Services and Applications in Future Wireless Networks

Services and Applications in Future Wireless Networks
Josef Noll is
Prof.stip. at the
University Graduate Centre at
Kjeller (UniK),
This Telektronikk contribution will provide a view on the future wireless service landscape, with a
special focus on seamless service access to wireless services. Authentication for mobile network
access is performed through the SIM card. In wireless networks such as the IEEE802.11 family authentication might be provided through SIM related protocols being the Extensible Authentication Protocol
for Subscriber Identity (EAP-SIM) and the EAP for UMTS Authentication and Key Agreement (EAPAKA). With the help of the Bluetooth SIM access profile (SAP), the SIM credentials can be transferred
from one device (typically the mobile phone) to a second device (a laptop) for seamless WLAN network access for the user. Near field communication (NFC) has the potential of providing contactless
authentication services, including identification to home devices. A critical issue is NFC2SIM, the
interface from NFC to the SIM card. The contribution concludes with an overview over upcoming
personalised broadband wireless services, including home data access and community services.
1 Introduction
Third generation (3G) mobile systems have entered
the market, providing enhanced functionality to
deliver multimedia communication to the mobile
user. Network costs and limited cell capacity [1] have
opened discussions on how to extend the public cellular network using other access networks, e.g. WLAN
access or using UMTS as a return channel for a personalised DVB system. Such integration also requires
additional network functionality for interworking and
interoperation. The resulting system clearly represents an advanced stage of 3G, or even beyond 3G
(B3G) depending on the definition. Work is ongoing
in standardisation, specifically within ITU in the special study group on IMT-2000 and beyond IMT-2000
[2]. The Wireless World Research Forum and 3G.IP
are other organisations heavily involved in B3G [3][4].
The major conclusions from the ongoing work state
the need for addressing the relationship between User
preferences, Services, and Technologies [5]. Access
is expected to be provided through all kinds of wireless access networks, ranging from broadcast to wireless/mobile access systems. The main focus will be on
providing personalised wireless services to the user.
This paper will in Section 2 provide an introduction
to systems beyond 3G, address the communication
challenges in Section 3, and introduce identity management in Section 4. It provides an overview over
future community services in Section 5. The paper
finally provides examples of services in the digital
world in Section 6, and conclusions in Section 7.
2 “Beyond 3G”
Personalised broadband
wireless services
Multimedia communication
Mobile telephony, SMS, fax, data
Mobile telephony
Standardization of the system B3G started in 2000,
and consists of the three major elements:
Figure 1 Service evolution from mobile telephony to personalized
broadband wireless services
Telektronikk 3/4.2006
Mobile telecommunication systems were previously
defined in generations (see Figure 1). In the analogue
system, mobile telephony was the first telecom communication service. One of the main reasons for
introducing GSM was mobile telephony service provision in European countries, including SMS and data
services. 3G was introduced to provide roaming on a
world-wide base, and compatible standards such as
UMTS currently provide multimedia communication
in the whole world. “Systems beyond 3G” will provide personalized wireless broadband access and will
incorporate mobile and wireless access methods
including e.g. Wi-Fi, WiMAX [5].
• Wireless services: Users prefer to receive their services wireless, either through the mobile network
or a wireless (Wi-Fi) connection. This statement is
2.2 Broadband services
underlined by the sales numbers of mobile phones
and laptops: There are 1.5 billion cell phones in the
world today, more than three times the number of
PCs [6]. In June 2005 the number of laptops sold
bypassed the number of fixed PCs [7].
Gordon Moore’s prediction, popularly known as
Moore’s Law, states that the number of transistors on
a chip doubles about every two years (Figure 2) [9].
Since the start of the digital age the amount of information created is tripled approximately every 12
months. Comparing these growth rates with the increase of modem speed and air interface capacity
shows that modem speed has a similar growth rate to
the number of transistors, while air interface capacity
has not increased substantially from GSM to 3G/WiFi. The experienced increase in air capacity is due to
increased bandwidth B of the communication channel, from BGSM = 200 kHz in GSM to BUMTS = 3.8
MHz in UMTS, and B802.11 = 25 MHz for 802.11b.
• Broadband services: Market expectations for fixed
broadband services estimate that 60 % of households will have broadband in 2007 [8]. Mobile
broadband services like TV and video telephony
are available in most 3G markets.
