Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1

Linux From Scratch
Version 8.1-systemd
Created by Gerard Beekmans
Managing Editor: Bruce Dubbs
Editor: Douglas R. Reno
Editor: DJ Lucas
Linux From Scratch: Version 8.1-systemd
by Created by Gerard Beekmans, Managing Editor: Bruce Dubbs, Editor: Douglas R. Reno, and Editor: DJ Lucas
Copyright © 1999-2017 Gerard Beekmans
Copyright © 1999-2017, Gerard Beekmans
All rights reserved.
This book is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
Computer instructions may be extracted from the book under the MIT License.
Linux® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Table of Contents
Preface .......................................................................................................................................................................... vii
i. Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. vii
ii. Audience ............................................................................................................................................................ vii
iii. LFS Target Architectures ................................................................................................................................ viii
iv. LFS and Standards ............................................................................................................................................ ix
v. Rationale for Packages in the Book .................................................................................................................... x
vi. Prerequisites ...................................................................................................................................................... xv
vii. Typography ...................................................................................................................................................... xv
viii. Structure ......................................................................................................................................................... xvi
ix. Errata ............................................................................................................................................................... xvii
I. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1. How to Build an LFS System .................................................................................................................... 2
1.2. What's new since the last release ............................................................................................................... 2
1.3. Changelog ................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.4. Resources .................................................................................................................................................... 8
1.5. Help ............................................................................................................................................................. 9
II. Preparing for the Build ........................................................................................................................................... 11
2. Preparing the Host System ................................................................................................................................ 12
2.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 12
2.2. Host System Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 12
2.3. Building LFS in Stages ............................................................................................................................ 15
2.4. Creating a New Partition .......................................................................................................................... 15
2.5. Creating a File System on the Partition ................................................................................................... 17
2.6. Setting The $LFS Variable ....................................................................................................................... 18
2.7. Mounting the New Partition ..................................................................................................................... 18
3. Packages and Patches ........................................................................................................................................ 20
3.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 20
3.2. All Packages ............................................................................................................................................. 20
3.3. Needed Patches ......................................................................................................................................... 27
4. Final Preparations .............................................................................................................................................. 29
4.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 29
4.2. Creating the $LFS/tools Directory ........................................................................................................... 29
4.3. Adding the LFS User ............................................................................................................................... 29
4.4. Setting Up the Environment ..................................................................................................................... 30
4.5. About SBUs .............................................................................................................................................. 31
4.6. About the Test Suites ............................................................................................................................... 32
5. Constructing a Temporary System .................................................................................................................... 34
5.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 34
5.2. Toolchain Technical Notes ....................................................................................................................... 34
5.3. General Compilation Instructions ............................................................................................................. 36
5.4. Binutils-2.29 - Pass 1 ............................................................................................................................... 37
5.5. GCC-7.2.0 - Pass 1 ................................................................................................................................... 39
5.6. Linux-4.12.7 API Headers ........................................................................................................................ 42
5.7. Glibc-2.26 ................................................................................................................................................. 43
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5.8. Libstdc++-7.2.0 ......................................................................................................................................... 46
5.9. Binutils-2.29 - Pass 2 ............................................................................................................................... 48
5.10. GCC-7.2.0 - Pass 2 ................................................................................................................................. 50
5.11. Tcl-core-8.6.7 .......................................................................................................................................... 53
5.12. Expect-5.45 ............................................................................................................................................. 55
5.13. DejaGNU-1.6 .......................................................................................................................................... 57
5.14. Check-0.11.0 ........................................................................................................................................... 58
5.15. Ncurses-6.0 .............................................................................................................................................. 59
5.16. Bash-4.4 .................................................................................................................................................. 60
5.17. Bison-3.0.4 .............................................................................................................................................. 61
5.18. Bzip2-1.0.6 .............................................................................................................................................. 62
5.19. Coreutils-8.27 .......................................................................................................................................... 63
5.20. Diffutils-3.6 ............................................................................................................................................. 64
5.21. File-5.31 .................................................................................................................................................. 65
5.22. Findutils-4.6.0 ......................................................................................................................................... 66
5.23. Gawk-4.1.4 .............................................................................................................................................. 67
5.24. Gettext-0.19.8.1 ....................................................................................................................................... 68
5.25. Grep-3.1 .................................................................................................................................................. 69
5.26. Gzip-1.8 ................................................................................................................................................... 70
5.27. M4-1.4.18 ................................................................................................................................................ 71
5.28. Make-4.2.1 .............................................................................................................................................. 72
5.29. Patch-2.7.5 ............................................................................................................................................... 73
5.30. Perl-5.26.0 ............................................................................................................................................... 74
5.31. Sed-4.4 .................................................................................................................................................... 75
5.32. Tar-1.29 ................................................................................................................................................... 76
5.33. Texinfo-6.4 .............................................................................................................................................. 77
5.34. Util-linux-2.30.1 ...................................................................................................................................... 78
5.35. Xz-5.2.3 ................................................................................................................................................... 79
5.36. Stripping .................................................................................................................................................. 80
5.37. Changing Ownership .............................................................................................................................. 80
III. Building the LFS System ...................................................................................................................................... 81
6. Installing Basic System Software ...................................................................................................................... 82
6.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 82
6.2. Preparing Virtual Kernel File Systems .................................................................................................... 83
6.3. Package Management ............................................................................................................................... 84
6.4. Entering the Chroot Environment ............................................................................................................ 87
6.5. Creating Directories .................................................................................................................................. 88
6.6. Creating Essential Files and Symlinks ..................................................................................................... 89
6.7. Linux-4.12.7 API Headers ........................................................................................................................ 93
6.8. Man-pages-4.12 ......................................................................................................................................... 94
6.9. Glibc-2.26 ................................................................................................................................................. 95
6.10. Adjusting the Toolchain ....................................................................................................................... 103
6.11. Zlib-1.2.11 ............................................................................................................................................. 105
6.12. File-5.31 ................................................................................................................................................ 106
6.13. Readline-7.0 .......................................................................................................................................... 107
6.14. M4-1.4.18 .............................................................................................................................................. 109
6.15. Bc-1.07.1 ............................................................................................................................................... 110
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
6.16.
6.17.
6.18.
6.19.
6.20.
6.21.
6.22.
6.23.
6.24.
6.25.
6.26.
6.27.
6.28.
6.29.
6.30.
6.31.
6.32.
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6.34.
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6.40.
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6.42.
6.43.
6.44.
6.45.
6.46.
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6.48.
6.49.
6.50.
6.51.
6.52.
6.53.
6.54.
6.55.
6.56.
6.57.
6.58.
6.59.
6.60.
6.61.
6.62.
Binutils-2.29 ..........................................................................................................................................
GMP-6.1.2 .............................................................................................................................................
MPFR-3.1.5 ...........................................................................................................................................
MPC-1.0.3 .............................................................................................................................................
GCC-7.2.0 .............................................................................................................................................
Bzip2-1.0.6 ............................................................................................................................................
Pkg-config-0.29.2 ..................................................................................................................................
Ncurses-6.0 ............................................................................................................................................
Attr-2.4.47 .............................................................................................................................................
Acl-2.2.52 ..............................................................................................................................................
Libcap-2.25 ...........................................................................................................................................
Sed-4.4 ..................................................................................................................................................
Shadow-4.5 ............................................................................................................................................
Psmisc-23.1 ...........................................................................................................................................
Iana-Etc-2.30 .........................................................................................................................................
Bison-3.0.4 ............................................................................................................................................
Flex-2.6.4 ..............................................................................................................................................
Grep-3.1 ................................................................................................................................................
Bash-4.4 ................................................................................................................................................
Libtool-2.4.6 ..........................................................................................................................................
GDBM-1.13 ..........................................................................................................................................
Gperf-3.1 ...............................................................................................................................................
Expat-2.2.3 ............................................................................................................................................
Inetutils-1.9.4 ........................................................................................................................................
Perl-5.26.0 .............................................................................................................................................
XML::Parser-2.44 .................................................................................................................................
Intltool-0.51.0 ........................................................................................................................................
Autoconf-2.69 .......................................................................................................................................
Automake-1.15.1 ...................................................................................................................................
Xz-5.2.3 .................................................................................................................................................
Kmod-24 ...............................................................................................................................................
Gettext-0.19.8.1 .....................................................................................................................................
Systemd-234 ..........................................................................................................................................
Procps-ng-3.3.12 ...................................................................................................................................
E2fsprogs-1.43.5 ...................................................................................................................................
Coreutils-8.27 ........................................................................................................................................
Diffutils-3.6 ...........................................................................................................................................
Gawk-4.1.4 ............................................................................................................................................
Findutils-4.6.0 .......................................................................................................................................
Groff-1.22.3 ...........................................................................................................................................
GRUB-2.02 ...........................................................................................................................................
Less-487 ................................................................................................................................................
Gzip-1.8 .................................................................................................................................................
IPRoute2-4.12.0 ....................................................................................................................................
Kbd-2.0.4 ...............................................................................................................................................
Libpipeline-1.4.2 ...................................................................................................................................
Make-4.2.1 ............................................................................................................................................
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6.63. Patch-2.7.5 ............................................................................................................................................. 200
6.64. D-Bus-1.10.22 ....................................................................................................................................... 201
6.65. Util-linux-2.30.1 .................................................................................................................................... 203
6.66. Man-DB-2.7.6.1 .................................................................................................................................... 208
6.67. Tar-1.29 ................................................................................................................................................. 211
6.68. Texinfo-6.4 ............................................................................................................................................ 212
6.69. Vim-8.0.586 .......................................................................................................................................... 214
6.70. About Debugging Symbols .................................................................................................................. 217
6.71. Stripping Again ..................................................................................................................................... 217
6.72. Cleaning Up .......................................................................................................................................... 219
7. System Configuration ...................................................................................................................................... 220
7.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 220
7.2. General Network Configuration ............................................................................................................. 220
7.3. Overview of Device and Module Handling ........................................................................................... 223
7.4. Managing Devices .................................................................................................................................. 226
7.5. Configuring the system clock ................................................................................................................. 227
7.6. Configuring the Linux Console .............................................................................................................. 228
7.7. Configuring the System Locale .............................................................................................................. 229
7.8. Creating the /etc/inputrc File .................................................................................................................. 231
7.9. Creating the /etc/shells File .................................................................................................................... 233
7.10. Systemd Usage and Configuration ....................................................................................................... 233
8. Making the LFS System Bootable .................................................................................................................. 236
8.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 236
8.2. Creating the /etc/fstab File ...................................................................................................................... 236
8.3. Linux-4.12.7 ............................................................................................................................................ 238
8.4. Using GRUB to Set Up the Boot Process ............................................................................................. 243
9. The End ............................................................................................................................................................ 245
9.1. The End ................................................................................................................................................... 245
9.2. Get Counted ............................................................................................................................................ 245
9.3. Rebooting the System ............................................................................................................................. 245
9.4. What Now? ............................................................................................................................................. 247
IV. Appendices ........................................................................................................................................................... 248
A. Acronyms and Terms ..................................................................................................................................... 249
B. Acknowledgments ........................................................................................................................................... 252
C. Dependencies ................................................................................................................................................... 255
D. LFS Licenses ................................................................................................................................................... 266
D.1. Creative Commons License ................................................................................................................... 266
D.2. The MIT License ................................................................................................................................... 270
Index ........................................................................................................................................................................... 271
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Preface
Foreword
My journey to learn and better understand Linux began over a decade ago, back in 1998. I had just installed my first
Linux distribution and had quickly become intrigued with the whole concept and philosophy behind Linux.
There are always many ways to accomplish a single task. The same can be said about Linux distributions. A great many
have existed over the years. Some still exist, some have morphed into something else, yet others have been relegated
to our memories. They all do things differently to suit the needs of their target audience. Because so many different
ways to accomplish the same end goal exist, I began to realize I no longer had to be limited by any one implementation.
Prior to discovering Linux, we simply put up with issues in other Operating Systems as you had no choice. It was what
it was, whether you liked it or not. With Linux, the concept of choice began to emerge. If you didn't like something,
you were free, even encouraged, to change it.
I tried a number of distributions and could not decide on any one. They were great systems in their own right. It wasn't
a matter of right and wrong anymore. It had become a matter of personal taste. With all that choice available, it became
apparent that there would not be a single system that would be perfect for me. So I set out to create my own Linux
system that would fully conform to my personal preferences.
To truly make it my own system, I resolved to compile everything from source code instead of using pre-compiled
binary packages. This “perfect” Linux system would have the strengths of various systems without their perceived
weaknesses. At first, the idea was rather daunting. I remained committed to the idea that such a system could be built.
After sorting through issues such as circular dependencies and compile-time errors, I finally built a custom-built Linux
system. It was fully operational and perfectly usable like any of the other Linux systems out there at the time. But it
was my own creation. It was very satisfying to have put together such a system myself. The only thing better would
have been to create each piece of software myself. This was the next best thing.
As I shared my goals and experiences with other members of the Linux community, it became apparent that there was
a sustained interest in these ideas. It quickly became plain that such custom-built Linux systems serve not only to meet
user specific requirements, but also serve as an ideal learning opportunity for programmers and system administrators
to enhance their (existing) Linux skills. Out of this broadened interest, the Linux From Scratch Project was born.
This Linux From Scratch book is the central core around that project. It provides the background and instructions
necessary for you to design and build your own system. While this book provides a template that will result in a correctly
working system, you are free to alter the instructions to suit yourself, which is, in part, an important part of this project.
You remain in control; we just lend a helping hand to get you started on your own journey.
I sincerely hope you will have a great time working on your own Linux From Scratch system and enjoy the numerous
benefits of having a system that is truly your own.
-Gerard Beekmans
gerard@linuxfromscratch.org
Audience
There are many reasons why you would want to read this book. One of the questions many people raise is, “why go
through all the hassle of manually building a Linux system from scratch when you can just download and install an
existing one?”
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One important reason for this project's existence is to help you learn how a Linux system works from the inside out.
Building an LFS system helps demonstrate what makes Linux tick, and how things work together and depend on each
other. One of the best things that this learning experience can provide is the ability to customize a Linux system to
suit your own unique needs.
Another key benefit of LFS is that it allows you to have more control over the system without relying on someone else's
Linux implementation. With LFS, you are in the driver's seat and dictate every aspect of the system.
LFS allows you to create very compact Linux systems. When installing regular distributions, you are often forced to
install a great many programs which are probably never used or understood. These programs waste resources. You
may argue that with today's hard drive and CPUs, such resources are no longer a consideration. Sometimes, however,
you are still constrained by size considerations if nothing else. Think about bootable CDs, USB sticks, and embedded
systems. Those are areas where LFS can be beneficial.
Another advantage of a custom built Linux system is security. By compiling the entire system from source code, you are
empowered to audit everything and apply all the security patches desired. It is no longer necessary to wait for somebody
else to compile binary packages that fix a security hole. Unless you examine the patch and implement it yourself, you
have no guarantee that the new binary package was built correctly and adequately fixes the problem.
The goal of Linux From Scratch is to build a complete and usable foundation-level system. If you do not wish to build
your own Linux system from scratch, you may not entirely benefit from the information in this book.
There are too many other good reasons to build your own LFS system to list them all here. In the end, education is by
far the most powerful of reasons. As you continue in your LFS experience, you will discover the power that information
and knowledge truly bring.
LFS Target Architectures
The primary target architectures of LFS are the AMD/Intel x86 (32-bit) and x86_64 (64-bit) CPUs. On the other hand,
the instructions in this book are also known to work, with some modifications, with the Power PC and ARM CPUs.
To build a system that utilizes one of these CPUs, the main prerequisite, in addition to those on the next few pages, is
an existing Linux system such as an earlier LFS installation, Ubuntu, Red Hat/Fedora, SuSE, or other distribution that
targets the architecture that you have. Also note that a 32-bit distribution can be installed and used as a host system
on a 64-bit AMD/Intel computer.
Some other facts about 64-bit systems need to be added here. When compared to a 32-bit system, the sizes of executable
programs are slightly larger and the execution speeds are only slightly faster. For example, in a test build of LFS-6.5
on a Core2Duo CPU based system, the following statistics were measured:
Architecture Build Time
32-bit
198.5 minutes
64-bit
190.6 minutes
Build Size
648 MB
709 MB
As you can see, the 64-bit build is only 4% faster and is 9% larger than the 32-bit build. The gain from going to a 64-bit
system is relatively minimal. Of course, if you have more than 4GB of RAM or want to manipulate data that exceeds
4GB, the advantages of a 64-bit system are substantial.
The default 64-bit build that results from LFS is considered a "pure" 64-bit system. That is, it supports 64-bit executables
only. Building a "multi-lib" system requires compiling many applications twice, once for a 32-bit system and once
for a 64-bit system. This is not directly supported in LFS because it would interfere with the educational objective
of providing the instructions needed for a straightforward base Linux system. You can refer to the Cross Linux From
Scratch project for this advanced topic.
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LFS and Standards
The structure of LFS follows Linux standards as closely as possible. The primary standards are:
• POSIX.1-2008.
• Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) Version 3.0
• Linux Standard Base (LSB) Version 5.0
The LSB has four separate standards: Core, Desktop, Runtime Languages, and Imaging. In addition to generic
requirements there are also architecture specific requirements. There are also two areas for trial use: Gtk3 and
Graphics. LFS attempts to conform to the architectures discussed in the previous section.
Note
Many people do not agree with the requirements of the LSB. The main purpose of defining it is to ensure
that proprietary software will be able to be installed and run properly on a compliant system. Since LFS
is source based, the user has complete control over what packages are desired and many choose not to
install some packages that are specified by the LSB.
Creating a complete LFS system capable of passing the LSB certifications tests is possible, but not without many
additional packages that are beyond the scope of LFS. These additional packages have installation instructions in BLFS.
Packages supplied by LFS needed to satisfy the LSB Requirements
LSB Core:
Bash, Bc, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, File, Findutils, Gawk,
Grep, Gzip, M4, Man-DB, Ncurses, Procps, Psmisc, Sed,
Shadow, Tar, Util-linux, Zlib
LSB Desktop:
None
LSB Runtime Languages:
Perl
LSB Imaging:
None
LSB Gtk3 and LSB Graphics (Trial Use):
None
Packages supplied by BLFS needed to satisfy the LSB Requirements
LSB Core:
At, Batch (a part of At), Cpio, Ed, Fcrontab, Initd-tools,
Lsb_release, NSPR, NSS, PAM, Pax, Sendmail (or Postfix or
Exim), time
LSB Desktop:
Alsa, ATK, Cairo, Desktop-file-utils, Freetype, Fontconfig,
Gdk-pixbuf, Glib2, GTK+2, Icon-naming-utils, Libjpeg-turbo,
Libpng, Libtiff, Libxml2, MesaLib, Pango, Qt4, Xdg-utils,
Xorg
LSB Runtime Languages:
Python, Libxml2, Libxslt
LSB Imaging:
CUPS, Cups-filters, Ghostscript, SANE
LSB Gtk3 and LSB Graphics (Trial Use):
GTK+3
Packages not supplied by LFS or BLFS needed to satisfy the LSB Requirements
LSB Core:
None
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LSB Desktop:
None
LSB Runtime Languages:
None
LSB Imaging:
None
LSB Gtk3 and LSB Graphics (Trial Use):
None
Rationale for Packages in the Book
As stated earlier, the goal of LFS is to build a complete and usable foundation-level system. This includes all packages
needed to replicate itself while providing a relatively minimal base from which to customize a more complete system
based on the choices of the user. This does not mean that LFS is the smallest system possible. Several important packages
are included that are not strictly required. The lists below document the rationale for each package in the book.
• Acl
This package contains utilities to administer Access Control Lists, which are used to define more fine-grained
discretionary access rights for files and directories.
• Attr
This package contains programs for administering extended attributes on filesystem objects.
• Autoconf
This package contains programs for producing shell scripts that can automatically configure source code from a
developer's template. It is often needed to rebuild a package after updates to the build procedures.
• Automake
This package contains programs for generating Make files from a template. It is often needed to rebuild a package
after updates to the build procedures.
• Bash
This package satisfies an LSB core requirement to provide a Bourne Shell interface to the system. It was chosen
over other shell packages because of its common usage and extensive capabilities beyond basic shell functions.
• Bc
This package provides an arbitrary precision numeric processing language. It satisfies a requirement needed when
building the Linux kernel.
• Binutils
This package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files. The programs in this
package are needed to compile most of the packages in an LFS system and beyond.
• Bison
This package contains the GNU version of yacc (Yet Another Compiler Compiler) needed to build several other
LFS programs.
• Bzip2
This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. It is required to decompress many LFS
packages.
• Check
This package contains a test harness for other programs. It is only installed in the temporary toolchain.
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• Coreutils
This package contains a number of essential programs for viewing and manipulating files and directories. These
programs are needed for command line file management, and are necessary for the installation procedures of every
package in LFS.
• D-Bus
This package contains programs to implement a message bus system, which a simple way for applications to talk
to one another.
• DejaGNU
This package contains a framework for testing other programs. It is only installed in the temporary toolchain.
• Diffutils
This package contains programs that show the differences between files or directories. These programs can be used
to create patches, and are also used in many packages' build procedures.
• E2fsprogs
This package contains the utilities for handling the ext2, ext3 and ext4 file systems. These are the most common
and thoroughly tested file systems that Linux supports.
• Expat
This package contains a relatively small XML parsing library. It is required by the XML::Parser Perl module.
• Expect
This package contains a program for carrying out scripted dialogues with other interactive programs. It is
commonly used for testing other packages. It is only installed in the temporary toolchain.
• File
This package contains a utility for determining the type of a given file or files. A few packages need it to build.
• Findutils
This package contains programs to find files in a file system. It is used in many packages' build scripts.
• Flex
This package contains a utility for generating programs that recognize patterns in text. It is the GNU version of the
lex (lexical analyzer) program. It is required to build several LFS packages.
• Gawk
This package contains programs for manipulating text files. It is the GNU version of awk (Aho-WeinbergKernighan). It is used in many other packages' build scripts.
• Gcc
This package is the Gnu Compiler Collection. It contains the C and C++ compilers as well as several others not
built by LFS.
• GDBM
This package contains the GNU Database Manager library. It is used by one other LFS package, Man-DB.
• Gettext
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This package contains utilities and libraries for internationalization and localization of numerous packages.
• Glibc
This package contains the main C library. Linux programs would not run without it.
• GMP
This package contains math libraries that provide useful functions for arbitrary precision arithmetic. It is required
to build Gcc.
• Gperf
This package contains a program that generates a perfect hash function from a key set. It is required for Eudev.
• Grep
This package contains programs for searching through files. These programs are used by most packages' build
scripts.
• Groff
This package contains programs for processing and formatting text. One important function of these programs is to
format man pages.
• GRUB
This package is the Grand Unified Boot Loader. It is one of several boot loaders available, but is the most flexible.
• Gzip
This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. It is needed to decompress many
packages in LFS and beyond.
• Iana-etc
This package provides data for network services and protocols. It is needed to enable proper networking
capabilities.
• Inetutils
This package contains programs for basic network administration.
• Intltool
This package contains tools for extracting translatable strings from source files.
• IProute2
This package contains programs for basic and advanced IPv4 and IPv6 networking. It was chosen over the other
common network tools package (net-tools) for its IPv6 capabilities.
• Kbd
This package contains key-table files, keyboard utilities for non-US keyboards, and a number of console fonts.
• Kmod
This package contains programs needed to administer Linux kernel modules.
• Less
This package contains a very nice text file viewer that allows scrolling up or down when viewing a file. It is also
used by Man-DB for viewing manpages.
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• Libcap
This package implements the user-space interfaces to the POSIX 1003.1e capabilities available in Linux kernels.
• Libpipeline
The Libpipeline package contains a library for manipulating pipelines of subprocesses in a flexible and convenient
way. It is required by the Man-DB package.
• Libtool
This package contains the GNU generic library support script. It wraps the complexity of using shared libraries in
a consistent, portable interface. It is needed by the test suites in other LFS packages.
• Linux Kernel
This package is the Operating System. It is the Linux in the GNU/Linux environment.
• M4
This package contains a general text macro processor useful as a build tool for other programs.
• Make
This package contains a program for directing the building of packages. It is required by almost every package in
LFS.
• Man-DB
This package contains programs for finding and viewing man pages. It was chosen instead of the man package due
to superior internationalization capabilities. It supplies the man program.
• Man-pages
This package contains the actual contents of the basic Linux man pages.
• MPC
This package contains functions for the arithmetic of complex numbers. It is required by Gcc.
• MPFR
This package contains functions for multiple precision arithmetic. It is required by Gcc.
• Ncurses
This package contains libraries for terminal-independent handling of character screens. It is often used to provide
cursor control for a menuing system. It is needed by a number of packages in LFS.
• Patch
This package contains a program for modifying or creating files by applying a patch file typically created by the
diff program. It is needed by the build procedure for several LFS packages.
• Perl
This package is an interpreter for the runtime language PERL. It is needed for the installation and test suites of
several LFS packages.
• Pkg-config
This package provides a program to return meta-data about an installed library or package.
• Procps-NG
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
This package contains programs for monitoring processes. These programs are useful for system administration,
and are also used by the LFS Bootscripts.
• Psmisc
This package contains programs for displaying information about running processes. These programs are useful for
system administration.
• Readline
This package is a set of libraries that offers command-line editing and history capabilities. It is used by Bash.
• Sed
This package allows editing of text without opening it in a text editor. It is also needed by most LFS packages'
configure scripts.
• Shadow
This package contains programs for handling passwords in a secure way.
• Systemd
This package provides and init program and several additional boot and system control capabilities as an
alternative to Sysvinit. It is used by many commercial distributions.
• Tar
This package provides archiving and extraction capabilities of virtually all packages used in LFS.
• Tcl
This package contains the Tool Command Language used in many test suites in LFS packages. It is only installed
in the temporary toolchain.
• Texinfo
This package contains programs for reading, writing, and converting info pages. It is used in the installation
procedures of many LFS packages.
• Util-linux
This package contains miscellaneous utility programs. Among them are utilities for handling file systems,
consoles, partitions, and messages.
• Vim
This package contains an editor. It was chosen because of its compatibility with the classic vi editor and its huge
number of powerful capabilities. An editor is a very personal choice for many users and any other editor could be
substituted if desired.
• XML::Parser
This package is a Perl module that interfaces with Expat.
• XZ Utils
This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. It provides the highest compression
generally available and is useful for decompressing packages in XZ or LZMA format.
• Zlib
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
This package contains compression and decompression routines used by some programs.
Prerequisites
Building an LFS system is not a simple task. It requires a certain level of existing knowledge of Unix system
administration in order to resolve problems and correctly execute the commands listed. In particular, as an absolute
minimum, you should already have the ability to use the command line (shell) to copy or move files and directories, list
directory and file contents, and change the current directory. It is also expected that you have a reasonable knowledge
of using and installing Linux software.
Because the LFS book assumes at least this basic level of skill, the various LFS support forums are unlikely to be able
to provide you with much assistance in these areas. You will find that your questions regarding such basic knowledge
will likely go unanswered or you will simply be referred to the LFS essential pre-reading list.
Before building an LFS system, we recommend reading the following:
• Software-Building-HOWTO http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Software-Building-HOWTO.html
This is a comprehensive guide to building and installing “generic” Unix software packages under Linux. Although
it was written some time ago, it still provides a good summary of the basic techniques needed to build and install
software.
• Beginner's Guide to Installing from Source http://moi.vonos.net/linux/beginners-installing-from-source/
This guide provides a good summary of basic skills and techniques needed to build software from source code.
Typography
To make things easier to follow, there are a few typographical conventions used throughout this book. This section
contains some examples of the typographical format found throughout Linux From Scratch.
./configure --prefix=/usr
This form of text is designed to be typed exactly as seen unless otherwise noted in the surrounding text. It is also used
in the explanation sections to identify which of the commands is being referenced.
In some cases, a logical line is extended to two or more physical lines with a backslash at the end of the line.
CC="gcc -B/usr/bin/" ../binutils-2.18/configure \
--prefix=/tools --disable-nls --disable-werror
Note that the backslash must be followed by an immediate return. Other whitespace characters like spaces or tab
characters will create incorrect results.
install-info: unknown option '--dir-file=/mnt/lfs/usr/info/dir'
This form of text (fixed-width text) shows screen output, usually as the result of commands issued. This format is also
used to show filenames, such as /etc/ld.so.conf.
Emphasis
This form of text is used for several purposes in the book. Its main purpose is to emphasize important points or items.
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
This format is used for hyperlinks both within the LFS community and to external pages. It includes HOWTOs,
download locations, and websites.
cat > $LFS/etc/group << "EOF"
root:x:0:
bin:x:1:
......
EOF
This format is used when creating configuration files. The first command tells the system to create the file $LFS/etc/
group from whatever is typed on the following lines until the sequence End Of File (EOF) is encountered. Therefore,
this entire section is generally typed as seen.
<REPLACED TEXT>
This format is used to encapsulate text that is not to be typed as seen or for copy-and-paste operations.
[OPTIONAL TEXT]
This format is used to encapsulate text that is optional.
passwd(5)
This format is used to refer to a specific manual (man) page. The number inside parentheses indicates a specific section
inside the manuals. For example, passwd has two man pages. Per LFS installation instructions, those two man pages
will be located at /usr/share/man/man1/passwd.1 and /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5. When the
book uses passwd(5) it is specifically referring to /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5. man passwd will print
the first man page it finds that matches “passwd”, which will be /usr/share/man/man1/passwd.1. For this
example, you will need to run man 5 passwd in order to read the specific page being referred to. It should be noted
that most man pages do not have duplicate page names in different sections. Therefore, man <program name> is
generally sufficient.
Structure
This book is divided into the following parts.
Part I - Introduction
Part I explains a few important notes on how to proceed with the LFS installation. This section also provides metainformation about the book.
Part II - Preparing for the Build
Part II describes how to prepare for the building process—making a partition, downloading the packages, and compiling
temporary tools.
Part III - Building the LFS System
Part III guides the reader through the building of the LFS system—compiling and installing all the packages one by
one, setting up the boot scripts, and installing the kernel. The resulting Linux system is the foundation on which other
software can be built to expand the system as desired. At the end of this book, there is an easy to use reference listing
all of the programs, libraries, and important files that have been installed.
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Errata
The software used to create an LFS system is constantly being updated and enhanced. Security warnings and bug fixes
may become available after the LFS book has been released. To check whether the package versions or instructions
in this release of LFS need any modifications to accommodate security vulnerabilities or other bug fixes, please visit
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/errata/systemd/ before proceeding with your build. You should note any changes
shown and apply them to the relevant section of the book as you progress with building the LFS system.
xvii
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Part I. Introduction
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. How to Build an LFS System
The LFS system will be built by using an already installed Linux distribution (such as Debian, OpenMandriva, Fedora,
or openSUSE). This existing Linux system (the host) will be used as a starting point to provide necessary programs,
including a compiler, linker, and shell, to build the new system. Select the “development” option during the distribution
installation to be able to access these tools.
As an alternative to installing a separate distribution onto your machine, you may wish to use a LiveCD from a
commercial distribution.
Chapter 2 of this book describes how to create a new Linux native partition and file system. This is the place where the
new LFS system will be compiled and installed. Chapter 3 explains which packages and patches need to be downloaded
to build an LFS system and how to store them on the new file system. Chapter 4 discusses the setup of an appropriate
working environment. Please read Chapter 4 carefully as it explains several important issues you need be aware of
before beginning to work your way through Chapter 5 and beyond.
Chapter 5 explains the installation of a number of packages that will form the basic development suite (or toolchain)
which is used to build the actual system in Chapter 6. Some of these packages are needed to resolve circular
dependencies—for example, to compile a compiler, you need a compiler.
Chapter 5 also shows you how to build a first pass of the toolchain, including Binutils and GCC (first pass basically
means these two core packages will be reinstalled). The next step is to build Glibc, the C library. Glibc will be compiled
by the toolchain programs built in the first pass. Then, a second pass of the toolchain will be built. This time, the
toolchain will be dynamically linked against the newly built Glibc. The remaining Chapter 5 packages are built using
this second pass toolchain. When this is done, the LFS installation process will no longer depend on the host distribution,
with the exception of the running kernel.
This effort to isolate the new system from the host distribution may seem excessive. A full technical explanation as to
why this is done is provided in Section 5.2, “Toolchain Technical Notes”.
In Chapter 6, the full LFS system is built. The chroot (change root) program is used to enter a virtual environment and
start a new shell whose root directory will be set to the LFS partition. This is very similar to rebooting and instructing
the kernel to mount the LFS partition as the root partition. The system does not actually reboot, but instead uses chroot
because creating a bootable system requires additional work which is not necessary just yet. The major advantage is
that “chrooting” allows you to continue using the host system while LFS is being built. While waiting for package
compilations to complete, you can continue using your computer as normal.
To finish the installation, the basic system configuration is set up in Chapter 7, and the kernel and boot loader are set
up in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 contains information on continuing the LFS experience beyond this book. After the steps in
this book have been implemented, the computer will be ready to reboot into the new LFS system.
This is the process in a nutshell. Detailed information on each step is discussed in the following chapters and package
descriptions. Items that may seem complicated will be clarified, and everything will fall into place as you embark on
the LFS adventure.
1.2. What's new since the last release
Below is a list of package updates made since the previous release of the book.
2
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Upgraded to:
•
• Automake 1.15.1
• Bc 1.07.1
• Binutils 2.29
• Coreutils 8.27
• D-Bus-1.10.22
• Diffutils 3.6
• E2fsprogs 1.43.5
• Expat-2.2.3
• File 5.31
• Flex 2.6.4
• GCC 7.2.0
• GDBM 1.13
• Glibc 2.26
• Gperf-3.1
• Grep 3.1
• GRUB 2.02
• IPRoute2 4.12.0
• Kmod 24
• Less 487
• Libpipeline 1.4.2
• Linux 4.12.7
• Man-pages 4.12
• Perl 5.26.0
• Pkg-config 0.29.2
• Psmisc 23.1
• Shadow 4.5
• Systemd 234
• Tcl-core-8.6.7
• Texinfo 6.4
• Tzdata 2017b
• Util-Linux 2.30.1
• Vim 8.0.586
Added:
•
3
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Removed:
•
• bc-1.06.95-memory_leak-1.patch
1.3. Changelog
This is version 8.1-systemd of the Linux From Scratch book, dated September 1, 2017. If this book is more than six
months old, a newer and better version is probably already available. To find out, please check one of the mirrors via
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/mirrors.html.
Below is a list of changes made since the previous release of the book.
Changelog Entries:
• 2017-09-01
• [bdubbs] - LFS-8.1 released.
• 2017-08-27
• [bdubbs] - Remove invalid option from systemd book's util-linux.
• 2017-08-24
• [dj] - Remove rpcgen from GlibC index.
• [ken] - Fix acl's testsuite for perl-5.26.
• 2017-08-16
• [bdubbs] - Remove unneeded options from glibc.
• 2017-08-16
• [bdubbs] - Add a note to gmp that shows how to create generic gmp libraries.
• 2017-08-15
• [bdubbs] - Update to gcc-7.2.0. Fixes #4125.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.12.7. Fixes #4124.
• [bdubbs] - Update to glibc-2.26. Fixes #4120.
• [bdubbs] - Update to dbus-1.10.22. Fixes #4118.
• [bdubbs] - Update to binutils-2.29. Fixes #4117.
• 2017-08-11
• [bdubbs] - Update to tcl-core-8.6.7. Fixes #4123.
• 2017-08-08
• [bdubbs] - Update to e2fsprogs-1.43.5. Fixes #4122.
• [bdubbs] - Update to expat-2.2.3. Fixes #4121.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.12.5. Fixes #4119.
• 2017-07-23
• [dj] - Update to util-linux-2.30.1. Fixes #4114.
• [dj] - Update to linux-4.12.3. Fixes #4115.
4
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• [dj] - Update to man-pages-4.12. Fixes #4116.
• 2017-07-21
• [dj] - Fix EXTRA_DIST files in systemd tarball.
• 2017-07-18
• [dj] - Update to linux-4.12.2. Fixes #4113.
• [dj] - Update to expat-2.2.2. Fixes #4112.
• [dj] - Update to systemd-234. Fixes #4111.
• [dj] - Postpone systemd test suite until BLFS. Fixes #4107.
• 2017-07-13
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.12.1. Fixes #4110.
• [bdubbs] - Update to libpipeline-1.4.2. Fixes #4109.
• [bdubbs] - Update to iproute2-4.12.0. Fixes #4108.
• [bdubbs] - Fix the test procedure in make. Fixes #4105.
• [bdubbs] - Fix the test procedure in procps-ng. Fixes #4106.
• [bdubbs] - Update to glibc-2.25+adc7e06. Fixes #4097.
• 2017-07-03
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.12.
• 2017-07-02
• [bdubbs] - Fix the test procedure in attr. Fixes #4103.
• [bdubbs] - Update to grep-3.1. Fixes #4104.
• 2017-06-30
• [bdubbs] - Update to dbus-1.10.20. Fixes #4101.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.11.8. Fixes #4099.
• 2017-06-26
• [bdubbs] - Remove outdated seds for diffutils in both Chapters 5 and 6.
• 2017-06-24
• [bdubbs] - Update to texinfo-6.4. Fixes #4100.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.11.7. Fixes #4099.
• 2017-06-21
• [bdubbs] - Update to automake-1.15.1. Fixes #4098.
• [bdubbs] - Update to expat-2.2.1. Fixes #4096.
• [bdubbs] - Update to psmisc-23.1. Fixes #4094.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.11.6. Fixes #4095.
• 2017-06-07
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.11.4. Fixes #4093.
• 2017-06-02
5
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• [bdubbs] - Update to util-linux-2.30. Fixes #4092.
• [bdubbs] - Update to perl-5.26.0. Fixes #4091.
• [bdubbs] - Update to file-5.31. Fixes #4090.
• [bdubbs] - Update to diffutils-3.6. Fixes #4089.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.11.3. Fixes #4088.
• 2017-05-25
• [renodr] - Fix the build for i686 systems. Includes a modification to Chapter 06 Glibc.
• 2017-05-19
• [bdubbs] - Move library versions for presevation of debugging symbols to packages.ent. Fixes #4085.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.11.1. Fixes #4086.
• [bdubbs] - Update to shadow-4.5. Fixes #4087.
• 2017-05-13
• [dj] - Introduce -isystem to use the final system location of gcc's internal headers in the Glibc build.
• [ken] - Update some library versions in Stripping Again, partly fixes #4085.
• [dj] - Add additional symlinks to avoid "/tools" references in final system.
• 2017-05-07
• [bdubbs] - Update to flex-2.6.4. Fixes #4084.
• 2017-05-05
• [bdubbs] - Update to man-pages-4.11. Fixes #4083.
• 2017-05-03
• [bdubbs] - Update to gcc-7.1.0. Fixes #4082.
• [bdubbs] - Update to iproute2-4.11.0. Fixes #4081.
• [bdubbs] - Fix a problem with glibc tests and add some explanations to the configure options.
• [bdubbs] - Add a command to touch /root/.vimrc so that the default vim options don't override those in /etc/
vimrc.
• 2017-05-01
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.11. Fixes #4080.
• [bdubbs] - Update flex patch.
• 2017-04-29
• [dj] - Remove fix for systemd with with gperf < 3.1.
• 2017-04-26
• [bdubbs] - Add a patch to fix a flex regresion in version 2.6.3.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.10.13. Fixes #4079.
• 2017-04-26
• [bdubbs] - Update to grub-2.02. Fixes #4042.
• 2017-04-25
6
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• [bdubbs] - Update to vim-8.0.586. Fixes #4078.
• [bdubbs] - Update to eudev-3.2.2. Fixes #4077.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.10.12. Fixes #4075.
• [bdubbs] - Update to gperf-3.1. Fixes #4053.
• [bdubbs] - Improve instructions to save debugging information for selected libraries when stripping at the end of
Chapter 6. Fixes #4076 (again).
• 2017-04-22
• [bdubbs] - Add instructions to save debugging information for selected libraries when stripping at the end of
Chapter 6. Fixes #4076.
• 2017-04-11
• [dj] - Update to dbus-1.10.18. Fixes #4072.
• [bdubbs] - Remove unneeded --disable-compile-warnings from pkg-config instructions. Thanks to Jeffery Smith
for pointing this out.
• 2017-04-10
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.10.9. Fixes #4073.
• [bdubbs] - Update to bc-1.07.1. Fixes #4074.
• 2017-04-07
• [bdubbs] - Fix an error in bc-1.07.
