Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Information Technology Services Office
Staff IT Training Workshop
Introduction
to
Adobe Photoshop CS5
January, 2011 (Rev.01)
This training material is compiled for internal training purpose only.
Lecturer :
Andrew Tsang
( itatsang@polyu.edu.hk )
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
Bitmap and Vector
Bitmap images (also called raster images) combine different-colored pixels to make the image. When you create
bitmaps, you (using your graphics program) essentially decide the color for each pixel. Graphics and photographs
saved as GIFs or JPEGs are bitmapped formats. Because bitmaps assign colors pixel by pixel, they are very good at
representing gradations of shade and color. If you import a GIF or JPEG, it will remain bitmapped in Adobe
Photoshop.
Bitmap images are resolution-dependent. This means the size and quality of the image depends on the number of
pixels per inch in the image. Images saved for on-screen display have a resolution of 72 pixels per inch because that's
all most monitors can handle. Images saved for print should have at least 300 pixels per inch.
In contrast to bitmaps, vector graphics are not created pixel by pixel. Instead, vector graphics make use of
mathematical equations to calculate a line's shape. These equations are stored in the graphic and determine the graphic's
dimensions, color, shape, and thickness. The actual shape is rendered (or drawn) on the screen at view time.
Because they use equations and not pixels, vector graphics are not resolution-dependent. As a result, vector graphics are
great for illustrations and logos that need to be scaled to different sizes. When you export graphics from Adobe
Illustrator, these are generally vector images. You also create vector images in Photoshop when you draw shapes on
shape layers.
Scaled bitmap images and vector graphics
Because bitmaps are composed of individual pixels, they tend to scale poorly. That is, when you try to increase their
size, their edges become blurry (Figure 1).
Figure 1 Bitmapped image scaled
Vector graphics, on the other hand, scale well, because they rely on mathematical equations to determine their
appearance (Figure 2).
Figure 2 Vector graphic scaled
Bitmap and Vector
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
Starting to work in Adobe Photoshop
The Adobe Photoshop workspace includes the command menus at the top of your screen and a variety of tools and
panels for editing and adding elements to your image. You can also add commands and filters to the menus by
installing third-party software known as plug-in modules.
Photoshop works with bitmapped, digitized images (that is, continuous-tone images that have been converted into a
series of small squares, or picture elements, called pixels). You can also work with vector graphics, which are
drawings made of smooth lines that retain their crispness when scaled. You can create original artwork in Photoshop,
and you can import images into the program from many sources, such as:
•
Photographs from a digital camera
•
Commercial CDs of digital images
•
Scans of photographs, transparencies, negatives, graphics, or other documents
•
Captured video images
•
Artwork created in drawing programs
For information on the kinds of files you can use with Adobe Photoshop CS5, see “About file formats” in Photoshop
Help.
In this guide, you’ll learn your way around the Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace, how to create custom workspaces,
how to open images, create new Photoshop documents, and use basic pan and zoom tools.
Exploring the Photoshop workspace
You can customize the layout and functionality of the Photoshop workspace by using the workspace switcher.
To open Photoshop and explore the workspace:
1. Start Adobe Photoshop.
If you don’t see the Photoshop icon, choose Start > All
Programs > Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Windows) or look in
either the Applications folder or the Dock (Mac OS).
2. From the workspace switcher menu, confirm the option is
set to Essentials. Choose Reset Essentials to restore the
default workspace (Figure 1).
The Photoshop workspace appears as shown in the
following illustration.
Figure 1 Workspace switcher menu
Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
3. The default Essentails workspace in Photoshop (Figure 2) displays an Application bar at the top of the screen. In
the Application bar are the Photoshop application icon, the main menu (Windows only), application controls,
View controls, the workspace switcher, and a button to access CS Live. Below the Application bar is the Options
bar, with the Tools panel on the left, panels, and one or more document windows that are opened separately.
The main menu across the bottom of the Application bar organizes commands in individual menus.
The Options bar displays options for the currently selected tool.
The document window displays the file you’re working on.
The Tools panel contains tools for creating and editing images, artwork, page elements, and so on. Related tools
are grouped together.
Panels help you monitor and modify your work. An example is the Layers panel.
Certain panels are displayed by default, but you can add any panel by selecting it from the Window menu. Many
panels have menus with panel-specific options. You can separate, group, stack, and dock panels into your
preferred layout.
Application bar
Access CS
Live button
Adobe
Bridge
button
Workspace
switcher
menu
Main
menu
Navigator
Options bar
Document
window
Panels
Tools panel
Layers
Figure 2 Adobe Photoshop CS5 interface
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Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
You can restore the default workspace at any time by
choosing Window > Workspace > Essentials (Default)
(Figure 3) or by choosing Reset Essentials from the
workspace switcher menu (Figure 1).
Figure 3 Selecting the default workspace
Customizing your workspace by using the workspace switcher
You can save the current size and position of panels as a named workspace and restore that workspace even if you
move or close a panel. The names of saved workspaces appear in the Window > Workspace menu.
To customize the workspace:
1. To create a custom workspace, move and manipulate the
interface layout in Photoshop (Figure 4).
2. From the Workspace Swticher menu, select New
Workspace (Figure 5).
Figure 4 Custom interface layout
Figure 5 Creating the New Workspace
Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
The New Workspace dialog box appears (Figure 6).
3. Name your workspace and select the Capture options to
save in the workspace (Keyboard Shortcuts and Menus)
4. Click Save.
Your new workspace appears in the upper-right corner of
the interface in the workspace switcher area. (Figure 7).
5. Open the workspace switcher menu.
Figure 6 New Workspace dialog box
Even if you change to another type of workspace, at any
time you can return to your saved workspace by
reselecting it from the workspace switcher menu.
Photoshop also records any changes you make to your
task-specific or saved layouts, so that if you switch to a
different workspace and then switch back during an
editing session, the panels will be exactly where you left
them.
You can restore the saved workspace at any time by
choosing Reset [your named] Workspace from the
workspace switcher menu (Figure 7).
Figure 7 Reselecting a saved workspace
Opening a file in Photoshop
You can open files using the Open command or the Open Recent command.
To open a file:
1. To open a file, choose File > Open and navigate to the
location of your image.
2. Select your file and click Open.
The file opens in its own window, called the image
window (Figure 8).
3. To close the image file, choose File > Close or click the
close button on the title bar of the window in which the
photograph appears. (Do not close Photoshop.)
Figure 8 File open in the image window
How to open a file by using Adobe Bridge
You can also open a file by using Adobe Bridge, a visual file browser that helps take the guesswork out of finding the
image file you need
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Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
To open a file by using Adobe Bridge:
1. Click the Adobe Bridge button in the Application bar
(Figure 9).
Note: You can also open Adobe Bridge by choosing File
> Browse In Bridge.
Note: If this is the first time opening Bridge, you may see
a dialog box asking if you want to start Bridge at login.
Choose Yes if you wish to have Bridge launch during
system login.
Figure 9 Adobe Bridge button in the Application
bar
2. From the Favorites panel in the upper left section of
Adobe Bridge, browse to the folder where you store your
images .
3. In the Favorites panel, double-click the image folder to
open it.
Thumbnail previews of the folder contents appear in the
Content pane of Adobe Bridge (Figure 10).
4. Select a file in the Content pane and open the file by
double-clicking its thumbnail, or use the Adobe Bridge
main menu and choose File > Open.
The image opens in Photoshop.
Figure 10 Adobe Bridge interface
Creating a new Photoshop document
You can create a new Photoshop document and define a document size, resolution, color mode, and background
contents.
To create a new Photoshop document:
1. Select File > New.
The New Photoshop document dialog box appears, with
options for your file (Figure 11).
2. Type a filename and values for the width and height of
the canvas.
3. Type a value for Resolution.
For an image to be used on the web, 72 pixels/inch is
suitable. For an image to be printed, use a higher
resolution, from 300 to 1200 pixels/inch.
Figure 11 New Photoshop document dialog box
Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
4. Choose a setting for Color Mode.
Color Mode determines which color method is used to
display and print the image you’re working on.