• Personalised Services: The wide distribution of
mobile phones has increased the need for adapting
the content to both user preferences, terminal and
network capabilities.
Claude E. Shannon defined the capacity C of a
system as being proportional to the bandwidth B
2.1 Wireless services
The major challenge of wireless service provision is
the variation in radio quality. Radio is a shared resource, and the quality of the radio link is affected by:
C = B log2 (1 + P / N0 B),
with B the bandwidth of the carrier, P the signal
power and N0 the noise level of the system. For a
given bandwidth B, the maximum range Rmax is a
log-function of the signal to noise ratio
• User mobility,
• Radio environment (user speed and coverage
• Application topology, and
• User terminal requirements.
Rmax = log2 (1 + P / N0 )
Propagation attenuation (free space loss) is proportional to the carrier frequency, thus carriers such as
Wi-Fi have shorter ranges than GSM, but provide
higher throughput. These indications support the
usage of specific access networks for applications,
e.g. broadcast for video, Wi-Fi for email and ftp services, and GSM/UMTS for mobile services. It can be
assumed that services are available through all access
networks, but will have their preferred network for
f tr
Number of transistors
Transmission rate
Service delivery to a wireless terminal should take
into account the Quality of Service (QoS) measures
on the radio interface, e.g. propagation delay, variation of delay, bit error rate, error free seconds, distortion, signal to noise ratio, duration of interruption,
interruption probability, time between interruption,
bit rate, and throughput. These parameters will
depend on the user and terminal environment, and
underline that an optimum access will have to use
all available wireless and mobile connections.
Air interface capacity
Figure 2 Moore’s Law in transmission capacity and information creation
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2.3 Personalised services
In order to design and develop innovative and successful services one has to understand the user and be
able to “guess” his needs. This is the area of market
researchers and service designers who have to sense
and test the usability and social impacts of new service concepts, while looking for the added value that
could make a service offer a success. To that end a
phased methodology is recommended addressing the
following topics [5]:
1 Understanding the users by understanding their
culture and lifestyle;
2 Creating potential service concepts that satisfy
particular user needs described by technical details
and likely usage;
3 Validating the service concept against potential
users by means of prototypes and models.
where WLAN subnets exist, but usage of mobile
phones in those networks is not yet supported. Submitted in February 2005 to the 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP), UMA specifications are
adopted as Generic Access Network (GAN) within
the GERAN (GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network)
TSG (Technical Specifications Group).
UMA has thus become the standard for fixed-mobile
convergence (FMC). UMA technology enables access
to mobile voice, data and IMS services over IP broadband access and unlicensed spectrum technologies.
By deploying UMA technology, service providers
can enable subscribers to roam and handover between
cellular networks and public and private unlicensed
wireless networks using dual-mode mobile handsets.
With UMA, subscribers receive a consistent user
experience for their mobile voice, data and IMS
services as they transition between networks [10].
3.1.2 British Telecom – Bluephone/Fusion
To build these types of personalised services is a
challenge to the system design as well as the user
interface. The system should be flexible and allow the
definition of personal preferences, and these should
be carried seamlessly with the user as he moves geographically or between access networks. The user
interface should be such that personalisation is easy
and intuitive. Personalisation might be supported by
“learning” profiles handling the preferences of the
user, the “presence” (where is the user, what is he
doing), and the social/community characteristic of
a user.
The next section will provide an overview of existing
developments in order to overcome the borders
between wireless and mobile networks.
3 Communication challenges
This section addresses the communication challenges
of a mobile user, analysing trends in radio communication development, the position of the mobile phone
and authentication as key issue for user acceptance.
3.1 Radio communications
Section 2 has concluded that optimum access networks will have to be used for the specific applications. This section will look into existing standardisation and market trends for wireless network access,
e.g. UMA, IMS, and Bluephone.
3.1.1 Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA)
The UMA Technology specification will allow the
usage of mobile phones in unlicensed bands, typically
using Wi-Fi or Bluetooth as radio interface. Typical
applications cover the home and office environment,
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While Eurescom launched a study called “Public
Bluetooth Access” in 2001 [11], parallel developments started at British Telecom (BT) to enable Bluetooth based mobile services. Technical problems such
as interference, especially in the voice channel, and
missing standardisation delayed the launch of the
Bluephone product until mid June 2005 [12]. After
successful customer testing in 2005, BT runs the service as a conventional FMC package called Fusion,
offering a Wi-Fi/Bluetooth combined router, which
users can plug into BT’s Broadband ADSL at home.
