Robin Goodfellow 2007 - Robin Goodfellow, author &

© Robin Goodfellow 2007
Using Excel 2007
Robin Goodfellow
Index
Workbooks and worksheets ...... 3
Navigate between cells ............. 5
Resizing cells ............................ 6
Simple Formulas ....................... 8
Cell merging ............................. 9
Headers & Footers .................... 10
Printing Options........................ 12
Set Print area ............................ 13
Views ........................................ 14
Amend multiple sheets ............. 14
Inserting Rows & Columns ...... 15
Copy & Paste ............................ 16
Autofill ..................................... 17
Series Command ....................... 18
Selecting cells ........................... 21
Select rows and columns .......... 22
Sorting ...................................... 23
Formatting cells ........................ 25
Cell borders .............................. 26
Find & Replace ......................... 27
Enter line break ......................... 27
Autocalculate ............................ 28
Auto sum .................................. 29
Bidmas - Math precedence ....... 30
Setting the decimal places ........ 31
Paste special.............................. 32
Change case .............................. 33
Comments ................................. 34
Formatting values ..................... 35
Rotating text ............................. 36
Wrap text .................................. 37
Pie Charts.................................. 38
Comparative Bar Chart ............. 45
Line Charts ............................... 48
Importing text data ................... 49
Object linking & embedding .... 50
Autocorrect ............................... 52
Create Macro ............................ 53
Autoformat ................................ 55
Absolute cell references ............ 56
Named cell references............... 57
Delete cell name ....................... 58
Named cell ranges..................... 58
HLOOKUP Function ................ 59
IF Function................................ 60
AVERAGE Function ................ 61
COUNT Function ..................... 62
COUNTIF Function .................. 63
SUMIF ...................................... 64
Nested IF ................................... 64
V Lookup .................................. 65
Create Custom Lists .................. 66
Filtering..................................... 68
Custom Filter ............................ 69
Filter subtotal ............................ 70
Filter Blanks.............................. 70
Grouping and Ungrouping ........ 71
Outline Subtotals ...................... 72
Concatenate............................... 73
Date Functions .......................... 73
Pivot Tables .............................. 75
Pivot table – show detail ........... 78
Field calculations ...................... 79
Grouping Pivot data .................. 81
Change field name .................... 82
Pivot table Autoformat ............. 83
Pivot Chart ................................ 84
Customising a Toolbar .............. 87
Protect file ................................. 88
Protect sheet .............................. 90
Protect cells ............................... 91
Freeze and split frames ............. 92
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Hyperlinks ................................ 93
Linking between sheets ............ 94
Data entry forms ....................... 95
Goalseek ................................... 96
Solver ........................................ 97
Formula auditing toolbar .......... 100
Data Validation ......................... 101
Watch Window ......................... 103
Scenarios ................................... 104
Consolidate ............................... 105
Consolidate by category ........... 106
Conditional formatting ............. 107
Conditional formatting with formulae
.................................................. 108
Advanced filters ........................ 109
Custom Formatting ................... 112
Calc elapsed time ...................... 114
Align over decimal ................... 115
Data Functions .......................... 116
Sort Custom list ........................ 117
Split text string ......................... 118
Drop down list .......................... 120
Combination Charts .................. 122
Payment formula ...................... 123
Side by side ............................... 124
VB Code ................................... 125
Personal Macro Workbook ....... 126
Sharing a workbook .................. 127
Track changes ........................... 128
Merge documents ..................... 130
Track merged change................ 131
Robin Goodfellow
List ............................................ 136
AND, OR, NOT functions ........ 131
3d function ................................ 131
Workspace ................................ 133
And or not functions ................. 134
Trimmean .................................. 134
Trendline ................................... 135
Drawing .................................... 136
Multiple Views ......................... 138
Database Query ......................... 139
Custom Views ........................... 140
Analysis Toolpack .................... 141
Statistics terminology ............... 143
Properties dialogue ................... 144
Default file location .................. 145
Digital certificates ..................... 146
Self certificate ........................... 147
Digital cert – document ............ 150
Macro digital certificate ............ 151
Trusted Publisher ...................... 152
XML ......................................... 153
3d functions .............................. 161
Consolidated printing................ 161
Organisation chart ..................... 162
Open & save template ............... 165
Research .................................... 165
Analysis functions .................... 166
Create web query ...................... 167
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Workbooks & Worksheets
When opened, Excel will default to a New Document, known as a Workbook. The
basic layout is derived from a traditional accountant’s spreadsheet.
Each workbook can be made up of many separate worksheets. A New Document
defaults to 3 sheets.
To change this default, click on the Office button. At the bottom of the dialogue, click
on the Excel Options Button.
Return to the workbook. A sheet can be renamed. Double click on Sheet 1. When it is
selected, type in New. Press the Return key.
Click on the Sheet2 tab. Right click on the tab and in the fly up menu, choose Rename.
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The fly up disappears and the text is selected. Type in Renamed. Press the Return
key.
Click the Insert button to the right of the sheet tabs.
Another sheet is inserted.
Right click on Renamed and choose Insert. When the dialogue box appears, accept the
default (General  Worksheet) and click OK.
Click on the Sheet 4 tab and hold the mouse button down. Wait until a document icon
appears, and then drag to the right of Sheet3.
Move the mouse cursor to the Sheet5 tab and right click on it. Select Delete from the
flyout and click on it.
Go to Sheet tab New. Right click and choose Move or copy. When the dialogue
appears, check the Copy box and choose New book in the first field.
Click OK. A new book is created with the New sheet in it. Delete the new book. Note
the original sheet is still in Book 1. Try the same but not checking the Copy option.
This time the sheet is deleted from the original book when it is moved from it.
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Navigate between cells
Each box in the grid is called a cell. It may contain text (the correct term for which is
label) or figures (value). The first cell (A1) should be selected and have a thick black
line around it. If not click in it. The cell is now said to be active.
Type the following into the A1 Cell: THE NUMBER OF CELLS IN AN EXCEL
SPREADSHEET.
Despite the apparent size of cell A1, the text has flowed across the neighbouring cells.
However, this only happens until you put anything in a neighbouring cell to the right, as
you will see. Click on the green arrow to enter the label. A1 is now surrounded by a
black box again
The text needs to be modified to:
THE NUMBER OF CELLS CONTAINED IN AN EXCEL SPREADSHEET.
Try clicking below the C column heading between the words CELLS and IN to place a
text insertion point. You can’t. Try clicking at the same place between the words in the
Formula Bar. Labels, values and formulas can be edited in here. Insert
CONTAINED and this time, press the Return Key.
.
The active cell moves down to A2, as the text is confirmed and entered. Note that the
reference box displays the current active cell.
Move to A3 using the Down Arrow Key and type in NUMBER OF ROWS
Click in A4. Type in NUMBER OF COLUMNS
Press the Tab Key. The selection moves to B4. Type in 256.
Press the up arrow key. In cell B3, type in 16, 384.
Press Shift+Tab. The selection moves back to A3. Use the down arrow keys or return
key to move down to A6. Type in TOTAL NUMBER OF CELLS
Note that by default, labels are on the left and values on the right.
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Resizing Cells
Quite obviously there is insufficient width to accommodate the text in cells A3, A4 and
A6.
Place the Mouse Cursor in the column headings between A and B.
It changes to a black cross.
Click/drag the cursor to the right until the vertical hairline is to the right of the text in
A6.
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Now put the cursor between column headings B and C. When the black cross appears,
double click.
The line jumps to the left. This is autosizing. It would not have worked with the first
column, since it would have moved the line to the right of all the text in A1. (Try it and
then click/drag back into position).
It is also possible to resize many columns at the same time.
Click on Column Heading A in the grey box. Hold down the Shift key and click on
column heading D. All four columns should now be selected.
Place the mouse cursor between column headings D and E and, when it changes to a
black cross, click/drag to the right and let go.
Deselect the columns by clicking to the right of the selected area.
Resize them as before.
If you ever get a row of hashes ####, it means the cell is not wide enough to
accommodate the information. Resize it accordingly.
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Simple Formulas
To find out how many cells are contained in an Excel workbook, what is needed is the
value of the number of rows multiplied by the number of columns. Those figures
appear in cells B3 and B4 respectively.
The maths should then be as follows: B3 x B4. We want the result of this calculation
to appear in B6, so click in it. All formulas begin with an = sign. Type in: =B3*B4.
The * key provides the Multiplier.
Note this also appears in the Formula Bar. Click on the green tick.
Now note that although the calculated value is entered into B6, the Formula bar retains
the formula. You could also have pressed the Return key to complete the calculation
instead.
The total number is4,194,304.
The + and - keys provide the plus and minus operators, whereas * and / provide
multiply and divide.
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Cell Merging
Put the Mouse Cursor in A1 and click/drag across to the right until the selection
encloses F1.
Click the Merge & Centre button in the HOME toolbar.
Alternatively, in the HOME toolbar, click the Options arrow in the Format section.
A dialogue box appears.
Select the Alignment tab and check the Merge Cells Box. Set the Horizonal field to
Centre. Click OK.
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Headers and Footers
When preparing for print, information can be entered into Headers and Footers such as
date, title and page numbers. In this tutorial, the header contains the Title and Author,
and the Footer contains the page number.
On the right of the Insert toolbar, click the Header and Footer button.
A box appears at the top of the page.
Click to the left and type in your name.
Click to the right and click on the Current Date button.
The reason the date is entered as &date is that Excel inserts the current date whenever
the document is printed. Click OK.
Click on the Go to Footer button. In the left section, enter the Page Number and
Number of Pages. In the right section, click on the File Path button.
Click out of the Header or Footer area in any cell. In the VIEW toolbar, click on the
Normal button
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Headers & Footers (Classic)
Click on the office button and choose Print → Print Preview. In the Print Preview
toolbar, choose Page Set up and select the Header and Footer tab.
Click the Custom Header button.
Click in the left section window and type in your name.
Click in the right section window and click on the date button.
Click on the Custom Footer button. In the left section, enter the Page Number and
Number of Pages. In the right section, click on the File Path button.
Click OK, OK.
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Printing Options
Click on the office button and choose Print → Print Preview. In the Print Preview
toolbar, choose Page Set up and select the Page tab.
Click on the Landscape radio button.
Choose the Sheet Tab
Check the Gridlines and Row and column headings boxes. Click OK.
Return to the Page Set up dialogue, Margins tab and check the Centre on Page boxes.
Inspect the result in Print Preview.
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Set Print Area
Select A3 to B6.
In the Page Layout tab, click on Print Area  Set print Area.
To get this.
Inspect Print Preview. Close Print Preview
Use the same method to choose File  Print Area  Clear print Area.
Alternative method for printing only part of a worksheet:
Click on the Office button and choose Print. Check the Print Selection radio button.
Click OK.
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Views
In the VIEW tab, Show/Hide section, use the check boxes to switch the options off and
on to view the result.
Select several cells and click Zoom to selection. Click the 100% button
You may toggle views and set the Zoom level in the lower right status bar.
Amend data on Multiple sheets
Open the Category Consolidation file. Go to the James worksheet and select the
name at the top.
Shift+Click on the sheet tabs for Monder and Hanover. Change the text to Red.
Inspect the heading in the other two sheets.