Photoshop bases its color modes on the color models that
are useful for images used in publishing. Choose from
RGB (Red, Green, Blue), CMYK (Cyan, Magenta,
Yellow, Black), Lab Color (based on CIE L* a* b*), and
Grayscale.
5. Choose a setting for Background Contents.
You can choose to use a white, transparent, or specific
color background behind your image.
In the lower-right corner, notice that the file size
information changes as you adjust the settings for the
new file.
6. Click OK.
The new file opens in the image window, ready to use
(Figure 12). Be sure to save your file as you work in it.
7. To save a file for the first time, select File > Save As from
the main menu.
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Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
Figure 12 New image window
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
Overview of the Tools panel
Photoshop provides an integrated set of tools with which you can produce sophisticated graphics for print, web, and
mobile viewing (Figure 13). Some tools are arranged in groups, with only one tool shown for each group and the
other tools in the group hidden behind that tool. A small triangle in the lower right corner of a tool icon is your clue to
look for hidden tools. Select a hidden tool by clicking and holding down the small triangle.
Figure 13 Overview of Tools panel
The following section covers the Zoom tool. The process for selecting and using this tool is similar to that for the rest
of the tools in the panel.
Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
How to select and use the Zoom tool from the Tools panel
The Tools panel—the long, narrow panel on the left side of the workspace—contains selection tools, painting and
editing tools, foreground- and background-color selection boxes, and viewing tools.
To use the Zoom tool:
1. Notice the Tools panel appears as a single column. Click
the double-arrow button at the top of the Tools panel to
toggle to a double-column view (Figure 14). Click the
arrow again to return to a single-column panel that uses
your screen space more efficiently.
2. Open an image, examine the status bar at the bottom of
the image window, and notice the percentage listed on the
left end (Figure 15).
This represents the current enlargement view, or zoom
level of the image.
Note: In Windows, the status bar may appear across the
bottom of the workspace.
3. Move the pointer over the Tools panel and hover over the
magnifying-glass icon until a tool tip appears, identifying
the tool by name and providing its keyboard shortcut
(Figure 16).
Figure 14 Tools panel
4. Select the Zoom tool either by clicking the Zoom tool
button in the Tools panel or by pressing Z, the keyboard
shortcut for the Zoom tool.
5. Move the pointer over the image window. Notice that it
now appears as a tiny magnifying glass with a plus sign
in the center of the glass.
Zoom image
Status bar
Figure 15 Zoom level and Status bar in an open
image
Figure 16 Tool tip
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Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
6. Click anywhere in the image window.
The image zooms in according to a preset percentage
level, which replaces the previous value in the status bar.
The location you clicked when you used the Zoom tool
becomes the center of the enlarged view. If you click
again, the zoom advances to the next preset level, up to a
maximum of 3200%.
The Navigator panel displays a red box around the
zoomed area (Figure 17).
7. Hold down the Alt key (Windows) or Option key (Mac
OS) so that the Zoom tool pointer appears with a minus
sign in the center of the magnifying glass (Figure 18),
and then click anywhere in the image. Then release the
Alt or Option key.
Figure 17 Navigator panel showing zoom area
Now the view zooms out to a lower preset magnification.
Note: You can also hold the Alt key (Windows) or
Option key (Mac OS) and use the mouse scroll wheel to
zoom in and out of an image.
Figure 18 Using the Zoom tool with a minus sign
How to scroll around an image with the Hand tool
The Hand tool moves an image within its window. This is useful if you want to see a part of the image that is
currently out of view.
To use the Hand tool:
1. Open an image and zoom in until scroll bars appear on
the image window (Figure 19).
2. Select the Hand tool from the Tools panel (Figure 20).
You can also press Shift+H.
Figure 19 Image window with scroll bars
Figure 20 Hand tool from the Tools panel
Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
3. Using the Hand tool, drag to scroll around and view
different parts of the image (Figure 21).
Figure 21 Image window with scroll bars
Using the Navigator panel
Panning or zooming an image in the Navigator panel is another quick way to make large changes in the zoom level,
especially when the exact percentage of magnification is unimportant. It’s also a great way to scroll around in an
image, because the thumbnail shows you exactly what part of the image appears in the image window.
To use the Navigator panel:
1. If the Navigator panel is not visible, choose Window >
Navigator.
2. Locate the slider under the image thumbnail in the
Navigator panel and drag it to the right.
The image in the image window enlarges (Figure 22).
3. Now drag the slider to the left and reduce the scale of the
image in the image window.
Note: The red rectangular outline represents the portion
of the image that appears in the image window
(Figure 23). When you zoom in far enough that the
image window shows only part of the image, you can
drag the red outline to pan around other areas of the
thumbnail image. This also is an excellent way to verify
which part of an image you’re working on when you
work at very high zoom levels.
Figure 22 Using the slider to zoom in or out
Figure 23 Red rectangular outline in the Navigator
panel displays magnified area
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Overview of Adobe Photoshop CS5 workspace
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
Selection tools gallery
The marquee tools make
rectangular, elliptical, single
row, and single column
selections.
The Move tool moves
selections, layers, and guides.
The lasso tools make
freehand, polygonal
(straight-edged), and
magnetic (snap-to)
selections.
The Quick Selection tool lets
you quickly “paint” a
selection using an adjustable
round brush tip
The Magic Wand tool
selects similarly colored
areas.
Crop and slice tools gallery
The Crop tool trims images.
The Slice tool creates slices.
The Slice Select tool selects
slices.
Retouching tools gallery
The Spot Healing Brush
tool removes blemishes and
objects
The Healing Brush tool
paints with a sample or
pattern to repair
imperfections in a image.
The Patch tool repairs
imperfections in a selected
area of an image using a
sample or pattern.
The Red Eye tool removes
the red reflection caused by a
flash.
Tools gallery
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
The Clone Stamp tool
paints with a sample of an
image.
The Pattern Stamp tool
paints with part of an image
as a pattern.
The Eraser tool erases pixels
and restores parts of an
image to a previously saved
state.
The Background Eraser
tool erases areas to
transparency by dragging.
The Magic Eraser tool
erases solid-colored areas to
transparency with a single
click.
The Blur tool blurs hard
edges in an image.
The Sharpen tool sharpens
soft edges in an image.
The Smudge tool smudges
data in an image.
The Dodge tool lightens
areas in an image.
The Burn tool darkens areas
in an image.
The Sponge tool changes the
color saturation of an area.
Painting tools gallery
The Brush tool paints brush
strokes.
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Tools gallery
The Pencil tool paints hardedged strokes.
The Color Replacement tool
replaces a selected color with
a new color.
The Mixer Brush tool
Simulates realistic painting
techniques such as blending
canvas colors and varying
paint wetness.
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
The History Brush tool
paints a copy of the selected
state or snapshot into the
current image window.
The Art History brush tool
paints with stylized strokes
that simulate the look of
different paint styles, using a
selected state or snapshot.
The gradient tools create
straight-line, radial, angle,
reflected, and diamond
blends between colors.
The Paint Bucket tool fills
similarly colored areas with
the foreground color.
The type mask tools create a
selection in the shape of type.
The pen tools let you draw
smooth-edged paths.
Drawing and type tools gallery
The path selection tools
make shape or segment
selections showing anchor
points, direction lines, and
direction points.
The type tools create type on
an image.
The shape tools and Line
tool draw shapes and lines in
a normal layer or a shape
layer.
The Custom Shape tool
makes customized shapes
selected from a custom shape
list.
Notes, measuring and navigation tools gallery
The Eyedropper tool
samples colors in an image.
The Color Sampler tool
displays color values for up
to four areas.
The Ruler tool measures
distances, locations, and
angles.
The Hand tool moves an
image within its window.
Tools gallery
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The Zoom tool magnifies
and reduces the view of an
image.
The Count tool counts
objects in an image.
(Photoshop Extended only)
The Rotate View tool nondestructively rotates the
canvas.
The Note tool makes notes
that can be attached to an
image.
3D tools (Photoshop Extended)
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The 3D Object Rotate tool
rotates the object around its
x-axis.
