Solaris 9 For Dummies - The

Solaris 9
by Dave Taylor
Solaris 9
Solaris 9
by Dave Taylor
Solaris™ 9 For Dummies®
Published by
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About the Author
Dave Taylor has been involved with Unix and the Internet since 1980. Former
positions include research scientist at HP’s Palo Alto R&D Lab, Senior Editor
of SunWorld Magazine, intranet columnist for InfoWorld, and founder of two
successful Internet startups. He’s also written a dozen books on technology,
notably Teach Yourself Unix in 24 Hours, Creating Cool HTML 4 Web Pages,
and Unix Shell Hacks. He has a bachelor’s degree in computer science, a
master’s degree in educational computing, and an MBA, and currently splits
his time between writing, teaching, management consulting work, and outdoor activities. He lives in Colorado with his wife, kids, two dogs, and a cat,
just a few miles from the Sun Microsystems Colorado campus.
His e-mail address is and his Web site is at www.
To the pleasure of a productive day, the calm of a loving family, and the security of a world at peace.
Author’s Acknowledgments
I’d like to first acknowledge the gracious help of the folks at Sun
Microsystems for their time spent reviewing this book as we’ve proceeded,
their generosity in underwriting my attendance at some Solaris training, and
the long-term loan of a Sun Blade100 system to double-check every example
and screen image against the latest release on a solid SPARC box. In addition,
Tadpole Technology was generous in loaning out a cool SPARCbook 6500
SPARC-based laptop ,and Tenon Software was kind in sending an X Window
Server for Mac OS X to allow session interoperability in my network.
There were also a number of people involved in this writing project, notably
including the lovely team at Wiley: Terri Varveris, Pat O’Brien, tech reviewer
extraordinaire Terry Cummings, and Andy Cummings, a long time friend of
mine in the publishing biz. In addition, Dave Miles at Tadpole had some
insights into Solaris strategies; Steve Christensen, Webmaster of had great ideas about online resources; and Martin Brown and
John Meister shared their Solaris expertise. Dee-Ann, as usual, let me vent
when needed, and I can’t say enough about the great support of my wife, children, dogs, and cat!
Publisher’s Acknowledgments
We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments through our online registration form
located at
Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following:
Acquisitions, Editorial, and Media
Project Editor: Pat O’Brien
Acquisitions Editor: Terri Varveris
Senior Copy Editor: Kim Darosett
Technical Editor: Terry Collings
Editorial Manager: Kevin Kirschner
Media Development Supervisor: Richard
Project Coordinator: Nancee Reeves
Layout and Graphics: Seth Conley,
LeAndra Johnson, Stephanie Jumper,
Michael Kruzil, Tiffany Muth,
Julie Trippetti,
Proofreaders: John Tyler Connoley,
John Greenough, Angel Perez,
TECHBOOKS Production Services
Indexer: TECHBOOKS Production Services
Editorial Assistant: Amanda Foxworth
Cartoons: Rich Tennant,
Publishing and Editorial for Technology Dummies
Richard Swadley, Vice President and Executive Group Publisher
Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher
Mary C. Corder, Editorial Director
Publishing for Consumer Dummies
Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher
Joyce Pepple, Acquisitions Director
Composition Services
Gerry Fahey, Vice President of Production Services
Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services
Contents at a Glance
Foreword ....................................................................xix
Introduction .................................................................1
Part I: Getting Aquainted with Solaris ...........................9
Chapter 1: Logging In and Poking Around ....................................................................11
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers ......................................................................25
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell ............................................................................55
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories ..................................................................81
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section ......................105
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-Mail Thing .............................................................................107
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web .................................................................129
Chapter 7: Creating Web Pages ....................................................................................153
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services ......................................................................167
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice ...........183
Chapter 9: Composing Documents with Writer .........................................................185
Chapter 10: The Rest of StarOffice ..............................................................................199
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs .................213
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files ..................................................................................215
Chapter 12: Editing Files ...............................................................................................233
Chapter 13: Controlling Processes ..............................................................................253
Chapter 14: Finding Files ..............................................................................................263
Part V: Administration and Security Issues ................279
Chapter 15: Connecting to the Network .....................................................................281
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration ...........................................................293
Chapter 17: Keeping Your System Secure ..................................................................309
Part VI: The Part of Tens ..........................................323
Chapter 18: Ten Best Web Sites ...................................................................................325
Chapter 19: Ten Key Security Features .......................................................................329
Chapter 20: Ten Great Free Add-Ons ..........................................................................333
Index .......................................................................337
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About This Book ..............................................................................................2
How to Use This Book ....................................................................................3
Solaris Installation: The Missing Topic? .......................................................4
How This Book Is Organized ..........................................................................4
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris ..............................................5
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section ...............................................5
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice ...................................5
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs .........................................6
Part V: Administration and Security Issues .......................................6
Part VI: The Part of Tens ......................................................................6
Icons Used in This Book .................................................................................7
Stay in Touch! ..................................................................................................7
Part I: Getting Aquainted with Solaris ...........................9
Chapter 1: Logging In and Poking Around . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Understanding Solaris Versions .................................................................11
Solaris 9 Features ..........................................................................................12
Your Login Account ......................................................................................14
Working with the login panel .............................................................16
Just log in already! ...............................................................................19
Launching a Program ....................................................................................20
Launching an application in CDE ......................................................21
Launching an application in GNOME ................................................23
Logging Out ....................................................................................................23
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Digging Around in CDE .................................................................................25
The world of pop-ups ..........................................................................27
Wandering through workspaces ........................................................31
Working with CDE windows ...............................................................34
Back to the Control Panel ...................................................................35
Getting Started with GNOME .......................................................................39
Menu bar ...............................................................................................40
Taskbar .................................................................................................41
Customizing your taskbar ..................................................................42
Solaris 9 For Dummies
The GNOME menu ...............................................................................45
The desktop menu ...............................................................................45
Customizing GNOME .....................................................................................48
Of fonts and mice ................................................................................50
The rest of the preferences ................................................................52
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Surviving the Command Line ......................................................................55
Leaving the shell ..................................................................................58
Poking around the system ..................................................................58
Working with flags ...............................................................................61
Wildcards ..............................................................................................62
Online documentation ........................................................................63
Managing File Redirection ............................................................................64
Building Command Pipes .............................................................................66
Finding matches with grep .................................................................66
Changing text in the pipeline .............................................................69
More useful piped commands ...........................................................70
Korn versus Bash: Which Is Best? ...............................................................73
Korn Shell features ..............................................................................75
Bourne Again Shell features ...............................................................75
Creating Aliases .............................................................................................75
Advancing with Shell Scripts .......................................................................77
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Using File Manager and Nautilus .................................................................81
The CDE File Manager ...................................................................................82
Exploring the File Manager window ..................................................82
Changing view and configuration settings .......................................84
Examining file properties and permissions .....................................84
Working with GNOME’s Nautilus .................................................................87
Listing Files with ls ........................................................................................91
Using and Changing Permissions ................................................................93
Interpreting file permissions ..............................................................93
Understanding directory permissions ..............................................96
Changing permissions with chmod ...................................................97
Making Directories ........................................................................................99
Moving and Copying Files ..........................................................................100
Copying files with cp .........................................................................101
Moving files to new directories with mv ........................................102
Compressing Big Files .................................................................................102
Table of Contents
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section ......................105
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-Mail Thing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Getting to Know Mailer ...............................................................................107
Configuring the program ..................................................................108
Viewing the mailbox ..........................................................................110
Changing the sorting order ..............................................................112
Sending mail .......................................................................................113
Using Netscape Messenger ........................................................................115
Configuring an e-mail account .........................................................115
Examining the Netscape window ....................................................118
Menu options and sorting ................................................................120
Sending and responding to e-mail ...................................................121
Command-Line Communication ................................................................123
Sending mail with mailx ....................................................................124
Working with incoming mail ............................................................125
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Starting Netscape 7 .....................................................................................129
Changing Preferences .................................................................................131
Adjusting your appearance ..............................................................134
Navigating preferences .....................................................................137
Advanced options .............................................................................141
Working Effectively .....................................................................................142
Going back in time .............................................................................146
Managing bookmarks ........................................................................148
Chapter 7: Creating Web Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Naming Files .................................................................................................153
Entering Content .........................................................................................154
Viewing Local Pages ...................................................................................157
Improving Layout ........................................................................................159
Working with Apache Server .....................................................................162
Publishing a Web page ......................................................................163
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Understanding FTP and Telnet Capabilities ............................................167
FTP capabilities .................................................................................168
Telnet capabilities .............................................................................168
Exploring the Net with FTP ........................................................................169
Exploring FTP with a browser ..........................................................169
Command-line FTP ............................................................................172
Connecting by Telnet ........................................................................177
Connecting Securely with SSH ...................................................................178
Solaris 9 For Dummies
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice ............183
Chapter 9: Composing Documents with Writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Creating New Documents ...........................................................................186
Altering the appearance of text .......................................................188
Tweaking colors .................................................................................190
Using Styles ..................................................................................................193
Applying a style to text .....................................................................194
Saving Documents .......................................................................................195
Picking the optimal document format ............................................196
Testing Cross-Platform Compatibility .............................................197
Chapter 10: The Rest of StarOffice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Balancing Accounts with Calc ...................................................................199
Text and numbers ..............................................................................201
Formulas .............................................................................................202
Creating Graphics with Draw .....................................................................203
Gallery .................................................................................................203
Main toolbar .......................................................................................204
Cool backgrounds ..............................................................................205
Building Presentations with Impress ........................................................206
Starting a presentation .....................................................................207
Entering data .....................................................................................208
Developing Web Pages ...............................................................................209
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs ..................213
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Viewing Files within the GUI ......................................................................215
Viewing in GNOME ............................................................................216
Browsing in CDE ................................................................................218
Viewing Files at the Command Line ..........................................................220
Analyzing Files with wc and spell .............................................................225
Making every word count with the wc command .........................225
Korect yur speling with spell ...........................................................226
GUI versus the Command-Line Interface .................................................230
Chapter 12: Editing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
Working with the CDE Text Editor ............................................................233
Text wrapping ....................................................................................235
Including content from other files ...................................................236
Searching and replacing ...................................................................237
Saving files ..........................................................................................237
Editing with the GNOME Text Editor ........................................................238
Including other files ..........................................................................241
Table of Contents
Doing a global search and replace ..................................................242
Saving files ..........................................................................................243
Using the vi Text Editor ..............................................................................244
Understanding modes .......................................................................244
Starting vi ...........................................................................................245
Entering text ......................................................................................246
Moving in the file ..............................................................................247
Including other files ..........................................................................248
Doing a global search and replace ..................................................249
Saving files ..........................................................................................250
Chapter 13: Controlling Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Finding Top Processes ................................................................................254
Processor Usage, by User ..........................................................................255
Understanding Running Processes ...........................................................257
What’s your uptime? .........................................................................257
Other processor status tools ...........................................................258
Managing Running Processes ....................................................................260
Changing job priority .......................................................................260
Killing unwanted processes .............................................................261
Killing processes by name ................................................................262
Chapter 14: Finding Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Finding Files with File Manager .................................................................263
More find criteria in CDE File Manager ...........................................265
Finding Files with GNOME ..........................................................................268
Searching by Content with grep ................................................................271
Using grep with mailboxes ...............................................................272
Specifying Search Attributes with find .....................................................274
Searching by size and date ...............................................................275
Searching by content ........................................................................276
Part V: Administration and Security Issues .................279
Chapter 15: Connecting to the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
Terminology and Concepts ........................................................................281
Configuring Solaris Networking .................................................................282
Unconfiguration: how to repeat the
out-of-box setup sequence ...........................................................283
Fixing DHCP Glitches ..................................................................................287
Hostname unknown .........................................................................288
DNS resolution problems .................................................................289
PPP ................................................................................................................290
PPP client configuration ...................................................................291
PPP server configuration ..................................................................291
Solaris 9 For Dummies
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
Exploring the Solaris Management Console ............................................293
Briefly exploring SMC .......................................................................295
Examining System Configuration ....................................................297
Starting and Stopping Your System ..........................................................300
Shutting down the system with shutdown .....................................301
Stopping the system with halt .........................................................302
Rebooting with the reboot command .............................................303
Adding User Accounts ................................................................................304
Creating a new home directory .......................................................305
Setting the account password .........................................................306
Chapter 17: Keeping Your System Secure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
Accounts and Permissions .........................................................................309
Ensuring Account Password Security ......................................................311
Validating the password file .............................................................311
Summarizing account data with passwd ........................................312
Checking for additional root accounts ...........................................314
Tweaking default password settings ...............................................314
Identifying Proper File Permissions ..........................................................315
Working with umask ..........................................................................316
Finding files and programs with
inappropriate permissions ...........................................................317
Disabling Unnecessary Internet Services ................................................319
Starting inetd .....................................................................................319
Restarting inetd via kill .....................................................................320
Part VI: The Part of Tens ...........................................323
Chapter 18: Ten Best Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
Excellent Online Solaris Documentation ..................................................325
Big Iron Administration Assistance ..........................................................326
More Sysadmin at Sys Admin Magazine ...................................................326
Small but Helpful Reference Site ...............................................................326
Squeeze Solaris on the Intel Platform .......................................................327
An Extensive Collection of Solaris Info .....................................................327
Keep Up-To-Date on Solaris News .............................................................327
Cool, Sun-Endorsed Software ....................................................................328
Even More Cool Solaris Software ..............................................................328
Yet More Great Freeware! ...........................................................................328
Chapter 19: Ten Key Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Secure Shell ..................................................................................................329
IPSec and IPK ...............................................................................................329
SunScreen Firewall ......................................................................................330
Table of Contents
Secure LDAP Implementation ....................................................................330
TCP Wrappers ..............................................................................................330
Buffer Overflow Protection ........................................................................330
Role-Based Access Control ........................................................................331
Smart Card Support ....................................................................................331
Kerberos v5 ..................................................................................................331
Solaris Resource Manager ..........................................................................331
Chapter 20: Ten Great Free Add-Ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
Everything and the Kitchen Sink: Emacs .................................................333
Digging for GNOME .....................................................................................333
An Attractive Alternative Desktop ............................................................334
When Surfing Speed Is All That Counts ....................................................334
A Powerful and Free Database Alternative ..............................................334
Watch TV on Your Solaris System? Sure! ..................................................335
StarOffice: A Great Alternative ..................................................................335
Interactive Multimedia Collaboration ......................................................335
Vi on Steroids! ..............................................................................................335
Games, Games, Games ................................................................................336
Solaris 9 For Dummies
It’s my pleasure to introduce you to Solaris, a computer operating environment that has been a important part of my life for more than 20 years. Not
that I’ve paid much attention to it.
The great thing about Solaris, from my perspective, is that it has simply been
there for me whenever I need it. To put it plainly, Solaris is pretty darn reliable. And it has always allowed me do several tasks at once — run a
spreadsheet, send mail, watch a Webcast, or whatever — with ease.
Even if this book is your first conscious exposure to the Solaris Operating
Environment, chances are you’ve already “used” Solaris. Millions do without
ever knowing it. That’s because many of the Web sites and Internet applications we use every day run on Solaris. Something like 90 percent of all
Internet traffic runs through a Sun server at some point. Eighty-five percent
of all NASDAQ trades run on Sun, and every one of the Fortune 100 uses
Solaris in some capacity.
We started out in 1983 with Solaris 1.0 and in 2001, we rolled out Solaris 9
with a host of new features and functionality in areas like security, instant
messaging, and so on.
Reading this book, you’ll learn about the subtleties and strengths of the
Solaris environment, including both the command-line and graphical interfaces. Like me, you won’t do any programming or advanced system
administration, but you will get to know a friendly, reliable co-worker who
can help you be more productive.
Scott McNealy
Chairman of the Board, President, and CEO
Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Solaris 9 For Dummies
elcome to Solaris 9 For Dummies! This book covers everything you
need to know to be productive with your computer and does it in a
fun and engaging manner.
Solaris is the flagship Unix operating system from Sun Microsystems, a company started by a group of graduate students from Stanford and the University
of California, Berkeley. In fact, Sun comes from the Stanford University
Network, where MBA student (and now Sun CEO) Scott McNealy studied.
Unix has a long and interesting history as an operating system, starting with
its initial development at AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories in the early 1960s.
The first version of Unix was written so that the BTL folks had a computer
that ran Space War, a very early computer game. Really!
The first few versions of Sun’s Unix OS (initially called SunOS — the Solaris
name showed up later) were variants on UC Berkeley’s Berkeley Software
Distribution (BSD) Unix. Many of the top BSD developers at UCB ended up
at Sun, most notably Bill Joy, who shows up time and again in this book.
The Unix community has always been a bit splintered compared to the PC
world where Microsoft is a ubiquitous presence. If you were to really explore
the history of Unix, with the Posix standardization efforts and shared development efforts of Motif and the Open Software Foundation, you’d find Sun
has consistently been at the forefront of both technological development and
coolness factor. If you wanted to be a cool Unix type, you’d have a Sun workstation on your desk.
This continues today, and one of the themes in this book is to not only explain
the fundamentals of working with the OS, but also reveal some of the coolest
features and capabilities. By reading this book, you too will become a smart
and productive Solaris user with a higher coolness quotient!
As with all For Dummies books, this title has lots of humor, some of which is
even funny (I hope!), and great cartoons by Rich Tennant. In addition, to get
you into the swing of the Solaris community, I’ve woven some subtle digs at
Microsoft into the book. It’s a popular hobby in the Solaris world. Stick with
me, and you’ll quickly get the hang of it!
Solaris 9 For Dummies
About This Book
I like to write books that sound like I’m sitting at a table with you, we’re both
sipping our cups of tea, and we just happen to have a computer on the table,
where I’m demonstrating certain things or letting you explore. As you proceed with this book, I think you’ll find it fun, easy to read, and entertaining!
As with any computing topic, the target readers of this book have a wide
range of experience and expertise level. This book is geared to neophytes
with some basic computing skills (you know what a computer mouse is, for
example) up through intermediate users who want to, perhaps, ease the transition from the Sun Common Desktop Environment to the new GNOME
graphical world. Any Solaris user can benefit from a brush-up of command
shell and terminal skills. They’re covered extensively. This book is made up
of about 50 percent graphical interface content and 50 percent command line
content, so it’s like getting CDE and GNOME For Dummies and Working the
Solaris Command Line For Dummies all wrapped up in one neat package!
You will want to have access to a Solaris system on a regular basis. Whether
it’s SPARC-based or Intel-based won’t affect your experience with this book,
but everything in this book was run on a SPARC-based Sun Blade100
To get an idea of the content, here are some sample sections:
Getting Started with GNOME
Compressing Big Files
Working Effectively with Netscape 7
Connecting Securely with SSH
Using the vi Text Editor
Exploring the Solaris Management Console
Configuring Solaris Networking
Disabling Unnecessary Internet Services
Although it may seem like this book covers lots of highly advanced technical
topics, you’ll find that the emphasis is on ensuring you have a productive and
secure working environment. Much of the book assumes that you have someone else doing the basic system administration and therefore focuses mostly
on the user-level tasks and knowledge needed to avoid any common pitfalls
or mistakes. It’s fun to use Solaris! It’s a sophisticated, powerful, and surprisingly easy-to-use operating system with a ton of great built-in features.
How to Use This Book
This book focuses on the Solaris user experience, interweaving sections on
the Sun Common Desktop Environment (CDE), GNOME, and the command
line. For each, I use a slightly different approach to detail what you should
do at any given point.
When I talk about steps you need to take with a graphical application, you’ll
find screenshots of pop-up menus, the CDE taskbar, or similar, to ensure that
when you’re staring at your own computer, you know what you’re supposed
to do.
Command-line utilities are a little easier: Your input to the command shell is
always shown in bold:
$ echo “this is a sample command output”
this is a sample command output
The first line (other than the $, which is the system prompt) is something
you type in. The second line, not in bold, is the output of the command.
Don’t try something other than what’s shown in the book until you’re more
confident in your skills. Failure to enter exactly what’s shown can sometimes
have unfortunate, or at least puzzling, results. For example, there’s a world of
difference between rm –f x* and rm –f x *. The former removes all files
that start with the letter x, whereas the latter removes all files in the current
directory! Just be careful, okay?
One additional tip: Some command lines are longer than what’ll fit in this
book — or even on the screen. Rather than have lines wrap willy-nilly, I use
the standard Unix trick of ending the partial line with a backslash followed by
Enter. Ensure that there’s never anything after the backslash on that line. For
example, look at the difference between the following two commands:
$ cat /usr/local/bin/myapp/data/ | \
> sort | uniq -c | sort -rn | head –5
(output omitted for space)
$ cat /usr/local/bin/myapp/data/ | \
ksh: : command not found
Although you can’t see this, the second example has a trailing space after the
backslash, causing the shell to not only think there’s nothing else left to enter
(it didn’t use the > prompt for more input) but also look for a command called
(space character), which isn’t found. Hence you get the otherwise puzzling
error ksh: : command not found. Just pay attention, and it won’t be too
much of a problem!
Solaris 9 For Dummies
Solaris Installation: The Missing Topic?
This book diverges from most For Dummies computer titles in that it does not
include any information on Solaris installation and configuration. Unlike the
homebrew hacker ethos of the Linux world, Solaris is more straightforward in
its installation, and, more importantly, almost all Solaris systems are deployed
by a central system administration or information technology group. Solaris
users are uniquely shielded from the installation and configuration process.
As a result, I’ve decided it’d be much more useful to jam as much user level
information in this book as humanly possible. Rather than spend 75 pages
nattering on about this configuration switch, that disk partitioning scheme,
and this other swap space allocation algorithm, you find out how to use
If you must install and configure your own Solaris system, the Sun installation package makes it a breeze, and the 385-page Solaris 9 Installation Guide
included with your Solaris 9 distribution does a good job of explaining how
to accomplish this task. If you really, really, really wish I would have included
some information on this topic, please let me know!
Speaking of missing topics, I also don’t cover programming, hacking into a
Solaris system, or advanced system administration and network configuration
topics. You can find plenty of great books on those topics, including Java 2 For
Dummies and Exploiting Security Holes For Fun and Profit For Dummies (just
kidding on that one).
How This Book Is Organized
This book is divided into six parts, arranged to help you proceed logically in
your understanding of Solaris. The first few parts primarily focus on what
you can do and how to do it, and the later sections are on more advanced
topics, ending with a few chapters on important system administration and
security topics and the Part of Tens. This book is modular, so you can dig
into a specific part, find a topic, and just read that section to find out how to
accomplish something or work with a specific application. The index is a terrific resource for jumping directly to a concept, program, or application!
Here’s a breakdown of the book:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
The computer’s sitting on your desk, staring at you. Now what? This first
part explores how to log in, and how to work with both the Common Desktop
Environment and the new GNOME environment. I also delve into the mysteries of the command shell, explore which of the many different shells are best
(my choice: Bash), and look at how to redirect input and output, feed the
output of one command to another with pipes, and even dabble a tiny bit
with shell scripts. This first part ends with an exploration of the different
file managers, file permissions, and compression utilities.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Scott McNealy, the CEO of Sun, was the first to coin The Network Is the
Computer, so it’s no surprise that Sun systems have excellent, easy-to-use
Internet utilities. The first chapter of this part covers the true killer application of the Internet, e-mail. This part continues by looking at the latest
version of Netscape’s venerable Navigator browser and then touches on a
worthy alternative, Mozilla. I then switch gears and look at how to build Web
pages in Solaris, run a Web server, and even analyze Web log files to see
who’s visiting and what they’re viewing. The last chapter considers ftp,
telnet, and the superior alternative ssh, the Secure Shell.
Part III: Becoming Productive with
Until recently, Solaris users faced a dilemma when working with office documents: Either buy a PC or Mac to run Microsoft Office or admit to your
colleagues that you couldn’t view the presentation, check the figures in the
spreadsheet, or proof the latest memo. This all changed when StarOffice
showed up on the scene. It has evolved into an excellent alternative, offering
complete compatibility with PC and Macintosh office applications.
This succinct part introduces you to the key components of StarOffice, with
a particular emphasis on StarOffice Writer, the document processing system.
You get a good idea of the power and capabilities of StarOffice so you’ll be
ready to begin your own exploration.
Solaris 9 For Dummies
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
This part introduces you to the key command-line tools and GUI-based
applications for viewing files, analyzing file content, and editing files with vi,
CDE Text Editor, or the GNOME Text Editor. I also delve into some of the internals of Solaris to help you understand what processes are running and how
to inter-act with them or — if you’re feeling particularly aggressive — kill the
processes. The last chapter in the section discusses two commands near and
dear to every Solaris guru: find and grep. These are definitely worth knowing!
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
This part addresses something that may be beyond your individual responsibility on your Solaris computer: system administration and security. However,
if something goes wrong on your computer, it’s your files that’ll be lost, corrupted, or stolen. Whether you have a top-notch system administrator or not,
it’s wise to know something about how to keep your system running optimally, with as many hatches battened down as possible.
The three chapters in this part explore different ways to hook a Solaris
system to an existing network, including the popular Dynamic Host Control
Protocol (DHCP) and the creaky Point-to-Point Protocol for modem access.
You also explore the Solaris Management Console and discover the proper
and safe way to stop your computer so you can unplug it.
Never just unplug your computer or flip the power switch to turn it off. Augh!
That’s the worst possible thing you can do to a Solaris system.
Although I don’t explore Solaris security in depth, the last chapter in this part
offers a good overview of basic security techniques and concepts that can go
a long way towards improving the security of your system. It includes information on what Internet services on your computer are potential security
holes and how to disable them.
Part VI: The Part of Tens
This part consists of three incredibly useful lists to ensure you can continue
your Solaris journey in safety and comfort — and, of course, keep your hands
inside the boat at all times for your own safety!
The three lists are the Ten Best Solaris Web Sites, the Ten Key Security
Features in Solaris 9 (just in case you’re still running a previous version of
Solaris and need yet another reason to upgrade), and my favorite, the Ten
Great Free Add-Ons to Solaris.
Icons Used in This Book
This icon tells you that a pointed insight lies ahead that can save you time
and trouble as you use Solaris. For example, maybe learning how to type with
your toes would help increase your speed in entering commands and moving
the mouse at the same time. (And maybe not. . . .)
The Technical Stuff icon points out places where you may find more data
than information. Unless you’re really ready to find out more about Solaris —
much more — steer clear of these paragraphs the first time you read a given
section of the book.
This icon tells you how to stay out of trouble when living a little close to the
edge. Failure to heed its message may have disastrous consequences for you,
your drawing, your computer — and maybe even all three.
Remember when Spock put his hand over McCoy’s face and implanted a suggestion in his brain that later saved Spock’s life? This icon is like that. Helpful
reminders of things you already know but that may not be right at the tip of
your brain . . . or whatever.
Stay in Touch!
With the help of the team at Dummies Press and my friends at Sun
Microsystems, I have done the best job I can of covering the most important, interesting, and helpful facets of Solaris, but I don’t yet know you and
your unique skills, expertise, and interests. I’d love to hear from you, whether
you want to share brickbats, kudos, errata reports, or even funny Solaris
Start by checking out my Web site for this book: www.intuitive.
com/solaris/. Also feel free to contact me via e-mail at taylor@
Thanks and enjoy!
Solaris 9 For Dummies
Part I
Getting Aquainted
with Solaris
In this part . . .
his part explains how to log in, and work with both
the Common Desktop Environment and the new
GNOME environment, including a comparison of the two.
With that taken care of, we delve into the mysteries of the
command shell, explore which of the many different shells
are best, and look at how to redirect input and output, feed
the output of one command to another with pipes, and
even dabble a tiny bit with shell scripts. Finally, this first
part ends with an important exploration of the different file
managers, file permissions, and compression utilities.
Chapter 1
Logging In and Poking Around
In This Chapter
Exploring different versions of Solaris
Taking a look at your login account
Using the login panel
Starting a program
Logging out of the system
he best place to start is almost always at the beginning. This book is no
different. This first chapter gives you a quick tour of the world of Solaris,
describing the evolution of the operating system, how Solaris 9 compares to
earlier versions of the operating system, and how Solaris compares to Unix,
Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X.
The hands-on part of this chapter focuses on the nuances of the login panel
and how to log in to the desktop environment of your choice. Once you’re
logged in, you’ll have a chance to start up a program and practice using the
mouse and keyboard, and then log out of the system safely.
Understanding Solaris Versions
I’m going to travel back in time, just briefly, to the birth of the Unix operating
system. It’s 1969, at Bell Telephone Laboratories, and Ken Thompson and
Dennis Ritchie are interested in taking an old, unused computer and writing
a space exploration game called Spacewar. Problem is, the computer doesn’t
really have any sort of development environment. A few evolutionary steps
and Unix was born.
It’s no exaggeration to say that Unix has the Internet running through its
veins and that the Internet is unquestionably powered by Unix systems —
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
not just Unix, but Solaris. As Sun CEO Scott McNealy says in his foreword,
“Around 90% of all Internet traffic goes through a Solaris system.”
As Unix grew, it split into two different operating systems:
System V (more commonly, SVR4, System V, Release 4) was based on the
development at Bell Telephone Labs (renamed AT&T Bell Labs, and now
a part of Lucent).
The Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) flavor came from research and
software development efforts at the University of California, Berkeley.
Unix people refer to all the different versions of Unix, Linux, Solaris, and
so on as flavors of Unix. Think of ice cream, and you’ll smile every time
you hear this particular jargon!
Bay Area universities like UC Berkeley are important to the history of Sun
Microsystems, too:
Sun head scientist Bill Joy was a star at Berkeley.
Sun grew from a rival college, Stanford University. In fact, the name SUN
comes from Stanford University Network.
Andreas Bechtolsheim was a student at Stanford when he saw great potential
for computers designed to always have a network connection — a connection
to Stanford University Network. Stanford wasn’t too interested, so in 1982
Bechtolsheim convinced a couple of fellow Stanford grad students (Scott
McNealy and Vinod Khosla) and a friend from UC Berkeley (Bill Joy) to create
Sun Microsystems.
The first release of Sun’s operating system was called SunOS. The last version
of SunOS that was called SunOS by the Sun marketing team was SunOS 4.3.1.
Since then, the OS has been marketed as Solaris.
All versions of Solaris also have the official moniker SunOS 2.x; the x is the
major release number of Solaris. (Yes, Sun went backwards from 4 to 2.) If
you want to impress someone who wears the Official Unix Suspenders, call
Solaris 9 by its other name, SunOS 2.9. (I’ve heard there’s a secret handshake,
Solaris 9 Features
Each release of Solaris adds to the strength and capabilities of the operating
system, typically for the key Sun customer running high-speed, high-demand
Chapter 1: Logging In and Poking Around
servers or complex multisystem networks. The most important additions to
Solaris with the release of Solaris 9 are
Linux compatibility
Significant security enhancements
A new Resource Manager tool
A new directory server
A volume manager and other file system enhancements
An improved multithreaded library
Incremental improvements for installation and configuration
What you don’t see on the preceding list are user-level improvements. One
of the most exciting changes of Solaris 9 is the gradual transition of the Sun
graphical interface from the stale Common Desktop Environment to the exciting new jazzy GNU Object Management Environment, also known as GNOME.
How Linux fits into the puzzle
Linux is a splinter variant, or flavor, of Unix created because of frustration with legal
restrictions on Unix. Although AT&T freely distributed Unix to the research and commercial
community, it kept a tight rein on innovation.
Many software developers found the restrictions frustrating, so they started developing
operating systems like Unix.
One group of programmers, led by the brilliant and eccentric Richard Stallman, began
rewriting a Unix-like operating system from
scratch for free distribution. That group was
GNU. (GNU stands for — I kid you not —
GNU’s Not Unix.) The GNU group developed
on expensive minicomputers and mainframes, such as Sun Solaris computers.
Other programmers really wanted a version
of Unix running on the low-cost Intel-based
IBM PC family of computers. They created
systems like Minix. Most importantly, Linus
Torvalds successfully wrote and distributed
Linux, his own Unix core kernel for Intel
Eventually, the GNU group (more commonly
known as the Free Software Foundation) and
the Linux group got together. Today’s Linux, with
all the bells and whistles, was created. Over 50
distributions of Linux are available today, most
notably from well-known distributors like Red
Hat and MandrakeSoft.
Linux has evolved to the point where it is important for Sun to ensure strong Linux compatibility
(which is one of the major improvements in
Solaris 9) while focusing on the Solaris advantages in security, performance, and scalability
within the Solaris/SPARC world.
If you want to read more about the history
of Sun Microsystems — it’s an exciting
story — check out
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
This book covers two graphical interfaces:
Common Desktop Environment, for those users who are still in the
legacy world of CDE
GNOME, for users ready to bravely step into the future of Solaris
By the release of Solaris 10, GNOME will be the primary graphical interface for Solaris. That will be wonderful for all Solaris users, whether guru
system administrators or just plain folk trying to be productive and efficient on a Sun SPARC-based computer.
If GNOME isn’t an option on your Solaris system, ask your system administrator to install it. It’s available for easy download at
Your Login Account
The first and perhaps most important step to use a Solaris system is to have
an account on the system. An account consists of
A unique login name
A secret password
A home directory that you can fill with your files, pictures, and work
Login names are two to eight characters long. Your system administrator
should have notified you of your login name. Many organizations use one of
these login name formats:
First initial, last name (I’d be dtaylor)
Last name only, unless there’s a name conflict (I’d be taylor or dtaylor)
Nicknames, cute words, or whatever else you want (I might be author or
The initial password set up with your account probably is a simple word or a
random sequence of letters and digits. Both of those are bad passwords, as is
your car license, social security number, or any other public information.
The goal of a password is to protect the privacy and security of your account.
Anything that makes it easy to break in is bad. Anything that makes it hard is
Chapter 1: Logging In and Poking Around
Don’t write your password down and don’t share it with other people. Ever.
Here are the elements of a good password:
It’s something you can remember. If you have to write it down, you’ve
just compromised the security of the password.
It’s not a dictionary word or other simple combination of all lowercase letters. Common password-cracking tools can spin through a
dictionary of words and obvious variations (backwards, for example) in
an hour or two.
It’s not based on any easily identifiable personal information. If you
pick the name of your daughter, your mother’s maiden name, the license
of your current vehicle, or even your social security number, a determined hacker can figure it out.
It’s longer, not shorter. Because passwords can only contain letters,
digits, and punctuation, each letter of the password can only have about
80 possible values. If you have a two-letter password, that’s only 6,400
possible values. If your password is seven characters long, over 2 billion
possible combinations exist!
It consists of mixed letters, digits, and punctuation, not just letters. If
there are 2 billion possible seven-letter mixed letter/digit/punctuation
passwords, how many are there if you just use lowercase letters? Instead
of 807, you have a possible password space of only 267, many, many
fewer possibilities.
How do you invent a secure, memorable password? Try these strategies:
Replace a letter with a punctuation character. Instead of using sparky
as a password, try Sp@rky! instead. It’s easy to remember and difficult to
Take a phrase and create a password from the first letter of each
word. If you’re fanatical about all things Tolkien, you might take the
phrase one ring to rule them all and turn it into ortrta. Then add some
mixed (upper and lower) case, punctuation, and digits. A great, memorable password would be OR+trta! It looks completely random but isn’t
if you know its derivation.
Don’t use the # character in your password. If not properly configured,
a Unix login program interprets # as a backspace.
Take a phrase and replace a word like for with a digit. The
Shakespearean phrase “Wherefore art thou, Romeo?” could be
shortened a bit and turned into wh4Rmeo? with very good results.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Adding punctuation is an easy way to increase security for any password. It’s
easy to start or end a password with !, ?, +, -, or &.
Working with the login panel
Enough chitchat. Log in!
When you turn on your Solaris system, you are presented with a blank screen
that contains the login panel.
The login panel confirms which computer you’ll be connecting to once you’re
logged in.
If you’re impatient, you can type in your account name, press Enter, type in
your password, press Enter again, and log in, but first take a moment to see
what choices are available before you proceed. Patience, patience!
From left to right, the buttons along the bottom are
OK (which acts the same as if you’d pressed Enter on your keyboard)
Start Over (if you get confused about where you are in the login process,
this’ll start you back at the beginning, ready for your account name)
Click the Help button, and you’ll see an informative reminder of the various options available with the login panel, as shown in Figure 1-1.
The Options button of the login panel is where all the power of the screen is
hidden. Click it, and you’re presented with a range of alternatives:
With a local connection, these items are on the Options menu:
• Language
• Session
• Remote Login
• Command Line Login
• Reset Login Screen
Chapter 1: Logging In and Poking Around
Figure 1-1:
available in
the login
If you’re connected to a Solaris computer through the network, your
login is like Figure 1-2. (The remote login says “remote host aurora” to
tip you off: “aurora” is the name of the other system to which we’re connecting.) The Options menu on a remote login consists of these items:
• Language
• Session
• Connect to Local Host
Unlike Windows and other graphical environments, Solaris supports multiple
environments in a remarkably simple fashion. You can easily log in to a session with GNOME running, give it a test drive, log out, change the Options➪
Session setting to the Common Desktop Environment (CDE), and log in again.
Poof — a completely different style of interacting with the environment.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Figure 1-2:
The remote
login panel
for Solaris 9.
All of these options are configurable, so your choices may be different from a
user in a different organization. On my system, for example, I have the following list of available languages:
U.S.A. (Euro)
Mexico — Spanish
Canada — French
Your list may be different, depending on what languages are installed and
how your system is configured.
It’s usually best not to change the default language.
The most interesting of the options for logging in is changing the session, the
window manager, and the user environment. On a minimal Solaris 9 installation, you’ll have only CDE and Failsafe as choices, but on a full version you
should have these choices:
Common Desktop Environment (CDE)
GNOME 2.0 Desktop
User’s Last Desktop
Failsafe Session
By default, Solaris 9 logs you in to the session you most recently used on a
previous login.
If you’re a CDE nut, you can log in without checking the Session value.
Chapter 1: Logging In and Poking Around
If you’re interested in other desktop management environments, choosing
Options➪Session➪GNOME lets you try GNOME, and choosing Options➪
Session➪Common Desktop Environment puts you back in the older
legacy CDE environment.
Chapter 2 addresses the differences between GNOME and CDE at length,
with lots of screen shots. You might want to preview that chapter before
doing too much experimentation.
Some installations are configured with even more sessions available, including the K Desktop Environment, Motif, or even earlier versions of GNOME
(the latest is 2.0). If so, try them out when you have a few minutes to spare.
If you’d rather work in the raw, unadulterated Unix command line, skipping
windows, graphics, mice, and all that fancy jazz, you can choose Command
Line Login to shut down the windows environment temporarily. (This is only
an option on a local connection. If your configuration doesn’t have your display directly wired to the Sun computer, this won’t be a choice.)
The command line is a different sort of world. If you’re curious about the
many, many commands you can use at the command line, how they work,
and how you can use them for maximum efficiency on a Solaris computer,
please see Chapter 3.
Just log in already!
To log in to the Solaris system, follow these steps:
1. Enter your account name in the text box on the screen and then either
click the OK button or press Enter on your keyboard.
Your account name (sometimes called login name) is case sensitive, so
make sure that you enter it exactly as given. Account name Taylor is not
the same as account name taylor in Solaris.
After you’ve successfully entered your account name, the login screen
changes to say “Welcome name,” and it reminds you what type of session you have scheduled to start up, as shown in Figure 1-3.
2. Type in your password.
Your password isn’t echoed on the screen. This can be confusing when
you first start using a Solaris system, especially if your password is a
sequence of random letters, digits, and punctuation. It’s for your own
good. (Can’t you just hear your mother saying that?) You’re already
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
following good security by not writing down your password, so having it
in clear text on your computer screen where a passerby can see it is also
a bad idea.
Figure 1-3:
the login
If you enter the password incorrectly, the login panel informs you in a
pretty non-threatening way, giving you another chance to log in.
The password is case sensitive! If you’re having trouble logging in, make
sure that you don’t accidentally have the Caps Lock selected: It changes
the key sequence you’re sending.
If you can’t log in, call your system administrator for assistance.
Once you are successfully logged in, your screen will flash, the login window
will vanish, and you’ll see the splash screen and other parts of the window
manager you’ve selected appear as the system starts all the programs
Launching a Program
After you’ve logged in, a splash screen momentarily indicates what version of
CDE you’ve installed (probably Version 1.5).
The results of the login depend on the windowing system you choose.
If you start CDE, the startup screen shows the version of CDE, then quite
promptly switches to the default CDE view.
Chapter 1: Logging In and Poking Around
Although not glamorous or full of snazzy three-dimensional graphics,
CDE is quite functional and has a helpful control panel along the bottom
of the screen, making it easy to see what’s happening on your computer
(including the current time and system load). It’s also easy to launch
If you start GNOME, the startup screen shows the launch of Metacity
(as shown in Figure 1-4).
GNOME starts lots of helper applications and has a transitional startup
screen called Metacity. On a Solaris system, it looks like Figure 1-4.
Watch the gradual progression of icons on your own screen as each
component of GNOME starts.
After all the components are running, GNOME takes over your window,
looking much more like Windows or the Macintosh than CDE does, as
shown in Figure 1-5.
Launching an application in CDE
If you’re running the Common Desktop Environment, you can launch applications by either of the following methods:
Finding them on one of the panels that emerge when you click on the top
edge above the icons on the control panel
Typing the command into a terminal window at the command line
For the purposes of this first foray into CDE, click the globe in the lower-left
part of the control panel. It shows the current time, and it is the shortcut for
launching the Web browser. If your CDE configuration launches the browser
automatically, you’re ahead of the game and have saved an entire mouse
After the browser starts up, it has a screen full of information about the plugins and other configuration details.
After a few seconds, that vanishes, and your home page appears (probably
Congratulations! You’ve successfully logged in and launched a program
within the Common Desktop Environment.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Figure 1-4:
Figure 1-5:
Chapter 1: Logging In and Poking Around
Launching an application in GNOME
If you’ve opted for the world of GNOME, be assured that there aren’t little
people running around looking for geodes. It’s in a graphical environment
that should feel familiar if you’re used to Windows or Macintosh computers.
The little foot icon in the bottom-left corner of the screen is the GNOME
equivalent of the Start button in Windows. Click it, and a menu of choices
pops up.
As an example, choose Applications➪Games➪Gnometris to launch the
GNOME version of the computer game Tetris.
Spend a few minutes playing Gnometris. It’s easy and also demonstrates
that moving from Windows or the Mac to the more powerful world of Solaris
doesn’t have to be all serious!
Logging Out
Whether you’re enjoying the simple legacy world of the Common Desktop
Environment or the more colorful modern graphical interface of GNOME, the
final task at the end of a workday is to log out of the system. You accomplish
this in different ways on different systems:
CDE: Look for the small EXIT sign in the middle of the control panel.
Click it, and you’re asked if you really want to log out, as shown in
Figure 1-6.
GNOME: Log out by clicking the small computer screen with the little
moon icon on the lower left, just next to the GNOME footprint logo.
You’re asked if you want to log out., as shown in Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-6:
Sure you
want to log
out of CDE?
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Figure 1-7:
to quit
Whether you’re using CDE or GNOME, click “yes” or “okay.” Everything shuts
down, the screen goes blank, and the login panel shows up again. The computer is waiting for you or someone else to log in.
Done! Not too bad, was it?
Chapter 2
Graphical Window Managers
In This Chapter
Learning CDE and the CDE Control Panel
Feature-Spotting with GNOME
Customizing your GNOME Desktop
fter logging in to your Solaris system, the next step is to personalize it
to meet your needs, wants, and interests. Think of it as putting the personal into personal workstation.
The path you take depends on which desktop environment you’ve chosen.
This chapter explores the Common Desktop Environment, with an emphasis
on its powerful Control Panel, but focuses more on GNOME; it’s the future of
the Solaris environment. Either way, if you prefer a certain color scheme,
larger type, sound, or other changes, this chapter shows you how to make
those changes.
As with all subsequent chapters, log in to your Solaris system before you proceed with this material.
Digging Around in CDE
The most notable feature in the Common Desktop Environment is the large,
visually interesting Control Panel along the bottom of the screen, as shown in
Figure 2-1. It’s primarily a launch pad for applications. Almost every icon or
graphic that you click causes something to happen on your computer.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Figure 2-1:
From left to right, these are the icons on the Control Panel:
The butterfly represents the StarOffice components.
The globe is a clock and launches the Netscape Web browser.
The calendar page enables you to access a CDE calendar.
The file cabinet offers a file and directory browser.
The note with a pushpin and a pencil enables you to access the text
The inbox is a shortcut to the e-mail client program.
The small lock icon lets you lock your system if you leave it for any
amount of time.
To unlock it, enter your account password.
The four buttons labeled One, Two, Three, and Four represent four different workspaces, essentially four virtual computer monitors.