Click in cell A20. Hold down Shift and click on the Monder tab only. Type in New
rate 6.5%. The cell should have only been added to the second sheet
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Inserting rows & columns
Click on the Office button and choose New
. Enter the following:
Resize column A so that it appears as above. Click in the grey box to the left of Row 2.
The row becomes selected. To the right of the HOME toolbar, click on Insert →
Insert Sheet rows.
A row is inserted before the selected column.
To insert two rows, select two rows and choose Insert  Rows. The number of rows
you select will determine the number of rows inserted.
The procedure for inserting columns is the same.
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Copy and paste.
Before going any further, click the Office button and save the Workbook as Stationary.
In the Menu Bar, click the Office button and choose Open. From the Resources folder,
open Sales figures.
Select cells A1 to F9.
On the far left of the HOME toolbar, click the Copy button. Minimise the Sales
Figures document.
In the Stationary document, click on B3 to select it.
On the far left of the HOME toolbar, click the Paste button.
The figures are pasted into Stationary.
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Autofill
Open a new blank workbook. In B2 type JAN. Click on the Green Arrow to enter it.
Put the Mouse cursor in the bottom right hand corner of the B2 cell. It will change to a
black cross.
. Click drag the cross to the right until the selection covers G2. Let go.
Enter January in B4 and use the same technique to autofill across.
Enter Mon in B6 and use the same technique to autofill across.
Enter Monday in B8 and use the same technique to autofill across.
Autofill will also work with numbers in a sequence, but you must enter and select at
least two values so that the computer can calculate the interval..
In cell B4, type in 100. In cell C4, type in 101.
Select both cells. Put the cursor on the handle in the bottom right, where it becomes a
cross,
and autofill accross
Next in cell B10 type in 100, and in cell C10 type in 150. Select both cells.
Put the cursor on the handle in the bottom right, where it becomes a cross,
to cell.G17.
and drag
This works with any even interval. In cell B12, type in 109. In C12 type in 116.
Complete the sequence by click dragging across
Try also: Robin 1, 1st Qtr and 01/01/03.
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Series Command
The series command completes a series of values to a specified interval or increment.
In a blank cell, type 1250 and enter it. Select the cell and the next 9 in the column.
To the right of the HOME toolbar, click the drop down Fill button and choose Series.
To get this:
When the Series dialogue box appears select the Columns, linear radio buttons and
type 10 into the Step value field.
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Type 1250 into another empty cell alongside. Select it and the next 9 in the column.
Open the same dialogue.
Select Columns, Step value 10, Growth instead and click OK.
This time the values are multiplied by ten as in compound interest.
Type 01/05/03 in another cell and select it with the next 9 cells. Open the Series
dialogue box and set the following values.
Click OK.
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Next, try selecting the weekly radio button, with a series value of 1. Note how it inserts
only weekdays and ignores Saturdays and Sundays.
Type 01/05/03 in another cell, but this time select it and the next 9 in the same row.
In the Series dialogue box, set the following values.
Be sure to set the Month radio button and Stop value. Click OK.
Note how the series stops at the set date and the increment is by the month.
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Selecting cells
Toggle to the Stationary worksheet.
Click in Cell B3. Hold down the Shift Key and click in cell C3. Keeping shift
depressed, click in cell G3.
All intermediate cells are selected.
Click in an empty cell to deselect them all.
Click in cell B6. Hold down the Control key and click in cells D6, F6, H6 and I6.
Note that only those cells clicked are selected, not the intermediate ones as before.
Click in and empty cell to deselect them again.
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Select rows and columns
Click in column heading B. Hold down shift and click in column heading C. Still
keeping the Shift Key depressed, click on column heading G
Note all intermediate rows are selected.
Click in an empty cell to deselect the columns.
Click on column heading B. Hold down the Ctrl key and click on column headings D
and F.
Note that, as with cells, the Control Key only selects columns which are clicked on, not
the intermediate ones.
Click in an empty cell to deselect the columns.
The same key combinations are used for selecting adjacent or non-adjacent Rows.
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Sorting
The customer list needs to be sorted in alphabetical order.
How not to do it. Click on column heading A to select the whole column.
In the DATA tab, click the sort ascending button.
A flag appears.
Choose the second option.
Firstly the sort has included the space and title. Secondly, it has sorted the first column
but left all the values associated with the labels where they were.
Click on the Undo Icon.
.
Click in any single cell in the A column.
In the Toolbar, click on the Sort Ascending button
The data is correctly sorted without a prompt.
.
You may sort a selection of more than one column, providing all columns are included
in the selection.
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Open the Sort file from the Resources folder. Ensure you have an active cell within the
data. If not, click on it.
IN the DATA tab, click on the Sort button.
When the dialogue box opens, enter the above settings. Ensure the My Data has
Errors radio button is checked, otherwise this will be included in the sort.
Click OK. Note the result. Close without saving.
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Formatting Cells
By default, Excel justifies Values in cells to the right and Labels to the left.
This is a throwback to how accountants filled in Spreadsheets on paper.
In the Stationary file, Select the labels Jan to Jun.
In the HOME tab, use the Formatting Toolbar, click on the right justify button.
Alternatively, in the HOME tab, click the expand to dialogue button.
When the dialogue box opens, click on the Font Tab.
Set the font to Bookman Old Style, Regular, 10pt. Colour Blue. Click OK.
Click in an empty cell to deselect the cells.
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Cell Borders.
Reselect the same cells again and use the expand to dialogue button to open the Format
Cells dialogue box again. Select the Borders tab.
Choose the Line Style and Colour as shown and then click on the Outline box.
You must use the sequence shown. If you do, the correct style and colour will appear in
the preview box.
Click OK. Click in an empty cell to deselect them.
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Find and Replace
On the right hand side of the HOME tab, click the Find and Select button.
When the dialogue appears, type the text in as shown.
Click the Find Next Button. (Note: clicking on Replace before Find will not work).
When it finds the cell, click on the replace button.
A wild card may be used in the find field. Type in C*.
NOTE: This will include any cell with a formula that references column C.
Enter Line Break
To enter an extra line into a cell, use Alt+Enter.
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Autocalculate
Select cells B3:B13. Right click in the status bar.
Figures representing the Average, Count and Sum values are displayed by default.
Click to enable Min, Max and Numerical count (ignores text).
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Autosum
There are two methods for using Autosum.
In A13, type in Total. Click in B3 and drag down to B13 to select all these cells.
Click the Autosum button to the right of the HOME tab.
. (This is Sigma, capital
S in the Greek alphabet). The Total appears in the last cell of the selected group.
Click on Cell C13. This time do not select the other cells, but go straight to the
Autosum icon and click on it.
Excel makes an intelligent guess as to what is required and suggests the Sum of cells C3
to C12. (C12 is blank so it makes no difference). Press the Return Key or click on
the Green Tick.
Use either of the previous methods to calculate the value of D13.
With D13 selected, put the Mouse Cursor on the handle and drag across to G13.
Click in H2 and type in MONTHLY AVERAGE. Resize the cell.
Use Sigma to find the average figure in H3.
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Complex Formulas.
Formulas can be simple addition or contain multiple operations. However with any
formula, the correct Syntax is essential.
The average sales figure for the 6 months is required. To do this, requires the total of
the sales for the six months divided by 6.
Click in H4 and type in following: =B3+C3+D3+E3+F3+G3/6
Press the Return Key.
It will be immediately obvious that £224.96 cannot possibly be the average sales figure.
The reason for the error is that in mathematical formulas, multiply and divide
automatically take precedence over other operators.
To prevent this happening, enclose the addition in brackets like so:
=(B3+C3+D3+E3+F3+G3)/6 Press the Return Key.
Use Autofill to complete the other records.
Bidmas
Computers use advanced mathematics for performing all calculations. Therefore a
computer will always give precedence to operators in the following sequence:
Brackets, Indices*, Divide, Multiply, Add, Subtract. Known by the acronym BIDMAS.
(*Indeces means “to the power of” – eg 102 103 etc)
Therefore, if addition must be carried out before multiplication or division, it must be
enclosed in brackets to give it first precedence.
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Setting the decimal place.
Select the values in the H column.
In the HOME tab, Number Section, click twice on the Increase Decimal Place Icon.
Next, make the figures into Integers. (Whole numbers).
In the HOME tab, Number Section, click the expand to dialogue button to enable the
Format cells dialogue. Use the Number tab in the dialogue to assign a symbol or set
the decimal place.
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Paste Special
Click on cell B13. Use Autosum to add the column total.
Use Autofill to complete the other column totals.
We need to copy these figures to another row. Select the row of figures you have just
created and Edit  Copy them. Click in cell B15 and use Edit  Paste.
Quite obviously this is not the right answer Press the Esc key to switch off the marching
ants. Click in cell B15 and look at the formula bar. The formula has been copied, but
also incremented.
Delete the figures in row 15 and copy the figures in Row 13 again. Click on B15 and
click the drop down arrow underneath the Paste button.
Choose Paste Values.
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Click further down. Use the same drop down arrow to choose Paste Special.
In the Paste Special dialogue box, check the Values Radio button and click OK.
The values are entered, but not the formulas. To confirm this, click on I14 and B14and
look in the Formula bar.
Change Case
It is possible to change case in Excel using a formula.
In a blank document in cell A1, type your name in all lower case and autofill down
about 4 cells. Skip a cell and type it in all upper case. Enter the formulae as shown.
Upper changes to Upper case, Proper to title case and lower to lower case.
To replace the originals, use Paste Special. See next page.
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Comments
A cell may contain hidden, but accessible information in the form of a Comment.
Click in Cell A4 (Anderson Group).
In the REVIEW tab, click the New Comment button.
A dialogue box will appear, probably headed by the user name. This user name may be
changed. Type in the following: Ask our rep to find another supplier.
Click in any other cell to complete.
A small red triangle is in the top right hand corner of the cell with the comment.
Hover the white cross mouse cursor over the triangle. The comment is displayed.
Click in the cell with the comment. Observe the REVIEW tab. The buttons are
generally self explanatory.
Click the Show/Hide Comment button to observe the result.
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Formatting values.
Select cells B3 to B14. In the HOME tab, use the expand to dialogue button to enable
to Format Cells dialogue. Go to the Number tab.
Click on Currency. Set the symbol to GBP. Click OK.
Click in an empty cell to deselect. The numbers are given a currency sign.
Select the figures in column C and set them to Accountancy
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Rotating text
Click on column heading A and in the Menu Bar, choose Insert  Columns.
In A3 type in LEICESTERSHIRE.
Select A3 to A12 and click on the Centre and Merge button.
.
In the HOME tab, Alignment section, click the expand to dialogue button to enable the
Format Cells dialogue.
Use the drop down arrow in the Vertical field to set to Centre.
Change the Orientation to 90º. You can click drag the hairline in the Orientation
window pane to do this.
Click OK
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Put the cursor between the A and B column headings.
When it becomes a black cross, double click to make the text Autofit.
In the HOME tab, orientation may also be changed with the Orientation button.
Wrap Text
Select the row containing the text Monthly average.
In the HOME tab, click the Wrap text button.
Check the Wrap text box. Click OK.
Reduce the column width and increase the row height.
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Pie Charts
From the Resources Disc, open Sales by County. Click in the data.
In the INSERT tab, click the Pie button to reveal the options and then the first 2d chart
type. The chart appears as an embedded type.