The 3D Object Roll tool
rotates the object around its
z-axis.
The 3D Object Pan tool
pans the object in the x or y
direction.
The 3D Object Slide tool
moves the object laterally
when you drag horizontally,
or forward and back when
you drag vertically.
The 3D Object Scale tool
scales the object larger or
smaller.
The 3D Rotate Camera tool
orbits the camera in the x or
y direction.
The 3D Roll Camera tool
rotates the camera around
the z-axis.
The 3D Pan Camera tool
pans the camera in the x or y
direction.
The 3D Walk Camera tool
moves laterally when you
drag horizontally, or
forward and back when you
drag vertically.
The 3D Zoom Camera tool
changes the field of view
closer or farther away.
Tools gallery
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
How to resize, rotate, and crop images
You will frequently want to resize and crop an image after opening it in Photoshop from a digital camera or scanner.
Cropping means cutting some parts of the image away so only the parts you want remain.
Backing up your original
Before making any changes to an image, you should always save the image with a new filename. You will have the
most flexibility if you save it as a PSD—Photoshop’s native format. You can generate TIFFs (for print) and JPEGs
(for the web) from a single PSD file. For example, PSD files preserve layers, so the layers are available when you
reopen the file.
Resizing images
When working in Photoshop, it is generally best to leave your image at as high a resolution as possible to allow for
greater flexibility when generating images.
About pixel dimensions and resolution
The pixel dimensions (image size or height and width) of a bitmap image is a measure of the number of pixels along
an image’s width and height. Resolution is the fineness of detail in a bitmap image and is measured in pixels per inch
(ppi). The more pixels per inch, the greater the resolution. Generally, an image with a higher resolution produces a
better printed image quality.
•
For images to print well, they generally should have a resolution of 300 ppi.
•
For most web pages, you can safely save images at 72 ppi. Because most monitors do not display resolutions
higher than this, you can reduce file size by reducing resolution.
Note: Monitor technology and Internet connection speeds are continually evolving. However, the 72-ppi standard
continues to be widely used, and for the most part, you can’t go wrong with it.
The combination of pixel dimension and resolution determines the amount of image data. Unless an image is
resampled, the amount of image data remains the same as you change either the pixel dimension or resolution. If you
change the resolution of a file, its width and height change accordingly to maintain the same amount of image data.
And, vice versa.
How to resize, rotate, and crop images
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
In Photoshop, you can see the relationship between image size and resolution in the Image Size dialog box
(Figure 1).
To change resolution of an image:
Changing an image’s resolution affects not only its on-screen
size but also its image quality and its printed characteristics.
1. Open an image in Photoshop.
2. Save the image with a new name.
This step preserves the original image in case you want to
revert to it. You should always make a copy of the
original before making changes.
3. Choose Image > Image Size.
The Image Size dialog box opens (Figure 1).
Notice that the dialog box lists two major categories of
information about the size of the image.
•
•
Pixel Dimensions refers to the actual number of
pixels contained in the image. The number of pixels
represents the amount of data in the image. Unless
you select the Resample Image option, number of
pixels remains the same as you resize and change the
resolution of the image.
Figure 1 Image Size dialog box with resolution at
300 dpi
Document Size refers to how the document appears
when printed. Document size is also a starting point
for how the document will appear in another
document, such as an InDesign file. In later projects,
you will place Photoshop images in InDesign files.
4. Make sure the Resample Image option is not selected.
The Resample option changes the amount of data or
information in the image as you resize. For now, it’s best
to leave this option deselected.
Note: You can use resampling to make enlargements.
However, because resampling can only estimate pixels, it
is best to use a picture with a larger resolution in the first
place.
5. Change the Resolution value.
Observe that the other two numbers for width and height
change accordingly. For example, an image set at 300 dpi
measures approximately 33 x 22 cm. The same image
when set to 72 dpi measures approximately 136 x 91 cm
(Figure 2).
6. Click OK to close the Image Size dialog box.
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How to resize, rotate, and crop images
Figure 2 Image Size dialog box with resolution
changed to 72 ppi
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
Reducing an image’s size (pixel dimensions)
Although you will often want to keep pixel information, sometimes you need to reduce the total (pixel) size of an
image. This step removes pixels and reduces file size. You will usually do this when preparing the image for the web
or other electronic medium; for print, you will generally want to simply change the document’s size. (Of course, you
may want to reduce file size for other reasons, such as to preserve hard disk space or to speed up image rendering.)
To reduce an image’s pixel dimensions:
1. Choose Image > Image Size.
The Image Size dialog box opens (Figure 1).
In the previous steps you attended only to the resolution,
or document size of the image. This time you will ignore
that area and focus on the pixel dimensions.
2. Check Resample Image.
Observe that the Pixel Dimensions menus and the
Constrain Proportions option become active.
3. To maintain the image’s current height/width ratio, select
Constrain Proportions.
This option automatically changes the width as you
change the height, and vice versa. For example, if you
start with an image of 2000-pixel width and 1000-pixel
height (a 2:1 width/height ratio) and change the width to
1000 pixels, the height automatically changes to 500
pixels when Constrain Proportions is checked. Generally,
selecting this option is a good idea.
Figure 3 Changing the image width in the Image
Size dialog box
Note: You can ignore Scale Styles for now. This option
comes into play only when you have styles applied to
layers.
4. Choose Bicubic Sharper from the Resample Image menu.
This option is best for reductions.
5. In the Pixel Dimensions Width box, enter the desired
width in pixels (Figure 3) .
You can also choose a percentage by changing the unit
beside the Width box from Pixels to Percent.
6. Click OK to change the image’s pixel dimensions.
Note: After the size reduction, you should apply the
Unsharp Mask filter to the image by choosing Filter >
Sharpen > Unsharp Mask. This will clear up any
blurriness that results from the reduction.
How to resize, rotate, and crop images
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
Rotating images
There may be times when you open an image in Photoshop to find that it is not in its proper orientation. Alternatively,
a photograph that you have taken is just a little bit crooked. There are easy ways to fix both of these situations.
To rotate an image:
The Image Rotation commands let you rotate or flip an entire
image. The commands do not work on individual layers or
parts of layers, paths, or selection borders. If you want to
rotate a selection or layer, use the Transform or Free
Transform commands.
1. Choose Image > Image Rotation (Figure 4), and choose
one of the following commands from the submenu:
•
180° Rotates the image by a half-turn.
•
90° CW Rotates the image clockwise by a quarterturn.
•
90° CCW Rotates the image counterclockwise by a
quarter-turn.
•
Arbitrary Rotates the image by the angle you
specify. If you choose this option, enter an angle
between 0 and 359.99 in the Angle text box. Select
°CW or °CCW to rotate clockwise or
counterclockwise. Then click OK.
Figure 4 The Image Rotation submenu
2. Choose File > Save to save the rotated image.
Cropping Images
You’ll often take pictures that are larger than you need, or you'll want to reframe an image to remove unnecessary
parts. Taking pictures that are larger than you need, at as high a resolution as possible, gives you flexibility in
selecting parts of an image to crop. Cropping is the process of removing portions of an image to create focus or
strengthen the composition.
You can crop an image in one of two ways:
•
You can apply the Crop command after selecting the image with one of the selection tools.
•
You can use the Crop tool. (This guide covers the Crop tool.)
About the Rule of Thirds grid
The Crop tool includes a Rule of Thirds grid that is laid over the image as you select an area to crop (Figure 7). The
Rule of Thirds is a general rule of thumb in the visual arts whereby a grid consisting of two equally spaced horizontal
and vertical lines is laid over an image. Visual interest and a strengthened composition is created when objects are
placed along, or at the intersection of these horizontal and vertical lines.
To crop an image by using the Crop tool:
1. Click the Crop tool in the Tools panel (Figure 5).
The pointer changes to the Crop tool.
Figure 5 Crop tool
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
2. You can set the size of the area to be cropped in the
Options bar (Figure 6).
To size the area manually, make sure all fields in the
Options bar are empty.