Currently two mobile phones are supported,
Motorola’s RAZR V3 and V560.
The main difference between Fusion and UMA is the
focus of the network operator. Fusion is based on SIP
and IMS standards, thus promoting the developments
in the direction of next generation networks, while
UMA brings the home area into the mobile network,
using mobile network core technologies.
3.2 My future terminal
While the access network development will follow
the main position of the operator, i.e. mobile operators will tend to promote UMA, while fixed network
operators will promote Fusion-like approaches, the
developments on the terminal side are more
We see two major trends, on the one hand following
the PC and making applications available for the
mobile user, and on the other hand the development
of specific mobile services, promoting lifestyle and
community services. The mobile phone has the major
advantage as it is available 24 hours / 7 days a week,
as compared to about 4 h average usage of a PC.
Figure 3 Functionality of mobile terminals, e.g. communication portal (left), public transport information (middle, from [13]),
video/surveillance (right)
Thus, the mobile phone provides the always online
functionality with availability, email and Internet
access (see Figure 3). While this trend is visible in the
enterprise market, the consumer market is dominated
by lifestyle trends. Decisions to buy a certain phone
are rather based on attitude, e.g. the tough phone for
the outdoor person, and the city phone for the urban
What is common in both trends is that service availability has reached all phones. Communication and
interaction is provided, connectivity to my community (Figure 3, left), local services such as public
transport information (Figure 3, middle) and video/TV
(Figure 3, right) show some of the potential services.
The mobile phone has several service enablers inbuilt, i.e. positioning information, potential for seamless and personalised service access, mobile commerce, and adaptation of content to personal preferences. However, these advantages are not yet properly addressed by the operators. The following section will provide examples of personalised service
access, indicating the potential of mobile services,
but also addressing the current deficits.
3.3 Device, network and service
Authentication is the key for a customer relation,
and the entry for value-added services. Telecom customers are used to hassle-free access (GSM works
everywhere), and will expect the same functionality
for access to other networks and services. The cus-
tomer is used to having the mobile phone around, and
the SIM card opens for authentication and encryption
in every wireless network (Bluetooth, WLAN,
WiMAX) in addition to GSM and UMTS.
Service authentication has to satisfy the security
requirements of the application, e.g. nice to know
security for network access, need to know security for
email and intranet access and have to know security
for VPN and mCommerce services. We suggest the
following the mechanisms from the Initiative for
open authentication (OATH1)):
• SIM authentication (SIM)
• Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
• One-Time-Password (OTP).
These mechanisms fulfil the requirements of the Norwegian Government and other European countries for
an eSignature. The mobile phone has the capabilities
of providing all of them: SIM, PKI and OTP, and
thus may provide the security requirements for various applications in the virtual world.
The security requirements might be satisfied through
SIM authentication and can be enhanced through a
password/pin mechanism. The highest security
requirements are required for have to know services,
such as admin access to home content or electronic
transactions. We recommend a PKI based authentication, which most European Operators have on their
SIM cards [14].
1) http://www.
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Home access,
.mp3, .jpg
Figure 4 The mobile phone as authentication device for admittance, network and service access
4 My identity in the digital world
This section postulates the need for identity in the virtual world. It will identify the threats of using biometric identification, and suggests the mobile phone as
an identifier. In the virtual world identity is verified
through an authentication mechanism. The Web community has defined Laws of Identity, providing a unifying identity meta-system that can offer the Internet
the identity layer it needs [15]. One of the conclusions is to provide the user with the capabilities of
providing exactly the information required to receive
the service, and not his complete identity.
Section 3.3 introduced the security mechanisms
needed for different kinds of applications and has a
two-factor authentication for the has to know security
level. The SIM card in the mobile phone has the
capability of providing all levels of authentication
and supports mechanisms for revocation of credentials stored in the SIM card. A SIM card is only active
if authenticated by the network operator. If the SIM
card gets stolen, the operator can disable the card.
The main challenge is on how SIM information can
be securely distributed to other devices and services.