This is a helpful feature because you don’t have any window overlap or
worries about the size of your monitor. For example, you can have the
• Open files of a project in one workspace
• Your mail program in a second workspace
• A game running in a third workspace
• A fourth workspace available for other tasks
To the right of the workspace buttons is a small icon of planet Earth.
Unlike the large Earth icon that launches Netscape Navigator, this
smaller icon opens a Go dialog box where you can type such information as
• Web site address
• Remote hostname
• e-mail address
The small EXIT sign is the fast way to log out of the Common Desktop
Environment when you’re done for the day.
The printer enables you to access the Solaris print management system.
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
Next is a preferences area (a section I examine in closer detail later in
this chapter).
The CPU disk icon enables you to access a CPU and disk usage monitor.
The question mark icon enables you to access the online Sun document
The wastebasket, where you drag files that you don’t want to keep and
where you can also manage your trash, pulling out files that you
changed your mind about deleting.
Above each icon is a small button with a triangle pointing upwards. Clicking
this button opens a pop-up menu of choices in that category.
The world of pop-ups
If you click the small rectangular button above the butterfly icon, a menu of
options slides up, as shown in Figure 2-2. Instead of pointing upwards (which
is a visual clue that there’s a menu underneath the button), the triangle now
points downward, indicating that clicking the same spot will close the menu
and change the triangle back to its initial state.
The Sun mouse has three buttons. In this book, unless stated otherwise,
always use the left mouse button to click things. The other two buttons are
primarily for copying and pasting.
Figure 2-2:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
The menu stays open until you click the small triangle at the bottom. This is a
nice feature but can take some time getting used to if you’ve spent time using
Windows or Mac systems.
Figure 2-2 shows the StarOffice menu. StarOffice, included with the full Solaris 9
distribution, is a suite of terrific applications that give you the functionality of
Microsoft Office. StarOffice is covered in Part III of this book.
From this menu, you can launch
StarOffice central control area (the default item that’s highlighted in
Figure 2-2)
Text document
Drawing palette
HTML (Web) document
File and configuration options for StarOffice
On the top left of this menu’s title bar is a small box that has what looks like a
dash or hyphen within. This is the window menu button. Click it to see a set of
options, as shown in Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3:
A variation of this window control menu shows up in almost all windows in
the CDE environment, though the options vary based on the application running in the window. For the Control Panel pop-up menu, the choices are
Restore: Restores the menu to full size. This option is grayed out in
Figure 2-3 because the menu is already restored — full size.
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
Move: Enables you to move the menu to your favorite spot on the screen.
Drag the menu to the desired location and then click the mouse to stick
it there.
Lower: Doesn’t do anything in this context.
Some applications support using Lower as a way to minimize the window
to a desktop icon (skip forward to Figure 2-5 to see desktop icon examples), but StarOffice does not let you minimize the floating menu, so
Lower won’t do anything here.
Close: Closes the pop-up menu. The StarOffice menu slides neatly back
into the Control Panel, leaving things as they were in Figure 2-1.
If you click the window menu button in the top-left corner of the main Control
Panel (refer to Figure 2-1), you see similar choices, as shown in Figure 2-4:
Restore (again, grayed out)
Log Out — enables you to quickly log out of the CDE environment
Figure 2-4:
The Control
Panel menu.
The most interesting option is Minimize. Poof! The Control Panel disappears,
and a small 1-x-1-inch icon appears in the top-left corner of the screen, as
shown on the right in Figure 2-5. The name One is the name of the current
Figure 2-5:
The Control
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
This concept of minimizing, or iconifying, applications to get them out of the
way is a powerful aspect of the Unix environment because the application is
still running when minimized. You can minimize your Web browser (as shown
on the left in Figure 2-5), e-mail program, StarOffice applications, and anything that you can run within CDE.
Clicking a minimized application opens another window menu (see Figure 2-6).
This time Restore is not grayed out.
Choose this option to change the icon to a full window again.
You can also restore iconified applications by double-clicking the icon.
Figure 2-6:
The window
menu for the
Panel icon.
For iconified applications, it’s helpful to see the expanded menu of options
for a regular program as compared to a special CDE application like the
Control Panel. Because Netscape Navigator is already iconified, that’s a good
place to start.
Click the icon, and it changes, as shown in Figure 2-7.
Figure 2-7:
The window
menu for the
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
The Netscape icon name expands to show the name of the Web site that’s
currently loaded (Sun Microsystems, in this example).
Wandering through workspaces
The window menu options added for a regular application are
Occupy Workspace
Occupy All Workspaces
Unoccupy Workspace (grayed out)
A workspace is a virtual computer screen available for use. The buttons One,
Two, Three, and Four represent the four workspaces.
To see how workspaces work, follow these steps to move the Netscape application from Workspace One to Workspace Two:
1. Restore the Netscape window, as shown in Figure 2-8.
Figure 2-8:
restored to
full size.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
2. Click Two in the Control Panel to confirm that it’s a big, empty workspace with no iconified applications, as shown in Figure 2-9.
It has a different background, so it’s not identical to Workspace One.
3. Click One in the Control Panel to return to Workspace One.
4. Click the window menu button in the top-left corner of the window to
reveal the window menu.
The options in the window menu are identical to Figure 2-7. In this case,
Restore is grayed out, and Minimize isn’t.
5. Choose Occupy Workspace.
You see the dialog box shown in Figure 2-10.
6. Select Two and click OK.
The application vanishes! Where did it go? To workspace Two, of course.
Click Two in the Control Panel, and you’ll find the wandering application
safe and sound.
Figure 2-9:
Two with no
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
Figure 2-10:
Here are a few additional points to remember about workspaces:
If you want an application to live in all workspaces, select the All
Workspaces check box in the Occupy Workspace dialog box.
If you want an application in all but one workspace, use these steps:
1. Select All Workspaces in the Occupy Workspace dialog box.
2. Jump to the workspace you want to exclude.
3. Choose Unoccupy Workspace from the window menu.
To rename a workspace, use these steps:
1. Double-click the workspace name, which changes the color of the
icon and adds a cursor.
2. Use the mouse to select the text
3. Type a new name over the existing text.
Change all four workspace names, and you might have something similar to Figure 2-11. (In Figure 2-11, the fourth workspace has been
selected, but no new name has been entered.)
Figure 2-11:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
CDE remembers all of these customizations when you log out and log in
again. That’s what the message, “Your current session will be saved and
returned to upon your next login,” means when you log out of a CDE session.
Working with CDE windows
Clicking the top-left box on a CDE window produces a menu of options. Two
of these options are Minimize and Restore.
Click the Text Editor icon (the piece of paper with the pushpin and the
pencil). A small edit window pops up, as shown in Figure 2-12.
Figure 2-12:
An empty
Text Editor
On the top right, you see two boxes, one with a dot, and one with a large box:
The dot box is the Minimize button. Click it to minimize the application.
The box with the large square in it is the zoom box; click it to maximize
the application window, similar to the Microsoft Windows zoom feature.
More functionality is hidden in the window frame:
To move the window: Click the title bar (where it says Text Editor), and
while holding down the mouse button, move the mouse. This is a simple
shortcut for moving windows in the Common Desktop Environment.
To restore the window to full size: Double-click the title bar. Doubleclick it again, and you’re back to the original small application window.
To resize the window: Click carefully on one of the narrow edges of the
window and then move the mouse while holding the mouse button down.
This is a shortcut for resizing the window in that dimension. Click a
corner, and you can drag in two directions at the same time. You can
make a window any size and dimensions you want.
Most of this behavior is identical in Microsoft Windows. Try some of these
shortcuts next time you’re near a Windows 98, NT, or XP system.
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
The menu choices within the application window are controlled by the application. File, Edit, Format, Options, and Help are all part of the Text Editor
application. The Text Editor is explored in Chapters 11 and 12.
Back to the Control Panel
This section takes a quick peek at a few other interesting menus that pop up
from the top edge of the Control Panel.
File Manager
One notable menu is the Applications menu. To open this menu, click the triangle button just above the Text Editor icon. The choices shown in that menu
Text Note
Text Editor
Voice Note
Click Applications to run the CDE File Manager, as shown in Figure 2-13.
The folder opened by default is the applications and tools folder, causing File
Manager to label itself Application Manager instead. Underneath, it’s the CDE
File Manager.
Figure 2-13:
The CDE File
and tools.
Though not as glamorous as Windows and nowhere near as sexy as the pulsing three-dimensional look of Apple’s Mac OS X Aqua interface (let alone the
GNOME file manager, Nautilus), this is the basic file manager for the Common
Desktop Environment. Click a folder to open it. Click an application to launch
it. The name of the window is the name of the currently displayed folder.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
For example, click the Desktop_Apps icon in the top-left corner of the window.
The result is shown in Figure 2-14. You have 32 applications available to launch,
and a .. (go up) shortcut that takes you to the original Applications level.
Figure 2-14:
A bunch of
The Control Panel is another way to access many of these applications. When
you click the globe clock, for example, you launch the Web Browser application shown in Figure 2-14. Click the bookshelf with the question mark icon,
and you get the help viewer from this group.
To close the CDE File Manager, click the top-left box and choose Close from
the menu.
Style Manager
A more interesting area to explore is the CDE Style Manager. In the Control
Panel, click just above the Preferences icon (next to the printer) to open the
Tools menu, and then choose Desktop Controls.
The resulting file manager window shows a variety of customization tools, as
shown in Figure 2-15.
The most useful choices here are
Backdrop Style Manager, which makes it a breeze to change the wallpaper in any or all of the workspaces.
Color Style Manager for picking different themes.
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
Figure 2-15:
Power Manager to customize when your system
• Sleeps
• Spins down the hard disk
• Shuts off the display on inactivity
Screen Style Manager to customize screen saver modules, as shown in
Figure 2-16.
Figure 2-16:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
In the Screen Style Manager, you
• Select screen saver graphics
• Enable or disable having to enter a password when returning from
screen saver mode
• Access the Power Management features directly
The Common Desktop Environment Style Manager is automatically launched
when you select any of the customization tools, as shown in Figure 2-17. From
here, it’s easy to figure out how to customize your CDE environment for your
preferences and needs.
Figure 2-17:
Go into the Color Style Manager and check out Mustard. It’s one of my
favorite color schemes for CDE. Then go to Backdrop and check out
Southwest. They’re a good combination of color and style.
If you want to change the number of workspaces in CDE, click Workspace
Manager Controls in the file manager window. You can choose from 1 to 50
workspaces. Select too many, and the Control Panel gets a bit wacky, as
shown in Figure 2-18!
Figure 2-18:
Maybe this
is too many
after all.
There’s much more to customizing and using the Common Desktop
Environment than can be reasonably covered in this book, but the fundamental question is why? Sun Microsystems makes it clear that the future direction
of Solaris is with GNOME, covered in the next section. Although CDE will be
included for legacy support (“footdraggers who hate change”), CDE will be
less important as time passes.
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
If CDE is your preferred windowing environment for Solaris 9, be prepared
for a big change. In fact, now’s a great time to get started! Ask your system
administrator to install GNOME if it’s not already part of your operating
system install. (System administrators can start by reading the latest information and downloading the newest programs at
Then use it. Switch over. All CDE applications are still accessible within the
GNOME environment, and all the GNOME applications are there, too.
Getting Started with GNOME
By contrast with the CDE world, GNOME has a tendency to spread out and
use all the nooks and crannies of your desktop.
Figure 2-19 shows GNOME, with a taskbar along the bottom and a menu bar
along the top of the window.
Figure 2-19:
The world of
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Menu bar
Without changing the default settings, the main controls for GNOME are
along the top menu bar. The important details of the top menu bar are shown
in Figure 2-20 and described from left to right in the following list:
Figure 2-20:
menu bar.
The foot icon is the GNOME equivalent of the Apple icon on the
Macintosh. It’s the shortcut to the Applications menu, which enables
you to access all applications and functionality within GNOME.
Adjacent to the Applications menu is the Actions menu, shown in
Figure 2-21. It enables you to
• Run programs from a command line
• Search for files
• Take a screenshot
• Lock your screen
• Log out of GNOME
Figure 2-21:
The small house icon opens the Nautilus file manager at your home
The tiny computer screen launches a terminal window for working at the
command line (as discussed in Chapter 3).
The right side of the menu bar includes the following:
• The date and time.
• A small speaker icon for quick access to the audio controls within
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
• An icon showing the current application in the foreground.
Known in the world of the X Window System as the application
with focus, it receives the information when you press keys on the
keyboard, and its window frame is usually a different color from
the others on the screen. Clicking the currently running application icon shows all running applications, even those in different
workspaces. Figure 2-22 shows that three applications are running
in this workspace, and one in another.
Figure 2-22:
Two different Netscapes are running in Figure 2-22, and the title of each Web
site being viewed is shown. This information is helpful when things are going
on simultaneously!
The taskbar at the bottom of the screen is useful even in the default configuration. The taskbar shows which applications are running offering
An easy way to jump between applications
Access to the Workspace Switcher
Figure 2-19 shows three applications running and a panel of small boxes on
the bottom right.
A closer look at the bottom-right corner of the taskbar is shown in Figure 2-23.
The small panel with six boxes is the GNOME version of workspaces; by
default, there are six. Because five are as-yet unpopulated in Figure 2-23,
they’re blank. (In the Common Desktop Environment, the default configuration has four workspaces, initially labeled One, Two, Three, and Four.)
Figure 2-23:
The right
edge of the
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
To move to a workspace, click it. All your open applications vanish and move
to a new, clean desktop. You can start applications in each workspace and
move them between workspaces, but not quite as flexibly in GNOME as
within CDE:
A GNOME application can either run in either one workspace or all
CDE applications can be excluded from some workspaces and included
in others.
Customizing your taskbar
GNOME is easy to customize. Right-click just about anything, and you can
change it to your heart’s content.
Start by right-clicking the Workspace Switcher on the bottom right of the
taskbar. To change your Workspace Switcher preferences, choose Preferences.
The Workspace Switcher Preferences dialog box appears, as shown in
Figure 2-24.
Figure 2-24:
in the
To change the number of workspaces, enter the desired number in the
Number of Workspaces box.
To change the name of a workspace, follow these steps:
1. Click the name in the Workspaces list on the right
2. Type the new name.
3. Click the Show Workspace Names in the Switcher check box.
Click Close to close the preferences dialog box. Figure 2-25 shows a new,
improved Workspace Switcher.
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
Figure 2-25:
The new
Continuing to customize the taskbar, click the small vertical separator bar on
the far left of the taskbar. With your mouse button held down, move this bar
about two inches to the right so there’s a blank space to the left. Right-click
that blank space to see the menu of choices shown in Figure 2-26.
Figure 2-26:
It’s easy to pick a few useful functions and add them to the left corner of the
GNOME taskbar. You have to re-launch the menu after each choice — that’s
just a right-click. For example, choose GNOME Menu, Log Out Button, and
Lock Button. The result is three small icons on the bottom-left corner, as
shown in Figure 2-27.
Figure 2-27:
all in a row.
To change the order of icons, right-click an icon and choose Move from the
menu that pops up.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
I prefer to have the GNOME menu on the left, then the logout icon, and then
the lock icon. I also add a few shortcuts for commonly used programs:
Netscape and the terminal application. To add Netscape, for example,
right-click on a blank spot and choose Add to Panel➪Launcher from
Menu➪Internet➪Netscape Web Browser.
You can also add or delete panels (menubars), because the same underlying
program controls the taskbar and the top menu. If you’d rather live in a more
Windows-like world, zap the top panel by right-clicking the menu and choosing Delete This Panel; then customize the bottom to meet your preferences.
I like to add a weather monitor to either the taskbar or the menu bar. Just
Right-click a blank area and then choose Add to Panel➪Accessories➪Weather
By default, the weather is for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. If you’re not planning
a picnic in the Steel City, though, you can change the location with these
1. Right-click the little weather graphic and choose Preferences from
that menu.
The Weather Preferences dialog box opens, as shown in Figure 2-28.
Figure 2-28:
the weather
2. Pick the appropriate city from the list (it’s organized by state) and
then click the General tab.
This ensures that the default configuration is good — it usually is fine.
3. Click Close and right-click the weather forecast and choose Refresh
from the options.
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
Now it’s your local weather forecast, updated every 30 minutes. Neat,
eh? And people say Solaris is dull!
The GNOME menu
Click the foot icon at either the top or bottom of your screen — depending on
how you configured things — and you’ll see a number of choices on the
Applications menu, including
CDE Menu
Run Program
Search for Files
Lock Screen
Log Out
Of these, the CDE Menu is most worth mentioning because it offers access to
all CDE applications within the GNOME environment.
A neat trick!
This is one big reason why it’s easy for Common Desktop Environment users
to transition to GNOME. When running GNOME on Solaris, you have access
to all the great GNOME applications and still have easy legacy access to CDE
applications, too, all of which work fine. Figure 2-29 shows GNOME running
a typical CDE application, Text Editor, and also shows the CDE Menu➪
Applications list.
Not only do CDE applications run happily in GNOME, they look better and
more modern. Figure 2-29 shows the CDE Calculator in GNOME, which looks
nicer than in CDE.
The desktop menu
A hidden gem in GNOME is the menu that pops up on the main desktop area
when you right-click. The menu is shown in Figure 2-30. The following list
describes some of the options available from this menu:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Figure 2-29:
Figure 2-30:
New Window: Opens a Nautilus file manager window with your home
directory shown.
Nautilus is explored in depth, including day-to-day Nautilus tasks, in
Chapter 4.
New Folder: Creates an unnamed folder, logically enough. You can
rename the folder by right-clicking the folder and choosing Rename.
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
New Launcher: Enables you to tie a desktop icon to the invocation of a
specific program. Getting it to work properly is beyond the scope of this
book, so we’ll leave it alone.
Clean Up by Name: A quick way to reorganize your desktop icons if
they’ve sprawled out of control. It’s analogous to the same function in
Disks: This submenu offers quick access to the floppy and CD-ROM
Selecting a disk opens up Nautilus with the contents of the appropriate
device displayed. GNOME tries to show removable media on the desktop
automatically upon being inserted, but it doesn’t always work. This is a
fast and easy alternative.
Change Desktop Background and Use Default Background: GNOME
includes several desktop backgrounds. It’s easy to change to a different
background picture or even a color or gradient.
1. Choose Change Desktop Background to access Background
2. Click the miniature version of the current desktop on the top left
to access a browser.
3. Move to either images or tiling_patterns to see your choices.
Figure 2-31 shows one of the images in the standard distribution
previewed. Nice!
Figure 2-31:
One of many
One advantage that CDE has over GNOME is that you can have different desktop images for each workspace. In GNOME, workspaces share the background
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
desktop image, which is one of the few disappointments for CDE users transitioning into the brave new world of GNOME.
Customizing GNOME
You can poke around and tweak the visual characteristics of GNOME many
ways to meet your preferences, from weather forecasts to named workspaces, from duplicate GNOME menus to shortcuts for your favorite
applications. However, you can change a lot more under the proverbial hood of
the program.
Although you can reach each preference from the GNOME menu, stepping
through all the possible areas is awkward. A smarter way to accomplish this
is to click the Start Here map and compass icon on the desktop. This
launches a Nautilus file manager window, as shown in Figure 2-32.
Figure 2-32:
Start Here
offers easy
access to
lots of
Because this section focuses on GNOME, double-click Desktop Preferences.
You see the list of customizable elements shown in Figure 2-33. The icons that
list a certain number of items beneath the icon name (such as Advanced,
which lists 5 items) denote that those items are folders and that there are,
for example, five different items within the Advanced folder.
Ahhh. So many choices, so little time!
Start customizing by picking a different background:
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
Figure 2-33:
Double-click the Background icon, and you’ll see the same Background
Preferences window you encounter from the desktop menu, as shown in
Figure 2-34.
To change the image, click the Select Picture box on the top left and navigate to your preferred image.
Figure 2-34:
Crazy pictures can seem fun, but simple, calm low-color background graphics
and solid colors offer the least invasive desktop for productive work. The best
choice is a gradient that gently transitions from one color to another; it’s
more attractive than a solid color background. Pick a gradient by following
these steps:
1. Click the white No Picture box.
Your desktop becomes, um, as pure as the driven snow.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
2. To change the background color, click the small Color button.
It opens a color chooser window, as shown in Figure 2-35.
Figure 2-35:
3. To select a new color, click different spots on the color wheel or
within the color triangle, and then click OK to proceed.
You can go wild and have dark blue transitioning to bright pink, but a
nice low-key background can be a gradient from one dark color to
another, perhaps dark blue to dark purple.
Gradients can be oriented horizontally or vertically.
4. Click the Background Style pop-up menu, and you can choose from
Solid Color
Horizontal Gradient
Vertical Gradient.
5. When everything is to your liking, click Close to make your change
permanent and return to the Desktop Preferences area.
Of fonts and mice
Two of the great improvements of modern graphical computing are
The ability to use a pointing device, like a mouse, for rapid and precise
cursor motion
The ability to change typefaces to improve the clarity and legibility of
information displayed on-screen
Choosing Typefaces
You can change the default typefaces used in applications and on the desktop, but you have less control in GNOME than in Windows or Macintosh
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
systems. Figure 2-36 shows the default font choices out of a relatively small
list accessible from the Font Preferences window.
Figure 2-36:
Unless you have a strong desire to tweak things, I suggest leaving the
application and desktop fonts to their default values of sans 10 and sans 12,
Sans means a sans-serif typeface. (Serifs are tiny feet on the bottom of letters.)
Sans-serif type is more readable on a computer screen. The text you’re reading now in the book is in a serif typeface (like a newspaper) because it makes
letters this size easier to read when they’re printed on paper.
Running with Mouse Preferences
The mouse preferences are more interesting. Double-click Mouse in the
Desktop Preferences window to see the many ways you can customize the
mouse. Figure 2-37 shows both the Buttons and Motion tabs.
Figure 2-37:
(two views).
Buttons tab: If you’re left-handed, you’ll be delighted by the first option
on the Buttons tab: Left-Handed Mouse. Choosing this option flips the
behavior of the left and right mouse buttons. The mouse will work better
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
with your left hand and ensure that no one else can use your system
without getting hopelessly befuddled!
Cursors tab: This tab enables you to change cursors, but I don’t recommend doing so.
Motion tab: This tab enables you to customize the behavior of your
mouse. If you have a large screen, increasing the mouse acceleration is
often helpful and can save lots of dragging on-screen. Think of it as the
add/delete cat function (cat chases mouse, mouse goes faster, get it?).
When you’re done fine-tuning the behavior of your mouse, click Close to have
your changes take effect.
The rest of the preferences
Once you get up to speed with GNOME, one of the most enjoyable tasks is to
customize various facets of your workspace and desktop.
Many additional preferences can make your workspace reflect your
Tweaking Menus and Toolbars
Menus & Toolbars enables you to change the Nautilus window, among others,
to look less like a Web browser (this visual similarity isn’t a coincidence, by
the way).
If you’re working on a small screen, switching the toolbars to text-only can
save a lot of screen space in GNOME-controlled windows.
Listening for Sound Preferences
If you like audio feedback and aren’t in an office environment where people
will be annoyed by it, the Sound Preferences offer the ability to make GNOME
just as fun as a standard Windows configuration. You can get audio feedback
for such events as
Error messages
Chapter 2: Graphical Window Managers
Make sure that you enable the sound server startup.
The Sound Events tab enables you to identify and fine-tune audio feedback
played for different events. Some Web sites have even more free sound sets
to download for the GNOME Sound Manager.
GUI Central, at, is a great source for background
images, sound sets, screen savers, and lots of other Solaris system goodies.
Ensuring thematic consistency with Theme Preferences
The Theme Preferences window, shown in Figure 2-38, enables you to quickly
change colors and typefaces. What’s nice is that the changes occur instantly.
You can easily click each theme in the list to see how it looks.
Figure 2-38:
If you really want to change the appearance of your GNOME Desktop, hop
onto the Internet. is a great place to download new themes to
make your GNOME experience fun. This developer site also has lots of technical content if you’re dying to know exactly what makes the wheels turn. Start
at to see the themes organized in
categories. (Atomic is a great theme, particularly if you like green!)
By default GNOME makes a window your system’s focus (the window that
receives keyboard events and mouse clicks) when you click in the window. If
you prefer to have the focus change as soon as the mouse points at a window,
choose the Window Focus preference in the Desktop Preferences list.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Chapter 3
Interacting with the Shell
In This Chapter
Using the command line effectively
Redirecting input and output
Feeding command output to another command
Picking the best shell
Creating aliases
Advancing with shell scripts
ne of the most striking differences between the powerful Solaris operating system and Microsoft Windows is that Solaris has a crude but
tremendously powerful environment lurking underneath the pretty graphical
face. The Unix that’s the foundation of the Solaris operating system offers
hundreds of commands and thousands of options that can be combined in
millions of ways. Windows has, well, the DOS prompt.
For many Solaris users, the command line world is the interface of choice for
using the system. (I’m typing this chapter in the vi editor from a command
line, within a terminal program.) Although not as visually attractive or user
friendly as CDE or, especially, GNOME, the Solaris command line is a powerful
friend to have, whether you use it daily or once in a blue moon.
This chapter explores the basic idea of the command line and demonstrates
how to be most productive when faced with a % or $ prompt rather than a
window full of buttons, tabs, and icons.
Surviving the Command Line
To get to the command line, you need to launch a terminal program. You can
easily accomplish this in either CDE or GNOME:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
If you’re a Common Desktop Environment user, click the small rectangular region above the CPU and Disk performance graph to open the Hosts
menu, as shown in Figure 3-1. Choose This Host from the menu to open
a terminal window, as shown in Figure 3-2. Now you can type in Unix
commands to your heart’s content.
The path to finding a terminal in GNOME is trickier because it’s buried
deep in the menu path. Click the GNOME menu (the foot), and then
choose Applications➪System Tools➪Terminal, as shown in Figure 3-3.
In a few seconds, a terminal window pops up on the GNOME desktop,
as shown in Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-1:
The Hosts
in CDE.
Figure 3-2:
ready to
go in CDE.
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
Figure 3-3:
Finding the
terminal in
Figure 3-4:
for duty!
Think of the terminal as the wrapper. The program that runs within the
terminal — the program that you interact with — is a command shell. Over a
dozen different shells exist in the Unix community. Solaris 9 ships with four
major choices:
The ancient, primitive Bourne shell (sh)
The Sun-favorite Korn shell (ksh)
The powerful TENEX-inspired C shell (tcsh)
The Bourne Again shell (bash)
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
All shells follow the same concept. They’re empty vessels waiting for you to
type in an instruction and give them something to do. Leave them alone for a
weekend, and they’ll sit quietly, waiting for you to return and start typing.
When you type in a command, the shell invokes the specified program, feeds
it whatever input you enter, and sends its output to the terminal window.
For example, type ls, and the shell invokes the ls (list files) command, which
shows you what files are in the current directory. It looks like this:
$ ls
Email Explained
Perl:JS Complete
Shell Script Hacks
Uni Phoenix
The convention in this book is to show user input (what you type) in bold.
When faced with a $ prompt from the shell, type the letter l, and the letter s, and
then press Enter on your keyboard. The results won’t be the same as shown
here because you have different files and folders in your home directory.
After the shell finishes running a command, it prompts with another $ and
awaits the next instruction. (Of course, some shells use a different prompt:
csh uses % as its main prompt, for example.)
Leaving the shell
One of the most important commands to know is exit. It ends the terminal
program and lets you go back to the GUI world quickly and efficiently. Of
course, you can also simply switch the focus on your screen to another application by moving the mouse and clicking in that window. Or you can
minimize the terminal window by clicking the Minimize button on the title
or choosing Minimize from the window menu. It’s okay to leave a terminal
running, even if you’re not currently using it.
Poking around the system
The Solaris file system is organized as a file tree, where your home directory
is located in /export/home, along with all other users on your system. You
can move up or down the file system tree at the command line. You can also
jump directly to other spots in the file system.
These are the commands to move around:
pwd reveals your present working directory.
cd changes the directory. Give cd a specific spot in the file system, and
it takes you there directly. Omit a specific spot, and it takes you back to
your home directory, wherever you are.
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
The commands work like this:
$ pwd
$ cd /tmp
$ pwd
$ cd
$ pwd
The cd command on line three didn’t return any feedback to indicate that it
had successfully moved to the specified directory (/tmp). As is typical with
Unix commands, only an error generates output. When things work properly,
there is no output.
This lack of confirmation is one reason why the Solaris operating system
intimidates many users. There’s really no reason to be anxious. In fact, a
basic understanding of how to work with the shell can help you become a
power Solaris user!
When moving around, it’s useful to see what’s in a given location. That’s the
job of the ls command. Without any arguments, it displays the contents of
the current directory. Specify a directory, and it shows you what’s inside,
without taking you there:
$ ls
Perl:JS Complete
Solaris for Dummies
Email Explained
Shell Script Hacks Uni Phoenix
$ pwd
$ ls /tmp
$ pwd
The ls command can output its results in a variety of ways. You can change
the behavior of the program with command options, single-letter arguments
preceded by a single dash. For example, to see the files listed with their sizes,
use the -s flag to the ls command:
$ ls -s
total 8
8 03.txt
0 Email Explained
0 Library
0 Merrick
0 Perl:JS Complete
0 Shell Script Hacks
0 Solaris for Dummies
0 Uni Phoenix
The -l flag has a different result, requesting the long output format for the
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
$ ls -l
total 8
Email Explained
Perl:JS Complete
Shell Script Hacks
Solaris for Dummies
Uni Phoenix
This shows more of what’s going on with the contents of the home directory:
The first column of the output (for example, “-rw-r—r—” for the file
“03.txt”) indicates the permissions of the file or directory.
• If the first letter is a d, it’s a directory or folder.
• - denotes a regular file or program.
The third column shows the owner of the file or directory.
The fifth column is either
• Size of the file
• Size of the folder’s directory
The size column of ls doesn’t show the summary size of the directory’s
contents. That’s generated by the du command.
The sixth column shows the date the file or directory was last modified.
The seventh column shows the name of the file.
To change to a specific directory, use the cd command and specify the directory by name. If the name has spaces in it, wrap the name in quotes, as
shown here:
$ cd “Solaris for Dummies”
$ pwd
/export/home/taylor/Solaris for Dummies
$ ls
Older Material
SFD14 Snaps
Sync with TheBox
Table of Contents.doc
A useful flag for the ls command is -F, which appends a / after each directory name so you can easily differentiate between files and directories in
an ls output:
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
$ cd
$ ls -F
Email Explained/
Perl:JS Complete/
Shell Script Hacks/
Solaris for Dummies/
Uni Phoenix/
Now you can see that the home directory contains only one file — this
Many more command flags for ls are covered in depth in Chapter 4, if you’re
curious, but these three flags — -s, -l, and -F — are enough to explain how
flags work in Solaris.
Working with flags
Command flags should always appear after the command name and before
any filenames or directories you specify. Compare these examples:
This form is valid:
ls -s /tmp
This form is not valid and will generate an error message:
ls /tmp -s
Where logical, you can also specify multiple flags at the same time as separate arguments or all bunched together. The order in which you specify the
command flags counts only in rare situations. The following lines are functionally identical:
ls -lF
ls -l -F
ls -F -l
Solaris is case sensitive. For example, ls and LS are not the same command.
Be careful not to have the Caps Lock key down, which’ll change your input
and cause the Solaris system to get quite confused. Uppercase commands
almost never work at the shell.
Flags and filenames are also case sensitive, as with the ls command:
A lowercase s shows the size of files.
An uppercase F denotes directories with a trailing slash.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Some commands are oddballs that take full-word flags, not single-letter
abbreviations. The find command is the most commonly used of these
commands. It’s common to see a command like this:
find . -name “*.c” -print
This is different from the typical Solaris flag usage. The find command and
its many usage options is covered more extensively in Chapter 14, giving you
an opportunity to truly master this powerful and helpful Solaris tool.
However, the asterisk (*) in the find command is one of a set of shell wildcards. Knowing how to work with shell wildcards can save you lots of typing.
There are two basic wildcard characters:
matches zero or more characters.
matches exactly one character.
You can use more than one wildcard in a pattern.
For example, an easy way to produce a long listing of all C source files is
ls *.c
If you want to limit that to files that start with the letter A, the correct
pattern is
ls A*.c
To match a certain number of letters in the filename, ? comes into play. To
show all files that have exactly four letters in their names, you can use:
ls ????
The echo command is helpful for understanding how to work with shell wildcards because it expands as appropriate and lists the results:
$ echo *.c
cat.c dog.c long_filename_test.c
$ echo ???.c
cat.c dog.c
$ echo c*t*c
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
The last echo example (echo c*t*c) works because it requests all files that
start with the letter c, have zero or more other characters, followed by a
letter t, followed by zero or more characters, and ending with a c.
Online documentation
For the graphical world, many documents are available to help you find out
more about Solaris, CDE, GNOME, and the like. The command line is not as
well documented. If you spend any time in the shell, the one super-important
command to know is man.
The Solaris documentation is divided into individual manual pages for each
command, all easily accessible with the man command. To find out more
about the echo command, for example, type this:
man echo
At the end of each page, press the spacebar to continue to the next page of
information, or type q to quit and go back to the shell prompt.
Because it’s impossible to always know which command is which, the man
command also has a -k flag for keyword searching. For example, use this to
discover which commands work with floppy disks:
$ man -k floppy
eject (1)
fd (7d)
fd (7d)
fdformat (1)
fdio (7i)
rmmount (1m)
volcheck (1)
vold (1m)
volmissing volmissing (1)
- eject media such as CD-ROM and
floppy from drive
- drivers for floppy disks and
floppy disk controllers
- drivers for floppy disks and
floppy disk controllers
- format floppy diskette or PCMCIA
memory card
- floppy disk control operations
- removable media mounter for
CD-ROM, floppy, Jaz drive, and
- checks for media in a drive and
by default checks all floppy
- Volume Management daemon to
manage CD-ROM and floppy,
ZIP/JAZ, and DVD-ROM devices
- notify user that volume
requested is not in the CD-ROM
or floppy drive
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
These results are a bit cryptic. They show the matching name, the matching
manual page entry name, and the one-line description of that command. In
the first example, the command eject is described as eject media such
as CD-ROM and floppy from drive.
The number in parentheses is the section of the online man page system
where the specific command was found. Here’s the lowdown on the different
Section 1 is user commands.
Sections 2 and 3 are for software developers.
Section 4 is file formats.
Section 5 is publicly accessible data files.
Sections 7 and 8 are for system administrators.
A good place to start is by typing man intro at the command line.
Managing File Redirection
It’s useful to explore exactly how input for a command comes from the keyboard, and output goes to the screen, because this mechanism underlies
much of the power of the Unix command line.
Any command that’s run in the shell has two assigned I/O channels: standard
input and standard output. (They’re called stdin and stdout by the cognoscenti.)
They start out as the keyboard and the display screen (e.g., your monitor),
respectively, but you can change them depending on how you invoke the
For example, you can save the output of a command to a file rather than
display it on-screen. To do so, redirect stdout with the special > character,
followed by a new filename. The following command causes the output of
the pwd command to be saved to a new file with the name my-presentdirectory:
$ pwd > my-present-directory
You can verify this with a quick invocation of ls. The new file is included in
the output.
$ ls -sF
total 32
24 03.txt
0 Email Explained/
0 Library/
0 Merrick/
0 Perl:JS Complete/
0 Shell Script Hacks/
0 Solaris for Dummies/
0 Uni Phoenix/
8 my-present-directory
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
The > symbol causes the contents of the output file to be replaced, which
isn’t always the desired result. To append the results to the output file, not
replace it, use >> instead of >. The following command appends the results
of the ls -l command to the existing output file from the pwd command:
$ ls -l >> my-present-directory
You can also change standard input with a similar redirection symbol, pointing the other way: <. Again, follow it with the name of the file you want to
replace stdin. Using the helpful wc (word count) command, here’s how you
can have it analyze the my-present-directory file:
$ wc < my-present-directory
The preceding output is a bit cryptic (typical Unix!). It shows the number of
lines, words, and characters in the specified file.
File redirection creates several challenges:
What happens when you redirect the output to a file that already exists?
Depending on the settings of your shell, redirecting output to an existing
file can cause an error to be output instead, as demonstrated here:
$ ls > my-present-directory
my-present-directory: File exists.
Rather than stomp on what might be a useful file, the shell protects you
from your own zeal with this warning message.
What happens when you want to append output to a file that doesn’t
An append can also generate an error instead of successfully finishing,
as demonstrated here:
$ ls >> doesnt-exist
doesnt-exist: No such file or directory.
Don’t disable this feature. Be safe. Ensure that you don’t want to keep the
file in question, and then explicitly remove the file with the rm command if
it’s safe to delete. If you absolutely want to turn this behavior off, ask your
system administrator to help you disable the noclobber setting in your shell
configuration file.
The rm command is dangerous. Unlike Windows and Macintosh systems,
there’s no unrm or undelete capability. If you remove something with rm in the
shell, it’s gone, gone, gone. Note that this doesn’t apply to the GUI environment: in both CDE and GNOME, if you drag a file to the trashcan, you can still
retrieve it until you manually empty the trash.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Building Command Pipes
Unquestionably, the most powerful capability of the Solaris command line is
being able to easily build command pipes. By using a pipe (invoked by inserting the ‘|’ symbol between two different commands), you can feed the output
of one program as the input to another. This is a tremendous addition to the
shell functionality, and well worth a detailed examination.
As a simple example, you can easily figure out how many files are in a large
directory by building a command pipe to do the job: couple the output of ls
to the input of the wc word count program:
$ ls /usr/bin | wc –l
As you can see, the | character is the magic incantation that enables Solaris
to hook input and output together. In the preceding example, a listing of the
files in /usr/bin is fed to the word count command, and the -l flag to wc
requests that only the number of lines are output, rather than lines, words,
and characters.
In less than a second, all 575 files in the /usr/bin directory are counted
(something you wouldn’t want to do by hand).
Here are a few key commands to use with pipes:
grep lets you screen only those lines that match a specified pattern.
sort lets you sort things alphabetically.
tr lets you translate one set of characters for another on the input
sed lets you substitute patterns in the pipeline data.
Finding matches with grep
grep is an oddly named command. You can think of it as match or find if you
want. (But there’s already a find in Solaris, so that might just be confusing.)
The basic use of grep is to produce only those lines in its input that match
the specified pattern. Typical grep usage is either grep pattern inputfile
or, as seen in this instance, grep pattern to search the input stream for
matches. To see which files in /usr/bin contain the letters sh, you could
use this command:
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
$ ls /usr/bin | grep sh
The preceding result can also be generated with ls /usr/bin/*sh*.
Here’s a slightly different example. It counts how many commands in
/usr/bin do not have the letter a as part of their name.
There’s no special wildcard pattern for the shell that does an exclusionary
pattern. It’s a perfect task for grep and the -v flag, which requests a “not”
match. The grep –v pattern only shows lines that do not have the specified
pattern, like this:
$ ls /usr/bin | grep –v a | wc –l
The preceding example is a three-command pipe. The output of ls is the input
of grep, and the output of grep is the input of wc.
For the next few examples, look at the text to Gulliver’s Travels, conveniently
saved as gullivers.travels.txt.
You can also download a copy of this story in text form from the Solaris For
Dummies Web site:
How many lines are in this file?
$ wc –l < gullivers.travels.txt
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
That’s a long story! But of those 10,064 lines, how many have the word
Gulliver in them? It’s another job for grep:
$ grep –i gulliver < gullivers.travels.txt | wc –l
Amazingly few, eh? The -i flag to grep results in it ignoring the case in
matches. Gulliver and gulliver both match the specified pattern. Without
the -i flag, there are no matches to gulliver as a pattern.
Here are the nine matches:
$ grep –i gulliver < gullivers.travels.txt
Gulliver’s Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World
The author of these Travels, Mr. Lemuel Gulliver, is my
ancient and mother’s side. About three years ago, Mr.
Gulliver growing weary that country, several tombs and
monuments of the Gullivers. Gulliver had spoken it.
that Mr. Gulliver may be a little dissatisfied. But I was
though earlier in the work, Redriff is said to have been
One of the preceding matches is all uppercase, but the -i flag to grep caught
it anyway.
The following pipe is trickier: Screen out the occurrences of Gulliver’s from
the list of lines that contain the case-insensitive pattern ‘gulliver’:
$ grep -i gulliver < gullivers.travels.txt | grep -v “Gulliver’s”
The author of these Travels, Mr. Lemuel Gulliver, is my
ancient and mother’s side. About three years ago, Mr.
Gulliver growing weary
Although Mr. Gulliver was born in Nottinghamshire, where his
Father that county, several tombs and monuments of the
Gulliver had spoken it.
that Mr. Gulliver may be a little dissatisfied. But I was
The same command can appear more than once in a pipeline, as in the preceding example.
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
Changing text in the pipeline
Gulliver has always struck me as a funny name. I’ve wondered how it might
read as Miguel or Chin instead. With Solaris, you can test this with the sed
stream editor:
$ grep –i gulliver < gullivers.travels.txt | sed ‘s/Gulliver/Miguel/’
Miguel’s Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World
The author of these Travels, Mr. Lemuel Miguel, is my ancient
and mother’s side. About three years ago, Mr. Miguel growing
Although Mr. Miguel was born in Nottinghamshire, where his
Father that county, several tombs and monuments of the
Miguel had spoken it.
that Mr. Miguel may be a little dissatisfied. But I was
though earlier in the work, Redriff is said to have been
Definitely has a different vibe, doesn’t it? The all-capitalized GULLIVER didn’t
change because sed was only looking to substitute Miguel for Gulliver.
Instead of Miguel, what if in a perverse moment you decide you want to
change all occurrences of the letter l to an m? That’s easy to do, too:
$ grep -i gulliver < gullivers.travels.txt | tr ‘l’ ‘m’
Gummiver’s Travems into Severam Remote Nations of the Wormd
The author of these Travems, Mr. Lemuem Gummiver, is my
ancient and mother’s side. About three years ago, Mr.
Gummiver growing weary
Amthough Mr. Gummiver was born in Nottinghamshire, where his
that county, severam tombs and monuments of the Gummivers.
Gummiver had spoken it.
that Mr. Gummiver may be a mittme dissatisfied. But I was
though earmier in the work, Redriff is said to have been
Not quite the spirit of Swift’s original, but Gummiver has some potential.
In the preceding example, every occurrence of l was replaced by an m.
Travels became Travems, World became Wormd, and little became mittme.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
But what’s the point?
Few people will monkey around with a novel like
Gulliver’s Travels on their Solaris box, so why
bother with all this stuff?
Because the capabilities demonstrated in this
example are quite powerful. If you have a series
of documents that reference a member of your
team, and the documents need to be identified
promptly, it’s much faster to use grep across a
directory of matching files than to laboriously
step through each possible file in StarOffice,
searching for the specified pattern. In addition
to removing vowels, tr can also easily translate uppercase into lowercase, for example
(tr ‘[A-Z]’ ‘[a-z]’). sed can make it a
breeze to correct the reference number in a set
of documents in a few seconds, rather than a
few hours.
The tr command can also remove specified letters from the input stream so
you can also quickly produce the shorthand version, Gllvr’s Trvls:
$ grep -i gulliver < gullivers.travels.txt | tr -d ‘aeiou’
Gllvr’s Trvls nt Svrl Rmt Ntns f th Wrld
Th thr f ths Trvls, Mr. Lml Gllvr, s my ncnt nd
mthr’s sd. Abt thr yrs g, Mr. Gllvr grwng wry
Althgh Mr. Gllvr ws brn n Nttnghmshr, whr hs fthr
tht cnty, svrl tmbs nd mnmnts f th Gllvrs.
Gllvr hd spkn t.
tht Mr. Gllvr my b lttl dsstsfd. Bt I ws rslvd
thgh rlr n th wrk, Rdrff s sd t hv bn Gllvr’s\
Uppercase letters weren’t specified to tr, so they weren’t affected by the
More useful piped commands
Many pipes in Solaris have a very helpful part: wc. The wc command has
three possible flags: -w for words, -l for lines, and -c for characters. wc -l
only outputs lines, but wc -w can force just the number of words to be
$ wc –w < gullivers.travels.txt
The final command to consider in a pipe is sort, which can sort alphabetically or numerically, ascending or descending.
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
Sorting Output
You’ve already seen that the -s flag to ls produces an indication of each file’s
size. Now sort that output and see what happens:
$ ls
-sF | sort
Older Material/
SFD14 Snaps/
Sync with TheBox
Table of Contents.doc
The directories are not useful information with their size indicated as zero.