This also initiates Chart tools design options. To the right of this, click on the Move
Chart Location button.
Select the New Sheet option and give the name shown. Click OK.
Excel has made an incorrect guess about the data and has displayed the JAN-JUN 2000
figures. We actually require the JAN-JUN 2001 figures.
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Click the Select Data box.
Excel switches to Sheet 1. Select cells D3 to D9. Hold down the Ctrl key and select
A1 to A9. The values appear in the dialogue.
Click OK. Try some of the other Chart Style options.
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Hover over a segment and click/drag away from the centre.
Use Ctrl+Z to undo. Click away. Click once on a segment. Click/drag away from the
centre.
Click/drag the same segment back towards the centre.
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Go to the LAYOUT tab and click the Legend button.
Choose Show Legend at left. Use the same method to switch the Legend off.
Click the Data Labels tab to enable Outside End.
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Click on the Chart Title button.
Change back to the plain coloured segment, white background. Click on the
background and then right click. In the flyout, choose Format Background.
Click the Gradient radio button and then use the drop down for the Direction field to
choose an option.
Gradients may also be adjusted using the Angle fields.
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To change the gradient colours, choose a stop number and pick from the palette.
Click the Picture or Texture Fill radio button and choose an option from the drop
down menu.
Click the File button and when the dialogue appears, navigate to the resources folder.
Choose the Bottles image and click.
Ensure the chart area is selected. Select the 3D Format options in the list and choose a
3d option.
Reset all fields to 15pt. It may be necessary to minimise and restore to see the
effect. Click Close.
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In the LAYOUT TAB OF THE Chart Tools options, click the drop down for the
Chart Tile button.
Choose Centred Overlay. When the title box appears, hover over the edge of it until
the cursor is an arrow with the tool-tip “Chart Title.”
Drag to the side. Overtype it as shown in the Formula bar and press the Return key.
Click one segment, wait, click again. In the HOME tab, use the fill can to change the
cell colour.
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Comparative Bar Chart
Select Sheet 1. Ensure any cell within the data is selected.
In the INSERT tab, click the Column Chart button and choose the first option. Use
the Move Chart button to put the chart in a separate sheet.
The Legend text is incorrect and needs to be changed. In the DESIGN tab, click the
Select Data button. When the Select Data Source dialogue appears, click the first data
series label and then the Edit button.
Sheet 1 is on screen and there is another dialogue box. Re-select the data for the label.
Click OK.
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Click the second data series name and click Edit. This time, simply overtype the cell
reference with the desired text.
Click OK. Use either method to change the third data series.
Click OK.
Click any single column. Use the fill can as before to change the entire data series
colour. Click again on any column within that group and change that individual colour.
Click any text on the X axis. A box appears around it. Right click in this area and
choose Font. Make some obvious changes to the font style and click OK.
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Click in between the gridlines to select the plot area. Right click and choose Format
Plot area. Add a textured fill as with the pie chart.
Click outside the plot area and change to a gradient.
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Line Chart
From the Resources disc, open the document Computer sales. Select Sheet1
In the INSERT tab, click the Line Chart button and choose the Line with Markers
option.
When the chart appears, use the Move Chart button to put it in a new sheet.
Click on the top line and then right click on it to choose Format Data Point. Use the
dialogue to change the weight and color.
Click OK.
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Importing text data
Close all other workbooks and open a new workbook.
In the Menu Bar, choose Open. From the Resources File, select the Word list.txt
(Text) document and click on Open. (This method does not appear to work with an MS
Word document. If necessary, convert to txt in Word before importing).
The Text Import Wizard opens and a dialogue box informs you that your list is
Delimited. This means that groups of information (Name, address, town etc) have been
separated in a distinctive way. In this case, the list was drawn up using commas.
Click on Next. In the next screen, check the comma box.
Click Next, and then Finish.
The text is imported, although some cell resizing will be necessary.
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Object Linking and Embedding
Open a new, blank workbook.
In the INSERT tab, click the Object button. When the dialogue appears, choose the
Create from file Tab.
Click on the Browse button and choose the Word List.doc document.
Click on Insert, OK.
This is an embedded object.
In the INSERT tab, click the Object button. When the dialogue appears, choose the
Create from file Tab.
Click on the Browse button and choose the Word List.doc document.
This time, check the Link to file box. (Note the information in the Result field).
Click on Insert, OK. This is a linked object.
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Save the workbook as Linking on the desktop. Note in the inserted text objects, the
first address line “New Road.”
Open the Wordlist.doc file in Word and change the address to Newton Road. Save and
close it. In the DATA tab, click the Edit Links button.
Click Update values.
It is also possible to insert objects by copy and paste. However, the method used will
also determine whether the object is embedded or Linked.
Open the Wordlist.doc document in Word and copy the text. Go to the excel
workbook. In the menu bar, choose Edit  Paste Special. Select the Paste Link
radio button. Click OK.
Open the Wordlist.doc file in Word and change any address. Save and close it.
In Link copy, update the links and observe the result.
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Autocorrect
Click the Office button. At the bottom of the dialogue, click the Excel Options button.
Choose Proofing in the list.
Click the Autocorrect Options button.
In the Autocorrect dialogue box, type the first 2 letters of your name. (If they
constitute a proper word, such as “to,” you will need to choose an alternative such as
“tt”). In the field to the right, type your full name.
Click OK. In any cell, type the two letters and press space bar.
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Create Macro
Create a new, blank workbook. Click in any cell.
In the VIEW TAB, click Macros Record Macro.
When the dialogue appears, enter the following.
NOTE: Macro names cannot contain spaces.
Use Shift+Q to enter the shortcut key. Ensure the macro is in This workbook. Macros
entered into Personal Macro workbook are available for all workbooks but can only
be deleted by accessing the Personal workbook.
Click OK. Type your name in full. Click the green tick. Do NOT click away from
the cell or press the Return key.
In the toolbar, choose Macros  Stop Recording.
Click in any other cell and press Ctrl+Shift+Q. Your name is entered.
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Click in cell A1 and enter your name with the macro. Autofill down about 20 cells.
Click to select any one of those cells with your name.
In the VIEW TAB, click Macros Record Macro.
When the dialogue appears, enter the following.
Click OK.
Go to the HOME TAB and change the font to Red, Italic.
Go back to the VIEW TAB. In the toolbar, choose Macros  Stop Recording.
Click in any other name cell and press Ctrl+Shift+W. Your name is re-formated.
.Save the file as Macros1.
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Autoformat
Open the Cars file. Select all the cells containing content.
In the HOME tab, click the Format as table button t reveal the options. Hover over
each style in turn. Note the style is previewed.
Click on a style.
Go to the PAGE LAYOUT tab and click the Themes button.
Hover over to preview and then click on a Theme to select it. The Colors button also
provides more colour choices.
Font effects will usually not work on an xls file even when it is re-saved as xlsx.
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Absolute Cell References
From the Resources folder, open the Absolute Excel file.
A formula is needed to calculate the figure in US$ for column C.
In C5, enter =B5*D15. Autofill the answer to the other cells in the column.
A value of 0 is returned. This is because the cell D15 is being incremented down with
the others.
To prevent this, D15 must be made an Absolute cell reference.
Click in the formula bar between D and 15. Press the F4 key. This is the absolute
shortcut key.
Autofill the answer again. Correct the figures to 2 decimal places, using the Decrease
Decimal icon in the toolbar.
The Absolute 2 file gives an example of where only one element of a cell reference
should be locked in place..
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Named cells
Another way of creating an Absolute cell reference is to name it.
From the Resources folder, open the Name Excel workbook
Click in cell D15. Move to the Name Box in the toolbar and select the text in it.
Type in Yuan and press the Enter/Return key. (Alternatively, in the menu bar choose
Insert  Name  Define and type a name in the dialogue box).
Click in cell C5 and type the formula =B5*Yuan
Press the Return key and Autofill the remaining cells.
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Delete cell Name
Once entered, it is not possible to rename a cell simply by going back to the Reference
window and typing over it.
To do so, in the Formulas bar, click the Name Manager button.
Click on the name and then click the Delete button. Click OK.
Reselect the same cell range and in the Reference window, name it RATES
Named cell ranges
A range or groups of cells can be named and, in this way, collectively identified in
complex formulas. Open French Gites. Select Cells B8 to G9.
In the top left hand corner of the window, select the cell reference and name it:
RATE. Press the Return Key.
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HLOOKUP Function
To calculate the Nett cost of the holiday (Column D), it is necessary to multiply the
number of weeks booked (Column C) by the weekly rate (Column B).
The weekly rate is referenced in rows 8 and 9. The HLOOKUP function will cross
reference and get the information needed.
Click in D13. Type in =C13*
In the FORMULAS Toolbar, click on Insert function. The insert function Dialogue
box appears.
Click on All and HLOOKUP as shown and click on OK.
The HLOOKUP Function dialogue box appears.
Click in each field in turn and enter the information.
Click OK. This completes the function and the value appears in cell D13.
Use Autofill to complete the costings down to cell D28.
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IF Function
The TOTAL in the F column requires the COST plus the insurance, but only if
required. To achieve this variable, the IF function is required.
Click in cell F13 and type in =D13+
Click on Insert function. Choose the IF Function. Type in the following.
Pay particular attention to the quotes around the YES. This instructs Excel to look for
text. Note the next field is preceded an absolute.
Without this, the cell reference would be incremented when Autofill is applied.
The last field is logical. When the cell does not contain a “YES,” the result will be a
nothing added. Click OK. Autofill F13 to F28.
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Average Function
The label in A31 specifies the Average cost Excluding Insurance.
Click on Insert function. Find AVERAGE in the list and click OK
Insert the cell range in the first field and click OK
The second field (Number2) is if there are more than one, non contiguous ranges.
In a blank worksheet, in cells A1:A5, type the figures: 111, 345, 276, 437, 566. In cells
A10:A15, type the figures 289, 367, 258, 766 and 988. Use Average to work out the
average of the two sets of figures columns in A8 and A18. In C1, work out the average
of the 2 sets of figures.
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COUNT, COUNTA function
COUNT counts up the number of cells in a selected range that contain numbers only.
COUNTA adds up the number of cells in a selected range that contain Text and/or
numbers.
COUNT
Click in cell B32. Click on Insert function. Select COUNT.
When the dialogue box appears, click in the Mosaic square next to the field.
The box collapses. Select cells D10:D28. Click on the mosaic square again.
When the dialogue box reappears, click on OK.
The answer 16 appears in the destination cell.
COUNTA
Click in cell C32. Click on Insert function. Select COUNTA.
When the dialogue box appears, click in the Mosaic square next to the field.
The box collapses. Select cells D10:D28. Click on the mosaic square again.
When the dialogue box reappears, click on OK.
The answer 17 appears in the destination cell.
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COUNTIF function
COUNTIF will add up the cells in a specified range which satisfy a certain criteria.
Click in cell B33. Click on Insert function. Choose COUNIF from the list.
Click on the mosaic square next to the first field.
When it collapses, select cells E13 to E28 and then click on the mosaic tile again.
When the dialogue box reappears, enter the following syntax:
Click OK. The correct number appears in the destination cell.
Note this function is case sensitive. Entering “yes” will not give a correct result.
All conditional arguments must be surrounded by quotation marks.