4.2 Supporting technologies
4.1 Biometrics versus SIM card
Biometrics, especially the fingerprint is used nowadays for identification to systems and services. Fingerprint authentication is used by Lufthansa to speed
up check-in procedures and the hand’s palm vein pattern by the Tokyo-Mitsubishi banks to increase security in ATM money withdrawal. Avivah Litan, an
analyst with Gartner, argues that biometrics is the
most secure form of authentication because it is the
hardest to imitate and duplicate [16].
Current discussion is ongoing on how a safe storage
of biometric information can be performed. Once biometrical information is stolen, it cannot be revealed.
The fear of permanently losing your ability to use
a biometric trait has caused European Legislators to
deny usage of biometrical information. Measures are
taken as e.g. a two-factor protection of the biometric
information to protect the information, but the missing revocation is the most critical issue when it comes
to biometrics.
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SIM authentication is used for GSM/UMTS network
access and also as transaction receipts for content
download, e.g. ring tones. Including authentication
methods through Bluetooth and Near Field Communications (NFC), SIM-based authentication opens for
all types of service access (see Figure 4). The NFC
forum has introduced RFID technologies in mobile
phones, and thus allows the mobile phone to replace
contactless credit cards and admittance cards [17].
With the introduction of the NFC technology into the
mobile phones, the SIM card takes a more important
role for payment, ticketing and SIM card providers.
When NFC functions as a contactless card, it requires
a place to store critical information such as ticket
numbers, credit card accounts or ID information.
This storage place could basically be anywhere in
the mobile phone (RAM), but since the SIM card
has storage capacity and already offers a high level of
security, it is the obvious place for storage of critical
and sensitive information (Figure 5).
warded to the content server. The string contains
both information on the user and the device requesting the service. The user (x-nokia-alias) is represented through an md5 hash of the mobile ID
(MSISDN), and the device is represented through
a device identifier (mobile phone type) [19].
The following section will provide examples of
services based on seamless authentication.
Smartcard interfaces
ISO/IEC 7816
Figure 5 Mobile authentication based on near field
communications (NFC)
Communication between the NFC chip and the SIM
card, called NFC2SIM, has to be developed and standardized. This is one of the main reasons why NFC
mobile phones are still in the demonstration phase.
The communication between the SIM card and the
NFC chip requires a high-speed transaction in order
to offer a real alternative to today’s ticketing and payment systems. Users would not accept a new ticketing
solution that is not easier or faster than the already
available solutions offered by contactless plastic
Authentication for network access is performed in the
mobile network through the SIM card. In wireless
networks such as the IEEE802.11 family authentication might be provided through various protocols,
with the two SIM related protocols being the Extensible Authentication Protocol for Subscriber Identity
(EAP-SIM) and the EAP for UMTS Authentication
and Key Agreement (EAP-AKA). If a mobile phone
supports EAP-SIM, it can seamlessly connect to
WLAN networks using the SIM card. With the help
of the Bluetooth SIM access profile (SAP), the SIM
credentials can be transferred from one device (typically the mobile phone) to a second device (a laptop)
for seamless WLAN network access of the user. The
EAP-SIM and Bluetooth SAP profile interworking
has been demonstrated on several occasions, but is
currently only available for a limited number of
mobile phones [18].
SIM-based service authentication in mobile networks
is known from premium SMS services, e.g. ring tone
and logo download. Operators have introduced the
SIM authentication also for WAP services, allowing
e.g. a seamless access to the personal email account
through the WAP portal. The WAP gateway adds an
information string to the http header, which is for-
5 Community services
Having addressed security requirements and mobile
phone/SIM-based authentication as a major service
enabler, this section will address upcoming services.
It will first address community services and then
position the mobile phone as integrator for mobile
and broadband services.
5.1 Communities, groups and roles
The digital services trend has reached everyday life.
Information is spread by Internet, email and SMS,
rather than by plain paper. Youngsters use micro coordination, using the mobile phone to communicate
with their community at every minute of the day [20].
Depending on the context, these communities are
changing, ranging from working colleagues to
friends, to members of classes, school, or sporting
clubs. Figure 6 indicates a location based service for
a friend community, indicating at all times where
your friends are, and even introducing an alert when
a friend comes nearby. The mobile phone is the preferred device to keep control of your communities,
providing availability, location and communication.
