound IP
Visit this IPX
NAT and firewall
Allow
Reject
Allow
Operator prefix
External call prefix
Extension for operator
IPX code
Extension length
Calling group
Call priority
Call authentication
VOIP signaling port
RTP port range
Codec first
DTMF relay first
Accept anonymous IPX
Signaling redundancy
Media redundancy
Max flash interval
Max idle key
Max no response time
FAX
Log control
0
9
The first physical extension
1
3
Default
PSTN first
Waived
8060
20000~39999
G.729a
RFC2833
Yes
Enabled
Disabled
800 msc
10 secs
20 secs
T.38
No
Table 18
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Appendix C
ACD
AGC
ARP
BYOD
CCITT
CDR
CED
CFG
CNG
DAA
DHCP
DID
DMZ
DNS
DTMF
DSL
EC
EPON
ETSI
FAX
FoIP
FSK
FTTB
FTP
FXO
FXS
HTTP
IEEE
IETF
ICMP
IP
IPX
ISP
ITSP
ITU
IVR
LAN
MAC
NAT
NTP
PBX
PC
PCM
PPP
PPPoE
POTS
PSTN
RFC
RTCP
RTP
SIP
Acronyms
Automatic Call Distribution
Auto Gain Control
Address Resolution Protocol
Bring Your Own Device
Committee Consultative International Telegraph and Telephone
Call Detail Record
Sending Answering Tone
Configuration
Comfort Noise Generation
Data Access Arrangement
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Direct Inward Dialing
De-Militarized Zone
Domain Name Service
Dual Tone Multi Frequency
Digital Subscriber Line
Echo Cancellation
Ethernet based Passive Optical Network
European Telecommunications Standard Institute
Facsimile
Fax over IP
Frequency Shift Keying
Fiber To The Building
File Transfer Protocol
Foreign Exchange Office
Foreign Exchange Subscriber
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Internet Engineering Task Force
Internet Control Message Protocol
Internet Protocol
IP Exchange, IP PBX, IPBX
Internet Service Provider
Internet Telephony Service Provider
International Telecommunication Union
Interactive Voice Response
Local Area Network
Media Access Control
Network Address Translation
Network Time Protocol
Private Branch Exchange
Personal Computer
Pulse Code Modulation
Point-to-Point Protocol
PPP over Ethernet
Plain Old Telephone Service
Public Switched Telephone Network
Request For Comments
Real Time Control Protocol
Real Time Protocol
Session Initiation Protocol
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SLIC
SMB
SMTP
SOHO
TCP
TFTP
UDP
URL
VAD
VIP
V²PN
VoIP
VPN
WAN
Subscriber Line Interface Circuit
Small and Medium Business
Simple Mail Transport Protocol
Small Office, Home Office
Transmission Control Protocol
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
User Datagram Protocol
Uniform Resource Locator
Voice Activation Detection
Very Important Person
Voice VPN
Voice over IP
Virtual Private Network
Wide Area Network
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Appendix D
Index
##Net ............................................ 22, 38, 44, 143
#0 ..................................................................... 58
$ ............................................................... 76, 78
(234) ................................................................. 75
*# ..................................................................... 73
** ..................................................................... 44
*03* .................................................................. 71
*25# .......................................................... 20, 160
*26# .................................................................. 29
*27* .................................................................. 29
*28# .......................................................... 56, 160
*53# .................................................................. 73
*54 .................................................................... 73
*61* .................................................................. 73
*65# .................................................................. 72
*66* .................................................................. 73
*67* .................................................................. 73
*771# ................................................................ 47
*8 ............................................................. 59, 142
*9 ............................................................. 59, 142
[2-4] .................................................................. 75
3-way ................................................................ 71
3-way call ....................................................... 134
56# .................................................................... 73
absent service ................................................... 73
access code ....................................................... 96
access router ..................................................... 31
account number .............................................. 141
ACD ................................................................. 55
administrator user ............................................. 16
aggregate .......................................................... 89
analog phone port ........................................... 144
analog phones................................................... 45
Analog telephones ............................................ 45
analog trunk port............................................. 144
anonymous IPX ................................................ 80
any group ........................................................ 107
any in group .................................................... 107
any length ......................................................... 76
application types ............................................. 147
ATA mode ........................................................ 58
authentication ................................................. 141
authentication accounts................................... 141
Authentication user name ................................. 98
auto attendant ................................................... 98
auto configuration ............................................. 23
backup route ................................................... 111
Balanced ring .................................................. 125
Bellcore FSK .................................................... 69
Billing Authentication ...................................... 26
billing server ................................................... 142
Billing servers ................................................... 26
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bridge mode ......................................................34
Busy tone ..........................................................64
BYOD ...............................................................97
call agent .................................................144, 145
call authentication ...........................................142
call back ............................................................53
call destinations ........................................59, 106
call distribution ...............................................124
Call Forwarding ..........................................47, 66
call hold ............................................................72
Call ID ..............................................................68
Call logs ..........................................................156
call park ............................................................72
call recording ..................................................134
call routing table .............................................111
call transfer .......................................................71
call types ...........................................................59
call waiting .......................................................72
caller id ......................................... 47, 69, 96, 143
calling policy ....................................................61
CDR ..................................................................26
CED ................................................................120
center ..............................................................124
CFG tool ...........................................................23
Client IPX ...................................................83, 84
client IPX list ....................................................83
cluster ......................................................... 41, 89
clusters ..............................................................88
CNG................................................................120
codec priority ..............................................50, 98
collects digit......................................................76
concurrent calls .................................................50
connection oriented.........................................100
connectionless.................................................100