Click in cell B34. Use COUNTIF to find the number of customers booking more than
two weeks. You can type directly into the cell without using the wizard.
Syntax: =COUNTIF(C13:C28,”>2”)
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Sumif
We need to know the total value of holidays requiring insurance. Click in cell B36.
Click on insert function button. In the dialogue, choose Sumif. Enter the values shown
below. The first field is where we query the criteria, the second the criteria we need and
the third the figures to be totally that satisfy the criteria.
Click OK.
Nested If
Previously there were only two criteria in the If formulae. There may, however, be
multiple criteria. One example could be where a commission is allowed at various rates
depending on whether targets were met.
Open the NestedIF file. Enter the following:
=IF(B3>100,"Pass",IF(B3>60,"Resit","Fail"))
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Vertical Lookup
Open the VERTLOOKUP file from the resources folder. Firstly, we need to crossreference the Price code in cells C22 to C27 from the table above it. Name the first
table Code. Click in cell C22. Click Insert Function and select the Vlookup function.
Enter the values shown and click OK.
Next we need to cross reference the code with the monetary value and multiply by the
number sold in column D. Name the second table Price. Click in cell B22. Open the
paste function again at Vlookup.
Enter the values shown and click OK. Note we are using column 3 for the current year.
When the formula appears in the Formula bar, add *D22 to it at the end and click the
Green tick.
Autofill the other cells.
The Rangefield sheet shows the function of the fourth field in the vlookup dialogue.
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Creating Custom Lists
A List is created from an initial example given by the user which the software can then
automatically fill in
In any empty cell, type January. Click on the green tick to enter the value. Move the
cursor to the bottom right corner of the cell. When it becomes a black cross, click/drag
down ten cells. The software replicates with February, March etc.
Should you wish to create a special, customised list, this can be done.
In a blank worksheet, enter 6 names in cells A1 to A6.
Click the Microsoft Office Button
, and then click the Excel Options button at the
bottom.
IN the left hand screen, click Popular, and then in the centre, click the Edit Custom
Lists button.
Select the cells in your sheet.
Click the Import button.
Click Add
Click OK, OK.
Enter Harry into an empty cell. Point with the Fill cursor on the grab handle.
Drag the cursor down and the custom list will be populated.
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Custom list – alternate method
Click the Microsoft Office Button
, and then click the Excel Options button at the
bottom.
IN the left hand screen, click Popular, and then in the centre, click the Edit Custom
Lists button.
In the dialogue, type the list directly into the larger field.
Click the Add button. The list is moved into the left hand field.
Click OK, OK.
Go back to the sheet and try the new list as before.
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Filtering Records
Open the Employees workbook from the Resources folder. Go to the Details
worksheet. Click anywhere inside the list area
IN the HOME tab, click the Sort & Filter button to select Filter.
Pick list arrows appear against all field names at the top of the list. To filter records on
a particular field, click on the filter arrow and, from the resulting drop down list, choose
the value required
In the Department column, click on the Administration drop down.
The records are limited to the Administration department.
Note that any column with a filter applied has a filter icon at the top.
Filters can be carried out on more than one level. Use the same method to choose only
females.
Use the same toolbar button to remove the filter.
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Custom Filter
The Custom Filter can be used to find a specific range of data. Switch the pick (drop
down) buttons on again as before. Use the pick button in the Date Joined column
heading to choose Date Filters Custom Filters (at the bottom of the list). Enter the
dates shown.
Click OK.
In the drop down menu for Date Joined, click on Clear Filter from Date Joined.
Use the custom filter in the salary column to finds salaries between 10000 and 20000.
(Be sure to use the same numerical format. 10, 000 to 20, 000 will not work).
Keep this filter for the next exercise.
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Filter Subtotal
Click on the pick button for Salary and choose Custom. Set the Criteria to is greater
than or equal to – 20,000. Four items are filtered. Click in the next empty cell in the
same column.
In the HOME toolbar, click on Autosum. Accept the suggestion by clicking on the
green tick. The total given will be the subtotal of the displayed items only.
Filter Blanks
In the Holiday Rota column, there are blanks. Deselect all but the Blanks option.
Four records are returned, denoting those employees who have not applied yet.
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Grouping and Ungrouping
Open the Garage Sales workbook. Select the rows 6 to 9 or cells A6 to A9.
In the DATA toolbar, click the Group button.
When the dialogue appears, click the Rows radio button and then OK.
Do the same with the cells under the sub-headings HOLCOT and MOULTON.
Click on each minus button
in turn to collapse the cells underneath the headings.
Use the outline number buttons at the top to switch levels on and off..
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Outline Subtotals
From the Resources folder, open Wine Sales. Ensure one of the cells is selected within
the table. In the DATA tab, click the Subtotal button.
The Subtotals dialogue box appears.
Set the first field to Area, the second to Sum and the third to Sales.
Check all three boxes. (Unchecking the last box would put the totals at the beginning
instead). Click OK.
Click on the + and – icons or the 1 2 3 in the left margin to see the result
Click on the pluses to return the worksheet to normal.
Use the same procedure to produce a subtotal at each change in Representative.
Use the same procedure to produce a subtotal at each change in Month.
(Change only the first field).
Employ the + and – buttons to see the effect again..
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Concatenate Fields
Type your given name into cell A10 and your family name into cell B10.
In cell C10, type =A10&” “&B10. Press the Return Key.
The space contained in quotes inserts the space in the resulting text.
Save the Exercise to the desktop as Cells.
Date Functions - Today and Now
Open a blank workbook. Click in any cell. Click on Insert function.
Select Date & Time in the Function category field and TODAY in the Function
Name field. Click OK. When the dialogue box appears, click OK.
Today's date is automatically entered.
Click in cell C1. With the cell still selected, click on Insert function.
Select Date & Time in the Function category field and NOW in the Function Name
field. Click OK. When the dialogue box appears, click OK.
Today's date and time is automatically entered.
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Date Functions - Weekday
The Weekday function will return a number from 1 to 7, assigned to a particular day of
the week. There are three choices.
Sunday – 1 through to Saturday –7. Monday – 1 through to Sunday – 7.
Monday – 0 through to Sunday – 6.
In a blank workbook, enter today’s date in A1 and autofill down about 20 rows.
Select cell B1 and click on Insert function. When the Insert function dialogue box
appears, select Date & Time in the Function category field and WEEKDAY in the
Function Name field. Click OK.
When the wizard dialogue box appears, enter C3 into the Serial Number field. This
references the date entered and converts it into a number, shown to the right of the field.
In the Return type field, type 1. This represents the first of the three options.
Click OK. Autofill the result down.
Click in cell C3 and D3 respectively, but use the same formula, but enter 2 and 3 in the
Return Type field.
Click OK. Autofill the results down
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Pivot Tables
A Pivot table is an organised view of data or information, displayed in a way defined by
the person creating it. It can be used to summarize, organize, analyse or compare
information.
From the Resources Folder, open the Australian Wines file.
In a large and complex spreadsheet such as this, a user might need to search through
pages and pages of data to find the information they require. Excel makes this easier by
creating Pivot Tables to collate, summarise and present the information.
Select any cell. In the INSERT tab, click the Pivot table button.
A dialogue appears. By default the whole table is selected. Use the first field to change
this if required. It is advisable to leave he second option to new worksheet.
Click OK.
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A new Sheet is created which requires your input.
Click drag items from the task pane to the fields indicated in the order suggested..
From here it can be seen how much was sold in each area on a monthly basis.
The next step is to find out how much Red and how much White were sold in each area.
Click drag Type to the Area field. Place the cursor to the right of the Area field and let
go.
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The area sales are subdivided into type. Releasing on the left hand side of the field
would have given Type precedence over Area.
Now to “Pivot” the table. Click in the Type box and drag it to the left into the Area
box. Let go.
Change the Sales figures for Quantity by click dragging the fields in and out of the task
pane areas as shown.
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Pivot table show detail
Note that there were 31 bottles of Red sold in the Midlands during Jan-01.
This is derived from the data in Rows 15 to 18 in Sheet 1.
Move to Sheet 1 to view the source figures.
There is an automatic way of displaying the information from where the figures are
derived. Return to the pivot table
Click on the figure 31 to select it. Right click on the cell and choose Pivot table 
Show detail. A new sheet is created.
The relevant source records are displayed, although the row numbers are not preserved.
Right click on the sheet tab to delete it.
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Field settings & Calculations
Go back to the pivot table. Click on the field containing the figure 31.
Right click and choose Value field settings.
The Value field settings dialogue box appears. Change to Average
Click the Number Format button.
Set the category to Number and 2 decimal places.
Click OK. Click OK.
The returned Average figure is 7.75.
Referring back to the figures in the spreadsheet, there were 4 entries with a total of 31.
The average would therefore be 7.75.
Use the same procedure to check for Min and Max figures - referring back to the
spreadsheet for confirmation.
Delete the new Pivot sheet.
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Pivot table Page fields
Go back to the Spreadsheet. In the INSERT tab, click the Pivot table button.
When the first dialogue appears, accept the defaults and click OK.
Click/drag the fields as indicated.
Next to the Type field is a drop down arrow. Click on it.
Select Red and then click OK.
Note the changes and use the same procedure to select White.
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Grouping Data
Return the Page field setting to All. Right click on the Month field and in the flyout
menu, choose Group. (Alternatively, in the PIVOT TABLE TOOLS  OPTIONS
tab, click on the Group field button.
Click both Months and Quarters to select. Click OK.
There is, as yet, no quarterly summary. Right click on the Quarters field and choose
Subtotal Quarters.
Right click again on the Quarters field and choose Field settings.
(Or click on Field Settings in the toolbar).
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When the dialogue appears, choose Custom radio button and click Sum and Average.
Click OK.
.
Change field name
Right click on the field heading Type and select Field Headings.
When the dialogue appears, change the name in the first field to Red/White.
Click OK.
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Pivot table Autoformat
Go to the PIVOT TABLE TOOLS  DESIGN tab. Click the bottom arrow to reveal
all formatting options.
Notice as you hover over an option it is applied to the current pivot table.
Click to Apply.
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Pivot Chart
More or less the same discipline as Pivot tables. Open Australian Wines. In the
INSERT tab, click the drop down to select Pivot Chart.
When the first dialogue appears, accept the defaults and click OK.
Although the dialogue specified a new sheet, this includes data. In PIVOT CHART
TOOLS  DESIGN tab, click the Move chart location button.
When the dialogue appears, check the New Sheet radio button and rename the sheet.
Click OK.
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Click drag the fields as shown (in no particular order).
Click once on any Red coloured bar. Right click and choose Format data series.
Choose a pale blue and click OK. Use the same method to change the other data series
to Red.
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In the PIVOT TABLE TOOLS  DESIGN tab, click the Change Chart type button.
When the dialogue appears, choose a line chart and click OK.
Click once on each line in turn and right click as before to change the line colours.
In the PIVOT CHART TOOLS  LAYOUT tab, click on Data Labels and in the
drop down menu, choose the Above option.
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Customising the Toolbar
The Quick Access toolbar can be populated with items from other toolbars.
Click the Office button and then the Excel Options button. When the dialogue
appears, in the left pane, select Customize. In the Choose Commands from field,
select Home tab and add the Autosum item.
Click OK.