Figure 6 Crop options
3. Drag over the part of the image you want to keep to
create a marquee selection.
The selection doesn’t have to be precise—you can adjust
it later (Figure 7).
A Rule of Thirds grid appears.
4. If necessary, adjust the cropping selection:
•
To move the selection to another position, place the
pointer inside the bounding box and drag.
•
To scale the selection, drag a handle. To constrain the
proportions, hold down Shift as you drag a corner
handle. The marquee scale handle appears in the
lower-right corner of Figure 7.
•
Figure 7 Crop area selected
To rotate the selection, position the pointer outside
the bounding box (the pointer becomes a curved
arrow), and drag. To move the center point around
which the marquee rotates, drag the circle at the
center of the bounding box. The selection can’t be
rotated in Bitmap mode.
5. Once you are satisfied with the crop area, press Enter
(Windows) or Return (Mac OS).
The image is trimmed to the selected region (Figure 8).
Figure 8 Crop applied
How to resize, rotate, and crop images
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
How to retouch photos
Other than correcting color, one of the most common tasks you will perform in Adobe Photoshop is retouching
photos to correct imperfections, edit out undesired parts of the photo, and correct problems that result from the phototaking process. This guide covers several ways to retouch photos, including use of the Clone Stamp tool, the Spot
Healing Brush tool, and the Red Eye tool.
Using the History panel
Because retouching can require trial and error, you should know how to use the History panel to undo steps.
Like most computer users, you’re probably aware of the Undo command available in many applications. This
command lets you undo the effects of whatever command you’ve just applied.
Photoshop takes the Undo command several steps further with the History panel. The History panel keeps track of the
last 20 commands you’ve applied to an image, allowing you to revert to any one of these. When you execute a
command, such as transforming an image or adding text, these are added to the History panel. The commands appear
in the list in the order in which you performed them. Each command is listed with the name of the tool or command
you used to change the image.
You can also take a “snapshot” of a particular set of commands, allowing you to revert to this snapshot later.
Note: Although the History panel is great, it does consume memory (RAM). Layers also consume memory, so if
you’re working with a complex, multilayered image, you may want to reduce the number of History commands
saved. You can do so by choosing Edit > Preferences > Performance (Windows) or Photoshop > Preferences >
Performance (Mac OS).
To use the History panel:
1. Open an image in Photoshop.
2. Execute several commands—such as selecting a part of
the image, applying a filter, and adding a layer.
The point is to add some commands to the History panel
(Figure 1).
3. Click one of the earlier commands, such as Move
(Figure 2).
Observe that the image reverts to its appearance at the
time this command was executed. Any commands
executed afterward are temporarily discarded and appear
dimmed. In Figure 2, for example, the Paint Bucket and
Rectangular Marquee are dimmed and the effects no
longer appear in the image.
Delete icon
Figure 1 The History panel
At this point, the Paint Bucket and Rectangular Marquee
commands are still available in the panel (if you select
either). However, if you execute another command, the
dimmed commands will be permanently discarded.
4. To delete a command, select it and then click the Delete
icon (Figure 1).
The image permanently reverts to the command prior to
the deleted command.
Figure 2 Earlier command selected
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
Taking a snapshot
You can use the Snapshot feature to capture the image as it appears at any point in the list of History commands. Once
you’re satisfied with an image, it’s a good idea to take a snapshot.
To take a snapshot:
1. Click the History command you want to capture.
2. Click the Snapshot icon (Figure 3).
Snapshots
3. Scroll to the top of the History panel as necessary to view
the snapshot (Figure 3).
4. To revert to the snapshot, click it as you would any other
History command.
You can compare different snapshots by clicking on
them.
Take a Snapshot
icon
Figure 3 Snapshots in the History panel
Using Content-Aware fill
Content-Aware allows you to quickly and automatically fill a selection with similar image content from nearby. It is
effective for removing a large unwanted portion of a photo and as a starting point for more fine-tuned retouching.
To use Content-Aware fill:
1. Identify the object you want to remove from an image.
For example, you can remove the blurry cyclist from the
image in Figure 4.
Figure 4 Initial image to be retouched
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2. Select the part of the image you want to fill (Figure 5).
3. Choose Edit > Fill.
4. From the Use menu, select Content-Aware (Figure 6).
5. Adjust Blending parameters as desired and Click OK.
6. The unwanted object is removed from the image
(Figure 7). Use additional retouching tools to further
fine-tune the image.
Figure 5 Unwanted object selected
Figure 6 Fill dialog box
Figure 7 Image with unwanted object removed
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Using the Clone Stamp tool
You can use the Clone Stamp tool to remove minor blemishes from a photo. It is most effective with small, distinct
features.
To use the Clone Stamp tool:
1. Identify the object you want to remove from an image.
For example, you can remove the marks from the flower
pictured in Figure 8.
Area to be retouched
Figure 8 Initial image to be retouched
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2. Use the Zoom tool to magnify the object (Figure 9).
3. Identify an area of the background that will blend with
the problem area.
4. Select the Clone Stamp tool in the toolbar.
5. Hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) and click
the area to be cloned (Figure 10).
6. Release Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) and move
the Clone Stamp tool over the object you want to remove
(Figure 11).
Figure 9 Object magnified
Clone Stamp tool
Area to be cloned
Figure 10 Clone area selected
Figure 11 Cloning the area
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
7. Drag the Clone Stamp tool over the object until it
disappears, and then release (Figure 12).
8. When you finish with the Clone Stamp tool, you can
switch to another tool by clicking the new tool in the
toolbar.
Figure 12 Cloning complete
Using the Spot Healing Brush tool
The Spot Healing Brush tool makes touchups even easier for small areas. The Spot Healing Brush tool automatically
samples pixels from the surrounding area and applies these to the selected area. The Spot Healing Brush tool makes
changes quickly to a small area. You do not need to select a sample area.
To use the Spot Healing Brush tool:
1. Click the Spot Healing Brush tool in the toolbar.
The pointer changes to a brush. Usually the brush appears
as a circle.
Figure 13 Brush options
2. You can change the size or shape of the brush in the
Options bar (Figure 13).
The brush should be large enough to cover the entire
spot, with some room around the edges
3. Position the Spot Healing Brush tool over the area you
want to correct (Figure 14).
Spot Healing Brush tool
Figure 14 Spot Healing brush positioned over a
blemish
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4. Click to apply the correction (Figure 15).
Figure 15 Spot Healing brush applied
Using the Red Eye tool
When you take photos with a flash, red eye can often result. You can quickly correct red eye with the Red Eye tool.
To use the Red Eye tool:
1. Click the Red Eye tool in the toolbar (Figure 16).
2. Position the Red Eye tool over the pupil you want to
correct.
3. Click to apply the correction (Figure 17).
Figure 16 Red Eye tool
Figure 17 Red Eye tool applied
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
How to use painting tools
Previous guides describe how to use Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended to modify an existing image. In this guide, you
create new content by using Photoshop's painting tools.
The Brush tool and the Pencil tool work like traditional drawing tools by applying color with brush strokes.The
Gradient tool, Fill command, and Paint Bucket tool apply color to large areas. Tools such as the Eraser tool, Blur tool,
and Smudge tool modify the existing colors in the image.
Photoshop gives you a remarkably wide set of options for brush tools. You can select from a number of brush tips and
then modify these further by using the Brushes panel. You can even create your own brush settings and save these for
later use.
This guide is a basic introduction to painting. After learning the basics, you should experiment with the other painting
tools to find the settings that work for you.
This guide covers four tools:
•
Brush tool Paint the current foreground color on an image and create soft strokes of color.
•
Pencil tool Paint the current foreground color on an image and create hard-edged lines.
•
Mixer Brush tool Simulate realistic painting techniques such as mixing colors on the canvas, combining
colors on a brush, and varying paint wetness across a stroke
•
Pattern Stamp tool Paint with the pattern selected in the Pattern picker.
Setting brush options
With each brush, you set one or more of the following options in the options bar (Figure 1). A preset brush is a saved
brush tip with defined characteristics, such as size, shape, and hardness.