You can screen them out with a grep command using a pattern of /$. (The $
is a special character that matches the end of the line, so this pattern only
matches lines where the / is the last character in the line):
$ ls
-s | grep -v ‘/$’ | sort
Sync with TheBox
Table of Contents.doc
This is sorted numerically, but you can reverse its order. You do this with the
-r flag:
$ ls
-s | grep -v ‘/$’ | sort -r
Table of Contents.doc
Sync with TheBox
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Calculating disk usage
The du command shows disk usage for a given directory and any subdirectories, enabling you to see the size of directories. It is a perfect candidate for a
numeric sort, as shown here:
$ du -s
BWA Traffic Logs
CTEK Advisor.doc
Email Explained
Perl:JS Complete
Shell Script Hacks
Solaris for Dummies
Uni Phoenix
Which is the largest of these directories? A quick call to sort makes it
$ du -s
* | sort
Uni Phoenix
Amtrak Reservations Service.doc
Perl:JS Complete
Email Explained
BWA Traffic Logs
Shell Script Hacks
CTEK Advisor.doc
Solaris for Dummies
Does that look right to you? It shouldn’t. By default, sort considers the dictionary order of entries. A line beginning with 1 comes before a line beginning
with 2, odd though that looks. The earlier sort of the ls -s output worked
because the numbers were prefaced by spaces so that they were rightaligned. By lucky coincidence, it sorted as if they were numbers, but sort
was considering the lines only as dictionary-sorted strings.
To force sort to consider lines as numeric values, use the -n flag. Combined
with the -r flag to reverse the order of the sort, the output is now a listing of
files and folders, from largest to smallest:
$ du -s
* | sort -rn
Solaris for Dummies
BWA Traffic Logs
Perl:JS Complete
Uni Phoenix
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
Shell Script Hacks
Email Explained
CTEK Advisor.doc
This is just the tip of the iceberg with pipes. If you want to find out more,
check out the man pages for uniq, tee, grep, sort, tr, and sed.
Korn versus Bash: Which Is Best?
A lot of power is available at the Solaris command line. And a number of
shells offer different interactive features. The grandfather of all shells is the
Bourne Shell, written by Steven Bourne at Bell Telephone Labs eons ago. It’s
good for simple scripts, but it’s not a user-friendly shell, lacking useful features such as aliases, history, filename completion, and sophisticated control
From the seed of the Bourne Shell, over a dozen different shells, varying in
interactive features and programmability, have emerged. These are the most
Bourne Again (/bin/bash)
In the Linux world, the Bourne Again Shell (bash) is the most popular
Korn (/bin/ksh)
In the Solaris world, the Korn Shell (ksh) is the most popular choice.
Shells left on the beach
When you have a couple of winners, you have
some also-rans. Whether their time has passed
or has not come to pass, these shells are
seldom used as login shell by Solaris users:
Bourne (/bin/sh)
The grandfather of all shells. It’s good for
simple scripts, but not a very friendly user
shell, lacking useful features like aliases,
history, filename completion, and sophisticated control structures.
C (/bin/csh)
This is a graft of the C programming language atop the Bourne Shell. Its
descendant Korn supersedes it and is a
better choice.
Z (/bin/zsh)
This is an attempt to merge the best of
the other shells into a coherent whole, but
it’s much less popular than the Korn
and Bourne Again Shells in the Solaris
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Which shell are you using?
To find out which shell you’re using is surprisingly easy. Using the ps processor status
command, type the special shortcut $$ that
uniquely identifies your own shell in the operating system. The resulting information is the shell
$ ps -p $$
3891 pts/6 0:00 bash
In this instance, the bash shell is responsible
for interpreting commands entered in the
If you have a Linux system at home and a Solaris system at work, bash might
be a better shell choice shell; bash is the default with Linux systems, and it’s
available on Solaris 9. Korn Shell and the Bourne Again Shell both are fine
choices in the Solaris environment. The difference really comes into play if
you’re working in a multi-vendor environment. Whatever shell you choose, it’s
easier to use the same shell all the time.
I use bash on all of my Unix and Unix-like systems, including Linux, Solaris,
and Mac OS X. This book uses bash for examples; none of them are different
for Korn Shell users.
One note: Solaris doesn’t let you change your own login shell; if you’d like to
switch to using Bash instead of the Korn Shell, you’ll need to ask your system
administrator to make the change. If you’re your own system administrator,
you can edit your account entry in the /etc/passwd file, changing /bin/ksh to
/bin/bash, or use the Solaris Management Console. See Chapter 16 for details.
Both the Korn Shell and the Bourne Again Shell have inherited such C Shell
features as job control, aliases, functions, and a command history. To this,
the Korn Shell and the Bourne Again Shell add:
Command-line editing
This is critical to a useful and useable shell and saves vast amounts of
retyping commands to fine-tune your interaction.
Integrated programming features including the incorporation of test,
echo, and getopt capabilities within the shell
Additional programmatic control structures
More sophisticated regular expressions
Lots of environment variables to allow environment customization
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
Security features
Text manipulation facilities
Additional built-in commands
Many of these features are important only if you’re developing scripts to run
in the shell environment itself — shell scripts — which is addressed briefly at
the end of this chapter.
Korn Shell features
The Korn Shell has these features that are missing from the Bourne Again Shell:
Floating point arithmetic.
A more sophisticated pattern-matching language.
Support for the += variable assignment operator.
The –a flag to getopts is available.
Other differences are not significant for day-to-day use of the shell.
Bourne Again Shell features
A few features in the Bourne Again Shell aren’t included in Korn Shell, but
they’re not important for casual shell usage:
The prompt string PS1 can have dynamically expanded values like date,
current directory, hostname, and so on.
The EMACS command history editing environment can be customized.
You can remap keystrokes in vi command history editing mode.
Creating Aliases
A helpful way to refine your shell experience is to redefine commands to
include your favorite flags. You can even create new commands that have
more mnemonic names than the famously obscure Unix counterparts.
Fortunately, this is easy in the shell. The basic syntax is
alias command=”the specific Unix commands to run”
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
If you want the -F flag to always be specified when you run the ls command,
you can easily achieve this with:
alias ls=”ls –F”
Watch how this changes things:
$ ls
$ alias ls=”ls -F”
$ ls
To find out what aliases you have defined, type alias without any qualifiers.
In both shells, the format for specifying an alias is identical.
In the Bourne Again Shell, you’ll likely have just one defined alias, ls:
$ alias
alias ls=’ls -F’
In the Korn Shell, about a half-dozen are already defined:
$ alias
autoload=’typeset -fu’
command=’command ‘
functions=’typeset -f’
history=’fc -l’
integer=’typeset -i’
ls=’ls -F’
nohup=’nohup ‘
r=’fc -e -’
stop=’kill -STOP’
suspend=’kill -STOP $$’
An alias like the redefined ls command only hangs around until you log out
or close the terminal window. To make it permanent, add it to your system.
The exact command depends on your shell:
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
If you’re using the Bourne Again Shell, enter this command:
echo ‘alias ls=”ls –F” ‘ >> ~/.bashrc
If you’re using the Korn Shell, enter this command:
echo ‘alias ls=”ls –F”’ >> ~/.profile
Use the >> not > to append the alias to the end of the file. Don’t replace the
contents of your login file with the alias!
After you’ve added the alias to your file, launch a new terminal window and
type alias to confirm that the new, improved ls is available for use.
Advancing with Shell Scripts
Just as a commonly typed command can be turned into an alias to save time,
a sequence of commands can be dropped into a file and then saved as a shell
script for later use. Similar to Windows batch files, the different shells’ scripting environments are one area where the difference between ksh and bash
can sometimes matter.
The concept is straightforward. Say that every time you log in to your system
you want to check whether your friend Joan is logged in. To see everyone
who’s logged in, you’d use the who command. Because you’re only interested
in one user, Joan, this is a job for who and grep together, like this:
who | grep joan
Now I’ll make this a bit trickier. If it’s not a weekday between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m.,
you don’t want to check because you know that if she is logged in after hours,
it’s because she forgot to shut off her computer.
To determine the time, use the date command, with a special argument that
indicates that you’re only interested in the hour or the day of the week. You
specify the hour and day by using a special % notational format. You determine the hour of the day with date +%H and the day of the week date +%a
as shown:
$ date +%H
$ date +%a
You can use variables to assign a mnemonic name to values within scripts.
Create an hour and dayname variable like this:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
hour=”`date +%H`”
dayname=”`date +%a`”
These variables can be used in conditional tests to see whether they’re a
value you want:
if [ $dayname != “Sat” –a $dayname != “Sun” ] ; then
if [ $hour –ge 9 –a $hour –le 17 ] ; then
it’s a weekday between 9 and 5
Read this as “if dayname isn’t Sat and dayname isn’t Sun, then . . .” and “if
hour is greater than or equal to 9 and hour is less than or equal to 17, then . . .”
All that’s left is to add the who command within the conditionals, and you
have a fully functional script that shows only if Joan is logged in if it’s a weekday between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. Here’s the entire script:
hour=”`date +%H`”
dayname=”`date +%a`”
if [ $dayname != “Sat” –a $dayname != “Sun” ] ; then
if [ $hour –ge 9 –a $hour –le 17 ] ; then
who | grep joan
This script isn’t something you’d want to type into the command line every
time you want to check if Joan’s online. It’s also too complex for an alias.
Instead, it’s a text file created with Text Editor, gedit, or even vi or emacs
(learn how to use both the command line-based text editor vi and the CDE
and GNOME text editors in Chapter 12 ) and saved to either your home directory or a subdirectory called bin in your home directory, with a mnemonic
name, perhaps joan or something similar.
To test if Joan’s online, you’d just type this to find out:
$ sh joan
Alternatively, mark the file as executable (with chmod +x joan) then you can
type in the script name directly on the command line:$ joan.
Chapter 3: Interacting with the Shell
The tip of the iceberg
Shell scripts are a remarkably complex topic. If
you need more information, the Sun documentation suite is a good resource (start with the
AnswerBook material already included with the
Solaris operating system).
Learning how to write shell scripts is fun and
can help you customize your environment. It
can also make you more productive and efficient when you delve into the world of the
terminal program and the shell.
The next step in shell script mastery is to learn
more about functions, command flow, and
variables, all of which are well explained in
Mastering Unix Shell Scripting, by Randal K.
Michael (Wiley). For more sophisticated example scripts and a chance to learn by example
rather than explanation, my advanced Shell
Script Hacks (O’Reilly & Associates) is a very
good choice.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Chapter 4
Managing Files and Directories
In This Chapter
Managing your files and directories with File Manager and Nautilus
Listings files at the Command Line with ls
Understanding and changing File and Directory permissions
Creating directories and Subdirectories
Moving and copying files
Compressing large files
ears ago, computer people talked about the “paperless office.” Although
it’s proven to be a bit of a myth (doesn’t your office still have lots of
paper laying around?), many documents have migrated online. In fact, a
modern Solaris desktop has analogs for quite a few different physical document management systems, including file folders (directories), two-sided
printing to shrink documents (compression), and security mechanisms for
documents (file and directory permissions).
This chapter focuses on the key applications for managing your files and
directories — File Manager in the Common Desktop Environment and
Nautilus in GNOME — and shows keyboard equivalents for the shell command line. As always, the goal is to choose the environment that will enable
you to be efficient and productive.
Using File Manager and Nautilus
If you’ve spent any time on a Windows or Macintosh system, you have
worked with a file management system. The idea of clicking a directory and
having its contents shown as a set of clickable icons is an expected part of
interacting with a graphical desktop environment.
Whether you’re a CDE or GNOME aficionado, the graphical file manager is
one of the best-designed applications in Solaris. Many users more often use
the file manager than any other application because it offers an easy way to
explore the file system, rename files, move them from one directory to
another, make new directories, change file permissions, and much more.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
The CDE File Manager
The CDE File Manager usually runs automatically after you’re logged in to the
CDE desktop. If it isn’t running, launch it by clicking the Home Folder icon
(the file cabinet) on the Control Panel. The icon is shown in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1:
The Home
Folder icon
from the
CDE Control
Exploring the File Manager window
The File Manager automatically displays your home directory, as shown in
Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-2:
The default
view of the
CDE File
The top
Here’s a tour of the top of the File Manager window:
Three menus are available within File Manager:
• File
• Selected
• View
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
The icons below the menus show you the path of the current directory.
The parent directories in Figure 4-2 are /, export, and home.
A text box shows the directory path. In Figure 4-2, this path is /export/
To change directories quickly, click in the current directory display box, type
in a new directory, and then press Enter. You’re whisked away to that directory without any fuss.
The main panel
The main panel of the window is the most interesting part. The view in Figure
4-2 shows 12 items; eight are directories. The first entry, .. (go up), is a special entry because clicking it enables you to move up to the parent directory.
Double-clicking a directory such as Dummies moves you into that directory,
with the contents of that directory replacing the current set of icons.
The components directory icon in Figure 4-2 has a padlock. That means it’s a
read-only directory. It’s probably owned by CDE or another application.
Three files are shown in Figure 4-2:
gullivers.travels.txt is a plain text file. It has tiny writing on its
icon to denote its content type.
myspellscript is a shell script. A small seashell is superimposed on
the icon. The tiny box indicates what shell is required for the script. In
this case, it’s a B because the script is written for the Bourne Shell.
test is an unknown format to File Manager, so it shows a generic plain
grey icon. The only thing you can conclude is that it’s not a directory.
The bottom
The bottom of the File Manager window indicates how many items are in the
directory and how many of those items are hidden. In Figure 4-2, 48 items are
in the directory (the home directory), and 36 are hidden.
Any file or directory name that starts with a period is a hidden item, so there
are 36 entries with names like .gnome and .bash_login. To see these dot
files (as they’re colloquially called), modify the Show Hidden Objects setting
on the View menu. By default, hidden files, are, well, hidden. Most of the time
you can safely ignore them.
Changing view and configuration settings
To access view and configuration settings, choose View➪View Options to
open the Set View Options dialog box, shown in Figure 4-3. Here’s a rundown
of some options in this dialog box:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Headers: These are your options:
• Iconic Path: Select this option to show the current path as a series
of icons at the top of the File Manager.
• Text Path: Select this option to show the current path in a text box.
• Message Line: Select this option to display how many entries are
in the current directory and how many are hidden.
Representation: The default view is large informative icons that enable
you to quickly identify the content type. You can choose a name-only,
small icon, or full informational listing view format. Regardless of what
view you choose, you can change how icons are organized.
Order: You’ll almost always stick with Alphabetically as the sort order.
You also have the option to sort by date (to see which files are newest)
or by size (to see which are largest).
Figure 4-3:
options in
the CDE File
Examining file properties and permissions
The Selected menu in File Manager is contextually sensitive (its contents
depend on what icon you’ve selected). Figure 4-4 shows the options with the
gullivers.travels.txt file selected.
This menu is the heart of the File Manager. You can move or copy files,
rename them, drop them into a workspace (that is, have them show up on
the desktop of the selected workspace), delete them, print them, or change
their properties.
Choosing the Properties option on the menu opens the File Properties dialog
box. This dialog box has two main views: Information and Permissions.
Information view
The Information view, shown in Figure 4-5, reveals such useful information
about the file as
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
Who owns it
Which group owns it
This is the group ownership of the file, not the group that your account has
been assigned, that is, in addition to an owner, each file and directory in the
file system is assigned to a group, and this is showing us that datum. Usually
all your files will be owned by the group you’ve been assigned, but files and
directories beyond your own home directory have different owner and group
values as part of Solaris system security.
The size of the file
When it was last accessed
When it was modified
Figure 4-4:
options for
a text file.
Figure 4-5:
Permissions view
The Permissions view is also important because it controls whether others
can read and even alter or delete your files and directories, as shown in
Figure 4-6.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Figure 4-6:
Solaris has a three-level permissions model for files and directories, with the
owner of the file, the group that the file is a part of, and the rest of the
accounts on the system (also known as other). Files can have any combination of read, write, or execute permission for each of the three possible
groups (owner, group, and other), for a combination of 27 different permissions. Usually, you’ll stick to a few typical combinations, one of which is
shown in Figure 4-6:
Read and write permission for the owner
Read-only permission for other members of the group and everyone else
on the system
Execute permission is reserved for things that can be executed (run) by the
system, such as shell scripts and executable programs. You probably won’t
need to worry about execute permission for files. You’ll learn more about file
permissions and how to ensure that your private files are private and public
files are public later in this chapter.
In the Permissions view, you can apply changes to either the current file or
multiple files or directories. This is a quick shortcut to changing lots of file
permissions at once, but be sure to make these changes carefully. The
choices for the Apply Changes To option are
This File Only
All Files in the Parent Directory
All Files in the Parent Directory and its Subdirectories
Working with GNOME’s Nautilus
The CDE File Manager is a capable program, but one of the gems of GNOME is
its equivalent program, the Nautilus file manager. To launch Nautilus, doubleclick your home icon on the GNOME desktop. The Nautilus window is shown
in Figure 4-7.
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
Figure 4-7:
Nautilus, the
GNOME file
Nautilus is more like the Windows and Macintosh file management displays,
which isn’t a big surprise because the programmers who created Nautilus
were from the Apple user interface team.
As you can see in Figure 4-7, each folder icon lists the number of items in that
folder, and each text icon has the first few words of the file’s text and lists the
file’s size. Like File Manager, different types of files have different icons. The
interface is similar to a Web browser, with Back, Forward, Up, Stop, Reload,
and Home buttons along the top, as well as a zoom feature with zoom in (+)
and zoom out (–) shortcuts on either side of the magnifying glass.
Adjacent to the zoom feature is a menu of view options. Your options are
View as Icons (the default), View as List, and View As. The View As option
enables you to customize views and change which icons are associated with
which file types.
To fine-tune the current view, choose from a variety of options on the View
menu, as shown in Figure 4-8.
Choose the Arrange Items options to customize how items are arranged in
the directory. Here are some of your choices:
By Name, By Size, or By Modification Date: These options are identical
to those of the CDE File Manager.
By Emblems: Emblems are unique to GNOME. They let you associate
files and directories with a graphical symbol.
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Figure 4-8:
View menu
To further explain GNOME Emblems, go directly to the Properties window for
the gullivers.travels.txt file. To change the properties of an individual
icon, you can either
Select the icon and then choose Properties from the File menu.
Right-click the icon and choose Properties from the pop-up menu that
Either way, you end up with the Properties dialog box shown in Figure 4-9.
The Properties dialog box has three views:
The Basic view is shown in Figure 4-9. You can see the filename (which
is editable), type, size, current location, and modification and access
times. You can also set a custom icon if you’re feeling creative or eager
to spice up the Nautilus display of your home directory.
The Emblems view is shown in Figure 4-10. Emblems enable you to organize and categorize files just as a doctor might use colored dots on file
folders to denote certain characteristics about a patient. Some of the
emblems are just for fun (like the Oh No unhappy face), and others are
quite useful.
To see how this feature works, designate the gullivers.travels.txt
file as Cool: Click the check box adjacent to the Cool icon (the one
with the sunglasses) and then click Close. Figure 4-12 shows the new
Nautilus view of the directory with the nifty sunglasses displayed on
the gullivers.travels.txt file icon.
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
The Permissions view, which is similar to the CDE File Manager, is
shown in Figure 4-11. The only important change is that if you’re a
member of more than one group, Nautilus makes it easy for you to
change the group associated with the specified file. To change settings
across all files in the same directory, you must select all the files before
launching the Properties dialog box.
Whether you opt for Nautilus and GNOME or File Manager and CDE, both
applications make it a breeze to move around the file system and manage
files and directories.
Figure 4-9:
in Nautilus,
Basic view.
Figure 4-10:
in Nautilus,
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Figure 4-11:
in Nautilus,
Figure 4-12:
add visual
pizzazz to
Listing Files with ls
By contrast with the attractive and easy-to-use graphical file managers, the
shell requires you to type in every request.
To get to the shell, you need a running terminal program:
In CDE, select This Host from the Hosts menu (just above the performance meter).
In GNOME, right-click on the desktop background and then choose
New Terminal.
Many of the file managers’ functions are accomplished on the command line
with the combination of ls for listing files and directories, cd for changing
directories, and pwd to show the current directory:
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
$ pwd
$ ls
This output arranged the files and directories in alphabetical order, with the
contents sorted down the columns. To sort by date, use the -t option:
$ ls -t
This output shows that the snaps directory was most recently accessed, and
test was least recently accessed. The ls command can’t sort by size, but you
can accomplish the same net result with a command like
ls –s | sort –rn
To find out more about a specific file, the -l flag offers more information.
Specify a directory, and the ls output will show you the information about
every file in that directory, like this:
$ ls -l gullivers.travels.txt
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
592673 Oct
4 16:31 gullivers.travels.txt
In an abbreviated form, the file permissions are read and write for the owner
and read-only for the group and everyone else. (I address file permissions
fully in this chapter.) The file is owned by taylor, is assigned to group
other, is 592,673 bytes in size, and was last modified on 4 October at 16:31
(4:31 p.m.).
It might be more convenient to have this output across multiple lines in a
more readable format, but what would happen if you wanted to see permissions for a bunch of files at once? It would take oodles of space. The -l
output to ls offers the same information succinctly, like this:
$ ls -l scripts
total 22
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
1 taylor
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
To see all the otherwise hidden dot files, the –a flag makes them all suddenly
visible, as in this new listing of the home directory:
$ ls -a
By default, ls wants to show you what’s inside each directory specified on
the command line, as shown when I used the command ls –l scripts.
Want to see the scripts directory entry itself? Here’s where the -d flag to ls
is a valuable addition. It forces ls to show you directories, not their contents.
In the following example, the first command output (without the -d option)
shows the contents of the directory; the second command (with the -d
option) shows the directory entry, not its contents:
$ ls -l .
total 1206
$ ls -ld .
29 taylor
1024 Dec 18 11:53 ./
The combination of ls and cd enable you to move around in the file system.
Without any arguments, cd takes you directly to your home directory, a failsafe if things get too confusing.
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
Using file to ascertain file type
The file command tries its best to tell you
what kind of file you’re asking about:
$ file gullivers.travels.txt
test scripts/
empty file
executable shell script
Using and Changing Permissions
File and directory permissions are critical for being a successful Solaris user.
Interpreting file permissions
File permissions are straightforward. The Solaris world has three classes of
Everyone else
Figure 4-13 illustrates the overlapping relationships between the user classes.
Figure 4-13:
circles of
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
The owner of the file is the center of everything, then the group, and, finally,
on the outside, the rest of the people who use and access the computer.
You’re the owner of all files you create, but you may not be the owner of
everything in your home directory. You probably won’t be either the owner
or in the group that owns system commands.
To better understand the nuances of file and directory permissions, dissect
the permissions string shown at the beginning of each line of ls –l output.
Start with the gullivers.travels.txt file, and then consider the ..
directory. It’s the directory that’s the parent of your home directory.
The .. (go up) icon in File Manager represents the .. directory.
First, a simple file:
$ ls –l gullivers.travels.txt
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
592673 Oct
4 16:31 gullivers.travels.txt
The file is owned by taylor, is a part of group other, and has the permissions string -rw-r—r— . Figure 4-14 shows how to interpret this permissions
string properly.
Figure 4-14:
Permission strings are always composed of a single letter that indicates
whether it’s a file (-) or a directory (d), followed by three letters that indicate
read, write, or execute permission for each of the three classes of owner,
group, and other. With gullivers.travels.txt, the permission string
denotes a regular file (the first character is -), with read and write permission for the owner (r and w, but not x in the next three characters), followed
by read-only permission (no w for write, no x for execute) for group and
Here’s another example:
$ ls -ld ..
9 root
512 Dec 12 13:09 ../
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
This directory is owned by root and is also part of the group root. The permissions string is interpreted as a directory (the first character is d) with
read, write, and execute permission for the owner, but only read and execute
permission for group and other.
File permissions allow different operations. Some make sense, and others are
a bit weird:
Read allows such operations as printing the file and using grep to
search the file for patterns.
Write lets you change the file.
Execute lets your shell run the file as if it were a program. This is only
for shell scripts or other software programs.
The preceding example shows that the owner (taylor) has read and write
access to the gullivers.travels.txt file. He can scan through it and
change it, as wanted. Members of the group other, and others on the system,
can only read the file.
Permissions can change. If this were a private message, perhaps a memo to
the boss, it might have either of these permissions:
-rw----- grants read and write permission to the owner, but no access
to anyone else.
-rw-r--- grants read access to other members of the group, but no
access to the rest of the local Solaris user community.
Understanding directory permissions
Directory permissions are trickier than file permissions. Unix differentiates
between permission to see
The list of directory entries (names of files and subdirectories)
The content of the directory entries (the data in the files)
To see (list) the directory entries, you need read permission on the directory.
That permission doesn’t mean you can access the file’s contents, but you can
see that the file exists. Here’s a quick cheat:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
Read allows you to view the contents of the directory record but not the
contents of the directory itself.
It’s an incredibly subtle difference. You can find the names of files in the
directory, but you can’t list them or access them in any manner. Almost
always, directories either have both read and execute permission, or
Write allows you to
• Delete entries from the directory
• Modify files through editing or appending data
• Delete files
If read and execute permissions are denied, you’ll need to already know
the name of the file to accomplish these tasks. You’ll never encounter a
directory with write-only permission.
Execute allows you to view the contents of the directory if you already
know its name.
If you don’t and you can’t read the directory contents (read permission)
then you can’t list the contents of the directory to find out what’s inside.
Almost always, directories either have both read and execute permission,
or neither.
To demonstrate the nuances of different directory permissions, use the
chmod (change permission mode) command, which is explained in detail in
the next section:
$ ls -ld scripts
drw-r--r-2 taylor other 512 Oct 4 16:31 scripts/
$ ls scripts
scripts/ Permission denied
scripts/ Permission denied
scripts/ Permission denied
scripts/ Permission denied
scripts/ Permission denied
scripts/ Permission denied
scripts/ Permission denied
scripts/ Permission denied
Read-only permission on the directory enables you to see information about
the directory itself, but doesn’t give you permission to see any information
about each entry. You can, puzzlingly, see an error for each filename and
therefore extrapolate the filenames therein. Does this mean you can list those
files, though? No:
$ ls -l scripts/
scripts/ Permission denied
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
Now change permissions to have execute but not read permission. The
results are just as peculiar:
$ chmod a-r scripts
$ chmod a+x scripts
$ ls -ld scripts
d-wx--x--x 2 taylor other
$ ls –l scripts
scripts: Permission denied
$ ls -l scripts/
-rw-r--r-- 1 taylor other
512 Oct 4
16:31 scripts/
240 Oct 4
16:31 scripts/
With read-only permission, you can view the individual contents of a directory, but you cannot view the directory contents itself.
If this makes about as much sense as a fish on a bicycle, the good news is
that you really don’t have to worry about this too much. By convention, Unix
people either set both read and execute, or neither.
A couple of common permission strings are really useful:
To create a directory where you can make whatever changes, deletions,
and additions you want, but keep it from prying eyes, a good permission
string would be rwx------.
Want to let other people in your group see the directory but not change
its contents? Use rwxr-x--- to accomplish the job.
Changing permissions with chmod
The chmod command changes permissions. These are the most important and
most common permission modes.
You can use this command a couple of ways, the easiest of which is a
mnemonic equation (yes, it really is the easiest!). You must assemble the
string from all three of these sets of options:
One of these user specifications:
u (user)
g (group)
o (other; everyone who isn’t the owner and isn’t in the group that owns
the file or directory)
a (all, a shorthand way to specify user + group + other)
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
One of these modifier options:
+ (add)
- (remove)
= (make exactly)
One or more of these permissions:
r (read)
w (write)
x (execute)
To add write permission for the user, use u+w.
To remove write permission from group and other, use either of the
following pairs of equations, separated by a comma:
To turn off all permissions, specify 0
Here are a few examples:
In the following example, chmod 0 turns off all permissions for anyone,
making this a very secure directory: Even the owner can’t see what’s
$ ls -ld scripts
2 taylor
$ chmod 0 scripts
$ ls -ld scripts
d--------2 taylor
512 Oct
4 16:31 scripts/
512 Oct
4 16:31 scripts/
In one somewhat complex call to chmod, the following example adds
read, write, and execute permission for the user, and read and execute
permissions to group.
$ chmod u+rwx,g+rx scripts
$ ls -ld scripts
drwxr-x--2 taylor
512 Oct
4 16:31 scripts/
This example gives everyone else read and write permission:
$ chmod o+rw scripts
$ ls -ld scripts
drwxr-xrw- 2 taylor
512 Oct
4 16:31 scripts/
When everyone on the system has been granted different permission to
access this directory, you can alter the permission to have the file mode
a bit more normal with this example:
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
$ chmod a-w scripts
$ ls -ld scripts
dr-xr-xr-2 taylor
$ chmod u+w,o+x scripts
$ ls -ld scripts
2 taylor
512 Oct
4 16:31 scripts/
512 Oct
4 16:31 scripts/
You can change the permission on lots of files at the same time with a shell
wildcard. For example, chmod go-rw * takes away read or write capabilities to group or everyone else for each file and directory matched by the *
Making Directories
To make new directories, use the mkdir command. If you have write permission in your current directory and the requested directory name doesn’t yet
exist, you can create a new directory with the command:
$ mkdir newdir
$ ls -ld newdir
2 taylor
512 Dec 18 17:43 newdir/
By default, the permissions of newly created directories give you read, write,
and execute permission and everyone else read and execute permission. As
expected, the new directory is owned by taylor, the person who created it.
You can change the default permissions of newly created files and directories
by altering your umask setting. See the man page for more information.
What if you don’t have write permission in the current directory? The mkdir
command fails, of course:
$ mkdir /mydir
mkdir: Failed to make directory “/mydir”; Permission denied
$ ls -ld /
drwxr-xr-x 44 root
1536 Dec 14 15:26 //
To confirm your user ID (which is the same as your account name) and primary group membership, use the id command. To get a list of all groups
you’re in, use the groups command:
$ id
uid=100(taylor) gid=1(other)
$ groups
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
In the preceding example, the / directory has write permission for its owner,
root, but only read and execute permission for everyone else, hence the
Try to make a directory that already exists, and you’ll see a slightly different
$ mkdir newdir
mkdir: Failed to make directory “newdir”; File exists
To remove a directory, use rmdir. (For your protection, rmdir only removes
empty directories. )
Moving and Copying Files
The two commands explored in this section allow you to gain control over
which files live where.
Absolute control of file copying is surprisingly difficult to accomplish on a
GUI-based interface. Sometimes, dragging an icon to a new directory moves
the file; other times, it copies the file.
On the command line, you have more precise control: to move files, use mv,
and to copy files, use cp.
Copying files with cp
Using the command line, you can copy files just as easily as you can in the
File Manager or Nautilus:
cp gullivers.travels.txt newdir
This creates a copy of the gullivers.travels.txt file in the directory
newdir, with the same name:
$ ls -l gullivers.travels.txt newdir
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
592673 Oct
total 1184
1 taylor
4 16:31 gullivers.travels.txt
592673 Dec 18 18:06 gullivers.travels.txt
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
These are two distinct copies of the file, though they are identical. If newdir
didn’t exist, however, the cp command would have created a copy of the
gullivers.travels.txt file called newdir, which would doubtless be
To copy a file to a new area of the file system, use a directory path along with
a filename:
cp gullivers.travels.txt /tmp/swift.txt
This copies the file into the /tmp directory and renames it swift.txt at the
same time.
Where the shell shines is when you want to copy a group of files. To copy
everything from the current directory into newdir, use:
cp * newdir
To copy just those files that have the .txt filename suffix, use
cp *.txt newdir
Moving files to new directories with mv
The mv command works similarly, the only difference being that a copy of the
file isn’t left upon completion, of course. What might not be obvious is that
the mv command is also the Unix rename function. To rename gullivers.
travels.txt in the current directory, for example, the following command
does the trick:
mv gullivers.travels.txt swift.txt
With both commands, you can ensure a slightly safer operation by adding a i flag, which blocks the command from overwriting an existing file:
$ cp -i test gullivers.travels.txt
cp: overwrite gullivers.travels.txt (yes/no)? no
If you like that capability, create two aliases that make it an automatic part of
your future interaction with the shell:
alias mv=”mv –i”
alias cp=”cp –i”
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
You can find out more about aliases in Chapter 3.
To remove a file, use rm.
Solaris doesn’t have any sort of undelete or unrm function. After the file or
directory is deleted, it’s gone.
Compressing Big Files
Running out of disk space is a constant concern for Solaris users. As with
any computer operating system, Solaris likes to take lots of space to run
efficiently and maintain a historical archive of activity. (Unix folk call these
archives logs or log files.)
As a result, many Solaris installations have system administrators who pay
very close attention to individual disk usage and might even have set up a
quota for your personal disk space. Type the following to see if you have a
quota set up:
$ quota -v
Disk quotas for taylor (uid 100):
usage quota limit
In the preceding example, there’s no quota, which you can determine by the
lack of data after the column headers. (Yes, Unix isn’t always friendly!)
Whether or not you have a disk space quota, if you have large data files or
graphics that you don’t need for a while, it’s good manners to compress
these large files so there’s more free disk space for other files.
You can compress files in Solaris 9 three ways:
They all do the same basic task. Give them a big file, and they shrink it down
to a smaller file. Which one works best? The difference is more historical:
bzip2 tends to do the best job of compression and it’s also the newest of the
In general, bzip2 is best. Sometimes gzip or compress shrink a file further.
Chapter 4: Managing Files and Directories
All three of these compression tools are zero loss compression systems.
Whatever you compress, the restored original will be identical to the file you
started with, whether it’s a JPEG graphic, a StarOffice .doc file, or a humble
.txt file.
The following example compresses the gullivers.travels.txt file with
each tool and shows the size of the compressed file:
$ ls -l gullivers.travels.txt
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
592673 Oct 4 16:31 gullivers.travels.txt
$ compress -v gullivers.travels.txt
gullivers.travels.txt: Compression: 59.32% -- replaced with
$ ls -l gullivers.travels.txt.Z
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
241071 Oct 4 16:31 gullivers.travels.txt.Z
The example shows which compression tool saves the most disk space. The
compress utility saved almost 60% of the disk space, shrinking down the
592,673 byte file to only 241,071 bytes. The newly compressed file has a .Z
suffix added, which indicates that it’s been compressed with compress.
Follow these rules to name and recognize compressed files:
Z is a compress file
.gz is a gzip file
.bz2 is a bzip2 file
To restore a file that’s been shrunk with compress, use the uncompress
$ uncompress gullivers.travels.txt.Z
Compressing a file with gzip is accomplished in a manner identical to the
compress command:
$ gzip -v gullivers.travels.txt
62.3% -- replaced with gullivers.travels.txt.gz
$ ls -l gullivers.travels.txt.gz
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
223139 Oct 4 16:31 gullivers.travels.txt.gz
Not bad, it’s even a little smaller. This time the newly compressed file has a
.gz suffix, indicating that it has been compressed with gzip. To uncompress
a gzip file, use gunzip. Then compress it one more time, with the more
powerful bzip2 program:
Part I: Getting Acquainted with Solaris
$ gunzip gullivers.travels.txt.gz
$ bzip2 -v gullivers.travels.txt
gullivers.travels.txt: 3.589:1, 2.229 bits/byte, 72.14% saved, 592673 in,
165126 out.
$ ls -l gullivers.travels.txt.bz2
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
165126 Oct 4 16:31 gullivers.travels.txt.bz2
This compression tool has done the best job, shrinking the file considerably
more than the two alternatives. This time, the filename suffix is .bz2, and the
tool to uncompress it is bunzip2:
$ bunzip2 gullivers.travels.txt.bz2
With any luck, the file ends up the same size:
$ ls -l gullivers.travels.txt
-rw-r--r-1 taylor
592673 Oct
4 16:31 gullivers.travels.txt
Part II
The Inevitable
Internet Section
In this part . . .
ith a Sun computer, The Network really is The
Computer. It’s no surprise at all that Sun systems
have excellent and quite easy-to-use Internet utilities.
Starting with a chapter on the true killer application of the
Internet, email, this part continues by looking at the latest
version of Netscape’s venerable Navigator browser and
then touches on a worthy alternative, Mozilla. We then
switch gears and look at how to build Web pages in
Solaris, run a Web server, and even analyze Web log files
to see who is visiting and what they’re viewing. The last
chapter considers ftp, telnet and the superior alternative
to both, ssh, the secure shell.
Chapter 5
Doin’ That E-Mail Thing
In This Chapter
Working with CDE’s Mailer
Using Netscape Messenger for e-mail
Reading and sending e-mail at the command line
-mail enables users to instantaneously communicate with family and
friends throughout the world. E-mail is the so-called killer app of the
From its humble beginnings in the 1970s in the Unix community, e-mail has
become the main reason many folks are connected to the Internet. Because
Sun has always believed the network is the computer, it’s no surprise that
Solaris includes a number of different e-mail applications.
You may also want to check out some wonderful graphical and commandline-based mail programs that aren’t included in the standard Solaris 9
distribution. If you’re interested, ask your system administrator to download
these free alternative applications that are ready to go on Solaris 9.
Regardless of which mail program you choose, sending and receiving e-mail
is a “killer skill” for anyone using the computer. This chapter offers an introduction to working with e-mail from all three major environments: the
command line, the Common Desktop Environment, and GNOME.
Getting to Know Mailer
Within the Common Desktop Environment, Mailer is the only mail program.
Easily accessible from the Control Panel (click the inbox icon), it’s likely that
the program will launch the first time without any inbox or configuration, as
shown in Figure 5-1.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 5-1:
with no
Configuring the program
To configure the program, choose Mailbox➪New Mailbox. This opens the
dialog box shown in Figure 5-2.
You can set up a local mailbox, as discussed in this section, but Mailer will
probably automatically recognize a local mailbox without any additional
An IMAP connection
Many Solaris users have their mail centrally stored on an IMAP server.
To configure an IMAP connection, click the IMAP Server button near the top
of the configuration dialog box. This opens the IMAP configuration dialog
box, shown in Figure 5-3.
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
Figure 5-2:
The Mailer
dialog box.
Figure 5-3:
configuration dialog
Password: If you’re concerned about security, you don’t have to enter
your password in this dialog box. Mailer will prompt you for a password
each time it checks your incoming mailbox.
Retrieve Attachments: You have the option to retrieve attachments
automatically, or leave these potentially large additions on the server
until you determine whether they’re worth downloading.
On most systems, your connection to the mail server is sufficiently
speedy that there’s rarely any visible slowdown for retrieving all attachments. You can configure this option either way without a problem.
E-mail within Solaris is less susceptible to viruses than Windows programs — a reason to cheer, and a reason to be less paranoid about the
possible dangers lurking in e-mail attachments.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Using a local mailbox instead
If you don’t have an IMAP account, you can specify your mailbox with these
1. Click Local in the configuration dialog box.
2. Search for the specific mailbox in question, as shown in Figure 5-4.
Figure 5-4:
Finding a
Viewing the mailbox
After the mailbox is identified, the program
Opens the mailbox
Scans through all the messages
Presents an attractive and easy to navigate view of all the messages, as
shown in Figure 5-5.
In this default mailbox view, here’s what you see:
The top pane is a table of contents of all messages.
The middle area shows
• A summary of the mailbox
• A set of control elements
The mailbox in Figure 5-5 contains 575 messages and message 568 is currently shown.
From left to right, the Mailer toolbar contains these controls:
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
• Delete
• Move down the list to the next message
• Move up the list to the previous message
• Reply
• Forward
• Compose a new e-mail message
• Print message
The bottom pane of the window is the specific message in question, formatted in an attractive manner.
In the top pane, each message lists
Date and time sent
Mailer offers other sophisticated display options:
Figure 5-5:
Viewing a
mailbox in
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
An optional status indicator of a diamond or N indicates new messages.
By default, the message list pane sorts the messages by date sent, oldest
to newest.
The message view window shows almost all headers in an e-mail message, screening out a few by default. If you want to hide more of the
headers (such as X-UIDL and MIME-Version), search for message view
preferences in the Help system (see the top-right corner of the Mailer
menu bar).
Mailer doesn’t understand how to display messages using fancy formatting (typically HTML). If you receive lots of newsletters from Web sites,
some messages may be unreadable in Mailer. Mailer recognizes and activates all Web site addresses it encounters in messages: In Figure 5-5, the
URL for the Frontier Airlines Web site is in a different color. Click that,
and the site opens in the Web browser.
If the message has an attachment, the bottom pane shows the attachment in icon form, indicating the file’s
• Name
• Type
Right-click on the attachment to see a variety of options for the file
• Saving
• Opening
• Editing
In Figure 5-5, Mailer recognizes an HTML format attachment and displays it.
Changing the sorting order
You can organize your message display in several ways:
The default setting of sorting messages from oldest to newest is usually
a good choice.
If you want to sort the messages by sender, subject, and so on, click the
View menu, as shown in Figure 5-6.
If your mailbox contains a ton of messages, it may be useful to sort the messages by sender and then select all of those messages and save them in a new
mailbox for that sender:
1. Right-click the set of selected messages.
2. Choose the option to save to a new mailbox.
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
Figure 5-6:
options for
Sending mail
Sending mail and responding to messages from others are the two most
common Mailer tasks.
Responding to a message
To respond to a message, follow these steps:
1. Select the original message.
For example, I selected a Frontier Airlines message. I want to reply to
thank the airline for its lovely holiday wishes.
2. Click the reply icon (the one with the letter and the blue arrow pointing to the person) or choose Compose➪Reply.
A message window opens, as shown in Figure 5-7.
Figure 5-7:
to an e-mail
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
3. By default, the Reply button includes the text: If you don’t want to
include the original text with your reply, choose Reply from the
Compose menu.
The original message text is included at the top of the new message. The
original text is prefaced by a > on each line, by convention.
As a matter of good form and netiquette, I deleted the extraneous material in my response, as shown in Figure 5-7, before typing in a response.
4. Fill in the appropriate fields as desired.
The compose window has five input areas:
• To
• Subject
• Cc
• The message body
• An attachment area for dragging and dropping attachment files or
When you reply to an existing message, the To and Subject fields
are automatically filled in. Both the message body and attachment
windows have useful pop-up menus; just right-click in the appropriate space. This is also an easy way to add attachments.
5. When the message is ready to send, click the Send button, and away it
Creating a new message
Creating a new e-mail message is just about as simple as replying to one:
1. Click the Compose icon on the toolbar. (It’s the icon that looks like a
blank piece of paper with a pencil laying on top.)
A blank New Message window opens.
2. Type in an address, subject, message, and so on.
Figure 5-8 shows an example message.
3. When you’ve finished composing the message, click Send.
Mailer is a good, simple e-mail program that lets you manage a simple flow of
incoming and outgoing e-mail. However, its inability to render HTML messages and lack of sophisticated filtering and other modern amenities make it
feel dated compared to many of the other choices available.
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
Figure 5-8:
a new
message in
Using Netscape Messenger
The alternative mail application for GNOME users (and CDE users, if desired)
is a part of Netscape Navigator, as included with Solaris 9.
Configuring an e-mail account
Follow these steps to configure an e-mail account:
1. Launch Netscape 7.
2. Click the Window menu.
This menu offers a variety of options, as shown in Figure 5-9.
If you don’t have Netscape 7 on your Solaris system, it’s an extremely
worthwhile download. Go to to get started.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 5-9:
The many
faces of
Netscape 7.
3. Choose Mail & Newsgroups.
A window opens, indicating that you haven’t configured the e-mail
preferences yet, as shown in Figure 5-10.
Figure 5-10:
No e-mail
have been
added to
4. Choose Create a New Account.
A window asks what type of account you want to create.
5. Select the default value, Email Account. Click Next to proceed.
6. In a manner similar to Windows task wizards, Netscape prompts you,
window by window, for the information needed to create the new
e-mail account. Follow the prompts.
Figure 5-11 shows the first window, asking for your
• Name
• E-mail address.
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
Figure 5-11:
settings in
7. Once you’ve entered the appropriate information, click Next again to
configure your
• POP or IMAP server
• Outbound mail server information
In Figure 5-12, the wizard recognized that I configured my outbound mail
server when I first set up the Web browser. It shows me that the outbound mail server is set to instead of prompting me to
specify a new server.
Figure 5-12:
mail server
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
8. To configure an incoming mail server, enter the server name as supplied by your ISP or system administrator.
9. Specify the type of server you’ll be accessing (POP or IMAP) and click
Next to somewhat redundantly enter your e-mail account name.
10. Label this account, if you want.
Netscape 7 supports multiple e-mail accounts, but you’ll probably leave
the default user@host value shown.
After you deal with the label, a summary of all values is shown.
11. Click Finish to set up the account.
I also set up an account that allows easy access to an America Online mailbox. Figure 5-13 shows how the mailbox is displayed.
Examining the Netscape window
Netscape 7 has an attractive display, as shown in Figure 5-13. The main
window consists of four main areas by default:
Figure 5-13:
Netscape 7
new e-mail
in the Inbox.
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
A list of folders and accounts in the upper-left pane
A sidebar in the lower-left pane
You can remove the sidebar by clicking the X button.
A list of messages in the current folder or mailbox in the upper-right
The current message in the lower-right pane
Netscape can render complex HTML e-mail messages, as shown in the message at the bottom of Figure 5-13. This display of portable fishing scales,
while perhaps a bit lame, is more attractive than the primitive display of the
Frontier Airlines message in the CDE Mailer program (see “Working with
incoming mail,” later in this chapter).