Use the same method to add the Forms item from the Commands not in the ribbon
group. You will need this later.
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File protection
If you wish to protect the integrity of a workbook and prevent unauthorised viewing
and/or alteration, it can be protected with a password. With any spreadsheet in the
menu bar, choose File  Save As.
In the Save As dialogue screen, click on the drop down arrow next to Tools and choose
General Options from the list.
A Save Options dialogue box appears, requesting two passwords.
Type in two passwords and click OK. You will be prompted to repeat the passwords.
Save onto the desktop and close the file.
Re-open it. You are prompted for the password to open.
Without it you are unable to open the file. Type in the first password. Another box is
displayed.
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Without the second password you may view and change the file but not re-save it.
Open a blank file and type your name into a cell. Save onto the desktop. In the menu
bar, choose Tools → Options → Security tab.
Enter two passwords and click OK. Re-enter the passwords and when prompted reenter them. Save onto the desktop and close.
Re-open the file, entering the passwords when prompted.
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Protect Sheet
With this option, instead of protecting the whole book, it is possible to protect one
sheet. Re-open the Reps figures file. Go to Sheet 1.
In the HOME TAB, click on Format Hide and unhide Hide Sheet.
In the REVIEW TAB, click the Protect Workbook button. A dialogue appears.
Type your given name in the password field and accept the defaults.
Click OK. When the second dialogue appears, type it again and click OK.
Return to the HOME TAB and try to unhide the sheet. It is greyed out.
Go back to the REVIEW TAB and unprotect the workbook. After entering the
password, you are able to unhide the sheet.
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Protect Cells
Open Sports Supplies. We need to protect the Total profit column only and allow
input into the other cells. By default all cells are locked for editing, but this does not
kick in until the Worksheet is protected.
Click in the grey box at the junction of the row and column headings. This
automatically selects all the cells. In the HOME TAB, click on one of the expansion
boxes for formatting.
This accesses the Format cells dialogue. Go to the Protection tab. Uncheck the
Locked checkbox.
Click OK.
Select column E and re-enter the dialogue to re-check the Locked box.
In the REVIEW TAB, click the Protect Sheet button. When prompted, enter a
password and confirm it.
Try to change any value in column E and then a value in any other column.
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Freeze and Split frames.
With a large worksheet, it might be desirable to hold one section of the worksheet on
screen while scrolling through another. The first option is to freeze part of the frame.
With the Australian wines worksheet on screen, select row 10.
In the VIEW TAB, click the Freeze Panes button and then Freeze Panes.
Use the scroll arrows to move through the records.
Note how the records are locked above the selection, whilst the other records are
scrolled.
In the VIEW TAB, click the Freeze Panes button and then Unfreeze Panes.
Another method is to split the window. Keep row 25 selected.
In the VIEW TAB, click the Split button
This time a grey bar is inserted, with a vertical scroll option in each pane.
Click the same button to remove the split. Select one cell and split again. This time a
four way split is created.
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Hyperlinks
In the Stationary2 workbook, click in Cell A15 and enter Computer sales.
In the INSERT TAB, click the Hyperlink button
This Opens the Insert Hyperlink dialogue box.
Enter the text in the Text to display field as shown and click the Browse button.
Navigate to the Computer sales file.
Click OK. Click OK.
Run the mouse pointer over it. When it becomes a hand, click once.
The Computer Sales workbook is opened.
In the VIEW TAB, click the Switch windows button to toggle back to Stationery
Sales.
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Linking cells between Sheets
In the Computer Sales worksheet, total the cell in B9
Click in cell A10 and type TOTAL STATIONARY SALES.
Open Stationary 2. Click in cell B14 and copy. Toggle back to Computer Sales and
click in B10.
In the HOME TAB, click the Paste button and choose Paste Link.
In cell A12, enter the text GROSS TOTAL. Add the two totals above it.
Go to Stationary2. Make a change to one of the values in the A column. Press the
Return Key.
Note the change in the copied Total and Gross Total has been updated.
Go to the Computer Sales sheet and note also that the value in there has been updated.
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Data Entry Forms
From the Resources folder, open Ironmonger.xls. Click anywhere in the table.
Go to the ribbon and click on the Forms item you included earlier.
Note that the Total field is not available. This is because these fields contain formulas
and the Form view will only allow value and label entries. Click on the NEW button to
clear the fields in preparation for the new entry. Enter the information shown
Click Close. The new entry is inserted at the end of the list in the worksheet.
Open the Data form sheet again.
Click on the Criteria button and in the NET field, enter <150.
Click on the Find Next button to observe the results within the form - ie Items less than
150 Net.
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Goalseek
Open the Goalseek file from the Resources Disc. In the first example, we need to find
how much our outgoings need to be reduced to achieve Savings of £500. Click cell C7.
In the DATA TAB, click the What if analysis button and then Goalseek.
In the dialogue box, enter the values shown.
Click OK, OK. The solution is £9500.
In the next example, the Total Repayment in cell E14 is derived using the PMT
formula.
You have decided that you wish to borrow £200,000. However, the most you can
afford to pay each month is £1000. The present arrangement declares a repayment of
almost £1,160 pm, which is not affordable.
In the menu bar, choose Tools  Goalseek
The interest rate is fixed, so the only other thing we can change is the repayment period.
Set the following. Note the second field is a minus value.
Click OK. OK. The goalseek returns a figure of 25 years to meet the repayments at
£1000 a month, which was the objective.
The Set cell field must contain a formula.
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Solver
The Solver function is like Goalseek, except that the calculations are more complex and
can involve several cells with constraints. Goalseek only allows the changing of one
cell and does not allow constraints.
Open Solver.xls from the Resources folder.
The scenario is we need to send a mail shot to our customers. The values in the Cost
column (C) for each county are derived from the number of mailings in column D times
brochure cost in cell B14. The total assumes a 100% mailing.
However the budget is set at £15,000. It is obvious not all customers can be covered,
but the manager insists that Northants, where the head office is situated, should receive
100% coverage. This value is added into the Min mailings list. Underneath, the values
are arbitrary, but necessary so the formula does not return negative values.
Click on C12 which where the target value of £15,000 needs to occur.
In the DATA TAB, click the Solver button on the extreme right.
(If it is not there, you will need to install it. See section after this).
The target cell has already been inserted into the first field. Check the Value of radio
button and type in the references in the By Changing cells field. This is the number of
mailshots.
Use the Add button to enter the following constraints.
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Click Solve.
When the Results dialogue box appears, click OK.
A solution has been found, but the manager decides he wants the distribution percentage
to be spread more evenly across the other counties.
In the Menu Bar, choose Tools → Solver. Click on the Add button again and enter the
extra constraint as shown to equalise the results.
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Add in Solver
Office button Excel Options  Manage: Excel Add-ins  Go.
Another dialogue appears. Check the Solver add-in box.
Click OK. A button should appear on the right of the Data tab. This may need a
programme restart.
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Formula auditing
Formula auditing can be used to inspect components of a formula. Open January
Business from the Resources folder.
Click in cell F5. In the FORMULAS TAB, click the Trace Precedents button.
A line is inserted which traces the source of the cells used in the formula contained in
the chosen cell. Click on the Remove Arrows Remove Precedent Arrows button.
Go to any one of the cells in the total row and click on the Trace Precedents button
again. Remove the line again.
Click in cell C5. Click on the Trace Dependents button.
This time, the arrows point to the formulae which the cell is referenced back to.
Click the Remove Arrows  Remove dependent arrow button.
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Data validation
Select column heading B, the job numbers. Job numbers should run from 200.
In the DATA TAB, Click Data Validation  Data Validation.
The Data Validation dialogue box opens.
Select Whole number from the Allow field. Ensure the Ignore blank box is checked.
Set the Minimum and Maximum fields as shown and click OK.
o to the Input message tab. Enter the values shown below. Leave the title field blank.
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Go to the Error alert tab. Enter the title and message as shown below.
Click OK. Click on any cell in column B.
Try to enter the number 150 in any blank cell in column B.
In the DATA TAB, click Data Validation Circle Invalid data.
The error value is circled. Click on Data Validation  Clear Validation circles. Try
to enter 150 in empty cell B10 or B11. Note how the validation rule now prevents you
from doing so.
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Watch window
A cell value can be monitored for changes, even when it is not in view. The workbook
in which the cell is referenced, however, must be open.
Open the January business workbook. Select cells E5 to E17 and delete the contents.
We need to create a 3 dimensional formula for this to make sense. Open a new
workbook and anywhere in it, select a cell and type 17.5%. Save the workbook as
VAT. Go back to January business and in cell E5, type =D5*. Go to the VAT
workbook and click in the cell containing the value 17.5%. Click on the Green tick in
the VAT workbook to enter it and return to the January business workbook. You
have created a three dimensional cell formula. Autofill down.
Return to January Business. In the FORMULAS TAB, click the Watch Window
button. When the Watch window dialogue appears, click Add Watch.
Add cell E17 as shown.
Toggle to the VAT workbook. Change the value to 10%.
Note how the value is changed in the Watch window.
To switch the Watch window off again, go back to the FORMULAS TAB and click
the Watch Window button again.
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Scenarios
Open the Scenario file. We can forecast the sales figures for Qtr 4 by one of three
options – Most likely, Best case and Worst case.
In the DATA TAB, click the What if analysis  Scenario manager button.
When the dialogue box opens. Click on the Add button. The Edit Scenario dialogue
appears
Enter the name Best and use the mosaic button to select cells G4:G5.
Click OK. When the Scenario values dialogue box appears, enter the following values.
Click Add. Name the next one Worst case and click OK. Enter 0% and 7%
respectively. Click OK.
Click Add. Name the next one Most likely and click OK. Enter 8% and 2%
respectively. Click OK.
Click on Best in the list and choose Show. Then click on the other options to see the
results.
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Consolidate
Data from more than one worksheet may be consolidated into one to view totals,
averages etc. Open the Consolidate worksheet. Inspect the three monthly results and
go to the 1st Q worksheet. Click in cell C3.
In the DATA TAB, click the Consolidate button. The Consolidate dialogue box opens.
With the flashing insertion point in the Reference field, toggle to the Jan worksheet.
Select cells C3 to D9. Click the Add button. Click the Feb tab. Click the Add button.
Click the Mar tab. Click the Add button. Check the Top Row box.
Click OK.
The data from the other three sheets is totaled and entered with the relevant headings.
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Consolidate by Category
When the source data is not in the same position as the destination or does not contain
the same source data, it is necessary to use a different method.
Open Category Consolidation and inspect the different sheets. Note the data is not the
same. Go to the Consolidate Sheet and click in A6.
In the DATA TAB, click the Consolidate button. The Consolidate dialogue box opens.
Click the Mosaic button to the right of the Reference field. Click on the James sheet
tab and select cell range A6:C8. Click the Mosaic Dialog button to restore the dialogue.
Click Add to add the first source reference to the All References list. Add the other two
source references as shown below.
Check the Left column option in the Label section to provide the correct row headings
when consolidated.
Click OK.
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Conditional Formatting.
Conditional formatting is applied to a cell only if a certain condition is true.
Open Stationary 2 and go to Sheet 1. Select the cell range B3 to B12.
In the HOME TAB, click the Conditional Formatting button to reveal the options.
Try one option from each subset in turn – Top/bottom rules, Data Bars, Colour
Scales, Icon sets.