Tool Preset picker
Toggle Brush panel
Mode
Airbrush mode
Opacity
Brush Preset picker
Flow
Figure 1 Brush options bar
•
Tool Preset picker Save settings for the current tool, such as Airbrush Soft Round 50% Flow. As you change
settings for the Brush tools, you can save your settings for later use.
•
Brush Preset picker Select from a series of preset brushes. There is a wide range of these preset brushes, and
you can also create your own.
•
Mode Describe how painted colors will blend with the underlying image. See the Photoshop Help topic "List
of blending modes" for more detail.
•
Opacity Set the transparency for painted lines, from 0% (invisible) to 100% (opaque). As you paint over an
area, the color's transparency remains the same until you release the mouse button, no matter how many
times you move the pointer over the area. When you release the mouse button and then paint over the same
area, you apply additional color at the same opacity.
Brush only options
•
Flow Set the rate at which color is applied as you paint. For example, if you set the opacity to 100% and the
flow to 33%, the color moves 33% toward 100% opacity each time you move over an area.
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
•
Airbrush mode Simulate painting with an airbrush. Paint builds up as you hold down the mouse button.
Brush hardness, opacity, and flow options control how fast and how much paint is applied. Click the button
to toggle this option on or off.
Pencil only option
•
Auto erase Paint the background color over areas that contain the foreground color.
Mixer Brush only options
•
Current Brush Load swatch From the pop-up panel, click Load Brush to fill the brush with the reservoir
color, or Clean Brush to remove paint from the brush. To automatically perform these tasks after each stroke,
click the Load or Clean buttons.
•
Preset pop-up menu Apply popular combinations of Wet, Load, and Mix settings.
•
Wet Control how much paint the brush picks up from the canvas. Higher settings produce longer paint
streaks.
•
Load Specify the amount of paint loaded in the reservoir. At low load rates, paint strokes dry out more
quickly.
•
Mix Control the ratio of canvas paint to reservoir paint. At 100%, all paint is picked up from the canvas; at
0%, all paint comes from the reservoir. (The Wet setting, however, continues to determine how paints mix on
the canvas.)
•
Sample All Layers Pick up canvas color from all visible layers.
Note: The options bar presents only a subset of brush options. Many other options-brush tips, settings, and so on-are
available through the Brushes panel. See Photoshop Help for more information on these options.
Painting with the Brush tool
Use the Brush tool to create soft strokes of color.
To paint with the Brush:
1. Open a new document in Photoshop.
2. From the painting tools, select the Brush tool (Figure 2).
3. Choose a color for the brush by using one of the
following methods:
•
To open the Adobe Color Picker, click the
Foreground Color selection box in the Tools panel.
Select a color and click OK.
•
To open the heads-up-display (HUD) color picker in
Windows, hold down Shift+Alt while you Rightclick. Then drag to select a color hue and shade, and
release (Figure 3).
•
To open the heads-up-display (HUD) color picker in
Mac OS, hold down Control+Option+Command
while you click and hold. Then drag to select a color
hue and shade, and release.
Figure 2 Painting tools
Figure 3 HUD color picker
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4. Choose a relatively large brush, such as 50 px, from the
Brush Preset picker.
Note: You can also set the diameter and hardness
manually in the Brush Preset picker. Hardness determines
the softness of the line's edges.
5. In the options bar, leave Mode set to Normal.
6. Set Opacity to 100%.
7. Set Flow to 20%.
When you set Flow to 20%, the darkness of the line
moves 20% closer to full opacity each time you overlap
lines.
Overlap area is at 40% opacity
Figure 4 Drawing with Brush, Opacity 100%,
Flow 20%
8. Draw freehand by dragging in the image. Without lifting
the pointer, drag back over the line you just painted
(Figure 4).
Where the lines overlap, the paint becomes darker
because you set Flow to 20%. In that area, the tracedover line has an opacity of 40%
Note: As you did with the Pencil, you can draw a straight
line with the Brush by holding down the Shift key.
9. To draw a new line, release the mouse button and click on
the image again.
Painting with the Pencil tool
Use the Pencil Tool to create hard-edged lines.
To paint with the Pencil:
1. Create a new Photoshop document.
2. From the painting tools, select the Pencil tool (Figure 2).
3. Choose a color for the Pencil tool by using one of the
following methods:
•
To open the Adobe Color Picker, click the
Foreground Color selection box in the Tools panel.
Select a color and click OK.
•
To open the heads-up-display (HUD) color picker in
Windows, hold down Shift+Alt while you Rightclick. Then drag to select a color hue and shade, and
release (Figure 3).
•
To open the heads-up-display (HUD) color picker in
Mac OS, hold down Control+Option+Command
while you click and hold. Then drag to select a color
hue and shade, and release.
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
4. From the Brush Preset picker, manually adjust the
Diameter (brush size) to create a small-sized brush,
perhaps 20 px (Figure 5).
Note: You can also select a preset size and shape in the
Brush Preset picker. Hardness determines the softness of
the line's edges.
5. In the options bar, leave Mode set to Normal.
6. Make sure Opacity is set to 100%.
7. Draw by using one of the following methods:
•
To draw freehand, drag in the image (Figure 6).
•
To draw a straight line, click a starting point in the
image. Shift-click an ending point for the line
(Figure 7).
Figure 5 Brush options in the Brush Preset picker
8. Change Opacity to 50% in the options bar and draw
another line that overlaps the first line (Figure 8).
Observe that the line is half as dark as the first line and
that the first line shows through wherever you overlapped
it.
Figure 6 Draw freehand with the Pencil tool
Figure 7 Draw a straight line with the Pencil tool
Figure 8 Overlap lines with opacity set to 50%
Painting with the Mixer Brush tool
Use the Mixer Brush to create realistic painting techniques such as mixing colors on the canvas, combining colors on
a brush, and varying paint wetness across a stroke.
The Mixer Brush has two paint wells, a reservoir and a pickup. The reservoir stores the final color deposited onto the
canvas and has more paint capacity. The pickup well receives paint only from the canvas; its contents are
continuously mixed with canvas colors.
To paint with the Mixer Brush:
1. Open Photoshop and create a new document.
2. From the painting tools, select the Mixer Brush tool
(Figure 2).
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3. To load paint into the reservoir, Alt-click (Windows) or
Option-click (Mac OS) the canvas. Or, choose a
foreground color.
Note: When you load paint from the canvas, the brush tip
reflects any color variation in the sampled area. If you
prefer brush tips of uniform color, select Load Solid
Colors Only from the Load menu in the options bar.
4. From the Brush Preset picker, manually adjust the
Diameter to create a medium-sized brush, perhaps 25 px.
Note: You can also select a preset size and shape in the
Brush Preset picker.
5. In the options bar, select a Mixer Brush preset option
from the pop-up menu (Figure 9).
Figure 9 Preset pop-up menu in the options bar
6. Do one or more of the following:
•
Drag in the image to paint (Figure 10). Notice how
the paint dries out towards the end of the stroke.
•
To draw a straight line, click a starting point in the
image, and then Shift-click an ending point
(Figure 11).
•
When using the Brush tool as an airbrush, hold down
the mouse button without dragging to build up color
(Figure 12).
Figure 10 Dragging the Mixer Brush tool
Figure 11 Shift-click to paint a straight line
Figure 12 Using the Mixer Brush as an airbrush
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Using specialty brush tips
A large number of brush tips are included with Photoshop and are available across all of the painting tools. These
range from artistic brushes—wet or calligraphic brushes—to specialty brushes such as starbursts or snowflakes. In
the Brush panel, you can select preset brushes from the Brush Presets panel, but you can also modify existing brushes
and design new custom brushes. The Brush panel contains the brush tip options that determine how paint is applied to
an image.
The brush stroke preview at the bottom of the panel shows how paint strokes look with the current brush options.
You can choose from two types of brush shape options from the Brush panel: Standard tip and bristle tip.
Standard brush tip options
For standard brush tips, you can set the following options in the Brush panel:
•
Diameter (Size) Control the size of the brush. Enter a value in pixels or drag the slider.