These are some of the folders in the upper-left pane:
Sent Mail: By default, a copy of all messages you send are saved in the
Sent Mail folder.
Old Mail: Messages you’ve read but haven’t filed or otherwise disposed
of can later be found in the Old Mail folder.
Recently Deleted Mail folder: This folder stores messages that you have
marked for deletion. You can retrieve them if you change your mind.
Similar to Mailer, the main Netscape 7 toolbar offers quick access to the main
functions of the mail program, as shown in Figure 5-14. Most of these buttons
should be familiar if you’ve sent e-mail and used a Web browser. Netscape
checks for new mail every ten minutes by default. (You can change that setting in your Preferences.) You can force a quick check by clicking the Get
Msgs button.
Figure 5-14:
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Menu options and sorting
The available menus in Netscape are
Sorting is one of the many options available on the View menu, as shown in
Figure 5-15. If you thought Mailer had a lot of mailbox sorting options, you’ll
be even more impressed with Netscape, which has 22 ways to organize your
view. As with Mailer, the default sorting order in Netscape is likely to keep
you happy for years of e-mail activity.
Figure 5-15:
options and
the View
The Message menu, shown in Figure 5-16, offers options for creating a
The most interesting and unusual option on this menu is Edit Message
as New, which lets you edit messages you’ve received. This sounds kind
of wacky, but I find it quite useful to improve subject lines on messages
before I save them to an archive folder: “Skylight Bid from Outlook
Renovation, without painting” is a much better subject than “Re:
Remodeling” when you’re later digging around the folder.
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
You can access your Address Book by using the Tools menu (refer to
Figure 5-9). The Address Book is a handy feature that enables you to
manage a list of everyone with whom you send and receive e-mail.
Figure 5-16:
Sending and responding to e-mail
To respond to an e-mail message, click the Reply button on the navigation
bar, or choose Message➪Reply (refer to Figure 5-16). Figure 5-17 shows the
beginning of my response to the note about the fishing scale.
Figure 5-17:
to an e-mail
A remarkable number of options are available to customize your e-mail message:
The most important thing to notice about the composition window is
that, by default, messages are composed and sent in HTML format. If
your recipient is using Mailer, well, there’s a mismatch. For many user
communities, HTML-friendly e-mail programs are quite common, and the
most popular Windows and Mac e-mail applications all support rich, colorful HTML.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
An important capability in Navigator is the spell checker. Click the Spell
button on the navigation bar, and the program helps you avoid looking
foolish with spelling hiccups. It can’t help with grammar and word
choice, but it is a terrific addition to the mail program.
In the panel with the To address, the To button is actually a pull-down
menu. You can specify that an address should actually be a Cc or Bcc
address instead.
Choose the Options menu, and you’ll see a number of useful message
options, as shown in Figure 5-18. You can
Encrypt and digitally sign messages
Request a return receipt
Assign various priorities
If you’re sending attachments, you can specify how the attachments should
be packaged to ensure that they arrive at their destination in a useable
format. You can safely leave the default configuration unless you’re getting
complaints from colleagues, in which case I recommend working with your
system administrator to determine the ideal settings.
Figure 5-18:
The Format submenu lets you choose
HTML-only messages (the default)
Text-only messages (no different typefaces, no colors, and so on)
A hybrid of both plain text and fancy HTML.
Recipients are shown one or the other based on the sophistication of
their mail program.
The hybrid option might sound ideal, but remember this means that two
copies of every message are sent to each recipient:
• A fancy HTML version
• A plain text version
If your messages are a half-dozen lines, that’s no big deal. But if you regularly send friends or colleagues 10 to 20-page messages, they might get
testy about the waste of bandwidth and disk space.
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
To write a new message, you just follow a simple process:
1. Create the new document with one of these steps:
• Click the Compose icon on the toolbar
• Choose Message➪New Message
2. Add the information to the document:
• Address
• Subject
• Message text.
Figure 5-19 shows an example message.
Figure 5-19:
A new
The Netscape mail program is very sophisticated and has many options:
If you opt to use this e-mail program, I suggest using the Help menu to
explore the program’s capabilities.
You may also want to go through the different panels of the Preferences
area to customize the program to your liking.
Command-Line Communication
I stick with Berkeley mail, mailx, because it is included with Solaris 9 and has
long been a part of the Sun operating system. It’s not sexy but offers a surprisingly efficient mechanism for working with electronic mail.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Without additional software, mailx cannot interact with POP or IMAP mailboxes. If you’re using Solaris to process mail that comes via an ISP or is
sequestered on a central mail server until you grab it, you need to move up
to a graphical mail application.
Freeware POP and IMAP applications, most notably fetchmail, are available
for Solaris, but you need to have your system administrator install them from
the Internet. To find out more about fetchmail, go to
Sending mail with mailx
Whether or not you can receive your e-mail at the command line, it’s likely
you can send a quick message using mailx.
By default, Solaris 9 is configured properly to send out messages if your
system is on the Internet.
To send a message, follow these steps:
1. Type mailx followed by the e-mail address of the intended recipient or
It’ll then prompt for a subject
2. Enter as much text as you’d like, ending with a Ctrl-D:
$ mailx
Subject: Thanks for all the fish!
Just wanted to send a quick note saying “thanks” for ...
This is part of a sample message.
• The mailx program lets you type in as much material as you’d like.
• You can cut and paste other text from other messages.
3. When you’re done entering the message, press Ctrl+D (press the Control
key down and, while it’s depressed, press D) on its own line to complete
the message:
... all the fish.
The EOT (end of text) is output when you press Ctrl+D. That’s it. The
message is now on its way to the recipient somewhere on the Internet.
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
The mailx program offers some additional message capabilities, and you can
generate a list of them with the sequence ~? on its own line. These are the
most useful of the escape commands:
-------------------- ~ ESCAPES ---------------------------~b users
Add users to Bcc list
~c users
Add users to Cc list
Edit the message buffer
~f messages
Read in messages, do not right-shift
Prompt for Subject and To, Cc and Bcc lists
~m messages
Read in messages, right-shifted by a tab
Print the message buffer
Quit, save letter in $HOME/dead.letter
~r,~< file
Read a file into the message buffer
~r,~< !command Read output from command into message
Mark message for return receipt
~s subject
Set subject
~t users
Add users to To list
Invoke (vi) display editor on message
~w file
Write message onto file (no header)
Quit, do not save letter
Run a shell command
~|,~^ command
Pipe the message through the command
print this help message
To include the file gullivers.travels.txt at the end of a message, for
example, type ~r gullivers.travels.txt on its own line. The commands
~e and ~v are useful for editing the message. (One uses your default editor,
and the other uses the vi editor, as discussed in Chapter 12.)
Working with incoming mail
If your system is configured so that your e-mail lives in a local mailbox, you
can read and respond to your e-mail from the command line and never have
to take your hands off the keyboard.
To check your e-mail, use the mailx command but don’t specify any
$ mailx
mailx version 5.0 Sat Apr 6 14:57:29 PST 2002 Type
“/var/mail/taylor”: 14 messages
>O 1 Midwifery Today
Thu Dec 12 02:19 1038/41234
O 2 Robbie Dunlap
Thu Dec 12 11:08
O 3 Lori Kats
Thu Dec 12 12:16
? for help.
E-News 4:38 - Obstetric I
<no subject>
Donna Eden Suggests: Ask
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Lester, Emily
Colette Donahue
Roy R. Dunlap
Don Taylor
A Feehan
Melissa Cohen Insu
10:25 107/3967 Re: S-Mart Order
81/3511 RE: Hello!
73/2806 RE: chicken pox
15:11 241/9813 Fwd: Fw: Re: one dollar
11:49 122/5160 [NVIC] 5 in 1 vaccine liv
16:46 201/6620 (no subject)
80/4614 Happy Holidays!
11:22 1113/82036 Hi
42/4034 Washington Mobilizes For
51/1725 Re: cancellation of home
In the preceding example, 14 messages are in the mailbox
/var/mail/taylor; they’re listed from oldest to newest. The fields from left
to right are
The message status (O is old)
A unique message number
The sender
The date and time the message was sent
The size in lines/characters
The subject
For example, the first message is from Midwifery Today. It was sent Thursday,
December 12th at 2:19, and is 1,038 lines (41,234 characters) long. The subject of the message is E-News 4:38 – Obstetric I.
To read a message, type its index number at the ? prompt. For example, to
read the message from Frontier Airlines (#11), type 11 at the prompt and then
press Enter:
? 11
Message 11:From Tue Dec 17
04:38:04 2002
X-UIDL: b-;!!77K!!V\7”!\#k”!
Date: Tue, 17 Dec 2002 01:00:08 -0700
X-Sybari-Trust: b53a39e6f6624f78c4b24ea600000109
From: <>
To: “” <>
Subject: Happy Holidays!
MIME-Version: 1.0
--MWZAlternativeMessage Content-Type:text/plain
Chapter 5: Doin’ That E-mail Thing
Happy Holidays from Frontier Airlines!
The employees of Frontier Airlines wish you a safe and happy
holiday season. We hope the new year brings you joyous
travels and much prosperity!
Cancun and Mazatlan Sale Fares!!
For all the exciting sale details and to make reservations,
Visit <>.
Spirit of the Web
Due to the high volume of air travelers expected over the
weekend, Spirit of the Web fares will not be offered this
week. Thank you for your continued support and look for a
Spirit of the Web update.
It’s certainly not the most attractive e-mail message, but mailx does offer a
crude, functional interface. To respond to the message, type reply at the ?
prompt, or to ensure you’re responding to the correct message, you can also
type reply 11:
? reply
Subject: Re: Happy Holidays!
Thanks for your lovely note. Happy Holidays to you too!
Again, the EOT is displayed when you press Ctrl+D to denote the end of message input. With a reply, the program automatically grabs the recipient’s
address and subject from the original message.
You can do more with mailx, and additional, more sophisticated e-mail programs are available for hard-core shell users, but you’ll probably use a
graphical mail program.
To find out more about mailx, check the extensive man page. To learn about
Elm, Pine, Mutt, and other alternative e-mail programs, check out www.sun
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Chapter 6
Exploring the World Wide Web
In This Chapter
Starting Netscape 7 and surfing the Web
Customizing your Netscape 7 preferences
Understanding Web security in Netscape 7
hether you’re looking for a wedding dress, a spouse, or a hubcap for
your Yugo, you can find it on the Web.
Working with the Web in the Solaris environment is slightly different from on
a PC or Macintosh system; the browsers and the windowing system are different. Worse, many Web sites are designed for Windows-specific browsers —
particularly Microsoft Internet Explorer, which isn’t available on Solaris —
and don’t always work as intended in other environments.
For most Solaris users, encountering a Web site that doesn’t work is cause for
some grumbling, sending an occasional e-mail message to the site’s
Webmaster, and exploring other places online.
This chapter covers Netscape 7 (the Web browser shipped with Solaris 9). I
introduce you to some interesting Web sites along the way — I can’t resist —
but primarily focus on the tools themselves.
This chapter doesn’t differentiate between the Common Desktop
Environment and GNOME because Netscape works fine in both environments. The only differences are button layout and window colors. Outside of
those superficial elements, the browsers are identical in either environment,
with the same dialog boxes, menus, and configuration oddities.
Starting Netscape 7
Netscape first released the Version 4.7 browser in September 1999.
Subsequent to that release, the Internet standards groups agreed on a different core architecture for Web browsers. Netscape has since released Version
6 and Version 7 browsers for most platforms. I focus on the newer and more
sophisticated Netscape 7.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
If you don’t have Netscape 7, ask your system administrator to download it
from Netscape 4.78 is the version that might be on
your Solaris 9 distribution; this version is nearly an orphan.
The process for starting Netscape 7 depends on your interface:
If you’re running CDE, launch Netscape 7 by clicking the clock icon (the
picture of planet Earth), as shown in Figure 6-1.
Figure 6-1:
The Earth
Netscape 7
in CDE.
In the GNOME environment, you have a couple of options:
• Click the foot icon to pop up the GNOME menu and then choose
Applications➪Internet—Netscape Web Browser, as shown in
Figure 6-2.
• If you personalized GNOME as described in Chapter 2, you can click the
small N on the control panel.
Figure 6-2:
Netscape 7
from the
The Web browser loads the Sun Microsystems home page as the default
home for the browser. It looks like Figure 6-3.
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Figure 6-3:
The Sun
home page.
Changing Preferences
You can customize Netscape 7 a million different ways.
To get to the Preferences area, choose Edit➪Preferences. You see the
Preferences dialog box, shown in Figure 6-4, by default.
The small boxes on the left side of the category indicate subcategories under
that category.
Click the tiny plus signs to see hidden subcategories.
Click the tiny minus signs to hide subcategories.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 6-4:
Netscape 7
Here’s the lowdown on the Preferences categories:
Appearance lets you change how pages are displayed in the browser,
including such subcategories as
• Fonts
• Colors
• Themes
• Languages/Content
Navigator lets you change such subcategories as
• History
• Languages
• Helper Applications
• Smart Browsing
• Internet Search
• Tabbed Browsing
• Downloads
Composer is a simple Web page development environment.
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Mail & Newsgroups lets you fine-tune the presentation of the Netscape
mail program and the Netnews program, including these subcategories:
• Message Display
• Composition
• Send Format
• Addressing
• Labels
• Return Receipts
Chapter 5 explains Netscape e-mail.
Instant Messenger customizes these AOL settings:
• Privacy
• Buddy Icons
• Notification
• Away
• Styles
• Connection
ICQ customizes these message settings:
• Privacy & Authorization
• Notification & Sounds
• Away
• Connection
Privacy & Security lets you specify how much of your identity is shared
with the rest of the online community through these subcategories:
• Cookies
• Images
• Forms
• Passwords
• Master Passwords
• Certificates
• Validation
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Advanced settings fine-tune specific system and network behaviors:
• Scripts & Plugins
• Cache
• Proxies
• HTTP Networking
• Software Installation
• Mouse Wheel
• Offline & Disk Space
Adjusting your appearance
“Please brush your hair!” might be the first thing that comes to mind when
you think about appearance. Fortunately, it’s easier to configure Netscape 7,
and it remembers every change, too!
Figure 6-4 shows appearance options that allow you to specify which elements of Netscape 7 should be launched when the program is started. By
default, it launches only Navigator (the Web browser).
Netscape 7 is the name for the entire suite of tools. Navigator is the Web
browser itself.
If you’re using Netscape Mail as your e-mail program, select the Messenger
Mail check box to have that automatically open, too.
You can also easily launch any of these tools by clicking the appropriate icon
on the bottom left of the main Netscape window, as shown in Figure 6-5. From
left to right, the icons launch
Instant Messenger
Your e-mail Address Book.
Leave the ToolTips option checked. It makes Navigator pop up helpful little
yellow notes if you leave the cursor over an icon for a second or two.
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Figure 6-5:
The launch
icons in
Netscape 7.
Click the Fonts subcategory listing under Appearance on the left pane of the
dialog box to see a new set of font options, as shown in Figure 6-6. Usually,
you won’t have to change these options.
If you’d prefer to have both the variable width and fixed-width (typewriter)
text on the browser page a bit larger, you can change the options here:
Choose the next size up from the current setting for both
Proportional (the default text on most pages)
Monospace (code listings and other fixed-width material)
By convention, the fixed width font is always smaller than the variable
width font, but you can change it to whatever is pleasing for your eyes.
Figure 6-6:
Netscape 7.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
The other option here — Allow Documents to Use Other Fonts — is to optionally override fonts included by Web sites. Don’t change this setting; many
sites use technology for text presentation that enhance the layout and presentation.
The Colors subcategory is shown in Figure 6-7. If you’ve surfed the Web,
you’re familiar with the standard color scheme of black text, blue underlined
hypertext reference links, and purple underlined links for places you’ve previously visited. Here’s where you can change this scheme and fine-tune things
to your heart’s content!
Figure 6-7:
Netscape 7.
To change a color, click the little color box. This produces an attractive set of
colors in a grid, as shown in Figure 6-8. Click the desired color. The selected
color replaces the previous color for links, background, or whatever you
wanted to alter.
Figure 6-8:
color picker.
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
You can change other colors and turn off the underlining of hypertext references if you want, but most modern Web sites already do their own alterations
of the appearance to ensure the best possible design.
If you prefer a specific color scheme, or you don’t like it when Web pages
hide the hypertext references by disabling underlines, changing colors, and
so on, then check the radio button adjacent to Use My Chosen Colors,
Ignoring the Colors and Background Image Specified. Keep your fingers
crossed that it always works!
Navigating preferences
Preferences under the Navigator category control the internal behavior of the
browser. As shown in Figure 6-9, the default Navigator preference lets you
specify whether to
Start new windows with the home page or a blank page
Alter your home page
Fine-tune what’s shown in the toolbars
Figure 6-9:
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
There’s no place like your home page
It’s useful to visit sporadically, but the
content doesn’t change often enough to make it
an exciting choice for your home page. Instead,
I recommend some alternatives:
Slashdot ( is a popular discussion and news site for computer
aficionados, with an entertaining mixture of
news, science, technology, and, well, just
weird stuff.
Google News ( offers
a terrific overview of the latest news as
reported in a wide variety of news and
information outlets. It changes all the time
and offers easy access to the terrific
Google search engine.
updated tickers for football, basketball,
baseball, NASCAR, and whatever else is
happening in the sports world.
BBC News ( offers a
European perspective on news and the
events of the day. It’s updated all the time,
too, but might seem a bit stark compared to
a site like Yahoo! or MSN.
eBay ( if you’re a collector, or just like shopping, there’s no better or
more compelling site online than eBay, an
enormous, chaotic online auction site.
Whether it’s a second SPARC system or
new clothes for your baby, someone’s probably selling it on eBay.
ESPN ( is a great choice
for the sports junkie, with its constantly
You can change your home page several ways:
Click in the Location box, select the current URL therein
(, and replace it with your preferred home page
Move in the browser to the page you want, choose Edit➪Preferences to
jump to this Preferences dialog box, and click the Use Current Page
History is a useful setting. Click it to see the dialog box shown in Figure 6-10.
The History settings are important, especially if you have precious little disk
space. By default, Navigator saves a copy of every Web page and every
graphic on every page in an area called the cache. The actual cache settings
are part of the Advanced Preferences category; the history setting in Figure
6-10 specifies how long the browser remembers sites.
By default, Navigator remembers nine day’s worth of surfing; the program
automatically deletes cached Web pages and graphics more than nine days
old when you quit. Make the history long enough, and you’ll eventually run
out of room on your computer when everything hangs around forever.
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Figure 6-10:
Is nine the correct setting? It’s difficult to say and probably depends just as
much on how many sites you visit as your disk space allocation.
If you spend hours each day visiting sites you’ve never visited before,
you’ll be building a substantial history list and cache, so you might need
to reduce this to seven days, or five.
If you read The Wall Street Journal when you log in, and then use only
e-mail and StarOffice for the rest of the day, a nine-day history is fine.
If you’ve installed several languages with your Solaris setup, you should see
more than one language listed in the Languages subcategory dialog box.
Otherwise, it just lists English, which is fine as-is.
Internet Search
The Internet Search subcategory is where you can choose which search
engine will, by default, process search queries entered into the Location box.
My personal preference is Google, as shown in Figure 6-11.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 6-11:
Tabbed Browsing
One of the coolest features in Netscape 7 is tabbed browsing. Using this feature, you can have a bunch of Web pages open simultaneously, and simply
click the appropriate tab to jump to the page you want to view. Figure 6-12
shows the options. If you haven’t tried tabbed browsing, I recommend it!
Figure 6-12:
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Smart Browsing
Smart Browsing is a neat idea from Netscape that has fallen on hard times.
The concept is great: For each site you visit, the browser presents a What’s
Related button that pops up a menu of Web sites ostensibly related to the
current site.
Smart Browsing is buggy. My experience is that the browser crashes not infrequently with this enabled.
Advanced options
The Advanced preferences category, shown in Figure 6-13, gives you control
of such enhanced capabilities as
Fine-tuning your privacy settings
Disabling cookies
Allowing or disabling Java or JavaScript
Figure 6-13:
Netscape 7.
The default configuration is probably fine for you unless you know you need
changes. For example, I enable Java and XSLT (as shown in Figure 6-13)
because lots of the content on the Sun Microsystems Web site is Java-enabled.
You maintain a more restrictive — and secure — browsing environment by
disabling Java.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
The only other Advanced preference worth considering is the Cache. This
subcategory is where you can fine-tune how much disk space the browser
can use for its breadcrumb trail of sites you’ve visited. Figure 6-14 shows this.
Figure 6-14:
Netscape 7.
Check the location of the disk cache folder:
If you’re having problems using more than your quota of disk space in
Solaris, this directory is a good place to start your exploration.
You can also ratchet back the amount of space allowed on the disk (the
default is 50MB) if necessary by typing another value into the Disk
Cache box.
Working Effectively
In the interest of becoming an effective Web surfer, you need to know about a
few buttons and links in the main browser window. Figure 6-15 shows the
The Help menu is rightmost on the top menu bar. Click it for direct links
to a number of useful Web sites within Netscape.
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Figure 6-15:
News in
Netscape 7.
My favorite of this list is the Security Center, where you can find tips on
improving the security of your Solaris Web browser.
On the Navigation bar, in addition to the usual Back, Forward, Reload,
and Home buttons, there is one more to highlight: Search takes you
directly to the search engine you’ve specified in the Internet Search preference dialog box (refer to Figure 6-11). If you type a search pattern into
the Location box, instead of a URL, and then click Search, the Web
browser feeds that pattern to your specified search engine and shows
you the results instead. A very cool feature!
When you find a Web page that would make a great home page, choose
Preferences—Navigator and click the Use Current Page button to set it
as your new home page.
The next row down on the Web browser is known as the bookmarks bar
because it offers one-click access to your favorite bookmarks. Netscape 7
is preloaded with a bunch of useful bookmarks, including
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
• Radio
• My Netscape
• Shop
• WebMail
• Calendar
This feature is worth exploring. My Web browser has a customized set of
bookmarks including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and
Slashdot, among others.
You can hide or display any or all toolbars a couple of ways:
Select the appropriate option on the View➪Show/Hide menu.
For example, to hide the Personal toolbar, simply select it from the View
menu, and it vanishes.
As a general rule, anything preceded on the menu with a checkmark is
visible, and anything missing the checkmark is hidden: every time you
select an item on the Show/Hide menu it’ll flip from visible to invisible,
or back.
Click the narrow vertical bar on the leftmost edge of the toolbar in question; it shrinks to a tiny vertical bar.
I’ve shrunk the Personal toolbar in Figure 6-15 and the Navigation bar in
Figure 6-16.
To restore toolbars to full size, simply click the tiny horizontal element.
The final element to explore in Netscape 7 is the padlock icon on the bottomright corner of the window. For any given Web site, the padlock icon shows
whether the site’s secure or insecure:
Secure sites have closed padlocks.
Insecure sites have open padlocks.
Click the padlock icon (or choose View—Page Info and then click the Security
tab), and a dialog box pops up with lots of security information for the current page, whether the page is secure or not.
Figure 6-16 shows the security information for the home page
Figure 6-16 shows that the PayPal site is secure (both because the padlock is
closed and because the Security page says the page was encrypted). This is
particularly important if you’re entering personal data, such as
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Figure 6-16:
Info for
Account and password information
Credit card data
It’s a good idea to make it a habit to check whether a Web site is secure
before providing personal information.
In terms of shopping, you might ask yourself, “How trustworthy is an online
store if it doesn’t bother to encode the transmission between me and its
server?” I personally avoid doing business with online stores that do not
encrypt payment pages, regardless of how big and well established they are.
While I’m talking about Security, pop back to the Preferences dialog box
(choose Edit—Preferences) and then move to Privacy & Security and click
the subcategory SSL. You see a new dialog box, as shown in Figure 6-17.
SSL is a secure alternative to the regular Web transfer system. Information is
encrypted and decrypted by your browser and the remote server. While in
transit, the information is in an unreadable format; when you’re checking
your bank balance, no one can use the information if they intercept it.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 6-17:
Netscape 7
You won’t have to configure either SSL2 or SSL3, but you need to enable
them, as shown in Figure 6-17.
I disable all the warning dialog boxes because I check for secure sites by
glancing at the padlock icon; if you don’t, you can leave the warnings enabled
by leaving all the boxes checked (as shown).
Going back in time
One great feature of Web browsers from the very first introduced is that they
keep track of where you’ve surfed prior to the current page. You can then
easily back up to a previous page by clicking on the Back button or, on the
more recent browsers, viewing and selecting from your surfing History. But
the History window is quite a bit more useful than a way of avoiding multiple
clicks on the Back button, because unlike the Back button, the History
window remembers sites you’ve visited on previous invocations of the
browser too.
Figure 6-18 shows my current history list. Choose Go➪History to access your
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Figure 6-18:
In Figure 6-18, the entries are organized by date and sorted by frequency of
visit. Unsurprisingly, Sun Microsystems is the most visited site.
You can change the sort column by clicking the column name.
Click it a second time to reverse the order of the sort.
To sort by page title, for example, click Title. Now it’s sorted in a to z order.
Click Title again, and it’s reversed, in z to a order. Click a third time, and
you’re back to a to z order.
The History window lists all sites you’ve visited in the last week or two, not
just since you started your current session. It’s like a super Back button. How
far back does it keep the list? That’s what the History setting in the
Preferences adjusts; by default, it’s nine days.
The History feature presents a privacy challenge. To understand why, consider what your boss would see if she sauntered over to your Solaris system,
opened this History window, and sorted by Visit Count. Are you secretly
spending time visiting “” or “” during work hours? To
minimize the privacy problem, some Web surfers set their History preference
to a very small value. On the other hand, if you’re at work, you’re supposed
to be working, so maybe changing the browser isn’t the best way to solve the
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Managing bookmarks
If you’re like most Web surfers, you either don’t use bookmarks at all, or
they’ve taken over, and your bookmark menu has dozens, or hundreds, of
entries. Knowing how to manage your bookmark list is well worth a few minutes of time and makes surfing more fun.
The Personal toolbar comes with a set of bookmarks preloaded, including
Here’s how to add a few useful additional locations.
First, go to a Web site you like to visit. I’ll pop over to the
home page at, as shown in Figure 6-19.
Figure 6-19:
Press home
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
To add the site to my Personal toolbar, I choose Bookmark➪File
Bookmark. The default action is to add the bookmark to my Personal Toolbar
Folder. I click OK, and the new element is added to the folder, but is not displayed in my Personal toolbar. Why not? Because it’s at the end of the list in
the folder.
What if, in addition to moving the Dummies bookmark to make it visible, you
also want to get rid of the Radio bookmark because you already have a radio
and don’t need one on your Solaris system?
To solve both problems, you need to open the Bookmark Editor:
1. Choose Bookmarks➪Manage Bookmarks. The Bookmark Editor is shown
in Figure 6-20. The highlighted line in the figure is the
2. To change the label for this entry, right-click anywhere on the line.
Figure 6-20:
A small menu pops up with many choices. To rename it as the bookmark
name choose Rename, and the Bookmark Properties dialog box appears, as
shown in Figure 6-21.
Here you can
Type a new title
Fine-tune the location URL
Add a description to help remember why you found the site so
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 6-21:
dialog box.
Bookmarks can be adjusted to make your system efficient and convenient:
To move a bookmark to the top of the Personal Toolbar Folder, simply
click and drag it to the top.
To delete a bookmark, right-click it and choose Delete from the pop-up
You can also create new bookmark folders and drag specific bookmarks
around, which is a boon for the well-organized surfer.
When you’re done fine-tuning your bookmarks, choose File➪Close. Now
you’re back at your Web browser, with the new improved Personal toolbar, as
shown in Figure 6-22.
Chapter 6: Exploring the World Wide Web
Figure 6-22:
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Chapter 7
Creating Web Pages
In This Chapter
The rules of naming Web pages
Entering content into your new Web page
Opening up and Viewing local pages in Navigator
Improving your page layout with HTML
Working with the Apache Server on your Solaris system
lthough it’s entertaining to surf the Web, discovering what everyone
else has produced, nothing is as exciting as publishing your own Web
site, fiddling with the hypertext markup, and checking the server log files to
see how many people read your material while you were at lunch!
Creating complex, sophisticated Web sites like the site is obviously
beyond the scope of this book (although I share some recommendations in
this chapter for other Web design books), but one of the real beauties of the
Web is that it’s egalitarian. If you can work in either a CDE- or GNOME-based
editor or launch a terminal window and edit in vi — all of which are discussed in Chapter 12 — you’re ready to go.
Naming Files
It’s easy to build a simple Web page using the GNOME Text Editor application.
If you’re using the Common Desktop Environment, Text Edit is functionally
identical and can be easily used instead.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
HTML essentials
Whether you’re using your Solaris system as a
Web server, or you have Web space on a different server (perhaps America Online or another
Internet service provider), you can easily learn
the basics of HTML and get started. HTML is the
HyperText Markup Language: the set of notations within all Web pages that tell the Web
browser how to present information.
Here’s an example of HTML:
<P>This is a paragraph with a
word in <B>bold</B></P>
As the preceding example shows, HTML is
straightforward: To have the word bold formatted in bold, wrap the word in tags:
The open bold HTML tag (B) at the start
The close bold HTML tag at the end (it’s like
the open, but with a / added).
All HTML tags start with an open angle bracket
and end with a close angle bracket, and most,
but not all, HTML tags are pairs; they start and
then end a particular presentation characteristic, like bold.
The first issue to consider is the name of the file. But you can’t just name a
file anything you’d like. There are specific rules about well-formed HTML file
names on the Web:
Spaces aren’t allowed in Web filenames.
Solaris differentiates between uppercase (capital) and lowercase letters
in a filename. Welcome and welcome are actually two different files.
Some operating systems (notably Microsoft Windows) ignore case differences.
Use all lowercase letters for your Web page filenames. That sidesteps
the problem completely.
Use .html as the filename suffix.
• Web browsers know what they’re looking at.
• Web servers know what kind of information they’re feeding to visitors who ask for your new page.
A good first Web page name is welcome.html.
Entering Content
Web pages with content are obviously more exciting than blank pages
(though blank pages can be curiously relaxing at times), so you probably
want some.
Chapter 7: Creating Web Pages
The process depends on the environment you’re working in:
In CDE, launch the CDE Text Edit application. Just click the Text Note
icon (the little piece of paper with the pencil and red pushpin icon) on
the main control bar.
In GNOME, go to the GNOME menu on the bottom-left corner and then
choose Applications➪Accessories➪Text Editor, as shown in Figure 7-1.
Figure 7-1:
Text Editor.
When the GNOME Text Editor — gedit — first opens, it looks like Figure 7-2.
Try entering some text into this new as-yet-unborn Web page:
We’ve come a long way since the days when Sun was
just four university students with an idea.
Twenty years down the road, much to our own surprise,
we have nearly 40,000 employees in offices around
the world. In fact, from humble beginnings as
builders of engineering workstations, we’ve become
a leading supplier of network servers, data storage
systems, system software, network infrastructure
applications, and much more.
But with all the changes--all the ways we have
reinvented our products and our company over
the years--one thing remains the same:
The idea that started it all.
Open network computing is still our passion,
still the driving force behind each of our
technologies, products, and services.
This passage is from a retrospective written by Scott McNealy, CEO of Sun
Microsystems. You can find it online at
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 7-2:
Text Editor.
After you enter the text, your text editor should look like Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3:
years of Sun
history, in
Text Editor.
This looks fine in Text Editor, but it’s not yet a Web page. To see why, save the
text to a file and then open the file in Netscape Navigator. To save the file,
Choose File➪Save
Click the Save icon on the GNOME Text Editor toolbar
Chapter 7: Creating Web Pages
The Save As dialog box pops up. By default, the dialog box should open to
your home directory, with the filename Untitled 1. Figure 7-4 shows how
that looks.
Figure 7-4:
Save the
file as
Untitled 1?
The default location of my home directory is fine, but the filename Untitled 1
is unacceptable: I use welcome.html. To change the filename, I use these
1. Select Untitled 1 in the bottom text area and replace it with
2. Click OK to save the file.
The Text Editor window should now show the name of the file in both
The title bar
The small tab below the New and Open buttons on the toolbar
Viewing Local Pages
You can open a Web page in Netscape Navigator several ways, including dragging and dropping the icon onto the browser. To open the file you’ve created
in Text Editor, follow these steps:
1. Launch Navigator (Chapter 6 explains how) and then choose
File➪Open Page within Navigator.
The Open Page dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 7-5.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 7-5:
Opening a
page in
2. Click the Choose File button to open another file selection dialog box.
This window is similar to the Save As dialog box shown in Figure 7-4.
You should be looking at your home directory by default.
3. Find and select the file in the Files box on the right.
The selection box on the bottom of Figure 7-6 now has a full filename
specification: /export/home/taylor/welcome.html.
Figure 7-6:
Selecting a
file to open.
4. Click OK to select the file.
You go back to the Open Page dialog box, as shown in Figure 7-5; this
time, the filename is filled in properly. Figure 7-7 shows the result.
Figure 7-7:
Ready to
open the file
in navigator.
5. To open the file and see how it looks, click the Open in Navigator
Chapter 7: Creating Web Pages
It may surprise you that the page you created isn’t laid out at all like it appears
in the editor. Figure 7-8 shows what I mean. Although the file contains text, it
doesn’t contain any HTML markup tags, so the Web browser has no idea how
to present it.
The following section explains how to add some simple HTML.
Figure 7-8:
The words
are right,
but the
is poor.
Improving Layout
The real pleasure of developing Web pages is learning the HyperText Markup
Language and applying its many formatting and layout tags to improve the
appearance of your Web page, regardless of content.
You can significantly improve this particular page with some common formatting options:
1. Add a few paragraph break tags: <P> and </P> (they’re a pair so you
need to start and end each paragraph).
Wrap each paragraph of text with these two tags.
2. Add a document title, something to make it clear that Scott McNealy
wrote these words.
To accomplish this, use the H tag, which supports headers ranging
• Level one, the largest and most important,
A typical level one header might look like this:
<H1>This is my important header</H1>
• Level six header, which is tiny and reminiscent of the proverbial
small print in a contract.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
The title of Scott McNealy’s note containing these paragraphs of text is
“Sun at 20: A look back on the future of network computing.” That’s what
I used in this document, too. With the appropriate additions, Figure 7-9
shows the new, improved, HTML page.
Figure 7-9:
Web page
The window title now says (modified). This is a reminder that although
you have entered the changes into the editor, you haven’t written them
to the disk and saved them.
3. Click the Save button (the little floppy disk) to write all the changes. The
word (modified) should vanish from the window title.
Follow these steps to check your work:
1. Flip over to Navigator.
• You can do this in GNOME by clicking the correct button on the
bottom window bar.
• In either GNOME or CDE, you can do it by clicking somewhere in
the Web browser window itself.
2. Click the Reload button on the toolbar.
Chapter 7: Creating Web Pages
Voilà! Suddenly you’ve created a nice looking Web page, as shown in
Figure 7-10.
Figure 7-10:
words look
HTML by the bucketful
If you prefer to get your hands dirty building
Web pages, you can find dozens and dozens of
books on all things HTML. I recommend these
books (all published by Wiley Publishing):
Creating Cool HTML 4 Web Pages is a book
I first wrote at the very beginning of the
Web craze and have since updated and
revised extensively, year after year. It’s a top
selling introduction to everything you need
to know about HTML and how to use it.
Dynamic HTML Weekend Crash Course is
another book I wrote that goes into considerably more detail on two key modern Web
Cascading Style Sheets
These technologies are required knowledge for cutting-edge Web design.
HTML 4 For Dummies, 4th Edition, by Ed
Tittel and Natanya Pitts, is another good
starting point, with coverage of the latest
HTML tags and a helpful section on planning your site and design.
Building a Web Site For Dummies, by David
and Rhonda Crowder, is a good companion
to HTML 4 For Dummies, with more of an
emphasis on such site-design issues as
Interactive elements
Organizing your pages on the server
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Working with Apache Server
A Solaris system can be used as a fast and complete Web server, right out of
the box.
For a basic configuration, follow these steps:
1. Ask your system administrator to copy the file /etc/apache/httpd.
conf-example to /etc/apache/httpd.conf, and then make the few
simple changes to the configuration file detailed therein.
2. After that’s done, the system administrator can start up the server by
typing /usr/apache/bin/httpd.
That’s it. Your system is now running as a Web server!
To test whether the server is running, open Netscape Navigator and go to, a special address known as the loopback address for
your computer. You see the welcome page shown in Figure 7-11.
Figure 7-11:
to your
Web server.
Chapter 7: Creating Web Pages
Publishing a Web page
Publishing the Web page is surprisingly easy.
1. Go into Text Editor and choose File➪Save As.
You’re presented with the same dialog box shown in Figure 7-4.
2. Make sure you’re in your home directory and then click the New Folder
The New Folder dialog box pops up, as shown in Figure 7-12.
Figure 7-12:
Create a
new folder.
3. Type in public_html (yes, that’s an underscore between the two words;
remember, the Web doesn’t like spaces) and click Create.
You return to the Save As dialog box. This time, the Folders list should
have the new public_html folder listed.
4. Double-click the folder to move into that subdirectory.
Now the Save As dialog box looks like Figure 7-13.
Figure 7-13:
Moving into
the new
html folder.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
The default name for the new file is still welcome.html.
5. Click OK, and the Web page is saved in the new directory.
6. Go back to the browser and open
welcome.html (where taylor is replaced by your account name,
as necessary).
You should see the same Web page shown earlier, but this time the page
is being fed through the Web server, which means that it’s accessible to
other systems on your network and, possibly, the entire Internet.
One more touch can customize your system:
1. Ask your system administrator for your system’s fully-qualified domain
It’s probably something like or wk32.cs.
2. Change the loopback address to the correct hostname.
Figure 7-14 shows the result for my system, with the address
Figure 7-14:
The Web
page is
to all.
Chapter 7: Creating Web Pages
If you rename the file index.html within the public_html folder, it’s
the default page that’s shown if a visitor requests
http://yourhost/~youraccount/ without specifying a filename.
Some systems are configured so you see a permission denied error, not your
new page. If that happens, these steps should correct the problem:
1. Open a terminal window.
Chapter 3 explains how to work at the command line.
2. Type these commands:
chmod a+rx ~ ~/public_html
chmod a+r ~/public_html/*
It should work just fine.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Chapter 8
Accessing Internet Services
In This Chapter
Exploring the Net with FTP
Using telnet to connect to remote servers
Connecting securely with SSH
etween e-mail and the World Wide Web, it probably doesn’t seem like
there’s much else on the Internet. But that’s not the case. The Internet
is also a vast repository of files, documents, and other data, free for the taking.
Additionally, there are thousands of machines online where you can obtain a
shell account (though mostly for a fee) and then connect directly to the system
as if it were under your desk, not — perhaps — halfway around the world.
When I started working in the computer field in 1980, every few months my
company’s software vendor would send a “release tape,” a big magnetic tape
reel that we’d mount on a player and unpack onto our system. If something
was broken, we’d have to either try to reverse the update or wait months for
the next tape to fix the problems. The process was unimaginably slow and
Today, it’s astonishingly easy to update systems and install new software. Need
a new version of Netscape 7? Just connect to either the Sun Microsystems or
Netscape file server and download it yourself, on demand. This tremendous
improvement has helped the computer industry speed up development a
Understanding FTP and Telnet
If you’ve only spent time surfing the Web and passively receiving electronic
mail, you might not realize that there’s more to interactivity on the Internet.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
For example, rather than being constrained to your computer’s hard disk,
you can connect to thousands of disks elsewhere on the Internet and copy
files as needed. FTP, the File Transfer Protocol, allows you to do either from
The primitive but powerful ftp interface
A Web browser
Web browers are read-only for ftp
You already know that Solaris includes a powerful command-line interface.
Using the telnet program (or its secure big brother ssh), you can connect
to command shells on remote computers anywhere in the world.
FTP capabilities
The best way to imagine FTP is that it’s a mechanism for attaching new hard
disks to your computer, on demand.
Depending on the permissions you’re granted upon connection, you can
Read and explore content
Upload and deposit your own files for safekeeping and storage
Most FTP connections are read-only; you explore the contents and copy anything you desire onto your hard disk, but you can’t add your own material.
The more important limitation of the ftp program is that it isn’t secure: Any
account and password information required is sent in the clear, so malicious
users who might be monitoring the network connection can easily “sniff” and
copy your private connection details.
The secure alternative to ftp is sftp, a part of the Secure Shell (ssh) package. Other than the security issues, ftp and sftp are functionally identical.
I strongly recommend that you use sftp whenever you can as a superior
alternative to the ftp program.
Telnet capabilities
The telnet program offers a simple method for connecting to command
shells on remote computers, either elsewhere on your network or halfway
around the world.
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services
For reasons of system integrity and security, telnet accounts are always
assigned per-person, so you have to enter your assigned account and password information. But telnet has the security limitations of the ftp
application: Malicious users can potentially identify your account and password and then use them for unsavory purposes. The alternative to telnet,
offering the same basic functionality, is the Secure Shell (ssh).
The ssh program (which I highly recommend) or the more widely available
telnet program both offer the same functionality:
After you’ve connected and logged in, using the command shell on the
remote system is the same as working locally.
If it’s a Solaris system, any command-line program discussed herein will
work on the remote system just as it does on your own.
If you want to find out more about how to ensure maximum security on your
Solaris system, check out Chapter 17.
Exploring the Net with FTP
Remote file access, primarily done using a protocol called FTP (File Transfer
Protocol), can be accomplished two ways:
At the command line: Many people use the command-line shell interface to access FTP archives.
This is particularly useful because it supports both
• Downloads (where files are brought to your system from the
remote server)
• Uploads (where files are copied from your local system to the
remote server).
Through a graphical FTP tool: Some people don’t realize that just about
every Web browser is a terrific download-only FTP browser.
Exploring FTP with a browser
A Web browser can work with an FTP-style URL, which looks something like
this: Open Netscape, choose File➪Open Web
Location, and enter this URL. The result looks like Figure 8-1.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 8-1:
archive, in
Netscape 7.
An FTP archive is like a remote hard disk that you can explore and download
material from, as allowed by the system’s file permissions.
Figure 8-1 shows that at the topmost level, this FTP server offers
Six folders
Three files:
Click the welcome.msg file, and you see a brief introductory message, like
------------------------Welcome to FTP.SEC.GOV!
------------------------Welcome to the Securities & Exchange Commission’s Public
Information Server. This file contains introductory
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services
information and will be periodically revised. This server
features SEC public documents, information of interest to the
investing public, rulemaking activities, and access to the
Commission’s electronic filing database, EDGAR. The public
will be able to query the EDGAR database for any company
currently filing electronically with the SEC. These filings
are updated 24 hours after they are filed with the
Commission. This server will support WWW and anonymous FTP
and can be reached at “” and “”
Archive note: Please read /edgar/README-2000-10-04.txt as the
Archive structure has changed!
Questions? Comments. Please send e-mail to
FTP supports both logging in to
A specific account
An anonymous FTP server.
With an anonymous server
ftp is the login
Your e-mail address as the password (usually, by convention)
Netscape defaults to an anonymous FTP connection when it displays FTP
archives. It all happened invisibly with this SEC connection.
You’ve already accomplished a lot. You’ve connected to an FTP archive on a
computer in Washington, D.C., requested the download of a specific file, and
had that file displayed within the browser, all with just a few mouse clicks.
Click the Back button to go back to the list of folders, and then click edgar to
move into the main directory of corporate filings, as shown in Figure 8-2.
This is getting more interesting! You see many folders, including historical
corporate filing folders for 1997–2000, and more.
In fact, the SEC changed its FTP archive structure; in a moment, you see more
recent corporate filings on this server too.
To start, click in this order:
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Figure 8-2:
directory on
The full path is
The results are shown in Figure 8-3. Now, click company.idx to see a long
list of all corporate filings archived on the EDGAR system, as shown in
Figure 8-4.
If you’re an active investor, EDGAR is a great place to do research! From this
document, you can
Get the filename of the specific report on EDGAR
Use Netscape to navigate to the correct file — all free, all via FTP.
Command-line FTP
Although accessing FTP archives via Netscape is a breeze, there’s one
significant limitation: You can’t transfer files from your local system to
the server.
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services
Figure 8-3:
First quarter
Figure 8-4:
Full listing of
Q1, 2003
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
With the command-line ftp program, you can do either, or both:
Download files from the server
Upload your files to the server
The server must have appropriate permissions to allow uploads:
You might have an account on an FTP server that allows uploads, but
requires you to use your own account and password.
For example, many Web servers expect file uploads via FTP.
If not, you see a permission denied error when you try to upload
If that happens, seek advice from your system administrator on how to
correct the permission error.
The ftp program requires a terminal with a command shell running. Chapter
3 explains how to launch it.