• 2017-04-03
• [bdubbs] - Update to bc-1.07. Fixes #4071.
• 2017-03-31
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.10.8. Fixes #4070.
• [bdubbs] - Update to less-487. Fixes #4069.
• 2017-03-28
• [bdubbs] - Move readline to be before bc in Chapter 6. Fixes #4068.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.10.6. Fixes #4065.
• [bdubbs] - Update to pkg-config-0.29.2. Fixes #4066.
• [bdubbs] - Update to tzdata-2017b. Fixes #4067.
• [bdubbs] - Add option -Dusethreads to perl in Chapter 6.
• 2017-03-25
• [dj] - Update to lfs-bootscripts-20170825. Fix a scope issue in the rc script. Thanks to "quesker" in #lfs-support
for the report and subsequent testing.
• 2017-03-18
• [bdubbs] - Update formats of error messages in checkfs boot script. Fixes #4064.
• [bdubbs] - Update to man-pages-4.10. Fixes #4063.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.10.3. Fixes #4062.
• [bdubbs] - Update to gdbm-1.13. Fixes #4061.
7
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• [bdubbs] - Update to coreutils-8.27. Fixes #4060.
• 2017-03-11
• [dj] - Fix description of modifications to gcc/config/{linux,i386/linux{,64}}.h in gcc pass 1.
• 2017-03-08
• [dj] - Update /etc/hosts in network configuration.
• 2017-03-03
• [bdubbs] - Update to binutils-2.28. Moved m4 and bc to before binutils to accommodate the gold linker
regression tests. Fixes #4059.
• [renodr] - Update to dbus-1.10.16. Fixes #4050.
• [renodr] - Update to linux-4.10.1. Fixes #4056.
• [renodr] - Update to tzdata2017a. Fixes #4057.
• [renodr] - Update to systemd-233. Fixes #4058.
• 2017-02-28
• [bdubbs] - Update to kmod-24. Fixes #4054.
• [bdubbs] - Update to util-linux 2.29.2. Fixes #4052.
• [bdubbs] - Update to iproute2-4.10.0. Fixes #4051.
• [bdubbs] - Update to linux-4.10. Fixes #4049.
• 2017-02-25
• [bdubbs] - LFS-8.0 released.
1.4. Resources
1.4.1. FAQ
If during the building of the LFS system you encounter any errors, have any questions, or think there is a typo in the
book, please start by consulting the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) that is located at http://www.linuxfromscratch.
org/faq/.
1.4.2. Mailing Lists
The linuxfromscratch.org server hosts a number of mailing lists used for the development of the LFS project.
These lists include the main development and support lists, among others. If the FAQ does not solve the problem you
are having, the next step would be to search the mailing lists at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/search.html.
For information on the different lists, how to subscribe, archive locations, and additional information, visit http://www.
linuxfromscratch.org/mail.html.
1.4.3. IRC
Several members of the LFS community offer assistance on Internet Relay Chat (IRC). Before using this support, please
make sure that your question is not already answered in the LFS FAQ or the mailing list archives. You can find the
IRC network at irc.freenode.net. The support channel is named #LFS-support.
8
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
1.4.4. Mirror Sites
The LFS project has a number of world-wide mirrors to make accessing the website and downloading the required
packages more convenient. Please visit the LFS website at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/mirrors.html for a list of
current mirrors.
1.4.5. Contact Information
Please direct all your questions and comments to one of the LFS mailing lists (see above).
1.5. Help
If an issue or a question is encountered while working through this book, please check the FAQ page at http://www.
linuxfromscratch.org/faq/#generalfaq. Questions are often already answered there. If your question is not answered on
this page, try to find the source of the problem. The following hint will give you some guidance for troubleshooting:
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/errors.txt.
If you cannot find your problem listed in the FAQ, search the mailing lists at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/search.
html.
We also have a wonderful LFS community that is willing to offer assistance through the mailing lists and IRC (see
the Section 1.4, “Resources” section of this book). However, we get several support questions every day and many
of them can be easily answered by going to the FAQ and by searching the mailing lists first. So, for us to offer the
best assistance possible, you need to do some research on your own first. That allows us to focus on the more unusual
support needs. If your searches do not produce a solution, please include all relevant information (mentioned below)
in your request for help.
1.5.1. Things to Mention
Apart from a brief explanation of the problem being experienced, the essential things to include in any request for
help are:
• The version of the book being used (in this case 8.1-systemd)
• The host distribution and version being used to create LFS
• The output from the Host System Requirements script
• The package or section the problem was encountered in
• The exact error message or symptom being received
• Note whether you have deviated from the book at all
Note
Deviating from this book does not mean that we will not help you. After all, LFS is about personal preference.
Being upfront about any changes to the established procedure helps us evaluate and determine possible causes
of your problem.
1.5.2. Configure Script Problems
If something goes wrong while running the configure script, review the config.log file. This file may contain errors
encountered during configure which were not printed to the screen. Include the relevant lines if you need to ask for help.
9
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
1.5.3. Compilation Problems
Both the screen output and the contents of various files are useful in determining the cause of compilation problems.
The screen output from the configure script and the make run can be helpful. It is not necessary to include the entire
output, but do include enough of the relevant information. Below is an example of the type of information to include
from the screen output from make:
gcc -DALIASPATH=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/share/locale:.\"
-DLOCALEDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/share/locale\"
-DLIBDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/lib\"
-DINCLUDEDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/include\" -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -I. -I.
-g -O2 -c getopt1.c
gcc -g -O2 -static -o make ar.o arscan.o commands.o dir.o
expand.o file.o function.o getopt.o implicit.o job.o main.o
misc.o read.o remake.o rule.o signame.o variable.o vpath.o
default.o remote-stub.o version.o opt1.o
-lutil job.o: In function `load_too_high':
/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1/job.c:1565: undefined reference
to `getloadavg'
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
make[2]: *** [make] Error 1
make[2]: Leaving directory `/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1'
make[1]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory `/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1'
make: *** [all-recursive-am] Error 2
In this case, many people would just include the bottom section:
make [2]: *** [make] Error 1
This is not enough information to properly diagnose the problem because it only notes that something went wrong, not
what went wrong. The entire section, as in the example above, is what should be saved because it includes the command
that was executed and the associated error message(s).
An excellent article about asking for help on the Internet is available online at http://catb.org/~esr/faqs/smart-questions.
html. Read and follow the hints in this document to increase the likelihood of getting the help you need.
10
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Part II. Preparing for the Build
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Chapter 2. Preparing the Host System
2.1. Introduction
In this chapter, the host tools needed for building LFS are checked and, if necessary, installed. Then a partition which
will host the LFS system is prepared. We will create the partition itself, create a file system on it, and mount it.
2.2. Host System Requirements
Your host system should have the following software with the minimum versions indicated. This should not be an
issue for most modern Linux distributions. Also note that many distributions will place software headers into separate
packages, often in the form of “<package-name>-devel” or “<package-name>-dev”. Be sure to install those if your
distribution provides them.
Earlier versions of the listed software packages may work, but have not been tested.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bash-3.2 (/bin/sh should be a symbolic or hard link to bash)
Binutils-2.17 (Versions greater than 2.29 are not recommended as they have not been tested)
Bison-2.3 (/usr/bin/yacc should be a link to bison or small script that executes bison)
Bzip2-1.0.4
Coreutils-6.9
Diffutils-2.8.1
Findutils-4.2.31
Gawk-4.0.1 (/usr/bin/awk should be a link to gawk)
GCC-4.7 including the C++ compiler, g++ (Versions greater than 7.2.0 are not recommended as they have not
been tested)
Glibc-2.11 (Versions greater than 2.26 are not recommended as they have not been tested)
Grep-2.5.1a
Gzip-1.3.12
Linux Kernel-3.2
The reason for the kernel version requirement is that we specify that version when building glibc in Chapter 6 at
the recommendation of the developers. It is also required by udev.
•
•
•
•
•
•
If the host kernel is earlier than 3.2 you will need to replace the kernel with a more up to date version. There
are two ways you can go about this. First, see if your Linux vendor provides a 3.2 or later kernel package. If so,
you may wish to install it. If your vendor doesn't offer an acceptable kernel package, or you would prefer not to
install it, you can compile a kernel yourself. Instructions for compiling the kernel and configuring the boot loader
(assuming the host uses GRUB) are located in Chapter 8.
M4-1.4.10
Make-3.81
Patch-2.5.4
Perl-5.8.8
Sed-4.1.5
Tar-1.22
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• Texinfo-4.7
• Xz-5.0.0
Important
Note that the symlinks mentioned above are required to build an LFS system using the instructions contained
within this book. Symlinks that point to other software (such as dash, mawk, etc.) may work, but are not
tested or supported by the LFS development team, and may require either deviation from the instructions or
additional patches to some packages.
To see whether your host system has all the appropriate versions, and the ability to compile programs, run the following:
cat > version-check.sh << "EOF"
#!/bin/bash
# Simple script to list version numbers of critical development tools
export LC_ALL=C
bash --version | head -n1 | cut -d" " -f2-4
MYSH=$(readlink -f /bin/sh)
echo "/bin/sh -> $MYSH"
echo $MYSH | grep -q bash || echo "ERROR: /bin/sh does not point to bash"
unset MYSH
echo -n "Binutils: "; ld --version | head -n1 | cut -d" " -f3bison --version | head -n1
if [ -h /usr/bin/yacc ]; then
echo "/usr/bin/yacc -> `readlink -f /usr/bin/yacc`";
elif [ -x /usr/bin/yacc ]; then
echo yacc is `/usr/bin/yacc --version | head -n1`
else
echo "yacc not found"
fi
bzip2 --version 2>&1 < /dev/null | head -n1 | cut -d" " -f1,6echo -n "Coreutils: "; chown --version | head -n1 | cut -d")" -f2
diff --version | head -n1
find --version | head -n1
gawk --version | head -n1
if [ -h /usr/bin/awk ]; then
echo "/usr/bin/awk -> `readlink -f /usr/bin/awk`";
elif [ -x /usr/bin/awk ]; then
echo awk is `/usr/bin/awk --version | head -n1`
else
echo "awk not found"
fi
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gcc --version | head -n1
g++ --version | head -n1
ldd --version | head -n1 | cut -d" " -f2grep --version | head -n1
gzip --version | head -n1
cat /proc/version
m4 --version | head -n1
make --version | head -n1
patch --version | head -n1
echo Perl `perl -V:version`
sed --version | head -n1
tar --version | head -n1
makeinfo --version | head -n1
xz --version | head -n1
14
# glibc version
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
echo 'int main(){}' > dummy.c && g++ -o dummy dummy.c
if [ -x dummy ]
then echo "g++ compilation OK";
else echo "g++ compilation failed"; fi
rm -f dummy.c dummy
EOF
bash version-check.sh
2.3. Building LFS in Stages
LFS is designed to be built in one session. That is, the instructions assume that the system will not be shut down during
the process. That does not mean that the system has to be done in one sitting. The issue is that certain procedures have
to be re-accomplished after a reboot if resuming LFS at different points.
2.3.1. Chapters 1-4
These chapters are accomplished on the host system. When restarting, be careful of the following:
• Procedures done as the root user after Section 2.4 need to have the LFS environment variable set FOR THE ROOT
USER.
2.3.2. Chapter 5
• The /mnt/lfs partition must be mounted.
• ALL instructions in Chapter 5 must be done by user lfs. A su - lfs needs to be done before any task in Chapter 5.
• The procedures in Section 5.3, “General Compilation Instructions” are critical. If there is any doubt about
installing a package, ensure any previously expanded tarballs are removed, re-extract the package files, and
complete all instructions in that section.
2.3.3. Chapters 6-8
• The /mnt/lfs partition must be mounted.
• When entering chroot, the LFS environment variable must be set for root. The LFS variable is not used otherwise.
• The virtual file systems must be mounted. This can be done before or after entering chroot by changing to a
host virtual terminal and, as root, running the commands in Section 6.2.2, “Mounting and Populating /dev” and
Section 6.2.3, “Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems”.
2.4. Creating a New Partition
Like most other operating systems, LFS is usually installed on a dedicated partition. The recommended approach to
building an LFS system is to use an available empty partition or, if you have enough unpartitioned space, to create one.
A minimal system requires a partition of around 6 gigabytes (GB). This is enough to store all the source tarballs and
compile the packages. However, if the LFS system is intended to be the primary Linux system, additional software will
probably be installed which will require additional space. A 20 GB partition is a reasonable size to provide for growth.
The LFS system itself will not take up this much room. A large portion of this requirement is to provide sufficient free
temporary storage as well as for adding additional capabilities after LFS is complete. Additionally, compiling packages
can require a lot of disk space which will be reclaimed after the package is installed.
15
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Because there is not always enough Random Access Memory (RAM) available for compilation processes, it is a good
idea to use a small disk partition as swap space. This is used by the kernel to store seldom-used data and leave more
memory available for active processes. The swap partition for an LFS system can be the same as the one used by the
host system, in which case it is not necessary to create another one.
Start a disk partitioning program such as cfdisk or fdisk with a command line option naming the hard disk on which
the new partition will be created—for example /dev/sda for the primary Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) disk.
Create a Linux native partition and a swap partition, if needed. Please refer to cfdisk(8) or fdisk(8) if you do
not yet know how to use the programs.
Note
For experienced users, other partitioning schemes are possible. The new LFS system can be on a software
RAID array or an LVM logical volume. However, some of these options require an initramfs, which is an
advanced topic. These partitioning methodologies are not recommended for first time LFS users.
Remember the designation of the new partition (e.g., sda5). This book will refer to this as the LFS partition. Also
remember the designation of the swap partition. These names will be needed later for the /etc/fstab file.
2.4.1. Other Partition Issues
Requests for advice on system partitioning are often posted on the LFS mailing lists. This is a highly subjective topic.
The default for most distributions is to use the entire drive with the exception of one small swap partition. This is not
optimal for LFS for several reasons. It reduces flexibility, makes sharing of data across multiple distributions or LFS
builds more difficult, makes backups more time consuming, and can waste disk space through inefficient allocation
of file system structures.
2.4.1.1. The Root Partition
A root LFS partition (not to be confused with the /root directory) of ten gigabytes is a good compromise for most
systems. It provides enough space to build LFS and most of BLFS, but is small enough so that multiple partitions can
be easily created for experimentation.
2.4.1.2. The Swap Partition
Most distributions automatically create a swap partition. Generally the recommended size of the swap partition is about
twice the amount of physical RAM, however this is rarely needed. If disk space is limited, hold the swap partition to
two gigabytes and monitor the amount of disk swapping.
Swapping is never good. Generally you can tell if a system is swapping by just listening to disk activity and observing
how the system reacts to commands. The first reaction to swapping should be to check for an unreasonable command
such as trying to edit a five gigabyte file. If swapping becomes a normal occurrence, the best solution is to purchase
more RAM for your system.
2.4.1.3. The Grub Bios Partition
If the boot disk has been partitioned with a GUID Partition Table (GPT), then a small, typically 1 MB, partition must
be created if it does not already exist. This partition is not formatted, but must be available for GRUB to use during
installation of the boot loader. This partition will normally be labeled 'BIOS Boot' if using fdisk or have a code of
EF02 if using gdisk.
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Note
The Grub Bios partition must be on the drive that the BIOS uses to boot the system. This is not necessarily
the same drive where the LFS root partition is located. Disks on a system may use different partition table
types. The requirement for this partition depends only on the partition table type of the boot disk.
2.4.1.4. Convenience Partitions
There are several other partitions that are not required, but should be considered when designing a disk layout. The
following list is not comprehensive, but is meant as a guide.
• /boot – Highly recommended. Use this partition to store kernels and other booting information. To minimize
potential boot problems with larger disks, make this the first physical partition on your first disk drive. A partition
size of 100 megabytes is quite adequate.
• /home – Highly recommended. Share your home directory and user customization across multiple distributions or
LFS builds. The size is generally fairly large and depends on available disk space.
• /usr – A separate /usr partition is generally used if providing a server for a thin client or diskless workstation. It is
normally not needed for LFS. A size of five gigabytes will handle most installations.
• /opt – This directory is most useful for BLFS where multiple installations of large packages like Gnome or KDE
can be installed without embedding the files in the /usr hierarchy. If used, 5 to 10 gigabytes is generally adequate.
• /tmp – A separate /tmp directory is rare, but useful if configuring a thin client. This partition, if used, will usually
not need to exceed a couple of gigabytes.
• /usr/src – This partition is very useful for providing a location to store BLFS source files and share them across
LFS builds. It can also be used as a location for building BLFS packages. A reasonably large partition of 30-50
gigabytes allows plenty of room.
Any separate partition that you want automatically mounted upon boot needs to be specified in the /etc/fstab.
Details about how to specify partitions will be discussed in Section 8.2, “Creating the /etc/fstab File”.
2.5. Creating a File System on the Partition
Now that a blank partition has been set up, the file system can be created. LFS can use any file system recognized by
the Linux kernel, but the most common types are ext3 and ext4. The choice of file system can be complex and depends
on the characteristics of the files and the size of the partition. For example:
ext2
is suitable for small partitions that are updated infrequently such as /boot.
ext3
is an upgrade to ext2 that includes a journal to help recover the partition's status in the case of an unclean shutdown.
It is commonly used as a general purpose file system.
ext4
is the latest version of the ext file system family of partition types. It provides several new capabilities including
nano-second timestamps, creation and use of very large files (16 TB), and speed improvements.
Other file systems, including FAT32, NTFS, ReiserFS, JFS, and XFS are useful for specialized purposes. More
information about these file systems can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_file_systems.
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
LFS assumes that the root file system (/) is of type ext4. To create an ext4 file system on the LFS partition, run the
following:
mkfs -v -t ext4 /dev/<xxx>
If you are using an existing swap partition, there is no need to format it. If a new swap partition was created, it
will need to be initialized with this command:
mkswap /dev/<yyy>
Replace <yyy> with the name of the swap partition.
2.6. Setting The $LFS Variable
Throughout this book, the environment variable LFS will be used several times. You should ensure that this variable
is always defined throughout the LFS build process. It should be set to the name of the directory where you will be
building your LFS system - we will use /mnt/lfs as an example, but the directory choice is up to you. If you are
building LFS on a separate partition, this directory will be the mount point for the partition. Choose a directory location
and set the variable with the following command:
export LFS=/mnt/lfs
Having this variable set is beneficial in that commands such as mkdir -v $LFS/tools can be typed literally. The shell will
automatically replace “$LFS” with “/mnt/lfs” (or whatever the variable was set to) when it processes the command line.
Caution
Do not forget to check that LFS is set whenever you leave and reenter the current working environment (such
as when doing a su to root or another user). Check that the LFS variable is set up properly with:
echo $LFS
Make sure the output shows the path to your LFS system's build location, which is /mnt/lfs if the provided
example was followed. If the output is incorrect, use the command given earlier on this page to set $LFS
to the correct directory name.
Note
One way to ensure that the LFS variable is always set is to edit the .bash_profile file in both your
personal home directory and in /root/.bash_profile and enter the export command above. In addition,
the shell specified in the /etc/passwd file for all users that need the LFS variable needs to be bash to
ensure that the /root/.bash_profile file is incorporated as a part of the login process.
2.7. Mounting the New Partition
Now that a file system has been created, the partition needs to be made accessible. In order to do this, the partition needs
to be mounted at a chosen mount point. For the purposes of this book, it is assumed that the file system is mounted
under the directory specified by the LFS environment variable as described in the previous section.
Create the mount point and mount the LFS file system by running:
mkdir -pv $LFS
mount -v -t ext4 /dev/<xxx> $LFS
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Replace <xxx> with the designation of the LFS partition.
If using multiple partitions for LFS (e.g., one for / and another for /usr), mount them using:
mkdir
mount
mkdir
mount
-pv $LFS
-v -t ext4 /dev/<xxx> $LFS
-v $LFS/usr
-v -t ext4 /dev/<yyy> $LFS/usr
Replace <xxx> and <yyy> with the appropriate partition names.
Ensure that this new partition is not mounted with permissions that are too restrictive (such as the nosuid or nodev
options). Run the mount command without any parameters to see what options are set for the mounted LFS partition.
If nosuid and/or nodev are set, the partition will need to be remounted.
If you are using a swap partition, ensure that it is enabled using the swapon command:
/sbin/swapon -v /dev/<zzz>
Replace <zzz> with the name of the swap partition.
Now that there is an established place to work, it is time to download the packages.
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Chapter 3. Packages and Patches
3.1. Introduction
This chapter includes a list of packages that need to be downloaded in order to build a basic Linux system. The listed
version numbers correspond to versions of the software that are known to work, and this book is based on their use.
We highly recommend against using newer versions because the build commands for one version may not work with a
newer version. The newest package versions may also have problems that require work-arounds. These work-arounds
will be developed and stabilized in the development version of the book.
Download locations may not always be accessible. If a download location has changed since this book was
published, Google (http://www.google.com/) provides a useful search engine for most packages. If this search is
unsuccessful, try one of the alternative means of downloading discussed at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/
packages.html#packages.
Downloaded packages and patches will need to be stored somewhere that is conveniently available throughout the entire
build. A working directory is also required to unpack the sources and build them. $LFS/sources can be used both
as the place to store the tarballs and patches and as a working directory. By using this directory, the required elements
will be located on the LFS partition and will be available during all stages of the building process.
To create this directory, execute the following command, as user root, before starting the download session:
mkdir -v $LFS/sources
Make this directory writable and sticky. “Sticky” means that even if multiple users have write permission on a directory,
only the owner of a file can delete the file within a sticky directory. The following command will enable the write
and sticky modes:
chmod -v a+wt $LFS/sources
An easy way to download all of the packages and patches is by using wget-list as an input to wget. For example:
wget --input-file=wget-list --continue --directory-prefix=$LFS/sources
Additionally, starting with LFS-7.0, there is a separate file, md5sums, which can be used to verify that all the correct
packages are available before proceeding. Place that file in $LFS/sources and run:
pushd $LFS/sources
md5sum -c md5sums
popd
3.2. All Packages
Download or otherwise obtain the following packages:
• Acl (2.2.52) - 380 KB:
Download: http://download.savannah.gnu.org/releases/acl/acl-2.2.52.src.tar.gz
MD5 sum: a61415312426e9c2212bd7dc7929abda
• Attr (2.4.47) - 336 KB:
Home page: http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/attr
Download: http://download.savannah.gnu.org/releases/attr/attr-2.4.47.src.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 84f58dec00b60f2dc8fd1c9709291cc7
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• Autoconf (2.69) - 1,186 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/autoconf/autoconf-2.69.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 50f97f4159805e374639a73e2636f22e
• Automake (1.15.1) - 1,475 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/automake/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/automake/automake-1.15.1.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 24cd3501b6ad8cd4d7e2546f07e8b4d4
• Bash (4.4) - 9,158 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/bash-4.4.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 148888a7c95ac23705559b6f477dfe25
• Bc (1.07.1) - 411 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bc/bc-1.07.1.tar.gz
MD5 sum: cda93857418655ea43590736fc3ca9fc
• Binutils (2.29) - 28,392 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/binutils/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/binutils/binutils-2.29.tar.bz2
MD5 sum: 23733a26c8276edbb1168c9bee60e40e
• Bison (3.0.4) - 1,928 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bison/bison-3.0.4.tar.xz
MD5 sum: c342201de104cc9ce0a21e0ad10d4021
• Bzip2 (1.0.6) - 764 KB:
Home page: http://www.bzip.org/
Download: http://www.bzip.org/1.0.6/bzip2-1.0.6.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 00b516f4704d4a7cb50a1d97e6e8e15b
• Check (0.11.0) - 736 KB:
Home page: https://libcheck.github.io/check
Download: https://github.com/libcheck/check/releases/download/0.11.0/check-0.11.0.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 9b90522b31f5628c2e0f55dda348e558
• Coreutils (8.27) - 5,162 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/coreutils/coreutils-8.27.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 502795792c212932365e077946d353ae
• D-Bus (1.10.22) - 1,943 KB:
Home page: http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/dbus
Download: http://dbus.freedesktop.org/releases/dbus/dbus-1.10.22.tar.gz
MD5 sum: baaa10b7cb49086ad91179a8decfadc5
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• DejaGNU (1.6) - 512 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/dejagnu/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/dejagnu/dejagnu-1.6.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 1fdc2eb0d592c4f89d82d24dfdf02f0b
• Diffutils (3.6) - 1,366 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/diffutils/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/diffutils/diffutils-3.6.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 07cf286672ced26fba54cd0313bdc071
• E2fsprogs (1.43.5) - 7,425 KB:
Home page: http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/
Download: http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/e2fsprogs/e2fsprogs/v1.43.5/e2fsprogs-1.43.5.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 40aa1b7d7d6bd9c71db0fbf325a7c199
• Expat (2.2.3) - 426 KB:
Home page: http://expat.sourceforge.net/
Download: http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/expat/expat-2.2.3.tar.bz2
MD5 sum: f053af63ef5f39bd9b78d01fbc203334
• Expect (5.45) - 614 KB:
Home page: http://expect.sourceforge.net/
Download: http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/expect/expect5.45.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 44e1a4f4c877e9ddc5a542dfa7ecc92b
• File (5.31) - 774 KB:
Home page: http://www.darwinsys.com/file/
Download: ftp://ftp.astron.com/pub/file/file-5.31.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 319627d20c9658eae85b056115b8c90a
Note
File (5.31) may no longer be available at the listed location. The site administrators of the master download
location occasionally remove older versions when new ones are released. An alternative download location
that may have the correct version available can also be found at: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/
download.html#ftp.
• Findutils (4.6.0) - 3,692 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/findutils/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/findutils/findutils-4.6.0.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 9936aa8009438ce185bea2694a997fc1
• Flex (2.6.4) - 1,386 KB:
Home page: http://flex.sourceforge.net
Download: https://github.com/westes/flex/releases/download/v2.6.4/flex-2.6.4.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 2882e3179748cc9f9c23ec593d6adc8d
• Gawk (4.1.4) - 2,313 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/gawk/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gawk/gawk-4.1.4.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 4e7dbc81163e60fd4f0b52496e7542c9
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• GCC (7.2.0) - 60,853 KB:
Home page: http://gcc.gnu.org/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/gcc-7.2.0/gcc-7.2.0.tar.xz
MD5 sum: ff370482573133a7fcdd96cd2f552292
• GDBM (1.13) - 872 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/gdbm/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gdbm/gdbm-1.13.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 8929dcda2a8de3fd2367bdbf66769376
• Gettext (0.19.8.1) - 7,041 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gettext/gettext-0.19.8.1.tar.xz
MD5 sum: df3f5690eaa30fd228537b00cb7b7590
• Glibc (2.26) - 14,339 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/glibc-2.26.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 102f637c3812f81111f48f2427611be1
Note
This version of glibc addresses a security issue not yet in the latest stable release.
• GMP (6.1.2) - 1,901 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/gmp/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gmp/gmp-6.1.2.tar.xz
MD5 sum: f58fa8001d60c4c77595fbbb62b63c1d
• Gperf (3.1) - 1,188 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/gperf/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gperf/gperf-3.1.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 9e251c0a618ad0824b51117d5d9db87e
• Grep (3.1) - 1,339 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/grep/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/grep/grep-3.1.tar.xz
MD5 sum: feca7b3e7c7f4aab2b42ecbfc513b070
• Groff (1.22.3) - 4,091 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/groff/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/groff-1.22.3.tar.gz
MD5 sum: cc825fa64bc7306a885f2fb2268d3ec5
• GRUB (2.02) - 5,970 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/grub/grub-2.02.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 8a4a2a95aac551fb0fba860ceabfa1d3
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• Gzip (1.8) - 712 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/gzip/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/gzip-1.8.tar.xz
MD5 sum: f7caabb65cddc1a4165b398009bd05b9
• Iana-Etc (2.30) - 201 KB:
Home page: http://freecode.com/projects/iana-etc
Download: http://anduin.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/iana-etc-2.30.tar.bz2
MD5 sum: 3ba3afb1d1b261383d247f46cb135ee8
• Inetutils (1.9.4) - 1,333 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/inetutils/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/inetutils/inetutils-1.9.4.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 87fef1fa3f603aef11c41dcc097af75e
• Intltool (0.51.0) - 159 KB:
Home page: http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/intltool
Download: http://launchpad.net/intltool/trunk/0.51.0/+download/intltool-0.51.0.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 12e517cac2b57a0121cda351570f1e63
• IPRoute2 (4.12.0) - 647 KB:
Home page: https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/net/iproute2/
Download: https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/net/iproute2/iproute2-4.12.0.tar.xz
MD5 sum: e6fecdf46a1542a26044e756fbbabe3b
• Kbd (2.0.4) - 1,008 KB:
Home page: http://ftp.altlinux.org/pub/people/legion/kbd
Download: https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kbd/kbd-2.0.4.tar.xz
MD5 sum: c1635a5a83b63aca7f97a3eab39ebaa6
• Kmod (24) - 525 KB:
Download: https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/kmod/kmod-24.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 08297dfb6f2b3f625f928ca3278528af
• Less (487) - 312 KB:
Home page: http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less/
Download: http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less/less-487.tar.gz
MD5 sum: dcc8bf183a83b362d37fe9ef8df1fb60
• Libcap (2.25) - 64 KB:
Home page: https://sites.google.com/site/fullycapable/
Download: https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/libs/security/linux-privs/libcap2/libcap-2.25.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 6666b839e5d46c2ad33fc8aa2ceb5f77
• Libpipeline (1.4.2) - 808 KB:
Home page: http://libpipeline.nongnu.org/
Download: http://download.savannah.gnu.org/releases/libpipeline/libpipeline-1.4.2.tar.gz
MD5 sum: d5c80387eb9c9e5d089da2a06e8a6b12
• Libtool (2.4.6) - 951 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libtool/libtool-2.4.6.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 1bfb9b923f2c1339b4d2ce1807064aa5
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• Linux (4.12.7) - 96,865 KB:
Home page: http://www.kernel.org/
Download: https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v4.x/linux-4.12.7.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 245d1b4dc6e82669aac2c9e6a2dd82fe
Note
The Linux kernel is updated relatively often, many times due to discoveries of security vulnerabilities. The
latest available 4.12.x kernel version should be used, unless the errata page says otherwise.
For users with limited speed or expensive bandwidth who wish to update the Linux kernel, a baseline
version of the package and patches can be downloaded separately. This may save some time or cost for a
subsequent patch level upgrade within a minor release.
• M4 (1.4.18) - 1,180 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/m4/m4-1.4.18.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 730bb15d96fffe47e148d1e09235af82
• Make (4.2.1) - 1,375 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/make/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/make-4.2.1.tar.bz2
MD5 sum: 15b012617e7c44c0ed482721629577ac
• Man-DB (2.7.6.1) - 1,506 KB:
Home page: http://www.nongnu.org/man-db/
Download: http://download.savannah.gnu.org/releases/man-db/man-db-2.7.6.1.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 2948d49d0ed7265f60f83aa4a9ac9268
• Man-pages (4.12) - 1,552 KB:
Home page: http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/
Download: https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/man-pages/man-pages-4.12.tar.xz
MD5 sum: a87cdf43ddc1844e7edc8950a28a51f0
• MPC (1.0.3) - 655 KB:
Home page: http://www.multiprecision.org/
Download: http://www.multiprecision.org/mpc/download/mpc-1.0.3.tar.gz
MD5 sum: d6a1d5f8ddea3abd2cc3e98f58352d26
• MPFR (3.1.5) - 1,101 KB:
Home page: http://www.mpfr.org/
Download: http://www.mpfr.org/mpfr-3.1.5/mpfr-3.1.5.tar.xz
MD5 sum: c4ac246cf9795a4491e7766002cd528f
• Ncurses (6.0) - 3,059 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/ncurses/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu//ncurses/ncurses-6.0.tar.gz
MD5 sum: ee13d052e1ead260d7c28071f46eefb1
• Patch (2.7.5) - 711 KB:
Home page: http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/patch/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/patch/patch-2.7.5.tar.xz
MD5 sum: e3da7940431633fb65a01b91d3b7a27a
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• Perl (5.26.0) - 11,682 KB:
Home page: http://www.perl.org/
Download: http://www.cpan.org/src/5.0/perl-5.26.0.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 8c6995718e4cb62188f0d5e3488cd91f
• Pkg-config (0.29.2) - 1,970 KB:
Home page: http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/pkg-config
Download: https://pkg-config.freedesktop.org/releases/pkg-config-0.29.2.tar.gz
MD5 sum: f6e931e319531b736fadc017f470e68a
• Procps (3.3.12) - 826 KB:
Home page: http://sourceforge.net/projects/procps-ng
Download: http://sourceforge.net/projects/procps-ng/files/Production/procps-ng-3.3.12.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 957e42e8b193490b2111252e4a2b443c
• Psmisc (23.1) - 290 KB:
Home page: http://psmisc.sourceforge.net/
Download: https://sourceforge.net/projects/psmisc/files/psmisc/psmisc-23.1.tar.xz
MD5 sum: bbba1f701c02fb50d59540d1ff90d8d1
• Readline (7.0) - 2,842 KB:
Home page: http://cnswww.cns.cwru.edu/php/chet/readline/rltop.html
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/readline/readline-7.0.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 205b03a87fc83dab653b628c59b9fc91
• Sed (4.4) - 1,154 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/sed/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/sed/sed-4.4.tar.xz
MD5 sum: e0c583d4c380059abd818cd540fe6938
• Shadow (4.5) - 1,589 KB:
Download: https://github.com/shadow-maint/shadow/releases/download/4.5/shadow-4.5.tar.xz
MD5 sum: c350da50c2120de6bb29177699d89fe3
• Systemd (234) - 4,116 KB:
Home page: http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/
Download: http://anduin.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/systemd-234-lfs.tar.xz
MD5 sum: be1338f2775713dc33da74ac0146e37b
Note
The Linux From Scratch systemd team generates its own tarball of the systemd source. This is done in
order to generate the manual pages and documentation, as well as prevent unnecessary files from the
systemd git repo from being installed on the system. Please use the version generated by the Linux From
Scratch team.
• Tar (1.29) - 1,950 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/tar/tar-1.29.tar.xz
MD5 sum: a1802fec550baaeecff6c381629653ef
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• Tcl (8.6.7) - 5,738 KB:
Home page: http://tcl.sourceforge.net/
Download: http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/8.6.7/tcl-core8.6.7-src.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 3f723d62c2e074bdbb2ddf330b5a71e1
• Texinfo (6.4) - 4,393 KB:
Home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo/
Download: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/texinfo/texinfo-6.4.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 2a676c8339efe6ddea0f1cb52e626d15
• Time Zone Data (2017b) - 317 KB:
Home page: http://www.iana.org/time-zones
Download: http://www.iana.org/time-zones/repository/releases/tzdata2017b.tar.gz
MD5 sum: 50dc0dc50c68644c1f70804f2e7a1625
• Util-linux (2.30.1) - 4,360 KB:
Home page: http://freecode.com/projects/util-linux
Download: https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/v2.30/util-linux-2.30.1.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 5e5ec141e775efe36f640e62f3f8cd0d
• Vim (8.0.586) - 10,613 KB:
Home page: http://www.vim.org
Download: ftp://ftp.vim.org/pub/vim/unix/vim-8.0.586.tar.bz2
MD5 sum: b35e794140c196ff59b492b56c1e73db
• XML::Parser (2.44) - 232 KB:
Home page: https://github.com/chorny/XML-Parser
Download: http://cpan.metacpan.org/authors/id/T/TO/TODDR/XML-Parser-2.44.tar.gz
MD5 sum: af4813fe3952362451201ced6fbce379
• Xz Utils (5.2.3) - 1009 KB:
Home page: http://tukaani.org/xz
Download: http://tukaani.org/xz/xz-5.2.3.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 60fb79cab777e3f71ca43d298adacbd5
• Zlib (1.2.11) - 457 KB:
Home page: http://www.zlib.net/
Download: http://zlib.net/zlib-1.2.11.tar.xz
MD5 sum: 85adef240c5f370b308da8c938951a68
Total size of these packages: about 328 MB
3.3. Needed Patches
In addition to the packages, several patches are also required. These patches correct any mistakes in the packages that
should be fixed by the maintainer. The patches also make small modifications to make the packages easier to work
with. The following patches will be needed to build an LFS system:
• Bash Upstream Fixes Patch - 17 KB:
Download: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/8.1/bash-4.4-upstream_fixes-1.patch
MD5 sum: e3d5bf23a4e5628680893d46e6ff286e
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• Bzip2 Documentation Patch - 1.6 KB:
Download: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/8.1/bzip2-1.0.6-install_docs-1.patch
MD5 sum: 6a5ac7e89b791aae556de0f745916f7f
• Coreutils Internationalization Fixes Patch - 168 KB:
Download: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/8.1/coreutils-8.27-i18n-1.patch
MD5 sum: a9404fb575dfd5514f3c8f4120f9ca7d
• Glibc FHS Patch - 2.8 KB:
Download: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/8.1/glibc-2.26-fhs-1.patch
MD5 sum: 9a5997c3452909b1769918c759eff8a2
• Kbd Backspace/Delete Fix Patch - 12 KB:
Download: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/8.1/kbd-2.0.4-backspace-1.patch
MD5 sum: f75cca16a38da6caa7d52151f7136895
Total size of these patches: about 201.4 KB
In addition to the above required patches, there exist a number of optional patches created by the LFS community. These
optional patches solve minor problems or enable functionality that is not enabled by default. Feel free to peruse the
patches database located at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/ and acquire any additional patches
to suit your system needs.
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Chapter 4. Final Preparations
4.1. Introduction
In this chapter, we will perform a few additional tasks to prepare for building the temporary system. We will create
a directory in $LFS for the installation of the temporary tools, add an unprivileged user to reduce risk, and create an
appropriate build environment for that user. We will also explain the unit of time we use to measure how long LFS
packages take to build, or “SBUs”, and give some information about package test suites.
4.2. Creating the $LFS/tools Directory
All programs compiled in Chapter 5 will be installed under $LFS/tools to keep them separate from the programs
compiled in Chapter 6. The programs compiled here are temporary tools and will not be a part of the final LFS system.
By keeping these programs in a separate directory, they can easily be discarded later after their use. This also prevents
these programs from ending up in the host production directories (easy to do by accident in Chapter 5).
Create the required directory by running the following as root:
mkdir -v $LFS/tools
The next step is to create a /tools symlink on the host system. This will point to the newly-created directory on the
LFS partition. Run this command as root as well:
ln -sv $LFS/tools /
Note
The above command is correct. The ln command has a few syntactic variations, so be sure to check info
coreutils ln and ln(1) before reporting what you may think is an error.
The created symlink enables the toolchain to be compiled so that it always refers to /tools, meaning that the compiler,
assembler, and linker will work both in Chapter 5 (when we are still using some tools from the host) and in the next
(when we are “chrooted” to the LFS partition).
4.3. Adding the LFS User
When logged in as user root, making a single mistake can damage or destroy a system. Therefore, we recommend
building the packages in this chapter as an unprivileged user. You could use your own user name, but to make it easier
to set up a clean working environment, create a new user called lfs as a member of a new group (also named lfs)
and use this user during the installation process. As root, issue the following commands to add the new user:
groupadd lfs
useradd -s /bin/bash -g lfs -m -k /dev/null lfs
The meaning of the command line options:
-s /bin/bash
This makes bash the default shell for user lfs.
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-g lfs
This option adds user lfs to group lfs.
-m
This creates a home directory for lfs.
-k /dev/null
This parameter prevents possible copying of files from a skeleton directory (default is /etc/skel) by changing
the input location to the special null device.
lfs
This is the actual name for the created group and user.
To log in as lfs (as opposed to switching to user lfs when logged in as root, which does not require the lfs user
to have a password), give lfs a password:
passwd lfs
Grant lfs full access to $LFS/tools by making lfs the directory owner:
chown -v lfs $LFS/tools
If a separate working directory was created as suggested, give user lfs ownership of this directory:
chown -v lfs $LFS/sources
Next, login as user lfs. This can be done via a virtual console, through a display manager, or with the following
substitute user command:
su - lfs
The “-” instructs su to start a login shell as opposed to a non-login shell. The difference between these two types of
shells can be found in detail in bash(1) and info bash.