cycle ring ........................................................125
daylight saving..................................................25
default group .....................................................60
default IP router ................................................31
default password ...............................................16
default router ..................................................155
demo license .....................................................27
destination IP ..................................................150
destination number ...........................................75
destination port ...............................................150
destination port numbers ................................147
DHCP address range .........................................34
DHCP protocol .................................................32
DHCP service ...................................................34
DID ...................................................................39
DID number ......................................................40
digit collection ..................................................77
digit group ........................................................78
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direct link .......................................................... 82
distributed VoIP................................................ 79
DMZ ........................................... 33, 81, 100, 149
DNS server ............................................... 32, 155
domain name .................................................... 22
Domestic calls .................................................. 59
do-not-disturb ................................................... 73
DSP parameter groups ...................................... 64
DTMF priority ............................................ 50, 98
DTMF relay .................................................... 146
DTMF Relay To FXS ........................................ 62
duration of ringing ............................................ 62
dynamic extension ............................................ 53
E1/T1 trunk..................................................... 100
egress path ...................................................... 105
Email account ................................................... 25
email server ...................................................... 25
emergency calls ................................................ 60
encode format ................................................... 29
encryption key ................................................ 152
entry point of an IVR ........................................ 55
ETSI DTMF ..................................................... 69
ETSI FSK ......................................................... 69
expiration .......................................................... 28
extension password ........................................... 48
extension user ................................................... 16
external call ...................................................... 77
External Call Type ............................................ 59
external calls ..................................................... 58
factory default ............................................. 20, 21
factory default setting ....................................... 23
FAX over IP ............................................. 99, 121
firewall............................................................ 147
flash key ........................................................... 62
group ................................................................. 60
group members ................................................. 61
group ring ....................................................... 125
Help .................................................................. 21
hex digits ........................................................ 152
hold ................................................................... 72
hybrid IP PBX .................................................. 36
inbound security ............................................. 149
Inbound traffic ................................................ 151
InsideAny ........................................................ 147
internal call route .............................................. 88
internal call routing........................................... 41
internal calls ..................................................... 58
internal voice network ...................................... 37
international calls...................................... 59, 105
intranet call routing........................................... 88
IP address book....................................... 147, 152
IP forwarding .................................................... 34
IP phone ............................................................ 93
IP phones .............................................. 45, 48, 50
IP tunnel ......................................................... 152
IPX client .......................................................... 83
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
IPX code ...........................................................44
IPX code assignments .......................................79
ipx format .......................................................134
ipx tool ............................................................117
ITSP ..................................................................97
IVR .................................................................127
IVR entries......................................................128
IVR tree ..........................................................127
languages ..........................................................56
large network ....................................................88
legacy PBX ...............................................62, 144
limited license ...................................................27
local extension ..................................................44
log control .......................................................156
log types..........................................................155
logical extension .............................................144
logical numbers ..............................................145
M .....................................................................77
MAC addresses ...............................................148
mailbox .....................................................67, 115
Management Server ..........................................30
Max Flash Time ................................................62
Max Key Interval ..............................................62
media encryption ..............................................80
mesh network....................................................79
mesh voice intranet ...........................................81
multiple IPX codes .....................................44, 79
multiple public IP ...........................................148
MWI .................................................................51
NAT .......................................................... 92, 148
NAT/firewall ..............................................81, 83
network quality .................................................43
network tool ....................................................157
network topology ..............................................16
No Reply Ringing Time .....................................62
NTP ..................................................................25
number manipulation ........................................75
number translation ............................................77
on-hook .............................................................62
operator .............................................................47
operator user ...............................................16, 19
Outbound Call Prefix........................................96
OutsideAny .....................................................147
overflow..........................................................115
P .....................................................................77
parking lot .........................................................72
partition.............................................................60
partition IPX .....................................................40
PBX mode ........................................................58
peer to peer .......................................................82
peering ..............................................................81
Permanent .........................................................27
permanent memory ...........................................24
personal greeting.............................................115