Click the Conditional Formatting button again and choose Clear Rules Clear
Rules from selected cells.
Click again and choose Highlight Cells Rule Greater than.
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When the dialogue appears, enter the following.
Click OK.
Conditional formatting using furmulae
Formulas can also be written in the conditional criteria.
Open the Conditional formatting file. Select B3 to F14 and make those months where
the rainfall is above 16 cms Bold. (Use Custom Format).
In Year Total Row 15, make the figure Blue Italic where the year's total exceeds the
yearly average by using the following method:
Select the cells B15 to F15. In the conditional formatting dialogue, enter
=AVERAGE($B$15:$F$15) Click the format button and apply Blue Italic.
NOTE: The cell references must be absolutes when used in conditional formatting.
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Advanced Filter
The advanced filter will allow more complex filter criteria. Open Australian Wines.
At the top of column J, type in the following.
The column heading is the criteria range and the name of the representative is the
specific criteria. Click anywhere in the data (not column J).
In the DATA TAB, click the Advanced Filter button.
When the dialogue appears, enter the following:
Click OK. 33 records are returned pertaining to Geoffrey Kitson.
Click the Clear button.
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In column J, add another two representatives as shown below.
Click anywhere in the data except the new columns. In the DATA TAB, click the
Advanced Filter button. When the dialogue appears enter the following.
Click Ok and note the results. Click the Clear button.
Enter the following in columns J and K.
Click anywhere in the data except the new columns. In the DATA TAB, click the
Advanced Filter button. When the dialogue appears enter the following.
Click OK. Geoffrey Kitson sales over 150 are returned. Click the Clear button.
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Enter the following in columns J and K.
Click anywhere in the data except the new columns. In the DATA TAB, click the
Advanced Filter button. When the dialogue appears enter the following.
Click OK. All 3 reps with sales over 150 are returned. Click the Clear button.
Enter the following in columns J and K.
Note the criteria are on different rows this time. In the DATA TAB, click the
Advanced Filter button. When the dialogue appears enter the following.
Click OK. When the criteria is on the same row, both criteria must be honoured. When
the criteria is on different rows, either criteria is satisfied. Click the Clear button.
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Custom Formatting
Open a blank workbook. Select column A.
In the HOME TAB, click the expansion button to reveal the Format cells dialogue.
Go to the Number tab. Choose the Custom option. Scroll to find the option below.
Click OK. In A1, type in 7.25. It is returned as a fraction.
Select column B. In the HOME TAB, click the expansion button to reveal the Format
cells dialogue. Go to the Number tab. Choose the Fraction option. Scroll to find the
option below.
Click OK. In B1, type in 7.25. It is returned as a fraction.
Select column C. In the HOME TAB, click the expansion button to reveal the Format
cells dialogue. Go to the Number tab. Choose the Custom option. Scroll to find the
option below.
We will modify it. In the Type field, add 2 zeros.
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Click OK. In B1, type in 7.25. It is returned with 2 extra trailing zeros.
Select column D. In the HOME TAB, click the expansion button to reveal the Format
cells dialogue. Go to the Number tab. Choose the Custom option. Scroll to find the
option below.
Type in 2 extra zeros to the right of the first string of existing text.
In D1, type in 1223.46. In D2, type in -1223.46
The hash symbols are placeholders, to allow the comma separator to be inserted. The
zeros specify how many decimal places and will insert extra zeros or delete them and
round up if necessary. The [Red] specifies the colour for minus values.
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Calculate Elapsed Time
Not all formats that you might need will be provided. Say you need to work out the
time worked during a shift for an employee such as a lorry driver.
Open a blank worksheet and enter the column headings:
START, FINISH, ELAPSED DURATION.
Enter the following in row 3:
03/05/04 08:00
03/05/04 13:30
=B3-A3
First thing to notice is the date reverts to the full year. (It often also reverts to American
format on some systems). Also, the formula does not return an elapsed duration in
Days/hours/minutes as we would have liked. It either returns a date or number.
Click on the column heading for A.
In the HOME TAB, click the expansion button to reveal the Format cells dialogue.
Go to the Number tab. Choose the Custom option. Scroll to find the option below.
Click in the Type field and modify it to dd/mm/yy hh:mm. Do the same for col B.
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Select column C. In the HOME TAB, click the expansion button to reveal the Format
cells dialogue. Go to the Number tab. Choose the Custom option. Scroll to find the
option below.
This should now return the following.
Align over decimal
In the HOME TAB, click the expansion button to reveal the Format cells dialogue.
Go to the Number tab.
Select Custom from the options list and type the following operators.
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Data Functions
Data functions can be used in a data list to make calculations based on criteria within
the data list.
Open Australian Wines. In cell K1, type Representative. In cell k2, type Dave
Robertson.
Click in cell K5. In the FORMULAS TAB, click on Insert function and choose
DSum. Enter the following;
The first part of the argument is all the database (or selected part of it) which you are
looking at. The second part is the column or field heading where the values to be added
will be found. The last part of the argument is the criteria, which is the individual item
and the column in which it is to be found. Click OK.
Change K2 to Geoffrey Kitson and note the result is adjusted accordingly.
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Sort Custom List
In the Employees workbook, inspect the Training Day column. The column displays
days of the week. Click any day in the column and then click the Sort
ascending/descending buttons in the toolbar. The data is sorted in alphabetical, not
chronological order. In this scenario, you wish to sort from Wednesday to Tuesday.
In the DATA TAB, click the Sort button.
When the dialogue appears, set the following, using the Custom list for weekdays in the
Order field.
Click OK. Click OK.
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Split text in a string
The opposite of concatenate. In a blank Worksheet, type your name in cell A1.
Underneath the name Tom Smith. The first thing to do is find the position of the space
in the middle. That will then define the split point of the text.
Click in cell B1 and initiate the Find function.
The first field defines what we are looking for in the text string which is the space
between the first and last name. This is specified by quotes, space quotes.
The second field says where the text string is that is being searched, in this case cell A1.
The third field is left empty in this instance. It can be used to define the start point of
the search – ie which letter to start from. That might be useful in longer strings which
are broken more than once. Click OK.
The number 6 is returned. This is the position of the space in the text. This will be used
to define the split point. Autofill down.
Click in cell C1. Initiate the Mid function. This will split the text.
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The first field again defines the text to be split. The second field determines the start
point. Since we want all the first name, enter 1. The third field defines the point to
where the text ends. B1 is referenced as the split point. The -1 takes off the space at the
end. Click OK.
Click in cell D1. Initiate the MID function again.
The first field, as before, asks for the text to be split. The second field requires where
the split starts. In This case it is the Space position defined in B1, with a +1 to take out
the space itself. The third field is an arbitrary number large enough to accommodate the
longest text to be extracted. Click OK.
A nested function could be used instead. IN cell A5, enter your name again.
In B1, initiate the MID formula. Enter the following.
The first field specifies where the text string is. The second field, the start point. The
third field the cut off point – using FIND to pick out the space minus 1.
Otherwise expressed in the Formula bar as =MID(A5,1,FIND(" ",A1)-1)
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Drop down list
Open a new workbook and go to Sheet 2. Type in a list of ten names from cell A1
through to A10.
Name the cell range Staff and return to Sheet 1. Select a column.
In the DATA TAB,, choose Data Validation. In the Allow field, choose List.
Uncheck Ignore blank. (This will default the cell to blank before a choice is made). In
the Source field, be sure to enter = and then enter the range name Staff.
Go to the Input message tab and enter the following.
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Go to the Error Alert tab and enter the following.
Click OK. Autofill down to cell 20 before you enter a name. (If a name is autofilled by
mistake, select the affected cells with the white cross cursor and press the Delete key).
Enter three names using the drop down list. Note the prompt that appears which you
entered in the Input message tab.
Try to enter a different name in the next cell. Note the flag that appears the details of
which you entered in the Error Alert tab.
Click Cancel.
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Combination Charts
From the resources folder, open the Combination workbook.
Select the cells A3 to E5 and create a column chart.
Right click on one of the chart elements and in the flyout menu, choose. Change series
chart type.
When the dialogue box opens, choose the Line with markers (4th lineoption) option.
Click OK. The line is added.
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Payment Formula (Financial)
The payment formula calculates rates of repayment and the final figure paid back.
Open the Financial file from the resources folder.
Click in cell D6. Enter the following: =PMT(B6/12,C6*12,A6).
The first part of the argument is the interest rate. This a monthly payment.
Consequently, it is expressed as the interest per year divided by 12 to give the monthly
interest.
The second part is the number of payments and therefore number of years times twelve.
The third part is the Principal ie amount borrowed.
The result is expressed as a negative.
The total repayment has been calculated as monthly payments x number of years x 12.
With the formula cell selected, click on the Insert function button. Two more
arguments are allowed. The FV field allows the insertion of the value of the loan at the
end. This can be used to calculate an interest only loan. Enter the principal reference in
this field (as a negative value – ie still owing).
Click OK. The value of £583,33 is returned.
Finally, return to the wizard and enter a 1 in the last field. This states payments are
made at the beginning of the loan period instead of the end. Click OK.
A value of £581.64 is returned.
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Side by Side
Open the two Wholesaler files. In the VIEW TAB, switch on Side by side.
(If you have more than 2 files open, you will have an ellipse in the menu. Click on it.
When the dialogue appears, check the relevant file and click Ok.)
Click on the Arrange All button and in the dialogue, choose and in the dialogue, choose
Vertical.
Click the Side by side button to switch off.
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VB Code
The code which controls macros is Visual Basic and can be edited. Open Macros 1.
In the VIEW TAB, click Macros View Macros. When the dialogue appears, select
the Name macro in the list and click the Edit button.
The VB code editor dialogue appears. (This is where viruses can be written in Word
attachments). Find the line which contains your name which will look like this:
Enter a middle initial into your name like this:
In the menu bar, choose File  Close and return to Microsoft Excel.
Try Ctrl + Shift + Q again. The name should now be entered with your middle initial.
In the menu bar, choose Tools  Macros  Macros. Select the Blue_Underline
macro and click the Step into button. The VB code editor dialogue appears. Find the
Style script and edit as follows:
In the menu bar, choose File  Close and return to Microsoft Excel. Select one of
your names. Try Ctrl + Shift + W again.
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Personal Macro Workbook
A macro saved to the Personal book will be available for all workbooks subsequently
created.
Open a blank file. Inspect the Macros. There should be none there.
In the VIEW TAB, click Macros Record Macro. When the dialogue appears,
choose the following:
Click OK. In any cell type Global Macro. Stop the recording.
Click in another cell and try out the macro. It should work. Close the file.
Open a new blank file. Use the Macro. It should work in this book also. Try to inspect
the Macro for editing or try to delete it. You cannot.
In the VIEW TAB, click the Unhide button.
Select PERSONAL.XLS and click OK. You can now delete the macro.
YOU MUST NOW CLICK THE HIDE BUTTON TO HIDE IT AGAIN.
Personal.xls is actually the template for all new workbooks and any additions or
changes made in here will affect all new blank workbooks.
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Sharing a Workbook
If a workbook is to be shared it must be configured to make it available to all
appropriate users. Before doing this it will be necessary to protect certain elements
such as formulas from unauthorized changes
Open the Sport supplies.xls file from the Resources folder. Save it onto the desktop.