4.4. Setting Up the Environment
Set up a good working environment by creating two new startup files for the bash shell. While logged in as user lfs,
issue the following command to create a new .bash_profile:
cat > ~/.bash_profile << "EOF"
exec env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM PS1='\u:\w\$ ' /bin/bash
EOF
When logged on as user lfs, the initial shell is usually a login shell which reads the /etc/profile of the host
(probably containing some settings and environment variables) and then .bash_profile. The exec env -i.../bin/
bash command in the .bash_profile file replaces the running shell with a new one with a completely empty
environment, except for the HOME, TERM, and PS1 variables. This ensures that no unwanted and potentially hazardous
environment variables from the host system leak into the build environment. The technique used here achieves the goal
of ensuring a clean environment.
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The new instance of the shell is a non-login shell, which does not read the /etc/profile or .bash_profile
files, but rather reads the .bashrc file instead. Create the .bashrc file now:
cat > ~/.bashrc << "EOF"
set +h
umask 022
LFS=/mnt/lfs
LC_ALL=POSIX
LFS_TGT=$(uname -m)-lfs-linux-gnu
PATH=/tools/bin:/bin:/usr/bin
export LFS LC_ALL LFS_TGT PATH
EOF
The set +h command turns off bash's hash function. Hashing is ordinarily a useful feature—bash uses a hash table to
remember the full path of executable files to avoid searching the PATH time and again to find the same executable.
However, the new tools should be used as soon as they are installed. By switching off the hash function, the shell will
always search the PATH when a program is to be run. As such, the shell will find the newly compiled tools in $LFS/
tools as soon as they are available without remembering a previous version of the same program in a different location.
Setting the user file-creation mask (umask) to 022 ensures that newly created files and directories are only writable by
their owner, but are readable and executable by anyone (assuming default modes are used by the open(2) system
call, new files will end up with permission mode 644 and directories with mode 755).
The LFS variable should be set to the chosen mount point.
The LC_ALL variable controls the localization of certain programs, making their messages follow the conventions of
a specified country. Setting LC_ALL to “POSIX” or “C” (the two are equivalent) ensures that everything will work
as expected in the chroot environment.
The LFS_TGT variable sets a non-default, but compatible machine description for use when building our cross compiler
and linker and when cross compiling our temporary toolchain. More information is contained in Section 5.2, “Toolchain
Technical Notes”.
By putting /tools/bin ahead of the standard PATH, all the programs installed in Chapter 5 are picked up by the
shell immediately after their installation. This, combined with turning off hashing, limits the risk that old programs are
used from the host when the same programs are available in the chapter 5 environment.
Finally, to have the environment fully prepared for building the temporary tools, source the just-created user profile:
source ~/.bash_profile
4.5. About SBUs
Many people would like to know beforehand approximately how long it takes to compile and install each package.
Because Linux From Scratch can be built on many different systems, it is impossible to provide accurate time estimates.
The biggest package (Glibc) will take approximately 20 minutes on the fastest systems, but could take up to three days
on slower systems! Instead of providing actual times, the Standard Build Unit (SBU) measure will be used instead.
The SBU measure works as follows. The first package to be compiled from this book is Binutils in Chapter 5. The time
it takes to compile this package is what will be referred to as the Standard Build Unit or SBU. All other compile times
will be expressed relative to this time.
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For example, consider a package whose compilation time is 4.5 SBUs. This means that if a system took 10 minutes
to compile and install the first pass of Binutils, it will take approximately 45 minutes to build this example package.
Fortunately, most build times are shorter than the one for Binutils.
In general, SBUs are not entirely accurate because they depend on many factors, including the host system's version of
GCC. They are provided here to give an estimate of how long it might take to install a package, but the numbers can
vary by as much as dozens of minutes in some cases.
Note
For many modern systems with multiple processors (or cores) the compilation time for a package can be
reduced by performing a "parallel make" by either setting an environment variable or telling the make
program how many processors are available. For instance, a Core2Duo can support two simultaneous
processes with:
export MAKEFLAGS='-j 2'
or just building with:
make -j2
When multiple processors are used in this way, the SBU units in the book will vary even more than they
normally would. In some cases, the make step will simply fail. Analyzing the output of the build process will
also be more difficult because the lines of different processes will be interleaved. If you run into a problem
with a build step, revert back to a single processor build to properly analyze the error messages.
4.6. About the Test Suites
Most packages provide a test suite. Running the test suite for a newly built package is a good idea because it can provide
a “sanity check” indicating that everything compiled correctly. A test suite that passes its set of checks usually proves
that the package is functioning as the developer intended. It does not, however, guarantee that the package is totally
bug free.
Some test suites are more important than others. For example, the test suites for the core toolchain packages—GCC,
Binutils, and Glibc—are of the utmost importance due to their central role in a properly functioning system. The test
suites for GCC and Glibc can take a very long time to complete, especially on slower hardware, but are strongly
recommended.
Note
Experience has shown that there is little to be gained from running the test suites in Chapter 5. There can
be no escaping the fact that the host system always exerts some influence on the tests in that chapter, often
causing inexplicable failures. Because the tools built in Chapter 5 are temporary and eventually discarded,
we do not recommend running the test suites in Chapter 5 for the average reader. The instructions for running
those test suites are provided for the benefit of testers and developers, but they are strictly optional.
A common issue with running the test suites for Binutils and GCC is running out of pseudo terminals (PTYs). This
can result in a high number of failing tests. This may happen for several reasons, but the most likely cause is that the
host system does not have the devpts file system set up correctly. This issue is discussed in greater detail at http://
www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/faq.html#no-ptys.
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Sometimes package test suites will fail, but for reasons which the developers are aware of and have deemed non-critical.
Consult the logs located at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/build-logs/8.1/ to verify whether or not these failures
are expected. This site is valid for all tests throughout this book.
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Chapter 5. Constructing a Temporary System
5.1. Introduction
This chapter shows how to build a minimal Linux system. This system will contain just enough tools to start constructing
the final LFS system in Chapter 6 and allow a working environment with more user convenience than a minimum
environment would.
There are two steps in building this minimal system. The first step is to build a new and host-independent toolchain
(compiler, assembler, linker, libraries, and a few useful utilities). The second step uses this toolchain to build the other
essential tools.
The files compiled in this chapter will be installed under the $LFS/tools directory to keep them separate from the
files installed in the next chapter and the host production directories. Since the packages compiled here are temporary,
we do not want them to pollute the soon-to-be LFS system.
5.2. Toolchain Technical Notes
This section explains some of the rationale and technical details behind the overall build method. It is not essential to
immediately understand everything in this section. Most of this information will be clearer after performing an actual
build. This section can be referred to at any time during the process.
The overall goal of Chapter 5 is to produce a temporary area that contains a known-good set of tools that can be
isolated from the host system. By using chroot, the commands in the remaining chapters will be contained within that
environment, ensuring a clean, trouble-free build of the target LFS system. The build process has been designed to
minimize the risks for new readers and to provide the most educational value at the same time.
Note
Before continuing, be aware of the name of the working platform, often referred to as the target triplet. A
simple way to determine the name of the target triplet is to run the config.guess script that comes with the
source for many packages. Unpack the Binutils sources and run the script: ./config.guess and note the
output. For example, for a 32-bit Intel processor the output will be i686-pc-linux-gnu. On a 64-bit system it
will be x86_64-pc-linux-gnu.
Also be aware of the name of the platform's dynamic linker, often referred to as the dynamic loader (not to be
confused with the standard linker ld that is part of Binutils). The dynamic linker provided by Glibc finds and
loads the shared libraries needed by a program, prepares the program to run, and then runs it. The name of
the dynamic linker for a 32-bit Intel machine will be ld-linux.so.2 (ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 for
64-bit systems). A sure-fire way to determine the name of the dynamic linker is to inspect a random binary
from the host system by running: readelf -l <name of binary> | grep interpreter and
noting the output. The authoritative reference covering all platforms is in the shlib-versions file in the
root of the Glibc source tree.
Some key technical points of how the Chapter 5 build method works:
• Slightly adjusting the name of the working platform, by changing the "vendor" field target triplet by way of the
LFS_TGT variable, ensures that the first build of Binutils and GCC produces a compatible cross-linker and crosscompiler. Instead of producing binaries for another architecture, the cross-linker and cross-compiler will produce
binaries compatible with the current hardware.
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• The temporary libraries are cross-compiled. Because a cross-compiler by its nature cannot rely on anything from
its host system, this method removes potential contamination of the target system by lessening the chance of
headers or libraries from the host being incorporated into the new tools. Cross-compilation also allows for the
possibility of building both 32-bit and 64-bit libraries on 64-bit capable hardware.
• Careful manipulation of the GCC source tells the compiler which target dynamic linker will be used.
Binutils is installed first because the configure runs of both GCC and Glibc perform various feature tests on the
assembler and linker to determine which software features to enable or disable. This is more important than one might
first realize. An incorrectly configured GCC or Glibc can result in a subtly broken toolchain, where the impact of such
breakage might not show up until near the end of the build of an entire distribution. A test suite failure will usually
highlight this error before too much additional work is performed.
Binutils installs its assembler and linker in two locations, /tools/bin and /tools/$LFS_TGT/bin. The tools in
one location are hard linked to the other. An important facet of the linker is its library search order. Detailed information
can be obtained from ld by passing it the --verbose flag. For example, an ld --verbose | grep SEARCH
will illustrate the current search paths and their order. It shows which files are linked by ld by compiling a dummy
program and passing the --verbose switch to the linker. For example, gcc dummy.c -Wl,--verbose 2>&1
| grep succeeded will show all the files successfully opened during the linking.
The next package installed is GCC. An example of what can be seen during its run of configure is:
checking what assembler to use... /tools/i686-lfs-linux-gnu/bin/as
checking what linker to use... /tools/i686-lfs-linux-gnu/bin/ld
This is important for the reasons mentioned above. It also demonstrates that GCC's configure script does not search the
PATH directories to find which tools to use. However, during the actual operation of gcc itself, the same search paths
are not necessarily used. To find out which standard linker gcc will use, run: gcc -print-prog-name=ld.
Detailed information can be obtained from gcc by passing it the -v command line option while compiling a dummy
program. For example, gcc -v dummy.c will show detailed information about the preprocessor, compilation, and
assembly stages, including gcc's included search paths and their order.
Next installed are sanitized Linux API headers. These allow the standard C library (Glibc) to interface with features
that the Linux kernel will provide.
The next package installed is Glibc. The most important considerations for building Glibc are the compiler, binary
tools, and kernel headers. The compiler is generally not an issue since Glibc will always use the compiler relating to
the --host parameter passed to its configure script; e.g. in our case, the compiler will be i686-lfs-linux-gnu-gcc. The
binary tools and kernel headers can be a bit more complicated. Therefore, take no risks and use the available configure
switches to enforce the correct selections. After the run of configure, check the contents of the config.make file
in the glibc-build directory for all important details. Note the use of CC="i686-lfs-gnu-gcc" to control
which binary tools are used and the use of the -nostdinc and -isystem flags to control the compiler's include
search path. These items highlight an important aspect of the Glibc package—it is very self-sufficient in terms of its
build machinery and generally does not rely on toolchain defaults.
During the second pass of Binutils, we are able to utilize the --with-lib-path configure switch to control ld's
library search path.
For the second pass of GCC, its sources also need to be modified to tell GCC to use the new dynamic linker. Failure to
do so will result in the GCC programs themselves having the name of the dynamic linker from the host system's /lib
directory embedded into them, which would defeat the goal of getting away from the host. From this point onwards,
the core toolchain is self-contained and self-hosted. The remainder of the Chapter 5 packages all build against the new
Glibc in /tools.
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Upon entering the chroot environment in Chapter 6, the first major package to be installed is Glibc, due to its selfsufficient nature mentioned above. Once this Glibc is installed into /usr, we will perform a quick changeover of the
toolchain defaults, and then proceed in building the rest of the target LFS system.
5.3. General Compilation Instructions
When building packages there are several assumptions made within the instructions:
• Several of the packages are patched before compilation, but only when the patch is needed to circumvent a
problem. A patch is often needed in both this and the next chapter, but sometimes in only one or the other.
Therefore, do not be concerned if instructions for a downloaded patch seem to be missing. Warning messages
about offset or fuzz may also be encountered when applying a patch. Do not worry about these warnings, as the
patch was still successfully applied.
• During the compilation of most packages, there will be several warnings that scroll by on the screen. These are
normal and can safely be ignored. These warnings are as they appear—warnings about deprecated, but not invalid,
use of the C or C++ syntax. C standards change fairly often, and some packages still use the older standard. This is
not a problem, but does prompt the warning.
• Check one last time that the LFS environment variable is set up properly:
echo $LFS
Make sure the output shows the path to the LFS partition's mount point, which is /mnt/lfs, using our example.
• Finally, two last important items must be emphasized:
Important
The build instructions assume that the Host System Requirements, including symbolic links, have been
set properly:
• bash is the shell in use.
• sh is a symbolic link to bash.
• /usr/bin/awk is a symbolic link to gawk.
• /usr/bin/yacc is a symbolic link to bison or a small script that executes bison.
Important
To re-emphasize the build process:
1. Place all the sources and patches in a directory that will be accessible from the chroot environment
such as /mnt/lfs/sources/. Do not put sources in /mnt/lfs/tools/.
2. Change to the sources directory.
3. For each package:
a. Using the tar program, extract the package to be built. In Chapter 5, ensure you are the lfs user
when extracting the package.
b. Change to the directory created when the package was extracted.
c. Follow the book's instructions for building the package.
d. Change back to the sources directory.
e. Delete the extracted source directory unless instructed otherwise.
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5.4. Binutils-2.29 - Pass 1
The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
1 SBU
547 MB
5.4.1. Installation of Cross Binutils
Note
Go back and re-read the notes in the previous section. Understanding the notes labeled important will save
you a lot of problems later.
It is important that Binutils be the first package compiled because both Glibc and GCC perform various tests on the
available linker and assembler to determine which of their own features to enable.
The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
Note
In order for the SBU values listed in the rest of the book to be of any use, measure the time it takes to build
this package from the configuration, up to and including the first install. To achieve this easily, wrap the
commands in a time command like this: time { ./configure ... && ... && make install; }.
Note
The approximate build SBU values and required disk space in Chapter 5 does not include test suite data.
Now prepare Binutils for compilation:
../configure --prefix=/tools
--with-sysroot=$LFS
--with-lib-path=/tools/lib
--target=$LFS_TGT
--disable-nls
--disable-werror
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure options:
--prefix=/tools
This tells the configure script to prepare to install the Binutils programs in the /tools directory.
--with-sysroot=$LFS
For cross compilation, this tells the build system to look in $LFS for the target system libraries as needed.
--with-lib-path=/tools/lib
This specifies which library path the linker should be configured to use.
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--target=$LFS_TGT
Because the machine description in the LFS_TGT variable is slightly different than the value returned by the
config.guess script, this switch will tell the configure script to adjust Binutil's build system for building a cross
linker.
--disable-nls
This disables internationalization as i18n is not needed for the temporary tools.
--disable-werror
This prevents the build from stopping in the event that there are warnings from the host's compiler.
Continue with compiling the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. Ordinarily we would now run the test suite, but at this early stage the test suite framework
(Tcl, Expect, and DejaGNU) is not yet in place. The benefits of running the tests at this point are minimal since the
programs from this first pass will soon be replaced by those from the second.
If building on x86_64, create a symlink to ensure the sanity of the toolchain:
case $(uname -m) in
x86_64) mkdir -v /tools/lib && ln -sv lib /tools/lib64 ;;
esac
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.16.2, “Contents of Binutils.”
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5.5. GCC-7.2.0 - Pass 1
The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
8.9 SBU
2.2 GB
5.5.1. Installation of Cross GCC
GCC now requires the GMP, MPFR and MPC packages. As these packages may not be included in your host
distribution, they will be built with GCC. Unpack each package into the GCC source directory and rename the resulting
directories so the GCC build procedures will automatically use them:
Note
There are frequent misunderstandings about this chapter. The procedures are the same as every other chapter
as explained earlier (Package build instructions). First extract the gcc tarball from the sources directory and
then change to the directory created. Only then should you proceed with the instructions below.
tar -xf ../mpfr-3.1.5.tar.xz
mv -v mpfr-3.1.5 mpfr
tar -xf ../gmp-6.1.2.tar.xz
mv -v gmp-6.1.2 gmp
tar -xf ../mpc-1.0.3.tar.gz
mv -v mpc-1.0.3 mpc
The following command will change the location of GCC's default dynamic linker to use the one installed in /tools.
It also removes /usr/include from GCC's include search path. Issue:
for file in gcc/config/{linux,i386/linux{,64}}.h
do
cp -uv $file{,.orig}
sed -e 's@/lib\(64\)\?\(32\)\?/ld@/tools&@g' \
-e 's@/usr@/tools@g' $file.orig > $file
echo '
#undef STANDARD_STARTFILE_PREFIX_1
#undef STANDARD_STARTFILE_PREFIX_2
#define STANDARD_STARTFILE_PREFIX_1 "/tools/lib/"
#define STANDARD_STARTFILE_PREFIX_2 ""' >> $file
touch $file.orig
done
In case the above seems hard to follow, let's break it down a bit. First we copy the files gcc/config/linux.h,
gcc/config/i386/linux.h, and gcc/config/i368/linux64.h. to a file of the same name but with an
added suffix of “.orig”. Then the first sed expression prepends “/tools” to every instance of “/lib/ld”, “/lib64/ld” or
“/lib32/ld”, while the second one replaces hard-coded instances of “/usr”. Next, we add our define statements which
alter the default startfile prefix to the end of the file. Note that the trailing “/” in “/tools/lib/” is required. Finally, we
use touch to update the timestamp on the copied files. When used in conjunction with cp -u, this prevents unexpected
changes to the original files in case the commands are inadvertently run twice.
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Finally, on x86_64 hosts, set the default directory name for 64-bit libraries to “lib”:
case $(uname -m) in
x86_64)
sed -e '/m64=/s/lib64/lib/' \
-i.orig gcc/config/i386/t-linux64
;;
esac
The GCC documentation recommends building GCC in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
Prepare GCC for compilation:
../configure
--target=$LFS_TGT
--prefix=/tools
--with-glibc-version=2.11
--with-sysroot=$LFS
--with-newlib
--without-headers
--with-local-prefix=/tools
--with-native-system-header-dir=/tools/include
--disable-nls
--disable-shared
--disable-multilib
--disable-decimal-float
--disable-threads
--disable-libatomic
--disable-libgomp
--disable-libmpx
--disable-libquadmath
--disable-libssp
--disable-libvtv
--disable-libstdcxx
--enable-languages=c,c++
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure options:
--with-newlib
Since a working C library is not yet available, this ensures that the inhibit_libc constant is defined when building
libgcc. This prevents the compiling of any code that requires libc support.
--without-headers
When creating a complete cross-compiler, GCC requires standard headers compatible with the target system. For
our purposes these headers will not be needed. This switch prevents GCC from looking for them.
--with-local-prefix=/tools
The local prefix is the location in the system that GCC will search for locally installed include files. The default is /
usr/local. Setting this to /tools helps keep the host location of /usr/local out of this GCC's search path.
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--with-native-system-header-dir=/tools/include
By default GCC searches /usr/include for system headers. In conjunction with the sysroot switch, this would
translate normally to $LFS/usr/include. However the headers that will be installed in the next two sections
will go to $LFS/tools/include. This switch ensures that gcc will find them correctly. In the second pass of
GCC, this same switch will ensure that no headers from the host system are found.
--disable-shared
This switch forces GCC to link its internal libraries statically. We do this to avoid possible issues with the host
system.
--disable-decimal-float, --disable-threads, --disable-libatomic, --disablelibgomp, --disable-libmpx, --disable-libquadmath, --disable-libssp, --disablelibvtv, --disable-libstdcxx
These switches disable support for the decimal floating point extension, threading, libatomic, libgomp, libmpx,
libquadmath, libssp, libvtv, and the C++ standard library respectively. These features will fail to compile when
building a cross-compiler and are not necessary for the task of cross-compiling the temporary libc.
--disable-multilib
On x86_64, LFS does not yet support a multilib configuration. This switch is harmless for x86.
--enable-languages=c,c++
This option ensures that only the C and C++ compilers are built. These are the only languages needed now.
Compile GCC by running:
make
Compilation is now complete. At this point, the test suite would normally be run, but, as mentioned before, the test
suite framework is not in place yet. The benefits of running the tests at this point are minimal since the programs from
this first pass will soon be replaced.
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.20.2, “Contents of GCC.”
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5.6. Linux-4.12.7 API Headers
The Linux API Headers (in linux-4.12.7.tar.xz) expose the kernel's API for use by Glibc.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
861 MB
5.6.1. Installation of Linux API Headers
The Linux kernel needs to expose an Application Programming Interface (API) for the system's C library (Glibc in
LFS) to use. This is done by way of sanitizing various C header files that are shipped in the Linux kernel source tarball.
Make sure there are no stale files embedded in the package:
make mrproper
Now extract the user-visible kernel headers from the source. They are placed in an intermediate local directory and
copied to the needed location because the extraction process removes any existing files in the target directory.
make INSTALL_HDR_PATH=dest headers_install
cp -rv dest/include/* /tools/include
Details on this package are located in Section 6.7.2, “Contents of Linux API Headers.”
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5.7. Glibc-2.26
The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides the basic routines for allocating memory, searching
directories, opening and closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching, arithmetic, and so on.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
4.2 SBU
790 MB
5.7.1. Installation of Glibc
The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
Next, prepare Glibc for compilation:
../configure
--prefix=/tools
--host=$LFS_TGT
--build=$(../scripts/config.guess)
--enable-kernel=3.2
\
--with-headers=/tools/include
libc_cv_forced_unwind=yes
libc_cv_c_cleanup=yes
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure options:
--host=$LFS_TGT, --build=$(../scripts/config.guess)
The combined effect of these switches is that Glibc's build system configures itself to cross-compile, using the
cross-linker and cross-compiler in /tools.
--enable-kernel=3.2
This tells Glibc to compile the library with support for 3.2 and later Linux kernels. Workarounds for older kernels
are not enabled.
--with-headers=/tools/include
This tells Glibc to compile itself against the headers recently installed to the tools directory, so that it knows exactly
what features the kernel has and can optimize itself accordingly.
libc_cv_forced_unwind=yes
The linker installed during Section 5.4, “Binutils-2.29 - Pass 1” was cross-compiled and as such cannot be used
until Glibc has been installed. This means that the configure test for force-unwind support will fail, as it relies
on a working linker. The libc_cv_forced_unwind=yes variable is passed in order to inform configure that forceunwind support is available without it having to run the test.
libc_cv_c_cleanup=yes
Similarly, we pass libc_cv_c_cleanup=yes through to the configure script so that the test is skipped and C cleanup
handling support is configured.
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During this stage the following warning might appear:
configure: WARNING:
*** These auxiliary programs are missing or
*** incompatible versions: msgfmt
*** some features will be disabled.
*** Check the INSTALL file for required versions.
The missing or incompatible msgfmt program is generally harmless. This msgfmt program is part of the Gettext
package which the host distribution should provide.
Note
There have been reports that this package may fail when building as a "parallel make". If this occurs, rerun
the make command with a "-j1" option.
Compile the package:
make
Install the package:
make install
Caution
At this point, it is imperative to stop and ensure that the basic functions (compiling and linking) of the new
toolchain are working as expected. To perform a sanity check, run the following commands:
echo 'int main(){}' > dummy.c
$LFS_TGT-gcc dummy.c
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /tools'
If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors, and the output of the last command will be of
the form:
[Requesting program interpreter: /tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2]
Note that for 64-bit machines, the interpreter name will be /tools/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2.
If the output is not shown as above or there was no output at all, then something is wrong. Investigate and
retrace the steps to find out where the problem is and correct it. This issue must be resolved before continuing
on.
Once all is well, clean up the test files:
rm -v dummy.c a.out
Note
Building Binutils in the section after next will serve as an additional check that the toolchain has been built
properly. If Binutils fails to build, it is an indication that something has gone wrong with the previous Binutils,
GCC, or Glibc installations.
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Details on this package are located in Section 6.9.3, “Contents of Glibc.”
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5.8. Libstdc++-7.2.0
Libstdc++ is the standard C++ library. It is needed for the correct operation of the g++ compiler.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
750 MB
5.8.1. Installation of Target Libstdc++
Note
Libstdc++ is part of the GCC sources. You should first unpack the GCC tarball and change to the gcc-7.
2.0 directory.
Create a separate build directory for Libstdc++ and enter it:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
Prepare Libstdc++ for compilation:
../libstdc++-v3/configure
\
--host=$LFS_TGT
\
--prefix=/tools
\
--disable-multilib
\
--disable-nls
\
--disable-libstdcxx-threads
\
--disable-libstdcxx-pch
\
--with-gxx-include-dir=/tools/$LFS_TGT/include/c++/7.2.0
The meaning of the configure options:
--host=...
Indicates to use the cross compiler we have just built instead of the one in /usr/bin.
--disable-libstdcxx-threads
Since we have not yet built the C threads library, the C++ one cannot be built either.
--disable-libstdcxx-pch
This switch prevents the installation of precompiled include files, which are not needed at this stage.
--with-gxx-include-dir=/tools/$LFS_TGT/include/c++/7.2.0
This is the location where the standard include files are searched by the C++ compiler. In a normal build, this
information is automatically passed to the Libstdc++ configure options from the top level directory. In our case,
this information must be explicitly given.
Compile libstdc++ by running:
make
Install the library:
make install
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Details on this package are located in Section 6.20.2, “Contents of GCC.”
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5.9. Binutils-2.29 - Pass 2
The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
1.1 SBU
582 MB
5.9.1. Installation of Binutils
Create a separate build directory again:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
Prepare Binutils for compilation:
CC=$LFS_TGT-gcc
AR=$LFS_TGT-ar
RANLIB=$LFS_TGT-ranlib
../configure
--prefix=/tools
--disable-nls
--disable-werror
--with-lib-path=/tools/lib
--with-sysroot
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the new configure options:
CC=$LFS_TGT-gcc AR=$LFS_TGT-ar RANLIB=$LFS_TGT-ranlib
Because this is really a native build of Binutils, setting these variables ensures that the build system uses the crosscompiler and associated tools instead of the ones on the host system.
--with-lib-path=/tools/lib
This tells the configure script to specify the library search path during the compilation of Binutils, resulting in /
tools/lib being passed to the linker. This prevents the linker from searching through library directories on
the host.
--with-sysroot
The sysroot feature enables the linker to find shared objects which are required by other shared objects explicitly
included on the linker's command line. Without this, some packages may not build successfully on some hosts.
Compile the package:
make
Install the package:
make install
Now prepare the linker for the “Re-adjusting” phase in the next chapter:
make -C ld clean
make -C ld LIB_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib
cp -v ld/ld-new /tools/bin
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The meaning of the make parameters:
-C ld clean
This tells the make program to remove all compiled files in the ld subdirectory.
-C ld LIB_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib
This option rebuilds everything in the ld subdirectory. Specifying the LIB_PATH Makefile variable on the
command line allows us to override the default value of the temporary tools and point it to the proper final path. The
value of this variable specifies the linker's default library search path. This preparation is used in the next chapter.
Details on this package are located in Section 6.16.2, “Contents of Binutils.”
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5.10. GCC-7.2.0 - Pass 2
The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.
Approximate build time: 11 SBU
Required disk space:
2.6 GB
5.10.1. Installation of GCC
Our first build of GCC has installed a couple of internal system headers. Normally one of them, limits.h, will in turn
include the corresponding system limits.h header, in this case, /tools/include/limits.h. However, at the
time of the first build of gcc /tools/include/limits.h did not exist, so the internal header that GCC installed
is a partial, self-contained file and does not include the extended features of the system header. This was adequate for
building the temporary libc, but this build of GCC now requires the full internal header. Create a full version of the
internal header using a command that is identical to what the GCC build system does in normal circumstances:
cat gcc/limitx.h gcc/glimits.h gcc/limity.h > \
`dirname $($LFS_TGT-gcc -print-libgcc-file-name)`/include-fixed/limits.h
Once again, change the location of GCC's default dynamic linker to use the one installed in /tools.
for file in gcc/config/{linux,i386/linux{,64}}.h
do
cp -uv $file{,.orig}
sed -e 's@/lib\(64\)\?\(32\)\?/ld@/tools&@g' \
-e 's@/usr@/tools@g' $file.orig > $file
echo '
#undef STANDARD_STARTFILE_PREFIX_1
#undef STANDARD_STARTFILE_PREFIX_2
#define STANDARD_STARTFILE_PREFIX_1 "/tools/lib/"
#define STANDARD_STARTFILE_PREFIX_2 ""' >> $file
touch $file.orig
done
If building on x86_64, change the default directory name for 64-bit libraries to “lib”:
case $(uname -m) in
x86_64)
sed -e '/m64=/s/lib64/lib/' \
-i.orig gcc/config/i386/t-linux64
;;
esac
As in the first build of GCC it requires the GMP, MPFR and MPC packages. Unpack the tarballs and move them into
the required directory names:
tar -xf ../mpfr-3.1.5.tar.xz
mv -v mpfr-3.1.5 mpfr
tar -xf ../gmp-6.1.2.tar.xz
mv -v gmp-6.1.2 gmp
tar -xf ../mpc-1.0.3.tar.gz
mv -v mpc-1.0.3 mpc
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Create a separate build directory again:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
Before starting to build GCC, remember to unset any environment variables that override the default optimization flags.
Now prepare GCC for compilation:
CC=$LFS_TGT-gcc
CXX=$LFS_TGT-g++
AR=$LFS_TGT-ar
RANLIB=$LFS_TGT-ranlib
../configure
--prefix=/tools
--with-local-prefix=/tools
--with-native-system-header-dir=/tools/include
--enable-languages=c,c++
--disable-libstdcxx-pch
--disable-multilib
--disable-bootstrap
--disable-libgomp
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the new configure options:
--enable-languages=c,c++
This option ensures that both the C and C++ compilers are built.
--disable-libstdcxx-pch
Do not build the pre-compiled header (PCH) for libstdc++. It takes up a lot of space, and we have no use for it.
--disable-bootstrap
For native builds of GCC, the default is to do a "bootstrap" build. This does not just compile GCC, but compiles
it several times. It uses the programs compiled in a first round to compile itself a second time, and then again a
third time. The second and third iterations are compared to make sure it can reproduce itself flawlessly. This also
implies that it was compiled correctly. However, the LFS build method should provide a solid compiler without
the need to bootstrap each time.
Compile the package:
make
Install the package:
make install
As a finishing touch, create a symlink. Many programs and scripts run cc instead of gcc, which is used to keep programs
generic and therefore usable on all kinds of UNIX systems where the GNU C compiler is not always installed. Running
cc leaves the system administrator free to decide which C compiler to install:
ln -sv gcc /tools/bin/cc
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Caution
At this point, it is imperative to stop and ensure that the basic functions (compiling and linking) of the new
toolchain are working as expected. To perform a sanity check, run the following commands:
echo 'int main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /tools'
If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors, and the output of the last command will be of
the form:
[Requesting program interpreter: /tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2]
Note that /tools/lib, or /tools/lib64 for 64-bit machines appears as the prefix of the dynamic linker.
If the output is not shown as above or there was no output at all, then something is wrong. Investigate and
retrace the steps to find out where the problem is and correct it. This issue must be resolved before continuing
on. First, perform the sanity check again, using gcc instead of cc. If this works, then the /tools/bin/
cc symlink is missing. Install the symlink as per above. Next, ensure that the PATH is correct. This can be
checked by running echo $PATH and verifying that /tools/bin is at the head of the list. If the PATH is
wrong it could mean that you are not logged in as user lfs or that something went wrong back in Section 4.4,
“Setting Up the Environment.”
Once all is well, clean up the test files:
rm -v dummy.c a.out
Details on this package are located in Section 6.20.2, “Contents of GCC.”
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5.11. Tcl-core-8.6.7
The Tcl package contains the Tool Command Language.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
42 MB
5.11.1. Installation of Tcl-core
This package and the next three (Expect, DejaGNU, and Check) are installed to support running the test suites for
GCC and Binutils and other packages. Installing four packages for testing purposes may seem excessive, but it is very
reassuring, if not essential, to know that the most important tools are working properly. Even if the test suites are not
run in this chapter (they are not mandatory), these packages are required to run the test suites in Chapter 6.
Note that the Tcl package used here is a minimal version needed to run the LFS tests. For the full package, see the
BLFS Tcl procedures.
Prepare Tcl for compilation:
cd unix
./configure --prefix=/tools
Build the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Tcl test suite anyway, issue the following command:
TZ=UTC make test
The Tcl test suite may experience failures under certain host conditions that are not fully understood. Therefore, test
suite failures here are not surprising, and are not considered critical. The TZ=UTC parameter sets the time zone to
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), but only for the duration of the test suite run. This ensures that the clock tests are
exercised correctly. Details on the TZ environment variable are provided in Chapter 7.
Install the package:
make install
Make the installed library writable so debugging symbols can be removed later:
chmod -v u+w /tools/lib/libtcl8.6.so
Install Tcl's headers. The next package, Expect, requires them to build.
make install-private-headers
Now make a necessary symbolic link:
ln -sv tclsh8.6 /tools/bin/tclsh
5.11.2. Contents of Tcl-core
Installed programs:
Installed library:
tclsh (link to tclsh8.6) and tclsh8.6
libtcl8.6.so, libtclstub8.6.a
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Short Descriptions
tclsh8.6
The Tcl command shell
tclsh
A link to tclsh8.6
libtcl8.6.so
The Tcl library
libtclstub8.6.a The Tcl Stub library
54
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5.12. Expect-5.45
The Expect package contains a program for carrying out scripted dialogues with other interactive programs.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
4.3 MB
5.12.1. Installation of Expect
First, force Expect's configure script to use /bin/stty instead of a /usr/local/bin/stty it may find on the
host system. This will ensure that our test suite tools remain sane for the final builds of our toolchain:
cp -v configure{,.orig}
sed 's:/usr/local/bin:/bin:' configure.orig > configure
Now prepare Expect for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
\
--with-tcl=/tools/lib \
--with-tclinclude=/tools/include
The meaning of the configure options:
--with-tcl=/tools/lib
This ensures that the configure script finds the Tcl installation in the temporary tools location instead of possibly
locating an existing one on the host system.
--with-tclinclude=/tools/include
This explicitly tells Expect where to find Tcl's internal headers. Using this option avoids conditions where
configure fails because it cannot automatically discover the location of Tcl's headers.
Build the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Expect test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make test
Note that the Expect test suite is known to experience failures under certain host conditions that are not within our
control. Therefore, test suite failures here are not surprising and are not considered critical.
Install the package:
make SCRIPTS="" install
The meaning of the make parameter:
SCRIPTS=""
This prevents installation of the supplementary Expect scripts, which are not needed.
5.12.2. Contents of Expect
Installed program:
Installed library:
expect
libexpect-5.45.so
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Short Descriptions
expect
Communicates with other interactive programs according to a script
libexpect-5.45.so Contains functions that allow Expect to be used as a Tcl extension or to be used directly
from C or C++ (without Tcl)
56
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5.13. DejaGNU-1.6
The DejaGNU package contains a framework for testing other programs.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
3.2 MB
5.13.1. Installation of DejaGNU
Prepare DejaGNU for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Build and install the package:
make install
To test the results, issue:
make check
5.13.2. Contents of DejaGNU
Installed program:
runtest
Short Descriptions
runtest
A wrapper script that locates the proper expect shell and then runs DejaGNU
57
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5.14. Check-0.11.0
Check is a unit testing framework for C.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
11 MB
5.14.1. Installation of Check
Prepare Check for compilation:
PKG_CONFIG= ./configure --prefix=/tools
The meaning of the configure parameter:
PKG_CONFIG=
This tells the configure script to ignore any pkg-config options that may cause the system to try to link with libraries
not in the /tools directory.
Build the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Check test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Note that the Check test suite may take a relatively long (up to 4 SBU) time.
Install the package:
make install
5.14.2. Contents of Check
Installed program:
Installed library:
checkmk
libcheck.{a,so}
Short Descriptions
checkmk
Awk script for generating C unit tests for use with the Check unit testing framework
libcheck.{a,so} Contains functions that allow Check to be called from a test program
58
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5.15. Ncurses-6.0
The Ncurses package contains libraries for terminal-independent handling of character screens.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.5 SBU
38 MB
5.15.1. Installation of Ncurses
First, ensure that gawk is found first during configuration:
sed -i s/mawk// configure
Prepare Ncurses for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools \
--with-shared
\
--without-debug \
--without-ada
\
--enable-widec \
--enable-overwrite
The meaning of the configure options:
--without-ada
This ensures that Ncurses does not build support for the Ada compiler which may be present on the host but will
not be available once we enter the chroot environment.
--enable-overwrite
This tells Ncurses to install its header files into /tools/include, instead of /tools/include/ncurses,
to ensure that other packages can find the Ncurses headers successfully.
--enable-widec
This switch causes wide-character libraries (e.g., libncursesw.so.6.0) to be built instead of normal ones
(e.g., libncurses.so.6.0). These wide-character libraries are usable in both multibyte and traditional 8-bit
locales, while normal libraries work properly only in 8-bit locales. Wide-character and normal libraries are sourcecompatible, but not binary-compatible.
Compile the package:
make
This package has a test suite, but it can only be run after the package has been installed. The tests reside in the test/
directory. See the README file in that directory for further details.
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.23.2, “Contents of Ncurses.”
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5.16. Bash-4.4
The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
61 MB
5.16.1. Installation of Bash
Prepare Bash for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools --without-bash-malloc
The meaning of the configure options:
--without-bash-malloc
This option turns off the use of Bash's memory allocation (malloc) function which is known to cause
segmentation faults. By turning this option off, Bash will use the malloc functions from Glibc which are more
stable.
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Bash test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make tests
Install the package:
make install
Make a link for the programs that use sh for a shell:
ln -sv bash /tools/bin/sh
Details on this package are located in Section 6.34.2, “Contents of Bash.”
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5.17. Bison-3.0.4
The Bison package contains a parser generator.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
32 MB
5.17.1. Installation of Bison
Prepare Bison for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.31.2, “Contents of Bison.”
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5.18. Bzip2-1.0.6
The Bzip2 package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. Compressing text files with bzip2
yields a much better compression percentage than with the traditional gzip.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
5.2 MB
5.18.1. Installation of Bzip2
The Bzip2 package does not contain a configure script. Compile and test it with:
make
Install the package:
make PREFIX=/tools install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.21.2, “Contents of Bzip2.”
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5.19. Coreutils-8.27
The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the basic system characteristics.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.6 SBU
136 MB
5.19.1. Installation of Coreutils
Prepare Coreutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools --enable-install-program=hostname
The meaning of the configure options:
--enable-install-program=hostname
This enables the hostname binary to be built and installed – it is disabled by default but is required by the Perl
test suite.
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Coreutils test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check
The RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes parameter tells the test suite to run several additional tests that are considered
relatively expensive (in terms of CPU power and memory usage) on some platforms, but generally are not a problem
on Linux.
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.51.2, “Contents of Coreutils.”
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5.20. Diffutils-3.6
The Diffutils package contains programs that show the differences between files or directories.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
22 MB
5.20.1. Installation of Diffutils
Prepare Diffutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Diffutils test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.52.2, “Contents of Diffutils.”
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5.21. File-5.31
The File package contains a utility for determining the type of a given file or files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
16 MB
5.21.1. Installation of File
Prepare File for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the File test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.12.2, “Contents of File.”
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5.22. Findutils-4.6.0
The Findutils package contains programs to find files. These programs are provided to recursively search through a
directory tree and to create, maintain, and search a database (often faster than the recursive find, but unreliable if the
database has not been recently updated).
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
35 MB
5.22.1. Installation of Findutils
Prepare Findutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Findutils test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.54.2, “Contents of Findutils.”
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5.23. Gawk-4.1.4
The Gawk package contains programs for manipulating text files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
35 MB
5.23.1. Installation of Gawk
Prepare Gawk for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Gawk test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.53.2, “Contents of Gawk.”
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5.24. Gettext-0.19.8.1
The Gettext package contains utilities for internationalization and localization. These allow programs to be compiled
with NLS (Native Language Support), enabling them to output messages in the user's native language.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.8 SBU
164 MB
5.24.1. Installation of Gettext
For our temporary set of tools, we only need to build and install three programs from Gettext.
Prepare Gettext for compilation:
cd gettext-tools
EMACS="no" ./configure --prefix=/tools --disable-shared
The meaning of the configure option:
EMACS="no"
This prevents the configure script from determining where to install Emacs Lisp files as the test is known to hang
on some hosts.