Community services will become more dominant in
the future, addressing contact, location and availability as well as exchange of pictures, music and other
digital content.
5.2 Digital content: picture, video, music
The digital home has turned into reality. As predicted
by the Eurescom study P1401, flat screen and highdefinition TV (HD-TV), broadband recording either
on DVD or on hard-disk recorders, and the transformation from analogue to digital video and photography are the dominant events in 2006 [8]. The home
broadband connection (e.g. ADSL) supports always
online and enables on-demand services. Residential
gateways are getting more mature, cheap, and offer
innovative services in addition to communication.
The social drives of a broadband, always-on connection are on-demand video and multimedia social connectivity. The home portal becomes the centre for
communication, making people’s content available
in and outside the home and allowing for the control
of the home infrastructure.
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Even though video and TV recording are the current
drivers, photo and music exchange are mature market
services. Current upload/download network access
rates support file exchanges (typical 1–3 Mb) and
audio streaming (typically 128 kbit/s), while video
exchange is still cumbersome. More advanced personal data recorders will support the streaming of
video content in a mobile format, providing reasonable mobile video quality at data rates up to 384 kbit/s.
P1401 suggests to subdivide broadband home services into four categories; Entertainment, Home
automation, Personal Enrichment and Social Inclusion [8]. This paper will concentrate on entertainment, providing electronic content like music, video
and data while being on the move.
5.3 Mobile and broadband – a synergy
Section 3 has provided evidence for the fixed mobile
integration, based on IMS or SIP standards. This
paper goes beyond network access, and suggests
the mobile phone becoming the identifier for home
broadband services (see Figure 7).
Digital content in broadcasting is usually secured
through a conditional access module (CAM), which
requires a Smartcard to decrypt the incoming video
streams. These systems, even though registered to a
person, are used anonymously, as they stay in the settop box. The mobile phone has the potential to allow
a personalised access to broadband content by providing user information and preferences to the set-top
box. This user information can either be provided
Figure 6 Community service, location of friends
through Near Field Communication (NFC), see Section 4, or through personal area network access based
on e.g. Bluetooth or WLAN. Having established con-
It’s me, get my services
(seamless authentication)
Remote control
Extra channels
Extra information,
IP services:
My personal EPG
Figure 7 Using the mobile to control and receive broadband services
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nectivity and authentication, the user would be able
to receive a personalised electronic programme guide
(EPG), additional services through a locally forwarded channel or might even watch another channel
or camera viewpoint on his personal device.
To provide a detailed overview of ongoing developments would exceed the scope of this paper. Lohse et
al. provide a state-of-the-art discussion and suggest a
network middleware solution, allowing mobile
phones to control the digital video recorder, playing
music stored in the home device, or chatting with visitors over the home located web cam [21]. The main
challenge is to combine the broadcast and IP-world
by introducing standards for interworking of authentication and DRM mechanisms in the virtual world.
6 Entering the digital world
Section 4 introduced seamless network and service
access based on NFC, Bluetooth/WLAN, GSM/
UMTS and WAP gateway authentication. Somogyi
extended the seamless authentication to personalization of services for a picture gallery, using both user
identity and device identity information [19]. Further
work at UniK included access to various types of
home content, including music download, web cam
based surveillance and community address book.
6.1 Service examples
Internet services provide access to personal information through username/password authentication. On a
mobile phone or a personal data assistant such a login
procedure is not accepted by the customers, as input
of text strings and passwords is too cumbersome.
This section provides two examples of service access:
Internet banking and access to a community data base
(Figure 8). Both examples are based on WAP gateway authentication addressed in Section 5. The user
is identified through his mobile number, and a
provider specific md5 hash of the user id (MSISDN)
is delivered to the service provider, here the bank.
With this information the nice to have service
account status and last transactions are provided to
the user. For mobile transactions, a need to have service has to be provided in the form of a level 2 security, either through one time password or through PKI
based authentication.
The second example provides access to a community
database, where contact info is stored in specific databases, here a Company address list for companies the
user has contact with a UniK list for all members at
UniK. As compared to a public available database,
such a community oriented database allows adding
personal information which is only shared by members of the group.
6.2 Challenges/ongoing research
This paper concludes with access to encrypted home
content from outside of the home, a typical OBAN
case. The functional requirements are based on the
following assumptions:
• Content will be available in a digital form, and content storage devices will be networked.