phone commands ..............................................66
phone management page...................................65
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Phone volume ................................................... 48
physical interfaces ............................................ 12
pick up others ................................................... 73
polarity reversal .......................................... 26, 96
policy elements ............................................... 147
Port mapping .................................................. 149
PPPoE ............................................................... 31
prefix pattern .................................... 75, 143, 145
primary IPX server ........................................... 84
private IP address ..................................... 80, 148
Proxy agent rules ............................................ 146
Proxy dialing setting ....................................... 144
proxy rules ...................................................... 146
proxy server ...................................................... 98
PSTN line ......................................................... 96
PSTN ports ....................................................... 95
public DID ........................................................ 97
public service .................................................. 148
QoS ................................................................... 16
quick setup ........................................................ 20
R ..................................................................... 77
reach-ability .................................................... 157
reboot ................................................................ 21
Receive Prefix ................................................ 100
redirecting ....................................................... 108
Regional calls ................................................... 60
register server ................................................... 98
registration interval ........................................... 98
remote extension ............................................... 54
rescue package .................................................. 24
reset .................................................................. 21
resource sharing .............................................. 141
ring back music................................................. 65
ring tone ............................................................ 47
router mode....................................................... 34
routing policies ............................................... 111
routing rules .................................................... 111
routing table ...................................................... 35
RTP Port Range ................................................ 27
RTP Redundancy .............................................. 62
Same LAN segment .......................................... 82
schedule .......................................................... 135
schedule greeting .............................................. 57
secondary IPX server ........................................ 84
secondary route ............................................... 110
security firewall ................................................ 92
security policy ........................................ 147, 148
security rule .................................................... 150
Send Prefix ..................................................... 100
serial number .................................................... 22
Server IPX ........................................................ 83
signaling address ........................................ 80, 93
signaling encryption ......................................... 80
signaling port .................................................... 27
SIP account ....................................................... 48
SIP server ......................................................... 48
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
SIP URI ............................................................54
software license ................................................27
software upgrade...............................................24
source number ..........................................75, 101
source port range ............................................147
source routing ...........................................61, 107
Speed call..........................................................66
speed call id ......................................................58
SSH ...................................................................27
stacked up .......................................................113
star shaped ........................................................83
star shaped network ..........................................79
Static IP ............................................................31
status information ...........................................155
Super IVR .................................................55, 133
syslog ..............................................................156
System log ......................................................155
System name .....................................................27
T.30........................................................... 99, 121
T.38........................................................... 99, 121
TCP Ports..........................................................93
TCP/UDP port ..................................................27
time zone ..........................................................25
toll calls ............................................................61
toll charges......................................................141
trusted IP network ...........................................151
trusted IPX ......................................................143
trusted sites .....................................................143
UDP Ports .........................................................93
V.21 Preamble ................................................120
VIP list ............................................................143
VIP numbers ...................................................143
virtual extension .........................................45, 54
virtual IPX ........................................................37
virtual wide-area PBX ......................................79
Voice Collection ...............................................29
Voice Email ......................................................47
voice email prompt ...........................................47
voice extranet..............................................37, 94
voice intranet ....................................................79
voice mail .................................................47, 115
voice options .....................................................62
voice packages ..................................................56
Voice recordings .............................................134
voice volume .....................................................97
Voice VPN........................................................79
VoIP accounts ...................................................97
VoIP blockage ..................................................80
VoIP domains ...................................................99
VoIP First .........................................................61
VoIP gateway .............................................36, 93
VoIP line ...........................................................40
VoIP server .......................................................36
VoIP service providers .....................................97
VoIP trunk ........................................................99
VPN ................................................................152
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VPN tunnels ................................................... 148
W ..................................................................... 77
waiting queue ................................................. 124
wakeup............................................................ 138
WAV file .......................................................... 29
Copyright - © 2003- Simton Technologies, Inc
web server .......................................................148
whole sale .........................................................99
wide area IP PBX .............................................37
X .....................................................................75
Xfer ...................................................................71
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