--disable-shared
We do not need to install any of the shared Gettext libraries at this time, therefore there is no need to build them.
Compile the package:
make
make
make
make
make
-C
-C
-C
-C
-C
gnulib-lib
intl pluralx.c
src msgfmt
src msgmerge
src xgettext
As only three programs have been compiled, it is not possible to run the test suite without compiling additional support
libraries from the Gettext package. It is therefore not recommended to attempt to run the test suite at this stage.
Install the msgfmt, msgmerge and xgettext programs:
cp -v src/{msgfmt,msgmerge,xgettext} /tools/bin
Details on this package are located in Section 6.47.2, “Contents of Gettext.”
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5.25. Grep-3.1
The Grep package contains programs for searching through files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
19 MB
5.25.1. Installation of Grep
Prepare Grep for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Grep test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.33.2, “Contents of Grep.”
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5.26. Gzip-1.8
The Gzip package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
9 MB
5.26.1. Installation of Gzip
Prepare Gzip for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Gzip test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.58.2, “Contents of Gzip.”
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5.27. M4-1.4.18
The M4 package contains a macro processor.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
19 MB
5.27.1. Installation of M4
Prepare M4 for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the M4 test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.14.2, “Contents of M4.”
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5.28. Make-4.2.1
The Make package contains a program for compiling packages.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
12.5 MB
5.28.1. Installation of Make
Prepare Make for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools --without-guile
The meaning of the configure option:
--without-guile
This ensures that Make-4.2.1 won't link against Guile libraries, which may be present on the host system, but won't
be available within the chroot environment in the next chapter.
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Make test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.62.2, “Contents of Make.”
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5.29. Patch-2.7.5
The Patch package contains a program for modifying or creating files by applying a “patch” file typically created by
the diff program.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
11 MB
5.29.1. Installation of Patch
Prepare Patch for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Patch test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.63.2, “Contents of Patch.”
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5.30. Perl-5.26.0
The Perl package contains the Practical Extraction and Report Language.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
1.3 SBU
261 MB
5.30.1. Installation of Perl
First, fix a build issue that arises only in the LFS environment:
sed -e '9751 a#ifndef PERL_IN_XSUB_RE' \
-e '9808 a#endif'
\
-i regexec.c
Prepare Perl for compilation:
sh Configure -des -Dprefix=/tools -Dlibs=-lm
Build the package:
make
Although Perl comes with a test suite, it would be better to wait until it is installed in the next chapter.
Only a few of the utilities and libraries need to be installed at this time:
cp -v perl cpan/podlators/scripts/pod2man /tools/bin
mkdir -pv /tools/lib/perl5/5.26.0
cp -Rv lib/* /tools/lib/perl5/5.26.0
Details on this package are located in Section 6.40.2, “Contents of Perl.”
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5.31. Sed-4.4
The Sed package contains a stream editor.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
16 MB
5.31.1. Installation of Sed
Prepare Sed for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Sed test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.27.2, “Contents of Sed.”
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5.32. Tar-1.29
The Tar package contains an archiving program.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
33 MB
5.32.1. Installation of Tar
Prepare Tar for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Tar test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.67.2, “Contents of Tar.”
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5.33. Texinfo-6.4
The Texinfo package contains programs for reading, writing, and converting info pages.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
99 MB
5.33.1. Installation of Texinfo
Prepare Texinfo for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Note
As part of the configure process, a test is made that indicates an error for TestXS_la-TestXS.lo. This is not
relevant for LFS and should be ignored.
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Texinfo test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.68.2, “Contents of Texinfo.”
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5.34. Util-linux-2.30.1
The Util-linux package contains miscellaneous utility programs.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.8 SBU
123 MB
5.34.1. Installation of Util-linux
Prepare Util-linux for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
--without-python
--disable-makeinstall-chown
--without-systemdsystemunitdir
--without-ncurses
PKG_CONFIG=""
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure option:
--without-python
This switch disables using Python if it is installed on the host system. It avoids trying to build unneeded bindings.
--disable-makeinstall-chown
This switch disables using the chown command during installation. This is not needed when installing into the /
tools directory and avoids the necessity of installing as root.
--without-ncurses
This switch disables using the ncurses library for the build process. This is not needed when installing into the /
tools directory and avoids problems on some host distros.
--without-systemdsystemunitdir
On systems that use systemd, the package tries to install a systemd specific file to a non-existent directory in /
tools. This switch disables the unnecessary action.
PKG_CONFIG=""
Setting this environment variable prevents adding unneeded features that may be available on the host. Note that
the location shown for setting this environment variable is different from other LFS sections where variables are
set preceding the command. This location is shown to demonstrate an alternative way of setting an environment
variable when using configure.
Compile the package:
make
Install the package:
make install
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5.35. Xz-5.2.3
The Xz package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. It provides capabilities for the lzma and
the newer xz compression formats. Compressing text files with xz yields a better compression percentage than with
the traditional gzip or bzip2 commands.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
17 MB
5.35.1. Installation of Xz
Prepare Xz for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools
Compile the package:
make
Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here
in this chapter. To run the Xz test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Details on this package are located in Section 6.45.2, “Contents of Xz.”
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5.36. Stripping
The steps in this section are optional, but if the LFS partition is rather small, it is beneficial to learn that unnecessary
items can be removed. The executables and libraries built so far contain about 70 MB of unneeded debugging symbols.
Remove those symbols with:
strip --strip-debug /tools/lib/*
/usr/bin/strip --strip-unneeded /tools/{,s}bin/*
These commands will skip a number of files, reporting that it does not recognize their file format. Most of these are
scripts instead of binaries. Also use the system strip command to include the strip binary in /tools.
Take care not to use --strip-unneeded on the libraries. The static ones would be destroyed and the toolchain
packages would need to be built all over again.
To save more, remove the documentation:
rm -rf /tools/{,share}/{info,man,doc}
At this point, you should have at least 3 GB of free space in $LFS that can be used to build and install Glibc and Gcc
in the next phase. If you can build and install Glibc, you can build and install the rest too.
5.37. Changing Ownership
Note
The commands in the remainder of this book must be performed while logged in as user root and no longer
as user lfs. Also, double check that $LFS is set in root's environment.
Currently, the $LFS/tools directory is owned by the user lfs, a user that exists only on the host system. If the $LFS/
tools directory is kept as is, the files are owned by a user ID without a corresponding account. This is dangerous
because a user account created later could get this same user ID and would own the $LFS/tools directory and all
the files therein, thus exposing these files to possible malicious manipulation.
To avoid this issue, you could add the lfs user to the new LFS system later when creating the /etc/passwd file,
taking care to assign it the same user and group IDs as on the host system. Better yet, change the ownership of the
$LFS/tools directory to user root by running the following command:
chown -R root:root $LFS/tools
Although the $LFS/tools directory can be deleted once the LFS system has been finished, it can be retained to build
additional LFS systems of the same book version. How best to backup $LFS/tools is a matter of personal preference.
Caution
If you intend to keep the temporary tools for use in building future LFS systems, now is the time to back
them up. Subsequent commands in chapter 6 will alter the tools currently in place, rendering them useless
for future builds.
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Part III. Building the LFS System
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Chapter 6. Installing Basic System Software
6.1. Introduction
In this chapter, we enter the building site and start constructing the LFS system in earnest. That is, we chroot into the
temporary mini Linux system, make a few final preparations, and then begin installing the packages.
The installation of this software is straightforward. Although in many cases the installation instructions could be made
shorter and more generic, we have opted to provide the full instructions for every package to minimize the possibilities
for mistakes. The key to learning what makes a Linux system work is to know what each package is used for and why
you (or the system) may need it.
We do not recommend using optimizations. They can make a program run slightly faster, but they may also cause
compilation difficulties and problems when running the program. If a package refuses to compile when using
optimization, try to compile it without optimization and see if that fixes the problem. Even if the package does compile
when using optimization, there is the risk it may have been compiled incorrectly because of the complex interactions
between the code and build tools. Also note that the -march and -mtune options using values not specified in the
book have not been tested. This may cause problems with the toolchain packages (Binutils, GCC and Glibc). The small
potential gains achieved in using compiler optimizations are often outweighed by the risks. First-time builders of LFS
are encouraged to build without custom optimizations. The subsequent system will still run very fast and be stable at
the same time.
The order that packages are installed in this chapter needs to be strictly followed to ensure that no program accidentally
acquires a path referring to /tools hard-wired into it. For the same reason, do not compile separate packages in
parallel. Compiling in parallel may save time (especially on dual-CPU machines), but it could result in a program
containing a hard-wired path to /tools, which will cause the program to stop working when that directory is removed.
Before the installation instructions, each installation page provides information about the package, including a concise
description of what it contains, approximately how long it will take to build, and how much disk space is required
during this building process. Following the installation instructions, there is a list of programs and libraries (along with
brief descriptions of these) that the package installs.
Note
The SBU values and required disk space includes test suite data for all applicable packages in Chapter 6.
6.1.1. About libraries
In general, the LFS editors discourage building and installing static libraries. The original purpose for most static
libraries has been made obsolete in a modern Linux system. In addition linking a static library into a program can be
detrimental. If an update to the library is needed to remove a security problem, all programs that use the static library
will need to be relinked to the new library. Since the use of static libraries is not always obvious, the relevant programs
(and the procedures needed to do the linking) may not even be known.
In the procedures in Chapter 6, we remove or disable installation of most static libraries. In a few cases, especially glibc
and gcc, the use of static libraries remains essential to the general package building process. Usually this is done by
passing a --disable-static option to configure. In other cases, alternate means are needed.
For a more complete discussion of libraries, see the discussion Libraries: Static or shared? in the BLFS book.
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6.2. Preparing Virtual Kernel File Systems
Various file systems exported by the kernel are used to communicate to and from the kernel itself. These file systems
are virtual in that no disk space is used for them. The content of the file systems resides in memory.
Begin by creating directories onto which the file systems will be mounted:
mkdir -pv $LFS/{dev,proc,sys,run}
6.2.1. Creating Initial Device Nodes
When the kernel boots the system, it requires the presence of a few device nodes, in particular the console and null
devices. The device nodes must be created on the hard disk so that they are available before udevd has been started, and
additionally when Linux is started with init=/bin/bash. Create the devices by running the following commands:
mknod -m 600 $LFS/dev/console c 5 1
mknod -m 666 $LFS/dev/null c 1 3
6.2.2. Mounting and Populating /dev
The recommended method of populating the /dev directory with devices is to mount a virtual filesystem (such as
tmpfs) on the /dev directory, and allow the devices to be created dynamically on that virtual filesystem as they are
detected or accessed. Device creation is generally done during the boot process by Udev. Since this new system does not
yet have Udev and has not yet been booted, it is necessary to mount and populate /dev manually. This is accomplished
by bind mounting the host system's /dev directory. A bind mount is a special type of mount that allows you to create
a mirror of a directory or mount point to some other location. Use the following command to achieve this:
mount -v --bind /dev $LFS/dev
6.2.3. Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems
Now mount the remaining virtual kernel filesystems:
mount
mount
mount
mount
-vt
-vt
-vt
-vt
devpts devpts $LFS/dev/pts -o gid=5,mode=620
proc proc $LFS/proc
sysfs sysfs $LFS/sys
tmpfs tmpfs $LFS/run
The meaning of the mount options for devpts:
gid=5
This ensures that all devpts-created device nodes are owned by group ID 5. This is the ID we will use later on
for the tty group. We use the group ID instead of a name, since the host system might use a different ID for
its tty group.
mode=0620
This ensures that all devpts-created device nodes have mode 0620 (user readable and writable, group writable).
Together with the option above, this ensures that devpts will create device nodes that meet the requirements of
grantpt(), meaning the Glibc pt_chown helper binary (which is not installed by default) is not necessary.
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In some host systems, /dev/shm is a symbolic link to /run/shm. The /run tmpfs was mounted above so in this case
only a directory needs to be created.
if [ -h $LFS/dev/shm ]; then
mkdir -pv $LFS/$(readlink $LFS/dev/shm)
fi
6.3. Package Management
Package Management is an often requested addition to the LFS Book. A Package Manager allows tracking the
installation of files making it easy to remove and upgrade packages. As well as the binary and library files, a package
manager will handle the installation of configuration files. Before you begin to wonder, NO—this section will not talk
about nor recommend any particular package manager. What it provides is a roundup of the more popular techniques
and how they work. The perfect package manager for you may be among these techniques or may be a combination of
two or more of these techniques. This section briefly mentions issues that may arise when upgrading packages.
Some reasons why no package manager is mentioned in LFS or BLFS include:
• Dealing with package management takes the focus away from the goals of these books—teaching how a Linux
system is built.
• There are multiple solutions for package management, each having its strengths and drawbacks. Including one that
satisfies all audiences is difficult.
There are some hints written on the topic of package management. Visit the Hints Project and see if one of them fits
your need.
6.3.1. Upgrade Issues
A Package Manager makes it easy to upgrade to newer versions when they are released. Generally the instructions in
the LFS and BLFS Book can be used to upgrade to the newer versions. Here are some points that you should be aware
of when upgrading packages, especially on a running system.
• If Glibc needs to be upgraded to a newer version, (e.g. from glibc-2.19 to glibc-2.20, it is safer to rebuild LFS.
Though you may be able to rebuild all the packages in their dependency order, we do not recommend it.
• If a package containing a shared library is updated, and if the name of the library changes, then all the packages
dynamically linked to the library need to be recompiled to link against the newer library. (Note that there is no
correlation between the package version and the name of the library.) For example, consider a package foo-1.2.3
that installs a shared library with name libfoo.so.1. Say you upgrade the package to a newer version foo-1.2.4
that installs a shared library with name libfoo.so.2. In this case, all packages that are dynamically linked
to libfoo.so.1 need to be recompiled to link against libfoo.so.2. Note that you should not remove the
previous libraries until the dependent packages are recompiled.
6.3.2. Package Management Techniques
The following are some common package management techniques. Before making a decision on a package manager,
do some research on the various techniques, particularly the drawbacks of the particular scheme.
6.3.2.1. It is All in My Head!
Yes, this is a package management technique. Some folks do not find the need for a package manager because they
know the packages intimately and know what files are installed by each package. Some users also do not need any
package management because they plan on rebuilding the entire system when a package is changed.
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6.3.2.2. Install in Separate Directories
This is a simplistic package management that does not need any extra package to manage the installations. Each package
is installed in a separate directory. For example, package foo-1.1 is installed in /usr/pkg/foo-1.1 and a symlink
is made from /usr/pkg/foo to /usr/pkg/foo-1.1. When installing a new version foo-1.2, it is installed in /
usr/pkg/foo-1.2 and the previous symlink is replaced by a symlink to the new version.
Environment variables such as PATH, LD_LIBRARY_PATH, MANPATH, INFOPATH and CPPFLAGS need to be
expanded to include /usr/pkg/foo. For more than a few packages, this scheme becomes unmanageable.
6.3.2.3. Symlink Style Package Management
This is a variation of the previous package management technique. Each package is installed similar to the previous
scheme. But instead of making the symlink, each file is symlinked into the /usr hierarchy. This removes the need
to expand the environment variables. Though the symlinks can be created by the user to automate the creation, many
package managers have been written using this approach. A few of the popular ones include Stow, Epkg, Graft, and
Depot.
The installation needs to be faked, so that the package thinks that it is installed in /usr though in reality it is installed
in the /usr/pkg hierarchy. Installing in this manner is not usually a trivial task. For example, consider that you are
installing a package libfoo-1.1. The following instructions may not install the package properly:
./configure --prefix=/usr/pkg/libfoo/1.1
make
make install
The installation will work, but the dependent packages may not link to libfoo as you would expect. If you compile a
package that links against libfoo, you may notice that it is linked to /usr/pkg/libfoo/1.1/lib/libfoo.so.
1 instead of /usr/lib/libfoo.so.1 as you would expect. The correct approach is to use the DESTDIR strategy
to fake installation of the package. This approach works as follows:
./configure --prefix=/usr
make
make DESTDIR=/usr/pkg/libfoo/1.1 install
Most packages support this approach, but there are some which do not. For the non-compliant packages, you may either
need to manually install the package, or you may find that it is easier to install some problematic packages into /opt.
6.3.2.4. Timestamp Based
In this technique, a file is timestamped before the installation of the package. After the installation, a simple use of
the find command with the appropriate options can generate a log of all the files installed after the timestamp file was
created. A package manager written with this approach is install-log.
Though this scheme has the advantage of being simple, it has two drawbacks. If, during installation, the files are installed
with any timestamp other than the current time, those files will not be tracked by the package manager. Also, this
scheme can only be used when one package is installed at a time. The logs are not reliable if two packages are being
installed on two different consoles.
6.3.2.5. Tracing Installation Scripts
In this approach, the commands that the installation scripts perform are recorded. There are two techniques that one
can use:
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The LD_PRELOAD environment variable can be set to point to a library to be preloaded before installation. During
installation, this library tracks the packages that are being installed by attaching itself to various executables such as
cp, install, mv and tracking the system calls that modify the filesystem. For this approach to work, all the executables
need to be dynamically linked without the suid or sgid bit. Preloading the library may cause some unwanted side-effects
during installation. Therefore, it is advised that one performs some tests to ensure that the package manager does not
break anything and logs all the appropriate files.
The second technique is to use strace, which logs all system calls made during the execution of the installation scripts.
6.3.2.6. Creating Package Archives
In this scheme, the package installation is faked into a separate tree as described in the Symlink style package
management. After the installation, a package archive is created using the installed files. This archive is then used to
install the package either on the local machine or can even be used to install the package on other machines.
This approach is used by most of the package managers found in the commercial distributions. Examples of package
managers that follow this approach are RPM (which, incidentally, is required by the Linux Standard Base Specification),
pkg-utils, Debian's apt, and Gentoo's Portage system. A hint describing how to adopt this style of package management
for LFS systems is located at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/fakeroot.txt.
Creation of package files that include dependency information is complex and is beyond the scope of LFS.
Slackware uses a tar based system for package archives. This system purposely does not handle package dependencies
as more complex package managers do. For details of Slackware package management, see http://www.slackbook.org/
html/package-management.html.
6.3.2.7. User Based Management
This scheme, unique to LFS, was devised by Matthias Benkmann, and is available from the Hints Project. In this
scheme, each package is installed as a separate user into the standard locations. Files belonging to a package are easily
identified by checking the user ID. The features and shortcomings of this approach are too complex to describe in
this section. For the details please see the hint at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/more_control_
and_pkg_man.txt.
6.3.3. Deploying LFS on Multiple Systems
One of the advantages of an LFS system is that there are no files that depend on the position of files on a disk system.
Cloning an LFS build to another computer with the same architecture as the base system is as simple as using tar on
the LFS partition that contains the root directory (about 250MB uncompressed for a base LFS build), copying that file
via network transfer or CD-ROM to the new system and expanding it. From that point, a few configuration files will
have to be changed. Configuration files that may need to be updated include: /etc/hosts, /etc/fstab, /etc/
passwd, /etc/group, /etc/shadow, and /etc/ld.so.conf.
A custom kernel may need to be built for the new system depending on differences in system hardware and the original
kernel configuration.
Note
There have been some reports of issues when copying between similar but not identical architectures. For
instance, the instruction set for an Intel system is not identical with an AMD processor and later versions of
some processors may have instructions that are unavailable in earlier versions.
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Finally the new system has to be made bootable via Section 8.4, “Using GRUB to Set Up the Boot Process”.
6.4. Entering the Chroot Environment
It is time to enter the chroot environment to begin building and installing the final LFS system. As user root, run the
following command to enter the realm that is, at the moment, populated with only the temporary tools:
chroot "$LFS" /tools/bin/env -i \
HOME=/root
\
TERM="$TERM"
\
PS1='\u:\w\$ '
\
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/tools/bin \
/tools/bin/bash --login +h
The -i option given to the env command will clear all variables of the chroot environment. After that, only the HOME,
TERM, PS1, and PATH variables are set again. The TERM=$TERM construct will set the TERM variable inside chroot
to the same value as outside chroot. This variable is needed for programs like vim and less to operate properly. If other
variables are needed, such as CFLAGS or CXXFLAGS, this is a good place to set them again.
From this point on, there is no need to use the LFS variable anymore, because all work will be restricted to the LFS
file system. This is because the Bash shell is told that $LFS is now the root (/) directory.
Notice that /tools/bin comes last in the PATH. This means that a temporary tool will no longer be used once its
final version is installed. This occurs when the shell does not “remember” the locations of executed binaries—for this
reason, hashing is switched off by passing the +h option to bash.
Note that the bash prompt will say I have no name! This is normal because the /etc/passwd file has not
been created yet.
Note
It is important that all the commands throughout the remainder of this chapter and the following chapters
are run from within the chroot environment. If you leave this environment for any reason (rebooting for
example), ensure that the virtual kernel filesystems are mounted as explained in Section 6.2.2, “Mounting and
Populating /dev” and Section 6.2.3, “Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems” and enter chroot again before
continuing with the installation.
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6.5. Creating Directories
It is time to create some structure in the LFS file system. Create a standard directory tree by issuing the following
commands:
mkdir -pv /{bin,boot,etc/{opt,sysconfig},home,lib/firmware,mnt,opt}
mkdir -pv /{media/{floppy,cdrom},sbin,srv,var}
install -dv -m 0750 /root
install -dv -m 1777 /tmp /var/tmp
mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}{bin,include,lib,sbin,src}
mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}share/{color,dict,doc,info,locale,man}
mkdir -v /usr/{,local/}share/{misc,terminfo,zoneinfo}
mkdir -v /usr/libexec
mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}share/man/man{1..8}
case $(uname -m) in
x86_64) mkdir -v /lib64 ;;
esac
mkdir -v /var/{log,mail,spool}
ln -sv /run /var/run
ln -sv /run/lock /var/lock
mkdir -pv /var/{opt,cache,lib/{color,misc,locate},local}
Directories are, by default, created with permission mode 755, but this is not desirable for all directories. In the
commands above, two changes are made—one to the home directory of user root, and another to the directories for
temporary files.
The first mode change ensures that not just anybody can enter the /root directory—the same as a normal user would
do with his or her home directory. The second mode change makes sure that any user can write to the /tmp and /var/
tmp directories, but cannot remove another user's files from them. The latter is prohibited by the so-called “sticky bit,”
the highest bit (1) in the 1777 bit mask.
6.5.1. FHS Compliance Note
The directory tree is based on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) (available at https://wiki.linuxfoundation.org/
en/FHS). The FHS also specifies the optional existence of some directories such as /usr/local/games and /usr/
share/games. We create only the directories that are needed. However, feel free to create these directories.
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6.6. Creating Essential Files and Symlinks
Some programs use hard-wired paths to programs which do not exist yet. In order to satisfy these programs, create a
number of symbolic links which will be replaced by real files throughout the course of this chapter after the software
has been installed:
ln -sv /tools/bin/{bash,cat,dd,echo,ln,pwd,rm,stty} /bin
ln -sv /tools/bin/{install,perl} /usr/bin
ln -sv /tools/lib/libgcc_s.so{,.1} /usr/lib
ln -sv /tools/lib/libstdc++.{a,so{,.6}} /usr/lib
sed 's/tools/usr/' /tools/lib/libstdc++.la > /usr/lib/libstdc++.la
for lib in blkid lzma mount uuid
do
ln -sv /tools/lib/lib$lib.{a,so*} /usr/lib
sed 's/tools/usr/' /tools/lib/lib${lib}.la > /usr/lib/lib${lib}.la
done
ln -sv bash /bin/sh
The purpose of each link:
/bin/bash
Many bash scripts specify /bin/bash.
/bin/cat
This pathname is hard-coded into Glibc's configure script.
/bin/dd
The path to dd will be hard-coded into the /usr/bin/libtool utility.
/bin/echo
This is to satisfy one of the tests in Glibc's test suite, which expects /bin/echo.
/usr/bin/install
The path to install will be hard-coded into the /usr/lib/bash/Makefile.inc file.
/bin/ln
The path to ln will be hard-coded into the /usr/lib/perl5/5.26.0/<target-triplet>/Config_
heavy.pl file.
/bin/pwd
Some configure scripts, particularly Glibc's, have this pathname hard-coded.
/bin/rm
The path to rm will be hard-coded into the /usr/lib/perl5/5.26.0/<target-triplet>/Config_
heavy.pl file.
/bin/stty
This pathname is hard-coded into Expect, therefore it is needed for Binutils and GCC test suites to pass.
/usr/bin/perl
Many Perl scripts hard-code this path to the perl program.
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/usr/lib/libgcc_s.so{,.1}
Glibc needs this for the pthreads library to work.
/usr/lib/libstdc++{,.6}
This is needed by several tests in Glibc's test suite, as well as for C++ support in GMP.
/usr/lib/libstdc++.la
This prevents a /tools reference that would otherwise be in /usr/lib/libstdc++.la after GCC is
installed.
/usr/lib/lib{blkid,lzma,mount,uuid}.{a,la,so*}
These links prevent systemd utilities from acquiring an unnecessary reference to the /tools directory.
/bin/sh
Many shell scripts hard-code /bin/sh.
Historically, Linux maintains a list of the mounted file systems in the file /etc/mtab. Modern kernels maintain this
list internally and exposes it to the user via the /proc filesystem. To satisfy utilities that expect the presence of /
etc/mtab, create the following symbolic link:
ln -sv /proc/self/mounts /etc/mtab
In order for user root to be able to login and for the name “root” to be recognized, there must be relevant entries in
the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files.
Create the /etc/passwd file by running the following command:
cat > /etc/passwd << "EOF"
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
bin:x:1:1:bin:/dev/null:/bin/false
daemon:x:6:6:Daemon User:/dev/null:/bin/false
messagebus:x:18:18:D-Bus Message Daemon User:/var/run/dbus:/bin/false
systemd-bus-proxy:x:72:72:systemd Bus Proxy:/:/bin/false
systemd-journal-gateway:x:73:73:systemd Journal Gateway:/:/bin/false
systemd-journal-remote:x:74:74:systemd Journal Remote:/:/bin/false
systemd-journal-upload:x:75:75:systemd Journal Upload:/:/bin/false
systemd-network:x:76:76:systemd Network Management:/:/bin/false
systemd-resolve:x:77:77:systemd Resolver:/:/bin/false
systemd-timesync:x:78:78:systemd Time Synchronization:/:/bin/false
systemd-coredump:x:79:79:systemd Core Dumper:/:/bin/false
nobody:x:99:99:Unprivileged User:/dev/null:/bin/false
EOF
The actual password for root (the “x” used here is just a placeholder) will be set later.
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Create the /etc/group file by running the following command:
cat > /etc/group << "EOF"
root:x:0:
bin:x:1:daemon
sys:x:2:
kmem:x:3:
tape:x:4:
tty:x:5:
daemon:x:6:
floppy:x:7:
disk:x:8:
lp:x:9:
dialout:x:10:
audio:x:11:
video:x:12:
utmp:x:13:
usb:x:14:
cdrom:x:15:
adm:x:16:
messagebus:x:18:
systemd-journal:x:23:
input:x:24:
mail:x:34:
systemd-bus-proxy:x:72:
systemd-journal-gateway:x:73:
systemd-journal-remote:x:74:
systemd-journal-upload:x:75:
systemd-network:x:76:
systemd-resolve:x:77:
systemd-timesync:x:78:
systemd-coredump:x:79:
nogroup:x:99:
users:x:999:
EOF
The created groups are not part of any standard—they are groups decided on in part by the requirements of the Udev
configuration in this chapter, and in part by common convention employed by a number of existing Linux distributions.
In addition, some test suites rely on specific users or groups. The Linux Standard Base (LSB, available at http://www.
linuxbase.org) recommends only that, besides the group root with a Group ID (GID) of 0, a group bin with a GID
of 1 be present. All other group names and GIDs can be chosen freely by the system administrator since well-written
programs do not depend on GID numbers, but rather use the group's name.
To remove the “I have no name!” prompt, start a new shell. Since a full Glibc was installed in Chapter 5 and the /
etc/passwd and /etc/group files have been created, user name and group name resolution will now work:
exec /tools/bin/bash --login +h
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Note the use of the +h directive. This tells bash not to use its internal path hashing. Without this directive, bash would
remember the paths to binaries it has executed. To ensure the use of the newly compiled binaries as soon as they are
installed, the +h directive will be used for the duration of this chapter.
The login, agetty, and init programs (and others) use a number of log files to record information such as who was
logged into the system and when. However, these programs will not write to the log files if they do not already exist.
Initialize the log files and give them proper permissions:
touch
chgrp
chmod
chmod
/var/log/{btmp,lastlog,faillog,wtmp}
-v utmp /var/log/lastlog
-v 664 /var/log/lastlog
-v 600 /var/log/btmp
The /var/log/wtmp file records all logins and logouts. The /var/log/lastlog file records when each user
last logged in. The /var/log/faillog file records failed login attempts. The /var/log/btmp file records the
bad login attempts.
Note
The /run/utmp file records the users that are currently logged in. This file is created dynamically in the
boot scripts.
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6.7. Linux-4.12.7 API Headers
The Linux API Headers (in linux-4.12.7.tar.xz) expose the kernel's API for use by Glibc.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
865 MB
6.7.1. Installation of Linux API Headers
The Linux kernel needs to expose an Application Programming Interface (API) for the system's C library (Glibc in
LFS) to use. This is done by way of sanitizing various C header files that are shipped in the Linux kernel source tarball.
Make sure there are no stale files and dependencies lying around from previous activity:
make mrproper
Now extract the user-visible kernel headers from the source. They are placed in an intermediate local directory and
copied to the needed location because the extraction process removes any existing files in the target directory. There
are also some hidden files used by the kernel developers and not needed by LFS that are removed from the intermediate
directory.
make INSTALL_HDR_PATH=dest headers_install
find dest/include \( -name .install -o -name ..install.cmd \) -delete
cp -rv dest/include/* /usr/include
6.7.2. Contents of Linux API Headers
Installed headers:
Installed directories:
/usr/include/asm/*.h, /usr/include/asm-generic/*.h, /usr/include/drm/*.h, /usr/include/
linux/*.h, /usr/include/misc/*.h, /usr/include/mtd/*.h, /usr/include/rdma/*.h, /usr/
include/scsi/*.h, /usr/include/sound/*.h, /usr/include/video/*.h, and /usr/include/xen/*.h
/usr/include/asm, /usr/include/asm-generic, /usr/include/drm, /usr/include/linux, /usr/
include/misc, /usr/include/mtd, /usr/include/rdma, /usr/include/scsi, /usr/include/sound, /
usr/include/video, and /usr/include/xen
Short Descriptions
/usr/include/asm/*.h
The Linux API ASM Headers
/usr/include/asm-generic/*.h
The Linux API ASM Generic Headers
/usr/include/drm/*.h
The Linux API DRM Headers
/usr/include/linux/*.h
The Linux API Linux Headers
/usr/include/mtd/*.h
The Linux API MTD Headers
/usr/include/rdma/*.h
The Linux API RDMA Headers
/usr/include/scsi/*.h
The Linux API SCSI Headers
/usr/include/sound/*.h
The Linux API Sound Headers
/usr/include/video/*.h
The Linux API Video Headers
/usr/include/xen/*.h
The Linux API Xen Headers
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6.8. Man-pages-4.12
The Man-pages package contains over 2,200 man pages.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
27 MB
6.8.1. Installation of Man-pages
Install Man-pages by running:
make install
6.8.2. Contents of Man-pages
Installed files:
various man pages
Short Descriptions
man pages
Describe C programming language functions, important device files, and significant configuration files
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6.9. Glibc-2.26
The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides the basic routines for allocating memory, searching
directories, opening and closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching, arithmetic, and so on.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
20 SBU
2.0 GB
6.9.1. Installation of Glibc
Note
The Glibc build system is self-contained and will install perfectly, even though the compiler specs file and
linker are still pointing to /tools. The specs and linker cannot be adjusted before the Glibc install because
the Glibc autoconf tests would give false results and defeat the goal of achieving a clean build.
Some of the Glibc programs use non-FHS compilant /var/db directory to store their runtime data. Apply the
following patch to make such programs store their runtime data in the FHS-compliant locations:
patch -Np1 -i ../glibc-2.26-fhs-1.patch
First create a compatibility symlink to avoid references to /tools in our final glibc:
ln -sfv /tools/lib/gcc /usr/lib
Determine the GCC include directory and create a symlink for LSB compliance. Additionally, for x86_64, create a
compatibility symlink required for the dynamic loader to function correctly:
case $(uname -m) in
i?86)
GCC_INCDIR=/usr/lib/gcc/$(uname -m)-pc-linux-gnu/7.2.0/include
ln -sfv ld-linux.so.2 /lib/ld-lsb.so.3
;;
x86_64) GCC_INCDIR=/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/7.2.0/include
ln -sfv ../lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib64
ln -sfv ../lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib64/ld-lsb-x86-64.so.3
;;
esac
Remove a file that may be left over from a previous build attempt:
rm -f /usr/include/limits.h
The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
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Prepare Glibc for compilation:
CC="gcc -isystem $GCC_INCDIR -isystem /usr/include"
../configure --prefix=/usr
--disable-werror
--enable-kernel=3.2
--enable-stack-protector=strong
libc_cv_slibdir=/lib
unset GCC_INCDIR
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the options and new configure parameters:
CC="gcc -isystem $GCC_INCDIR -isystem /usr/include"
Setting the location of both gcc and system include directories avoids introduction of invalid paths in debugging
symbols.
--disable-werror
This option disables the -Werror option passed to GCC. This is necessary for running the test suite.
--enable-stack-protector=strong
This option increases system security by adding a known canary (a random integer) to the stack during a function
preamble, and checks it when the function returns. If it changed, there was a stack overflow, and the program aborts.
libc_cv_slibdir=/lib
This variable sets the correct library for all systems. We do not want lib64 to be used.
Compile the package:
make
Important
In this section, the test suite for Glibc is considered critical. Do not skip it under any circumstance.
Generally a few tests do not pass, but you can generally ignore any of the test failures listed below. Now test the build
results:
make check
You may see some test failures. The Glibc test suite is somewhat dependent on the host system. This is a list of the
most common issues seen for some versions of LFS:
• posix/tst-getaddrinfo4 and posix/tst-getaddrinfo5 may fail on some architectures.
• The rt/tst-cputimer1 and rt/tst-cpuclock2 tests have been known to fail. The reason is not completely understood,
but indications are that minor timing issues can trigger these failures.
• The math tests sometimes fail when running on systems where the CPU is not a relatively new Intel or AMD
processor.
• The nptl/tst-thread-affinity-{pthread,pthread2,sched} tests may fail for reasons that have not been determined.
• Other tests known to fail on some architectures are malloc/tst-malloc-usable and nptl/tst-cleanupx4.
Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will complain about the absence of /etc/ld.so.conf.
Prevent this warning with:
touch /etc/ld.so.conf
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Fix the generated Makefile to skip an uneeded sanity check that fails in the LFS partial environment:
sed '/test-installation/s@$(PERL)@echo not running@' -i ../Makefile
Install the package:
make install
Install the configuration file and runtime directory for nscd:
cp -v ../nscd/nscd.conf /etc/nscd.conf
mkdir -pv /var/cache/nscd
Install the systemd support files for nscd:
install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.tmpfiles /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/nscd.conf
install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.service /lib/systemd/system/nscd.service
Next, install the locales that can make the system respond in a different language. None of the locales are required, but
if some of them are missing, the test suites of future packages would skip important testcases.
Individual locales can be installed using the localedef program. E.g., the first localedef command below combines
the /usr/share/i18n/locales/cs_CZ charset-independent locale definition with the /usr/share/i18n/
charmaps/UTF-8.gz charmap definition and appends the result to the /usr/lib/locale/localearchive file. The following instructions will install the minimum set of locales necessary for the optimal coverage
of tests:
mkdir -pv
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
localedef
/usr/lib/locale
-i cs_CZ -f UTF-8 cs_CZ.UTF-8
-i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
-i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
-i de_DE -f UTF-8 de_DE.UTF-8
-i en_GB -f UTF-8 en_GB.UTF-8
-i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
-i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
-i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
-i en_US -f UTF-8 en_US.UTF-8
-i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
-i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
-i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
-i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
-i fr_FR -f UTF-8 fr_FR.UTF-8
-i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
-i it_IT -f UTF-8 it_IT.UTF-8
-i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP
-i ru_RU -f KOI8-R ru_RU.KOI8-R
-i ru_RU -f UTF-8 ru_RU.UTF-8
-i tr_TR -f UTF-8 tr_TR.UTF-8
-i zh_CN -f GB18030 zh_CN.GB18030
In addition, install the locale for your own country, language and character set.
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Alternatively, install all locales listed in the glibc-2.26/localedata/SUPPORTED file (it includes every locale
listed above and many more) at once with the following time-consuming command:
make localedata/install-locales
Then use the localedef command to create and install locales not listed in the glibc-2.26/localedata/
SUPPORTED file in the unlikely case you need them.
6.9.2. Configuring Glibc
6.9.2.1. Adding nsswitch.conf
The /etc/nsswitch.conf file needs to be created because the Glibc defaults do not work well in a networked
environment.
Create a new file /etc/nsswitch.conf by running the following:
cat > /etc/nsswitch.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf
passwd: files
group: files
shadow: files
hosts: files dns
networks: files
protocols: files
services: files
ethers: files
rpc: files
# End /etc/nsswitch.conf
EOF
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6.9.2.2. Adding time zone data
Install and set up the time zone data with the following:
tar -xf ../../tzdata2017b.tar.gz
ZONEINFO=/usr/share/zoneinfo
mkdir -pv $ZONEINFO/{posix,right}
for tz in etcetera southamerica northamerica europe africa antarctica
asia australasia backward pacificnew systemv; do
zic -L /dev/null
-d $ZONEINFO
-y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
zic -L /dev/null
-d $ZONEINFO/posix -y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
zic -L leapseconds -d $ZONEINFO/right -y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
done
\
cp -v zone.tab zone1970.tab iso3166.tab $ZONEINFO
zic -d $ZONEINFO -p America/New_York
unset ZONEINFO
The meaning of the zic commands:
zic -L /dev/null ...
This creates posix time zones, without any leap seconds. It is conventional to put these in both zoneinfo and
zoneinfo/posix. It is necessary to put the POSIX time zones in zoneinfo, otherwise various test-suites
will report errors. On an embedded system, where space is tight and you do not intend to ever update the time
zones, you could save 1.9MB by not using the posix directory, but some applications or test-suites might produce
some failures.
zic -L leapseconds ...
This creates right time zones, including leap seconds. On an embedded system, where space is tight and you do
not intend to ever update the time zones, or care about the correct time, you could save 1.9MB by omitting the
right directory.
zic ... -p ...
This creates the posixrules file. We use New York because POSIX requires the daylight savings time rules
to be in accordance with US rules.
One way to determine the local time zone is to run the following script:
tzselect
After answering a few questions about the location, the script will output the name of the time zone (e.g., America/
Edmonton). There are also some other possible time zones listed in /usr/share/zoneinfo such as Canada/
Eastern or EST5EDT that are not identified by the script but can be used.
Then create the /etc/localtime file by running:
ln -sfv /usr/share/zoneinfo/<xxx> /etc/localtime
Replace <xxx> with the name of the time zone selected (e.g., Canada/Eastern).
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6.9.2.3. Configuring the Dynamic Loader
By default, the dynamic loader (/lib/ld-linux.so.2) searches through /lib and /usr/lib for dynamic
libraries that are needed by programs as they are run. However, if there are libraries in directories other than /lib
and /usr/lib, these need to be added to the /etc/ld.so.conf file in order for the dynamic loader to find them.
Two directories that are commonly known to contain additional libraries are /usr/local/lib and /opt/lib, so
add those directories to the dynamic loader's search path.
Create a new file /etc/ld.so.conf by running the following:
cat > /etc/ld.so.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/ld.so.conf
/usr/local/lib
/opt/lib
EOF
If desired, the dynamic loader can also search a directory and include the contents of files found there. Generally the
files in this include directory are one line specifying the desired library path. To add this capability run the following
commands:
cat >> /etc/ld.so.conf << "EOF"
# Add an include directory
include /etc/ld.so.conf.d/*.conf
EOF
mkdir -pv /etc/ld.so.conf.d
6.9.3. Contents of Glibc
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
catchsegv, gencat, getconf, getent, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig, ldd, lddlibc4, locale,
localedef, makedb, mtrace, nscd, pldd, sln, sotruss, sprof, tzselect, xtrace, zdump, and zic
ld-2.26.so, libBrokenLocale.{a,so}, libSegFault.so, libanl.{a,so}, libc.{a,so},
libc_nonshared.a, libcidn.so, libcrypt.{a,so}, libdl.{a,so}, libg.a, libieee.a, libm.