Type ftp at the command line, followed by the name of the FTP server you
want to explore. The result looks like this if you go back to the SEC site:
$ ftp
Connected to
220 FTP server ready.
Name (
If you had a specific account assigned on the FTP server, you could enter the
account name at this prompt, but because you do not, use ftp as the account
Name ( ftp
331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
Now type in your e-mail address (or something similar, if you’d rather not
give the Securities and Exchange Commission your e-mail address), and
you’re logged in to its FTP server:
230230-------------------------230- Welcome to FTP.SEC.GOV!
230-------------------------230230-Welcome to the Securities & Exchange Commission’s Public
230-Information Server. This file contains introductory
230-information and will be periodically revised. This server
230-features SEC public documents, information of interest to
230-the investing public, rulemaking activities, and access
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services
230-to the Commission’s electronic filing database, EDGAR.
230-The public will be able to query the EDGAR database for
230-any company currently filing electronically with the SEC.
230-These filings are updated 24 hours after they are filed
230-with the Commission. This server will support WWW
230-and anonymous FTP and can be reached at
230-”” and “” respectively.
230230-Archive note: Please read /edgar/README-2000-10-04.txt as
230-structure has changed!
230230-Questions? Comments. Please send e-mail to
230230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
This is the welcome message (just about every FTP server has one), which
tells you what’s on the system and how to get around. The last line, ftp>, is
the prompt from the ftp program. To proceed, you need to type in each of
the commands you want to run.
Table 8-1 has a helpful summary of the most useful ftp commands.
The Most Useful ftp Commands
Table 8-1
Typical Usage
cd edgar
Change into the named directory. Use cd .. to move back
List the contents of the current directory.
get welcome.msg
Download the named file to
the local system.
If used as get a b, then a
will be downloaded and
named b in the current (local)
If used as get a, the file will
retain its name when downloaded.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Table 8-1 (continued)
Typical Usage
A brief but useful help
mkdir new
Make the named directory on
the remote server, if you have
the appropriate permissions.
put welcome.html
Upload the specified file to the
remote server in the current
(remote) directory.
If used as put a b, then a
will be uploaded and renamed
b on the server.
If used as put a, then the file
will be uploaded and retain its
name on the server.
Shows the current directory
on the remote server.
Quit the ftp program.
Now that you’re connected to the server, you can get a copy of the file listing
from EDGAR with the command-line ftp program by typing this:
ftp> cd edgar/full-index/2003/QTR1
250 CWD command successful.
ftp> get company.idx
200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for company.idx
(2302613 bytes).
226 Transfer complete.
local: company.idx remote: company.idx
2302613 bytes received in 10 seconds (215.12 Kbytes/s)
You now have a new file in your local directory called company.idx, containing a full list of which companies have filed which documents with the SEC in
the first quarter of 2003. To quit, type quit.
If you view the document and it’s one very long line or otherwise in some
peculiar format, you may need to download a new copy of the file. This time,
type the ftp command ascii first to tell the program that it’s a text file, and
the appropriate end-of-line sequences should be rewritten as the material
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services
Connecting by Telnet
Many Solaris users work happily year after year without ever having to use
the command shell to reach out and connect to a remote system. When you
do need to log in to a remote system, though, you’ll probably use the awkwardly named telnet tool. When you open up a terminal window to your
own computer, you establish a Telnet-like connection. Imagine the same basic
thing, but connecting to another server a few yards, miles, or even thousands
of miles away.
To accomplish this, type telnet remotehostname at the command line. You
need an account on the remote server to log in, but you can get the Telnet
connection and initial login prompt without any sort of connection.
To demonstrate the concepts, the following example is a connection to a
server at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The first line is the only time
you interact directly with the telnet program rather than the remote
$ telnet
Connected to
Escape character is ‘^]’.
ATTENTION: This service has been disabled as part of the move
toward encrypted authentication for the Boulder campus. You
will need to switch to a secure login client, such as ssh.
For more information, step-by-step instructions, or if you
need any help, please go to or call
Connection closed by foreign host.
The preceding example showed an error message then logged you out, dropping the connection and quitting the telnet program completely. That’s
okay; the example shows generally how it’s done.
As another example of how telnet lets you connect to a remote server and
work as if you were directly connected, I’ll let you have a peek at my own
server, which I can only connect to via telnet when I disable some security
The following example shows how, if you have an account, working with a
remote system via telnet is a breeze:
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
$ telnet
Connected to
Escape character is ‘^]’.
login: taylor
Last login: Fri Jan 10 17:43:35 2003 from 12-253-112-102.
FreeBSD 4.4-RELEASE (VKERN) #9: Thu Jan 2 10:23:51 MST 2003
Welcome to your Virtual Server, Dave!
VPS ~ (1) : ls
VPS ~ (2) : pwd
VPS ~ (3) : logout
Connection closed by foreign host.
Once you’re connected with a telnet session, it’s just like having a terminal
window open on that machine directly, except it’s distant: My office is in
Boulder, Colorado, whereas the server is located in Baltimore,
Maryland. Quite a distance!
Connecting Securely with SSH
The only problem with both ftp and telnet is that they’re not secure. In
fact, ftp is notoriously insecure, and modern Unix system administrators
recommend avoiding ftp for any account-specific activity. Why? Because
both programs send their passwords in the clear — unencrypted. If a bad
guy, delinquent, or even malicious hacker happened to be listening on the
network wire (which can be done), he’d see your account and password pair
visibly travel past. In fact, a packet sniffer can be programmed to look for the
string login: and capture the next 100 characters sent in either direction,
which would include the account and password pair.
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services
ssh (Secure Shell) is a secure replacement for both telnet and ftp.
The ssh program itself is a replacement for telnet.
The ssh package also includes sftp, a secure ftp program.
Outside of the invocation steps, they are pretty much functionally identical to
their insecure cousins. The biggest difference is that both require you to
specify the account name and server name as part of the invocation of the
Instead of ftp and then typing in taylor, you’d use:
$ sftp
Connecting to
authenticity of host ‘’ can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint in md5 is:
Are you sure you want to continue connecting(yes/no)?
If you have the ssh package, and it’s supported on the remote system to
which you’re connecting, use it. Don’t use ftp or telnet. If ssh isn’t an
option, complain to your system administrator about the security problem,
and hope it’ll be fixed.
If you’re using anonymous FTP, it’s no big deal.
If you’re connecting to another system over the public Internet, encryption is critical.
Because the ssh system uses public key encryption, the first step involved
in any connection is to swap encryption keys. You don’t have to be involved
other than to acknowledge that you’re visiting a site for the first time, hence
the need for the public key.
Type yes at the prompt, and you’ll see:
Warning: Permanently added ‘,’
(RSA) to the list of known hosts.’s password:
sftp >
Type in the password properly, and you’re given an sftp prompt, ready to
proceed. To start, type dir for a directory listing (just as you would in the
ftp program):
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
sftp > dir
1024 Jan 8 16:07 .
2048 Jan 6 21:02 ..
164 May 22 2002 .login
271 Apr 9 2002 .profile
121 Apr 9 2002 .shrc
512 Apr 9 2002 dev
1024 Jan 5 23:27 etc
898 Jan 8 16:06 .cshrc
26 May 18 2002 web
512 Jan 7 08:24 bin
512 Dec 2 1999 usr
512 Apr 9 2002 var
512 Jan 10 19:10 tmp
512 Apr 9 2002 sbin
7 Apr 9 2002 compat
512 May 14 2002 .ssh
512 Sep 4 20:06 .ncftp
24 May 18 2002 maildir
24 May 18 2002 webconf
512 May 26 2002 home
512 May 21 2002 HTML-Lint-0.92
512 Jan 7 08:24 mybin
3 May 25 2002 .counter
29 May 26 2002 .aspell.english.prepl
50 May 26 2002 .aspell.english.pws
773 Jul 15 04:19 mbox
512 Jan 7 08:09 scripts
79 May 26 2002 traverse.errors
512 Jan 6 01:10 .cpan
512 Oct 5 06:13 shuttle
0 Oct 7 15:26 testme
929 Jan 2 16:52 .bash_history
1781760 Jan 6 01:13 MT-2.51.tar
Table 8-2 lists the most useful SSH commands.
Table 8-2
Useful SSH Commands
cd path
Change remote directory to path
lcd path
Change local directory to path
get remote-path [local-path]
Download file
ls [path]
Display remote directory listing
mkdir path
Create remote directory
Chapter 8: Accessing Internet Services
put local-path [remote-path]
Upload file
Display remote working directory
Quit sftp
rename oldpath newpath
Rename remote file
rmdir path
Remove remote directory
rm path
Delete remote file
Execute ‘command’ in local shell
Escape to local shell
Just as sftp was designed to be functionally identical to ftp, but secure, ssh
appears almost identical to telnet, except for the initial invocation:
$ ssh’s password:
Last login: Sat Jan 11 03:28:46 2003 from 12-253-112-102.
FreeBSD 4.4-RELEASE (VKERN) #9: Thu Jan 2 10:23:51 MST 2003
Welcome to your Virtual Server, Dave!
VPS ~ (1) : ls -F
VPS ~ (2) : logout
Connection to closed.
Part II: The Inevitable Internet Section
Part III
Productive with
In this part . . .
This part of the book introduces you to the key components of StarOffice, an excellent alternative to Microsoft
Office, with a particular emphasis on StarOffice Writer, the
document processing system. By the time you’re done
with this section, you’ll have a very good idea of the
power and capabilities of StarOffice and will be ready to
begin your own exploration.
Chapter 9
Composing Documents
with Writer
In This Chapter
Creating and building new documents
Increasing your efficiency with styles
Saving documents
or many years, the most notable absence within Solaris was the lack of
Microsoft Office or a compatible suite of applications that would let
Solaris users share documents, read spreadsheets, view presentations, and
so on. With the introduction of StarOffice, and subsequent release of the
open source OpenOffice variant on StarOffice, this problem has been solved.
Included for free with Solaris 9, StarOffice is a remarkably capable, easy to
use set of programs that work well in both the Common Desktop Environment
and the GNOME environment. These programs offer a high degree of interchangeability with Windows and Mac office documents.
The showcase application of StarOffice is Writer, the document preparation
and word processing environment. Clearly inspired by the interface and capabilities of Microsoft Word, Writer offers an elegantly designed and powerful
environment for producing documents, whether they’re just a few pages or
hundreds of pages.
This chapter covers some of the most exciting parts of StarOffice, including
document editing and working with styles. (Chapter 10 examines the key
additional applications included with the StarOffice suite.)
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
Creating New Documents
After StarOffice is installed, you can launch Writer directly from either
The GNOME menu (choose Applications➪Office➪StarOffice)
The Common Desktop Environment taskbar (click the butterfly icon).
If that doesn’t work, you should be able to move into the StarOffice directory
and launch the program from the terminal:
/export/home/staroffice6.0/program/soffice &
Whichever way you start Writer, you get a blank Writer screen, as shown in
Figure 9-1.
The main section is a virtual piece of paper upon which you can type
(or cut and paste) whatever you want.
Other screen features include
• A menu bar along the top
• Two toolbars
• A ruler
• A toolbar running down the left side of the window
Rather than start from scratch, I’m reading in the contents of the book
Gulliver’s Travels, which I already have on my system.
To accomplish this, choose Insert➪File, as shown in Figure 9-2.
The file selection dialog box is different from the normal Solaris selector, but
the basic concept is the same:
1. Click the Up One Level button (it has a folder with an upward pointing
arrow on it) to step up the directory tree
2. Click a folder in the main view to move into a directory.
When you’ve found the desired file, click it to select it, as shown in Figure 9-3.
After selecting the file, click Insert. You’re taken back to the original document, with the new file incorporated.
When the file is imported, Writer shows the bottom of the page, the last line
of the inserted material. Jump back to the top by scrolling, or try one of the
Writer shortcuts: Press Ctrl+Home to move to the first line of text. The new,
more interesting document, is shown in Figure 9-4. The bottom-left corner of
the window in Figure 9-4 shows that this is Page 1 of 204 total pages.
Chapter 9: Composing Documents with Writer
Figure 9-1:
as first
Figure 9-2:
Inserting a
file into an
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
Figure 9-3:
Selecting a
file to insert.
Figure 9-4:
in Writer.
Altering the appearance of text
You can make a title appealing by making the text bold, centered, or larger:
To apply bold, follow these steps:
1. Select the text with the mouse (click+drag with the left button).
2. While the text is highlighted, click the Bold button (with the B
on it) on the Formatting toolbar.
Chapter 9: Composing Documents with Writer
The toolbar is shown in Figure 9-5, split into two lines to make it
easier to read.
To center the material, click the Center Text button on the same toolbar.
(The button looks like four tiny lines, center-aligned.)
To make the text larger, select a font size from the Font Size menu. (In
Figure 9-4, the menu says 12 to indicate that the text is 12 points in size.)
A variety of font sizes are shown in the pop-up menu; choose your
favorite to select it.
Figure 9-5:
The Writer
split into
two halves.
With the addition of a judiciously placed carriage return to make the centering look good, the title looks much better.
You can make many additional changes in Writer. For example, you can select
THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER and then choose Format➪Paragraph.
The resulting Paragraph dialog box is complex, as shown in Figure 9-6.
Figure 9-6:
The many
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
The Paragraph dialog box in Figure 9-6 has many more options than the
Microsoft Word equivalent. It features eight tabs along the top:
Indents & Spacing
Text Flow
Drop Caps
StarOffice has an extensive, well-written online help system accessible from
just about anywhere in the program. It’s well worth using, whether you’re a
Writer neophyte or pro. Just click the Help button.
Tweaking colors
Tweak the paragraph spacing, with the intent of applying a background color
to make the head “THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER” stand out even more on
the page.
The default top and bottom spacing (the spacing above and below the currently selected paragraph) is 0.00cm.
To change the inter-paragraph spacing, click on the tiny up arrow adjacent to
the current spacing indicator to increase it to the desired amount. For example,
to change the current value to 0.20cm, click the tiny up arrow twice.
1. Click the Background tab to access an attractive color selection section
of the Paragraph dialog box, as shown in Figure 9-7.
2. Select a color from the bottom row.
The large blank box on the right fills with the selected color. In this
example, I selected dark violet.
3. Click OK.
You see the colorful, but slightly confusing results, as shown in Figure 9-8.
Because the original text is selected, it’s shown in the inverse color to
the background of the paragraph. Your display should have a weird light
green for the text selected and dark violet for the rest of that line.
Chapter 9: Composing Documents with Writer
Figure 9-7:
the background
color of a
Figure 9-8:
Now with
the colored
Change the color of the text to white so it has more contrast with the dark
violet and is therefore easier to read.
Because the text is still selected, click the Font Color button (with the small
A on it), which is third from the right on the Formatting bar. (If you move your
mouse over the button, the pop-up says Font Color to confirm it’s the correct
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
selection.) You see the same color palette shown earlier in the Paragraph
Background selection (and also shown here in Figure 9-9). This time choose
white instead of dark violet.
Figure 9-9:
The font
While the text is still selected, click the Bold button to make it bold and then
click the Typeface Selection pop-up (it probably says Thorndale by default).
The resulting menu lists all known typefaces, in each typeface (a helpful way
of seeing which typeface is best for your needs). Choose Arial Black.
Click somewhere on the page other than the headline you’ve been improving.
The headline text is deselected, enabling you to see the attractive white on
dark violet headline, as shown somewhat less colorfully in Figure 9-10.
Figure 9-10:
A greatly
in the
Chapter 9: Composing Documents with Writer
Using Styles
If you apply formatting to every word individually in a large document, it
might take a bit of time to turn a plain text file into an attractive and highly
readable document. You can speed up this process with styles.
The most common task with styles is to apply a given style to a passage of
text. To create styles, you have to define them. This, fortunately, is easy.
Go back to the new colorful headline and select the text on that line, then
open the Stylist window with either of these steps:
Press the F11 key
Choose Format➪Stylist
The Stylist window opens, as shown in Figure 9-11.
Figure 9-11:
with the
Presented in very small type, this window can be a bit baffling, but the
mouseover pop-ups are a lifesaver here: Move the cursor over any of the tiny
buttons to see a short description of the corresponding function.
Figure 9-11 shows about 20 predefined styles, including ten levels of headers,
First Line Indent, Hanging Indent, Signature, and Marginalia.
To create a new style, follow these steps:
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
1. Click the New Style from Selection button, which is the second button
from the right.
The Create Style dialog box opens, as shown in Figure 9-12.
2. Type in the style name — for example, “White on Purple Head” —
and click OK.
Now the Stylist window includes the new style you’ve just defined.
3. Close the Stylist window by clicking the small Close button in the topright corner of the window.
Figure 9-12:
Create a
new style in
Applying a style to text
Using styles to ensure consistency across a document is a tremendous boon
to both the speed and accuracy of your document production.
You can also create special documents that are simply a collection of predefined styles by reading the Template section in the online help.
To apply a style to text, follow these steps:
1. Select the text.
2. Click the Apply Style pop-up menu on the left edge of the Formatting
toolbar (it probably says Default).
The pop-up menu shows styles defined for this document only. It’s
rather short currently, as shown in Figure 9-13.
3. Select a style.
To apply a defined style to the selected text, click on the correct style
name. For example, I select White on Purple Head. All the character and
paragraph styles (typeface, size, bold, text and background color) are
applied to the new material, as shown in Figure 9-14.
Chapter 9: Composing Documents with Writer
Figure 9-13:
styles for
this document in
the Apply
Style popup menu.
Figure 9-14:
A new style
to the
Saving Documents
When you’ve finished entering, editing, and formatting a document, save
the document to your disk. There are a couple of easy ways to save the
Click the small floppy disk button on the Function toolbar.
Choose File➪Save.
Either way, the Save As dialog box opens, as shown in Figure 9-15.
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
Figure 9-15:
where and
how to
save your
As with the Open dialog box, the buttons on the top right enable you to
Move up one directory level
Create a new directory at the current location
Jump to the default directory (usually your home directory).
You can create a new subdirectory if needed, by clicking on the New Folder
button to open the Create New Folder dialog box, as shown in Figure 9-16.
In this example, I’m going to create a new folder called Library for the newly
formatted version of Gulliver’s Travels.
1. Type in the name, as shown in Figure 9-16, and then click OK.
The directory is created and now shows up on the directories list.
2. Move to the new directory and double-click on it to move into the new
For example, I double-click Library to move into it. It’s empty, so no files
or directories are shown.
Figure 9-16:
Creating a
new folder.
Picking the optimal document format
Click the File Type pop-up menu to see a rather bewildering array of document format options. Of these, the most useful formats are
Chapter 9: Composing Documents with Writer
StarOffice 6.0 Text Document (the default)
Microsoft Word 97/2000/XP (the most modern Microsoft Word format).
With this format, include a .doc filename suffix so Microsoft Word recognizes the file.
Rich Text Format, which many e-mail readers and word processing
systems can read.
With this format, include an .rtf filename suffix so other programs
recognize the file.
If you save a Writer document as Web Page, the quality of the HTML
(Hypertext Markup Language, lingua franca of the World Wide Web) is poor.
Testing Cross-Platform Compatibility
I’ll use the ftp program to transfer the document from the Solaris system to
a PC running Windows XP. On that system, the file appears with the Microsoft
Word icon.
Double-clicking the icon produces the result shown in Figure 9-17.
Figure 9-17:
The document looks
great in
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
Chapter 10
The Rest of StarOffice
In This Chapter
Balancing your accounts with Calc
Creating graphics with Draw
Building great presentations with Impress
Designing quick-and-dirty Web pages with Writer
his chapter offers an overview of some terrific tools included in the
StarOffice suite, including Calc, the spreadsheet program; Draw, the
graphics editor; Impress, the presentation development tool; and the Web
page builder within Writer. (Chapter 9 covers the Writer word processing
program in detail.)
More than just a bunch of office-related programs thrown together, StarOffice
has more integration than most Unix programs. Each program has hooks to
allow invocation of the other programs, graphics and text elements can often
be copied and pasted without loss of format, and the interfaces are consistent and coherent.
In addition to Writer, Calc, Draw, and Impress, the full set of programs in
StarOffice includes some shortcut applications for writing specific types
of documents in Writer (Agenda, Fax, Label, Letter, and Memo); the mathematical formula editor Math; V Card, a tool for making business cards; and a
macro programming language called Star Basic for customizing the appearance and behavior of the StarOffice applications.
Balancing Accounts with Calc
When I started using computers, I remember thinking that word-processing
was clearly useful, but spreadsheets? Why would I ever need one of those?
Time passes, and now I spend almost as much time creating and tuning complex multisheet spreadsheets as I do creating word-processing documents.
Once you get the hang of working with spreadsheets, they’re fun. Honest!
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
Here’s how to use Calc to create a straightforward checkbook manager. A
checkbook ledger has a small number of fields: For each transaction, you
need to track the date, the check number, whether it’s cleared the bank and
shown up on your statement, to whom the check was written, the amount of
the check, and a running balance for the account.
A few other transactions can appear in the ledger, too:
An initial balance
Deposits made
Bank service charges
For those transactions, create a Credits column, and for the check amounts,
create a Debits column, just to sound like financial mavens!
After you start Calc — probably by choosing it off the GNOME menu or CDE
toolbar — the initial view is busy, as shown in Figure 10-1.
Figure 10-1:
Calc starts
out with lots
of options!
I prefer to dismiss the Navigator window floating atop the main spreadsheet.
After doing that, you can get into the serious business of building the checkbook ledger.
Chapter 10: The Rest of StarOffice
Text and numbers
To enter data into a spreadsheet, click a box and then type the words or
numbers. Press Tab to move horizontally to the next field, or Enter to move
to the next spreadsheet line. Enter the following words into the columns in
the first row:
Check Number
Next, move the cursor to the edge of the column labels and drag the columns
to maker them wider or narrower so that each has a sensible amount of
space (for example, the Description column is nice and wide, whereas
Cleared? is narrow). To widen the Description column, move the cursor
over the line between the C and D boxes and then click+drag to the right.
You can center all the column headers by selecting them all and clicking the
Center Data button on the Formatting toolbar (it’s the button with four little
lines, centered, in a box), and you can make them all bold by clicking the B
button. Finally, to jazz up the spreadsheet, click the Background Color button
on the Formatting toolbar (it’s the fourth button from the right). Choose
Green 8 as a background. (Green is a better color to associate with a checkbook balance than red!)
The end result, with an initial balance and single check entered, looks like
Figure 10-2.
Figure 10-2:
ready to
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
The Balance field isn’t a value; it’s a formula. Formulas are the heart of
spreadsheets because they allow changes in a value to ripple through the
entire set of calculations. Formulas are simply an equation composed of constant values, functions, and references to other cells in the spreadsheet. The
balance is always the balance from the previous line plus any credits, minus
any debits. Spreadsheets tend to think in terms of column x row terms.
Because the current cell is G3 (row 1 is the column titles, row 2 is the starting
balance), the balance in the cell above is G2, the credits value for this row is
E3, and the debits value for this row is F3. Here’s the actual formula you need
to enter in the cell:
The = at the beginning tells Calc that you’re entering a formula. You can also
have numbers in a formula. If you want to pretend your balance is better than
it is, you can use =G2+3*E3-F2 to triple any deposit!
Add a few more checkbook entries, and perhaps a deposit, and you can discover a fabulous capability of Calc. If you copy the formula cell in G3 (from
the first checkbook entry) and paste it into each subsequent balance box,
The spreadsheet will adjust the cell reference values appropriately. No fuss,
no hassle. The result is shown in Figure 10-3.
Figure 10-3:
This checkbook ledger
is nice and
I could talk about spreadsheets for at least the next 150 pages. You can add
more format, layout, and mathematical sophistication to your spreadsheet if
you opt to learn more. Calc interoperates gracefully with Microsoft Excel and
Lotus 1-2-3, among other popular spreadsheet programs.
Chapter 10: The Rest of StarOffice
Creating Graphics with Draw
Whether you’re a talented digital artist or just need to create a crude diagram
for a presentation, StarOffice Draw offers the power and capabilities you
need. Launched from the GNOME startup menu or CDE toolbar, it starts up
with almost as many toolbars and buttons as Writer, as shown in Figure 10-4.
Figure 10-4:
Draw offers
a cornucopia of
If you aren’t an artist, you’ll be glad to know that Draw has a gallery of clip
art and other graphical objects that you can drop into an existing drawing.
To access it, choose Tools➪Gallery. A new Gallery window pops up with
many categories of graphics and sound files, as shown in Figure 10-5.
To add a graphic from the gallery to an existing page in Draw, right-click the
graphic and choose Insert➪Copy from the pop-up menu. I chose the ambulance cartoon from the Problem Solving images in the gallery.
Closing the Gallery window is a bit confusing. If you click the close window
icon, you close the entire Draw application. Not good. If you want to have it
almost vanish but still linger a bit, click the upward-pointing triangle button
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
in the lower-left corner of the Gallery window. That minimizes the window
and leaves a small additional toolbar just below the function bar. Click that,
and the gallery reappears instantly. If you want it to just go away, choose
Tools➪Gallery again, and it’ll vanish.
Figure 10-5:
graphics in
Main toolbar
Confusingly, the main toolbar in Draw is the set of functions down the left
side of the window. It includes such tools as
3-D Object
Draw Arrow (or Line)
Connect Objects
To add text to my picture, I click the T button to bring up the Text tool. The
Object bar (the second horizontally oriented toolbar) changes to reflect
text-editing options, including
Chapter 10: The Rest of StarOffice
I’ll stick with the Thorndale typeface, bump up the size to 36 points, add
bold, and then click the spot in the drawing where I want text. A blob of drag
handles (the tiny green boxes on the edges of a rectangle in Draw) appears;
just type and ignore that momentarily. I’ll type in National Ambulance Drivers
Association Picnic. Then, while the text object is still selected, I left-click and
drag an edge of the box to the desired spot in the drawing. The result is
shown in Figure 10-6.
Figure 10-6:
drivers need
picnics too!
To wrap the new text with a rectangle with rounded corners, click the
Rectangle tool on the main toolbar and hold down the mouse button. A
tiny pop-up menu shows the various rectangle choices; choose the unfilled,
rounded-edge rectangle. Then release the button, move the mouse to the
top-left corner of the desired rectangle, and click and drag the rectangle to
surround the text. The size marks are replaced by the rounded-corner
If elements are squished together, click an element to select it. (When selected,
the object gets drag handles and a bounding rectangle.) Then click and drag
the object to its new place on the page.
Cool backgrounds
To add a background fill to the entire page, use the Rectangle tool (with 90degree corners) to define a rectangle the exact size of the page. Then click
the Fill button on the Object toolbar (it’s a tiny paint bucket spilling blue
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
paint), which opens the Area dialog box. Click the Bitmaps tab and select the
sky graphic, as shown in Figure 10-7.
Figure 10-7:
Bitmap area
fill options
in Draw.
The sky graphic completely covers the text and graphic, but don’t panic!
With the new area still selected, click the Arrange button (two tiny gray
boxes on the corners of a larger yellow box) and hold down the mouse
button until the layering options appear. Select Send to Back, and watch
what happens.
To finish up, let’s apply a color fill to the newly created button shape, then
ensure that the button label is visible over the new fill. Click the roundedrectangle that’s surrounding the text and then click the Fill button (the paint
bucket). Click the Colors tab, select White, and click OK. Again, you need to
push the graphic back so it’s behind the text. This time, don’t send it all the
way to the back. Just choose Send Backward.
Building Presentations with Impress
If you work in a business environment or are an educator, you’re used to presenting complex ideas to colleagues or students. Whether it’s the history of
the Plantagenet family or the latest budget projections, knowing how to package your material as an attractive presentation is a great boon. That’s the
purpose of Impress. It’s the equivalent of Microsoft PowerPoint and borrows
many ideas from that ubiquitous application.
The easiest way to start StarOffice Impress is by starting Writer. Really.
In many ways, Writer is the core StarOffice application. The Impress program
is really Writer in disguise.
Chapter 10: The Rest of StarOffice
Starting a presentation
With Writer running, choose File➪New➪Presentation, which starts the
AutoPilot Presentation wizard. (Sun doesn’t actually call it a wizard. That’s
either because of a philosophical disagreement with Mr. Potter or Mr. Gates;
I’ll let you decide.)
1. Decide whether you want to create a new presentation or open an
existing presentation, as shown in Figure 10-8.
Because I want to create a new presentation, I opt for the Empty
Presentation choice and click Next. The next window offers various slide
Figure 10-8:
The Impress
2. Select a slide design, ensure that the output medium is correct
(probably Screen), and then click Next.
I suggest one of the wonderful designs already defined in this library.
My favorites include Celestial, Film Strip, Mondrian, and Mountain. For
this presentation, Celestial will work just great.
3. Choose the slide transition effects and the type of presentation, as
shown in Figure 10-9.
Because the new presentation is for a group of students, I opt for
Dissolve. There are some more exciting transitions here, including my
favorite, Spiral Inward Clockwise.
Depending on how fast your Solaris system is, you might also adjust the
speed of the transition: Too fast, and it’ll be missed, but too slow, and
annoyed members of your audience will be yelling, “Just get to the next
slide already!”
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
Figure 10-9:
a transition
keep your
Entering data
When you’re ready to begin composing the Impress slides, click Create to
build the skeleton of the new presentation.
Impress knows how to work with many types of slides, but usually the Title,
Text Slides option works best. Choose it and then click OK. Now you can
enter some data into this first slide.
1. Click the text Click to Add Title and type in the title of the first slide.
2. Click to Add an Outline and add a few points; use Tab to move points
to subpoints, and Enter to move to the next point.
I’ll use a title of “All about Tintin” and an introductory outline, as shown
in Figure 10-10. This figure also shows the slide layout and automatically
applied text size and layout.
3. To add other slides, click Insert Slide in the Presentation miniwindow, or choose Insert➪New Slide.
4. You can preview the newly created slide show with the many options
on the Slide Show menu.
One notable option is Slide Show, which launches a full-screen presentation
of every slide, perfect for when you give the presentation.
For more on Impress, choose Help about StarOffice Impress in the main
StarOffice help system.
Chapter 10: The Rest of StarOffice
Figure 10-10:
The first
slide of the
slide show.
Developing Web Pages
The Web page editor in StarOffice, sometimes called StarOffice Web for the
command-line script sweb that launches the program, is really just Writer
wearing yet another hat.
Chapter 9 covers other aspects of Writer.
StarOffice Web produces obsolete HTML (as does Writer). While consistent
with HTML 3.2, most of how StarOffice approaches formatting specific elements (such as the extensive use of the FONT tag) has been replaced with
the more powerful Cascading Style Sheets of HTML 4.0. If you’re planning a
complex Web page, you would do well to consider a more sophisticated tool.
If you’re building something simple, this is probably not a big deal.
The best way to begin editing an HTML page is to choose File➪New➪HTML
Document. This pops up a blank page in Writer that appears almost identical
to a blank document. The only difference is that the default text style is Text
Body instead of Default.
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
Simply enter the text you want, formatting normally in Writer, centering, and
so on.
To create HTML-specific items, choose the text as appropriate and then
apply the proper style.
To add a horizontal rule, move the cursor to an appropriate spot and
then choose Horizontal Line from the Style pop-up menu.
To create a level one header, select the desired text and then apply the
Heading 1 style.
To insert a hyperlink, move to the desired spot and then choose
Insert➪Hyperlink, which brings up the Hyperlink dialog box, shown in
Figure 10-11.
I filled in the two key fields in Figure 10-11:
• URL to reference
• Text displayed on the page
Enter the link information and click Apply to have the link added to the
Web page. (The dialog box doesn’t go away. Just click the Close button
to close it.)
Figure 10-11:
dialog box.
One annoyance is that the link is included in tiny text. Again, simply select
the hyperlink and then change the typeface size. You can also center the link,
as I’ve done on my page. The result of my efforts is shown in Figure 10-12.
To view the HTML source of the page, choose View➪HTML Source. The
source HTML is shown for the developing page, as shown in Figure 10-13.
Chapter 10: The Rest of StarOffice
Figure 10-12:
A rudimentary Web
page in
Figure 10-13:
The underlying HTML
Part III: Becoming Productive with StarOffice
Part IV
Editing and
In this part . . .
here’s not much value to having lots of files in your
Solaris account if you can’t work with them, so this
part introduces you to the key command line tools and
GUI-based applications for viewing files, analyzing file content, editing files with vi, CDE Text Editor or the GNOME
Text Editor. In addition, you’ll get to explore some of the
internals of Solaris to understand what processes are running and how to interact with them or — if you’re feeling
particularly aggressive — kill them. The last chapter in
this part discusses two commands near and dear to every
Solaris guru: find and grep. Both are definitely worth
study, as you’ll see!
Chapter 11
Exploring Text Files
In This Chapter
Viewing files within the graphical user interface (GUI)
Viewing files at the command line
Analyzing files with wc and spell
ne of the most common tasks that you’ll encounter working with a
computer is viewing and editing text files. Whether they’re Web pages
written in HyperText Markup Language (HTML), e-mail messages written in
plain text, or programs written in Perl or C, you’ll probably find yourself
spending an awful lot of time reading material on your screen and digitally
manipulating words.
To that end, in this chapter, I focus on ways to view and analyze the contents
of files by using standard Solaris tools, starting with the graphical user interface–based Text Note application. Then I jump directly to the command line
and the remarkable capabilities available at your disposal there. Read on
here to garner the basic tools you need to maneuver these tools before you
begin editing within them. (Get the skinny on editing in Chapter 15.)
Viewing Files within the GUI
The easiest way to view the contents of a file is, logically enough, to doubleclick it while in the graphical user interface (GUI). Unlike Windows and Macs, a
couple of graphical environments are available within the Solaris environment:
My preference is the GNU Network Object Management Environment
You may personally prefer either of these environments:
• Common Desktop Environment
• The stripped, minimalist TWM (think nihilist, and you’ll have the
basic idea of TWM)
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
When you double-click a text file icon (typically visually identified as a small
rectangle with dots that looks like a piece of paper with writing, from about
25 feet away), the window manager launches the program it thinks is the best
match for that file type. Sometimes files have different icons and can also be
identified by their suffixes. Many text files are for specific purposes and
might have different icons, including
.html for Web pages
.c for C Programming Language source code files
.sh for shell scripts
Viewing in GNOME
Suppose that you’re perusing your file system with Nautilus (the file system
browser if you’re running GNOME) or the Common Desktop Environment
(CDE) file viewer, and you see a file that’s worth a quick peek. (Chapter 2
explains the Solaris window managers.) Figure 11-1 illustrates how that file
might look in GNOME. Just what is this gullivers.travels.txt file, and
how can you see what’s inside?
Figure 11-1:
Peruse files
with the
Nautilus file
In Nautilus, view the contents of a file by simply double-clicking its icon.
Nautilus displays the contents of the file directly in its own window, as shown
in Figure 11-2.
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files
In Figure 11-2, the text displayed under the file icon on the left side is slightly
chopped off because of a mismatch between screen regions and typeface
size. This doesn’t always happen, but you’ll find this sort of glitch time and
again with GUIs in Unix for reasons that are a bit of a mystery to me. Just grin
and get used to it!
Figure 11-2:
A file
looks like
Pay attention to the list of buttons on the left side of the text under the file
icon. Although you can view the contents of the file via Nautilus, you can also
edit it or perhaps feed it to a formatter, compiler, mailer, meat grinder, or
what have you. For a text file, your choices are
gedit (the GNOME text editor)
vi (the default screen-oriented editor used with terminals and xterm
Open With (an open-ended choice that lets you specify whatever program your heart might desire, such as emacs or even Netscape
To move into an environment where you can edit this file, select one of the
preceding choices. For example, click the Open with gedit button to open the
file in gedit, as shown in Figure 11-3. Fortunately, your journey of discovery
has had fewer perils than that of Gulliver!
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Figure 11-3:
View (and
edit) text
within the
gedit view.
If you choose Open With rather than Open with gedit and enter vi as the
program to use, the file opens in the vi editor, as shown in Figure 11-4.
Figure 11-4:
way to edit
a text file in
Open the file
with the vi
Browsing in CDE
The CDE file browser, shown in Figure 11-5, is undeniably less attractive than
Nautilus but offers the same basic functions. One of the options on the login
screen is to switch window managers, if you want to use CDE instead of
GNOME for a test run. (Chapter 2 covers this in more depth, if you’re curious.)
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files
Similar to Nautilus, the CDE file browser displays different icons based on file
type to help you differentiate content. Common icons that you’ll find here
enable you to differentiate between plain text files, HTML documents, and
Figure 11-5:
the CDE
Double-clicking the icon for gullivers.travels.txt reveals the contents of
the file, as shown in Figure 11-6.
Figure 11-6:
Use Text
Editor to
read files
within CDE.
There is a subtle but important difference between how GNOME and CDE
In GNOME, Nautilus displays the file directly without having to launch a
separate program.
CDE file browser is purely a file-browsing tool. It needs to open Text
Editor to let you see the contents of the file.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Text Editor is a fairly rudimentary text editor, but it works for lightweight
(think quick) editing jobs. If you’ll be doing more complex edit work, consider
a more powerful tool like StarOffice for formatting (see Chapter 9), or vi or
emacs (Chapter 15) for lots of text massaging.
Viewing Files at the Command Line
The command line is plebian, mundane, and visually uninteresting. It’s also
Get to the command line by opening a terminal window with either of these
From the GNOME menu within GNOME
On the CDE control bar, the Local Computer option on the pop-up menu
above the CPU monitor
Solaris is case sensitive. Ls and ls are two different commands; only one will
work as you want.
To view a directory, for example, use the handy ls (list files) command with
the -F flag to have directories marked with a trailing / character. Why bother
with -F? Because if you’re looking at a large directory, being able to immediately see which are directories and which are files can be helpful. You’ll see
the following display ($ is the shell prompt; your shell prompt may be different, but the command you type is identical):
$ ls -F
As shown in Figure 11-1, there’s no question that exploring the file system
with a GUI-based tool is more attractive and probably easier to understand.
But what if you want to see all the files with their exact size, permissions, and
date of creation? How do you accomplish that in the GUI browser? It’s not so
At the command line, you simply add an additional command flag — -l — for
long listing format:
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files
$ ls -lF
total 1192
The preceding example gives the important information about the file:
You can see how big gullivers.travels.txt actually is: 592,673 bytes
(line 3).
Only the owner (taylor) can write to the file (edit its contents).
It was created on October 4 at 9:56 a.m. (line 3).
The sequence of characters at the beginning of each line of output is the permission string:
The first character indicates the file type in the first space:
• - is a regular file.
• d is a directory.
The following characters are interpreted in three-character sets:
• Owner read, write, and/or execute
• Group
• Everyone else
In the preceding example, the gullivers.travels.txt file is read + write
for owner, and read-only for group and everyone else. Chapter 4 has a
detailed discussion of this important topic.
To see the contents of a file, use the cat command. Two of its most useful
features are the ability to
Number all the lines of input (-n)
Show all the otherwise hidden and mysterious control characters (-v),
such as ^M and ^J
A typical use of cat is to peek inside an executable file or graphics file.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Of cats and dogs
The cat command is short for concatenate, not
named after one of our feline friends. The Unix
command biff is named after a dog, but that’s
another story! Don’t try to use cat with lengthy
files because invoking the cat command has a
very important characteristic: It doesn’t stop
until it’s done showing you the entire file.
Of course, you can try it on a very long file if you
have some patience. When I used the cat command on the gullivers.travels.txt file,
it only took approximately nine seconds on my
high-speed connection. With a slow modem,
well . . . you could easily pop into the kitchen for
a quick cup of tea while you’re waiting for the
file display to finish scrolling.
Here’s what happens when I peek into the contents of one of the XPM (X
Windows Pixel Map) format screen shots for this chapter. For this example, I
start by using cat and then enlist the head command to constrain the results
to only the first ten lines so that I’m not drowned in output:
$ cd snaps
$ cat -v ch1101.xpm | head -10
/* XPM */
static char * ch1101_xpm[] = {
“811 576 76 1”,
c #000000000000”,
c #00002020AAAA”,
c #000000005555”,
c #000020200000”,
c #333340405555”,
c #000020205555”,
c #333320200000”,
Adding the -n flag changes this output:
$ cat -nv ch1101.xpm | head -10
1 /* XPM */
2 static char * ch1101_xpm[] = {
3 “811 576 76 1”,
4 “
c #000000000000”,
5 “.
c #00002020AAAA”,
6 “X
c #000000005555”,
7 “o
c #000020200000”,
8 “O
c #333340405555”,
9 “+
c #000020205555”,
10 “@
c #333320200000”,
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files
Adding the -n flag adds line numbers.
Consider what tools you want to be able to read text here at the command
The basic shell program for displaying a file one page at a time is more,
named after its ever-present prompt at the end of each screenful. Just specify
the program and the name of the file to view. In this example, enter the following line:
more gullivers.travels.txt
The results are shown in Figure 11-7.
Figure 11-7:
View a file,
a screen at
a time, from
the more
To proceed to the next screenful of information, press the spacebar. To move
down only a single line, press Enter.
The more program seems pretty simple, but it has quite a few options, including starting options and commands available at the more prompt. The most
useful starting flags are listed in Table 11-1.
Table 11-1
Useful Starting Flags for more
Squeezes multiple blank lines to one. Very helpful if
you’re viewing files that have lots of empty lines.
Shows only n lines per screenful. For example: -20.
Starts at line n in the file. For example: +120.
Starts a few lines above the first line in the file that
matches ptrn.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
When you’re at the more prompt, you have oodles of options. You can see
them all by pressing ? (the question mark key). The list is a bit cryptic, so let
me note that when it references ‘k’ lines of text, it means that you can type in
a numeric value, then the command to have the command use the specified
value rather than the default. For example, 8f will skip forward eight screenfuls of information, while f by itself skips one screen.
Most commands optionally preceded by integer argument k. Defaults in brackets.
Star (*) indicates argument becomes new default.
Display next lines of text [current screen size]
Display next lines of text [current screen size]*
Display next k lines of text [1]*
d or ctrl-D
Scroll k lines [current scroll size, initially 11]*
q or Q or <interrupt>
Exit from more
Skip forward k lines of text [1]
Skip forward k screenfuls of text [1]
b or ctrl-B
Skip backwards k screenfuls of text [1]
Go to place where previous search started
Display current line number
/<regular expression>
Search for kth occurrence of regular expression [1]
Search for kth occurrence of last r.e [1]
!<cmd> or :!<cmd>
Execute <cmd> in a subshell
Start up vi at current line
Display this message
Redraw screen
Go to kth next file [1]
Go to kth previous file [1]
Display current file name and line number
Repeat previous command
The most useful of these commands available within the more program are
space: Shows the next screenful of information
q: To quit without seeing the rest of the file
/ptrn: To search for a pattern (and n to search for it again)
v: To drop the file into vi and allow editing
:n: To move to the next file if you specify a list of files to the program
Although it might not seem like there’s much you can do with the more command, a number of different text file pager programs are available in Unix,
although not all are available in all versions. For Solaris 9, functionally similar
commands include
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files
To use them, your best bet is to check out the man pages (type man less at
the shell prompt, for example) or just try them on a file.
Using more and page move you forward in the file, and using less and pg can
let you go back screenfuls if you decide that you want to either
Start over
See what’s been displayed earlier
If you’re in a terminal or xterm that has scrolling and a scrollback buffer, this
capability is probably irrelevant because you can always move back through
that mechanism.
Analyzing Files with wc and spell
Although you have little apparent advantage to viewing files at the command
line when compared with a slick graphical interface like GNOME, the ability
to analyze and understand the contents of files through command utilities is
part of what makes the command line shine as an interactive environment.
You can count lines, words, and characters, discover spelling errors, and list
all spelling gaffes in your documents.
Like the proverbial multitude of ways to skin a cat (which is a rather disgusting image if you think about it), you have a wide variety of ways to slice and
dissect a text file by using the Unix command line and the hundreds of available commands. You can do much more here than just view a file page by
page — you can calculate the most commonly used word in the file, the average length of a word, the average sentence complexity, the number of words,
and even words that seem misspelled.
Making every word count with the wc
To find out how many words are in the file gullivers.travels.txt, use the
wc (word count) command:
$ wc gullivers.travels.txt
10382 106405 592673 gullivers.travels.txt
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
This output tells you that the file has 10,382 lines, 106,405 words, and 592,673
characters. If you imagine that you’re on a 25-line terminal window, you’d have
a rather exhausting 416 screenfuls to read the entire story (10,382 ÷ 25 = 416).
(Be glad that you’re not reading this file over a typical cell phone with about
a 6-line display because you’d have to wade through 1,700 screens to read
this short novel on your favorite Nokia or Ericsson!)