• The user will have a variety of devices which he
can use for content access.
• A ubiquitous network allows content access
wherever the user is.
Figure 8 Seamless authentication, used for bank access (left) and community address book (right)
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4. Request DRM key
for selected content
1. Request for home content
3. Streaming of encrypting content
SIM with
DRM keys
5. Return DRM key
2. Seamless authentication and
redirect to personalised content
Figure 9 Digital Rights Management (DRM) based on DRM keys stored
on the SIM card of the mobile phone
• The SIM card is the secure place to store identities
and access rights.
• The user owns the SIM, and allows access/content
providers to install access keys to the SIM. The
SIM might be administered centrally, allowing for
backup/update/restore functionality.
• Rights Management is delegated to the SIM. Content will be streamed to the device, and rights management checked against the access rights on the
Figure 9 represents the steps for content access fulfilling the functional requirements stated earlier. We
have selected access to home content as example, following the argumentation provided by Noll et al. [8].
They claim that users will have a preference of having their content (music, video, pictures) at home,
rather than storing them in the network.
The access to home content contains the following
elements: The home content storage, the media
player, the personal device and the network elements
interconnecting the devices. The access is performed
in the following steps [14]:
Home access,
.mp3, .jpg
3 The content is adapted to the capabilities of the
media player and network capacity, and streamed
to the media player.
4 The media player asks for an authentication from
the personal device, here indicated through an NFC
5 The personal device returns an authentication,
allowing for decryption of content in the media
Steps 1–3 are realised in prototypical implementations. Steps 4 and 5 are challenging, as they include
NFC as communication medium, NFC2SIM as protocol for exchange of information between the NFC
and the SIM card, and handling of DRM keys on the
device in general.
The suggested NFC2SIM protocol has to secure the
communication between the NFC module and the
smartcard. Application keys like access or licensing
keys are stored on the SIM, and are accessed through
the NFC radio.
7 Conclusions
1 The user requests home content by addressing his
home content storage.
2 The user device is authenticated in a seamless
manner, and access to content is provided. Terminal capabilities are also transferred to the home
content storage.
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Service authentication has to satisfy the security
requirements of the application, e.g. nice to know
security for network access, need to know security for
email and intranet access and have to know security
for VPN and mCommerce services. Including authentication methods through Bluetooth and Near Field
Communications (NFC), SIM-based authentication
opens for all types of service access, providing admittance (keys, access cards, and tickets), payment (wal-
let) and content access (home). Examples of such services are mobile service access for banking, or ticket
ordering, physical access based on proximity card
functionality, VPN access based on have to know
authentication, and need to know access to private
home content. The SIM card in the mobile phone has
the capability to provide a two-factor authentication,
and supports mechanisms for revocation of credentials stored on the SIM card.
7 Associated Press. Era of mobile computing
arrives – Notebooks have outsold desktops for
first time. 10 August 2006 [online] – URL:
Authentication for network access is performed in the
mobile network through the SIM card. In wireless
networks such as the IEEE802.11 family authentication might be provided through various protocols,
with the two SIM related protocols being the Extensible Authentication Protocol for Subscriber Identity
(EAP-SIM) and the EAP for UMTS Authentication
and Key Agreement (EAP-AKA). If a mobile phone
supports EAP-SIM, it can seamlessly connect to
WLAN networks using the SIM card. With the help
of the Bluetooth SIM access profile (SAP), the SIM
credentials can be transferred from one device (typically the mobile phone) to a second device (a laptop)
for seamless WLAN network access of the user.
9 A Prediction Made Real Improves Billions of
Lives. 10 August 2006 [online] – URL:
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September 2005.
Dr. Josef Noll is Prof.stip. at the University Graduate Centre at Kjeller (UniK), Norway, in the area of Mobile
Systems. He is also Senior Advisor at Movation and at Telenor R&I. He received his PhD from the University
of Bochum, Germany. He worked for the European Space Agency at ESTEC from 1991 to 1997, and from
1997 to 2005 at Telenor R&I. His working areas include mobile authentication, wireless broadband access,
personalised services, mobile-fixed integration, and the evolution to 4G systems. Further information at
Telektronikk 3/4.2006
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