{a,so}, libmcheck.a, libmemusage.so, libnsl.{a,so}, libnss_compat.so, libnss_dns.so,
libnss_files.so, libnss_hesiod.so, libnss_nis.so, libnss_nisplus.so, libpthread.{a,so},
libpthread_nonshared.a, libresolv.{a,so}, librpcsvc.a, librt.{a,so}, libthread_db.so, and
libutil.{a,so}
/usr/include/arpa, /usr/include/bits, /usr/include/gnu, /usr/include/net, /usr/include/
netash, /usr/include/netatalk, /usr/include/netax25, /usr/include/neteconet, /usr/include/
netinet, /usr/include/netipx, /usr/include/netiucv, /usr/include/netpacket, /usr/include/
netrom, /usr/include/netrose, /usr/include/nfs, /usr/include/protocols, /usr/include/rpc, /
usr/include/rpcsvc, /usr/include/sys, /usr/lib/audit, /usr/lib/gconv, /usr/lib/locale, /usr/
libexec/getconf, /usr/share/i18n, /usr/share/zoneinfo, /var/cache/nscd, and /var/lib/
nss_db
Short Descriptions
catchsegv
Can be used to create a stack trace when a program terminates with a segmentation fault
gencat
Generates message catalogues
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getconf
Displays the system configuration values for file system specific variables
getent
Gets entries from an administrative database
iconv
Performs character set conversion
iconvconfig
Creates fastloading iconv module configuration files
ldconfig
Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings
ldd
Reports which shared libraries are required by each given program or shared library
lddlibc4
Assists ldd with object files
locale
Prints various information about the current locale
localedef
Compiles locale specifications
makedb
Creates a simple database from textual input
mtrace
Reads and interprets a memory trace file and displays a summary in human-readable format
nscd
A daemon that provides a cache for the most common name service requests
pldd
Lists dynamic shared objects used by running processes
sln
A statically linked ln program
sotruss
Traces shared library procedure calls of a specified command
sprof
Reads and displays shared object profiling data
tzselect
Asks the user about the location of the system and reports the corresponding time zone
description
xtrace
Traces the execution of a program by printing the currently executed function
zdump
The time zone dumper
zic
The time zone compiler
ld-2.26.so
The helper program for shared library executables
libBrokenLocale Used internally by Glibc as a gross hack to get broken programs (e.g., some Motif
applications) running. See comments in glibc-2.26/locale/broken_cur_max.c
for more information
libSegFault
The segmentation fault signal handler, used by catchsegv
libanl
An asynchronous name lookup library
libc
The main C library
libcidn
Used internally by Glibc for handling internationalized domain names in the
getaddrinfo() function
libcrypt
The cryptography library
libdl
The dynamic linking interface library
libg
Dummy library containing no functions. Previously was a runtime library for g++
libieee
Linking in this module forces error handling rules for math functions as defined by the Institute
of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). The default is POSIX.1 error handling
libm
The mathematical library
libmcheck
Turns on memory allocation checking when linked to
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libmemusage
Used by memusage to help collect information about the memory usage of a program
libnsl
The network services library
libnss
The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for resolving host names, user names,
group names, aliases, services, protocols, etc.
libpthread
The POSIX threads library
libresolv
Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting packets to the Internet domain name
servers
librpcsvc
Contains functions providing miscellaneous RPC services
librt
Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified by the POSIX.1b Realtime
Extension
libthread_db
Contains functions useful for building debuggers for multi-threaded programs
libutil
Contains code for “standard” functions used in many different Unix utilities
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6.10. Adjusting the Toolchain
Now that the final C libraries have been installed, it is time to adjust the toolchain so that it will link any newly compiled
program against these new libraries.
First, backup the /tools linker, and replace it with the adjusted linker we made in chapter 5. We'll also create a link
to its counterpart in /tools/$(uname -m)-pc-linux-gnu/bin:
mv
mv
mv
ln
-v /tools/bin/{ld,ld-old}
-v /tools/$(uname -m)-pc-linux-gnu/bin/{ld,ld-old}
-v /tools/bin/{ld-new,ld}
-sv /tools/bin/ld /tools/$(uname -m)-pc-linux-gnu/bin/ld
Next, amend the GCC specs file so that it points to the new dynamic linker. Simply deleting all instances of “/tools”
should leave us with the correct path to the dynamic linker. Also adjust the specs file so that GCC knows where to find
the correct headers and Glibc start files. A sed command accomplishes this:
gcc -dumpspecs | sed -e 's@/tools@@g'
\
-e '/\*startfile_prefix_spec:/{n;s@.*@/usr/lib/ @}' \
-e '/\*cpp:/{n;s@$@ -isystem /usr/include@}' >
\
`dirname $(gcc --print-libgcc-file-name)`/specs
It is a good idea to visually inspect the specs file to verify the intended change was actually made.
It is imperative at this point to ensure that the basic functions (compiling and linking) of the adjusted toolchain are
working as expected. To do this, perform the following sanity checks:
echo 'int main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c -v -Wl,--verbose &> dummy.log
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /lib'
There should be no errors, and the output of the last command will be (allowing for platform-specific differences in
dynamic linker name):
[Requesting program interpreter: /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2]
Note that on 64-bit systems /lib is the location of our dynamic linker, but is accessed via a symbolic link in /lib64.
Note
On 32-bit systems the interpreter should be /lib/ld-linux.so.2.
Now make sure that we're setup to use the correct start files:
grep -o '/usr/lib.*/crt[1in].*succeeded' dummy.log
The output of the last command should be:
/usr/lib/../lib/crt1.o succeeded
/usr/lib/../lib/crti.o succeeded
/usr/lib/../lib/crtn.o succeeded
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Verify that the compiler is searching for the correct header files:
grep -B1 '^ /usr/include' dummy.log
This command should return the following output:
#include <...> search starts here:
/usr/include
Next, verify that the new linker is being used with the correct search paths:
grep 'SEARCH.*/usr/lib' dummy.log |sed 's|; |\n|g'
References to paths that have components with '-linux-gnu' should be ignored, but otherwise the output of the last
command should be:
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib")
SEARCH_DIR("/lib")
Next make sure that we're using the correct libc:
grep "/lib.*/libc.so.6 " dummy.log
The output of the last command should be:
attempt to open /lib/libc.so.6 succeeded
Lastly, make sure GCC is using the correct dynamic linker:
grep found dummy.log
The output of the last command should be (allowing for platform-specific differences in dynamic linker name):
found ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 at /lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2
If the output does not appear as shown above or is not received at all, then something is seriously wrong. Investigate
and retrace the steps to find out where the problem is and correct it. The most likely reason is that something went
wrong with the specs file adjustment. Any issues will need to be resolved before continuing on with the process.
Once everything is working correctly, clean up the test files:
rm -v dummy.c a.out dummy.log
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6.11. Zlib-1.2.11
The Zlib package contains compression and decompression routines used by some programs.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
4.5 MB
6.11.1. Installation of Zlib
Prepare Zlib for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
The shared library needs to be moved to /lib, and as a result the .so file in /usr/lib will need to be recreated:
mv -v /usr/lib/libz.so.* /lib
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libz.so) /usr/lib/libz.so
6.11.2. Contents of Zlib
Installed libraries:
libz.{a,so}
Short Descriptions
libz Contains compression and decompression functions used by some programs
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6.12. File-5.31
The File package contains a utility for determining the type of a given file or files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
16 MB
6.12.1. Installation of File
Prepare File for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
6.12.2. Contents of File
Installed programs:
Installed library:
file
libmagic.so
Short Descriptions
file
Tries to classify each given file; it does this by performing several tests—file system tests, magic number
tests, and language tests
libmagic Contains routines for magic number recognition, used by the file program
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6.13. Readline-7.0
The Readline package is a set of libraries that offers command-line editing and history capabilities.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
15 MB
6.13.1. Installation of Readline
Reinstalling Readline will cause the old libraries to be moved to <libraryname>.old. While this is normally not a
problem, in some cases it can trigger a linking bug in ldconfig. This can be avoided by issuing the following two seds:
sed -i '/MV.*old/d' Makefile.in
sed -i '/{OLDSUFF}/c:' support/shlib-install
Prepare Readline for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--disable-static \
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/readline-7.0
Compile the package:
make SHLIB_LIBS="-L/tools/lib -lncursesw"
The meaning of the make option:
SHLIB_LIBS="-L/tools/lib -lncursesw"
This option forces Readline to link against the libncursesw library.
This package does not come with a test suite.
Install the package:
make SHLIB_LIBS="-L/tools/lib -lncurses" install
Now move the dynamic libraries to a more appropriate location and fix up some symbolic links:
mv -v /usr/lib/lib{readline,history}.so.* /lib
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libreadline.so) /usr/lib/libreadline.so
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libhistory.so ) /usr/lib/libhistory.so
If desired, install the documentation:
install -v -m644 doc/*.{ps,pdf,html,dvi} /usr/share/doc/readline-7.0
6.13.2. Contents of Readline
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
libhistory.so and libreadline.so
/usr/include/readline, /usr/share/readline, and /usr/share/doc/readline-7.0
Short Descriptions
libhistory
Provides a consistent user interface for recalling lines of history
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libreadline Aids in the consistency of user interface across discrete programs that need to provide a command
line interface
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6.14. M4-1.4.18
The M4 package contains a macro processor.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
30 MB
6.14.1. Installation of M4
Prepare M4 for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
6.14.2. Contents of M4
Installed program:
m4
Short Descriptions
m4
copies the given files while expanding the macros that they contain [These macros are either built-in or userdefined and can take any number of arguments. Besides performing macro expansion, m4 has built-in functions
for including named files, running Unix commands, performing integer arithmetic, manipulating text, recursion,
etc. The m4 program can be used either as a front-end to a compiler or as a macro processor in its own right.]
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6.15. Bc-1.07.1
The Bc package contains an arbitrary precision numeric processing language.
Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
Required disk space:
3.6 MB
6.15.1. Installation of Bc
First, change an internal script to use sed instead of ed:
cat > bc/fix-libmath_h << "EOF"
#! /bin/bash
sed -e '1
s/^/{"/' \
-e
's/$/",/' \
-e '2,$ s/^/"/' \
-e
'$ d'
\
-i libmath.h
sed -e '$ s/$/0}/' \
-i libmath.h
EOF
Create temporary symbolic links so the package can find the readline library and confirm that its required libncurses
library is available. Even though the libraries are in /tools/lib at this point, the system will use /usr/lib at the end of
this chapter.
ln -sv /tools/lib/libncursesw.so.6 /usr/lib/libncursesw.so.6
ln -sfv libncurses.so.6 /usr/lib/libncurses.so
Fix an issue in configure due to missing files in the early stages of LFS:
sed -i -e '/flex/s/as_fn_error/: ;; # &/' configure
Prepare Bc for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--with-readline
\
--mandir=/usr/share/man \
--infodir=/usr/share/info
The meaning of the configure options:
--with-readline
This option tells Bc to use the readline library that is already installed on the system rather than using its own
readline version.
Compile the package:
make
To test bc, run the commands below. There is quite a bit of output, so you may want to redirect it to a file. There are a
very small percentage of tests (10 of 12,144) that will indicate a round off error at the last digit.
echo "quit" | ./bc/bc -l Test/checklib.b
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Install the package:
make install
6.15.2. Contents of Bc
Installed programs:
bc and dc
Short Descriptions
bc
is a command line calculator
dc
is a reverse-polish command line calculator
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6.16. Binutils-2.29
The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
5.8 SBU
4.2 GB
6.16.1. Installation of Binutils
Verify that the PTYs are working properly inside the chroot environment by performing a simple test:
expect -c "spawn ls"
This command should output the following:
spawn ls
If, instead, the output includes the message below, then the environment is not set up for proper PTY operation. This
issue needs to be resolved before running the test suites for Binutils and GCC:
The system has no more ptys.
Ask your system administrator to create more.
The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
Prepare Binutils for compilation:
../configure --prefix=/usr
--enable-gold
--enable-ld=default
--enable-plugins
--enable-shared
--disable-werror
--with-system-zlib
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure parameters:
--enable-gold
Build the gold linker and install it as ld.gold (along side the default linker).
--enable-ld=default
Build the original bdf linker and install it as both ld (the default linker) and ld.bfd.
--enable-plugins
Enables plugin support for the linker.
--with-system-zlib
Use the installed zlib library rather than building the included version.
Compile the package:
make tooldir=/usr
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The meaning of the make parameter:
tooldir=/usr
Normally, the tooldir (the directory where the executables will ultimately be located) is set to $(exec_
prefix)/$(target_alias). For example, x86_64 machines would expand that to /usr/x86_64unknown-linux-gnu. Because this is a custom system, this target-specific directory in /usr is not required.
$(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias) would be used if the system was used to cross-compile (for example,
compiling a package on an Intel machine that generates code that can be executed on PowerPC machines).
Important
The test suite for Binutils in this section is considered critical. Do not skip it under any circumstances.
Test the results:
make -k check
One test, debug_msg.sh, is known to fail.
Install the package:
make tooldir=/usr install
6.16.2. Contents of Binutils
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directory:
addr2line, ar, as, c++filt, elfedit, gprof, ld, ld.bfd, ld.gold, nm, objcopy, objdump, ranlib,
readelf, size, strings, and strip
libbfd.{a,so} and libopcodes.{a,so}
/usr/lib/ldscripts
Short Descriptions
addr2line
Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers; given an address and the name of an
executable, it uses the debugging information in the executable to determine which source file and
line number are associated with the address
ar
Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives
as
An assembler that assembles the output of gcc into object files
c++filt
Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep overloaded functions from
clashing
elfedit
Updates the ELF header of ELF files
gprof
Displays call graph profile data
ld
A linker that combines a number of object and archive files into a single file, relocating their data
and tying up symbol references
ld.gold
A cut down version of ld that only supports the elf object file format
ld.bfd
Hard link to ld
nm
Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file
objcopy
Translates one type of object file into another
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objdump
Displays information about the given object file, with options controlling the particular information
to display; the information shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation tools
ranlib
Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it in the archive; the index lists all of the
symbols defined by archive members that are relocatable object files
readelf
Displays information about ELF type binaries
size
Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given object files
strings
Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable characters that are of at least the specified
length (defaulting to four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from the initializing
and loading sections while for other types of files, it scans the entire file
strip
Discards symbols from object files
libbfd
The Binary File Descriptor library
libopcodes A library for dealing with opcodes—the “readable text” versions of instructions for the processor; it
is used for building utilities like objdump
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6.17. GMP-6.1.2
The GMP package contains math libraries. These have useful functions for arbitrary precision arithmetic.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
1.2 SBU
59 MB
6.17.1. Installation of GMP
Note
If you are building for 32-bit x86, but you have a CPU which is capable of running 64-bit code and you
have specified CFLAGS in the environment, the configure script will attempt to configure for 64-bits and fail.
Avoid this by invoking the configure command below with
ABI=32 ./configure ...
Note
The default settings of GMP produce libraries optimized for the host processor. If libraries suitable for
processors less capable than the host's CPU are desired, generic libraries can be created by running the
following:
cp -v configfsf.guess config.guess
cp -v configfsf.sub
config.sub
Prepare GMP for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--enable-cxx
\
--disable-static \
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/gmp-6.1.2
The meaning of the new configure options:
--enable-cxx
This parameter enables C++ support
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/gmp-6.1.2
This variable specifies the correct place for the documentation.
Compile the package and generate the HTML documentation:
make
make html
Important
The test suite for GMP in this section is considered critical. Do not skip it under any circumstances.
Test the results:
make check 2>&1 | tee gmp-check-log
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Caution
The code in gmp is highly optimized for the processor where it is built. Occasionally, the code that detects
the processor misidentifies the system capabilities and there will be errors in the tests or other applications
using the gmp libraries with the message "Illegal instruction". In this case, gmp should be reconfigured with
the option --build=x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu and rebuilt.
Ensure that all 190 tests in the test suite passed. Check the results by issuing the following command:
awk '/# PASS:/{total+=$3} ; END{print total}' gmp-check-log
Install the package and its documentation:
make install
make install-html
6.17.2. Contents of GMP
Installed Libraries:
Installed directory:
libgmp.so and libgmpxx.so
/usr/share/doc/gmp-6.1.2
Short Descriptions
libgmp
Contains precision math functions
libgmpxx Contains C++ precision math functions
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6.18. MPFR-3.1.5
The MPFR package contains functions for multiple precision math.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.8 SBU
45 MB
6.18.1. Installation of MPFR
Prepare MPFR for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--disable-static
\
--enable-thread-safe \
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/mpfr-3.1.5
Compile the package and generate the HTML documentation:
make
make html
Important
The test suite for MPFR in this section is considered critical. Do not skip it under any circumstances.
Test the results and ensure that all tests passed:
make check
Install the package and its documentation:
make install
make install-html
6.18.2. Contents of MPFR
Installed Libraries:
Installed directory:
libmpfr.so
/usr/share/doc/mpfr-3.1.5
Short Descriptions
libmpfr
Contains multiple-precision math functions
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6.19. MPC-1.0.3
The MPC package contains a library for the arithmetic of complex numbers with arbitrarily high precision and correct
rounding of the result.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
17 MB
6.19.1. Installation of MPC
Prepare MPC for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--disable-static \
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/mpc-1.0.3
Compile the package and generate the HTML documentation:
make
make html
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package and its documentation:
make install
make install-html
6.19.2. Contents of MPC
Installed Libraries:
Installed Directory:
libmpc.so
/usr/share/doc/mpc-1.0.3
Short Descriptions
libmpc
Contains complex math functions
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6.20. GCC-7.2.0
The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
82 SBU (with tests)
3.2 GB
6.20.1. Installation of GCC
If building on x86_64, change the default directory name for 64-bit libraries to “lib”:
case $(uname -m) in
x86_64)
sed -e '/m64=/s/lib64/lib/' \
-i.orig gcc/config/i386/t-linux64
;;
esac
Remove the symlink created earlier as the final gcc includes will be installed here:
rm -f /usr/lib/gcc
The GCC documentation recommends building GCC in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v build
cd
build
Prepare GCC for compilation:
SED=sed
../configure --prefix=/usr
--enable-languages=c,c++
--disable-multilib
--disable-bootstrap
--with-system-zlib
\
\
\
\
\
Note that for other languages, there are some prerequisites that are not yet available. See the BLFS Book for instructions
on how to build all of GCC's supported languages.
The meaning of the new configure parameters:
SED=sed
Setting this environment variable prevents a hard-coded path to /tools/bin/sed.
--with-system-zlib
This switch tells GCC to link to the system installed copy of the Zlib library, rather than its own internal copy.
Compile the package:
make
Important
In this section, the test suite for GCC is considered critical. Do not skip it under any circumstance.
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One set of tests in the GCC test suite is known to exhaust the stack, so increase the stack size prior to running the tests:
ulimit -s 32768
Test the results, but do not stop at errors:
make -k check
To receive a summary of the test suite results, run:
../contrib/test_summary
For only the summaries, pipe the output through grep -A7 Summ.
Results can be compared with those located at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/build-logs/8.1/ and http://gcc.gnu.
org/ml/gcc-testresults/.
A few unexpected failures cannot always be avoided. The GCC developers are usually aware of these issues, but have
not resolved them yet. In particular, five tests in the libstdc++ test suite are known to fail when running as the root user
as we do here. Unless the test results are vastly different from those at the above URL, it is safe to continue.
Note
On some combinations of kernel configuration and AMD processors there may be more than 1100 failures in
the gcc.target/i386/mpx tests (which are designed to test the MPX option on recent Intel processors). These
can safely be ignored on AMD processors.
Install the package:
make install
Create a symlink required by the FHS for "historical" reasons.
ln -sv ../usr/bin/cpp /lib
Many packages use the name cc to call the C compiler. To satisfy those packages, create a symlink:
ln -sv gcc /usr/bin/cc
Add a compatibility symlink to enable building programs with Link Time Optimization (LTO):
install -v -dm755 /usr/lib/bfd-plugins
ln -sfv ../../libexec/gcc/$(gcc -dumpmachine)/7.2.0/liblto_plugin.so \
/usr/lib/bfd-plugins/
Now that our final toolchain is in place, it is important to again ensure that compiling and linking will work as expected.
We do this by performing the same sanity checks as we did earlier in the chapter:
echo 'int main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c -v -Wl,--verbose &> dummy.log
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /lib'
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There should be no errors, and the output of the last command will be (allowing for platform-specific differences in
dynamic linker name):
[Requesting program interpreter: /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2]
Now make sure that we're setup to use the correct start files:
grep -o '/usr/lib.*/crt[1in].*succeeded' dummy.log
The output of the last command should be:
/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/7.2.0/../../../../lib/crt1.o succeeded
/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/7.2.0/../../../../lib/crti.o succeeded
/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/7.2.0/../../../../lib/crtn.o succeeded
Depending on your machine architecture, the above may differ slightly, the difference usually being the name of the
directory after /usr/lib/gcc. The important thing to look for here is that gcc has found all three crt*.o files
under the /usr/lib directory.
Verify that the compiler is searching for the correct header files:
grep -B4 '^ /usr/include' dummy.log
This command should return the following output:
#include <...> search starts here:
/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/7.2.0/include
/usr/local/include
/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/7.2.0/include-fixed
/usr/include
Again, note that the directory named after your target triplet may be different than the above, depending on your
architecture.
Note
As of version 4.3.0, GCC now unconditionally installs the limits.h file into the private include-fixed
directory, and that directory is required to be in place.
Next, verify that the new linker is being used with the correct search paths:
grep 'SEARCH.*/usr/lib' dummy.log |sed 's|; |\n|g'
References to paths that have components with '-linux-gnu' should be ignored, but otherwise the output of the last
command should be:
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/lib64")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib64")
SEARCH_DIR("/lib64")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib64")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/lib")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib")
SEARCH_DIR("/lib")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib");
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A 32-bit system may see a few different directories. For example, here is the output from an i686 machine:
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib32")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib32")
SEARCH_DIR("/lib32")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib32")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib")
SEARCH_DIR("/lib")
SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib");
Next make sure that we're using the correct libc:
grep "/lib.*/libc.so.6 " dummy.log
The output of the last command should be:
attempt to open /lib/libc.so.6 succeeded
Lastly, make sure GCC is using the correct dynamic linker:
grep found dummy.log
The output of the last command should be (allowing for platform-specific differences in dynamic linker name):
found ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 at /lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2
If the output does not appear as shown above or is not received at all, then something is seriously wrong. Investigate
and retrace the steps to find out where the problem is and correct it. The most likely reason is that something went
wrong with the specs file adjustment. Any issues will need to be resolved before continuing on with the process.
Once everything is working correctly, clean up the test files:
rm -v dummy.c a.out dummy.log
Finally, move a misplaced file:
mkdir -pv /usr/share/gdb/auto-load/usr/lib
mv -v /usr/lib/*gdb.py /usr/share/gdb/auto-load/usr/lib
6.20.2. Contents of GCC
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
c++, cc (link to gcc), cpp, g++, gcc, gcc-ar, gcc-nm, gcc-ranlib, and gcov
libasan.{a,so}, libatomic.{a,so}, libgcc.a, libgcc_eh.a, libgcc_s.so, libgcov.a, libgomp.
{a,so}, libiberty.a, libitm.{a,so}, liblto_plugin.so, libquadmath.{a,so}, libssp.{a,so},
libssp_nonshared.a, libstdc++.{a,so}, libsupc++.a, and libtsan.{a,so}
/usr/include/c++, /usr/lib/gcc, /usr/libexec/gcc, and /usr/share/gcc-7.2.0
Short Descriptions
c++
The C++ compiler
cc
The C compiler
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cpp
The C preprocessor; it is used by the compiler to expand the #include, #define, and similar
statements in the source files
g++
The C++ compiler
gcc
The C compiler
gcc-ar
A wrapper around ar that adds a plugin to the command line. This program is only used to add
"link time optimization" and is not useful with the default build options
gcc-nm
A wrapper around nm that adds a plugin to the command line. This program is only used to add
"link time optimization" and is not useful with the default build options
gcc-ranlib
A wrapper around ranlib that adds a plugin to the command line. This program is only used to
add "link time optimization" and is not useful with the default build options
gcov
A coverage testing tool; it is used to analyze programs to determine where optimizations will
have the most effect
libasan
The Address Sanitizer runtime library
libgcc
Contains run-time support for gcc
libgcov
This library is linked in to a program when GCC is instructed to enable profiling
libgomp
GNU implementation of the OpenMP API for multi-platform shared-memory parallel
programming in C/C++ and Fortran
libiberty
Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including getopt, obstack, strerror, strtol,
and strtoul
liblto_plugin GCC's Link Time Optimization (LTO) plugin allows GCC to perform optimizations across
compilation units
libquadmath
GCC Quad Precision Math Library API
libssp
Contains routines supporting GCC's stack-smashing protection functionality
libstdc++
The standard C++ library
libsupc++
Provides supporting routines for the C++ programming language
libtsan
The Thread Sanitizer runtime library
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6.21. Bzip2-1.0.6
The Bzip2 package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. Compressing text files with bzip2
yields a much better compression percentage than with the traditional gzip.
Approximate build time: less than 0.1 SBU
Required disk space:
2.3 MB
6.21.1. Installation of Bzip2
Apply a patch that will install the documentation for this package:
patch -Np1 -i ../bzip2-1.0.6-install_docs-1.patch
The following command ensures installation of symbolic links are relative:
sed -i 's@\(ln -s -f \)$(PREFIX)/bin/@\1@' Makefile
Ensure the man pages are installed into the correct location:
sed -i "s@(PREFIX)/man@(PREFIX)/share/man@g" Makefile
Prepare Bzip2 for compilation with:
make -f Makefile-libbz2_so
make clean
The meaning of the make parameter:
-f Makefile-libbz2_so
This will cause Bzip2 to be built using a different Makefile file, in this case the Makefile-libbz2_so file,
which creates a dynamic libbz2.so library and links the Bzip2 utilities against it.
Compile and test the package:
make
Install the programs:
make PREFIX=/usr install
Install the shared bzip2 binary into the /bin directory, make some necessary symbolic links, and clean up:
cp
cp
ln
rm
ln
ln
-v bzip2-shared /bin/bzip2
-av libbz2.so* /lib
-sv ../../lib/libbz2.so.1.0 /usr/lib/libbz2.so
-v /usr/bin/{bunzip2,bzcat,bzip2}
-sv bzip2 /bin/bunzip2
-sv bzip2 /bin/bzcat
6.21.2. Contents of Bzip2
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directory:
bunzip2 (link to bzip2), bzcat (link to bzip2), bzcmp (link to bzdiff), bzdiff, bzegrep (link
to bzgrep), bzfgrep (link to bzgrep), bzgrep, bzip2, bzip2recover, bzless (link to bzmore),
and bzmore
libbz2.{a,so}
/usr/share/doc/bzip2-1.0.6
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Short Descriptions
bunzip2
Decompresses bzipped files
bzcat
Decompresses to standard output
bzcmp
Runs cmp on bzipped files
bzdiff
Runs diff on bzipped files
bzegrep
Runs egrep on bzipped files
bzfgrep
Runs fgrep on bzipped files
bzgrep
Runs grep on bzipped files
bzip2
Compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm with
Huffman coding; the compression rate is better than that achieved by more conventional
compressors using “Lempel-Ziv” algorithms, like gzip
bzip2recover
Tries to recover data from damaged bzipped files
bzless
Runs less on bzipped files
bzmore
Runs more on bzipped files
libbz2
The library implementing lossless, block-sorting data compression, using the Burrows-Wheeler
algorithm
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6.22. Pkg-config-0.29.2
The pkg-config package contains a tool for passing the include path and/or library paths to build tools during the
configure and make file execution.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
28 MB
6.22.1. Installation of Pkg-config
Prepare Pkg-config for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--with-internal-glib
\
--disable-host-tool
\
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/pkg-config-0.29.2
The meaning of the new configure options:
--with-internal-glib
This will allow pkg-config to use its internal version of Glib because an external version is not available in LFS.
--disable-host-tool
This option disables the creation of an undesired hard link to the pkg-config program.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
6.22.2. Contents of Pkg-config
Installed program:
Installed directory:
pkg-config
/usr/share/doc/pkg-config-0.29.2
Short Descriptions
pkg-config
returns meta information for the specified library or package
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6.23. Ncurses-6.0
The Ncurses package contains libraries for terminal-independent handling of character screens.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
39 MB
6.23.1. Installation of Ncurses
Don't install a static library that is not handled by configure:
sed -i '/LIBTOOL_INSTALL/d' c++/Makefile.in
Prepare Ncurses for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
--mandir=/usr/share/man
--with-shared
--without-debug
--without-normal
--enable-pc-files
--enable-widec
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the new configure options:
--enable-widec
This switch causes wide-character libraries (e.g., libncursesw.so.6.0) to be built instead of normal ones
(e.g., libncurses.so.6.0). These wide-character libraries are usable in both multibyte and traditional 8-bit
locales, while normal libraries work properly only in 8-bit locales. Wide-character and normal libraries are sourcecompatible, but not binary-compatible.
--enable-pc-files
This switch generates and installs .pc files for pkg-config.
--without-normal
This switch disables building and installing most static libraries.
Compile the package:
make
This package has a test suite, but it can only be run after the package has been installed. The tests reside in the test/
directory. See the README file in that directory for further details.
Install the package:
make install
Move the shared libraries to the /lib directory, where they are expected to reside:
mv -v /usr/lib/libncursesw.so.6* /lib
Because the libraries have been moved, one symlink points to a non-existent file. Recreate it:
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libncursesw.so) /usr/lib/libncursesw.so
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Many applications still expect the linker to be able to find non-wide-character Ncurses libraries. Trick such applications
into linking with wide-character libraries by means of symlinks and linker scripts:
for lib in ncurses form panel
rm -vf
echo "INPUT(-l${lib}w)" >
ln -sfv ${lib}w.pc
done
menu ; do
/usr/lib/lib${lib}.so
/usr/lib/lib${lib}.so
/usr/lib/pkgconfig/${lib}.pc
Finally, make sure that old applications that look for -lcurses at build time are still buildable:
rm -vf
/usr/lib/libcursesw.so
echo "INPUT(-lncursesw)" > /usr/lib/libcursesw.so
ln -sfv libncurses.so
/usr/lib/libcurses.so
If desired, install the Ncurses documentation:
mkdir -v
/usr/share/doc/ncurses-6.0
cp -v -R doc/* /usr/share/doc/ncurses-6.0
Note
The instructions above don't create non-wide-character Ncurses libraries since no package installed by
compiling from sources would link against them at runtime. However, the only known binary-only
applications that link against non-wide-character Ncurses libraries require version 5. If you must have such
libraries because of some binary-only application or to be compliant with LSB, build the package again with
the following commands:
make distclean
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--with-shared
\
--without-normal \
--without-debug \
--without-cxx-binding \
--with-abi-version=5
make sources libs
cp -av lib/lib*.so.5* /usr/lib
6.23.2. Contents of Ncurses
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
captoinfo (link to tic), clear, infocmp, infotocap (link to tic), ncursesw6-config, reset (link
to tset), tabs, tic, toe, tput, and tset
libcursesw.so (symlink and linker script to libncursesw.so), libformw.so,
libmenuw.so, libncursesw.so, libncurses++w.a, libpanelw.so, and their non-widecharacter counterparts without "w" in the library names.
/usr/share/tabset, /usr/share/terminfo, and /usr/share/doc/ncurses-6.0
Short Descriptions
captoinfo
Converts a termcap description into a terminfo description
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clear
Clears the screen, if possible
infocmp
Compares or prints out terminfo descriptions
infotocap
Converts a terminfo description into a termcap description
ncursesw6-config
Provides configuration information for ncurses
reset
Reinitializes a terminal to its default values
tabs
Clears and sets tab stops on a terminal
tic
The terminfo entry-description compiler that translates a terminfo file from source format
into the binary format needed for the ncurses library routines [A terminfo file contains
information on the capabilities of a certain terminal.]
toe
Lists all available terminal types, giving the primary name and description for each
tput
Makes the values of terminal-dependent capabilities available to the shell; it can also be used
to reset or initialize a terminal or report its long name
tset
Can be used to initialize terminals
libcursesw
A link to libncursesw
libncursesw
Contains functions to display text in many complex ways on a terminal screen; a good
example of the use of these functions is the menu displayed during the kernel's make
menuconfig
libformw
Contains functions to implement forms
libmenuw
Contains functions to implement menus
libpanelw
Contains functions to implement panels
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6.24. Attr-2.4.47
The attr package contains utilities to administer the extended attributes on filesystem objects.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
3.3 MB
6.24.1. Installation of Attr
Modify the documentation directory so that it is a versioned directory:
sed -i -e 's|/@pkg_name@|&-@pkg_version@|' include/builddefs.in
Prevent installation of manual pages that were already installed by the man pages package:
sed -i -e "/SUBDIRS/s|man[25]||g" man/Makefile
Fix a problem in the test procedures caused by changes in perl-5.26:
sed -i 's:{(:\\{(:' test/run
Prepare Attr for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr \
--disable-static
Compile the package:
make
The tests need to be run on a filesystem that supports extended attributes such as the ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystems. The
tests are also known to fail if running multiple simultaneous tests (-j option greater than 1). To test the results, issue:
make -j1 tests root-tests
Install the package:
make install install-dev install-lib
chmod -v 755 /usr/lib/libattr.so
The shared library needs to be moved to /lib, and as a result the .so file in /usr/lib will need to be recreated:
mv -v /usr/lib/libattr.so.* /lib
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libattr.so) /usr/lib/libattr.so
6.24.2. Contents of Attr
Installed programs:
Installed library:
Installed directories:
attr, getfattr, and setattr
libattr.so
/usr/include/attr and /usr/share/doc/attr-2.4.47
Short Descriptions
attr
Extends attributes on filesystem objects
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getfattr
Gets the extended attributes of filesystem objects
setattr
Sets the extended attributes of filesystem objects
libattr
Contains the libbrary functions for manipulating extended attributes
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6.25. Acl-2.2.52
The Acl package contains utilities to administer Access Control Lists, which are used to define more fine-grained
discretionary access rights for files and directories.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
4.8 MB
6.25.1. Installation of Acl
Modify the documentation directory so that it is a versioned directory:
sed -i -e 's|/@pkg_name@|&-@pkg_version@|' include/builddefs.in
Fix some broken tests:
sed -i "s:| sed.*::g" test/{sbits-restore,cp,misc}.test
Fix a problem in the test procedures caused by changes in perl-5.26:
sed -i 's/{(/\\{(/' test/run
Additionally, fix a bug that causes getfacl -e to segfault on overly long group name:
sed -i -e "/TABS-1;/a if (x > (TABS-1)) x = (TABS-1);" \
libacl/__acl_to_any_text.c
Prepare Acl for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--disable-static \
--libexecdir=/usr/lib
Compile the package:
make
The Acl tests need to be run on a filesystem that supports access controls after Coreutils has been built with the Acl
libraries. If desired, return to this package and run make -j1 tests after Coreutils has been built later in this chapter.
Install the package:
make install install-dev install-lib
chmod -v 755 /usr/lib/libacl.so
The shared library needs to be moved to /lib, and as a result the .so file in /usr/lib will need to be recreated:
mv -v /usr/lib/libacl.so.* /lib
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libacl.so) /usr/lib/libacl.so
6.25.2. Contents of Acl
Installed programs:
Installed library:
Installed directories:
chacl, getfacl, and setfacl
libacl.so
/usr/include/acl and /usr/share/doc/acl-2.2.52
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Short Descriptions
chacl
Changes the access control list of a file or directory
getfacl
Gets file access control lists
setfacl
Sets file access control lists
libacl
Contains the library functions for manipulating Access Control Lists
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6.26. Libcap-2.25
The Libcap package implements the user-space interfaces to the POSIX 1003.1e capabilities available in Linux kernels.
These capabilities are a partitioning of the all powerful root privilege into a set of distinct privileges.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
1.3 MB
6.26.1. Installation of Libcap
Prevent a static library from being installed:
sed -i '/install.*STALIBNAME/d' libcap/Makefile
Compile the package:
make
This package does not come with a test suite.
Install the package:
make RAISE_SETFCAP=no lib=lib prefix=/usr install
chmod -v 755 /usr/lib/libcap.so
The meaning of the make option:
RAISE_SETFCAP=no
This parameter skips trying to use setcap on itself. This avoids an installation error if the kernel or file system
does not support extended capabilities.
lib=lib
This parameter installs the library in $prefix/lib rather than $prefix/lib64 on x86_64. It has no effect
on x86.
The shared library needs to be moved to /lib, and as a result the .so file in /usr/lib will need to be recreated:
mv -v /usr/lib/libcap.so.* /lib
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libcap.so) /usr/lib/libcap.so
6.26.2. Contents of Libcap
Installed programs:
Installed library:
capsh, getcap, getpcaps, and setcap
libcap.so
Short Descriptions
capsh
A shell wrapper to explore and constrain capability support
getcap
Examines file capabilities
getpcaps
Displays the capabilities on the queried process(es)
libcap
Contains the library functions for manipulating POSIX 1003.1e capabilities
setcap
Sets file capabilities
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6.27. Sed-4.4
The Sed package contains a stream editor.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
25 MB
6.27.1. Installation of Sed
First fix an issue in the LFS environment and remove a failing test:
sed -i 's/usr/tools/'
build-aux/help2man
sed -i 's/testsuite.panic-tests.sh//' Makefile.in
Prepare Sed for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin
Compile the package and generate the HTML documentation:
make
make html
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package and its documentation:
make install
install -d -m755
/usr/share/doc/sed-4.4
install -m644 doc/sed.html /usr/share/doc/sed-4.4
6.27.2. Contents of Sed
Installed program:
Installed directory:
sed
/usr/share/doc/sed-4.4
Short Descriptions
sed
Filters and transforms text files in a single pass
135
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6.28. Shadow-4.5
The Shadow package contains programs for handling passwords in a secure way.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
42 MB
6.28.1. Installation of Shadow
Note
If you would like to enforce the use of strong passwords, refer to http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/
8.1/postlfs/cracklib.html for installing CrackLib prior to building Shadow. Then add --with-libcrack
to the configure command below.
Disable the installation of the groups program and its man pages, as Coreutils provides a better version. Also Prevent
the installation of manual pages that were already installed by the man pages package:
sed -i 's/groups$(EXEEXT) //' src/Makefile.in
find man -name Makefile.in -exec sed -i 's/groups\.1 / /'
{} \;
find man -name Makefile.in -exec sed -i 's/getspnam\.3 / /' {} \;
find man -name Makefile.in -exec sed -i 's/passwd\.5 / /'
{} \;
Instead of using the default crypt method, use the more secure SHA-512 method of password encryption, which also
allows passwords longer than 8 characters. It is also necessary to change the obsolete /var/spool/mail location
for user mailboxes that Shadow uses by default to the /var/mail location used currently:
sed -i -e 's@#ENCRYPT_METHOD DES@ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512@' \
-e 's@/var/spool/mail@/var/mail@' etc/login.defs
Note
If you chose to build Shadow with Cracklib support, run the following:
sed -i 's@DICTPATH.*@DICTPATH\t/lib/cracklib/pw_dict@' etc/login.defs
Make a minor change to make the default useradd consistent with the LFS groups file:
sed -i 's/1000/999/' etc/useradd
Prepare Shadow for compilation:
./configure --sysconfdir=/etc --with-group-name-max-length=32
The meaning of the configure option:
--with-group-name-max-length=32
The maximum user name is 32 characters. Make the maximum group name the same.
Compile the package:
make
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This package does not come with a test suite.
Install the package:
make install
Move a misplaced program to its proper location:
mv -v /usr/bin/passwd /bin
6.28.2. Configuring Shadow
This package contains utilities to add, modify, and delete users and groups; set and change their passwords; and perform
other administrative tasks. For a full explanation of what password shadowing means, see the doc/HOWTO file within
the unpacked source tree. If using Shadow support, keep in mind that programs which need to verify passwords (display
managers, FTP programs, pop3 daemons, etc.) must be Shadow-compliant. That is, they need to be able to work with
shadowed passwords.