•
Use Sample Size Reset the brush to its original diameter. This option is available only if the brush tip shape
was created by sampling pixels in an image.
•
Flip X Change the direction of a brush tip on its x axis.
•
Flip Y Change the direction of a brush tip on its y axis.
•
Angle Specify the angle by which an elliptical or sampled brush’s long axis is rotated from horizontal. Type
a value in degrees, or drag the horizontal axis in the preview box.
•
Roundness Specify the ratio between the brush’s short and long axes. Enter a percentage value, or drag the
points in the preview box. A value of 100% indicates a circular brush, a value of 0% indicates a linear brush,
and intermediate values indicate elliptical brushes.
•
Hardness Control the size of the brush’s hard center. Type a number, or use the slider to enter a value that is
a percentage of the brush diameter. You can’t change the hardness of sampled brushes.
•
Spacing Control the distance between the brush marks in a stroke. To change the spacing, type a number, or
use the slider to enter a value that is a percentage of the brush diameter. When this option is deselected, the
speed of the cursor determines the spacing
Bristle tip options
Bristle tips let you specify precise bristle characteristics, creating highly realistic, natural-looking strokes. Set the
following bristle tip shape options in the Brush panel:
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•
Shape Determine the overall arrangement of bristles.
•
Bristles Control overall bristle density.
•
Length Higher settings simulate the extended, trailing strokes of long bristles; lower settings produce more
abrupt strokes.
•
Thickness Control the width of individual bristles.
•
Stiffness Higher settings provide more precise control; lower settings produce more fluid strokes.
•
Angle Determine the brush angle with painting with a mouse.
•
Spacing Control the distance between the brush marks in a stroke. To change the spacing, type a number, or
use the slider to enter a value that is a percentage of the brush diameter. When this option is deselected, the
speed of the cursor determines the spacing.
How to use painting tools
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
To use brush tips:
1. Choose Window > Brush.
The Brush panel opens (Figure 13).
2. In the Brush panel, select a brush tip shape.
Brush
panel
menu
3. Select Brush Tip Shape on the left side of the Brush
panel, and set options.
In the example (Figure 14), the #36 Flat Fan bristle brush
is used.
Note: Some brushes present a thumbnail profile of the
brush tip shape to help you select the appropriate brush.
Lock icon
4. Drag in the image to paint with the specialty brush
(Figure 14).
5. To lock brush tip shape attributes (retaining them if you
select another brush preset), click the unlock icon . To
unlock the tip, click the lock icon .
6. To save the brush for use later, choose New Brush Preset
from the Brush panel menu.
Figure 13 Brush panel
Note: To save your new brush permanently or distribute
it to other users, you must save the brush as part of a set
of brushes. Choose Save Brushes from the Brush Presets
panel menu, and then save to a new set or overwrite an
existing set. If you reset or replace the brushes in the
Brush Presets panel without saving it in a set, you could
lose your new brush.
Figure 14 Painting with a specialty brush tip
Using the Pattern Stamp tool
A pattern is an image that is repeated, or tiled, when you use it to fill a layer or selection. Photoshop comes with a
variety of preset patterns.
To use the Pattern Stamp tool:
1. Click the Clone Stamp tool, and hold down the mouse
button, and select the Pattern Stamp tool (Figure 15).
Observe that the options bar is slightly different than it is
for the Brush tool.
Figure 15 Tools panel
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
2. In the options bar, open the Pattern picker (Figure 16).
Initially, the selection of patterns in the Pattern picker
may be limited. You can choose to load additional
patterns or to replace the current patterns.
3. Open the panel menu to see the available pattern libraries
(Figure 17).
4. Select the library file you want to use, and click Load.
5. Click OK to replace the current list, or click Append to
add the library to the current list.
6. Select a pattern from the Pattern picker.
Selected pattern
Figure 16 Pattern picker
7. Select the Aligned option to keep the pattern aligned with
your original starting point.
Otherwise, the pattern starts anew each time you lift the
pointer.
8. Leave the Impressionist option deselected.
With this option on, the pattern appears in blocks of
color.
9. Drag on the image to draw with the Pattern Stamp tool
(Figure 18).
Panel menu
Figure 17 Panel menu in the Pattern picker
Figure 18 Painting with the Pattern Stamp tool
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
How to use selection tools
When using Adobe Photoshop CS5, you will frequently need to select only parts of an image. Then you can make
changes only to those parts. You can also cut and paste a selection to a new background. Practice using the selection
tools. They can be tricky, but learning them is well worth the effort. The better you are at using them, the more
flexibility you have with changing parts of images.
This guide covers the basics of using three different types of selection tools:
•
Quick Selection and Magic Wand tools: Select parts of an image that have similar colors.
•
Marquee tools: Select a geometrically shaped area, such as a rectangle or circle.
•
Lasso tools: Define a selection area by hand.
After you make your selection, you can place the selection on a new layer mask. You can use masks to hide portions
of a layer and reveal portions of the layers below. Two types of masks are available: layer and vector. Layer masks are
resolution-dependent bitmap images you can edit with the painting or selection tools in our list. Vector masks are
resolution independent; you can create them with a pen or shape tool. This guide looks at creating a vector mask by
using a shape tool.
About the Quick Selection and Magic Wand tools
You can use two similar yet related selection tools to select parts of an image: the Quick Selection tool and the Magic
Wand tool (Figure 1).
You can use the Quick Selection tool to quickly “paint” a selection using an adjustable round brush tip. As you drag,
the selection expands outward and automatically finds and follows defined edges in the image.
You can use the Magic Wand tool to select an area of consistent color (for example, a sky background) without
having to trace its outline.You specify the color range, or tolerance, for the Magic Wand tool’s selection, based on
similarity to the pixel color you click.
Figure 1 Selection tools
To use the Magic Wand tool:
1. Click the Magic Wand tool in the Tools panel.
The pointer changes to a magic wand.
2. Specify one of the selection options in the options bar.
The pointer changes, depending on which option you
select (Figure 2).
New
Add to
Intersect with
Subtract from
Figure 2 Selection options
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
3. In the options bar, specify any of the following options:
Tolerance determines the similarity or difference of the
pixels selected. Enter a value in pixels, ranging from 0 to
255. A low value selects the few colors very similar to
the pixel you click. A higher value selects a broader
range of colors.
Anti-aliased creates a smooth-edged selection.
Contiguous selects only adjacent areas that use the same
colors. Otherwise, all pixels in the entire image that use
the same colors are selected.
In the example illustrated in Figure 2, the Add To button
is selected, the tolerance is set to 32, and the Anti-alias
and Contiguous options are selected.
4. In the image, click the color you want to select
(Figure 3).
Figure 3 illustrates what happens when the background
of the waterscape image is clicked with the settings
shown in Figure 2.
Note: After your initial click the pointer changes to a
magic wand with a plus (+) symbol. This indicates that
more clicks will add to the selected area. Continue
clicking until you have selected the entire area.
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How to use selection tools
Figure 3 Using the Magic Wand tool
Figure 3 Using the Magic Wand tool
Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
Using the marquee tools
The marquee tools enable you to select rectangles, ellipses, and 1-pixel rows and columns (Figure 4).
•
Rectangular Marquee: Makes a rectangular selection (or a square, when used with the Shift key).
•
Elliptical Marquee: Makes an elliptical selection (or a circle, when used with the Shift key).
•
Single Row or Single Column Marquee: Defines the border as a 1-pixel-wide row or column.
Figure 4 Marquee tools with Rectangular Marquee tool selected
Using the Rectangular Marquee tool
1. Click the Rectangular Marquee tool in the Tools panel.
The pointer changes to a cross.
2. Drag the pointer across the area you wish to select
(Figure 5).
3. When you have completed your selection, release the
mouse.
Figure 5 Rectangular selection
The area remains selected.
Note: To adjust the location of the selection slightly,
press the arrow keys.
Figure 5 Rectangular selection
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Smoothing the edges of selections
Often you can improve results by softening the edges of selections, especially if you plan to copy them to a new
background. You can use two options to smooth edges: feathering and anti-aliasing. Both options are available
through the options bar when you choose selection tools (Figure 6).