In a real situation you will need to save it onto a shared drive. Consult your IT
department for the correct location.
In the REVIEW TAB, click the Share Workbook button
Change to the Advanced tab. Change the Keep change history field to 10
Click OK. Another dialogue appears informing you that you need to save it.
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Click OK.
In the name bar, note that the name has [Shared] after it.
Add 2 new records at the end as shown.
Save the workbook.
Track Changes
Open the Sport supplies file. Change cell E2 to £14.00. There is no visible clue that
the cell has been changed.
In the REVIEW TAB, click Track ChangesHighlight Changes.
When the dialogue appears, set the following:
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Click OK. The extra records added before the save are not displayed as changed.
Hover over the cell.
Change any other figure in column E. A small triangle appears in the corner of this and
the other cell changed earlier.
A flyout gives a read out of the change.
Change any figure in the C column and another figure in the E column. Note a
comment is only added to the Cost column as specified in the dialogue.
In the REVIEW TAB, click Track changes  Accept or reject changes. A dialogue
asks if you want to save.
Click OK.
Another dialogue appears asking various questions.
Accept the defaults and click OK.
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Merge documents
This will merge different copies of the same file. In this scenario, HR has Shared a file
named HR_Head Office. They have then created 2 duplicate copies and sent one each
to department managers in the Admin and Technical departments.
They have renamed these two copies HR_Admin and HR_Technical.
They have asked each department to update the records, correcting any mistakes.
Open all files in the Merge folder. In the menu bar, choose Window→ Arrange.
When the Arrange windows dialogue appears, click Tiled and then OK.
Inspect them. Remember, HR_Head Office is the original.
Note that Technical has corrected errors in cells A2 and E5.
Note that Admin have added a new employee in row 18.
Close all. Re-open HR_Head office. (The original file).
It is necessary to install the Compare and merge button into the Quick Access
toolbar. Click the Microsoft Office Button
Excel Options  Customize.
In Choose commands from list, click All Commands  Compare and Merge 
Workbooks  Add  OK.
Click the new Compare and Merge button. When the dialogue appears, select the
other two worksheets. (Use the Ctrl key to select non-contiguous).
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Tracking Merged Changes
In the REVIEW TAB, click Track Changes  Highlight changes. Uncheck all
boxes. Click OK.
In the REVIEW TAB, click Track Changes  Accept/Reject Changes.
Click the Where field and then select cell A2. Click OK.
Click Accept to accept the change and keep clicking to toggle through the others.
Click Close.
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Using Styles and Format painter
Open the Cells workbook. Click on cell A3 to select it and change the font to 14pt,
blue. In the HOME TAB, click the Cell Styles New Cell Style (bottom left).
When the dialogue box appears, select the title and insert the name 14 Blue.
Click OK.
In the HOME TAB, click the Cell Styles 14 Blue.
Right click on a style to delete it.
With cell A4 selected, click on the Format painter button.
. Click in cell A6.
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Workspace
Close all files. Open Australian Wines and Reps figures. In the VIEW TAB, use
Arrange all to set them side by side. Put one at the beginning and one at the end.
In the same tab, click the Save Workspace button. Save as Wines on the desktop and
close both files. Open the Work file. Note it has preserved the layout and also the
position of the files.
Set Enter key direction
Whenever a value is entered into a cell, the default action of the Return key is to move
to the cell below. It may be you would prefer the direction of travel to be different.
Click the Office button and then Excel Options. In the Advanced section, inspect the
Enter key options.
Click OK.
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AND, OR, NOT Functions
Open the AND_OR_NOT.xls workbook.
AND returns a true or false for criteria specified. The brackets must contain the TRUE
answer to BOTH arguments.
OR returns a true or false for criteria specified. The brackets must contain the TRUE
answer to EITHER arguments, but not both.
NOT reverses True and False.
And may be used in a nested IF function.
Trimmean
Trimmean is a statistical formula that takes an average of an internal range of figures,
discounting a given percentage of the outer ranges. For example, you may wish to find
the average of twenty figures, but ignore the two highest and two lowest.
Open the Trimmean workbook. Sheet one contains an example. Click on the 5.5 figure
to reveal the formula.
=TRIMMEAN(D4:D13,2/COUNTA(D4:D13))
This takes the average of all figures except the highest and lowest. The first section (in
blue) adds up all the range including ignored values.
In the second section, the first number represents the total ignored figures at the highest
and lowest values (in this case one and ten). This is divided by the number of all figures
in the range. The answer for the second section is rounded down to the nearest 2.
Go to the Practice sheet. Click in an empty cell and work out a mean for the figures
excluding the two highest and two lowest.
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Trendlines
Create a line chart from the Trendline.xls file. Click on the chart itself.
In the CHART TOOLS LAYOUT TAB, Click the Trendline button.
Choose Linear Trendline.
A trendline is created from the R-squared value of the figures.
Where more than one data series exists, select the specific data series and choose Chart
→ Add trendline.
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Drawing
Create a blank workbook. In the INSERT TAB, use the Shapes button to select the
Trapezoid shape.
Click/drag to form the shape in the workbook.
This initiates the DRAWING TOOLS FORMAT TAB.
Use the handles to rotate and change the shape.
Use Shape fill to apply a dark brown colour.
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In the Shapes options, select the Heart shape. Resize, rotate, recolour and position as
shown.
Go back to the INSERT TAB and click the Word Art button. Choose a style.
Select the text and go to the HOME TAB. Change the text and resize. Move it onto
the pie.
Select the oval shape. Click/drag out an oval on top of the other items. In the
DRAWING TOOLS FORMAT TAB, click the drop down for Shape styles to
apply a suitable fill.
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Layering and grouping
Go to the PAGE LAYOUT TAB. Click the Send to back button.
Using Shift, click on each element from top to bottom until they are all selected.
In the tab, click the Group button
Multiple views
It is possible to view more than one copy of a workbook at the same time. Open any
file. In the VIEW TAB, click the New window button.
The file is open twice with a 1 and 2 extension.
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Database Query
This is how to import specified data from a database into excel with specified criteria.
Open a blank spreadsheet. In the DATA TAB, click on the From Access button in the
upper left.
The Select Data Source dialogue box appears. Navigate to the Hotel.mdb file and
click OPEN. The Import Data dialogue appears.
Accept the defaults and click OK.
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Custom Views
Custom views define the way a workbook, worksheets, objects, and windows are
displayed. The stored settings include column widths, display options, window size and
position on the screen, window splits or frozen panes, the sheet that is active, and the
cells that are selected at the time the view is created. You can also save hidden rows,
hidden columns, filter settings, and print settings.
Open Garage Sales from the Resources folder. Create a split below row 15 (View tab
Split). Select all the cells in the Rothwell section and set it as a print area (Page
Layout tab  Print Area Set print area).. Hide Column F (Home Tab  Format
button  Hide and Unhide Hide Columns).
IN the VIEW TAB, click the Custom Views button. When the dialogue appears, click
the Add button. Type in your name and ensure the two boxes are checked.
Click OK.
Clear the Print area, unhide the column and remove the split.
IN the VIEW TAB, click the Custom Views button. When the dialogue appears, select
your name and click the Show button.
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Analysis Toolpack
From the Resources folder, open the AnalysisPack file.
It will probably be necessary to install this Add-in. (Office button Excel Options
Add-ins Managge Excel Add-ins Go  Analysis Toolpack  OK).
Once installed, the Data Analysis button appears in the Data Toolbar. Click on it.
When the dialogue appears, select Descriptive Statistics.
Click OK. Set the values shown.
Click OK.
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Statistical terminology
AVERAGE is the statistic which describes the center of a set of numbers.
There are different types of average – mean, median and mode.
MEAN is the sum of all numbers divided by the count of numbers.
Therefore, the mean of 2,6,8,10,11, and 12 would be:
3+6+7+16+16 = 8
6
MODE is the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers. In the
above example that would be the number 16.
MEDIAN is the middle number listed from lowest to highest. In the above example,
that would be 7.
RANGE is the difference between the highest and lowest numbers.
SAMPLE VARIANCE. Compute the difference between each pair of numbers; square
the differences; compute the mean of these squares; multiply this by 0.5. When you do
this, you will get the variance.
STANDARD DEVIATION is the positive square root of the variance.
STANDARD ERROR is the standard deviation divided by the square root of the
sample size. The bigger the sample, the less likely the error.
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SKEWNESS is a measure of the asymmetry of a random variable.
In the graphs below, the bars on the right side of the distribution taper differently than
the bars on the left side. These tapering sides are called tails, and they provide a visual
means for determining which of the two kinds of skewness a distribution has.
The bar chart on the left displays a positive skew: The right tail is the longest; the mass
of the distribution is concentrated on the left of the figure. The distribution is said to be
right-skewed.
The bar chart on the right displays a negative skew: The left tail is the longest; the mass
of the distribution is concentrated on the right of the figure. The distribution is said to be
left-skewed.
Positive skew
Negative skew
KURTOSIS is a measure of whether the data are peaked or flat relative to a normal
distribution. That is, data sets with high kurtosis tend to have a distinct peak near the
mean, decline rather rapidly, and have heavy tails. Data sets with low kurtosis tend to
have a flat top near the mean rather than a sharp peak.
Low Kurtosis
High Kurtosis
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Properties
Create a new blank document. Click the Office button and then Prepare  Properties.
This initiates another toolbar. Click on Document Properties Advanced Properties.
When the dialogue appears. Fill in the fields as shown.
Save onto the desktop. Close the workbook. Within Excel, click on Open. Navigate to
the desktop click once on the file (don’t open).
In the top right of the dialogue, click the drop down next to tools.
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Options - Default File Location
Close Excel completely and then re-open. Click the Open file button and note the
default folder where the application went to. (Probably my documents). Close it again.
Click the Office button  Excel Options  Save.
For now it may be advisable to make all documents backward compatible and set to xls.
Modify the path for the default file location to desktop.
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Digital Certificates
A digital certificate is an electronic identity card. It is an encryption based, secure
stamp of authentication which confirms that a macro or document originates from the
signer and has not been altered. The certificate is attached to the file and can be viewed
by any third party. This certificate contains a digital signature, which is what a
computer sees. For commercial purposes, this is to ensure that whatever you have
obtained from a third party actually originates from there, since any changes, however
minor, immediately invalidate the certificate.
Digital certificates have a different effect on documents and macros
You can create a digital certificate yourself (using the Selfcert.exe tool) which is quite
useful in some cases. However, because a digital certificate you create yourself isn't
issued by a formal certification authority, certificates you create yourself are considered
unauthenticated for third party purposes. You can give a certificate your name, but you
can also give it someone else’s name.
A verified digital certificate, on the other hand, would not allow you to do this. Verified
digital certificates can be obtained from a third party commercial certification authority,
such as VeriSign, Inc. There are a number of requirements for a verified certificate
such as a minimum financial stability level based on ratings from Dun & Bradstreet
Financial Services for class 3 certificates.
Some organizations and corporations might have a security administrator or group act
as their own certification authority and produce or distribute digital certificates by using
tools such as Microsoft Certificate Server.
For information about your organization's policy, contact your network administrator or
IT department.
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Selfcert Certificate
In order to create a self signed digital certificate, you need to use the Selfcert.exe
programme which is installed with office, but not easily accessible by default.