To enable shadowed passwords, run the following command:
pwconv
To enable shadowed group passwords, run:
grpconv
Shadow's stock configuration for the useradd utility has a few caveats that need some explanation. First, the default
action for the useradd utility is to create the user and a group of the same name as the user. By default the user ID (UID)
and group ID (GID) numbers will begin with 1000. This means if you don't pass parameters to useradd, each user will
be a member of a unique group on the system. If this behavior is undesirable, you'll need to pass the -g parameter
to useradd. The default parameters are stored in the /etc/default/useradd file. You may need to modify two
parameters in this file to suit your particular needs.
/etc/default/useradd Parameter Explanations
GROUP=1000
This parameter sets the beginning of the group numbers used in the /etc/group file. You can modify it to anything
you desire. Note that useradd will never reuse a UID or GID. If the number identified in this parameter is used,
it will use the next available number after this. Note also that if you don't have a group 1000 on your system the
first time you use useradd without the -g parameter, you'll get a message displayed on the terminal that says:
useradd: unknown GID 1000. You may disregard this message and group number 1000 will be used.
CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes
This parameter causes useradd to create a mailbox file for the newly created user. useradd will make the group
ownership of this file to the mail group with 0660 permissions. If you would prefer that these mailbox files are
not created by useradd, issue the following command:
sed -i 's/yes/no/' /etc/default/useradd
6.28.3. Setting the root password
Choose a password for user root and set it by running:
passwd root
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6.28.4. Contents of Shadow
Installed programs:
Installed directory:
chage, chfn, chgpasswd, chpasswd, chsh, expiry, faillog, gpasswd, groupadd, groupdel,
groupmems, groupmod, grpck, grpconv, grpunconv, lastlog, login, logoutd, newgidmap,
newgrp, newuidmap, newusers, nologin, passwd, pwck, pwconv, pwunconv, sg (link to
newgrp), su, useradd, userdel, usermod, vigr (link to vipw), and vipw
/etc/default
Short Descriptions
chage
Used to change the maximum number of days between obligatory password changes
chfn
Used to change a user's full name and other information
chgpasswd
Used to update group passwords in batch mode
chpasswd
Used to update user passwords in batch mode
chsh
Used to change a user's default login shell
expiry
Checks and enforces the current password expiration policy
faillog
Is used to examine the log of login failures, to set a maximum number of failures before an account
is blocked, or to reset the failure count
gpasswd
Is used to add and delete members and administrators to groups
groupadd
Creates a group with the given name
groupdel
Deletes the group with the given name
groupmems
Allows a user to administer his/her own group membership list without the requirement of super user
privileges.
groupmod
Is used to modify the given group's name or GID
grpck
Verifies the integrity of the group files /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
grpconv
Creates or updates the shadow group file from the normal group file
grpunconv
Updates /etc/group from /etc/gshadow and then deletes the latter
lastlog
Reports the most recent login of all users or of a given user
login
Is used by the system to let users sign on
logoutd
Is a daemon used to enforce restrictions on log-on time and ports
newgidmap
Is used to set the gid mapping of a user namespace
newgrp
Is used to change the current GID during a login session
newuidmap
Is used to set the uid mapping of a user namespace
newusers
Is used to create or update an entire series of user accounts
nologin
Displays a message that an account is not available; it is designed to be used as the default shell for
accounts that have been disabled
passwd
Is used to change the password for a user or group account
pwck
Verifies the integrity of the password files /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow
pwconv
Creates or updates the shadow password file from the normal password file
pwunconv
Updates /etc/passwd from /etc/shadow and then deletes the latter
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sg
Executes a given command while the user's GID is set to that of the given group
su
Runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs
useradd
Creates a new user with the given name, or updates the default new-user information
userdel
Deletes the given user account
usermod
Is used to modify the given user's login name, User Identification (UID), shell, initial group, home
directory, etc.
vigr
Edits the /etc/group or /etc/gshadow files
vipw
Edits the /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow files
139
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6.29. Psmisc-23.1
The Psmisc package contains programs for displaying information about running processes.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
4.2 MB
6.29.1. Installation of Psmisc
Prepare Psmisc for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
This package does not come with a test suite.
Install the package:
make install
Finally, move the killall and fuser programs to the location specified by the FHS:
mv -v /usr/bin/fuser
/bin
mv -v /usr/bin/killall /bin
6.29.2. Contents of Psmisc
Installed programs:
fuser, killall, peekfd, prtstat, pstree, and pstree.x11 (link to pstree)
Short Descriptions
fuser
Reports the Process IDs (PIDs) of processes that use the given files or file systems
killall
Kills processes by name; it sends a signal to all processes running any of the given commands
peekfd
Peek at file descriptors of a running process, given its PID
prtstat
Prints information about a process
pstree
Displays running processes as a tree
pstree.x11
Same as pstree, except that it waits for confirmation before exiting
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6.30. Iana-Etc-2.30
The Iana-Etc package provides data for network services and protocols.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
2.3 MB
6.30.1. Installation of Iana-Etc
The following command converts the raw data provided by IANA into the correct formats for the /etc/protocols
and /etc/services data files:
make
This package does not come with a test suite.
Install the package:
make install
6.30.2. Contents of Iana-Etc
Installed files:
/etc/protocols and /etc/services
Short Descriptions
/etc/protocols
Describes the various DARPA Internet protocols that are available from the TCP/IP subsystem
/etc/services
Provides a mapping between friendly textual names for internet services, and their underlying
assigned port numbers and protocol types
141
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6.31. Bison-3.0.4
The Bison package contains a parser generator.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
32 MB
6.31.1. Installation of Bison
Prepare Bison for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --docdir=/usr/share/doc/bison-3.0.4
Compile the package:
make
There is a circular dependency between bison and flex with regard to the checks. If desired, after installing flex in the
next section, the bison checks can be run with make check. Three tests related to lalr1.cc fail for unknown reasons.
Install the package:
make install
6.31.2. Contents of Bison
Installed programs:
Installed library:
Installed directory:
bison and yacc
liby.a
/usr/share/bison
Short Descriptions
bison
Generates, from a series of rules, a program for analyzing the structure of text files; Bison is a replacement
for Yacc (Yet Another Compiler Compiler)
yacc
A wrapper for bison, meant for programs that still call yacc instead of bison; it calls bison with the -y option
liby
The Yacc library containing implementations of Yacc-compatible yyerror and main functions; this library
is normally not very useful, but POSIX requires it
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6.32. Flex-2.6.4
The Flex package contains a utility for generating programs that recognize patterns in text.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
32 MB
6.32.1. Installation of Flex
First, fix a problem introduced with glibc-2.26:
sed -i "/math.h/a #include <malloc.h>" src/flexdef.h
The build procedure assumes the help2man program is available to create a man page from the executable --help option.
This is not present, so we use an environment variable to skip this process. Now, prepare Flex for compilation:
HELP2MAN=/tools/bin/true \
./configure --prefix=/usr --docdir=/usr/share/doc/flex-2.6.4
Compile the package:
make
To test the results (about 0.5 SBU), issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
A few programs do not know about flex yet and try to run its predecessor, lex. To support those programs, create a
symbolic link named lex that runs flex in lex emulation mode:
ln -sv flex /usr/bin/lex
6.32.2. Contents of Flex
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directory:
flex, flex++ (link to flex), and lex (link to flex)
libfl.so and libfl_pic.so
/usr/share/doc/flex-2.6.4
Short Descriptions
flex
A tool for generating programs that recognize patterns in text; it allows for the versatility to specify the rules
for pattern-finding, eradicating the need to develop a specialized program
flex++
An extension of flex, is used for generating C++ code and classes. It is a symbolic link to flex
lex
A script that runs flex in lex emulation mode
libfl
The flex library
143
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6.33. Grep-3.1
The Grep package contains programs for searching through files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
29 MB
6.33.1. Installation of Grep
Prepare Grep for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
6.33.2. Contents of Grep
Installed programs:
egrep, fgrep, and grep
Short Descriptions
egrep
Prints lines matching an extended regular expression
fgrep
Prints lines matching a list of fixed strings
grep
Prints lines matching a basic regular expression
144
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6.34. Bash-4.4
The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
2.0 SBU
56 MB
6.34.1. Installation of Bash
Incorporate some upstream fixes:
patch -Np1 -i ../bash-4.4-upstream_fixes-1.patch
Prepare Bash for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/bash-4.4 \
--without-bash-malloc
--with-installed-readline
\
\
The meaning of the new configure option:
--with-installed-readline
This option tells Bash to use the readline library that is already installed on the system rather than using its
own readline version.
Compile the package:
make
Skip down to “Install the package” if not running the test suite.
To prepare the tests, ensure that the nobody user can write to the sources tree:
chown -Rv nobody .
Now, run the tests as the nobody user:
su nobody -s /bin/bash -c "PATH=$PATH make tests"
Install the package and move the main executable to /bin:
make install
mv -vf /usr/bin/bash /bin
Run the newly compiled bash program (replacing the one that is currently being executed):
exec /bin/bash --login +h
Note
The parameters used make the bash process an interactive login shell and continue to disable hashing so that
new programs are found as they become available.
145
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6.34.2. Contents of Bash
Installed programs:
Installed directory:
bash, bashbug, and sh (link to bash)
/usr/share/doc/bash-4.4
Short Descriptions
bash
A widely-used command interpreter; it performs many types of expansions and substitutions on a given
command line before executing it, thus making this interpreter a powerful tool
bashbug
A shell script to help the user compose and mail standard formatted bug reports concerning bash
sh
A symlink to the bash program; when invoked as sh, bash tries to mimic the startup behavior of historical
versions of sh as closely as possible, while conforming to the POSIX standard as well
146
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6.35. Libtool-2.4.6
The Libtool package contains the GNU generic library support script. It wraps the complexity of using shared libraries
in a consistent, portable interface.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
1.8 SBU
43 MB
6.35.1. Installation of Libtool
Prepare Libtool for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results (about 11.0 SBU), issue:
make check
Note
The test time for libtool can ibe reduced significantly on a system with multiple cores. To do this, append
TESTSUITEFLAGS=-j<N> to the line above. For instance, using -j4 can reduce the test time by over 60
percent.
Five tests are known to fail in the LFS build environment due to a circular dependency, but all tests pass if rechecked
after automake is installed.
Install the package:
make install
6.35.2. Contents of Libtool
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
libtool and libtoolize
libltdl.so
/usr/include/libltdl and /usr/share/libtool
Short Descriptions
libtool
Provides generalized library-building support services
libtoolize
Provides a standard way to add libtool support to a package
libltdl
Hides the various difficulties of dlopening libraries
147
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6.36. GDBM-1.13
The GDBM package contains the GNU Database Manager. It is a library of database functions that use extensible
hashing and work similar to the standard UNIX dbm. The library provides primitives for storing key/data pairs,
searching and retrieving the data by its key and deleting a key along with its data.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
10 MB
6.36.1. Installation of GDBM
Prepare GDBM for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr \
--disable-static \
--enable-libgdbm-compat
The meaning of the configure option:
--enable-libgdbm-compat
This switch enables the libgdbm compatibility library to be built, as some packages outside of LFS may require
the older DBM routines it provides.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
6.36.2. Contents of GDBM
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
gdbm_dump, gdbm_load, and gdbmtool
libgdbm.so and libgdbm_compat.so
Short Descriptions
gdbm_dump
Dumps a GDBM database to a file
gdbm_load
Recreates a GDBM database from a dump file
gdbmtool
Tests and modifies a GDBM database
libgdbm
Contains functions to manipulate a hashed database
libgdbm_compat
Compatibility library containing older DBM functions
148
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6.37. Gperf-3.1
Gperf generates a perfect hash function from a key set.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
5.8 MB
6.37.1. Installation of Gperf
Prepare Gperf for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --docdir=/usr/share/doc/gperf-3.1
Compile the package:
make
The tests are known to fail if running multiple simultaneous tests (-j option greater than 1). To test the results, issue:
make -j1 check
Install the package:
make install
6.37.2. Contents of Gperf
Installed program:
Installed directory:
gperf
/usr/share/doc/gperf-3.1
Short Descriptions
gperf
Generates a perfect hash from a key set
149
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6.38. Expat-2.2.3
The Expat package contains a stream oriented C library for parsing XML.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
9.5 MB
6.38.1. Installation of Expat
First fix a problem with the regession tests in the LFS environment:
sed -i 's|usr/bin/env |bin/|' run.sh.in
Prepare Expat for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --disable-static
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
If desired, install the documentation:
install -v -dm755 /usr/share/doc/expat-2.2.3
install -v -m644 doc/*.{html,png,css} /usr/share/doc/expat-2.2.3
6.38.2. Contents of Expat
Installed program:
Installed libraries:
Installed directory:
xmlwf
libexpat.so
/usr/share/doc/expat-2.2.3
Short Descriptions
xmlwf
is a non-validating utility to check whether or not XML documents are well formed
libexpat contains API functions for parsing XML
150
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6.39. Inetutils-1.9.4
The Inetutils package contains programs for basic networking.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
27 MB
6.39.1. Installation of Inetutils
Prepare Inetutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
--localstatedir=/var
--disable-logger
--disable-whois
--disable-rcp
--disable-rexec
--disable-rlogin
--disable-rsh
--disable-servers
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure options:
--disable-logger
This option prevents Inetutils from installing the logger program, which is used by scripts to pass messages to the
System Log Daemon. Do not install it because Util-linux installs a more recent version.
--disable-whois
This option disables the building of the Inetutils whois client, which is out of date. Instructions for a better whois
client are in the BLFS book.
--disable-r*
These parameters disable building obsolete programs that should not be used due to security issues. The functions
provided by these programs can be provided by the openssh package in the BLFS book.
--disable-servers
This disables the installation of the various network servers included as part of the Inetutils package. These servers
are deemed not appropriate in a basic LFS system. Some are insecure by nature and are only considered safe on
trusted networks. Note that better replacements are available for many of these servers.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Note
One test, libls.sh, may fail in the initial chroot environment but will pass if the test is rerun after the LFS
system is complete.
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Install the package:
make install
Move some programs so they are available if /usr is not accessible:
mv -v /usr/bin/{hostname,ping,ping6,traceroute} /bin
mv -v /usr/bin/ifconfig /sbin
6.39.2. Contents of Inetutils
Installed programs:
dnsdomainname, ftp, ifconfig, hostname, ping, ping6, talk, telnet, tftp, and traceroute
Short Descriptions
dnsdomainname
Show the system's DNS domain name
ftp
Is the file transfer protocol program
hostname
Reports or sets the name of the host
ifconfig
Manages network interfaces
ping
Sends echo-request packets and reports how long the replies take
ping6
A version of ping for IPv6 networks
talk
Is used to chat with another user
telnet
An interface to the TELNET protocol
tftp
A trivial file transfer program
traceroute
Traces the route your packets take from the host you are working on to another host on a network,
showing all the intermediate hops (gateways) along the way
152
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6.40. Perl-5.26.0
The Perl package contains the Practical Extraction and Report Language.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
8.6 SBU
257 MB
6.40.1. Installation of Perl
First create a basic /etc/hosts file to be referenced in one of Perl's configuration files as well as the optional test
suite:
echo "127.0.0.1 localhost $(hostname)" > /etc/hosts
This version of Perl now builds the Compress::Raw::Zlib and Compress::Raw::BZip2 modules. By default Perl will
use an internal copy of the sources for the build. Issue the following command so that Perl will use the libraries installed
on the system:
export BUILD_ZLIB=False
export BUILD_BZIP2=0
To have full control over the way Perl is set up, you can remove the “-des” options from the following command and
hand-pick the way this package is built. Alternatively, use the command exactly as below to use the defaults that Perl
auto-detects:
sh Configure -des -Dprefix=/usr
-Dvendorprefix=/usr
-Dman1dir=/usr/share/man/man1
-Dman3dir=/usr/share/man/man3
-Dpager="/usr/bin/less -isR"
-Duseshrplib
-Dusethreads
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure options:
-Dvendorprefix=/usr
This ensures perl knows how to tell packages where they should install their perl modules.
-Dpager="/usr/bin/less -isR"
This ensures that less is used instead of more.
-Dman1dir=/usr/share/man/man1 -Dman3dir=/usr/share/man/man3
Since Groff is not installed yet, Configure thinks that we do not want man pages for Perl. Issuing these parameters
overrides this decision.
-Duseshrplib
Build a shared libperl needed by some perl modules.
-Dusethreads
Build perl with support for threads.
Compile the package:
make
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To test the results (approximately 2.5 SBU), issue:
make -k test
Note
Several tests related to zlib will fail due to using the system version of zlib instead of the internal version.
Install the package and clean up:
make install
unset BUILD_ZLIB BUILD_BZIP2
6.40.2. Contents of Perl
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directory:
c2ph, corelist, cpan, enc2xs, encguess, h2ph, h2xs, instmodsh, json_pp, libnetcfg, perl,
perl5.26.0 (hard link to perl), perlbug, perldoc, perlivp, perlthanks (hard link to perlbug),
piconv, pl2pm, pod2html, pod2man, pod2text, pod2usage, podchecker, podselect, prove,
pstruct (hard link to c2ph), ptar, ptardiff, ptargrep, shasum, splain, xsubpp, and zipdetails
Many which cannot all be listed here
/usr/lib/perl5
Short Descriptions
c2ph
Dumps C structures as generated from cc -g -S
corelist
A commandline frontend to Module::CoreList
cpan
Interact with the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) from the command line
enc2xs
Builds a Perl extension for the Encode module from either Unicode Character Mappings or Tcl
Encoding Files
encguess
Guess the encoding type of one or several files
h2ph
Converts .h C header files to .ph Perl header files
h2xs
Converts .h C header files to Perl extensions
instmodsh
Shell script for examining installed Perl modules, and can even create a tarball from an installed
module
json_pp
Converts data between certain input and output formats
libnetcfg
Can be used to configure the libnet Perl module
perl
Combines some of the best features of C, sed, awk and sh into a single swiss-army language
perl5.26.0
A hard link to perl
perlbug
Used to generate bug reports about Perl, or the modules that come with it, and mail them
perldoc
Displays a piece of documentation in pod format that is embedded in the Perl installation tree or in
a Perl script
perlivp
The Perl Installation Verification Procedure; it can be used to verify that Perl and its libraries have
been installed correctly
perlthanks
Used to generate thank you messages to mail to the Perl developers
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piconv
A Perl version of the character encoding converter iconv
pl2pm
A rough tool for converting Perl4 .pl files to Perl5 .pm modules
pod2html
Converts files from pod format to HTML format
pod2man
Converts pod data to formatted *roff input
pod2text
Converts pod data to formatted ASCII text
pod2usage
Prints usage messages from embedded pod docs in files
podchecker
Checks the syntax of pod format documentation files
podselect
Displays selected sections of pod documentation
prove
Command line tool for running tests against the Test::Harness module
pstruct
Dumps C structures as generated from cc -g -S stabs
ptar
A tar-like program written in Perl
ptardiff
A Perl program that compares an extracted archive with an unextracted one
ptargrep
A Perl program that applies pattern matching to the contents of files in a tar archive
shasum
Prints or checks SHA checksums
splain
Is used to force verbose warning diagnostics in Perl
xsubpp
Converts Perl XS code into C code
zipdetails
Displays details about the internal structure of a Zip file
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6.41. XML::Parser-2.44
The XML::Parser module is a Perl interface to James Clark's XML parser, Expat.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
2.0 MB
6.41.1. Installation of XML::Parser
Prepare XML::Parser for compilation:
perl Makefile.PL
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make test
Install the package:
make install
6.41.2. Contents of XML::Parser
Installed module:
Expat.so
Short Descriptions
Expat
provides the Perl Expat interface
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6.42. Intltool-0.51.0
The Intltool is an internationalization tool used for extracting translatable strings from source files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
1.5 MB
6.42.1. Installation of Intltool
First fix a warning that is caused by perl-5.22 and later:
sed -i 's:\\\${:\\\$\\{:' intltool-update.in
Prepare Intltool for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
install -v -Dm644 doc/I18N-HOWTO /usr/share/doc/intltool-0.51.0/I18N-HOWTO
6.42.2. Contents of Intltool
Installed programs:
Installed directories:
intltool-extract, intltool-merge, intltool-prepare, intltool-update, and intltoolize
/usr/share/doc/intltool-0.51.0 and /usr/share/intltool
Short Descriptions
intltoolize
Prepares a package to use intltool
intltool-extract
Generates header files that can be read by gettext
intltool-merge
Merges translated strings into various file types
intltool-prepare
Updates pot files and merges them with translation files
intltool-update
Updates the po template files and merges them with the translations
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6.43. Autoconf-2.69
The Autoconf package contains programs for producing shell scripts that can automatically configure source code.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU (about 3.3 SBU with tests)
17.3 MB
6.43.1. Installation of Autoconf
Prepare Autoconf for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
This takes a long time, about 3.3 SBUs. In addition, several tests are skipped that use Automake. For full test coverage,
Autoconf can be re-tested after Automake has been installed. In addition, two tests fail due to changes in libtool-2.4.3
and later.
Note
The test time for autoconf can be reduced significantly on a system with multiple cores. To do this, append
TESTSUITEFLAGS=-j<N> to the line above. For instance, using -j4 can reduce the test time by over 60
percent.
Install the package:
make install
6.43.2. Contents of Autoconf
Installed programs:
Installed directory:
autoconf, autoheader, autom4te, autoreconf, autoscan, autoupdate, and ifnames
/usr/share/autoconf
Short Descriptions
autoconf
Produces shell scripts that automatically configure software source code packages to adapt to many
kinds of Unix-like systems; the configuration scripts it produces are independent—running them
does not require the autoconf program
autoheader
A tool for creating template files of C #define statements for configure to use
autom4te
A wrapper for the M4 macro processor
autoreconf
Automatically runs autoconf, autoheader, aclocal, automake, gettextize, and libtoolize in the
correct order to save time when changes are made to autoconf and automake template files
autoscan
Helps to create a configure.in file for a software package; it examines the source files in a
directory tree, searching them for common portability issues, and creates a configure.scan file
that serves as as a preliminary configure.in file for the package
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autoupdate
Modifies a configure.in file that still calls autoconf macros by their old names to use the
current macro names
ifnames
Helps when writing configure.in files for a software package; it prints the identifiers that the
package uses in C preprocessor conditionals [If a package has already been set up to have some
portability, this program can help determine what configure needs to check for. It can also fill in
gaps in a configure.in file generated by autoscan.]
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6.44. Automake-1.15.1
The Automake package contains programs for generating Makefiles for use with Autoconf.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU (about 8.5 SBU with tests)
110 MB
6.44.1. Installation of Automake
Prepare Automake for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --docdir=/usr/share/doc/automake-1.15.1
Compile the package:
make
There are a couple of tests that incorrectly link to the wrong version of the flex library, so we temporarily work around
the problem. Also, using the -j4 make option speeds up the tests, even on systems with only one processor, due to
internal delays in individual tests. To test the results, issue:
sed -i "s:./configure:LEXLIB=/usr/lib/libfl.a &:" t/lex-{clean,depend}-cxx.sh
make -j4 check
Three tests are known to fail in the LFS environment: check12.sh, subobj.sh, and check12-w.sh.
Install the package:
make install
6.44.2. Contents of Automake
Installed programs:
Installed directories:
aclocal, aclocal-1.15 (hard linked with aclocal), automake, and automake-1.15 (hard
linked with automake)
/usr/share/aclocal-1.15, /usr/share/automake-1.15, and /usr/share/doc/automake-1.15.1
Short Descriptions
aclocal
Generates aclocal.m4 files based on the contents of configure.in files
aclocal-1.15
A hard link to aclocal
automake
A tool for automatically generating Makefile.in files from Makefile.am files [To create
all the Makefile.in files for a package, run this program in the top-level directory. By
scanning the configure.in file, it automatically finds each appropriate Makefile.am file
and generates the corresponding Makefile.in file.]
automake-1.15
A hard link to automake
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6.45. Xz-5.2.3
The Xz package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files. It provides capabilities for the lzma and
the newer xz compression formats. Compressing text files with xz yields a better compression percentage than with
the traditional gzip or bzip2 commands.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
15 MB
6.45.1. Installation of Xz
Prepare Xz for compilation with:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--disable-static \
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/xz-5.2.3
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package and make sure that all essential files are in the correct directory:
make install
mv -v
/usr/bin/{lzma,unlzma,lzcat,xz,unxz,xzcat} /bin
mv -v /usr/lib/liblzma.so.* /lib
ln -svf ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/liblzma.so) /usr/lib/liblzma.so
6.45.2. Contents of Xz
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
lzcat (link to xz), lzcmp (link to xzdiff), lzdiff (link to xzdiff), lzegrep (link to xzgrep),
lzfgrep (link to xzgrep), lzgrep (link to xzgrep), lzless (link to xzless), lzma (link to xz),
lzmadec, lzmainfo, lzmore (link to xzmore), unlzma (link to xz), unxz (link to xz), xz,
xzcat (link to xz), xzcmp (link to xzdiff), xzdec, xzdiff, xzegrep (link to xzgrep), xzfgrep
(link to xzgrep), xzgrep, xzless, and xzmore
liblzma.so
/usr/include/lzma and /usr/share/doc/xz-5.2.3
Short Descriptions
lzcat
Decompresses to standard output
lzcmp
Runs cmp on LZMA compressed files
lzdiff
Runs diff on LZMA compressed files
lzegrep
Runs egrep on LZMA compressed files
lzfgrep
Runs fgrep on LZMA compressed files
lzgrep
Runs grep on LZMA compressed files
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lzless
Runs less on LZMA compressed files
lzma
Compresses or decompresses files using the LZMA format
lzmadec
A small and fast decoder for LZMA compressed files
lzmainfo
Shows information stored in the LZMA compressed file header
lzmore
Runs more on LZMA compressed files
unlzma
Decompresses files using the LZMA format
unxz
Decompresses files using the XZ format
xz
Compresses or decompresses files using the XZ format
xzcat
Decompresses to standard output
xzcmp
Runs cmp on XZ compressed files
xzdec
A small and fast decoder for XZ compressed files
xzdiff
Runs diff on XZ compressed files
xzegrep
Runs egrep on XZ compressed files files
xzfgrep
Runs fgrep on XZ compressed files
xzgrep
Runs grep on XZ compressed files
xzless
Runs less on XZ compressed files
xzmore
Runs more on XZ compressed files
liblzma
The library implementing lossless, block-sorting data compression, using the Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain
algorithm
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6.46. Kmod-24
The Kmod package contains libraries and utilities for loading kernel modules
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
12 MB
6.46.1. Installation of Kmod
Prepare Kmod for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
--bindir=/bin
--sysconfdir=/etc
--with-rootlibdir=/lib
--with-xz
--with-zlib
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure options:
--with-xz, --with-zlib
These options enable Kmod to handle compressed kernel modules.
--with-rootlibdir=/lib
This option ensures different library related files are placed in the correct directories.
Compile the package:
make
This package does not come with a test suite that can be run in the LFS chroot environment. At a minimum the git
program is required and several tests will not run outside of a git repository.
Install the package, and create symlinks for compatibility with Module-Init-Tools (the package that previously handled
Linux kernel modules):
make install
for target in depmod insmod lsmod modinfo modprobe rmmod; do
ln -sfv ../bin/kmod /sbin/$target
done
ln -sfv kmod /bin/lsmod
6.46.2. Contents of Kmod
Installed programs:
Installed library:
depmod (link to kmod), insmod (link to kmod), kmod, lsmod (link to kmod), modinfo
(link to kmod), modprobe (link to kmod), and rmmod (link to kmod)
libkmod.so
Short Descriptions
depmod
Creates a dependency file based on the symbols it finds in the existing set of modules; this dependency
file is used by modprobe to automatically load the required modules
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insmod
Installs a loadable module in the running kernel
kmod
Loads and unloads kernel modules
lsmod
Lists currently loaded modules
modinfo
Examines an object file associated with a kernel module and displays any information that it can glean
modprobe
Uses a dependency file, created by depmod, to automatically load relevant modules
rmmod
Unloads modules from the running kernel
libkmod
This library is used by other programs to load and unload kernel modules
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6.47. Gettext-0.19.8.1
The Gettext package contains utilities for internationalization and localization. These allow programs to be compiled
with NLS (Native Language Support), enabling them to output messages in the user's native language.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
2.4 SBU
199 MB
6.47.1. Installation of Gettext
First, suppress two invocations of test-lock which on some machines can loop forever:
sed -i '/^TESTS =/d' gettext-runtime/tests/Makefile.in &&
sed -i 's/test-lock..EXEEXT.//' gettext-tools/gnulib-tests/Makefile.in
Prepare Gettext for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--disable-static \
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/gettext-0.19.8.1
Compile the package:
make
To test the results (this takes a long time, around 3 SBUs), issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
chmod -v 0755 /usr/lib/preloadable_libintl.so
6.47.2. Contents of Gettext
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
autopoint, envsubst, gettext, gettext.sh, gettextize, msgattrib, msgcat, msgcmp,
msgcomm, msgconv, msgen, msgexec, msgfilter, msgfmt, msggrep, msginit, msgmerge,
msgunfmt, msguniq, ngettext, recode-sr-latin, and xgettext
libasprintf.so,
libgettextlib.so,
libgettextpo.so,
libgettextsrc.so,
and
preloadable_libintl.so
/usr/lib/gettext, /usr/share/doc/gettext-0.19.8.1, and /usr/share/gettext
Short Descriptions
autopoint
Copies standard Gettext infrastructure files into a source package
envsubst
Substitutes environment variables in shell format strings
gettext
Translates a natural language message into the user's language by looking up the
translation in a message catalog
gettext.sh
Primarily serves as a shell function library for gettext
gettextize
Copies all standard Gettext files into the given top-level directory of a package to begin
internationalizing it
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msgattrib
Filters the messages of a translation catalog according to their attributes and manipulates
the attributes
msgcat
Concatenates and merges the given .po files
msgcmp
Compares two .po files to check that both contain the same set of msgid strings
msgcomm
Finds the messages that are common to the given .po files
msgconv
Converts a translation catalog to a different character encoding
msgen
Creates an English translation catalog
msgexec
Applies a command to all translations of a translation catalog
msgfilter
Applies a filter to all translations of a translation catalog
msgfmt
Generates a binary message catalog from a translation catalog
msggrep
Extracts all messages of a translation catalog that match a given pattern or belong to
some given source files
msginit
Creates a new .po file, initializing the meta information with values from the user's
environment
msgmerge
Combines two raw translations into a single file
msgunfmt
Decompiles a binary message catalog into raw translation text
msguniq
Unifies duplicate translations in a translation catalog
ngettext
Displays native language translations of a textual message whose grammatical form
depends on a number
recode-sr-latin
Recodes Serbian text from Cyrillic to Latin script
xgettext
Extracts the translatable message lines from the given source files to make the first
translation template
libasprintf
defines the autosprintf class, which makes C formatted output routines usable in C++
programs, for use with the <string> strings and the <iostream> streams
libgettextlib
a private library containing common routines used by the various Gettext programs;
these are not intended for general use
libgettextpo
Used to write specialized programs that process .po files; this library is used when the
standard applications shipped with Gettext (such as msgcomm, msgcmp, msgattrib,
and msgen) will not suffice
libgettextsrc
A private library containing common routines used by the various Gettext programs;
these are not intended for general use
preloadable_libintl
A library, intended to be used by LD_PRELOAD that assists libintl in logging
untranslated messages
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6.48. Systemd-234
The systemd package contains programs for controlling the startup, running, and shutdown of the system.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
7.1 SBU
442 MB
6.48.1. Installation of systemd
Create a file to allow systemd to build when using Util-Linux built in Chapter 5, to disable LTO by default, and to
build without xlstproc:
cat > config.cache << "EOF"
KILL=/bin/kill
MOUNT_PATH=/bin/mount
UMOUNT_PATH=/bin/umount
HAVE_BLKID=1
BLKID_LIBS="-lblkid"
BLKID_CFLAGS="-I/tools/include/blkid"
HAVE_LIBMOUNT=1
MOUNT_LIBS="-lmount"
MOUNT_CFLAGS="-I/tools/include/libmount"
cc_cv_CFLAGS__flto=no
SULOGIN="/sbin/sulogin"
GPERF_LEN_TYPE=size_t
XSLTPROC="/usr/bin/xsltproc"
EOF
LTO is disabled by default because it causes systemd and other auxiliary programs to link to libgcc_s.so, slows
the build down and makes the compiled code larger.
Prepare systemd for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--sysconfdir=/etc
\
--localstatedir=/var
\
--config-cache
\
--with-rootprefix=
\
--with-rootlibdir=/lib
\
--enable-split-usr
\
--disable-firstboot
\
--disable-ldconfig
\
--disable-sysusers
\
--without-python
\
--with-default-dnssec=no \
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/systemd-234
The meaning of the configure options:
--config-cache
This switch tells the build system to use the config.cache file which was created earlier.
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--with-root*
These switches ensure that core programs and shared libraries are installed in the subdirectories of the root partition.
--enable-split-usr
This switch ensures that systemd will work on systems where /bin, /lib and /sbin directories are not symlinks to
their /usr counterparts.
--without-python
This switch prevents configure from trying to use Python which isn't built in LFS.
--disable-firstboot
This switch prevents installation of systemd services responsible for setting up the system for the first time. They
are not useful for LFS because everything is done manually.
--disable-ldconfig
This switch prevents installation of a systemd unit that runs ldconfig at boot, making the boot time longer. Remove
it if the described feature is desired, even though it's not useful for source distributions such as LFS.
--disable-sysusers
This switch prevents installation of systemd services responsible for setting up the /etc/group and /etc/
passwd files. Both files were created early in this chapter.
--with-default-dnssec=no
This switch turns off the experimental DNSSEC support.
Compile the package:
make
This package has a test suite, but it can only be run after the package has been reinstalled in BLFS.
Install the package:
make install
Remove an unnecessary directory:
rm -rfv /usr/lib/rpm
Create the Sysvinit compatibility symlinks, so systemd is used as the default init system:
for tool in runlevel reboot shutdown poweroff halt telinit; do
ln -sfv ../bin/systemctl /sbin/${tool}
done
ln -sfv ../lib/systemd/systemd /sbin/init
Create the /etc/machine-id file needed by systemd-journald:
systemd-machine-id-setup
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6.48.2. Contents of systemd
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
bootctl, busctl, coredumpctl, halt, hostnamectl, init, journalctl, kernel-install, localectl,
loginctl, machinectl, networkctl, poweroff, reboot, runlevel, shutdown, systemctl,
systemd-analyze, systemd-ask-password, systemd-cat, systemd-cgls, systemd-cgtop,
systemd-delta, systemd-detect-virt, systemd-escape, systemd-hwdb, systemd-inhibit,
systemd-machine-id-setup, systemd-mount, systemd-notify, systemd-nspawn, systemdpath, systemd-resolve, systemd-run, systemd-socket-activate, systemd-stdio-bridge,
systemd-tmpfiles, systemd-tty-ask-password-agent, telinit, timedatectl, and udevadm
libnss_myhostname.so.2,
libnss_mymachines.so.2,
libnss_resolve.so.2,
libnss_systemd.so.2, libsystemd.so, libsystemd-shared-231.so, and libudev.so
/etc/binfmt.d, /etc/init.d, /etc/kernel, /etc/modules-load.d, /etc/sysctl.d, /etc/systemd, /
etc/tmpfiles.d, /etc/udev, /etc/xdg/systemd, /lib/systemd, /lib/udev, /usr/include/
systemd, /usr/lib/binfmt.d, /usr/lib/kernel, /usr/lib/modules-load.d, /usr/lib/sysctl.d, /
usr/lib/systemd, /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d, /usr/share/doc/systemd-234, /usr/share/factory, /usr/
share/systemd, /var/lib/systemd, and /var/log/journal
Short Descriptions
bootctl
used to query the firmware and boot manager settings
busctl
Used to introspect and monitor the D-Bus bus
coredumpctl
Used to retrieve coredumps from the systemd Journal
halt
Normally invokes shutdown with the -h option, except when already
in run-level 0, then it tells the kernel to halt the system; it notes in the
file /var/log/wtmp that the system is being brought down
hostnamectl
Used to query and change the system hostname and related settings
init
The first process to be started when the kernel has initialized the
hardware which takes over the boot process and starts all the proceses
it is instructed to
journalctl
Used to query the contents of the systemd Journal
kernel-install
Used to add and remove kernel and initramfs images to and from /boot
localectl
Used to query and change the system locale and keyboard layout
settings
loginctl
Used to introspect and control the state of the systemd Login Manager
machinectl
Used to introspect and control the state of the systemd Virtual Machine
and Container Registration Manager
networkctl
Used to introspect the state of the network links as seen by systemdnetworkd
poweroff
Tells the kernel to halt the system and switch off the computer (see halt)
reboot
Tells the kernel to reboot the system (see halt)
runlevel
Reports the previous and the current run-level, as noted in the last runlevel record in /var/run/utmp
shutdown
Brings the system down in a secure way, signaling all processes and
notifying all logged-in users
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systemctl
Used to introspect and control the state of the systemd system and
service manager
systemd-analyze
Used to determine system boot-up performance of the current boot
systemd-ask-password
Used to query a system password or passphrase from the user, using a
question message specified on the command line
systemd-cat
Used to connect STDOUT and STDERR of a process with the Journal
systemd-cgls
Recursively shows the contents of the selected Linux control group
hierarchy in a tree
systemd-cgtop
Shows the top control groups of the local Linux control group hierarchy,
ordered by their CPU, memory and disk I/O load
systemd-delta
Used to identify and compare configuration files in /etc that override
default counterparts in /usr
systemd-detect-virt
Detects execution in a virtualized environment
systemd-escape
Used to escape strings for inclusion in systemd unit names
systemd-hwdb
Used to manage hardware database (hwdb)
systemd-inhibit
Used to execute a program with a shutdown, sleep or idle inhibitor lock
taken
systemd-machine-id-setup
Used by system installer tools to initialize the machine ID stored in /
etc/machine-id at install time with a randomly generated ID
systemd-mount
is a tool to temporarily mount or auto-mount a drive.
systemd-notify
Used by daemon scripts to notify the init system about status changes
systemd-nspawn
Used to run a command or OS in a light-weight namespace container
systemd-path
Used to query system and user paths
systemd-resolve
Used to resolve domain names, IPV4 and IPv6 addresses, DNS resource
records, and services
systemd-run
Used to create and start a transient .service or a .scope unit and run the
specified command in it
systemd-socket-activate
is a tool to listen on socket devices and launch a process upon
connection.
systemd-tmpfiles
Creates, deletes and cleans up volatile and temporary files and
directories, based on the configuration file format and location specified
in tmpfiles.d directories
systemd-tty-ask-password-agent
Used to list or process pending systemd password requests
telinit
Tells init which run-level to change to
timedatectl
Used to query and change the system clock and its settings
udevadm
Generic Udev administration tool: controls the udevd daemon, provides
info from the Udev database, monitors uevents, waits for uevents to
finish, tests Udev configuration, and triggers uevents for a given device
libsystemd
systemd utility library
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libudev
A library to access Udev device information
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6.49. Procps-ng-3.3.12
The Procps-ng package contains programs for monitoring processes.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
14 MB
6.49.1. Installation of Procps-ng
Now prepare procps-ng for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
--exec-prefix=
--libdir=/usr/lib
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/procps-ng-3.3.12
--disable-static
--disable-kill
--with-systemd
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the configure options:
--disable-kill
This switch disables building the kill command that will be installed by the Util-linux package.
Compile the package:
make
The test suite needs some custom modifications for LFS. Remove a test that fails when scripting does not use a tty
device and fix two others. To run the test suite, run the following commands:
sed -i -r 's|(pmap_initname)\\\$|\1|' testsuite/pmap.test/pmap.exp
sed -i '/set tty/d' testsuite/pkill.test/pkill.exp
rm testsuite/pgrep.test/pgrep.exp
make check
One ps test may fail, but passes if the tests are rerun at the end of Chapter 6.