Counting words can also be important if you’re a writer or student. As a
writer, you often receive assignments similar to “write 500 words about . . .”
or “your article can’t be more than 900 words total.” Now you know an easy
way to ascertain this number without having to count by hand. In fact, you
can specify -l, -w, and -c for lines, words, and characters, respectively. In
the following, I only want to find the word count (wc -w) for this file:
$ wc -w gullivers.travels.txt
106405 gullivers.travels.txt
Korect yur speling with spell
Assuming that you can correctly type the name of the command, you can
extract a list of misspelled words on the command line by using the spell
Drop the more command at the end of a pipe, and you can stop the flow of
information before it begins scrolling off your screen.
$ spell gullivers.travels.txt
| more
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files
Spelling-wise, well, the spell program isn’t too bright with words that it
doesn’t know. The ordinals (11th, 20th, and so on) are all flagged as misspellings
even though they’re really not. The word acquitted is spelled correctly, so seeing
it flagged as a misspelling is curious, too.
Regardless of whether every match is ideal, the program does generate lots
of useful information. In combination with wc, you can quickly figure out how
many spelling errors you have: The -l flag outputs only the number of lines
in the input stream.
$ spell gullivers.travels.txt
| wc -l
Five hundred spelling errors! Gack!
One way to address this overly generous listing of spelling mistakes is to use
a filter that automatically removes files that match a certain pattern. For
example, you can chop out any word that begins with a capital letter and any
word that contains a digit.
The easiest way to accomplish this is to use egrep, which is a cousin of the
grep command. egrep works with regular expressions, a powerful, albeit
arcane, set of pattern notations that look like gobbledygook but can detail
just about anything. Here’s how you can set it up:
1. Start with the (a|b) notation to indicate that you want to match
either pattern A or pattern B.
For the first pattern, there are two elements:
• Specify a capital letter — [A-Z].
• Indicate that it should appear at the beginning of the line by prefacing the set with the special character ^.
Put them together, and your first pattern is ^[A-Z].
2. The second pattern is a range of digits in a set that looks like this:
3. An important egrep flag is also required: -v.
The -v flag reverses the logic of the match so that all lines that don’t
match the pattern (or patterns) are allowed.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
It all combines to look like this:
$ spell gullivers.travels.txt | egrep -v ‘(^[A-Z]|[0-9])’ |
This clearly removes some of the false errors. How many? That’s a job for wc
and its ever-helpful -l line-count-only flag:
$ spell gullivers.travels.txt | egrep -v ‘(^[A-Z]|[0-9])’ |
wc -l
This output is useful, but only a tiny portion of the screen is being used
because of the one-word-per-line output format. To turn this output into a
multiple column format, use the paste command.
Unlike most Solaris commands that have all their flags prefaced by a dash (or
minus symbol or hyphen, depending on how you want to look at it), the
paste command uses the dashes as a format request:
Use two dashes to create a two-column output.
Use four dashes to create a four-column output.
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files
Here’s an example:
1. Save the list of spelling errors into a temporary file so that you don’t
have to scan through the entire novel each time you test a command.
You can easily do this with the > file redirection, which saves all the
spelling errors in a new file errors instead of streaming them on your
$ spell gullivers.travels.txt | egrep -v ‘(^[A-Z]|[0-9])’
> errors
$ wc -l errors
293 errors
2. Feed that file to the paste command and see what happens.
This step streams the file contents without pausing for screenfuls by
using these commands:
• cat
• paste
One column of data changes to four (count the number of dashes specified to the paste command to see where four came from):
$ cat errors | paste - - - - | more
apophlegmatics arbitress
beeves behaviour
bemired bevil
biassed bliffmarklub
burthen c
candour carabines
centre cephalalgics
clamour climenole
clyster colour coloured
contemn coquetry
defence degul
demesne demesnes
desmar despatch
dispair docible
draught draymen
eBook’s eBooks email
emposo endeavour
endian endians engendered
favour favourable
finget flandona
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
This isn’t the most attractive output (because it isn’t in neatly aligned
columns), but if you can handle the messy results, it lets you review 100 of
the 293 errors on a single screen.
If you want to learn Perl or awk, there are relatively straightforward ways to
turn this into a neat page of aligned columns:
For the skinny on Perl, check out Perl For Dummies, 4th Edition, by Paul
Hoffman (Wiley Publishing).
The best awk reference is online (it’s for GNU awk, but it’s functionally
identical to Solaris awk):
GUI versus the Command-Line Interface
Every time that I talk about how to do things in Solaris, I seem to get stuck on
the same crazy debate: graphical interface versus command-line interface:
Which is faster?
Which is easier?
In this case, consider viewing text files because that’s a nice, constrained category for discussion. In a nutshell, the advantages to using a GUI interface are
the following:
You can change the typeface used to display the text.
You can fine-tune the colors and typeface size to make them as legible
and readable as possible.
You can position your cursor over the down arrow and then read page
after page with a simple click of the mouse.
You can manage graphics.
Obviously, you can’t display a lovely new JPEG image of your dad’s new
motorcycle in a text-based environment. The main advantages of a graphical
interface really don’t surface until you step beyond simple text and get into
Formatted text (like this book, with bold, italics, different type faces, different sizes of type, and so on)
Chapter 11: Exploring Text Files
The advantages of a command-line interface are
You can change the typeface, colors, and size to make the terminal
window itself as readable as possible.
Well, that’s not entirely fair because a number of people connect to
Solaris systems through simple terminal interface programs or even
dumb terminals (ya know, physical hardware, the kind of things you saw
geeky engineers with gleaming pocket protectors staring at in horror in
those 1960s sci-fi thrillers), and they definitely aren’t very customizable.
You can use a paging program (like more) to view text so each time you
press the spacebar, you move forward a screenful.
The command-line interface is way faster than a GUI.
One of the main arguments for a command-line interface is speed. Even
with the fastest new Solaris system, the command line and its text-based
interface are markedly faster than working in a graphical environment.
Speed might not matter if you’re scrolling a novel page by page, but if
you frequently work with text files, being able to get that extra performance boost due to the increased efficiencies and power of the
command line might prove to be worthwhile.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Chapter 12
Editing Files
In This Chapter
Working with the CDE Text Editor
Editing with the GNOME Text Editor
Using the vi text editor
n the world of Solaris, most files are plain text without fancy typographic
material, whether text, shell scripts, Web pages, or even C programs. No
bold, no multiple font colors, no included graphics. Just text.
As a result, most Solaris users use vi, a powerful — albeit tricky to learn —
text-only editor that lets you enter and modify text quickly.
This chapter introduces you to the basics of the text-editing tools in both
CDE and GNOME and focuses primarily on how to work with the vi editor.
Working with the CDE Text Editor
To launch Text Editor in the CDE environment, you can double-click an existing text file or start with a blank palette, an empty file. To start with a blank
palette, click the arrow button immediately above the note icon on the CDE
navigational bar (as shown in Figure 12-1) and then select Text Editor from
the pop-up menu.
The editor starts with a blank window, as expected. Notice in Figure 12-2 that
the new document has no name yet — (UNTITLED) is listed in the window’s
title bar — and that five menus are available.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Figure 12-1:
Text Editor
in CDE.
Figure 12-2:
Text Editor,
as first
From the left, the menus are File, Edit, Format, Options, and, far on the right,
Help. The content of these menus is as follows:
File: New, Open, Include, Save, Save As, Print, and Close
Edit: Undo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Clear, Delete, Select All, Find/Change, and
Check Spelling
Format: Settings, Paragraph, and All
Options: Overstrike, Wrap to Fit, Status Line, and Backup on Save
Help: Overview, Tasks, Table of Contents, Reference, On Item, Using
Help, and About Text Editor
To start, begin typing in some text. Because I’m working with the text from
Gulliver’s Travels, I’ll begin with a brief introductory sentence.
Save yourself a lot of typing. Get a copy of the file gullivers.travels.txt
from the Web at
Chapter 12: Editing Files
If you make a mistake when typing in your text, you can either fix it with the
keyboard or mouse: either backspace and fix it, or move the mouse to the
problem spot and either click and erase characters to the left of the cursor
with the Backspace key, or click and drag to select a problem passage, then
either Backspace to delete it, or simply type the correct replacement.
Text wrapping
By default, Text Editor expects you to press Enter each time you want to
move to the next line. That’s why in Figure 12-3 you can only read the last
passage of the introduction I entered. By contrast, most modern text entry
systems wrap the lines of text so that you can see all of your text at once.
Figure 12-3:
entered, but
all on one
Fortunately, you can change this behavior through the Options menu. Choose
Options➪Wrap to Fit. The text is instantly wrapped so that you can see everything entered so far. While you’re working with the Options menu, also choose
Options➪Status Line to enable the editor to show you a useful and informative status line at the bottom of the window. The result of these two changes
is shown in Figure 12-4.
Figure 12-4:
Now you
can see all
the text and
a status line
to boot!
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Including content from other files
You can include the content of a file by choosing File➪Include. This opens a
standard CDE file selection dialog box, as shown in Figure 12-5. The example
includes the content of the file gullivers.travels.txt.
If you choose Open rather than Include, the specified file replaces the current
file being edited.
Figure 12-5:
for Gulliver
in the
Include a
File dialog
Find the file gullivers.travels.txt (if you haven’t downloaded it yet,
there’s a tip earlier in this chapter telling you where you can find it on the
Web) and then click OK to open it.
The contents are almost instantaneously included into the existing edit
buffer, and you’re dropped down to the last line of text. Drag the scroll bar
marker to the top of the file, and you’ll see how the new material has been
included after the existing text typed in earlier, as shown in Figure 12-6.
Figure 12-6:
Travels, with
a new
Chapter 12: Editing Files
Searching and replacing
It’s easy to change all the occurrences of a pattern in text: Choose Edit➪Find/
Change and then enter the old and new patterns in the Find/Change dialog
box. Figure 12-7 changes Gulliver to Kaelin to update an old story a tiny bit.
Figure 12-7:
Gulliver to
Click Change All, and voilà! All changes are applied. Mr. Swift might be a wee
tad appalled by this modification of his work, but I’ll claim artistic license and
keep going forward, okay? If you prefer to have Gulliver’s Travels instead of
Kaelin’s Travels, simply choose Edit➪Undo to reverse the changes.
Saving files
Saving the file is easy. Choose File➪Save As, to open the CDE Save As dialog
box, as shown in Figure 12-8.
Figure 12-8:
Saving the
as a file.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Figure 12-8 shows that in addition to the standard filter, folder, and files windows, the Save As dialog box contains two unique options regarding how this
file should be saved. You need to choose between these options:
Add Newline Characters to the End of Wrap-to-Fit Lines. Select this
option if you don’t want to end up with a lot of extremely long lines.
Do Not Add Newlines. Only Line Breaks Created by [Return] Will Be
Preserved. If you’re planning to open this file with a program like
StarOffice Writer, you might want to deselect this option so that Writer
can do its own line wrapping based on your formatting options.
Enter the filename, double-check that it’s in the directory you want, and then
click OK to save it. You’re done!
Editing with the GNOME Text Editor
The GNOME Text Editor (often called gedit) works much like the CDE Text
Editor, as will become clear when you follow the same steps with Gulliver’s
Travels within the GNOME environment.
To launch the GNOME Text Editor, either double-click a text file icon or
launch it from the GNOME menu by choosing Applications➪Accessories➪
Text Editor, as shown in Figure 12-9.
Figure 12-9:
Text Editor
from the
The GNOME Text Editor is more visually attractive than the CDE Text Editor,
as shown in Figure 12-10. It’s also more powerful, as suggested by the menu
options. The most obvious difference is the toolbar icons, which are reminiscent of StarOffice Writer. From left to right, they are New, Open, Save, Close,
Print, Undo, Redo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Find, and Replace.
Chapter 12: Editing Files
Figure 12-10:
Text Editor.
The menus are
File: Items in the menu are:
• New
• Open
• Open Location
• Recent Files
• Save
• Save As
• Save All
• Revert
• Print Preview
• Print
• Close
• Close All
• Quit
Edit: Items in the menu are:
• Undo
• Redo
• Cut
• Copy
• Paste
• Delete
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
• Select All
• Preferences
View: Items in the menu are:
• Toolbar
• Statusbar
• Customize Toolbar
• Customize Statusbar
Search: Items in the menu are:
• Find
• Find Next
• Replace
• Goto Line
Help: Items in the menu are:
• Contents
• About
One of the most useful menu options is File➪Open Location. As its name suggests, this option enables you to easily open a Web page and examine its
HTML source. You can make edits, but you can’t save the Web page back to
the remote server. Figure 12-11 shows the source to as an edit
Figure 12-11:
Text Editor
lets you
easily see
Chapter 12: Editing Files
gedit offers a tabbed interface element under the toolbar:
The original blank document is shown as Untitled 1
The HTML source is shown as RO –
If you guessed that RO is read-only, you’re right!
To get back to the original blank edit window, click Close on the toolbar.
Including other files
Although gedit has more capabilities than the CDE Text Editor, it doesn’t
have any facility to include the file’s source in the existing document. To
work around this, you can use cut and paste.
Click the Open button on the toolbar to open the gullivers.travels.txt
file. You’re presented with a typical GNOME Open File dialog box, as shown in
Figure 12-12. Select the file and click OK.
Figure 12-12:
Opening a
file in
Text Editor.
You now have both the original file, with the one sentence typed in, and the
gullivers.travels.txt file open. Each file has its own tab.
To copy and paste Gulliver’s Travels, follow these steps:
1. Make sure you’re viewing gullivers.travels.txt (the file you want
to copy)
2. Choose Edit➪
➪ Select All to select all the text
3. Click the Copy button on the toolbar to copy the text into the buffer.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
4. Click the Untitled 1 tab to switch to the other window
5. Move the cursor below the text that’s typed
6. Click the Paste button on the toolbar.
The result is shown in Figure 12-13.
Figure 12-13:
include file
Doing a global search and replace
The basic process of globally searching for a pattern and replacing it with
another is identical to the CDE Text Editor. This time, change Gulliver to Terri
instead of Kaelin. Click the Replace button on the toolbar to open the
Replace dialog box, shown in Figure 12-14.
Figure 12-14:
search and
replace in
Text Editor.
Chapter 12: Editing Files
In the Search For box, enter Gulliver, and in the Replace With box, enter
Terri. You also need to decide whether to search from the beginning of the
document, or from the current cursor position through the end of the document. Because this is a global search and replace, select the option to search
from the beginning.
Searches in the GNOME Text Editor can be case-sensitive. (For example,
Gulliver will match, but gulliver and GULLIVER will not.) Usually, you want to
select the Case Sensitive option — which is selected by default.
Now you’re ready. Click Replace All, and you’ll see a small results window
that, in this case, shows the message Found and replaced 9
occurrences. A great addition!
Click OK to dismiss the information box, and click Close to dismiss the
Replace dialog box. The new, perhaps improved, Terri’s Travels into Several
Remote Nations of the World is shown.
Saving files
When the file is the way you want it, save it by following these steps:
1. Click the Save button on the toolbar.
Although the graphic makes it look like the Save function is grayed out
(unavailable), pay attention to the word Save instead: If it’s black, you
can use this button.
The Save dialog box pops up, as shown in Figure 12-15.
Figure 12-15:
The Save
File dialog
2. Enter the name you want and ensure that the directory location is
3. Click OK.
The file is saved. You’re done!
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Using the vi Text Editor
If you’re a die-hard Solaris user and think that mice and graphical interfaces
are for wimps and newbies, you’re not alone. For those folks seeking speed
over appearance, the vi editor — originally written by Bill Joy while at the
University of California, Berkeley (and now a VP at Sun Microsystems) — is
an excellent answer.
Working with vi is unlike anything you’ve seen so far in this chapter because
you must do everything, from cursor motion to search and replace, from the
keyboard. If this suggests that there’s a bit of a learning curve, you’re right.
But persevere, and you’ll find yourself in excellent company as you discover
how to be a Solaris power user!
The vi editor runs in a terminal window. Chapter 3 explains how to open one.
Understanding modes
Perhaps the most puzzling aspect of vi is that it is a modal editor. These are
the two modes of operation:
Insert mode: If you’re in insert mode and type an x, the letter is added
to the document at the current cursor point.
Command mode: If you’re in command mode, the x command causes
the letter under the cursor to be deleted, not added.
Fortunately, there’s a trick to starting up vi that enables a mode display
function on the bottom line of the screen. This display quickly tells you
whether you’re in insert or command mode. Rather than specify the showmode feature manually each time you start vi, open a terminal window
and type the following:
echo “set showmode” >> ~/.exrc
Do that once, and you’ve created a custom preferences file for vi (yes, it
should be called .virc, but that’s a long story). You don’t have to ever
think about it again.
Chapter 3 explains the terminal and command shell in depth.
Chapter 12: Editing Files
Starting vi
You can start the vi editor from the command line several ways:
Type vi on the command line:
$ vi
Specify the name of an existing file to edit or a new file to create:
$ vi
You can also specify a list of filenames if you want. You can finish editing
the first file, and then move to the second, and so on to modify a batch
of files in sequence.
To parallel the tasks done earlier in this chapter, start vi by specifying the
name you want to create:
$ vi ashley.travels.txt
The result of this command is shown in Figure 12-16.
Figure 12-16:
vi starting
up with a
brand new
The File, Edit, View, and other menus are for the terminal application, not vi.
The vi program has no fancy interface elements, just whatever you type at
the keyboard.
Figure 12-16 shows that vi is bare bones. There’s no menu at the bottom, just
a cursor at the top-left corner and a bunch of tilde symbols (~) running down
the left side. The lines prefaced with tilde symbols are placeholders, not part
of the file. They’re beyond the end of the file being edited.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Entering text
By default, the editor starts out in command mode: Type an x, and you’ll hear
a beep as the editor tells you that there’s nothing to delete. You can move
into insert mode several ways, depending on where you want to insert text.
In fact, vi has dozens and dozens of commands, enough that I could probably write vi For Dummies. But I won’t!
I’ll stick with the basics. At the end of this chapter, I suggest some places you
can go online to find out more about vi if you’re interested.
To insert just before the current cursor location (where the flashing
block is sitting), press i.
To insert just after the current cursor location, use a to append text.
To insert just above the current line by creating a new blank line, use O
(capital o).
To insert into a new blank line just below the current line, use o (lowercase o).
Jump into this by pressing i and typing in the introductory sentence used
earlier in this chapter. After you type it in, the screen looks like Figure 12-17.
To make this interesting, add a few random nonsense characters at the end of
what you type in.
Figure 12-17:
I just
some text in
insert mode.
Notice that the bottom-right corner says INSERT MODE. That’s the show
mode feature giving a visual clue of what mode you’re in.
Chapter 12: Editing Files
To leave insert mode and get back to command mode, press the magic key —
Esc. Intelligently, the Esc key has no function in command mode. You can
press it any time you want to be in command mode and aren’t sure what
mode you’re in. It just beeps.
Moving in the file
Because vi has no scroll bars and no mouse support, it has a set of keys that
you can use in command mode to move around.
On Solaris, you can also use the arrow keys on your keyboard unless you’re
connected remotely, in which case they may or may not work.
The four key movement keys are h, j, k, and l:
h moves one character to the left.
j moves one line down.
k moves one line up.
l moves one character to the right.
Try using these four keys to move around. If these letters start to appear in
your document, you’re still in insert mode and need to press the Esc key.
You can move one word at a time with w or b, depending on whether
you want to move forward one word or backward one word.
You can jump to the beginning of the line with 0 (zero) and to the end of
the line with $.
To move page by page, when the file is sufficiently large to have pages of
text, use
• ^F to move forward a page
• ^B to move back a page
• ^D to move down half a page
• ^U to move up half a page
You can jump to the first line of the file with 0G (zero followed by G) and
to the end of the file with G by itself.
Use motion keys to move to the first letter of the extraneous stuff you added
to the file. Now press the x key a few times. Each time you press it, you
should see the letter under the cursor deleted and the text slide left to fill the
now open hole. Figure 12-18 shows my results after five x commands.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Figure 12-18:
A few
have been
Finish up the delete process so that there are no stray characters. Then use
the a append function to add a few carriage returns immediately after the
period ending the sentence. The cursor should now be on the last line, with
at least one blank line separating it from the text in the file.
Including other files
To include the contents of another file, you need to jump to the vi command
You do this by typing :, at which point the cursor immediately jumps to
the bottom-left corner of the screen.
Type in the following command:
r gullivers.travels.txt
This is shown in Figure 12-19.
Figure 12-19:
Reading a
file into the
Chapter 12: Editing Files
After pressing Enter, the contents of the file are injected into the buffer,
exactly as you saw in the GNOME Text Editor and CDE Text Editor. This
result is shown in Figure 12-20.
Figure 12-20:
included in
the file.
Doing a global search and replace
One of the ugliest parts of vi is that it’s difficult to perform a global search
and replace without seeing the pistons and oil stains under the hood. Just as
reading in a file required a : prefix to jump to command mode, so does the
search and replace.
The basic idea is that you want the editor to
Search for an old pattern
Replace it with a new one
In vi terms, this is
However, this command by itself will only do one replacement on the current
You need to preface it with an address selector that specifies the range of
lines from the first to the last. The first line, unsurprisingly, is 1, and the
last line is $. Now you have:
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
This is almost what you need. This will replace the first occurrence of
old with new on every line. To have it replace every occurrence of old
with new, add the g suffix to request that the substitution occur globally
on the line. Now, finally, the command:
To specifically change all occurrences of Gulliver to Ashley, the complete command from command mode is
Type this in, and almost instantaneously you’re looking at Ashley’s
Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.
If you don’t want this change applied after all, type u to undo it.
The Solaris version of vi can only undo the most recent command. It’s a little
quirk of vi that takes some getting used to.
If you apply a global search and replace and then insert some text, the
undo reverses the insertion.
If you type u again, it will undo the undo (redo the insertion).
Saving files
The final step on this journey is to save the new file. You started vi with the
new filename. To save the file with that name, type one of these commands:
:w writes the file and stays in vi.
:wq writes the file and quits vi.
ZZ writes out the file if it has changed and then quits, without the command
line (:) sequences.
If you entered more than one file, use :w to write out this file and then :n to
move to the next file on your list.
To quit and discard the changes that you have made, add a ! to the end of
the command, like this:
Chapter 12: Editing Files
Learning more about vi
Although vi might seem too much hassle to
learn, there are a million and one capabilities in
this remarkable editor, including the ability to
Feed paragraphs of text to the Solaris command line and replace the text with the
output of the command
Read in the output of commands like ls and
uptime into the file buffer
I have used vi for over 20 years and find it at
least five times faster than any mouse- and
cursor-oriented editor. If you’re looking for
speed and are okay with skipping the frosting
and whipped cream of the graphical interface,
it’s worth learning.
Here are several fine online resources:
A good start is Start with
the Solaris Advanced User’s Guide at
The University of Hawaii offers Mastering
the Vi Editor online for free download at
It’s worth visiting the Vi Lovers Home Page
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Chapter 13
Controlling Processes
In This Chapter
Figuring out the top processes
Identifying running processes
Managing running processes
his chapter delves into the system administration side of Solaris. It
explores processes and the various tools in Solaris that enable you to
identify what programs are consuming the most resources on your system,
how to figure out who is running those processes, and how to manage them
for maximum performance on your Solaris system.
If you’re used to working with a Windows system, you are probably under the
impression that when you’re running a program like Adobe Photoshop that’s
the only thing happening on the computer. That’s far from the truth, though
Windows does go out of its way to hide the rest of the active processes. You
can tell that they’re there if you leave an MP3 player running — it continues
to play music even while you are busy editing photographs — and sometimes
you’ll get pop-ups from other programs like Norton AntiVirus letting you
know an upgrade or update is available.
Solaris, coming from the Unix world, has the same ability to run multiple
tasks simultaneously, but it doesn’t try to hide anything from you. A number
of commands can show you how many things are going on behind the scenes.
As a fundamental building block, though, Solaris works with processes, programs that are running or sleeping, waiting for a specific event to occur. The
entire operating system and graphical interface are designed around this concept. If you have X11 and GNOME running, you might well have more than 50
processes active.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Finding Top Processes
To figure out the busiest processes, and much more, use the prstat command. By default, it shows you the state of all processes, sorted by CPU
usage, and updates the screen every ten seconds, as shown in Figure 13-1.
Figure 13-1:
Output of
the prstat
In Figure 13-1, the last line of the output shows that 81 processes are active.
That’s a lot of activity on a single-user workstation! In addition, some
processes have more than one subprocess, called a lightweight process (lwp),
and a total of 146 lwps are running.
In the default output of prstat, all processes are shown, sorted by CPU
usage. In Figure 13-1, the GNOME window manager Metacity is the most
active process, with 2.0% of the CPU time.
The Xscreensaver process is taking up CPU time (only 0.2%) even though no
screensaver is currently being displayed. This is symptomatic of some poorly
behaved applications that can consume computing resources even though
they’re invisible to the user.
If you leave prstat running, it updates the computer usage snapshot every
five to ten seconds, giving you a rolling view of how your computer is being
used. There are ten columns of prstat output:
PID: The process ID (unique to each process running).
USERNAME: The login name or real user ID of the process owner.
SIZE: The total virtual memory size of the process.
RSS: The resident set size of the process (the amount of real memory
taken by the process).
Chapter 13: Controlling Processes
STATE: The current state of the process. Values can be
• cpuN (the process is running on CPU N)
• sleep (the process is waiting for an event to complete)
• run (the process is in the run queue waiting to be executed)
• zombie (the process has been terminated; the parent is not waiting)
• stop (the process has been stopped).
PRI: The priority of the job: Larger numbers mean higher priority.
NICE: The nice value used in priority computation. It can be used to
raise or lower the priority of a given process.
TIME: The cumulative execution time for the process.
CPU: The percentage of CPU time used by the process.
PROCESS: The name of the executable file running.
NLWP: The number of lightweight processes in the process.
The information in Figure 13-1 shows that Metacity has these properties:
It’s being run by user taylor.
It has PID 933
It has a virtual memory size of 13MB
It has an RSS of 10MB.
It’s in a sleep state (although it is using some CPU cycles),
It has a relatively low priority of 53 (system jobs have a priority of 59,
for example),
It has no nice value
It has used a cumulative seven minutes and 27 seconds of execution
It’s using 2.0% of the CPU time
It has one lightweight thread (meaning that it doesn’t use threads).
Processor Usage, by User
prstat has an output format that’s particularly useful if you’re trying to identify which users are hogging the CPU resources: -t. As shown in Figure 13-2,
the -t flag produces a list of processor usage summarized by user.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Figure 13-2:
usage, by
In Figure 13-2, most of the processes are owned by either taylor or root. The
root processes are probably demons and other processes intended to run in
the background. Notice the cumulative execution time for the root processes:
a rather impressive 77 hours, 25 minutes, and 16 seconds.
Another useful flag is -s sortkey, which enables you to change the sorting of
the output. Possible keys are
Couple this flag with the -n flag (which lets you limit the number of lines
output) to ascertain
Which applications are using the most physical memory:
$ prstat -s rss -n 5
826 root
29M sleep
0 76:39:49 0.0% Xsun/1
925 taylor
19M sleep
0:00:01 0.0% gnome-settings/1
937 taylor
16M sleep
0:13:50 0.0% gnome-panel/1
912 taylor
14M sleep
0:00:01 0.0% gnome-session/1
939 taylor
13M sleep
0:01:21 0.0% gnome-terminal/1
Total: 79 processes, 144 lwps, load averages: 0.03, 0.04, 0.10
Chapter 13: Controlling Processes
Which applications are taking up the most time:
$ prstat -s time -n 5
826 root
29M sleep
0 76:39:49 0.0% Xsun/1
937 taylor
16M sleep
0:13:50 0.0% gnome-panel/1
933 taylor
10M sleep
0:07:29 0.0% metacity/1
948 taylor
12M sleep
0:02:58 0.0% mixer_applet2/1
939 taylor
13M sleep
0:01:21 0.0% gnome-terminal/1
Total: 79 processes, 144 lwps, load averages: 0.01, 0.04, 0.09
Understanding Running Processes
Everything that’s happening on your Solaris system, every program running,
visible or not, is a process. Here’s how individual processes are utilizing the
system resources.
What’s your uptime?
To further understand how a Solaris system is being used or overused, as the
case may be, use uptime, another terrifically useful command:
$ uptime
up 28 day(s), 22:25,
3 users,
load average: 0.00, 0.02, 0.08
In this humble one-line output, it shows you
Current time
How long the system has been running since its last reboot
How many users are connected
Load average
The load average numbers — an average count of the number of jobs in the
run queue (either running or ready to run) for the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes —
can be confusing for users.
Watch these values to get a sense of how busy the system is.
The larger the value, the busier the system.
Changes in workload can be found by comparing values:
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
• If values are increasing left-to-right, then your system was busier in
the past than it is currently.
• If values are decreasing left-to-right, your system is busier than it
has been for a while.
Uptime load averages of less than one or two are the norm on a workstation and demonstrate that there’s plenty of horsepower to run the
necessary processes and manage the current demand on the system.
If you get into two-digit load averages, things are busy.
Three-digit load averages are one way that the Solaris operating system
might be gasping for help, requesting another CPU or even a second
computer to offload some of the busiest processes.
Other processor status tools
Although prstat is a great program, it’s a Solaris-only application. Other
Unixes have commands to offer similar information, such as
What they all rely on is an underlying command called ps, which shows
processor status and a lot more.
Like many Solaris commands, ps has a plethora of command line arguments,
but these are the most useful:
-l offers a long output format.
-L shows information on each lightweight process.
-U userid only lists processes for the specified login name, and you can
always specify a process ID to get information about just that process.
For example, in Figure 13-1 most processes have only a single lightweight
process within, whereas a process called mibiisa has 7 lwps. Now you can
look inside this process to see what’s what:
$ ps -L -l -p 305
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
Chapter 13: Controlling Processes
Solaris Management Console
Solaris includes a powerful, graphically oriented
admin tool that encompasses many of the capabilities already shown in this chapter, and much
To launch the Solaris Management Console,
type smc on the command line. After stepping
through some configuration and login windows,
the System Status – Processes view appears,
as shown in this figure.
You can find out more about SMC at the Sun
documentation site In particular, the System Administration Guide at is a
good place to start. Don’t forget that if you’ve
installed the AnswerBook system on your own
Solaris system, the documentation is already on
your computer.
Frankly, nothing here is that revealing, other than that some threads seem to
get more execution time than others. If you were involved with the development of this task, you could use this information to go back into the program
and try to see why lwp #2 is using almost ten times the execution time of any
other lwp.
A more common usage of ps is to see all processes associated with a specific
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
$ ps
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
8 S
-l -U nobody
60001 4129 4128
60001 4132 4128
60001 4130 4128
60001 4133 4128
60001 4131 4128
60001 4135 4128
60001 4134 4128
60001 4136 4128
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
0 40 20
These are the processes owned by user nobody. The processes are all owned
by parent process (PPID) #4128, which means that process 4128 started up all
the other httpd (Web server) processes.
Managing Running Processes
How do you change what’s running on your computer, either changing priority
or killing a process or set of processes? It turns out that — unsurprisingly —
a set of commands offers these very capabilities to you, whether you’re a
system administrator or not. They work differently for a regular user, but if
you need to kill a process, for example, these are fine.
Changing job priority
By default, all user processes have a nice level of zero: They are neither more
nor less important than all other user jobs.
To start a process with a specific priority level, use the eponymously named
nice command:
$ nice +5
This would start the named shell script with a priority that’s (ready for this?)
five lesser than a normal user job. This is a polite way of invoking long, compute-intensive processes that would otherwise monopolize the CPU. If it
doesn’t matter whether this script finishes in three minutes
or five, this is unquestionably the way to go.
Regular users cannot raise the priority of a task — that’s only for root — but
the full range of priorities accepted by nice are –19 to +20, where zero is the
default priority. Again, higher values are lower priority processes, whereas
lower values are higher priority processes.
Chapter 13: Controlling Processes
If the process is already running, you can use renice to adjust its priority
accordingly. If you have mpg123, an MP3 audio player, running and you ascertained that its PID is 5238, you can lower its importance to the system with:
$ renice +1 5238
You cannot raise its importance as a regular user:
$ renice +1 5238
renice: 5238: Cannot lower nice value.
Adjusting nice values appropriately is a smart way to stay in good standing
with the central system administration team if you’re part of a large shared
Solaris environment.
Killing unwanted processes
If you can change the priority of a running process, it should be no surprise
that you can also kill a process.
If you’re a regular user, you can kill only your own processes
If you’re root, you can kill anything, even if it’ll stop the entire computer
dead in its tracks.
Generally, you kill processes by referencing their process IDs. To kill the MP3
player mentioned earlier, you’d use:
$ kill 5238
The kill program just sends a signal to the process; some processes ignore
certain signals. A general rule is to repeat the kill command any time you
use it to ensure that you get an error that indicates the process really was
$ kill 5238
kill: (5238) - No such pid
This means that the first kill worked. If it hadn’t worked, there would be no
output, in which case it’d be time to escalate the signal to one that is more
likely to work. In order, you should use the default signal, then a signal 15,
and then a signal 9. Specific signals are listed with a leading dash. For example,
the following command sends signal 15 (SIGINT, an interrupt signal) to
process 5238:
$ kill –15 5238
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Killing processes by name
Killing processes by name is risky. If you match the wrong process, it’s killed,
and that’s that. In Solaris, pgrep is a useful front end to pkill (the kill by
name tool). It accepts all the same flags and just shows you a list of matching
$ pgrep -l sh
3 fsflush
894 sdt_shell
756 bash
302 sshd
920 sh
896 bash
4155 bash
3463 bash
This lists the process ID and command name for all processes that match the
pattern sh. To kill all the bash processes, for example, use:
$ pkill bash
If you kill your login shell, you’ll be logged out!
Chapter 14
Finding Files
In This Chapter
Finding files in graphical environments
Searching by content with grep
Specifying search attributes with find
ne of the most curious things about how people use computers is
that although the system supports descriptive filenames, directories,
and subdirectories, most users still end up with hundreds of files named
Joe-2.doc,, and similar, leading to crazy, impossible-tonavigate home directories.
The best way to address this is to impose some self-discipline, with logically organized folders and, at the least, well-named files. (Consider how
much easier it is to understand Eco, Umberto, 5 Feb 03 as a filename —
particularly if it’s in a directory called Letters — than a file cryptically
called ltr-eco-5.3 or similar.)
Whether or not you can accomplish this great file-naming feat, it’s a sure bet
that at some point you’ll need a specific file without knowing where it is in
your file hierarchy or perhaps without remembering the filename. That’s
what the various tools explored in this chapter address: finding files by
Finding Files with File Manager
If you’re still in the world of the Common Desktop Environment, the CDE File
Manager offers some useful file search capabilities, though they are relatively
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Launch the File Manager by clicking the Home Folder button (with the file
cabinet on it) on the CDE taskbar, as shown in Figure 14-1. The File Manager
pops up, displaying an icon for each file or folder in your home directory, as
shown in Figure 14-2.
Figure 14-1:
The file
cabinet icon
the File
Figure 14-2:
The CDE File
To search for a specific file, choose File➪Find, which opens the complex Find
dialog box, shown in Figure 14-3. Here’s a rundown of some options in this
dialog box:
Figure 14-3:
The Find
function in
the File
Chapter 14: Finding Files
Find Items In: The default setting for Find Items In (at the top of the
dialog box) is to search in the current directory. This setting is a pop-up:
Click it to select another starting location for the search.
Whose Name: This search pattern option offers the choices highlighted
in the pop-up shown in Figure 14-3. You can search for files that
• Contain the pattern specified
• Don’t contain the pattern specified
• Are exactly equal to the pattern specified
More Criteria: This option offers more ways that you can search, as
described in the next section.
Follow Links: The Follow Links check box is in the top-right corner.
Links are the Solaris equivalent to Windows shortcuts or Mac aliases
and are essentially shorthand ways of jumping to specific files or folders
elsewhere on the Solaris system. Sometimes they point to a separate
area of the file system that is huge, so the Find feature in File Manager
enables you to decide whether it should ignore the links in its search.
More find criteria in CDE File Manager
Clicking the More Criteria button opens the More Criteria dialog box, shown
in Figure 14-4. This dialog box offers a variety of criteria by which you can
search, as detailed here:
Figure 14-4:
Find, with
even more
Name: The name of the file
Content: What’s actually in the file. It can be either
• A word
• A phrase
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Size: The size of the file. You can search for one of these:
• An exact file size
• Files larger than a specified size
• Files smaller than a specified size
Date Modified: The last date modified. You can search for one of these:
• An exact date
• Files modified before a specified date
• Files modified after a specified date
Owner: The owner of the file (probably you; not too helpful)
Type: The type of the file. It’s one of these:
• File
• Directory
• Special type of file used by the operating system only
Permissions: The file permissions, such as
• Read
• Write
• Execute
Of these choices, the most useful are
Date Modified
Select them all and click OK to go back to the Find dialog box. The Find dialog
box now looks like Figure 14-5.
This time the form is filled out. I’m searching for files with these attributes:
Names contain html
Contain the text McNealy
Are less than 10,000 bytes in size
Were modified in the current year
The Date Modified is tricky to figure out. The shortcut that appears in the
text input box is [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss], but I bet that doesn’t help you
Chapter 14: Finding Files
Figure 14-5:
The Find
dialog box,
with more
The default information to enter is
• Month
• Day
• Hour
• Minute
Figure 14-5 shows that I’ve entered 01 01 00 00, or January 1 of the
current year, at 00:00, midnight.
You can also specify these values:
• Seconds (although I can’t imagine anyone would know file modification dates down to that level of specificity)
• Years
To find files that haven’t been modified since 2001, you can use Is Before
as the modifier, and 2001010100 as the Date Modified string (got it? 2001,
January 1, 00:00).
You can search many ways by combining these attributes.
To find a list of all Writer .doc files that have been modified more
recently than February 15, you can combine these attributes:
• Whose Name Contains doc
• Date Modified Is After 02150000.
You can find all files modified since a certain date by leaving the Whose
Name box blank.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Figure 14-5 is interesting for another reason. It shows the results of my clicking Find to search my entire folder area. The two matching files are
welcome.html in my home directory
My public_html subdirectory
Although the Find function works well, you can’t open resulting files directly.
You must double-click the matched filename, or select it and click Go To. A
new File Manager dialog box opens, showing the directory that contains the
file. Double-click the file to see what’s inside.
Finding Files with GNOME
In GNOME, the Nautilus file system offers a separate Search for Files capability from the GNOME menu.
To launch Search for Files, follow these steps:
1. Click the GNOME menu.
The Search for Files window pops up, as shown in Figure 14-6.
Figure 14-6:
Search for
Files utility.
2. To add more search constraints, click the small triangle to the left of
Additional Constraints.
An additional search constraint section opens.
3. Click the Available Search Constraints pop-up to see the available
A remarkable number of constraints are available for the search, as
shown in Figure 14-7.
Chapter 14: Finding Files
Figure 14-7:
Lots of
available in
the Search
for Files
dialog box.
4. Select a constraint type from the Available Search Constraints pop-up
and then click the Add button. Continue this until you’ve specified all
desired constraints.
I want to search for files that
• Have the pattern html in their name
• Have the pattern McNealy in the file itself
• Are less than 10,000 bytes in size
• Have been modified since the first of January
My Search for Files dialog box looks like Figure 14-8.
Figure 14-8:
HTML files.
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
There are a few differences here from the CDE file find options:
• Instead of searching for filename fragments, you need to specify a
wildcard pattern: *.html matches all files that end with the .html
suffix. (By comparison, *html* matches all files with the sequence
html in their filename.)
• The Date Modified parameter is challenging because you specify
the number of days, but in a somewhat backwards fashion. To
check for files modified within the last 45 days, either specify that
you want them modified after –45 or before 45. It isn’t logical,
but it works.
5. After you select all the desired constraints, click the Find button to
see the results.
My search results are shown in Figure 14-9.
Figure 14-9:
match those
from the
CDE File
If you double-click a match, Nautilus opens that file.
If you right-click on a matching line, a pop-up menu opens with these
• Open
• Open Folder
• Save Results As
I double-clicked welcome.html to open it, as shown in Figure 14-10. From this
display window, you can open the HTML file in Netscape or any other program (including a text editor). You can find more coverage of Nautilus in
Chapter 4.
Chapter 14: Finding Files
Figure 14-10:
html file
displayed in
Searching by Content with grep
Although CDE and GNOME have graphical file search utilities, both are attractive front-ends for two Solaris command-line tools:
The grep command searches a specified set of files for a pattern. The
resulting matched lines, if any, are shown as its output.
The find command can search by specific criteria, such as
• Size
• Owner
• Modification date
grep gets its name from g/re/p — global regular expression print — a command commonly used in the ex editor when Unix was developed.
I want to use the grep command to confirm that the file welcome.html contains the pattern McNealy. As with every other command-line utility, you need
to open a terminal window or pull up a shell. My shell is ready to go, so I
$ grep McNealy *
welcome.html:<H3>by Scott McNealy, CEO, Sun Microsystems</H3>
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
In the preceding example, the output of grep — if there’s a match — is the
filename, a colon, and the matching passage. By default, grep is case sensitive; nothing happens if I type Scott McNealy’s name in all lowercase, like
$ grep mcnealy *
The -i flag tells grep to ignore the case. This flag is helpful if the pattern you
seek might occur in either all lowercase, mixed case, or all capital letters.
The following example shows how you can cast a wider net by either
Shrinking the pattern down
Looking through more files by replacing the * filename wildcard with
one that also looks in all immediate subdirectories
$ grep -i scott * */*
gullivers.travels.txt:{3} Britannia.--Sir W. Scott.
gullivers.travels.txt:{4} London.--Sir W. Scott.
kaelins.travels.txt:{3} Britannia.--Sir W. Scott.
kaelins.travels.txt:{4} London.--Sir W. Scott.
“Scott Gillam” <>,
welcome.html:<H3>by Scott McNealy, CEO, Sun Microsystems</H3>
newdir/gullivers.travels.txt:{3} Britannia.--Sir W. Scott.
newdir/gullivers.travels.txt:{4} London.--Sir W. Scott.
public_html/welcome.html:<H3>by Scott McNealy, CEO, Sun Micro
The -l flag (lowercase L) offers the same basic filename pattern matching on
the command line that both CDE and GNOME offer. It shows the names of the
files that match, not the names and matching lines. Here’s an example of the
$ grep -li scott * */*
Using grep with mailboxes
If your e-mail is stored in various mailbox files, the grep command is an interesting way to search for addresses. In addition to simple text patterns, you
can also specify some fairly complex patterns:
Chapter 14: Finding Files
Place a ^ at the beginning of the pattern to match lines with the pattern
at the beginning of the line.
Specify a $ to match the end of the line instead.
For example, “^kumquat$” will only match lines that contain the word
kumquat, with no spaces, tabs, or other characters.
For exploring a mailbox, a natural pattern is “^From: “ (with the trailing
space) to extract all the From: lines in the mailbox:
$ grep “^From: “ mailbox
From: “Midwifery Today” <>
From: Ricardo Dunlap <>
From: Lori Kats <>
From: Dave Taylor <>
From: “Hanna Andersson” <>
From: “Lester, Emily” <>
From: “CallBack Centre” <>
From: “Colette Donahue” <>
From: “Louis Good” <>
From: Mothering Magazine <>
From: “Kaelin Kelly” <>
From: PNR-united air lines <>
From: <>
From: “A Feehan” <>
From: “Melissa Cohen Insurance Agency Inc” <>
From: “Figureskater” <>
To organize your matches, you can call on two additional Solaris commands:
The sort command alphabetizes lines of input.
The uniq command shows only one of each unique line.
Couple these commands together, and things improve considerably:
$ grep “^From: “ mailbox | sort | uniq
From: “A Feehan” <>
From: “CallBack Centre” <>
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
“Colette Donahue” <>
“Figureskater” <>
“Hanna Andersson” <>
“Kaelin Kelly” <>
“Lester, Emily” <>
“Louis Good” <>
“Melissa Cohen Insurance Agency Inc” <>
“Midwifery Today” <>
Lori Kats <>
Mothering Magazine <>
PNR-united air lines <>
Ricardo Dunlap <>
Because you can have multiple invocations of a command in a pipe (Chapter
3 explains pipes), you can now have an easy tool for finding a specific e-mail
address in a mailbox file:
$ grep “^From: “ mailbox | sort | uniq | grep -i ricardo
From: Ricardo Dunlap <>
More tricks for using grep are detailed in the online documentation at, among other places. It’s a wonderful command to know, especially when coupled with the find command.
Specifying Search Attributes with find
Though a bit more complex than grep, the find command is a great way to
search through your files and directories for specific files that match certain
criteria, including filename, size, owner, modification date, and much more.
The standard usage for the find command is
find directory-or-directories flag value
The find command searches the specified directories for files or directories that match the specified set of flag/value criteria. For example, the
following sample produces a list of all files that end with .html in (and
below) the current directory:
$ find * -name “*.html” -print
Chapter 14: Finding Files
Unlike almost every other Solaris command, find uses full-word flags,
such as -name and -print. The flags and their values mingle in an
English-like manner.