Figure 6 Elliptical Marquee tool options bar
•
Anti-aliasing smoothes the edges of a selection by softening the color transition between edge pixels and
background pixels. Because only the edge pixels change, no detail is lost. The effect of anti-aliasing is slight,
but it can be effective in many situations. You can apply anti-aliasing to selections made by the Lasso tool,
the Polygonal Lasso tool, the Magnetic Lasso tool, the Elliptical Marquee tool, and the Magic Wand tool.
(Note: You must select anti-aliasing before using the tool. After you make a selection, you cannot add antialiasing.)
•
Feathering blurs a selection’s edges by adding a transition boundary between the selection and its
surrounding pixels. You can set the width of this boundary in the options bar. In many cases, a boundary of
3–5 pixels is sufficient. (This blurring can cause some loss of detail at the edge of the selection.) The effect
of feathering is more dramatic than anti-aliasing, but you may prefer the results when you move objects to a
markedly different background. You can define feathering for the Lasso tool, the Polygonal Lasso tool, the
Magnetic Lasso tool, and the marquee tools as you use each tool, or you can add feathering to an existing
selection. (Note: You will not see the effects of feathering until you move, cut, copy, or fill the selection.)
The Refine Edge option improves the quality of selection edges, letting you view the selection against different
backgrounds for easy editing. Click the Refine Edge button in the options bar to access the advanced options
(Figure 7).
View Mode
Refine Radius and Erase
Refinements tools
Smart Radius
Radius
Smooth
Feather
Contrast
Shift Edge
Decontaminate Colors
Amount
Output To
Figure 7 Refine Edge dialog box
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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS5
The options available from the Refine Edge dialog box include:
•
View Mode: From the pop-up menu, choose a mode to change how the selection is displayed. Show Original
displays the image without a selection preview. Show Radius displays the selection border where edge
refinement occurs.
•
Refine Radius and Erase Refinements tools: Let you precisely adjust the border area in which edge
refinement occurs.
•
Smart Radius: Automatically adjusts the radius for hard and soft edges found in the border region.
•
Radius: Determines the size of the selection border in which edge refinement occurs. Increase the radius to
create a more exact selection boundary in areas with soft transitions or fine detail. The ideal radius depends
upon selection size and content, so experiment with different settings.
•
Smooth: Reduces irregular areas (“hills and valleys”) in the selection border to create a smoother outline.
•
Feather: Create a soft-edged transition.
•
Contrast: Sharpen selection edges and remove fuzziness. Typically, however, the Smart Radius option and
refinement tools are more effective.
•
Shift Edge: Shrink or enlarge the selection boundary. Enter a positive value to expand or a negative value to
contract. Most useful for making subtle adjustments to soft-edged selections. Shrinking the selection can
help remove unwanted background colors from selection edges.
•
Decontaminate Colors: Replaces color fringes with the color of the subject.
Note: Because this option changes pixel color, it requires output to a new layer or document, preventing
unexpected changes to the current layer.
•
Amount: Changes the level of decontamination and fringe replacement.
•
Output To: Determines whether the refined selection becomes a selection or mask on the current layer, or
produces a new layer or document.
Using the lasso tools
Photoshop has three lasso tools, so named because you can enclose a selection in a flexible shape—just like a rope.
•
Lasso selection tool: Useful for drawing freeform segments of a selection border. The most difficult
selection tool to use but the most precise.
•
Polygonal Lasso tool: Slightly easier to use, enabling you to select areas by using straight lines and selection
points.
•
Magnetic Lasso tool: Automatically snaps to the borders of defined areas in the image. Best used with
objects that contrast sharply with their background.
This guide explains how to use the Polygonal Lasso tool. Using the Lasso tool is similar, but the selection is entirely
freehand. Experiment with all three lassos after you are comfortable with the Polygonal Lasso.
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To use the Polygonal Lasso tool to create a cutout image on a new background:
1. Click and hold the Lasso in the Tools panel, and select
the Polygonal Lasso tool from the menu (Figure 8).
The pointer changes to a polygon.
Note: Once you select the Polygonal Lasso, it appears by
default in the menu until you select a different lasso tool.
Figure 8 Lasso tools in the Tools panel
2. In the options bar, make sure Add To Selection is selected
and set Feather to 3 px (Figure 9).
When you increase Feather slightly, you ensure that the
edges of the selection will be soft and the object will
blend well into a new background.
3. Click the border of the object you wish to select.
Add To Selection
Set Feather
Figure 9 Polygonal Lasso options
It may help to increase the object’s magnification.
4. Next, move the pointer a short distance away along the
object’s border and click again.
As you do so, you form a connected segment with
endpoints.
5. Continue creating small segments until you enclose the
entire object.
When you move the pointer over your original starting
point, a closed circle appears next to the Polygon lasso
pointer (Figure 10).
6. Click to close the selection.
7. Click the Refine Edge button in the options bar.
The Refine Edge dialog box opens (Figure 7).
8. Select a View Mode option (Figure 11) so that the edges
of the selection are easy to isolate against the
background.
Closed circle
Figure 10 Click to create selection segments until
the loop is closed
For example, a dark background will be more useful for
defining the edges of the lighthouse illustrated in the
example.
View Mode
pop up menu
Note: For information about each mode, hover the
pointer over it until a tool tip appears. Press F to cycle
through the View Mode options, or press X to
temporarily disable all views.
Figure 11 View Mode options
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How to generate different file formats
Different mediums—print, web and video—require different file formats. This guide describes how to generate
appropriate file formats for these mediums by using Adobe Photoshop CS5.
When generating any image in Photoshop, it’s important to remember that when you save an image, Photoshop saves
the image as it appears onscreen. That is, if you have hidden some layers, they will not appear in the saved image.
Saving files for the web
For web pages, you will generally want to save photos in JPEG format. JPEG is used more than any other format for
photos on web pages. (Other web formats include GIF—usually used for images with limited colors—and PNG—a
less often used, but flexible format.)
JPEG is popular because it compresses well—that is, you can make files smaller without sacrificing quality.
However, if you compress too much, file quality will suffer; the trick is to find the right balance between image
quality and compression.
Photoshop makes this process easier through a command called Save For Web & Devices. You can use Save For Web
& Devices to preview JPEGs with different compression settings before you save them.
Note: When you save a file for the web, it appears at its full pixel size. The document size does not affect how the
image appears in a browser. For example, an image whose pixel size is 640 x 480 displays at that size in a browser.
The document size affects only how the image prints.
To save a file as a JPEG:
1. Start Photoshop and open an image.
2. Choose File > Save For Web & Devices.
The Save For Web & Devices dialog box appears
(Figure 1).
3. In the Optimized File Format pop-up menu, choose
JPEG, if it is not selected. (Figure 2).
Figure 1 Save For Web & Devices dialog box
Optimized File
Format menu
Figure 2 Optimized File Format menu
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4. Click the 2-Up tab to display both the original and a
preview of the file to be saved (Figure 3).
5. Adjust quality by using either the Compression Quality
pop-up menu or the Quality slider (Figure 4).
As you change settings, observe how the quality of the
lower (preview) photo appears compared to the file size.
Ideally, you want to find the right balance between
preserving compressed image quality against smallest file
size.
6. When you are satisfied, click Save.
Clicking Save automatically saves a copy of the image as
a JPEG with the settings you indicated. The original
image is left unchanged. For working purposes, you may
want to incorporate some of the settings into the
filename, such as “banner_high.jpg” for an image saved
as a high-quality JPEG.
Figure 3 Save For Web & Devices dialog box, 2up mode
After you save, the original file stays open in Photoshop.
Note: If the original image is also a JPEG (many digital
cameras use JPEG as a format), you need to save the
copy in a different location from the original (or give it a
different name) to avoid confusion.
Optimized File
Format menu
Compression
Quality menu
Quality slider
Figure 4 Save for web settings
Generating files for print
Generating files for print use is different from saving images for the web: you use an uncompressed file format and
you must be sure the file is at a high enough resolution (preferably 300 ppi) before you save it. It is always good to
import the image into Photoshop at the highest possible resolution to give more flexibility in the kinds of images you
can generate.