Install the package:
make install
Finally, move essential libraries to a location that can be found if /usr is not mounted.
mv -v /usr/lib/libprocps.so.* /lib
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libprocps.so) /usr/lib/libprocps.so
6.49.2. Contents of Procps-ng
Installed programs:
Installed library:
Installed directories:
free, pgrep, pidof, pkill, pmap, ps, pwdx, slabtop, sysctl, tload, top, uptime, vmstat, w,
and watch
libprocps.so
/usr/include/proc and /usr/share/doc/procps-ng-3.3.12
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Short Descriptions
free
Reports the amount of free and used memory (both physical and swap memory) in the system
pgrep
Looks up processes based on their name and other attributes
pidof
Reports the PIDs of the given programs
pkill
Signals processes based on their name and other attributes
pmap
Reports the memory map of the given process
ps
Lists the current running processes
pwdx
Reports the current working directory of a process
slabtop
Displays detailed kernel slap cache information in real time
sysctl
Modifies kernel parameters at run time
tload
Prints a graph of the current system load average
top
Displays a list of the most CPU intensive processes; it provides an ongoing look at processor activity
in real time
uptime
Reports how long the system has been running, how many users are logged on, and the system load
averages
vmstat
Reports virtual memory statistics, giving information about processes, memory, paging, block Input/
Output (IO), traps, and CPU activity
w
Shows which users are currently logged on, where, and since when
watch
Runs a given command repeatedly, displaying the first screen-full of its output; this allows a user to
watch the output change over time
libprocps
Contains the functions used by most programs in this package
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6.50. E2fsprogs-1.43.5
The E2fsprogs package contains the utilities for handling the ext2 file system. It also supports the ext3 and ext4
journaling file systems.
Approximate build time: 3.3 SBU
Required disk space:
58 MB
6.50.1. Installation of E2fsprogs
The E2fsprogs documentation recommends that the package be built in a subdirectory of the source tree:
mkdir -v build
cd build
Prepare E2fsprogs for compilation:
LIBS=-L/tools/lib
CFLAGS=-I/tools/include
PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/tools/lib/pkgconfig
../configure --prefix=/usr
--bindir=/bin
--with-root-prefix=""
--enable-elf-shlibs
--disable-libblkid
--disable-libuuid
--disable-uuidd
--disable-fsck
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the environment variable and configure options:
PKG_CONFIG_PATH, LIBS, CFLAGS
These variables enable e2fsprogs to be built using the Section 5.34, “Util-linux-2.30.1” package built earlier.
--with-root-prefix="" and --bindir=/bin
Certain programs (such as the e2fsck program) are considered essential programs. When, for example, /usr is
not mounted, these programs still need to be available. They belong in directories like /lib and /sbin. If this
option is not passed to E2fsprogs' configure, the programs are installed into the /usr directory.
--enable-elf-shlibs
This creates the shared libraries which some programs in this package use.
--disable-*
This prevents E2fsprogs from building and installing the libuuid and libblkid libraries, the uuidd daemon,
and the fsck wrapper, as Util-Linux installs more recent versions.
Compile the package:
make
To set up and run the test suite we need to first link some libraries from /tools/lib to a location where the test programs
look. To run the tests, issue:
ln -sfv /tools/lib/lib{blk,uu}id.so.1 lib
make LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/tools/lib check
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One of the E2fsprogs tests will attempt to allocate 256 MB of memory. If you do not have significantly more RAM
than this, be sure to enable sufficient swap space for the test. See Section 2.5, “Creating a File System on the Partition”
and Section 2.7, “Mounting the New Partition” for details on creating and enabling swap space.
Install the binaries, documentation, and shared libraries:
make install
Install the static libraries and headers:
make install-libs
Make the installed static libraries writable so debugging symbols can be removed later:
chmod -v u+w /usr/lib/{libcom_err,libe2p,libext2fs,libss}.a
This package installs a gzipped .info file but doesn't update the system-wide dir file. Unzip this file and then update
the system dir file using the following commands.
gunzip -v /usr/share/info/libext2fs.info.gz
install-info --dir-file=/usr/share/info/dir /usr/share/info/libext2fs.info
If desired, create and install some additional documentation by issuing the following commands:
makeinfo -o
doc/com_err.info ../lib/et/com_err.texinfo
install -v -m644 doc/com_err.info /usr/share/info
install-info --dir-file=/usr/share/info/dir /usr/share/info/com_err.info
6.50.2. Contents of E2fsprogs
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
badblocks, chattr, compile_et, debugfs, dumpe2fs,e2freefrag, e2fsck, e2image, e2label,
e2undo, e4defrag, filefrag, fsck.ext2, fsck.ext3, fsck.ext4, fsck.ext4dev, logsave, lsattr,
mk_cmds, mke2fs, mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, mkfs.ext4, mkfs.ext4dev, mklost+found,
resize2fs, and tune2fs
libcom_err.so, libe2p.so, libext2fs.so, and libss.so
/usr/include/e2p, /usr/include/et, /usr/include/ext2fs, /usr/include/ss, /usr/share/et, and /
usr/share/ss
Short Descriptions
badblocks
Searches a device (usually a disk partition) for bad blocks
chattr
Changes the attributes of files on an ext2 file system; it also changes ext3 file systems, the
journaling version of ext2 file systems
compile_et
An error table compiler; it converts a table of error-code names and messages into a C source file
suitable for use with the com_err library
debugfs
A file system debugger; it can be used to examine and change the state of an ext2 file system
dumpe2fs
Prints the super block and blocks group information for the file system present on a given device
e2freefrag
Reports free space fragmentation information
e2fsck
Is used to check, and optionally repair ext2 file systems and ext3 file systems
e2image
Is used to save critical ext2 file system data to a file
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e2label
Displays or changes the file system label on the ext2 file system present on a given device
e2undo
Replays the undo log undo_log for an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem found on a device [This can be
used to undo a failed operation by an e2fsprogs program.]
e4defrag
Online defragmenter for ext4 filesystems
filefrag
Reports on how badly fragmented a particular file might be
fsck.ext2
By default checks ext2 file systems and is a hard link to e2fsck
fsck.ext3
By default checks ext3 file systems and is a hard link to e2fsck
fsck.ext4
By default checks ext4 file systems and is a hard link to e2fsck
fsck.ext4dev
By default checks ext4 development file systems and is a hard link to e2fsck
logsave
Saves the output of a command in a log file
lsattr
Lists the attributes of files on a second extended file system
mk_cmds
Converts a table of command names and help messages into a C source file suitable for use with
the libss subsystem library
mke2fs
Creates an ext2 or ext3 file system on the given device
mkfs.ext2
By default creates ext2 file systems and is a hard link to mke2fs
mkfs.ext3
By default creates ext3 file systems and is a hard link to mke2fs
mkfs.ext4
By default creates ext4 file systems and is a hard link to mke2fs
mkfs.ext4dev
By default creates ext4 development file systems and is a hard link to mke2fs
mklost+found
Used to create a lost+found directory on an ext2 file system; it pre-allocates disk blocks to
this directory to lighten the task of e2fsck
resize2fs
Can be used to enlarge or shrink an ext2 file system
tune2fs
Adjusts tunable file system parameters on an ext2 file system
libcom_err
The common error display routine
libe2p
Used by dumpe2fs, chattr, and lsattr
libext2fs
Contains routines to enable user-level programs to manipulate an ext2 file system
libss
Used by debugfs
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6.51. Coreutils-8.27
The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the basic system characteristics.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
2.4 SBU
171 MB
6.51.1. Installation of Coreutils
POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The
following patch fixes this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.
patch -Np1 -i ../coreutils-8.27-i18n-1.patch
Note
In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please
check first if they are reproducible without this patch.
Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:
sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk
Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:
FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
--prefix=/usr
\
--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime
The meaning of the configure options:
FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1
This environment variable allows the package to be built as the root user.
--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime
The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from installing binaries that will be installed by other packages
later.
Compile the package:
FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 make
Skip down to “Install the package” if not running the test suite.
Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are meant to be run as user root:
make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root
We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the nobody user. Certain tests, however, require that the user be a
member of more than one group. So that these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the user
nobody a part of it:
echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" >> /etc/group
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Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and run the tests:
chown -Rv nobody .
Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the su environment includes /tools/bin.
su nobody -s /bin/bash \
-c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"
The test programs test-getlogin and date-debug are known to fail in a partially built system environment like the chroot
environment here, but pass if run at the end of this chapter.
Remove the temporary group:
sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group
Install the package:
make install
Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:
mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
Some packages in BLFS and beyond expect the following programs in /bin, so make sure they are placed there:
mv -v /usr/bin/{head,sleep,nice,test,[} /bin
6.51.2. Contents of Coreutils
Installed programs:
Installed library:
Installed directory:
[, base32, base64, basename, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, cksum, comm,
cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors, dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor,
false, fmt, fold, groups, head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum,
mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste, pathchk,
pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm, rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum,
sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum, sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat,
stdbuf, stty, sum, sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort, tty, uname,
unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and yes
libstdbuf.so
/usr/libexec/coreutils
Short Descriptions
base32
Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification (RFC 4648)
base64
Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification (RFC 4648)
basename
Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name
cat
Concatenates files to standard output
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chcon
Changes security context for files and directories
chgrp
Changes the group ownership of files and directories
chmod
Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode can be either a symbolic
representation of the changes to make or an octal number representing the new permissions
chown
Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and directories
chroot
Runs a command with the specified directory as the / directory
cksum
Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte counts of each specified file
comm
Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines that are unique and the lines that are
common
cp
Copies files
csplit
Splits a given file into several new files, separating them according to given patterns or line numbers
and outputting the byte count of each new file
cut
Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given fields or positions
date
Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the system date
dd
Copies a file using the given block size and count, while optionally performing conversions on it
df
Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all mounted file systems, or only on the file
systems holding the selected files
dir
Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as the ls command)
dircolors
Outputs commands to set the LS_COLOR environment variable to change the color scheme used by ls
dirname
Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name
du
Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory, by each of the given directories
(including all subdirectories) or by each of the given files
echo
Displays the given strings
env
Runs a command in a modified environment
expand
Converts tabs to spaces
expr
Evaluates expressions
factor
Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers
false
Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code indicating failure
fmt
Reformats the paragraphs in the given files
fold
Wraps the lines in the given files
groups
Reports a user's group memberships
head
Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each given file
hostid
Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host
id
Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships of the current user or specified user
install
Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if possible, their owner and group
join
Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two separate files
link
Creates a hard link with the given name to a file
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ln
Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files
logname
Reports the current user's login name
ls
Lists the contents of each given directory
md5sum
Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums
mkdir
Creates directories with the given names
mkfifo
Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names
mknod
Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a character special file, a block special
file, or a FIFO
mktemp
Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts
mv
Moves or renames files or directories
nice
Runs a program with modified scheduling priority
nl
Numbers the lines from the given files
nohup
Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to a log file
nproc
Prints the number of processing units available to a process
numfmt
Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings
od
Dumps files in octal and other formats
paste
Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines side by side, separated by tab characters
pathchk
Checks if file names are valid or portable
pinky
Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information about the given users
pr
Paginates and columnates files for printing
printenv
Prints the environment
printf
Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much like the C printf function
ptx
Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files, with each keyword in its context
pwd
Reports the name of the current working directory
readlink
Reports the value of the given symbolic link
realpath
Prints the resolved path
rm
Removes files or directories
rmdir
Removes directories if they are empty
runcon
Runs a command with specified security context
seq
Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a given increment
sha1sum
Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1) checksums
sha224sum
Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums
sha256sum
Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums
sha384sum
Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums
sha512sum
Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums
shred
Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns, making it difficult to recover the data
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shuf
Shuffles lines of text
sleep
Pauses for the given amount of time
sort
Sorts the lines from the given files
split
Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of lines
stat
Displays file or filesystem status
stdbuf
Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard streams
stty
Sets or reports terminal line settings
sum
Prints checksum and block counts for each given file
sync
Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk and updates the super block
tac
Concatenates the given files in reverse
tail
Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each given file
tee
Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output and to the given files
test
Compares values and checks file types
timeout
Runs a command with a time limit
touch
Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification times of the given files to the current time;
files that do not exist are created with zero length
tr
Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from standard input
true
Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code indicating success
truncate
Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size
tsort
Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list according to the partial ordering in a
given file
tty
Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard input
uname
Reports system information
unexpand
Converts spaces to tabs
uniq
Discards all but one of successive identical lines
unlink
Removes the given file
users
Reports the names of the users currently logged on
vdir
Is the same as ls -l
wc
Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given file, as well as a total line when more
than one file is given
who
Reports who is logged on
whoami
Reports the user name associated with the current effective user ID
yes
Repeatedly outputs “y” or a given string until killed
libstdbuf
Library used by stdbuf
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6.52. Diffutils-3.6
The Diffutils package contains programs that show the differences between files or directories.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
30 MB
6.52.1. Installation of Diffutils
Prepare Diffutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
6.52.2. Contents of Diffutils
Installed programs:
cmp, diff, diff3, and sdiff
Short Descriptions
cmp
Compares two files and reports whether or in which bytes they differ
diff
Compares two files or directories and reports which lines in the files differ
diff3
Compares three files line by line
sdiff
Merges two files and interactively outputs the results
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6.53. Gawk-4.1.4
The Gawk package contains programs for manipulating text files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
36 MB
6.53.1. Installation of Gawk
Prepare Gawk for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
If desired, install the documentation:
mkdir -v /usr/share/doc/gawk-4.1.4
cp
-v doc/{awkforai.txt,*.{eps,pdf,jpg}} /usr/share/doc/gawk-4.1.4
6.53.2. Contents of Gawk
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
awk (link to gawk), gawk, gawk-4.1.4, and igawk
filefuncs.so, fnmatch.so, fork.so, inplace.so, ordchr.so, readdir.so, readfile.so,
revoutput.so, revtwoway.so, rwarray.so, testext.so, and time.so
/usr/lib/gawk, /usr/libexec/awk, /usr/share/awk, and /usr/share/doc/gawk-4.1.4
Short Descriptions
awk
A link to gawk
gawk
A program for manipulating text files; it is the GNU implementation of awk
gawk-4.1.4
A hard link to gawk
igawk
Gives gawk the ability to include files
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6.54. Findutils-4.6.0
The Findutils package contains programs to find files. These programs are provided to recursively search through a
directory tree and to create, maintain, and search a database (often faster than the recursive find, but unreliable if the
database has not been recently updated).
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.7 SBU
48 MB
6.54.1. Installation of Findutils
First, suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:
sed -i 's/test-lock..EXEEXT.//' tests/Makefile.in
Prepare Findutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --localstatedir=/var/lib/locate
The meaning of the configure options:
--localstatedir
This option changes the location of the locate database to be in /var/lib/locate, which is FHS-compliant.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Some packages in BLFS and beyond expect the find program in /bin, so make sure it's placed there:
mv -v /usr/bin/find /bin
sed -i 's|find:=${BINDIR}|find:=/bin|' /usr/bin/updatedb
6.54.2. Contents of Findutils
Installed programs:
code, find, locate, oldfind, updatedb, and xargs
Short Descriptions
code
Was formerly used to produce locate databases; it is the ancestor of frcode
find
Searches given directory trees for files matching the specified criteria
locate
Searches through a database of file names and reports the names that contain a given string or match
a given pattern
oldfind
Older version of find, using a different algorithm
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updatedb
Updates the locate database; it scans the entire file system (including other file systems that are currently
mounted, unless told not to) and puts every file name it finds into the database
xargs
Can be used to apply a given command to a list of files
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6.55. Groff-1.22.3
The Groff package contains programs for processing and formatting text.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
83 MB
6.55.1. Installation of Groff
Groff expects the environment variable PAGE to contain the default paper size. For users in the United States,
PAGE=letter is appropriate. Elsewhere, PAGE=A4 may be more suitable. While the default paper size is configured
during compilation, it can be overridden later by echoing either “A4” or “letter” to the /etc/papersize file.
Prepare Groff for compilation:
PAGE=<paper_size> ./configure --prefix=/usr
This package does not support parallel build. Compile the package:
make -j1
This package does not come with a test suite.
Install the package:
make install
6.55.2. Contents of Groff
Installed programs:
Installed directories:
addftinfo, afmtodit, chem, eqn, eqn2graph, gdiffmk, glilypond, gperl, gpinyin,
grap2graph, grn, grodvi, groff, groffer, grog, grolbp, grolj4, gropdf, grops, grotty,
hpftodit, indxbib, lkbib, lookbib, mmroff, neqn, nroff, pdfmom, pdfroff, pfbtops, pic,
pic2graph, post-grohtml, preconv, pre-grohtml, refer, roff2dvi, roff2html, roff2pdf,
roff2ps, roff2text, roff2x, soelim, tbl, tfmtodit, and troff
/usr/lib/groff and /usr/share/doc/groff-1.22.3, /usr/share/groff
Short Descriptions
addftinfo
Reads a troff font file and adds some additional font-metric information that is used by the groff
system
afmtodit
Creates a font file for use with groff and grops
chem
Groff preprocessor for producing chemical structure diagrams
eqn
Compiles descriptions of equations embedded within troff input files into commands that are
understood by troff
eqn2graph
Converts a troff EQN (equation) into a cropped image
gdiffmk
Marks differences between groff/nroff/troff files
glilypond
Transforms sheet music written in the lilypond language into the groff language
gperl
Preprocesor for groff, allowing addition of perl code into groff files
gpinyin
Preprocesor for groff, allowing addition of Chinese European-like language Pinyin into groff files.
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grap2graph
Converts a grap diagram into a cropped bitmap image
grn
A groff preprocessor for gremlin files
grodvi
A driver for groff that produces TeX dvi format
groff
A front-end to the groff document formatting system; normally, it runs the troff program and a
post-processor appropriate for the selected device
groffer
Displays groff files and man pages on X and tty terminals
grog
Reads files and guesses which of the groff options -e, -man, -me, -mm, -ms, -p, -s, and -t
are required for printing files, and reports the groff command including those options
grolbp
Is a groff driver for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers)
grolj4
Is a driver for groff that produces output in PCL5 format suitable for an HP LaserJet 4 printer
gropdf
Translates the output of GNU troff to PDF
grops
Translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript
grotty
Translates the output of GNU troff into a form suitable for typewriter-like devices
hpftodit
Creates a font file for use with groff -Tlj4 from an HP-tagged font metric file
indxbib
Creates an inverted index for the bibliographic databases with a specified file for use with refer,
lookbib, and lkbib
lkbib
Searches bibliographic databases for references that contain specified keys and reports any
references found
lookbib
Prints a prompt on the standard error (unless the standard input is not a terminal), reads a line
containing a set of keywords from the standard input, searches the bibliographic databases in a
specified file for references containing those keywords, prints any references found on the standard
output, and repeats this process until the end of input
mmroff
A simple preprocessor for groff
neqn
Formats equations for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output
nroff
A script that emulates the nroff command using groff
pdfmom
Is a wrapper around groff that facilitates the production of PDF documents from files formatted
with the mom macros.
pdfroff
Creates pdf documents using groff
pfbtops
Translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII
pic
Compiles descriptions of pictures embedded within troff or TeX input files into commands
understood by TeX or troff
pic2graph
Converts a PIC diagram into a cropped image
post-grohtml
Translates the output of GNU troff to HTML
preconv
Converts encoding of input files to something GNU troff understands
pre-grohtml
Translates the output of GNU troff to HTML
refer
Copies the contents of a file to the standard output, except that lines between .[ and .] are interpreted
as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are interpreted as commands for how citations are to
be processed
roff2dvi
Transforms roff files into DVI format
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roff2html
Transforms roff files into HTML format
roff2pdf
Transforms roff files into PDFs
roff2ps
Transforms roff files into ps files
roff2text
Transforms roff files into text files
roff2x
Transforms roff files into other formats
soelim
Reads files and replaces lines of the form .so file by the contents of the mentioned file
tbl
Compiles descriptions of tables embedded within troff input files into commands that are
understood by troff
tfmtodit
Creates a font file for use with groff -Tdvi
troff
Is highly compatible with Unix troff; it should usually be invoked using the groff command, which
will also run preprocessors and post-processors in the appropriate order and with the appropriate
options
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6.56. GRUB-2.02
The GRUB package contains the GRand Unified Bootloader.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.8 SBU
144 MB
6.56.1. Installation of GRUB
Prepare GRUB for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
--sbindir=/sbin
--sysconfdir=/etc
--disable-efiemu
--disable-werror
\
\
\
\
The meaning of the new configure options:
--disable-werror
This allows the build to complete with warnings introduced by more recent Flex versions.
--disable-efiemu
This option minimizes what is built by disabling a feature and testing programs not needed for LFS.
Compile the package:
make
This package does not come with a test suite.
Install the package:
make install
Using GRUB to make your LFS system bootable will be discussed in Section 8.4, “Using GRUB to Set Up the Boot
Process”.
6.56.2. Contents of GRUB
Installed programs:
Installed directories:
grub-bios-setup, grub-editenv, grub-file, grub-fstest, grub-glue-efi, grub-install, grubkbdcomp, grub-macbless, grub-menulst2cfg, grub-mkconfig, grub-mkimage, grubmklayout, grub-mknetdir, grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2, grub-mkrelpath, grub-mkrescue,
grub-mkstandalone, grub-ofpathname, grub-probe, grub-reboot, grub-render-label, grubscript-check, grub-set-default, grub-sparc64-setup, and grub-syslinux2cfg
/usr/lib/grub, /etc/grub.d, /usr/share/grub, and boot/grub (when grub-install is first run)
Short Descriptions
grub-bios-setup
Is a helper program for grub-install
grub-editenv
A tool to edit the environment block
grub-file
Checks if FILE is of the specified type.
grub-fstest
Tool to debug the filesystem driver
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grub-glue-efi
Processes ia32 and amd64 EFI images and glues them according to Apple format.
grub-install
Install GRUB on your drive
grub-kbdcomp
Script that converts an xkb layout into one recognized by GRUB
grub-macbless
Mac-style bless on HFS or HFS+ files
grub-menulst2cfg
Converts a GRUB Legacy menu.lst into a grub.cfg for use with GRUB 2
grub-mkconfig
Generate a grub config file
grub-mkimage
Make a bootable image of GRUB
grub-mklayout
Generates a GRUB keyboard layout file
grub-mknetdir
Prepares a GRUB netboot directory
grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2
Generates an encrypted PBKDF2 password for use in the boot menu
grub-mkrelpath
Makes a system pathname relative to its root
grub-mkrescue
Make a bootable image of GRUB suitable for a floppy disk or CDROM/DVD
grub-mkstandalone
Generates a standalone image
grub-ofpathname
Is a helper program that prints the path of a GRUB device
grub-probe
Probe device information for a given path or device
grub-reboot
Sets the default boot entry for GRUB for the next boot only
grub-render-label
Render Apple .disk_label for Apple Macs
grub-script-check
Checks GRUB configuration script for syntax errors
grub-set-default
Sets the default boot entry for GRUB
grub-sparc64-setup
Is a helper program for grub-setup
grub-syslinux2cfg
Transform a syslinux config file into grub.cfg format
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6.57. Less-487
The Less package contains a text file viewer.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
less than 0.1 SBU
3.5 MB
6.57.1. Installation of Less
Prepare Less for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc
The meaning of the configure options:
--sysconfdir=/etc
This option tells the programs created by the package to look in /etc for the configuration files.
Compile the package:
make
This package does not come with a test suite.
Install the package:
make install
6.57.2. Contents of Less
Installed programs:
less, lessecho, and lesskey
Short Descriptions
less
A file viewer or pager; it displays the contents of the given file, letting the user scroll, find strings, and
jump to marks
lessecho
Needed to expand meta-characters, such as * and ?, in filenames on Unix systems
lesskey
Used to specify the key bindings for less
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6.58. Gzip-1.8
The Gzip package contains programs for compressing and decompressing files.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
19 MB
6.58.1. Installation of Gzip
Prepare Gzip for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Two tests are known to fail in the LFS environment: help-version and zmore.
Install the package:
make install
Move a program that needs to be on the root filesystem:
mv -v /usr/bin/gzip /bin
6.58.2. Contents of Gzip
Installed programs:
gunzip, gzexe, gzip, uncompress (hard link with gunzip), zcat, zcmp, zdiff, zegrep,
zfgrep, zforce, zgrep, zless, zmore, and znew
Short Descriptions
gunzip
Decompresses gzipped files
gzexe
Creates self-decompressing executable files
gzip
Compresses the given files using Lempel-Ziv (LZ77) coding
uncompress
Decompresses compressed files
zcat
Decompresses the given gzipped files to standard output
zcmp
Runs cmp on gzipped files
zdiff
Runs diff on gzipped files
zegrep
Runs egrep on gzipped files
zfgrep
Runs fgrep on gzipped files
zforce
Forces a .gz extension on all given files that are gzipped files, so that gzip will not compress them
again; this can be useful when file names were truncated during a file transfer
zgrep
Runs grep on gzipped files
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zless
Runs less on gzipped files
zmore
Runs more on gzipped files
znew
Re-compresses files from compress format to gzip format—.Z to .gz
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6.59. IPRoute2-4.12.0
The IPRoute2 package contains programs for basic and advanced IPV4-based networking.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
12 MB
6.59.1. Installation of IPRoute2
The arpd program included in this package will not be built since it is dependent on Berkeley DB, which is not installed
in LFS. However, documentation files and a directory for arpd will still be installed. Prevent this by running the
commands below. If the arpd binary is needed, instructions for compiling Berkeley DB can be found in the BLFS Book
at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/8.1/server/databases.html#db.
sed -i /ARPD/d Makefile
sed -i 's/arpd.8//' man/man8/Makefile
rm -v doc/arpd.sgml
It is also necessary to disable building one module that requires http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/8.1/postlfs/
iptables.html.
sed -i 's/m_ipt.o//' tc/Makefile
Compile the package:
make
This package does not have a working test suite.
Install the package:
make DOCDIR=/usr/share/doc/iproute2-4.12.0 install
6.59.2. Contents of IPRoute2
Installed programs:
Installed directories:
bridge, ctstat (link to lnstat), genl, ifcfg, ifstat, ip, lnstat, nstat, routef, routel, rtacct, rtmon,
rtpr, rtstat (link to lnstat), ss, and tc
/etc/iproute2, /usr/lib/tc, and /usr/share/doc/iproute2-4.12.0,
Short Descriptions
bridge
Configures network bridges
ctstat
Connection status utility
genl
Generic netlink utility frontend
ifcfg
A shell script wrapper for the ip command [Note that it requires the arping and rdisk programs from the
iputils package found at http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/.]
ifstat
Shows the interface statistics, including the amount of transmitted and received packets by interface
ip
The main executable. It has several different functions:
ip link <device> allows users to look at the state of devices and to make changes
ip addr allows users to look at addresses and their properties, add new addresses, and delete old ones
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ip neighbor allows users to look at neighbor bindings and their properties, add new neighbor entries, and
delete old ones
ip rule allows users to look at the routing policies and change them
ip route allows users to look at the routing table and change routing table rules
ip tunnel allows users to look at the IP tunnels and their properties, and change them
ip maddr allows users to look at the multicast addresses and their properties, and change them
ip mroute allows users to set, change, or delete the multicast routing
ip monitor allows users to continuously monitor the state of devices, addresses and routes
lnstat
Provides Linux network statistics; it is a generalized and more feature-complete replacement for the old
rtstat program
nstat
Shows network statistics
routef
A component of ip route. This is for flushing the routing tables
routel
A component of ip route. This is for listing the routing tables
rtacct
Displays the contents of /proc/net/rt_acct
rtmon
Route monitoring utility
rtpr
Converts the output of ip -o back into a readable form
rtstat
Route status utility
ss
Similar to the netstat command; shows active connections
tc
Traffic Controlling Executable; this is for Quality Of Service (QOS) and Class Of Service (COS)
implementations
tc qdisc allows users to setup the queueing discipline
tc class allows users to setup classes based on the queuing discipline scheduling
tc estimator allows users to estimate the network flow into a network
tc filter allows users to setup the QOS/COS packet filtering
tc policy allows users to setup the QOS/COS policies
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
6.60. Kbd-2.0.4
The Kbd package contains key-table files, console fonts, and keyboard utilities.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
29 MB
6.60.1. Installation of Kbd
The behaviour of the Backspace and Delete keys is not consistent across the keymaps in the Kbd package. The following
patch fixes this issue for i386 keymaps:
patch -Np1 -i ../kbd-2.0.4-backspace-1.patch
After patching, the Backspace key generates the character with code 127, and the Delete key generates a well-known
escape sequence.
Remove the redundant resizecons program (it requires the defunct svgalib to provide the video mode files - for normal
use setfont sizes the console appropriately) together with its manpage.
sed -i 's/\(RESIZECONS_PROGS=\)yes/\1no/g' configure
sed -i 's/resizecons.8 //' docs/man/man8/Makefile.in
Prepare Kbd for compilation:
PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/tools/lib/pkgconfig ./configure --prefix=/usr --disable-vlock
The meaning of the configure options:
--disable-vlock
This option prevents the vlock utility from being built, as it requires the PAM library, which isn't available in the
chroot environment.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Note
For some languages (e.g., Belarusian) the Kbd package doesn't provide a useful keymap where the stock
“by” keymap assumes the ISO-8859-5 encoding, and the CP1251 keymap is normally used. Users of such
languages have to download working keymaps separately.
If desired, install the documentation:
mkdir -v
/usr/share/doc/kbd-2.0.4
cp -R -v docs/doc/* /usr/share/doc/kbd-2.0.4
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6.60.2. Contents of Kbd
Installed programs:
Installed directories:
chvt, deallocvt, dumpkeys, fgconsole, getkeycodes, kbdinfo, kbd_mode, kbdrate,
loadkeys, loadunimap, mapscrn, openvt, psfaddtable (link to psfxtable), psfgettable (link
to psfxtable), psfstriptable (link to psfxtable), psfxtable, setfont, setkeycodes, setleds,
setmetamode, setvtrgb, showconsolefont, showkey, unicode_start, and unicode_stop
/usr/share/consolefonts, /usr/share/consoletrans, /usr/share/keymaps, /usr/share/doc/
kbd-2.0.4, and /usr/share/unimaps
Short Descriptions
chvt
Changes the foreground virtual terminal
deallocvt
Deallocates unused virtual terminals
dumpkeys
Dumps the keyboard translation tables
fgconsole
Prints the number of the active virtual terminal
getkeycodes
Prints the kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table
kbdinfo
Obtains information about the status of a console
kbd_mode
Reports or sets the keyboard mode
kbdrate
Sets the keyboard repeat and delay rates
loadkeys
Loads the keyboard translation tables
loadunimap
Loads the kernel unicode-to-font mapping table
mapscrn
An obsolete program that used to load a user-defined output character mapping table into the
console driver; this is now done by setfont
openvt
Starts a program on a new virtual terminal (VT)
psfaddtable
Adds a Unicode character table to a console font
psfgettable
Extracts the embedded Unicode character table from a console font
psfstriptable
Removes the embedded Unicode character table from a console font
psfxtable
Handles Unicode character tables for console fonts
setfont
Changes the Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA) and Video Graphics Array (VGA) fonts on
the console
setkeycodes
Loads kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries; this is useful if there are unusual
keys on the keyboard
setleds
Sets the keyboard flags and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
setmetamode
Defines the keyboard meta-key handling
setvtrgb
Sets the console color map in all virtual terminals
showconsolefont
Shows the current EGA/VGA console screen font
showkey
Reports the scancodes, keycodes, and ASCII codes of the keys pressed on the keyboard
unicode_start
Puts the keyboard and console in UNICODE mode [Don't use this program unless your
keymap file is in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. For other encodings, this utility produces incorrect
results.]
unicode_stop
Reverts keyboard and console from UNICODE mode
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6.61. Libpipeline-1.4.2
The Libpipeline package contains a library for manipulating pipelines of subprocesses in a flexible and convenient way.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.1 SBU
8.0 MB
6.61.1. Installation of Libpipeline
Prepare Libpipeline for compilation:
PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/tools/lib/pkgconfig ./configure --prefix=/usr
The meaning of the configure options:
PKG_CONFIG_PATH
Use pkg-config to obtain the location of the test library metadata built in Section 5.14, “Check-0.11.0”.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
6.61.2. Contents of Libpipeline
Installed library:
libpipeline.so
Short Descriptions
libpipeline This library is used to safely construct pipelines between subprocesses
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6.62. Make-4.2.1
The Make package contains a program for compiling packages.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.6 SBU
12.6 MB
6.62.1. Installation of Make
Prepare Make for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
The test suite needs to know where supporting perl files are located. We use an envronment variable to accomplish
this. To test the results, issue:
make PERL5LIB=$PWD/tests/ check
Install the package:
make install
6.62.2. Contents of Make
Installed program:
make
Short Descriptions
make
Automatically determines which pieces of a package need to be (re)compiled and then issues the relevant
commands
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6.63. Patch-2.7.5
The Patch package contains a program for modifying or creating files by applying a “patch” file typically created by
the diff program.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.2 SBU
11 MB
6.63.1. Installation of Patch
Prepare Patch for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
6.63.2. Contents of Patch
Installed program:
patch
Short Descriptions
patch
Modifies files according to a patch file [A patch file is normally a difference listing created with the diff
program. By applying these differences to the original files, patch creates the patched versions.]
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6.64. D-Bus-1.10.22
D-Bus is a message bus system, a simple way for applications to talk to one another. D-Bus supplies both a system
daemon (for events such as "new hardware device added" or "printer queue changed") and a per-user-login-session
daemon (for general IPC needs among user applications). Also, the message bus is built on top of a general one-toone message passing framework, which can be used by any two applications to communicate directly (without going
through the message bus daemon).
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.3 SBU
22 MB
6.64.1. Installation of D-Bus
Prepare D-Bus for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--sysconfdir=/etc
\
--localstatedir=/var
\
--disable-static
\
--disable-doxygen-docs
\
--disable-xml-docs
\
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/dbus-1.10.22 \
--with-console-auth-dir=/run/console
The meaning of the configure options:
--with-console-auth-dir=/run/console
This specifies the location of the ConsoleKit auth directory.
Compile the package:
make
This package does come with a test suite, but it requires several packages that are not included in LFS. Instructions
for running the test suite can be found in the BLFS book at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/8.1/general/
dbus.html.
Install the package:
make install
The shared library needs to be moved to /lib, and as a result the .so file in /usr/lib will need to be recreated:
mv -v /usr/lib/libdbus-1.so.* /lib
ln -sfv ../../lib/$(readlink /usr/lib/libdbus-1.so) /usr/lib/libdbus-1.so
Create a symlink, so that D-Bus and systemd can use the same machine-id file:
ln -sfv /etc/machine-id /var/lib/dbus
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6.64.2. Contents of D-Bus
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
dbus-cleanup-sockets, dbus-daemon, dbus-launch, dbus-monitor, dbus-run-session,
dbus-send, dbus-test-tool, dbus-update-activation-environment, and dbus-uuidgen
libdbus-1.{a,so}
/etc/dbus-1, /usr/include/dbus-1.0, /usr/lib/dbus-1.0, /usr/share/dbus-1, /usr/share/doc/
dbus-1.10.22, and /var/lib/dbus
Short Descriptions
dbus-cleanup-sockets
is used to clean up leftover sockets in a directory
dbus-daemon
is the D-Bus message bus daemon
dbus-launch
starts dbus-daemon from a shell script
dbus-monitor
monitors messages passing through a D-Bus message bus
dbus-run-session
starts a session bus instance of dbus-daemon from a shell script
and starts a specified program in that session
dbus-send
sends a message to a D-Bus message bus
dbus-test-tool
is a tool to help packages test D-Bus.
dbus-update-activation-environment
updates environment variables that will be set for D-Bus session
services.
dbus-uuidgen
generates a universally unique ID
libdbus-1
contains API functions used to communicate with the D-Bus
message bus
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6.65. Util-linux-2.30.1
The Util-linux package contains miscellaneous utility programs. Among them are utilities for handling file systems,
consoles, partitions, and messages.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
1.0 SBU
181 MB
6.65.1. FHS compliance notes
The FHS recommends using the /var/lib/hwclock directory instead of the usual /etc directory as the location
for the adjtime file. First create a directory to enable storage for the hwclock program:
mkdir -pv /var/lib/hwclock
6.65.2. Installation of Util-linux
Prepare Util-linux for compilation:
./configure ADJTIME_PATH=/var/lib/hwclock/adjtime
\
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/util-linux-2.30.1 \
--disable-chfn-chsh \
--disable-login
\
--disable-nologin
\
--disable-su
\
--disable-setpriv
\
--disable-runuser
\
--disable-pylibmount \
--disable-static
\
--without-python
The --disable and --without options prevent warnings about building components that require packages not in LFS or
are inconsistent with programs installed by other packages.
Compile the package:
make
If desired, run the test suite as a non-root user:
Warning
Running the test suite as the root user can be harmful to your system. To run it, the CONFIG_SCSI_DEBUG
option for the kernel must be available in the currently running system, and must be built as a module. Building
it into the kernel will prevent booting. For complete coverage, other BLFS packages must be installed. If
desired, this test can be run after rebooting into the completed LFS system and running:
bash tests/run.sh --srcdir=$PWD --builddir=$PWD
chown -Rv nobody .
su nobody -s /bin/bash -c "PATH=$PATH make -k check"
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Note
One test, fincore/count, may fail in the initial chroot environment but will pass if the test is rerun after the
LFS system is complete.