A common way to use find is to specify . as the directory to search.
The program searches
• All the visible filenames
• All directories whose name start with . (the invisible files in
For the following example, many more matches are found:
$ find . -name “*.html” -print
./.mozilla/Default User/8wungi1j.slt/bookmarks.html
One neat result of this search is that I can see where my bookmark files
are for both Netscape and Mozilla.
Searching by size and date
To match the search criteria used earlier, you mostly need to know about the
flags that find uses to specify file size and modification date:
When specifying the value to a flag such as -size, you need to take into
account that a specific number will only match files of that exact size.
Preface the number with a - to match anything smaller than the size
specified, and use + to match anything larger.
Size also wants a trailing c on the value if you’re indicating bytes; otherwise, it’s interpreted as 512-byte blocks.
For dates, find uses the basic unit of days. Although the CDE File Manager
uses month, day, hour, and minute, the GNOME Search for Files utility that
uses days ahead or behind is more like the find command. (In fact, Search
for Files uses find behind the scenes.)
To check a modification date, the flag is -mtime.
The following command checks for files with
*.html as their filename
A size less than 10,000 bytes
A modification time of less than 45 days
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
$ find . -name “*.html” -size -10000c -mtime -45 -print
./.mozilla/Default User/8wungi1j.slt/bookmarks.html
Searching by content
The easiest way to search by content is to wrangle grep into joining the find
parade! Instead of doing it as a pipe, use the -exec flag to find, and specify
the grep command as the argument:
$ find . -name “*.html” -size -10000c -mtime -45 -exec grep i mcnealy “;”
./welcome.html:<H3>by Scott McNealy, CEO, Sun
./public_html/welcome.html:<H3>by Scott McNealy, CEO, Sun
The straightforward approach in this first example has a couple of drawbacks:
It takes forever to run, because grep is invoked once for each file in your
subtree, which can drag things down.
The ; at the end of the line tells find where the exec expression ends.
Odd though it looks, you must include this if you use the -exec flag, so
that it knows when the specified command to execute ends.
Fortunately, there’s a smarter and faster way to invoke find, although it’s
more peculiar looking:
$ find . -name “*.html” -size -10000c -mtime -45 -exec grep i mcnealy “{}” +
./welcome.html:<H3>by Scott McNealy, CEO, Sun
./public_html/welcome.html:<H3>by Scott McNealy, CEO, Sun
The {} sequence is replaced by the individual filenames and is optional in
the default -exec expression, as shown in the first example. In this second
example, replacing the ; with a + tells find to give a bunch of filenames to
grep each time it’s called, with the {} replaced by all the names each time.
Chapter 14: Finding Files
The difference in speed is remarkable.
The first example took almost 20 minutes to run on my system
The second example finished in a second or two.
You can work with the find command many ways, but discussing them all is
beyond the scope of this book. There are other directions for using find.
Start with the find man page:
man find
and then referencing
Part IV: Editing and Controlling Programs
Part V
Administration and
Security Issues
In this part . . .
his part of the book addresses something that might
be beyond your individual responsibility: system
administration and security. However, if something goes
wrong on your computer, they’re your files that’ll be lost,
corrupted or stolen, so whether you have a top-notch
system administrator or not, it’s wise to learn something
about how to keep your system running optimally, with as
many hatches battened down as possible.
The three chapters start by exploring different ways to
hook a Solaris system to an existing network, including
the popular Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) and
the creaky Point to Point Protocol for modem access.
Once that’s hooked up, you’ll explore the Solaris
Management Console and learn the proper and safe way
to stop your computer so you can unplug it. Finally, you’ll
learn some of the key ideas behind system security and
how to ensure your system is as secure as possible.
Chapter 15
Connecting to the Network
In This Chapter
Terminology and concepts
Configuring Solaris networking
Fixing some DHCP glitches
Quick reference for working with PPP
ou may have a systems administration or information technology group
at your organization that manages all the “under the hood” aspects of
Solaris. Even if that’s the case, it’s worthwhile for you to have a basic understanding of the technologies underlying the Solaris user experience.
This chapter addresses how a Solaris system connects to the network,
exploring the three major protocols:
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Fixed IP
Point-to-Point Protocol (for dial-up connections).
Terminology and Concepts
A few definitions make things easier for you in the world of networking.
The Internet is a network of networks, all sharing a set of common languages, or protocols:
• At the lowest level of networking, Internet Protocol (IP, the denominator of the common TCP/IP protocol pair) allows machines to
exchange streams of data between them.
Internet Protocol assigns each computer a unique numeric
address, typically expressed as four numbers separated by dots
(for example,
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
• Transmission Control Protocol (TCP, the numerator of TCP/IP)
ensures that the communication between two computers (which is
broken into individual packets) goes to its destination and is
assembled in the order it was sent.
Without TCP, the middle of your e-mail messages, the last 30 lines
of a Web page, and the last message from your favorite instant
message buddy could be lost en route while bouncing from computer to computer.
Other protocols on top of the TCP/IP protocol stack provide specific
Internet services, including these:
• HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP) for Web browsers and
• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for e-mail interchanges
• Domain Name Service (DNS) for mapping domain names to their
unique IP addresses
A computer on a public or private network needs a few essential snippets of
A unique IP address
The address of a router or gateway to the rest of the network
A netmask (which tells the computer how many other IP addresses are
in the local network space)
One or more DNS server addresses to resolve name-to-number queries
Configuring Solaris Networking
Although you can certainly muck with system configuration files — and will
do that in this chapter — the recommended method of configuring or reconfiguring a network connection is to erase the existing system configuration
file and reboot.
After restarting, the system detects the missing configuration file and
prompts for the necessary values, including network configuration.
It’s worthwhile to take a snapshot of the essentials of your current configuration by running the network interface configuration utility ifconfig, with
its -a (show all interfaces) flag specified:
Chapter 15: Connecting to the Network
# ifconfig -a
lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1
inet netmask ff000000
eri0: flags=1004843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,DHCP,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2
inet netmask ffffff00 broadcast
ether 0:3:ba:10:dd:47
This shows two interfaces on this system:
lo0 is the loopback interface.
It’s a convenient way for applications on the computer to communicate
via the network system, but without actually having to go out to the
eri0 is the Ethernet (network) interface.
The preceding listing shows the addresses for the network card on this
Solaris system:
The interfaces list these addresses:
• The current IP address for the system (
• The netmask (ffffff00)
• The broadcast IP address (
UP and RUNNING show that the network is currently set up correctly.
DHCP in the list of eri0 flags shows that the system is running DHCP.
Unconfiguration: how to repeat the
out-of-box setup sequence
The easiest way to change the Solaris network configuration is to delete the
existing configuration then reboot.
Solaris checks the configuration settings during the boot process
If Solaris finds there are no default settings, it launches the system configuration utility.
To remove the system configuration information, complete the following
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
1. Run sys-unconfig as root:
# sys-unconfig
The output shows that this is a fairly dramatic step to take with a
This program will unconfigure your system. It will cause
It to revert to a “blank” system - it will not have a
or know about other systems or networks.
This program will also halt the system.
Do you want to continue (y/n) ?
Rather than running the current network connection protocol, I’m going
to change it. Keep your fingers crossed!
2. To continue and really delete the existing configuration, type y and
then press Enter.
All the existing network services are stopped. Without any further
prompts, the system is halted.
3. Type boot at the Ok? prompt to reboot from the halt state.
With luck, this is the only time you ever see the Ok? prompt during
A series of prompts follows from this point, starting with selecting a language from those installed on the system.
4. Enter the numeric value from the list for your preferred language.
Usually, English is choice 0.
Locale choices appear now.
5. Enter the numeric value from the list for your locale.
Here’s what I have on my computer at this point:
Select a Locale
0. English (C – 7-bit ASCII)
1. Canada-English (ISO8859-1)
2. U.S.A. (en_US.ISO8859-1)
3. U.S.A. (en_US.ISO8859-15)
4. Go Back to Previous Screen
Please make a choice (0 – 4), or press h or ? for help:
After entering the locale, the system moves to network configurations. It
Chapter 15: Connecting to the Network
begins by informing you that you’re configuring the Ethernet interface:
Configuring network interface addresses: eri0
6. When the program asks whether your system has a network card,
confirm it by entering “Yes”. The following instructions appear on the
On this screen you must specify whether or not this
should use DHCP for network interface configuration.
Choose Yes if DHCP is to be used, or No if the interfaces
are to be configured manually.
NOTE: DHCP support will not be enabled, if selected,
after the system reboots.
-------[X] Yes
[ ] No
7. Select either DHCP-based configuration or a fixed IP address based on
the configuration of your network (ask your system or network administrator if you’re not sure).
For a DHCP-based configuration, select Yes here. (This is the default).
For a fixed IP address, select No for the DHCP configuration and then
enter the following values when prompted:
• Your hostname (mine is aurora).
• Your fixed IP address.
If you’re running a fixed IP network, your network administrator
will have given you a unique number to enter at this point.
My IP address is
• Your subnet, if you are part of one (you probably are). Answer yes
to that prompt and then enter the netmask as supplied by the network administrator.
My netmask is
When you complete this step, you are prompted for any additional information required by the setup program.
8. Enable IPv6 support if you need it.
It’s a more advanced IP addressing scheme; it can be safely enabled
without adversely affecting the older IP address scheme used on most
I’ll skip it. You should too, unless you have been told by your network
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
administrator that you must have IPv6 to be able to participate fully on
the network.
At this point, your settings are summarized.
• For a DHCP configuration, it’s succinct:
Networked: Yes
Use DHCP: Yes
Enable IPv6: No
• For a fixed IP configuration, it’s lengthier:
Host name:
IP address:
System part of a subnet:
Enable IPv6:
Default Route:
Find one
• If the settings look good, you can proceed with the rest of the configuration options.
• If not, enter “No” and the setup program will let you alter individual settings until it is correct.
9. Accept the default values for the remaining configuration options
(unless you want to experiment, in which case you can enter a new
value for the specific field by typing it rather than accepting the
default), except for Name Service.
Unless your system administration group gives you other instructions,
choose None for Name service.
The system automatically reboots. After a moment or two, it should
boot up with your new networking options.
To check that your new network configuration details are correct, open a
Web page with your browser.
If your browser doesn’t run correctly, try these steps to check whether
your system is able to see the network at all:
• Check whether ifconfig indicates UP and RUNNING.
• Use the ping utility to ping your own system (which shows that
the loopback works). Then try pinging your gateway or router
(which shows that your system is still connected to the gateway).
Chapter 15: Connecting to the Network
If things are still working improperly, it’s time to either
• Rerun sys-unconfig to try some other options.
• Call your network administrator or favorite computer whiz for
Fixing DHCP Glitches
The DHCP protocol is one of those fundamentally great ideas in computing:
Instead of associating a specific address with each computer, have a pool of
addresses and assign them on an as-needed basis for the network.
There are some advantages to this scheme:
You don’t need to match the number of available addresses with the
number of computers.
Dozens of computers can feed into a router and then one address communicates to the Internet.
My office network is configured with multiple computers sharing a single
Internet IP address through a router. I pay for one IP address from my network provider, and my cable modem box also acts as a router, gateway, and
DHCP server. The dozen-odd computers in my office then receive individual
IP addresses within the DHCP namespace, and all invisibly share the single IP
address to the outside world. Instead of taking a dozen IP addresses from the
public Internet, the computers in my office only need one external IP for all
systems to connect.
DHCP is an open industry standard.
Just about every modern computer supports DHCP, including
• Macintosh
• Windows
• Other Unix and Linux systems
You can run DHCP on your network if you’re directly hooked up to the
Internet via one of these services:
• High-speed network line (a T1, T3, and so on)
• Digital subscriber line (DSL)
• Cable modem
I have a cable modem supplying connectivity for all the computers in my
office, for example.
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
Hostname unknown
After you’ve reconfigured your system to work with a DHCP service, it’s not
uncommon to find that the computer has been renamed unknown, not the
hostname you want. A surprisingly simple change to one of the configuration
files fixes this.
This change isn’t for the faint of heart. You’ll be editing an essential part of
the Solaris boot process. Be careful with the following steps. They’re not difficult, but you’ll want to ensure that you are very accurate with the changes to
ensure nothing breaks.
The problem with hostname unknown is that Solaris expects the DHCP server
to assign it a hostname. Many DHCP servers expect each computer to already
have an assigned name. The result is an unknown hostname. To fix this
annoying hostname unknown problem, here’s what you do:
1. Make a backup copy of the configuration file /etc/rcS.d/, just in case, like this:
$ cd /etc/rcS.d
$ cp
Because filenames are case sensitive in Solaris, these are two different
files. Only files in this directory that start with the letter S are run as the
system boots up.
2. Open the file in an editor and find the following line
near the end of the file:
(Chapter 12 explains how to edit files in Solaris)
A fast way to get there with vi is to type ?unknown while in command
mode. Using ? searches backwards, from the end of the file to the beginning. Because you know the patter you seek is near the bottom, it gets
you there fast.
3. Replace the line hostname=”unknown” with the following line:
hostname=”`shcat /etc/nodename 2>/dev/null`”
Be careful:
• Double quote, back quote at the beginning of the line.
• Back quote, double quote at the end of the line.
4. Write and quit the edit session (in vi you can use the :wq command).
Chapter 15: Connecting to the Network
5. Double-check that the file /etc/nodename contains the name you gave
the system when first configuring it, like this:
# cat /etc/nodename
If there’s no nodename file or it’s empty, use an editor to create it. Just
put your one-word hostname in it.
6. Open the file in an editor and find the following line
near the end of the file:
7. Replace the line hostname=”unknown” with the following line:
hostname=”`cat /etc/nodename 2>/dev/null`”
Again, it’s
• Double quote, back quote at the beginning
• Back quote, double quote at the end of the line.
8. Double-check both changes to ensure that the back quotes are properly inserted, by entering the following:
# grep “cat /etc/nodename” S72inetsvc ../rcS.d/
hostname=”`cat /etc/nodename 2>/dev/null`”
../rcS.d/ “none”) hostname=”`shcat /etc/nodename
2>/dev/null`” ;;
../rcS.d/ hostname=”`shcat /etc/nodename 2>/dev/null`”
In the preceding example, the script already had the
hostname set from /etc/nodename in the script. All three should look
the same. If they don’t, edit as appropriate.
9. When you’re ready, reboot.
You should have a proper hostname!
DNS resolution problems
When DHCP servers aren’t up to snuff for a Solaris client, they might not send
any DNS server information, leaving you with a system that can connect to
the network, but can’t do any name lookups with the domain name service.
This is easy to fix if you have the DNS server information from your ISP or
system administrator (probably two or three systems identified by IP
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
1. Go to the /etc directory and open a file called resolv.conf.
Yes, there’s a missing e in that filename. No one knows why!
2. If DNS isn’t working, the file will be empty. Add the following lines,
albeit with the DNS servers that your network administrator or
Internet service provider has given you, not my AT&T IP numbers:
My ISP supplied this information; your values will doubtless vary.
3. Save the file, and run the following command to double-check that
everything looks good and matches the supplied information:
# more /etc/resolv.conf
Ensure that there are no spaces before or after any periods.
If that looks good, you can immediately do hostname lookups. Try opening a Web site in Netscape, if you want.
Great job! You’re not only becoming a Solaris power user, but you’re also
doing pretty well in the system hacker department! Fun, eh?
It’s rare in the Solaris world for users to have modems as their main connection to the outside world. However, it’s possible to configure a Solaris system
to use the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) to work with a modem and automatically dial up a remote Internet service provider on demand. The
configuration is tricky and beyond the scope of Solaris 9 For Dummies (think
Super-Detailed Solaris System Configuration Nitpicky Details For Dummies
The main program for working with PPP is the Solaris pppd command. A good
place to start is to read the pppd man page with the command man pppd.
Chapter 15: Connecting to the Network
PPP client configuration
To configure a dial-out PPP system, take the following steps:
1. Gather preconfiguration information.
You want to make sure you have all the information you need from the
ISP, including telephone number, modem speeds and protocols supported, account name, and password.
2. Configure the modem and serial port.
You can find good documentation on this at if you need it.
3. Configure the serial line communication.
You want to ensure that the serial line talks properly to the modem at
the right speed, using the right number of bits and parity, and so on.
4. Define the conversation between the dial-out machine and the peer
(or server).
This is one of the most essential steps; you can read about it in the chat
man page.
5. Configure information about a particular peer — PPP options for a
specific server.
6. Call the peer. Type in the pppd command (as root) to hopefully initiate
the connection.
All of these steps are documented in great detail at the URL referenced at the
end of this chapter.
PPP server configuration
One great Solaris feature is that it can be a PPP server for remote systems
just as easily as it can be a client. This means that you can easily set up your
server as a mini-ISP, or even create an easy (and secure) mechanism for connecting from your home computer to the Solaris system at work.
However, as with the PPP client configuration, server configuration is tricky
but, fortunately, well documented at the Sun Web site.
The necessary steps for configuring a server are
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
1. Gather preconfiguration information, including
• Peer hostnames
• Phone numbers
• Modem speed
2. Configure the modem and serial port.
If you’ve configured the system as a PPP client, this may already be
3. Set up the PPP options and user environments for every dial-out
machine that’s allowed to connect to the server. (This is the calling
peer information)
4. Configure the serial line communication.
Again, this might already be done if you’ve set up the system as a PPP
Accounts that are allowed to connect from a remote PPP connection have the
default login shell of /usr/bin/pppd to ensure that the handshake between
the two occurs properly. It’s not possible with the standard Solaris configuration to have guest or anonymous PPP clients (which you wouldn’t want
anyway for security reasons); PPP users must have their own login and password on the dial-up system.
One final step that you (or, more likely, your system administrator) should
take is to set up either Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) or Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) for the PPP server. Again, that’s
detailed at the following URL.
The best reference for all the nitpicky details of configuring PPP on a Solaris 9
system is Twelve
chapters in this online Sun document discuss configuring modem-based
Internet access!
Chapter 16
Essential System Administration
In This Chapter
Exploring the Solaris Management Console
Starting and stopping your system
Adding user accounts
lthough you may have an information technology group or system
administrator who manages the oil changes, wheel balancing, and other
messy jobs under the hood of your Solaris computer, you might still be left
with some administrative tasks. Even if you never learned the root password
for your system, it’s helpful to have an idea of some of the tasks required for
configuring and maintaining a Solaris system.
The special account ID root has maximum permissions. As a result, any
system administration task that will read or write protected files will require
you to know the root password. If you don’t, many administrative tools won’t
even start, and certainly none will work properly.
If you need the ins and outs of root accounts and root account access, that’s
in Chapter 17.
Exploring the Solaris Management
One of the best tools available with Solaris 9 is the Solaris Management
Console (SMC). Consolidating the tasks of many command-line administrative
tools, SMC makes working with your Solaris box remarkably easy, once you
get the hang of it.
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
You have a couple of options to start SMC:
In GNOME, choose GNOME Menu➪CDE Menu➪Tools➪Solaris
Management Console.
In CDE, follow these steps:
• Click the small rectangular button above the Tools icon (which
looks like a page with some check boxes)
• Choose Solaris Management Console from the pop-up menu.
From the command line while logged in as root, use this command:
/usr/sbin/smc &
When SMC starts up, you may see a display that indicates the console is analyzing the system to ascertain its initial configuration, as shown in Figure 16-1.
Figure 16-1:
The Solaris
starting up.
Although it can take as long as five minutes for the program to analyze the
configuration of a complex system, usually it’s about a 60 to 90 second
process. The main SMC view says “Welcome to the Solaris Management
Console,” as shown in Figure 16-2. You can now begin to explore the
capabilities of SMC.
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration
Figure 16-2:
Welcome to
the Solaris
Briefly exploring SMC
To see what the program knows about your system, click the tiny circular
icon adjacent to This Computer (Aurora) in the top-left window. This
Computer is expanded in Figure 16-2.
The main categories in SMC are
System Status
System Configuration
Devices and Hardware
Select System Status to get a taste of SMC. It expands to show four options:
System Information
Log Viewer
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
The Performance option sounds of most interest, so click it. You then have to
verify that you know the root password, as shown in Figure 16-3.
Figure 16-3:
your identity
in SMC.
Enter the correct password for root and then click OK. After a moment or
two, the Performance option expands to show a System choice. Open that by
clicking the tiny circle icon to its left. You’ll see three subcategories:
Select Summary to get a summary of the system performance levels, as
shown in Figure 16-4.
Figure 16-4:
Summary of
in SMC.
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration
The output shows several interesting statistics, though it’s mostly up to you
to know how to interpret them. For example, you can see that 394MB of physical memory is in use, and 654MB is available. Is that a ton of free memory, or
would more physical memory improve system performance? Are 4,630
system calls per second indicative of a busy system, or a typical value for a
Solaris machine that’s mostly idle?
Follow these guidelines to review the utilization of your system:
As long as you have unused physical memory and the Page Rate is low,
you’re in great shape.
When you have processes demanding lots of physical memory, then
• Swapping (Page Rate) goes up
• Performance rapidly degrades
Examining System Configuration
Open the System Configuration category by clicking the circle icon to the left
of its name. This reveals four subcategories:
Computers and Networks
Choose Users to see additional choices:
User Accounts
User Templates
Administrative Roles
Mailing Lists
Start by examining User Accounts. Click User Accounts to see a display similar to Figure 16-5.
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
Figure 16-5:
in the
Each person icon on the right side of the window represents an account on
the system.
You should leave most of the functionally named accounts unchanged, such as
The individual user accounts are worth examination. In Figure 16-6, I’ve clicked
the account dave to see what permissions and access he has been granted.
As you can see in Figure 16-6, this SMC area shows lots of helpful information
for this particular account. Tabs along the top indicate its sections:
Password Options
Home Directory
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration
Figure 16-6:
for account
On the General tab, these are some of your options:
User Name: You can change a user’s name.
Login Shell: You can specify which shell the user should have upon
login. (Here, it’s /usr/bin/bash.)
Account Availability: You have a couple of options for controlling the
time of account availability:
• Lock the account immediately.
• Configure the account to automatically lock on a specific date
which is helpful if you have students, contractors, or other users
who don’t need system access forever!
Figure 16-7 shows the great Password Options tab of the User Properties
window. The account dave is configured as follows:
User Must Keep For: Each time the password is changed, the user can’t
change it again for 14 days.
Before Change, Alert User: The user receives a two-day warning to
change the password.
User Must Change Within: This account requires a new password every
30 days.
Expires If Not Used For: If the password isn’t used for a period of 60
days, it automatically expires, and a new password must be entered.
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
Figure 16-7:
options for
Thoughtful use of these options can significantly improve security.
Be mindful not to set timeframes too short. Users will get cranky if they’re
forced to change their passwords every few days.
If you’re interested in exploring other aspects of the Solaris Management
Console, your best bet is to start with the Sun documentation on SMC. You
can find it in the System Administration Guide: Basic Administration located at
Starting and Stopping Your System
A straightforward but incredibly important Solaris administrative task is
shutting down or restarting your system in a manner that’s operating
system–friendly. Cycling power or unplugging a running Solaris system can
be catastrophic, and you never want to do that!
Three commands that are mnemonically named and important to know are
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration
Shutting down the system with shutdown
The shutdown program is most typically used to change the system state
from multiuser to single user for administrative purposes.
As with all the commands in this section, shutdown must be run as root.
The command has a small number of options:
shutdown [-y] [-g grace period] [-i init state]
The grace period allows users to log out and otherwise gracefully shut
down their running applications before the change in state is invoked.
The init state allows specification of a different state if the default
action of moving to single-user mode where
• All users are shut out
• Only the console is enabled
The -y flag skips the “Are you sure?” prompt for certain state changes
and is usually used within scripts rather than from an interactive shell.
Table 16-1 defines the different init states in Solaris.
Table 16-1
Init States in Solaris
Stop the operating system.
Administrative or single-user state, also
known as s or S state.
Multiuser state (default run time state).
Shut down so that it’s safe to remove the
power or otherwise physically disassemble
the system.
Stop the system and reboot it into the default
state (usually init state 2).
As an example, drop the system into init state 5 before physically transporting it to a new cubicle:
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
# shutdown –g 30 –i 5
Shutdown started.
Mon Feb 10 16:13:07 MST 2003
Broadcast Message from root (pts/0) on aurora Mon Feb 10
The system aurora will be shut down in 30 seconds
Thirty seconds later, all processes are terminated, and the system halts.
Stopping the system with halt
The halt command has one purpose in life: to stop the operating system.
Here are a few instances when you may want to use this command:
You are suddenly notified that the power is going out in your facility.
You realize that someone has unauthorized access, and you want to stop
the system immediately.
You just need to reconfigure or install some new hardware.
For a simple program, halt has a surprising number of command line
options, as shown in Table 16-2.
Table 16-2
Options for halt
Force a system crash dump before rebooting. Can
be useful for debugging OS performance issues.
Suppress sending a message to the system log
daemon, syslogd, about who executed halt.
Prevent the sync before stopping. Use with caution: The disks will not be in sync with the
operating system
Quick halt. No graceful shutdown is attempted.
Halt the system, even from a dial-up terminal.
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration
To quickly halt a system, you can use:
halt –qy
but most likely, you’ll use halt either without any options, or with the -d
option if you’re trying to debug what’s causing the operating system to get
into a state where it requires a halt.
I recommended using shutdown –i 5 rather than halt because shutdown is
more graceful in terms of how running applications are stopped.
Rebooting with the reboot command
The third choice for changing the state of your Solaris system is to use the
reboot command, which, logically enough, forces an immediate reboot by
default. (It’s identical to shutdown –i 6.)
Another straightforward utility, it has four important options, as highlighted
in Table 16-3.
Table 16-3
Options for the reboot Command
Force a system crash dump before rebooting.
Suppress sending a message to the system log daemon,
syslog, about who executed reboot.
Avoid calling sync and do not log the reboot to syslogd
or to /var/adm/wtmpx. The kernel still attempts to sync
file systems prior to reboot, except if the -d option is also
present. If -d is used with -n, the kernel does not attempt
to sync file systems.
Quick. Reboot quickly and ungracefully, without shutting
down running processes first.
The most important reboot option is that any additional arguments are
handed to the boot loader. (The boot loader is the program that controls how
the operating system starts up. If you see an Ok? prompt on boot-up, that’s
the boot loader running.)
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
For example, if you have two disks (Solaris8 and Solaris9) and a different version of Solaris on each, you can switch from Solaris 9 to Solaris 8 by invoking:
reboot Solaris8
As with the halt command, Sun recommends that you use shutdown rather
than reboot to ensure that all running applications are shut down gracefully.
Adding User Accounts
A common system administration task is adding new users to a Solaris
You can do most of the work with the Solaris Management Console,
which has many options for account configuration
You can use the command-line alternative useradd.
The useradd command has perhaps the most complex usage message of any
Solaris command:
# useradd
UX: useradd: ERROR: invalid syntax.
usage: useradd [-u uid [-o] | -g group | -G group[[,group]...] | -d dir |
-s shell | -c comment | -m [-k skel_dir] | -f inactive |
-e expire | -A authorization [, authorization ...] |
-P profile [, profile ...] | -R role [, role ...]]
-p project [, project ...] login
useradd -D [-g group | -b base_dir | -f inactive | -e expire
-A authorization [, authorization ...] |
-P profile [, profile ...] | -R role [, role ...]] |
-p project
Fortunately, you don’t have to specify every option every time!
To understand how this works, suppose that you want to create the account
sjobs for your friend and colleague Al Joe. The key information you’ll want
to know is
Desired account name
Full user name
Home directory
Login shell
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration
If Al wants the default login shell ksh and his account home will be in
/export/home along with everyone else, then the account addition command is
useradd -s /usr/bin/ksh -c “Al Joe” -d /export/home/ajoe ajoe
Unfortunately, useradd is a lazy command, so although this created an
appropriate entry in the password file /etc/passwd, it hasn’t built Steve’s
home directory or set an initial password.
Creating a new home directory
Because you must be root to run useradd, it’s straightforward to create
Steve’s home directory:
# mkdir /export/home/sjobs
# chown sjobs /export/home/sjobs
If you use the -m flag to useradd, the home directory is created. However, the
files from the /etc/skel directory are not copied into the new directory.
To do the job well, copy in some of the files from the /etc/skel directory,
which contains standard account configuration files:
# ls /etc/skel
Copy each of these files into Steve’s new home directory, with the local
prefix stripped (so they become dot files):
/etc/skel/local.cshrc .cshrc
/etc/skel/local.login .login
/etc/skel/local.profile .profile
The next step is to ensure that Steve owns the files. (The wildcard pattern
matches all files that begin with a dot and are followed by a lowercase letter
and any subsequent sequence of letters, numbers, and punctuation.)
# chown sjobs .[a-z]*
Now double-check that all is well:
# ls -al
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
total 10
Looks great. The one remaining problem is that Steve’s account doesn’t have
a password set.
Setting the account password
To set an account password as root, specify the name of the account as an
argument to the passwd command and then type in the desired password
# passwd sjobs
New Password:
Re-enter new Password:
passwd: password successfully changed for sjobs
You can also fine-tune the account password settings with the passwd command, something that’s unique to Solaris in the Unix world. The important
flags — all of which overlap the Password Options shown in Figure 16-7 —
are described in Table 16-4.
Table 16-4
Important Password Settings with passwd
Forces the user to change the password at the next login by expiring
the password for name.
Locks the password entry for name.
-n min
Sets the minimum field for name. The min field contains the minimum
number of days between password changes for name. If min is
greater than max, the user may not change the password. Always
use this option with the -x option, unless max is set to 1 (aging turned
off). In that case, min does not need to be set.
-w warn
Sets the warn field for name. The warn field contains the number of
days before the password expires and the user is warned.
-x max
Sets the maximum field for name. The max field contains the number
of days that the password is valid for name. The aging for name will
be turned off immediately if max is set to -1. If it is set to 0, the user is
forced to change the password at the next login session, and aging is
turned off.
Chapter 16: Essential System Administration
To give Steve the same password settings shown in Figure 16-7, the command
would be
# passwd -n 14 -w 2 -x 30 sjobs
passwd: password information changed for sjobs
You can quickly delete an account several ways:
Use the -d flag to passwd.
Use -l to lock the account.
Change the password to something you know but the user doesn’t know.
Part V: Administration and Security Issues
Chapter 17
Keeping Your System Secure
In This Chapter
Ensuring account password security
Identifying proper file permissions
Disabling unnecessary Internet services
n important underpinning of any system security efforts is how
Solaris views users and user permissions. If you’re used to Windows
or a Macintosh computer, you’re familiar with a structure where —
fundamentally — anyone who uses the computer has complete access to
the system. Any user can add device drivers, delete programs, explore the
file system and open any files found, and so on.
The newest Windows and Macintosh operating systems are more sophisticated, but their security models are less robust than a Solaris system. Sun
Microsystems and the Unix development community have spent decades
trying to find the perfect balance between high and reliable security, and
non-intrusive barriers for users. And they’ve done a pretty darn good job!
Accounts and Permissions
The core idea behind Solaris security is that different users have different
sets of permissions on the system.
If you’re user taylor and you use ls to compare your ID against the ownership and permissions of a specific file or directory, you can immediately
determine whether or not you can access it. For example:
$ id
uid=100(taylor) gid=1(other)
$ ls -ld .
drwxr-xr-x 35 taylor
$ ls -ld /
drwxr-xr-x 44 root
2048 Feb
8 11:33 ./
1536 Feb
7 17:21 /
Part V: Administrative and Security Issues
You can see that my user ID is taylor and I’m part of group other. Here’s a
look at the permissions as revealed in the preceding example:
My home directory: You can see that the directory is also owned by
taylor, so I have full permissions to read, write, and otherwise fiddle
with that directory.
The top-level / directory: The owner doesn’t match my user ID, and the
group doesn’t match my group. Therefore, my permissions on this directory are read and execute only. I can list the contents of the / directory
but cannot alter it.
One special user is exempt from this permission model: the root user. The
administrator ID root bypasses all permission issues and can read, write,
and execute any file or directory regardless of its permissions. Much of Unix
system security revolves around trying to ensure that only authorized users
can access the root account.
More fundamentally, security is often about trying to ensure that
All accounts are secure
Users cannot access the data or files of others without the owners granting explicit permission.
Don’t think of security as a box that can be built and nailed down around
your computer.
Your system security is more akin to a specific point along the no-securitymaximum-access and maximum-security-no-access continuum.
The more secure you make the system, the harder it is to use.
It’s impossible to make any system on a public network completely
This chapter deals with making a Solaris system secure enough for most
users. If you need an level of increased security, you’ll want a more advanced
book; start by checking out the Solaris online library at You
can ratchet up security many ways, including using
Proxy servers
Security monitoring systems like Tripwire
Chapter 17: Keeping Your System Secure
Ensuring Account Password Security
The most obvious way to increase security is to make sure that all the user
accounts are set up properly. An account without a password, or an account
entry in the /etc/passwd file that’s malformed, can lead to
Unauthorized users on your system
Authorized users gaining more permissions than they’ve been formally
Solaris has two useful tools for checking the password file:
pwck to check the file format
passwd to see a summary of account configurations.
Validating the password file
The password file check program pwck doesn’t have much to say if the file is
formatted properly:
# pwck
Without any output, one can presume that everything in the password file
looks fine. But see what happens if a user somehow ends up with a colon in
the fullname (gecos) field of his or her entry in the password file:
# pwck
hacker::0:1: ::hack the planet!:: :/:/usr/bin/bash
Too many/few fields
Clearly even a visual inspection reveals that the hacker account is suspicious:
There’s no password.
In the password file, colons separate fields, and the second field should
have an x to indicate that the encrypted password is in a shadow file for
additional security. By having no value in this second field, you know
that this account has no password!
More importantly, the fifth field contains the illegal value ::hack the
planet!:: rather than the user’s name. The additional colons throw
Solaris for a loop.
Part V: Administrative and Security Issues
To fix this, you need to edit the password file to delete the bad entry. The
best way to do this is with the vipw program. This ensures that another
administrator doesn’t corrupt the password file while you’re changing it. The
password file has an entry for every account on the system, as shown here:
# cat /etc/passwd
lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp:
uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp:
smmsp:x:25:25:SendMail Message Submission Program:/:
listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls:
noaccess:x:60002:60002:No Access User:/:
nobody4:x:65534:65534:SunOS 4.x Nobody:/:
taylor:x:100:1:Dave Taylor:/export/home/taylor:/usr/bin/bash
sjobs:x:103:1:Steve Jobs:/export/home/sjobs:/usr/bin/ksh
hacker::0:1: ::hack the planet!:: :/:/usr/bin/bash
Use vipw to remove only the last line, and things should be okay. Doublecheck to make sure they are
# pwck
Summarizing account data with passwd
The passwd program, accessed with the -s summarize flag, can help identify
inappropriate password entries:
# passwd -sa
Chapter 17: Keeping Your System Secure
Steve, with account sjobs, has password aging enabled (see Chapter 16), so
the output for his account is
Date of the last password change
Minimum days between password changes
Maximum days without a password change
Number of days prior to expiring a password that the user should be
The second column for every account listed is the status:
PS means it’s password-protected.
LK means it’s locked.
NP stands for no password.
In the output of the /etc/passwd file in the preceding section, you’ll see that
the passwd command did not identify the account crack, which has no password. This is not good at all!
To ensure that every account is checked, do something more sophisticated
on the command line:
# for name in `cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd`
> do
passwd -s $name
> done
This shell loop performs a couple of steps:
Extracts each account name in the passwd file. (It uses cut, which uses
the : as the field delimiter and lists only the first field — the account
name — in the output.)
Test each account explicitly with the passwd –s command.
The output is
Part V: Administrative and Security Issues
noaccess LK
passwd: User unknown: crack
Permission denied
The User unknown error is troubling because the account name crack came
from the /etc/passwd file. This is something you need to investigate further!
Checking for additional root accounts
Another way to find the crack account is to search for accounts with the
user ID value of zero. The fastest way to do this is to use grep and “:0:” as
the pattern:
# grep “:0:” /etc/passwd
There’s that bad account, crack. Not only does it not have a password,
but it’s also set up as another root account. (Any account with user ID 0 is
considered a root account, with all access and privileges that implies.) You
need to remove this dangerous, unauthorized root account entry as soon as
Tweaking default password settings
A Solaris configuration file controls the default setup of passwords for new
accounts. It’s worth a quick peek:
# cat /etc/default/passwd
#ident “@(#)passwd.dfl 1.3
92/07/14 SMI”
Chapter 17: Keeping Your System Secure
MAXWEEKS and MINWEEKS are password aging options. Eight and one are good
values for these options. These options put the following restrictions on
Passwords are good for only a maximum of eight weeks
Passwords cannot be changed for a week after they’ve been updated.
Identifying Proper File Permissions
It’s important to ensure that files and directories have appropriate
To check and ensure that users have reasonable sets of permissions for
their home directories, for example, list all the directories in long format
by using ls:
# ls -l /export/home
total 38
2 root
drwxr-xr-x 11 root
drwxrwxrwx 12 dave
3 root
8 root
drwx-----2 root
9 1010
2 sjobs
6 root
drwxr-xr-x 35 taylor
You can see that permissions vary between these extremes:
The relatively closed permissions of lost+found (which turns out to be
used by the low-level file system recovery utility fsck and should be left
The completely open directory for account dave.
Most likely, dave would be upset if other users stored huge files in his
account or deleted his mailbox, both of which could happen with a completely open permission setting.
To fix this, you may have a couple of options:
As root, simply change the permissions.
Send an e-mail notification to users who may have problematic settings.
You can fix the permissions yourself, this time:
Part V: Administrative and Security Issues
# chmod go-w /export/home/dave
# ls -l /export/home/dave
total 0
Oops! If you’re just listing a directory, the contents are shown by default.
To force the directory itself to be shown, add the -d flag:
# ls -ld /export/home/dave
drwxr-xr-x 12 dave other
512 Feb 6 14:59 /export/home/dave
Fixing individual directories is one solution, but the better strategy is to
ensure that files and directories are created with the correct permissions in
the first place.
Working with umask
The umask setting controls the permissions granted to a new file or directory
when created, and each user can have a different setting. Unfortunately,
umask isn’t a permission setting to duplicate; it’s the opposite of what you
If you want to have permission -rwx-r-x-, then you want octal permission
750. (Chapter 4 covers file permissions.) For a umask that would produce that
permission, you need to specify the opposite of 750, the value that results if
you subtract the desired mask from 777:
- 750
That’s the umask setting desired: 027.
To identify the current umask value, type umask:
# umask
Subtract this value from 777 to get the resulting permissions: 777 – 022 = 755,
which can also be expressed as -rwx-r-xr-x.
To change the umask, enter a new value. It’ll stick until the next time you log
in, at which point it’s set to the default system value and possibly reset based
on the contents of a login configuration file.
Chapter 17: Keeping Your System Secure
Create a file and directory with each of these two umasks to see the
# umask 027
# touch testfile1
# mkdir testdir1
# umask 022
# touch testfile2
# mkdir testdir2
# ls -ld test*
drwxr-x--2 root
2 root
-rw-r----1 root
-rw-r--r-1 root
The preceding example illustrate a couple of common permission cases:
testdir1 has these permissions:
• Read and execute permission for group
• None for any non-group users on the system
testdir2 has read and execute permission for both group and every-
one else.
testfile1 has these permissions:
• Read and write permission for owner
• Read-only for group
• No access for everyone else
umask 022 produced testfile2, which has read permission granted to
everyone on the system.
You can change the umask for users directly, but it’s best to e-mail them. To
change the umask of accounts yet to be created, make the appropriate settings in the /etc/skel files. (See Chapter 16 for an explanation of how these
files come into play when creating new accounts.)
Finding files and programs with
inappropriate permissions
Other potential security problems can be identified by checking
File permissions
Part V: Administrative and Security Issues
Overly write-enabled files
Files that are writeable by users other than the owner can be a tip-off that
something’s not right. You can find these files with the wonderful find
To test the files within user home directories, you can use:
# find /export/home -type f -perm -o+w
Looks good!
The dangerous SetUID
Executable programs or scripts may have the so-called setuid (set user ID)
bit set. If it’s set, anyone running that program will have the same permissions as the program’s owner.
A setuid program that’s owned by root is dangerous, so quickly scan all the
directories in your PATH to see what’s there:
# find `echo $PATH|sed ‘s/:/ /g’`
-type f -perm -4000 | head
The preceding output shows numerous matches, of which only the first ten
are shown here.
Immediately after you do a new installation of the operating system, I recommend saving this output in a new file called something similar to /export/
home/taylor/.ok-setuid. Then on subsequent runs, you can omit listing
all known setuid files by using the slightly more complex command:
# find `echo $PATH|sed ‘s/:/ /g’` -type f -perm -4000 | \
grep –vf /export/home/taylor/.ok-setuid
The output of this command is definitely worth keeping an eye on: I’d recommend running this at least once a week on a busy system, and more often if
you have lots of guest users or students.
Chapter 17: Keeping Your System Secure
If you’re thinking this might make a good shell script, good for you! Chapter 3
shows how to turn this command into a simple script.
Disabling Unnecessary Internet Services
One of the best ways to improve the system security is to shut off all Internet
services that aren’t vital to your work. If you don’t plan on offering files via
FTP, for example, why have it enabled?
Starting inetd
Solaris uses the straightforward inetd service to manage which services are
made available, all of which is defined in the /etc/inetd.conf file. Any line
that doesn’t begin with # lists an active service. (I’ve cleaned up the otherwise ragged paste output.)
# egrep -v ‘(^#|^1)’ /etc/inetd.conf | \
cut -f1 | paste - - - time
Part V: Administrative and Security Issues
The inetd.conf file is well documented if you want to see what all of these
services are doing enabled on your system. Some are obvious. If you don’t
want ftp running, you have a couple of options:
Disable the ftp line by inserting a # at the beginning of the line.
Better yet, insert #DAT# (with your initials) so that if a problem occurs,
you can easily go back to see which services you disabled and which
services Sun disabled.
Of these listed services, you can probably safely disable everything except
dtspc, which is used by the CDE login subsystem
fs, which is the X Window System font server utility.
Users on other computers don’t need to know your system status or which
users are logged on to your machine. If you disable nothing else, disable
these three. You’ll never miss them:
Restarting inetd via kill
After you’ve made any desired changes to the inetd.conf file, make the
changes on your running system, too, by sending a SIGHUP to the running
inetd process. This is a two-step activity.
1. Identify the process ID of inetd, like this:
# ps -ef | grep inetd
root 166
1 0
Feb 07 ?
root 7450 6943 0 12:03:45 pts/4
0:00 /usr/sbin/inetd 0:00 grep inetd
PID 166 is the job you seek.
2. To send a specific signal by using the kill program, specify the latter
part of the signal name as an option (that is, to send SIGHUP, use -HUP
as the option):
# kill –HUP 166
You don’t see any confirmation that it worked. But if you do another ps
-ef, you should not see the daemons and Internet services you’ve
turned off in the inetd.conf file.
Chapter 17: Keeping Your System Secure
And finally
If you’ve read from start to finish, this is the end
of your journey (other than the useful and cool
Parts of Ten you’ll find just a page or two away!).
You’ve traveled quite a road to get here, learning the ins and outs of three different operating
environments simultaneously:
The command line
The Common Desktop Environment
The new GNOME desktop environment
I’ve enjoyed going through this material with
you and hope that you’ve enjoyed learning
about it all.
If you have any feedback or comments, please
feel free to contact me directly via e-mail at
Enjoy the rest of your Solaris journeys!
Part V: Administrative and Security Issues
Part VI
The Part of Tens
In this part . . .
ensure that you can continue your Solaris journey in
safety and comfort with my Ten Best Solaris Web Sites,
The Ten Most Important Security Improvements in Solaris
9 (just in case you’re still running a previous version of
Solaris and need yet another reason to upgrade), and my
favorite: Ten Great (free!) Additions to Solaris. All must
Chapter 18
Ten Best Web Sites
In This Chapter
Finding the best Solaris documentation and information online
Fixing and running a big Solaris system or a small PC-based installation
Pointers to everything at Everything Solaris
Finding cool, Sun-endorsed software, GNU tools, GNOME, and games
t goes without saying that one of the best places to explore Solaris
resources, documentation, and product announcements is the official Sun
Microsystems Web site at But there’s a lot more on the Web,
including three specific areas within the enormous Sun site that are well
worth bookmarking in your browser.
Excellent Online Solaris Documentation
Compared to most Unix operating systems, Solaris is well documented with
both the man pages and AnswerBook system included with the distribution.
However, the Sun experts have spent a lot of time exploring, analyzing, fixing,
and documenting just about every facet of every Solaris version, even earlier
SunOS releases. You can access all of this information online, in an easy-tobrowse layout, at:
If you’re running Solaris 9, click the Solaris 9 link upon entering the site to see
information that applies to your version of the operating system. If you have
a different version of the OS, you can find lots to explore here, too.