Note: You can print to a printer directly from any computer running Photoshop. The options described here are for
sending an image to a printer, to another computer to be printed, or to another application.
Generating files for print involves three steps:
1. Setting the image resolution to 300 ppi.
2. Converting the image to CMYK (if the image is going to an offset print vendor).
3. Generating a print-friendly (compression-free or lossless) format, such as TIFF.
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Setting resolution to 300 ppi
Setting a higher resolution is important to maintain flexibility and quality.
To set resolution to 300 ppi:
1. Open an image in Photoshop.
2. Choose Image > Image Size.
The Image Size dialog box appears (Figure 5).
3. Make sure the Resample Image option is not selected.
When you leave this option unselected, you ensure that
you’re only changing the image’s resolution, not
removing or adding pixels.
4. Enter 300 in the Resolution text box (Figure 5).
Make sure pixels/inch is selected as the units for
Resolution.
5. Click OK.
Resolution text box
Figure 5 Image Size dialog box
To preview an image at the size it will appear when printed, choose View > Print Size (you may need first to select
View > Show All Menu Items).
Converting images to CMYK
Computers use combinations of red, green, and blue (RGB) to display photos. Offset printing presses print full-color
photos, using cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow, and black. This is known as CMYK printing. If you are printing to
an inkjet printer, you can leave the image in RGB mode, but if you are sending the image to an offset print vendor,
you need to convert the image to CMYK.
To view how the image will appear in CMYK, choose View > Proof Setup > Working CMYK. (For some images, you
may not observe any difference at all.) This preview is called a soft proof.
Note: Soft proofs are approximations. What you see onscreen depends on the quality and settings of your monitor as
well as the lighting conditions of your work environment. You may observe different results when you actually print.
Nevertheless, soft proofs can be useful.
Photoshop also enables you to preview how the image will appear on a range of different printers, including most
Epson models and offset printing. To view these, choose View > Proof Setup > Custom.
To convert an image to CMYK:
1. Save a copy of the image.
2. Choose Image > Mode > CMYK Color.
3. If the image has layers, Photoshop asks whether you wish
to flatten these. Click Yes.
(Because you saved a copy of the file, you can open the
saved copy to recover the layers.)
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Generating TIFFs
After you convert the image to CMYK and make sure it is at the correct resolution, you can save it in a print-friendly
format (a format with no compression, known as a lossless format). In this exercise, you will choose the TIFF format.
Note: Although TIFF is the most common lossless image format, you can also use EPS or an Adobe PDF.
To generate a TIFF:
1. Choose File > Save As.
The Save As dialog box appears (Figure 6).
2. In the Format box, choose TIFF (*.TIF, *.TIFF)
(Windows) or TIFF (Mac OS).
3. Click Save.
The TIFF Options dialog box appears (Figure 7).
4. Because the image is going to a printer, you do not need
to compress it. Leave Image Compression set to None.
Leave Pixel Order set to Interleaved.
Note: In practice, TIFF files are seldom compressed.
5. Set Byte Order to your operating system (Windows or
Mac OS).
6. Because the image is going to a printer, you also don’t
need to save the layers. Make sure Discard Layers And
Save A Copy is selected. This option flattens the layers in
the image.
Format pop-up menu
7. Click OK.
Note: If the image has only the Background layer, the
option Discard Layers And Save A Copy is not
available.
Figure 6 Save As dialog box
Figure 7 TIFF Options dialog box
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Printing images and saving print dialog settings
There may be occasions where you want to print a copy of your image to a local printer. Photoshop provides many
printing options, including the following printing commands:
Page Setup Displays options specific to your printer, printer drivers, and operating system.
Print Displays the Print dialog box, where you can preview the print job and select the printer, number of copies,
output options, and color management options.
Print One Copy Prints one copy of a file without displaying a dialog box.
Once you have established a preferred combination of format and color management options, you can save the print
dialog settings as a preset for use later.
To set Photoshop print options and print:
1. Choose File > Print.
The Print dialog box appears (Figure 8).
2. Do one or more of the following:
•
Use the Printer menu to select a printer.
•
Set the paper orientation to portrait or landscape.
•
Select the number of copies to print.
•
Adjust the position and scale of the image in relation to the selected paper size and orientation.
•
From the pop up menu:
◦
Set the Output options
◦
Set the Color Management options
3. Do one or more of the following:
•
To print the image, click Print.
•
To close the dialog box without saving the options, click Cancel.
•
To preserve the options and close the dialog box, click Done.
•
To print one copy of the image, choose File > Print One Copy.
•
To save the print options without closing the dialog box, hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and
click Done or Print.
Note: If you get a warning that your image is larger than the printable area of the paper, click Cancel, choose File
> Print, and select the Scale To Fit Media option. To make changes to your paper size and layout, click Print
Settings, and attempt to print the file again.
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Specify color
management and
proofing options
Set paper
orientation
Preview print
Set printer and print job
options
Position and scale image
Specify prepress
output options
Figure 8 Print dialog box
Creating images for video
Photoshop can create images of various aspect ratios so that they appear properly on devices such as video monitors.
You can select a specific video option (using the New dialog box) to compensate for scaling when the final image is
incorporated into video.
Safe zones
The Film & Video preset also creates a document with nonprinting guides that delineate the action-safe and title-safe
areas of the image (Figure 9). Using the options in the Size menu, you can produce images for specific video
systems—NTSC, PAL, or HDTV.
Safe zones are useful when you edit for broadcast and videotape. Most consumer TV sets use a process called
overscan, which cuts off a portion of the outer edges of the picture, allowing the center of the picture to be enlarged.
The amount of overscan is not consistent across TVs. To ensure that everything fits within the area that most TVs
display, keep text within the title-safe margins, and all other important elements within the action-safe margins.
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Title safe
area (inner
rectangle)
Action safe area (outer
rectangle)
Figure 9 Video preset file size guides in a new document
To create an image for use in video:
1. Create a new document.
The New document dialog box appears (Figure 10).
2. From the Preset menu in the New dialog box, choose the
Film & Video preset.
3. Choose the size that is appropriate for the video system
on which the image will be shown. In this case, the
NTSC DV option is selected (Figure 11).
4. Click Advanced to specify a color profile and specific
pixel aspect ratio.
Important: By default, nonsquare pixel documents open
with Pixel Aspect Ratio Correction enabled. This setting
scales the image so it appears as it would on the
nonsquare-pixel output device (usually a video monitor).
Figure 10 New document dialog box
5. Click OK to close the New document dialog box.
6. Click OK to accept the “Pixel aspect ratio correction is
for preview purposes only. Turn it off for maximum
image quality” message.
The new document opens (Figure 9).
Figure 11 Film and video size preset options
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7. To view the image as it would appear on a computer
monitor (square pixel), choose View > Pixel Aspect Ratio
Correction.
For example, in Figure 12, a circular image is shown
displayed with Pixel Aspect Ratio Correction turned on
and then turned off.
Note: You can simultaneously view an image with the
Pixel Aspect Ratio Correction turned on and off. With the
nonsquare pixel image open and Pixel Aspect Ratio
Correction enabled, choose Window > Arrange > New
Window For [name of document]. With the new window
active, choose View > Pixel Aspect Ratio Correction to
turn off the correction.
8. If you have a display device, such as a video monitor,
connected to your computer via FireWire, you can
preview the document on the device:
•
To set output options before previewing the image,
choose File > Export > Video Preview.
•
To view the image without setting output options,
choose File > Export > Send Video Preview To
Device.
Note: When creating images for video, you can load a set
of video actions (included with Photoshop) that automate
certain tasks—such as scaling images to fit video pixel
dimensions and setting the pixel aspect ratio.
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Figure 12 Circle in NTSC DV (720 x 480 pixels)
document viewed on computer (square pixel)
monitor with Pixel Aspect Ratio Correction turned
on (top) and Pixel Aspect Ratio Correction turned
off (bottom)