Click the Start button, and then click Control Panel. Find Add or Remove Programs
(method varies between xp and earlier operating systemns) and double click to open it.
Make sure that Change or Remove Programs option is selected in the upper left.
Select Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003.
Click the Change button.
In Microsoft Office 2003 Setup, make sure that Add or Remove Features is selected;
Click Next.
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In the next screen, select the Choose advanced customization of applications check box.
Click Next. In the next screen, click the plus sign next to Office Shared Features, click
the arrow next to Digital Certificate for VBA projects, and then click Run from My
Computer in the list.
Click Update. Close all windows. Click the Start button and find Programmes →
Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Tools → Digital signature for vba projects.
Alternatively, you can dig down through the directories to find the programme.
Find the Selfcert.exe programme on your computer. The path should be something
like C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office12.
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Double click on it to initiate the programme.
Having initiated the programme, the following should appear.
Enter a name for your certificate. Click OK.
NOTE: You can create more than one certificate.
To remove a certificate, go to Internet Explorer. In the Menu bar, choose Tools →
Internet Options → Contents tab. Click the certificates button. Select the signature
and click the Remove button. A warning tells you any documents or macros created
with this signature will not be recognised. Click OK.
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Digital Certificate - Document
Open the Absolute file in Excel.
Click the Office Button  Prepare  Add Digital Signature. Click OK at the
dialogue. Click Sign. Click OK.
A task pane for signatures appears at the side.
The document has been finalised and no further edits are possible
In the Select Certificate dialogue, there should be the name of your certificate.
Open a file with macro and no
digital certificate
Let's see what happens at the High macro security level when a macro isn't signed.
Create a file with a macro in it and save onto the desktop. Close the file.
Re-open it again. A new toolbar opens warning that macros have been disabled.
Click the Options button. A dialogue gives the option of enabling the macros.
Click the Enable Macro radio button and then click OK.
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Apply Digital Certificate to Macro
You can use the certificate you created to sign a macro.
In Visual Basic Editor in the menu bar, choose Tools → Digital Signature.
In the Digital Signature dialogue, click the Choose button. When the dialogue
appears, click the Digital signature for yourself.
Click OK. Click OK.
In the menu bar, choose File → Close and Return to Microsoft Office Excel.
You've just self-signed a macro.
Save the workbook. Close the workbook.
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Add yourself as trusted publisher
Now you need to add your certificate to the list of trusted publishers.
Re-open the file with your signed macro in it.
The warning toolbar appears again. Click the Options button.
This time there is an extra option. Click the Trust documents from this publisher
check box.
So and close. Re-open. This time there should be no warning or default blocking of
macros.
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Xml
XML stands for Extensible Markup Language It is platform and application
independent. This means that any program built to use XML can read and process any
XML data, regardless of computer operating systems and computer hardware. That
ability makes it possible for you to use desktop programs, such as Word 2003 or Excel
2003, directly on data generated by a mainframe computer.
There are 3 components to XML:
XML data is data, plus XML tags that describe the meaning and structure of your data.
XML schemas define rules for what can and cannot reside in your data files. For
example, a schema could ensure that users can't enter words into a date field.
XML transforms enable the use of data in a variety of programs or files. For example,
one transform could add sales data to an excel workbook, while another transform could
insert the same data into a document.
In addition to data and tags, XML data files contain declarations, root elements, and
attributes. This illustration is a sample XML data file for a cat named Izzy. The tags are
the combinations of greater-than-less-than brackets and text:
Parts of an XML data file:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Declarations
Root element
Attribute
Tags and data
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Declarations are statements in the data file that identify it and other files it works with.
In this illustration, the first declaration states that the file is an XML file. The second
declaration names a file that governs data structure for this file and other files of its sort.
The third declaration names a file that is used to control the appearance of the data, and
that allows an XML system to reorganize the data.
A root element is one tag that contains all the other tags, and all the data in each
particular record. In this file, the root tag is the individual animal.
Attributes store information about the tags and the data in them.. In this example, every
animal tag has a patient number as an attribute of the root element.
There are basic rules for creating well-formed XML.
Rule
Example
One tag must contain all other tags. In other words,
your data file must have a root element.
<cat>
<name>Izzy</name>
</cat>
If you provide an opening tag, you must provide a
closing tag
<cat> ... </cat>
All opening and closing tags must match.
Correct
<cat> ... </cat>
Incorrect
<cat> ... </Cat>
Some tags, called empty tags, do not require closing
tags because they include the closing forward slash
as part of the tag. The example shows tags for
inserting a horizontal rule and a line break.
Horizontal rule
<hr/>
Line break
<br/>
You must enclose all attribute values in single or
double quotation marks.
Correct
patient_id="389467"
Incorrect
patient_id=389467
All entities must be declared. Now don't panic. An
entity is a virtual storage area. It can contain
images, text, or characters such as the copyright
symbol. Here are the entities for the copyright
symbol and each angle bracket.
&copy; ©
&lt; <
&gt; >
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XML Schemas:
Data files use the file name extension .xml If you create a separate schema file, that
schema file uses the file name extension .xsd.
Parts of an XML schema
1
2
3
Declarations
Optional sequence declaration*
Data type
*controls order of tag sequence
A schema doesn't contain any data. So when you create a map, the cells in the map
remain empty until you enter or import data into them.
The illustration shows how a map links the items in a schema to cells in a worksheet.
You can create a map by using any of these three sources:
.xsd file. A separate schema file (a file with the)
.xml file A schema embedded in a data file (a file with the name extension)
XML data file with no schema other than its own tag structure.
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XML transforms:
A transform allows you to use the same data in many different ways. The XML data
that you have filed and structured so carefully can now be put to use in reports,
databases, Web pages, and a growing number of other applications.
This is the part of XML that allows data to be exchanged between otherwise
incompatible programmes. So data in Excel workbooks can be imported into an
unrelated database.
Go to the Desktop resources folder. Right click on the Expenses.xml file and in the
flyout, choose Open with Internet explorer. Inspect the code and then close Internet
explorer.
XML is a subject in its own right and writing it is not being covered her. However, you
may be required at some time to import and display it.
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Import XML as Excel List
In Excel 2003 there are two ways to get started with an XML map. The first is as an
XML list. When you use this option, Excel creates the map for you automatically, and
then imports all the data from the file into the list.
In Excel, from the resources folder, open the Expense Report.xml file. (In the Open
dialogue, you may need to change the Files of type field to All files).
The Open Xml dialogue appears. Choose the As an XML list option.
Click OK. Another dialogue appears telling you there is no schema.
Click OK. Filter buttons are applied as normal.
(Prior to 2007 this was set out as in an Excel list).
Close without saving.
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Import XML with Map
The second option creates a map using the XML Source task pane. This is a much more
flexible option. In Excel, from the resources folder, open the Expense Report.xml file
The Open Xml dialogue appears. Choose the Use the XML Source task pane option.
Click OK. Another dialogue appears telling you there is no schema.
Click OK. The XML Source task pane is initiated.
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Next we need to set out the spreadsheet, inserting some or all of the field headings first
by hand.
Enter the following. Resize as necessary.
Next to map the sheet with the XML fields in the task pane.
Click/drag the relevant fields to the right of each label.
That is the layout.
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In the DATA TAB, click the Refresh button.
Replace the element label for Department with Phone Number
Now drag the Mainphone element over to replace the department field which currently
say Sales. You can’t. The element has to be removed first. Right click on
Department in the task pane and in the flyout, choose Remove Element.
Delete any content left in the cell.
Drag the Mainphone element in again.
Click on RefreshRefresh All button
Click in the last row of expense items and add a new row of data by just typing in
anything appropriate.
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3D Functions.
From the resources folder, open the 3DFunctions file. In the Summary sheet, click in
cell B8. We will total all columns for Sales in all 3 sheets into this cell.
In the INSERT TAB, click the Paste Function. Choose SUM. When the dialogue
opens, go to the Birds sheet and select E7 to E20. Hold down the Shift key and click
the Dogs sheet.
Click OK.
Consolidated Printing
Open the Consolidate workbook. Go to the Jan tab and select cells A1:D9.
Hold down the Shift key and click the 1st Q tab.
Inspect Print Preview and note that 4 pages are previewed.
To deselect all pages, Shift/click on the Jan tab.
To print an entire workbook, check the entire radio button in the print dialogue.
Save and close
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Install Organisation Chart Option
Exit all programs. In Microsoft Windows, click the Start button, and then click Control
Panel.
Windows Vista Click Programs, and then click Installed Programs. Click 2007
Microsoft Office system, and then click Change.
Microsoft Windows XP Click Add or Remove Programs, and then click Change or
Remove Programs. Click 2007 Microsoft Office system, and then click Change.
In the 2007 Microsoft Office system Setup dialog box, click Add or Remove Features,
and then click Continue.
Click the plus sign (+) to expand the Microsoft Office folder.
Click the plus sign (+) to expand the Microsoft Office PowerPoint folder.
Click the
button next to Organization Chart Add-in for Microsoft Office programs,
and then click Run from My Computer
.
Click Continue to install Organization Chart.
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Create Organisation chart
In the INSERT TAB Text Section, click the Object button. In the Object dialogue,
click the Organisation Chart option.
When the diagram appears, maximise the screen.
Click in each box in turn to insert the following text:
Click the boxes as shown to insert subordinates.
Click the Assistant button and then Mike’s box.
Fill in the names of the assistant and subordinates.
Select the title and overtype it. Select it again. In the menu bar, choose Text  font
and Text  Colour to set as shown.
In the menu bar, choose Box  Colour and Shadow to reformat Mike’s box.
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Select all subordinates. In the menu bar, choose Styles and set the line type to hanging.
In the menu bar, choose Chart  Background colour and choose a colour.
In the menu bar, choose File  Exit and return to Book (1).
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Open and save template
Click on the Office button and choose New. The New Workbook dialogue appears.
Click Templates → On my computer.
In the Installed Templates section, choose the default Billing Statement.
Click Create. Despite having the appearance of a word document, it is in fact an excel
document.
Make some changes. Click the Office button and then Save As.
Change the Save as type to Template and give it a new name.
Click Save.
Click on the Office button and choose New. The New Workbook dialogue appears.
Choose My templates. Your new template should be in there.
Research
In any cell type the word Thesurus.
With the cell still selected, in the REVIEW TAB, click the Research button.
Right click on it and choose Look up. The task pane brings up information.
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Analysis Functions.
Open the AnalysisPack file. In cell A15 type MODE. In cell A16, type MEDIAN.
In cell B15, click on Insert function in the FORMULAS TAB. When the dialogue
opens, choose MODE. When the dialogue opens, select the cells as shown.
Click OK. MODE is the most commonly repeated number in a series.
In cell B16, click Insert function. When the dialogue opens, choose MEDIAN.
When the dialogue opens, select the cells as shown.
Click OK. Median is the mid number in a range. (In this case from 21 to 55).
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Create Web Query
This brings in a specific table from a web page. Open a blank Document.
Open a blank workbook. In the DATA TAB, click the Get External Data from Web
button.
When the dialogue appears, type this url into the address field:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1325251
When you get to the table, click on the 3 buttons to turn them into green ticks.
Click Import. You are asked which cell to import to. Choose A1. Click OK.
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