Part VI: The Part of Tens
Big Iron Administration Assistance
You will inevitably have to do some sort of administration on your Solaris
system. The Sun Big System Administration site is the best resource for
administration information:
The resources area and the discussions are worth noting. Some of the discussions on this site will blow your socks off with the authors levels of technical
expertise, but others will offer a good venue for asking even rudimentary
Solaris system administration questions.
More Sysadmin at Sys Admin Magazine
Sys Admin has long been one of the best magazines for a Unix system administrator, and it should be no surprise that the popular Solaris servers are a
common topic of discussion and feature articles. On the Web, Sys Admin
neatly organizes its Solaris material in an area called the Solaris Corner:
The Solaris Administration “Best Practices” column is worth checking out.
The author explores a variety of topics and offers thoughtful and oft-novel
solutions to common sysadmin problems.
Small but Helpful Reference Site
A modest Web site, Everything Solaris offers valuable articles and tutorials,
along with some neat free applications downloads and a discussion area:
The same Web designer runs similar sites for Linux and Mac OS X, so if you’re
interested in comparing Solaris to these other popular Unix operating systems, they too can make for interesting reading.
Chapter 18: Ten Best Web Sites
Squeeze Solaris on the Intel Platform
One cool hidden capability of Solaris 9 is that it can be installed and run happily on an Intel-based personal computer. (And yes, even a slim laptop
computer can run Solaris 9.) If you’re interested in this option, the Solaris on
Intel site is a great place to find information:
Start by reading the extensive Frequently Asked Questions material. And consider signing up for the site’s highly informative — and sporadically busy —
mailing list for people trying to ensure that their Solaris 9 systems live on
Intel systems happily and efficiently.
An Extensive Collection of Solaris Info
Stokely Consulting’s Unix System Administrator’s Resources site offers a ton
of great information about Solaris and many other Unix operating systems,
focused primarily — but not exclusively — on system administration.
Be sure to check out the article about setting up and configuring e-mail so
that it’s secure and spam is minimized; look for it on the main page. Also
don’t miss the listing of Unix and system administration mailing lists.
Keep Up-To-Date on Solaris News
Solaris Central sports a wonderful design, and its main page is a log of news
and coming events for the Solaris community. It’s a great resource for every
Solaris user, administrator or otherwise:
Click the /sparc and /contrib links to see the many levels of information available on this site!
Part VI: The Part of Tens
Cool, Sun-Endorsed Software
Although not the largest repository of Solaris-compatible software for your
Sun computer, the Sun software download area is an excellent place to get
well-tested applications like the latest version of the Java runtime environment, StarOffice, or the Sun ONE Application Server.
To see what freeware is redistributed by Sun, visit
Even More Cool Solaris Software
The Sunfreeware site offers a repository of Solaris software, primarily from
the GNU Project ( Specify which Solaris version you’re running to see an extensive list of software packages available:
As with the Sun documentation site, select your operating system and
processor (for example, SPARC/Solaris 9) and then look through the somewhat cryptically named package list to see what’s available.
If you don’t have a fast Internet connection, you can order a CD-ROM of the
site’s top downloads for a small fee. It’s well worth the savings in sanity for
some Solaris users!
Yet More Great Freeware!
Freeware4Sun offers an extensive list of downloadable software for your
Solaris system. The site has a distinctive and rather funky appearance. You’ll
find specific areas for patches, software, GNOME, and even games! Check it
out at:
Don’t miss its collection of documentation and helpful FAQ.
Chapter 19
Ten Key Security Features
In This Chapter
Safer remote connectivity with secure shell, encryption and secure directory access
Limiting remote access, per application or with a firewall
Protecting your system from buffer overflow
Limiting access through roles
Strengthening your system with smart cards and one-time access security
o universal panacea exists for making a Solaris system completely
secure, but Solaris 9 has some technologies and tools that you need
to know about, whether you’re administering your system or just want to
ensure people don’t mess with your files. You can also find more discussion
of security in Chapter 17 of this book. Sun offers an excellent top-level frequently asked questions document, the Sun Solaris Security FAQ, at www.
Secure Shell
One of the best improvements you can make to your Solaris system is to shut
off telnet, rlogin, and ftp, and replace these Internet services with the
Secure Shell (ssh) package. Although the former services send the account
and password information in the clear (that is, unencrypted), the ssh equivalent programs use point-to-point public key encryption, making it much harder
for someone to peek into your transactions and extract account information.
IPSec and IPK
Oddly named, IP Secure (IPSec) and Internet Key Exchange (IKE) are critical
components of a Virtual Private Network, and enable encrypted IP traffic
between two systems by using a robust 128-bit encryption scheme. IPSec
increases security between servers so that only authorized parties can
Part VI: The Part of Tens
SunScreen Firewall
One of the most important security features of a modern Solaris system is a
firewall, a program that screens all incoming connection requests to ensure
that they’re legitimate and acceptable. The excellent Solaris solution for this
is Sun’s SunScreen tool, which features a state-sensitive packet filter, support
for IPSec/IKE, centralized management, proxy services with built-in antivirus
checking, and network address translation for hiding internal IP addressing
Secure LDAP Implementation
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) offers access to a centralized directory, but not without some security risks. Sun’s LDAP
implementation has been enhanced for Solaris 9 and now supports both
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and DIGEST-MD5 encryption. Secure LDAP allows
you to name objects and ensure secure access to the naming service. It provides a flexible attribute-mapping mechanism and is designed for complete
password management support via the directory server.
TCP Wrappers
If you don’t replace standard Unix communications utilities telnet, rlogin,
and ftp with their Secure Shell counterparts, you can increase the security of
the tools by using the access control method known as TCP Wrappers. Think
of it as an authentication and authorization layer between the client and
server systems. It doesn’t encrypt the communication, but it helps ensure
that only authorized users are accessing the identified services.
Buffer Overflow Protection
One of the most common ways for hackers to break into a Solaris system is to
exploit buffer overflows. Imagine it this way: You write a program that
expects no more than a 20-letter password to be entered. But a wily hacker
enters a 15,000-character entry, overflowing the space allocated for the password variable. With some apps, the overflow can end up being an executed
code snippet, which clearly is very bad! Solaris 9’s enhanced buffer overflow
protection goes a long way toward solving this problem.
Chapter 19: Ten Key Security Features
Role-Based Access Control
Unix has always had three categories of access control: owner, group, and
other. But on a modern multiuser system, a more sophisticated tool is needed;
that’s what role-based access control offers. By defining as many roles as
needed, you can give a printer tech access only to the areas on your system
that require updates for new printers being installed. Role-based access control is well worth learning about, whether you’re a system administrator or
just a Solaris 9 user.
Smart Card Support
One of the most secure methods of controlling access to a Solaris system is
through smart cards. By coupling traditional account passwords (known in
security circles as “what you know” security) with smart cards (which operate on the basis of “what you have”), you have a solid method of limiting
access, particularly from a remote location.
Kerberos v5
Invented at MIT, Kerberos is a popular authentication scheme on a widely distributed network, particularly for single sign-on setups. The latest version of
Kerberos includes improved system security and replaces the formerly separate Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism product. Kerberos also
interoperates gracefully with MIT Kerberos and Microsoft’s Active Directory,
which is a boon if you have a multi-OS network.
Solaris Resource Manager
Although it may not seem to be a security tool, the Solaris Resource Manager
(SRM) is a great boon for controlling access and use of system resources. It
controls resource allocation, monitoring, and control, including an improved
accounting capability. For example, disabling writing to the CD-ROM device
can help ensure that critical system or company files aren’t copied.
Preventing guest users from printing is another example of where SRM is
Part VI: The Part of Tens
Chapter 20
Ten Great Free Add-Ons
In This Chapter
Editors and more editors
Graphical tools and desktop environments
Web browsing without pictures
Watching TV and, if you must, editing Word Documents
olaris 9 includes a wealth of tools and a CDROM full of open source and
other freeware from the Internet, but there’s always room on a computer
disk for just one more great piece of software. That’s what this last chapter
explores: some truly wonderful software that is sure to enhance your Solaris
experience. Though it’s not all guaranteed to make you more productive!
Everything and the Kitchen Sink: Emacs
Many Solaris users swear by emacs, a powerful alternative to the vi editor. It
was developed by Sun’s own James Gosling, and later updated and enhanced
by Richard Stallman, head of the GNU Project. If you like small, modular applications, macs isn’t for you. But if want an editor that can do just about
anything you desire, from helping you browse man pages to auto-formatting
your programs, it’s well worth a look. You can find it at
Digging for GNOME
GNOME is one of the best things to happen to Solaris in a long time, from a
user perspective. You can get the latest version of this powerful graphical
environment, including many prebuilt GNOME applications, at
Part VI: The Part of Tens
GNOME is covered throughout this book, but particularly in Chapter 2.
An Attractive Alternative Desktop
A capable and arguably more visually attractive alternative to GNOME, the K
Desktop Environment is a different way of looking at your desktop. It includes
a suite of KDE-compatible applications, including the slick Konquerer Web
browser and file system browser.
You can find KDE online at and download it for Solaris at www.
When Surfing Speed Is All That Counts
Although the latest version of Netscape Navigator (a worthy free download at makes surfing the Web attractive and easy, sometimes
it’s useful to have a command line–based alternative. That’s where lynx
comes in.
Operating in a text-only mode, lynx not only is great for people with visual
disabilities, but also is scriptable so you can include calls to Web sites within
your shell scripts. This powerful capability makes tasks like calculating a
current stock price a breeze.
Download the package at
A Powerful and Free Database
Many database applications are available for a Solaris system — including
phone books, project archives, and data catalogs — but the included choices
are weak, and commercial offerings like Oracle and Syngress are expensive.
The solution is MySQL, a free and surprisingly robust database alternative,
available for downloading at
Chapter 20: Ten Great Free Add-Ons
Watch TV on Your Solaris System? Sure!
ShowMe TV enables you to switch to working 7 days a week, 24 hours a day
by having a small window on your screen showing the latest from ESPN,
TechTV, Bloomberg Financial TV, or even HBO. This capability is most useful
for videoconferencing and broadcasting training materials throughout a
subnet or intranet. You need some hardware for video stream capture, but
the software’s free, and it’s incredibly cool!
The ShowMe TV software and docs are available at
StarOffice: A Great Alternative
One of the best recent developments in the Unix community is the emergence
and continued evolution of StarOffice. It’s a viable alternative to the Microsoft
hegemony of MS Office. Whether working with Word documents, Excel
spreadsheets, or PowerPoint presentations, you can stay firmly tucked into
the Solaris environment of your choice and interoperate like a guru. See
StarOffice is covered in Chapters 9 and 10.
Interactive Multimedia Collaboration
If you’ve checked out ShowMe TV and decided that it’s only solving part of
the distributed training and collaboration problem, a more powerful and integrated alternative is SunForum.
This amazing suite of tools is available at
Vi on Steroids!
For many Solaris users, vi is the editor of choice. But some capabilities are
missing in vi, including
Part VI: The Part of Tens
Support for multiple edit windows
An undo capability that can back up to the original file
Support for the X Window System, with pull-down menus and more.
All of these have been addressed in the excellent vim package. You can find it
Games, Games, Games
If you spend a lot of time using your computer for work, it’s nice to occasionally take a short break and play a game. Because of the ubiquitous nature of
the X Window System underlying both GNOME and CDE, a ton of games are
available, from Tetris clones to Chess, from Backgammon to Mahjongg, and
even an air-traffic-control game.
To check out the range of offerings (though not every game is built for
Solaris), start at
• Symbols •
* (asterisk) wildcard, 62
- (dash), 228
$ (dollar sign)
special character, 71
system prompt, 3, 58
. (period), 83, 275
| (pipe), 66
% prompt, 58
? (question mark) wildcard, 62
< symbol, 65
> symbol (file redirection), 64–65, 229
> symbol, 77
account. See also password
availability of, controlling, 299
logging in, 19–20
logging out, 23–24
login panel, working with, 16–19
overview of, 14–16
permissions and, 309–310
root, 293, 310, 314
user, adding, 304–307
user, examining, 297–299
Actions menu, 40
Add to Panel➪Accessories➪Weather
Report, 44
alias, 76–77
background, 205–206
icon to taskbar, 44
menubar, 44
punctuation to password, 16
text to picture, 204–205
user account, 304–307
add-ons, 333–336
address selector, 249
adding to system, 76–77
creating, 75–76
anonymous FTP server, 171
Apache Server, 162–165
appending output to file, 65
application. See also launching program;
specific programs
with focus, 41
minimizing (iconifying), 29–30
moving between workspaces, 31–33
restoring iconified, 30
Applications menu
CDE, 35
Applications➪Accessories➪Text Editor,
154, 238
Applications➪Games➪Gnometris, 23
Applications➪Internet — Netscape Web
Browser, 130
Applications➪System Tools➪
Terminal, 56
Apply Style pop-up menu, 194, 195
bold to text, 188
style to text, 193–195
Area dialog box, 205, 206
ascii command, 176
asterisk (*) wildcard, 62
attachment to e-mail, retrieving, 109
author’s e-mail, 7
AutoPilot Presentation window, 207
Available Search Constraints pop-up,
awk, 230
Solaris 9 For Dummies
Backdrop Style Manager, 36
.c icon, 216
adding, 205–206
changing, 48–50
background color, changing, 49–50,
bash. See Bourne Again Shell
Basic view, 88, 89
BBC News, 138
Bechtolsheim, Andreas (student), 12
Bell Telephone Labs, 11, 12
Berkeley mail, 123–127
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
Unix, 1, 12
bold, applying to text, 188
Bookmark Editor, 149–150
Bookmark Properties dialog box, 150
Bookmark➪File Bookmark, 149
Bookmark➪Manage Bookmarks, 149
bookmarks, managing, 148–151
book’s Web site, 7
boot loader, 303
boot process, editing, 288–289
Bourne Again Shell (bash)
description of, 57
features, 75
Korn Shell compared to, 73–75
Bourne Shell, 57, 73
browser. See Netscape Navigator; Web
browser and FTP
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution
Unix), 1, 12
buffer overflow protection, 330
Building a Web Site For Dummies
(Crowder and Crowder), 161
building command pipes, 66–73
bunzip2 command, 104
bzip2 command, 102–104
C Shell, 57, 73
cache, 138
entering data into, 201
formulas, 202
overview of, 199–200
disk usage, 72–73
word count, 225–226
Cascading Style Sheets, 209
case sensitivity
account name, 19
commands, flags, and filenames, 61
password, 20
cat command, 221–222, 229
cat -nv command, 222–223
cat -v command, 222
cd command
ls command and, 92
overview of, 58, 59, 60
CDE Calculator, 45, 46
CDE (Common Desktop Environment).
See also CDE File Manager; Mailer;
Text Editor
Control Panel, 21, 25–27, 35–39
future of, 38–39
Hosts menu, 56
launching program in, 21, 56, 130
logging out, 23, 24, 26, 34
Netscape 7, launching, 130
pop-up menus, 27–31
startup screen, 20
terminal program, launching, 56
terminal window, 56
window menu, 28–29
windows, working with, 34–35
workspace, 31–34
CDE file browser, viewing file in, 218–220
CDE File Manager
Find dialog box, 264–265, 266, 267–268
home directory window, 82
launching, 35, 82, 264
main panel of window, 83
menus, 82–83
More Criteria dialog box, 265–266
overview of, 35–36
properties and permissions, viewing,
Search for Files compared to, 270
view and configuration settings,
changing, 83–84
CDE menu, 45
centering text, 189
Change Desktop Background option, 47
default permissions, 99
directory, 60, 83
file permissions, 86
home page, 138
job priority, 260
login shell, 74
permissions, 97–99
sort order in Mailer, 112–113
spacing of paragraph, 190
text in pipeline, 69–70
view and configuration settings, 83–84
checkbook manager, creating, 200–202
chmod command, 96, 97–99
chmod go-rw * command, 99
Clean Up by Name option, 47
Close option, 29
Gallery window, 203–204
pop-up menu, 27, 28
terminal program, 58
color for background, changing, 49–50,
Color Style Manager, 36, 38
command line
analyzing file and, 225
Berkeley mail, 123–127
building command pipes, 66–73
ftp program, 172, 174–176
shells and, 57–58
speed of, 231
viewing files at, 220–225, 231
Command Line Login, 19
command options
halt command, 302
more program, 223
overview of, 59–61
passwd command, 306
ps command, 258
reboot command, 303
shutdown program, 301
working with, 61–62
command shell, 57
commands. See also command options
ascii, 176
bunzip2, 104
bzip2, 102–104
case sensitivity of, 61
cat, 221–222, 229
cat -nv, 222–223
cat -v, 222
cd, 58, 59, 60, 92
chmod, 96, 97–99
chmod go-rw *, 99
compress, 102–103
cp, 100–101
date, 77
du, 72–73
echo, 62–63
egrep, 227–228
egrep -v, 227–228
exit, 58
file, 93
find, 62, 274–277
ftp program, 175–176
grep, 66–68, 70, 271–274, 276, 314
grep -i, 68, 272
grep -l, 272
grep -v, 67
groups, 99
gunzip, 103
Solaris 9 For Dummies
commands (continued)
gzip, 102–103
halt, 302–303
head, 222
id, 99
less, 224, 225
ls, 58, 59–61, 90–93
ls -a, 92
ls -d, 92
ls -F, 220
ls -l, 91
ls -lF, 220–221
ls -t, 91
mailx, 123–127
man, 63–64
mkdir, 99–100
more program, 224
mv, 101–102
nice, 260
online documentation regarding, 63–64
page, 224, 225
passwd, 306–307
passwd -s, 312–314
paste, 228–229
pg, 224, 225
piped, 70–73
pppd, 290
prstat, 254–255
prstat -n, 256
prstat -s, 256
prstat -t, 255–256
ps, 74, 258–259
pwd, 58, 90–91
quit, 176
reboot, 303–304
redefining, 75–77
renice, 260
rm, 65, 102
rm -f x*, 3
rm -f x *, 3
rmdir, 100
sed, 66, 69–70
smc, 259
sort, 66, 70–71, 273
spell, 226–230
ssh program, 180–181
sweb, 209
tr, 66, 70
uncompress, 103
uniq, 273
uptime, 257–258
useradd, 304–305
wc, 65, 70, 225–226
wc -l, 227, 228
wc -w, 226
who, 77
Common Desktop Environment. See CDE
Compose icon, 114
Compose➪Reply, 113
compress command, 102–103
compressing file, 102–104
dial-out PPP system, 291
Mailer, 108–110
Netscape Messenger account, 115–118
networking, 282–287
PPP server, 291–292
system as Web server, 162
confirming user ID, 99
contents of file
searching by, 271–274, 276–277
viewing, 221
contextual sensitivity, 84
Control Panel
File Manager, 35–36
icons, 26–27
minimized, 29
overview of, 25
Style Manager, 36–39
window menu, 29, 30
file, 100–101
in gedit program, 241
cp command, 100–101
Create New Folder dialog box, 196
Create Style dialog box, 194
Creating Cool HTML 4 Web Pages
(Taylor), 161
Crowder, David and Rhonda, Building
a Web Site For Dummies, 161
GNOME, 48–53
Netscape Navigator, 131–134
taskbar, 42–45
dash (-), 228
date command, 77
directory permissions, 99
login, 18
shell, 74
deleting. See also removing
bookmark, 151
menubar, 44
desktop applications, 36
desktop management environment,
choosing, 18–19
desktop menu, 45–48
DHCP configuration settings, 286
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration
DNS resolution problems, 289–290
hostname unknown, 288–289
overview of, 287–288
dialog boxes
Area, 205, 206
Bookmark Properties, 150
Create New Folder, 196
Create Style, 194
file selection, 186, 188, 236
Find, 264–265, 266, 267–268
Find/Change, 237
Go, 26
Hyperlink, 210
IMAP configuration, 108, 109
Mailer configuration, 109
More Criteria, 265–266
New Folder, 163
Occupy Workspace, 33
Open File, 241
Open Page, 157–158
Paragraph, 189–190, 191
Preferences, 131–132
Properties, 88, 89
Replace, 242
Save, 243
Save As, 156, 163, 195–196, 237
Search for Files, 269
Set View Options, 83–84
Weather Preferences, 44
Workspace Switcher Preferences, 42
arranging items in, 87–88
changing, 60, 83
home, creating, 305–306
making new, 99–100
moving file to new, 101–102
read-only, 83, 96–97
removing, 100
specifying contents of, 58, 59
viewing, 220–221
directory path, 83
directory permissions, 95–97
disabling unnecessary Internet services,
disk usage
calculating, 72–73
quota for, 102
Disks option, 47
DNS resolution problems, 289–290
inserting file into, 186, 187
saving, 195–196
document title tag, 159
dollar sign ($)
special character, 71
system prompt, 3, 58
Domain Name Service, 282
dot file
description of, 83
viewing, 92, 275
download, 169
Solaris 9 For Dummies
drag handle, 205
background, adding, 205–206
Gallery, 203–204
main toolbar, 204–205
overview of, 203
Everything Solaris Web site, 326
executable, marking file as, 78
execute permission
description of, 86
directory, 96
file, 95
du command, 72–73
exit command, 58
Dummies Press home page, 149
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
Dynamic HTML Weekend Crash Course
(Taylor), 161
EXIT sign, 26
eBay, 138
echo command, 62–63
Edit➪Find/Change, 237
editing boot process, 288–289
editing file, choices for, 217–218. See also
gedit program; Text Editor (CDE);
vi editor
Edit➪Select All, 241
Edit➪Undo, 237
egrep command, 227–228
egrep -v command, 227–228
emacs program, 333
e-mail. See also Mailer; Netscape
attachment to, retrieving, 109
of author, 7
history of, 107
emblems, 87–88, 90
Emblems view, 88, 89
encryption, public key, 179
entering data
into spreadsheet, 201
in vi editor, 246–247
into Web page, 154–157
Esc key, 247
ESPN, 138
Ethernet interface, 283
features, 12–13
fetchmail program, 124
file. See also finding file; viewing file
compressing, 102–104
copying, 100–101
dot or invisible, 83, 92, 275
editing, choices for, 217–218
group ownership of, 85
HTML, naming, 153–154
including content from in new file, 236,
241–242, 248–249
inserting into document, 186, 187
listing, 90–93
marking as executable, 78
moving, 101–102
naming, 263
redirecting output of, 64–65
removing, 102
saving, 156, 237–238, 243
three-level permissions model for, 86
write-enabled, 318
file command, 93
file management system. See CDE File
Manager; Nautilus
File Manager. See CDE File Manager
file name, 83
file permissions
changing, 97–99
classes of users, 93–94
deciphering strings, 94–95
types of, 95
viewing, 91
file redirection, managing, 64–65
file redirection symbol (>), 64–65, 229
file selection dialog box, 186, 188, 236
file system, moving around in, 58–59
File Transfer Protocol. See FTP
File Type pop-up, 196–197
File➪Find, 264
File➪Include, 236
File➪New➪HTML Document, 209
File➪New➪Presentation, 207
File➪Open Location, 240
File➪Open Page within Navigator, 157
File➪Open Web Location, 169
File➪Save, 195
find command
options for, 62
overview of, 274–275
searching by content, 276–277
searching by size and date, 275–276
Find dialog box, 264–265, 266, 267–268
Find/Change dialog box, 237
finding. See also finding file
match, 66–68
top processes, 254–255
finding file
CDE File Manager, 263–268
GNOME Search for Files capability,
grep command, 271–274
firewall, 330
fixed IP configuration settings, 286
flags. See command options
flavors of Unix, 12
Netscape 7, 135–136
size, selecting, 189
Writer, 192
foot icon, 40, 45
format for saving document, 196–197
Format➪Paragraph, 189
Format➪Stylist, 193
formatting Web page, 159–161
formula, 202
Free Software Foundation, 13
freeware, 333–336
Freeware4Sun Web site, 328, 53
FTP archive, 170
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
command-line ftp program, 172, 174–176
overview of, 168
remote file access using, 169
Web browser and, 169–172
fully-qualified domain name, 164
games, 336
gedit program
including other files, 241–242
launching, 154
menus, 239–240
opening file in, 217–218
overview of, 238, 239
searching and replacing, 242–243
tabbed interface element, 241
toolbar icons, 238
Web page, creating using, 154–156
glitches, 217
GNOME. See also Nautilus; Netscape
Actions menu, 40
background preferences, 49
color chooser, 50
customizing, 48–53
desktop menu, 45–48
desktop preferences, 49
downloading, 14
Font Preferences, 51
launching program in, 23, 56, 57, 130
logging out, 23–24
menu bar, 40–41
menus, 45
Menus & Toolbars Preferences, 52
Solaris 9 For Dummies
GNOME (continued)
Metacity screen, 21, 22
Mouse Preferences, 51–52
Netscape 7, launching, 130
overview of, 13, 39
Sound Preferences, 52–53
startup screen, 21
taskbar, 41–45
terminal program, launching, 56, 57
Theme Preferences, 53
typeface, choosing, 50–51
viewing file in, 216–218
window, 21, 22
GNOME Text Editor. See gedit program
Gnometris, 23
GNU, history of, 13
GNU Object Management Environment.
GNU Project Web site, 328
Go dialog box, 26
Go➪History, 146
Google News, 138
Gosling, James (developer), 333
gradient, 49–50
graphical user interface (GUI), viewing
files within, 215–220, 230. See also
graphics program. See Draw
greater than symbol (>) (file redirection),
64–65, 229
greater than symbol, double (>), 77
grep command
advantages of, 70
checking for root account with, 314
find command and, 276
finding matches with, 66–68
mailboxes and, 272–274
searching by content with, 271–274
grep -i command, 68, 272
grep -l command, 272
grep -v command, 67
group of files, copying, 101
groups command, 99
groups, listing, 99
GUI. See graphical user interface
GUI Central Web site, 53
gunzip command, 103
gzip command, 102–103
halt command, 302–303
head command, 222
Help button (login panel), 16, 17
hidden item, 83
Hoffman, Paul, Perl For Dummies,
4th edition, 230
home directory
creating, 305–306
permissions, 310
home page, changing, 138
hostname unknown, 288–289
Hosts menu, 56
HTML. See also HTML message
file, naming, 153–154
obsolete, 209
source code, viewing, 210–211, 240
tags, 154
HTML 4 For Dummies, 4th edition
(Tittel and Pitts), 161
.html icon, 216
HTML message
Mailer and, 112
Netscape Messenger and, 119, 121
Hyperlink dialog box, 210
hyperlink, inserting, 210
HyperText Markup Language. See HTML
HyperText Transport Protocol, 282
adding to taskbar, 44
.c, 216
Compose, 114
Control Panel, 26–27
foot, 40, 45
gedit toolbar, 238
.html, 216
moving, 43
Netscape Navigator, 144
Netscape 7, 135
padlock, 83
.sh, 216
text file, 216
iconifying application, 29–30
ICQ, 133
id command, 99
ifconfig utility, 282–283
IMAP configuration dialog box, 108, 109
IMAP connection, configuring, 108
data, entering, 208–209
overview of, 206
presentation, starting, 207–208
inetd service, 319–321
Information view, 84–85
init states, 301
Insert➪Copy, 203
Insert➪File, 186
Insert➪Hyperlink, 210
file into document, 186, 187
hyperlink, 210
Insert➪New Slide, 208
installing, 4
Instant Messenger, 133
Internet. See also Netscape Navigator;
Web browser and FTP; Web page
interactivity on, 167–168
overview of, 167
Solaris and, 11–12
Internet Key Exchange, 329
Internet Protocol, 281–282
Internet services, disabling unnecessary,
invisible file. See dot file
IP Secure, 329
IPv6, 285–286
Java, 141
job priority, changing, 260
Joy, Bill (developer), 1, 12, 244
K Desktop Environment, 334
Kerberos, 331
Khosla, Vinod (student), 12
kill program, 261, 320–321
killing processes, 260–261
Korn Shell (ksh)
bash compared to, 73–75
description of, 57
features, 75
language, 18, 139
launching program
in CDE, 21
CDE File Manager, 35, 82, 264
CDE Text Editor, 154
gedit program, 238
in GNOME, 23
GNOME Text Editor, 154
Impress, 206
Mailer, 107–108
Nautilus, 86
Netscape 7, 129–130
overview of, 20–21
Search for Files, 268
Solaris Management Console, 259, 294
terminal program, 55–56
Text Editor, 233
vi editor, 245
Writer, 186
layout of Web page, improving, 159–161
less command, 224, 225
< symbol, 65
Solaris 9 For Dummies
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol,
lightweight process, 254
links, 265
Linux, history of, 13
listing files, 90–93
local mailbox, 110
Log Out option, 29
logging in, 19–20
logging out
CDE, 23, 26, 34
GNOME, 23–24
login account
logging in, 19–20
logging out, 23–24
login panel, working with, 16–19
overview of, 14–16
login name format, 14
login panel, working with, 16–19
login screen, 19, 20
loopback address, 162, 164
loopback interface, 283
Lower option, 29
ls command, 58, 59–61, 90–93
ls -a command, 92
ls -d command, 92
ls -F command, 220
ls -l command, 91
ls -lF command, 220–221
ls -t command, 91
lynx, 334
mailboxes, searching, and grep
command, 272–274
Mailbox➪New Mailbox, 108
configuring, 108–110
creating message, 114–115
launching, 107–108
mailbox, viewing, 110–112
responding to message, 113–114
sending mail, 113–115
sort order, changing, 112–113
Mailer configuration dialog box, 109
mailx command
incoming message, 125–127
overview of, 123–124
sending message, 124–125
man command, 63–64
bookmarks, 148–151
file redirection, 64–65
running processes, 259–261
managing files and directories. See CDE
File Manager; Nautilus
marking file as executable, 78
Mastering the Vi Editor, 251
Mastering Unix Shell Scripting
(Michael), 79
match, finding, 66–68
McNealy, Scott (Sun CEO), 1, 5, 12, 155
menu bar, 40–41
Menus & Toolbars Preferences, 52
Message➪New Message, 123
Message➪Reply, 121
Metacity screen, 21, 22
Michael, Randal K., Mastering Unix
Shell Scripting, 79
Minimize button, 34
Minimize option, 29
minimizing application, 29–30
mkdir command, 99–100
More Criteria dialog box, 265–266
more program, 223–224, 225
left button, 27
preferences, setting, 51–52
Move option, 29
application between workspaces, 31–33
file, 101–102
in file system, 58–59
icon, 43
window, 34
mv command, 101–102
MySQL, 334
file, 263
HTML file, 153–154
workspace, 33, 42
Nautilus. See also Search for Files
arranging items in directory, 87–88
CDE file browser compared to, 219
file manager window, 48, 87
launching, 86
opening file in, 270–271
overview of, 86–87
View menu, 88
view options, 87
viewing file in, 216–218
navigating file in vi editor, 247–248
netmask, 282
Netscape Composer, 132
Netscape Mail, 134
Netscape Messenger
Address Book, 121
configuring account, 115–118
creating message, 123
Format submenu, 122
Help menu, 123
incoming mail server settings, 117
menu options and sorting, 120–121
Message menu, 120–121
Options menu, 122
personal identity settings, 117
sending and responding to message,
spell checker, 122
Netscape Navigator
Advanced preferences, 141–142
bookmarks, 143–144, 148–151
Cache preferences, 142
customizing, 131–134
Help menu, 142
History settings, 138–139
History window, 146–147
Internet Search preferences, 139–140
Languages preference, 139
main browser window, 142–146
Navigation bar, 143
opening Web page in, 157–159
padlock icon, 144
Personal toolbar, 148
Preferences categories, 132–134
preferences, setting, 137–141
restoring, 31
Security Center, 143
Smart Browsing, 141
Tabbed Browsing preferences, 140
toolbars, hiding or displaying, 144
window menu, 30
Netscape 7
appearance options, 134–137
colors, 136–137
downloading, 115
fonts, 135–136
launch shortcut icons, 135
launching, 129–130
toolbar, 119
window, 118–119
configuring, 282–287
terminology of, 281–282
New Folder dialog box, 163
New Folder option, 46
New Launcher option, 47
New Window option, 46
nice command, 260
nice value, 255
obsolete HTML, 209
Occupy Workspace dialog box, 33
Old Mail folder, 119
online documentation, 63–64
Open File dialog box, 241
Solaris 9 For Dummies
Open Page dialog box, 157–158
opening. See also launching program
file, 270–271
pop-up menu, 35
Web page in Netscape Navigator, 157–159
Options button (login panel), 16–18
Options➪Status Line, 235
Options➪Wrap to Fit, 235
ownership and file permissions, 317–319
packet, 282
packet sniffer, 178
padlock icon, 83
page command, 224, 225
paragraph break tags, 159
Paragraph dialog box, 189–190, 191
parent process, 250
passwd command, 306–307
passwd -s command, 312–314
adding punctuation to, 16
configuration, examining, 299–300
elements of good, 15
goal of, 14
passwd program, 312–314
pwck program, 311
security of, 311–315
sending in the clear, 178
tweaking default settings, 314–315
typing, 19–20
user account, setting for, 306–307
vipw program, 312
paste command, 228–229
pasting, 242
patterns, 227–228, 144–145
period (.), 83, 275
Perl, 230
Perl For Dummies, 4th edition
(Hoffman), 230
permission. See also file permissions
account and, 309–310
changing, 97–99
identifying proper, 315–316
ownership and, 317–319
security issues, 315–319
umask setting, 316–317
viewing, 84–86
permission denied error, 156
permission string, deciphering
directory, 97
file, 94–95, 221
Permissions view
CDE, 85–86
GNOME, 89, 90
pg command, 224, 225
pgrep program, 261
ping utility, 286
pipe (|), 66
changing text in, 69–70
duplicating command in, 68
pipes, building command, 66–73
Pitts, Natanya, HTML 4 For Dummies,
4th edition, 161
pkill program, 261
placeholder, 245
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
client configuration, 291
overview of, 290
server configuration, 291–292
pop-up menus
Apply Style, 194, 195
Available Search Constraints, 268–269
CDE, 27–31
File Type, 196–197
opening, 35
Power Manager, 37
pppd command, 290
Preferences dialog box, 131–132
presentation program. See Impress
privacy issues and History feature, 147
finding top, 254–255
job priority, changing, 260
killing, 260–261
managing running, 259–261
overview of, 253
ps command, 258–259
uptime command, 257–258
processor usage, by user, 255–257
prompt (%), 58
properties and permissions, viewing,
Properties dialog box, 88, 89
protocol, 281–282
prstat command, 254–255
prstat -n command, 256
prstat -s command, 256
prstat -t command, 255–256
ps command, 74, 258–259
public key encryption, 179
publishing Web page, 163–165
punctuation, adding to password, 16
pwck program, 311–312
pwd command
ls command and, 91
overview of, 58
question mark (?) wildcard, 62
quit command, 176
quota for disk space, 102
read permission
directory, 96
file, 95
read-only directory, 83, 96–97
read-only FTP connection, 168
reboot command, 303–304
Recently Deleted Mail folder, 119
Rectangle tool, 205
redefining commands, 75–77
redirecting output of file, 64–65
relatively closed permission, 315
Reload button, 160
remote file access. See FTP; Secure Shell
(ssh) package; telnet program
remote login and Options menu, 17, 18
removing. See also deleting
file, 65, 102
system configuration information,
renaming workspace, 33, 42
renice command, 260
Replace dialog box, 242
replacing text. See searching and
replacing text
resident set size of process, 254
resizing window, 34
restarting inetd service via kill,
Restore option, 28
compressed file, 103, 104
iconified application, 30
Netscape Navigator toolbars, 144
window, 34
retrieving attachment to e-mail, 109
reviewing system utilization, 297
Rich Text Format, 197
Ritchie, Dennis (developer), 11
rm command, 65, 102
rm -f x * command, 3
rm -f x* command, 3
rmdir command, 100
role-based access control, 331
root account
checking for additional, 314
permissions, 310
system administration and, 293
Solaris 9 For Dummies
sans-serif typeface, 51
Save As dialog box
CDE Text Editor, 237
gedit program, 156, 163
Writer, 195–196
Save dialog box, 243
document, 195–196
file in CDE Text Editor, 237–238
file in gedit program, 156, 243
file in vi editor, 250
Screen Style Manager, 37–38
Search for Files
Available Search Constraints pop-up,
CDE File Manager compared to, 270
dialog box, 269
launching, 268
search results, 270
by content, 271–274, 276–277
by size and date, 275–276
searching and replacing text
CDE Text Editor, 237
gedit program, 242–243
vi editor, 249–250
SEC EDGAR FTP archive, 169–172,
173, 174–175, 176
Secure LDAP, 330
Secure Shell (ssh) package
ftp program and, 168
overview of, 329
remote file access using, 178–181
telnet program and, 169
Secure Sockets Layer. See SSL
security features, 329–331
security issues
accounts and permissions, 309–310
file permissions, 315–319
ftp program, 168
Internet services, disabling unnecessary,
password, 299–300, 311–315
PPP configuration, 292
Secure Shell (ssh) and, 178
telnet program, 169
Web sites, 144–146
sed command, 66, 69–70
Sent Mail folder, 119
serif typeface, 51
session, logging in to, 18–19
Set View Options dialog box, 83–84
setuid program, 318–319
sftp program, 168, 179–180
.sh icon, 216
shell script, 77–79
Shell Script Hacks (Taylor), 79
shell wildcards, 62–63, 99
shells. See also specific shells
changing login, 74
command line and, 57–58
Korn compared to Bash, 73–75
leaving, 58
ShowMe TV, 335
shutdown program, 301–302, 303, 304
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, 282
Slashdot, 138
slide presentation program. See Impress
smart card support, 331
SMC. See Solaris Management Console
smc command, 259
Solaris Advanced User’s Guide, 251
Solaris Central Web site, 327
Solaris Management Console
launching, 294
main categories, 295
main view, 294–295
overview of, 259, 293
Password Options tab, 299–300
Performance option, 296
summary of system performance levels,
System Configuration, 297–300
System Status, 295
User Accounts option, 297–299
Users option, 297
Solaris 9 Installation Guide, 4
Solaris on Intel Web site, 327
Solaris online documentation, 325
Solaris Resource Manager, 331
sort command, 66, 70–71, 273
sort order
changing in Mailer, 112–113
Netscape Messenger, 120
sorting output, 71, 91
Sound Preferences, 52–53
spacing of paragraph, changing, 190
spell command, 226–230
spreadsheet program. See Calc
ssh program. See Secure Shell (ssh)
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), 145–146, 330
Stallman, Richard (programmer), 13, 333
standard input, 64
standard output, 64
Stanford University, 12
StarOffice. See also Writer
Calc, 199–202
Draw, 203–206
Impress, 206–209
menu, 27, 28
overview of, 5, 28, 185, 199, 335
starting inetd service, 319–320
starting program. See launching program
state of process, values for, 255
Style Manager, 36–39
styles, applying, 193–195
Stylist window, 193–194
summarizing account data, 312–314
Sun Big System Administration
Web site, 326
Sun Microsystems
history of, 1, 12, 13
home page, 130–131, 138
software download site, 328
Web site, 155, 251
Sun Solaris Security FAQ, 329
SunForum, 335
Sunfreeware Web site, 328
SunScreen tool, 330
sweb command, 209
Sys Admin magazine, 326
system administration. See also Solaris
Management Console
halt command, 302–303
processes and, 253
reboot command, 303–304
root account and, 293
shutdown program, 301–302, 303, 304
user account, adding, 304–307
System Administration Guide: Basic
Administration, 300
System IV, 12
tabbed browsing, 140
customizing, 42–45
overview of, 41–42
Taylor, Dave
Creating Cool HTML 4 Web Pages, 161
Dynamic HTML Weekend Crash
Course, 161
Shell Script Hacks, 79
TCP Wrappers, 330
telnet program
connecting by, 177–178
overview of, 168–169
terminal program, launching, 55–56
terminology of networking, 281–282
text. See also gedit program; Text Editor
(CDE); vi editor
adding to picture, 204–205
altering appearance of, 188–190
applying style to, 194–195
changing in pipeline, 69–70
Solaris 9 For Dummies
text (continued)
entering in vi editor, 246–247
entering into Web page, 154–157
searching and replacing, 237, 242–243,
Text Editor (CDE)
including content from other files, 236
launching, 233
menus, 234
reading files within CDE using, 219–220
searching and replacing, 237
text wrapping, 235
window, 233, 234
Text Editor window, 34
text file icon, 216
text file pager programs, 224
Text tool, 204
text wrapping, 235
Theme Preferences, 53
Thompson, Ken (developer), 11
three-command pipe, 67
Tittel, Ed, HTML 4 For Dummies,
4th edition, 161
Tools➪Gallery, 203
Torvalds, Linus (programmer), 13
tr command, 66, 70
transition effects, 207–208
Transmission Control Protocol, 282
trashcan, 65
turning power switch off, 6
typeface, choosing, 50–51, 192
typing text, 235
umask setting, 99, 316–317
uncompress command, 103
unconfiguring system, 283–284
uniq command, 273
flavors of, 12
history of, 1, 11
Unix System Administrator’s Resources
Web site, 327
unplugging computer, 6
upload, 169
uptime command, 257–258
Use Default Background option, 47
useradd command, 304–305
validating password file, 311–312
versions, 11–12
vi editor
entering text, 246–247
modes of operation, 244
moving in file, 247–249
opening file in, 218
overview of, 244
resources, 251
saving file, 250
searching and replacing, 249–250
show mode feature, 244, 246
starting, 245
undoing command, 250
Vi Lovers Home Page, 251
View menu (Netscape Messenger), 120
View➪HTML Source, 210
viewing. See also viewing file
contents of file, 221
directory, 220–221
dot file, 92
file permissions, 91
HTML source code, 210–211, 240
mailbox, 110–112
properties and permissions, 84–86
Web page in Netscape Navigator, 157–159
viewing file
in CDE, 218–220
at command line, 220–225
in GNOME, 216–218
within graphical user interface, 215–220
GUI compared to command-line interface
for, 230–231
View➪View Options, 83
vim package, 335–336
vipw program, 312
virus, 109
wc command, 65, 70, 225–226
wc -l command, 227, 228
wc -w command, 226
weather monitor, 44–45
Weather Preferences dialog box, 44
Web browser and FTP, 169–172. See also
Netscape Navigator
Web page
Apache Server and, 162–165
content, entering, 154–157
HTML file, naming, 153–154
HTML source, viewing, 210–211, 240
layout, improving, 159–161
opening in Netscape Navigator, 157–159
publishing, 163–165
saving Writer document as, 197
Writer, creating with, 209–211
Web server, configuring system as, 162
Web sites
awk reference, 230
BBC News, 138
book, 7
Dummies Press, 149
eBay, 138
e-mail programs, 127
ESPN, 138
Everything Solaris, 326
fetchmail program, 124
freeware, 334
Freeware4Sun, 328, 53
games, 336
GNOME, 14, 333
GNU Project, 328
Google News, 138
GUI Central, 53
K Desktop Environment, 334
Netscape, 115, 144–145
security issues, 144–146
ShowMe TV, 335
Slashdot, 138
Solaris Central, 327
Solaris on Intel Web site, 327
Solaris online documentation, 325
StarOffice, 335
Sun Big System Administration, 326
Sun Microsystems, history of, 13, 155
Sun Microsystems, software download,
Sun Solaris Security FAQ, 329
SunForum, 335
Sunfreeware, 328
Sys Admin magazine, 326
Unix System Administrator’s Resources,
vi editor, 251
vim package, 336
welcome message, 174–175
who command, 77
wildcards, 62–63, 99
window menu button, 28
AutoPilot Presentation, 207
file manager, Nautilus, 48, 87
focus, changing, 53
Gallery, 203–204
GNOME, 21, 22
History, Netscape Navigator, 146–147
home directory, CDE File Manager, 82
main browser, Netscape Navigator,
Netscape 7, 118–119
Stylist, 193–194
terminal, 56
Text Editor, 34, 233, 234
working with, 34–35
word count, calculating, 225–226
word processing program. See Writer
Solaris 9 For Dummies
CDE, 31–34
description of, 26
desktop image for, 47–48
GNOME, 41–42
renaming, 33, 42
viewing applications running in, 41
Workspace Manager Controls, 38
Workspace Switcher, 42, 43
Workspace Switcher Preferences
dialog box, 42
wrapper, 57
write permission
directory, 96
file, 95
write-enabled file, 318
altering appearance of text, 188–190
color, tweaking, 190–192
cross-platform compatibility, 197
developing Web page with, 209–211
document, saving, 195–196
file, creating, 186–188
File Type pop-up, 196–197
font color palette, 192
Formatting toolbar, 189, 191–192
launching, 186
overview of, 185
Paragraph dialog box, 189–190, 191
screen, 186, 187
styles, applying, 193–195
Z Shell, 73
zero loss compression system, 103
zoom box, 34
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