Install the package:
make install
6.65.3. Contents of Util-linux
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
addpart, agetty, blkdiscard, blkid, blockdev, cal, cfdisk, chcpu, chrt, col, colcrt, colrm,
column, ctrlaltdel, delpart, dmesg, eject, fallocate, fdformat, fdisk, findfs, findmnt, flock,
fsck, fsck.cramfs, fsck.minix, fsfreeze, fstrim, getopt, hexdump, hwclock, i386, ionice,
ipcmk, ipcrm, ipcs, isosize, kill, last, lastb (link to last), ldattach, linux32, linux64,
logger, look, losetup, lsblk, lscpu, lsipc, lslocks, lslogins, mcookie, mesg, mkfs, mkfs.bfs,
mkfs.cramfs, mkfs.minix, mkswap, more, mount, mountpoint, namei, nsenter, partx,
pg, pivot_root, prlimit, raw, readprofile, rename, renice, resizepart, rev, rtcwake, script,
scriptreplay, setarch, setsid, setterm, sfdisk, sulogin, swaplabel, swapoff (link to swapon),
swapon, switch_root, tailf, taskset, ul, umount, uname26, unshare, utmpdump, uuidd,
uuidgen, wall, wdctl, whereis, wipefs, x86_64, and zramctl
libblkid.so, libfdisk.so, libmount.so, libsmartcols.so, and libuuid.so
/usr/include/blkid,
/usr/include/libfdisk,
/usr/include/libmount,
/usr/include/
libsmartcols, /usr/include/uuid, /usr/share/doc/util-linux-2.30.1, and /var/lib/hwclock
Short Descriptions
addpart
Informs the Linux kernel of new partitions
agetty
Opens a tty port, prompts for a login name, and then invokes the login program
blkdiscard
Discards sectors on a device
blkid
A command line utility to locate and print block device attributes
blockdev
Allows users to call block device ioctls from the command line
cal
Displays a simple calendar
cfdisk
Manipulates the partition table of the given device
chcpu
Modifies the state of CPUs
chrt
Manipulates real-time attributes of a process
col
Filters out reverse line feeds
colcrt
Filters nroff output for terminals that lack some capabilities, such as overstriking and half-lines
colrm
Filters out the given columns
column
Formats a given file into multiple columns
ctrlaltdel
Sets the function of the Ctrl+Alt+Del key combination to a hard or a soft reset
delpart
Asks the Linux kernel to remove a partition
dmesg
Dumps the kernel boot messages
eject
Ejects removable media
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fallocate
Preallocates space to a file
fdformat
Low-level formats a floppy disk
fdisk
Manipulates the partition table of the given device
findfs
Finds a file system by label or Universally Unique Identifier (UUID)
findmnt
Is a command line interface to the libmount library for work with mountinfo, fstab and mtab files
flock
Acquires a file lock and then executes a command with the lock held
fsck
Is used to check, and optionally repair, file systems
fsck.cramfs
Performs a consistency check on the Cramfs file system on the given device
fsck.minix
Performs a consistency check on the Minix file system on the given device
fsfreeze
Is a very simple wrapper around FIFREEZE/FITHAW ioctl kernel driver operations
fstrim
Discards unused blocks on a mounted filesystem
getopt
Parses options in the given command line
hexdump
Dumps the given file in hexadecimal or in another given format
hwclock
Reads or sets the system's hardware clock, also called the Real-Time Clock (RTC) or Basic InputOutput System (BIOS) clock
i386
A symbolic link to setarch
ionice
Gets or sets the io scheduling class and priority for a program
ipcmk
Creates various IPC resources
ipcrm
Removes the given Inter-Process Communication (IPC) resource
ipcs
Provides IPC status information
isosize
Reports the size of an iso9660 file system
kill
Sends signals to processes
last
Shows which users last logged in (and out), searching back through the /var/log/wtmp file; it
also shows system boots, shutdowns, and run-level changes
lastb
Shows the failed login attempts, as logged in /var/log/btmp
ldattach
Attaches a line discipline to a serial line
linux32
A symbolic link to setarch
linux64
A symbolic link to setarch
logger
Enters the given message into the system log
look
Displays lines that begin with the given string
losetup
Sets up and controls loop devices
lsblk
Lists information about all or selected block devices in a tree-like format
lscpu
Prints CPU architecture information
lsipc
Prints information on IPC facilities currently employed in the system
lslocks
Lists local system locks
lslogins
Lists information about users, groups and system accounts
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mcookie
Generates magic cookies (128-bit random hexadecimal numbers) for xauth
mesg
Controls whether other users can send messages to the current user's terminal
mkfs
Builds a file system on a device (usually a hard disk partition)
mkfs.bfs
Creates a Santa Cruz Operations (SCO) bfs file system
mkfs.cramfs
Creates a cramfs file system
mkfs.minix
Creates a Minix file system
mkswap
Initializes the given device or file to be used as a swap area
more
A filter for paging through text one screen at a time
mount
Attaches the file system on the given device to a specified directory in the file-system tree
mountpoint
Checks if the directory is a mountpoint
namei
Shows the symbolic links in the given pathnames
nsenter
Runs a program with namespaces of other processes
partx
Tells the kernel about the presence and numbering of on-disk partitions
pg
Displays a text file one screen full at a time
pivot_root
Makes the given file system the new root file system of the current process
prlimit
Get and set a process' resource limits
raw
Bind a Linux raw character device to a block device
readprofile
Reads kernel profiling information
rename
Renames the given files, replacing a given string with another
renice
Alters the priority of running processes
resizepart
Asks the Linux kernel to resize a partition
rev
Reverses the lines of a given file
rtcwake
Used to enter a system sleep state until specified wakeup time
script
Makes a typescript of a terminal session
scriptreplay
Plays back typescripts using timing information
setarch
Changes reported architecture in a new program environment and sets personality flags
setsid
Runs the given program in a new session
setterm
Sets terminal attributes
sfdisk
A disk partition table manipulator
sulogin
Allows root to log in; it is normally invoked by init when the system goes into single user mode
swaplabel
Allows to change swaparea UUID and label
swapoff
Disables devices and files for paging and swapping
swapon
Enables devices and files for paging and swapping and lists the devices and files currently in use
switch_root
Switches to another filesystem as the root of the mount tree
tailf
Tracks the growth of a log file; displays the last 10 lines of a log file, then continues displaying
any new entries in the log file as they are created
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taskset
Retrieves or sets a process' CPU affinity
ul
A filter for translating underscores into escape sequences indicating underlining for the terminal
in use
umount
Disconnects a file system from the system's file tree
uname26
A symbolic link to setarch
unshare
Runs a program with some namespaces unshared from parent
utmpdump
Displays the content of the given login file in a more user-friendly format
uuidd
A daemon used by the UUID library to generate time-based UUIDs in a secure and guranteedunique fashion
uuidgen
Creates new UUIDs. Each new UUID can reasonably be considered unique among all UUIDs
created, on the local system and on other systems, in the past and in the future
wall
Displays the contents of a file or, by default, its standard input, on the terminals of all currently
logged in users
wdctl
Shows hardware watchdog status
whereis
Reports the location of the binary, source, and man page for the given command
wipefs
Wipes a filesystem signature from a device
x86_64
A symbolic link to setarch
zramctl
A program to set up and control zram (compressed ram disk) devices
libblkid
Contains routines for device identification and token extraction
libfdisk
Contains routines for manipulating partition tables
libmount
Contains routines for block device mounting and unmounting
libsmartcols
Contains routines for aiding screen output in tabular form
libuuid
Contains routines for generating unique identifiers for objects that may be accessible beyond the
local system
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6.66. Man-DB-2.7.6.1
The Man-DB package contains programs for finding and viewing man pages.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
0.4 SBU
30 MB
6.66.1. Installation of Man-DB
Prepare Man-DB for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
\
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/man-db-2.7.6.1 \
--sysconfdir=/etc
\
--disable-setuid
\
--enable-cache-owner=bin
\
--with-browser=/usr/bin/lynx
\
--with-vgrind=/usr/bin/vgrind
\
--with-grap=/usr/bin/grap
The meaning of the configure options:
--disable-setuid
This disables making the man program setuid to user man.
--enable-cache-owner=bin
This makes the system-wide cache files be owned by user bin.
--with-...
These three parameters are used to set some default programs. lynx is a text-based web browser (see BLFS for
installation instructions), vgrind converts program sources to Groff input, and grap is useful for typesetting graphs
in Groff documents. The vgrind and grap programs are not normally needed for viewing manual pages. They are
not part of LFS or BLFS, but you should be able to install them yourself after finishing LFS if you wish to do so.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Remove a reference to a non-existent user:
sed -i "s:man man:root root:g" /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/man-db.conf
6.66.2. Non-English Manual Pages in LFS
The following table shows the character set that Man-DB assumes manual pages installed under /usr/share/man/
<ll> will be encoded with. In addition to this, Man-DB correctly determines if manual pages installed in that directory
are UTF-8 encoded.
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Table 6.1. Expected character encoding of legacy 8-bit manual pages
Language (code)
Encoding
Language (code)
Encoding
Danish (da)
ISO-8859-1
Croatian (hr)
ISO-8859-2
German (de)
ISO-8859-1
Hungarian (hu)
ISO-8859-2
English (en)
ISO-8859-1
Japanese (ja)
EUC-JP
Spanish (es)
ISO-8859-1
Korean (ko)
EUC-KR
Estonian (et)
ISO-8859-1
Lithuanian (lt)
ISO-8859-13
Finnish (fi)
ISO-8859-1
Latvian (lv)
ISO-8859-13
French (fr)
ISO-8859-1
Macedonian (mk)
ISO-8859-5
Irish (ga)
ISO-8859-1
Polish (pl)
ISO-8859-2
Galician (gl)
ISO-8859-1
Romanian (ro)
ISO-8859-2
Indonesian (id)
ISO-8859-1
Russian (ru)
KOI8-R
Icelandic (is)
ISO-8859-1
Slovak (sk)
ISO-8859-2
Italian (it)
ISO-8859-1
Slovenian (sl)
ISO-8859-2
Serbian Latin (sr@latin)
ISO-8859-2
ISO-8859-1
Serbian (sr)
ISO-8859-5
Norwegian Nynorsk ISO-8859-1
(nn)
Turkish (tr)
ISO-8859-9
Norwegian (no)
ISO-8859-1
Ukrainian (uk)
KOI8-U
Portuguese (pt)
ISO-8859-1
Vietnamese (vi)
TCVN5712-1
Swedish (sv)
ISO-8859-1
Simplified Chinese (zh_CN)
GBK
Belarusian (be)
CP1251
Simplified
(zh_SG)
Bulgarian (bg)
CP1251
Traditional Chinese, Hong Kong BIG5HKSCS
(zh_HK)
Czech (cs)
ISO-8859-2
Traditional Chinese (zh_TW)
Greek (el)
ISO-8859-7
Norwegian
(nb)
Bokmal ISO-8859-1
Dutch (nl)
Chinese,
Singapore GBK
BIG5
Note
Manual pages in languages not in the list are not supported.
6.66.3. Contents of Man-DB
Installed programs:
Installed libraries:
Installed directories:
accessdb, apropos (link to whatis), catman, lexgrog, man, mandb, manpath, and whatis
libman.so and libmandb.so
/usr/lib/man-db, /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d, /usr/libexec/man-db, and /usr/share/doc/mandb-2.7.6.1
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Short Descriptions
accessdb
Dumps the whatis database contents in human-readable form
apropos
Searches the whatis database and displays the short descriptions of system commands that contain a
given string
catman
Creates or updates the pre-formatted manual pages
lexgrog
Displays one-line summary information about a given manual page
man
Formats and displays the requested manual page
mandb
Creates or updates the whatis database
manpath
Displays the contents of $MANPATH or (if $MANPATH is not set) a suitable search path based on the
settings in man.conf and the user's environment
whatis
Searches the whatis database and displays the short descriptions of system commands that contain the
given keyword as a separate word
libman
Contains run-time support for man
libmandb Contains run-time support for man
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6.67. Tar-1.29
The Tar package contains an archiving program.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
2.6 SBU
39 MB
6.67.1. Installation of Tar
Prepare Tar for compilation:
FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 \
./configure --prefix=/usr \
--bindir=/bin
The meaning of the configure options:
FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1
This forces the test for mknod to be run as root. It is generally considered dangerous to run this test as the root
user, but as it is being run on a system that has only been partially built, overriding it is OK.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results (about 1 SBU), issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
make -C doc install-html docdir=/usr/share/doc/tar-1.29
6.67.2. Contents of Tar
Installed programs:
Installed directory:
tar
/usr/share/doc/tar-1.29
Short Descriptions
tar
Creates, extracts files from, and lists the contents of archives, also known as tarballs
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6.68. Texinfo-6.4
The Texinfo package contains programs for reading, writing, and converting info pages.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
1.1 SBU
128 MB
6.68.1. Installation of Texinfo
Prepare Texinfo for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --disable-static
The meaning of the configure options:
--disable-static
In this case, the top-level configure script will complain that this is an unrecognized option, but the configure
script for XSParagraph recognizes it and uses it to disable installing a static XSParagraph.a to /usr/lib/
texinfo.
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make check
Install the package:
make install
Optionally, install the components belonging in a TeX installation:
make TEXMF=/usr/share/texmf install-tex
The meaning of the make parameter:
TEXMF=/usr/share/texmf
The TEXMF makefile variable holds the location of the root of the TeX tree if, for example, a TeX package will
be installed later.
The Info documentation system uses a plain text file to hold its list of menu entries. The file is located at /usr/share/
info/dir. Unfortunately, due to occasional problems in the Makefiles of various packages, it can sometimes get out
of sync with the info pages installed on the system. If the /usr/share/info/dir file ever needs to be recreated,
the following optional commands will accomplish the task:
pushd /usr/share/info
rm -v dir
for f in *
do install-info $f dir 2>/dev/null
done
popd
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6.68.2. Contents of Texinfo
Installed programs:
Installed library:
Installed directories:
info, install-info, makeinfo (link to texi2any), pdftexi2dvi, pod2texi, texi2any, texi2dvi,
texi2pdf, and texindex
XSParagraph.so
/usr/share/texinfo and /usr/lib/texinfo
Short Descriptions
info
Used to read info pages which are similar to man pages, but often go much deeper than just
explaining all the available command line options [For example, compare man bison and info
bison.]
install-info
Used to install info pages; it updates entries in the info index file
makeinfo
Translates the given Texinfo source documents into info pages, plain text, or HTML
pdftexi2dvi
Used to format the given Texinfo document into a Portable Document Format (PDF) file
pod2texi
Converts Pod to Texinfo format
texi2any
Translate Texinfo source documentation to various other formats
texi2dvi
Used to format the given Texinfo document into a device-independent file that can be printed
texi2pdf
Used to format the given Texinfo document into a Portable Document Format (PDF) file
texindex
Used to sort Texinfo index files
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6.69. Vim-8.0.586
The Vim package contains a powerful text editor.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
1.1 SBU
128 MB
Alternatives to Vim
If you prefer another editor—such as Emacs, Joe, or Nano—please refer to http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/
blfs/view/8.1/postlfs/editors.html for suggested installation instructions.
6.69.1. Installation of Vim
First, change the default location of the vimrc configuration file to /etc:
echo '#define SYS_VIMRC_FILE "/etc/vimrc"' >> src/feature.h
Disable a test that fails:
sed -i '/call/{s/split/xsplit/;s/303/492/}' src/testdir/test_recover.vim
Prepare Vim for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr
Compile the package:
make
To test the results, issue:
make -j1 test &> vim-test.log
However, this test suite outputs a lot of binary data to the screen, which can cause issues with the settings of the current
terminal. This can be resolved by redirecting the output to a log file. A successful test will result in the words "ALL
DONE" at completion.
Install the package:
make install
Many users are used to using vi instead of vim. To allow execution of vim when users habitually enter vi, create a
symlink for both the binary and the man page in the provided languages:
ln -sv vim /usr/bin/vi
for L in /usr/share/man/{,*/}man1/vim.1; do
ln -sv vim.1 $(dirname $L)/vi.1
done
By default, Vim's documentation is installed in /usr/share/vim. The following symlink allows the documentation
to be accessed via /usr/share/doc/vim-8.0.586, making it consistent with the location of documentation for
other packages:
ln -sv ../vim/vim80/doc /usr/share/doc/vim-8.0.586
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If an X Window System is going to be installed on the LFS system, it may be necessary to recompile Vim after installing
X. Vim comes with a GUI version of the editor that requires X and some additional libraries to be installed. For more
information on this process, refer to the Vim documentation and the Vim installation page in the BLFS book at http://
www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/8.1/postlfs/vim.html.
6.69.2. Configuring Vim
By default, vim runs in vi-incompatible mode. This may be new to users who have used other editors in the past. The
“nocompatible” setting is included below to highlight the fact that a new behavior is being used. It also reminds those
who would change to “compatible” mode that it should be the first setting in the configuration file. This is necessary
because it changes other settings, and overrides must come after this setting. Create a default vim configuration file
by running the following:
cat > /etc/vimrc << "EOF"
" Begin /etc/vimrc
set nocompatible
set backspace=2
set mouse=r
syntax on
if (&term == "xterm") || (&term == "putty")
set background=dark
endif
" End /etc/vimrc
EOF
touch ~/.vimrc
The set nocompatible setting makes vim behave in a more useful way (the default) than the vi-compatible manner.
Remove the “no” to keep the old vi behavior. The set backspace=2 setting allows backspacing over line breaks,
autoindents, and the start of insert. The syntax on parameter enables vim's syntax highlighting. The set mouse=r
setting enables proper pasting of text with the mouse when working in chroot or over a remote connection. Finally,
the if statement with the set background=dark setting corrects vim's guess about the background color of some
terminal emulators. This gives the highlighting a better color scheme for use on the black background of these programs.
Creating an empty ~/.vimrc prevents vim from overriding settings in /etc/vimrc by using /usr/share/vim/
vim80/defaults.vim.
Documentation for other available options can be obtained by running the following command:
vim -c ':options'
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Note
By default, Vim only installs spell files for the English language. To install spell files for your preferred
language, download the *.spl and optionally, the *.sug files for your language and character encoding
from ftp://ftp.vim.org/pub/vim/runtime/spell/ and save them to /usr/share/vim/vim80/spell/.
To use these spell files, some configuration in /etc/vimrc is needed, e.g.:
set spelllang=en,ru
set spell
For more information, see the appropriate README file located at the URL above.
6.69.3. Contents of Vim
Installed programs:
Installed directory:
ex (link to vim), rview (link to vim), rvim (link to vim), vi (link to vim), view (link to
vim), vim, vimdiff (link to vim), vimtutor, and xxd
/usr/share/vim
Short Descriptions
ex
Starts vim in ex mode
rview
Is a restricted version of view; no shell commands can be started and view cannot be suspended
rvim
Is a restricted version of vim; no shell commands can be started and vim cannot be suspended
vi
Link to vim
view
Starts vim in read-only mode
vim
Is the editor
vimdiff
Edits two or three versions of a file with vim and show differences
vimtutor
Teaches the basic keys and commands of vim
xxd
Creates a hex dump of the given file; it can also do the reverse, so it can be used for binary patching
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6.70. About Debugging Symbols
Most programs and libraries are, by default, compiled with debugging symbols included (with gcc's -g option). This
means that when debugging a program or library that was compiled with debugging information included, the debugger
can provide not only memory addresses, but also the names of the routines and variables.
However, the inclusion of these debugging symbols enlarges a program or library significantly. The following is an
example of the amount of space these symbols occupy:
• A bash binary with debugging symbols: 1200 KB
• A bash binary without debugging symbols: 480 KB
• Glibc and GCC files (/lib and /usr/lib) with debugging symbols: 87 MB
• Glibc and GCC files without debugging symbols: 16 MB
Sizes may vary depending on which compiler and C library were used, but when comparing programs with and without
debugging symbols, the difference will usually be a factor between two and five.
Because most users will never use a debugger on their system software, a lot of disk space can be regained by removing
these symbols. The next section shows how to strip all debugging symbols from the programs and libraries.
6.71. Stripping Again
This section is optional. If the intended user is not a programmer and does not plan to do any debugging on the system
software, the system size can be decreased by about 90 MB by removing the debugging symbols from binaries and
libraries. This causes no inconvenience other than not being able to debug the software fully anymore.
Most people who use the commands mentioned below do not experience any difficulties. However, it is easy to make
a typo and render the new system unusable, so before running the strip commands, it is a good idea to make a backup
of the LFS system in its current state.
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First place the debugging symbols for selected libraries in separate files. This debugging information is needed if
running regression tests that use valgrind or gdb later in BLFS.
save_lib="ld-2.26.so libc-2.26.so libpthread-2.26.so libthread_db-1.0.so"
cd /lib
for LIB in $save_lib; do
objcopy --only-keep-debug $LIB $LIB.dbg
strip --strip-unneeded $LIB
objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=$LIB.dbg $LIB
done
save_usrlib="libquadmath.so.0.0.0 libstdc++.so.6.0.24
libmpx.so.2.0.1 libmpxwrappers.so.2.0.1 libitm.so.1.0.0
libcilkrts.so.5.0.0 libatomic.so.1.2.0"
cd /usr/lib
for LIB in $save_usrlib; do
objcopy --only-keep-debug $LIB $LIB.dbg
strip --strip-unneeded $LIB
objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=$LIB.dbg $LIB
done
unset LIB save_lib save_usrlib
Before performing the stripping, take special care to ensure that none of the binaries that are about to be stripped
are running. If unsure whether the user entered chroot with the command given in Section 6.4, “Entering the Chroot
Environment,” first exit from chroot:
logout
Then reenter it with:
chroot $LFS /tools/bin/env -i
\
HOME=/root TERM=$TERM PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin
\
/tools/bin/bash --login
Now the binaries and libraries can be safely stripped:
/tools/bin/find /usr/lib -type f -name \*.a \
-exec /tools/bin/strip --strip-debug {} ';'
/tools/bin/find /lib /usr/lib -type f \( -name \*.so* -a ! -name \*dbg \) \
-exec /tools/bin/strip --strip-unneeded {} ';'
/tools/bin/find /{bin,sbin} /usr/{bin,sbin,libexec} -type f \
-exec /tools/bin/strip --strip-all {} ';'
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A large number of files will be reported as having their file format not recognized. These warnings can be safely ignored.
These warnings indicate that those files are scripts instead of binaries.
6.72. Cleaning Up
Finally, clean up some extra files left around from running tests:
rm -rf /tmp/*
From now on, when reentering the chroot environment after exiting, use the following modified chroot command:
chroot "$LFS" /usr/bin/env -i
\
HOME=/root TERM="$TERM" PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin
\
/bin/bash --login
The reason for this is that the programs in /tools are no longer needed. Since they are no longer needed you can
delete the /tools directory if so desired.
Note
Removing /tools will also remove the temporary copies of Tcl, Expect, and DejaGNU which were used
for running the toolchain tests. If you need these programs later on, they will need to be recompiled and reinstalled. The BLFS book has instructions for this (see http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/).
If the virtual kernel file systems have been unmounted, either manually or through a reboot, ensure that the virtual
kernel file systems are mounted when reentering the chroot. This process was explained in Section 6.2.2, “Mounting
and Populating /dev” and Section 6.2.3, “Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems”.
Finally, there were several static libraries that were not suppressed earlier in the chapter in order to satisfy the regression
tests in several packages. These libraries are from binutils, bzip2, e2fsprogs, flex, libtool, and zlib. If desired, remove
them now:
rm
rm
rm
rm
rm
rm
rm
-f
-f
-f
-f
-f
-f
-f
/usr/lib/lib{bfd,opcodes}.a
/usr/lib/libbz2.a
/usr/lib/lib{com_err,e2p,ext2fs,ss}.a
/usr/lib/libltdl.a
/usr/lib/libfl.a
/usr/lib/libfl_pic.a
/usr/lib/libz.a
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Chapter 7. System Configuration
7.1. Introduction
This chapter discusses configuration files and systemd services. First, the general configuration files needed to set up
networking are presented.
• Section 7.2, “General Network Configuration.”
• Section 7.2.3, “Configuring the system hostname.”
• Section 7.2.4, “Customizing the /etc/hosts File.”
Second, issues that affect the proper setup of devices are discussed.
• Section 7.3, “Overview of Device and Module Handling.”
• Section 7.4, “Managing Devices.”
Third, configuring the system clock and keyboard layout.
• Section 7.5, “Configuring the system clock.”
• Section 7.6, “Configuring the Linux Console.”
Fourth, a brief introduction to the scripts and configuration files used when the user logs into the system.
• Section 7.7, “Configuring the System Locale.”
• Section 7.8, “Creating the /etc/inputrc File.”
And finally, configuring the systemd behavior.
• Section 7.10, “Systemd Usage and Configuration.”
7.2. General Network Configuration
This section only applies if a network card is to be configured.
7.2.1. Network Interface Configuration Files
Starting with version 209, systemd ships a network configuration daemon called systemd-networkd which can be used
for basic network configuration. Additionally, since version 213, DNS name resolution can be handled by systemdresolved in place of a static /etc/resolv.conf file. Both services are enabled by default.
Configuration files for systemd-networkd (and systemd-resolved) can be placed in /usr/lib/systemd/
network or /etc/systemd/network. Files in /etc/systemd/network have a higher priority than the ones
in /usr/lib/systemd/network. There are three types of configuration files: .link, .netdev and .network
files. For detailed descriptions and example contents of these configuration files, consult the systemd-link(5),
systemd-netdev(5) and systemd-network(5) manual pages.
Note
Udev may assign network card interface names based on system physical characteristics such as enp2s1. If
you are not sure what your interface name is, you can always run ip link after you have booted your system.
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7.2.1.1. Static IP Configuration
The command below creates a basic configuration file for a Static IP setup (using both systemd-networkd and systemdresolved):
cat > /etc/systemd/network/10-eth0-static.network << "EOF"
[Match]
Name=eth0
[Network]
Address=192.168.0.2/24
Gateway=192.168.0.1
DNS=192.168.0.1
Domains=<Your Domain Name>
EOF
Multiple DNS entries can be added if you have more than one DNS server. Do not include DNS or Domains entries
if you intend to use a static /etc/resolv.conf file.
7.2.1.2. DHCP Configuration
The command below creates a basic configuration file for an IPv4 DHCP setup:
cat > /etc/systemd/network/10-eth0-dhcp.network << "EOF"
[Match]
Name=eth0
[Network]
DHCP=ipv4
[DHCP]
UseDomains=true
EOF
7.2.2. Creating the /etc/resolv.conf File
If the system is going to be connected to the Internet, it will need some means of Domain Name Service (DNS) name
resolution to resolve Internet domain names to IP addresses, and vice versa. This is best achieved by placing the IP
address of the DNS server, available from the ISP or network administrator, into /etc/resolv.conf.
7.2.2.1. systemd-resolved Configuration
Note
If using another means to configure your network interfaces (ex: ppp, network-manager, etc.), or if using any
type of local resolver (ex: bind, dnsmasq, etc.), or any other software that generates an /etc/resolv.
conf (ex: resolvconf), the systemd-resolved service should not be used.
When using systemd-resolved for DNS configuration, it creates the file /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.
conf. Create a symlink in /etc to use the generated file:
ln -sfv /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf
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7.2.2.2. Static resolv.conf Configuration
If a static /etc/resolv.conf is desired, create it by running the following command:
cat > /etc/resolv.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/resolv.conf
domain <Your Domain Name>
nameserver <IP address of your primary nameserver>
nameserver <IP address of your secondary nameserver>
# End /etc/resolv.conf
EOF
The domain statement can be omitted or replaced with a search statement. See the man page for resolv.conf for
more details.
Replace <IP address of the nameserver> with the IP address of the DNS most appropriate for the setup.
There will often be more than one entry (requirements demand secondary servers for fallback capability). If you only
need or want one DNS server, remove the second nameserver line from the file. The IP address may also be a router
on the local network.
Note
The Google Public IPv4 DNS addresses are 8.8.8.8 and
2001:4860:4860::8888 and 2001:4860:4860::8844 for IPv6.
8.8.4.4
for
IPv4,
and
7.2.3. Configuring the system hostname
During the boot process, the file /etc/hostname is used for establishing the system's hostname.
Create the /etc/hostname file and enter a hostname by running:
echo "<lfs>" > /etc/hostname
<lfs> needs to be replaced with the name given to the computer. Do not enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name
(FQDN) here. That information is put in the /etc/hosts file.
7.2.4. Customizing the /etc/hosts File
Decide on a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN), and possible aliases for use in the /etc/hosts file. If using static
addresses, you'll also need to decide on an IP address. The syntax for a hosts file entry is:
IP_address myhost.example.org aliases
Unless the computer is to be visible to the Internet (i.e., there is a registered domain and a valid block of assigned
IP addresses—most users do not have this), make sure that the IP address is in the private network IP address range.
Valid ranges are:
Private Network Address Range
10.0.0.1 - 10.255.255.254
172.x.0.1 - 172.x.255.254
192.168.y.1 - 192.168.y.254
Normal Prefix
8
16
24
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x can be any number in the range 16-31. y can be any number in the range 0-255.
A valid private IP address could be 192.168.1.1. A valid FQDN for this IP could be lfs.example.org.
Even if not using a network card, a valid FQDN is still required. This is necessary for certain programs to operate
correctly.
If using DHCP, DHCPv6, IPv6 Autoconfiguration, or if a network card is not going to be configured, create the /etc/
hosts file by running the following command:
cat > /etc/hosts << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1
127.0.1.1
::1
ff02::1
ff02::2
localhost
<FQDN> <HOSTNAME>
localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ip6-allnodes
ip6-allrouters
# End /etc/hosts
EOF
The ::1 entry is the IPv6 counterpart of 127.0.0.1 and represents the IPv6 loopback interface. 127.0.1.1 is a loopback
entry reserved specifically for the FQDN.
If using a static address, create the /etc/hosts file by running this command instead:
cat > /etc/hosts << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 localhost
127.0.1.1 <FQDN> <HOSTNAME>
<192.168.0.2> <FQDN> <HOSTNAME> [alias1] [alias2] ...
::1
localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1
ip6-allnodes
ff02::2
ip6-allrouters
# End /etc/hosts
EOF
The <192.168.0.2>, <FQDN>, and <HOSTNAME> values need to be changed for specific uses or requirements (if
assigned an IP address by a network/system administrator and the machine will be connected to an existing network).
The optional alias name(s) can be omitted.
7.3. Overview of Device and Module Handling
In Chapter 6, we installed the Udev package when systemd was built. Before we go into the details regarding how this
works, a brief history of previous methods of handling devices is in order.
Linux systems in general traditionally used a static device creation method, whereby a great many device nodes were
created under /dev (sometimes literally thousands of nodes), regardless of whether the corresponding hardware devices
actually existed. This was typically done via a MAKEDEV script, which contains a number of calls to the mknod
program with the relevant major and minor device numbers for every possible device that might exist in the world.
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Using the Udev method, only those devices which are detected by the kernel get device nodes created for them. Because
these device nodes will be created each time the system boots, they will be stored on a devtmpfs file system (a virtual
file system that resides entirely in system memory). Device nodes do not require much space, so the memory that is
used is negligible.
7.3.1. History
In February 2000, a new filesystem called devfs was merged into the 2.3.46 kernel and was made available during
the 2.4 series of stable kernels. Although it was present in the kernel source itself, this method of creating devices
dynamically never received overwhelming support from the core kernel developers.
The main problem with the approach adopted by devfs was the way it handled device detection, creation, and naming.
The latter issue, that of device node naming, was perhaps the most critical. It is generally accepted that if device names
are allowed to be configurable, then the device naming policy should be up to a system administrator, not imposed on
them by any particular developer(s). The devfs file system also suffered from race conditions that were inherent in
its design and could not be fixed without a substantial revision to the kernel. It was marked as deprecated for a long
period – due to a lack of maintenance – and was finally removed from the kernel in June, 2006.
With the development of the unstable 2.5 kernel tree, later released as the 2.6 series of stable kernels, a new virtual
filesystem called sysfs came to be. The job of sysfs is to export a view of the system's hardware configuration to
userspace processes. With this userspace-visible representation, the possibility of developing a userspace replacement
for devfs became much more realistic.
7.3.2. Udev Implementation
7.3.2.1. Sysfs
The sysfs filesystem was mentioned briefly above. One may wonder how sysfs knows about the devices present
on a system and what device numbers should be used for them. Drivers that have been compiled into the kernel directly
register their objects with a sysfs (devtmpfs internally) as they are detected by the kernel. For drivers compiled as
modules, this registration will happen when the module is loaded. Once the sysfs filesystem is mounted (on /sys),
data which the drivers register with sysfs are available to userspace processes and to udevd for processing (including
modifications to device nodes).
7.3.2.2. Device Node Creation
Device files are created by the kernel by the devtmpfs filesystem. Any driver that wishes to register a device node
will go through the devtmpfs (via the driver core) to do it. When a devtmpfs instance is mounted on /dev, the
device node will initially be created with a fixed name, permissions, and owner.
A short time later, the kernel will send a uevent to udevd. Based on the rules specified in the files within the /etc/
udev/rules.d, /lib/udev/rules.d, and /run/udev/rules.d directories, udevd will create additional
symlinks to the device node, or change its permissions, owner, or group, or modify the internal udevd database entry
(name) for that object.
The rules in these three directories are numbered and all three directories are merged together. If udevd can't find a
rule for the device it is creating, it will leave the permissions and ownership at whatever devtmpfs used initially.
7.3.2.3. Module Loading
Device drivers compiled as modules may have aliases built into them. Aliases are visible in the output of the modinfo
program and are usually related to the bus-specific identifiers of devices supported by a module. For example,
the snd-fm801 driver supports PCI devices with vendor ID 0x1319 and device ID 0x0801, and has an alias of
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“pci:v00001319d00000801sv*sd*bc04sc01i*”. For most devices, the bus driver exports the alias of the driver that
would handle the device via sysfs. E.g., the /sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:00:0d.0/modalias file might
contain the string “pci:v00001319d00000801sv00001319sd00001319bc04sc01i00”. The default rules provided with
Udev will cause udevd to call out to /sbin/modprobe with the contents of the MODALIAS uevent environment variable
(which should be the same as the contents of the modalias file in sysfs), thus loading all modules whose aliases
match this string after wildcard expansion.
In this example, this means that, in addition to snd-fm801, the obsolete (and unwanted) forte driver will be loaded if it
is available. See below for ways in which the loading of unwanted drivers can be prevented.
The kernel itself is also able to load modules for network protocols, filesystems and NLS support on demand.
7.3.2.4. Handling Hotpluggable/Dynamic Devices
When you plug in a device, such as a Universal Serial Bus (USB) MP3 player, the kernel recognizes that the device is
now connected and generates a uevent. This uevent is then handled by udevd as described above.
7.3.3. Problems with Loading Modules and Creating Devices
There are a few possible problems when it comes to automatically creating device nodes.
7.3.3.1. A kernel module is not loaded automatically
Udev will only load a module if it has a bus-specific alias and the bus driver properly exports the necessary aliases to
sysfs. In other cases, one should arrange module loading by other means. With Linux-4.12.7, Udev is known to load
properly-written drivers for INPUT, IDE, PCI, USB, SCSI, SERIO, and FireWire devices.
To determine if the device driver you require has the necessary support for Udev, run modinfo with the module name
as the argument. Now try locating the device directory under /sys/bus and check whether there is a modalias
file there.
If the modalias file exists in sysfs, the driver supports the device and can talk to it directly, but doesn't have the
alias, it is a bug in the driver. Load the driver without the help from Udev and expect the issue to be fixed later.
If there is no modalias file in the relevant directory under /sys/bus, this means that the kernel developers have
not yet added modalias support to this bus type. With Linux-4.12.7, this is the case with ISA busses. Expect this issue
to be fixed in later kernel versions.
Udev is not intended to load “wrapper” drivers such as snd-pcm-oss and non-hardware drivers such as loop at all.
7.3.3.2. A kernel module is not loaded automatically, and Udev is not intended to load it
If the “wrapper” module only enhances the functionality provided by some other module (e.g., snd-pcm-oss enhances
the functionality of snd-pcm by making the sound cards available to OSS applications), configure modprobe to load
the wrapper after Udev loads the wrapped module. To do this, add a “softdep” line in any /etc/modprobe.d/
<filename>.conf file. For example:
softdep snd-pcm post: snd-pcm-oss
Note that the “softdep” command also allows pre: dependencies, or a mixture of both pre: and post:. See the
modprobe.d(5) manual page for more information on “softdep” syntax and capabilities.
If the module in question is not a wrapper and is useful by itself, configure the modules bootscript to load this module
on system boot. To do this, add the module name to the /etc/sysconfig/modules file on a separate line. This
works for wrapper modules too, but is suboptimal in that case.
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7.3.3.3. Udev loads some unwanted module
Either don't build the module, or blacklist it in a /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf file as done with the forte
module in the example below:
blacklist forte
Blacklisted modules can still be loaded manually with the explicit modprobe command.
7.3.3.4. Udev creates a device incorrectly, or makes a wrong symlink
This usually happens if a rule unexpectedly matches a device. For example, a poorly-written rule can match both a
SCSI disk (as desired) and the corresponding SCSI generic device (incorrectly) by vendor. Find the offending rule and
make it more specific, with the help of the udevadm info command.
7.3.3.5. Udev rule works unreliably
This may be another manifestation of the previous problem. If not, and your rule uses sysfs attributes, it may be a
kernel timing issue, to be fixed in later kernels. For now, you can work around it by creating a rule that waits for the
used sysfs attribute and appending it to the /etc/udev/rules.d/10-wait_for_sysfs.rules file (create
this file if it does not exist). Please notify the LFS Development list if you do so and it helps.
7.3.3.6. Udev does not create a device
Further text assumes that the driver is built statically into the kernel or already loaded as a module, and that you have
already checked that Udev doesn't create a misnamed device.
Udev has no information needed to create a device node if a kernel driver does not export its data to sysfs. This
is most common with third party drivers from outside the kernel tree. Create a static device node in /lib/udev/
devices with the appropriate major/minor numbers (see the file devices.txt inside the kernel documentation or
the documentation provided by the third party driver vendor). The static device node will be copied to /dev by udev.
7.3.3.7. Device naming order changes randomly after rebooting
This is due to the fact that Udev, by design, handles uevents and loads modules in parallel, and thus in an unpredictable
order. This will never be “fixed”. You should not rely upon the kernel device names being stable. Instead, create your
own rules that make symlinks with stable names based on some stable attributes of the device, such as a serial number
or the output of various *_id utilities installed by Udev. See Section 7.4, “Managing Devices” and Section 7.2, “General
Network Configuration” for examples.
7.3.4. Useful Reading
Additional helpful documentation is available at the following sites:
• A Userspace Implementation of devfs http://www.kroah.com/linux/talks/ols_2003_udev_paper/Reprint-KroahHartman-OLS2003.pdf
• The sysfs Filesystem http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/mochel/doc/papers/ols-2005/mochel.pdf
7.4. Managing Devices
7.4.1. Dealing with duplicate devices
As explained in Section 7.3, “Overview of Device and Module Handling”, the order in which devices with the same
function appear in /dev is essentially random. E.g., if you have a USB web camera and a TV tuner, sometimes /dev/
video0 refers to the camera and /dev/video1 refers to the tuner, and sometimes after a reboot the order changes
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to the opposite one. For all classes of hardware except sound cards and network cards, this is fixable by creating Udev
rules for custom persistent symlinks. The case of network cards is covered separately in Section 7.2, “General Network
Configuration”, and sound card configuration can be found in BLFS.
For each of your devices that is likely to have this problem (even if the problem doesn't exist in your current Linux
distribution), find the corresponding directory under /sys/class or /sys/block. For video devices, this may be
/sys/class/video4linux/videoX. Figure out the attributes that identify the device uniquely (usually, vendor
and product IDs and/or serial numbers work):
udevadm info -a -p /sys/class/video4linux/video0
Then write rules that create the symlinks, e.g.:
cat > /etc/udev/rules.d/83-duplicate_devs.rules << "EOF"
# Persistent symlinks for webcam and tuner
KERNEL=="video*", ATTRS{idProduct}=="1910", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0d81", \
SYMLINK+="webcam"
KERNEL=="video*", ATTRS{device}=="0x036f", ATTRS{vendor}=="0x109e", \
SYMLINK+="tvtuner"
EOF
The result is that /dev/video0 and /dev/video1 devices still refer randomly to the tuner and the web camera
(and thus should never be used directly), but there are symlinks /dev/tvtuner and /dev/webcam that always
point to the correct device.
7.5. Configuring the system clock
This section discusses how to configure the systemd-timedated system service, which configures system clock and
timezone.
If you cannot remember whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC, find out by running the hwclock -localtime --show command. This will display what the current time is according to the hardware clock. If this
time matches whatever your watch says, then the hardware clock is set to local time. If the output from hwclock is not
local time, chances are it is set to UTC time. Verify this by adding or subtracting the proper amount of hours for the
timezone to the time shown by hwclock. For example, if you are currently in the MST timezone, which is also known
as GMT -0700, add seven hours to the local time.
systemd-timedated reads /etc/adjtime, and depending on the contents of the file, it sets the clock to either UTC
or local time.
Create the /etc/adjtime file with the following contents if your hardware clock is set to local time:
cat > /etc/adjtime << "EOF"
0.0 0 0.0
0
LOCAL
EOF
If /etc/adjtime isn't present at first boot, systemd-timedated will assume that hardware clock is set to UTC and
adjust the file according to that.
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You can also use the timedatectl utility to tell systemd-timedated if your hardware clock is set to UTC or local time:
timedatectl set-local-rtc 1
timedatectl can also be used to change system time and time zone.
To change your current system time, issue:
timedatectl set-time YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
Hardware clock will also be updated accordingly.
To change your current time zone, issue:
timedatectl set-timezone TIMEZONE
You can get list of available time zones by running:
timedatectl list-timezones
Note
Please note that timedatectl command can be used only on a system booted with systemd.
7.5.1. Network Time Synchronization
Starting with version 213, systemd ships a daemon called systemd-timesyncd which can be used to synchronize the
system time with remote NTP servers.
The daemon is not intended as a replacement for the well established NTP daemon, but as a client only implementation
of the SNTP protocol which can be used for less advanced tasks and on resource limited systems.
Starting with systemd version 216, the systemd-timesyncd daemon is enabled by default. If you want to disable it,
issue the following command:
systemctl disable systemd-timesyncd
The /etc/systemd/timesyncd.conf file can be used to change the NTP servers that systemd-timesyncd
synchronizes with.
Please note that when system clock is set to Local Time, systemd-timesyncd won't update hardware clock.
7.6. Configuring the Linux Console
This section discusses how to configure the systemd-vconsole-setup system service, which configures the virtual
console font and console keymap.
The systemd-vconsole-setup service reads the /etc/vconsole.conf file for configuration information. Decide
which keymap and screen font will be used. Various language-specific HOWTOs can also help with this, see http://
www.tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/other-lang.html. Examine localectl list-keymaps output for a list of valid
console keymaps. Look in /usr/share/consolefonts directory for valid screen fonts.
The /etc/vconsole.conf file should contain lines of the form: VARIABLE="value". The following variables
are recognized:
KEYMAP
This variable specifies the key mapping table for the keyboard. If unset, it defaults to us.
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KEYMAP_TOGGLE
This variable can be used to configure a second toggle keymap and is unset by default.
FONT
This variable specifies the font used by the virtual console.
FONT_MAP
This variable specifies the console map to be used.
FONT_UNIMAP
This variable specifies the Unicode font map.
An example for a German keyboard and console is given below:
cat > /etc/vconsole.conf << "EOF"
KEYMAP=de-latin1
FONT=Lat2-Terminus16
EOF
You can change KEYMAP value at runtime by using the localectl utility:
localectl set-keymap MAP
Note
Please note that localectl command can be used only on a system booted with systemd.
You can also use localectl utility with the corresponding parameters to change X11 keyboard layout, model, variant
and options:
localectl set-x11-keymap LAYOUT [MODEL] [VARIANT] [OPTIONS]
To list possible values for localectl set-x11-keymap parameters, run localectl with parameters listed below:
list-x11-keymap-models
Show known X11 keyboard mapping models.
list-x11-keymap-layouts
Show known X11 keyboard mapping layouts.
list-x11-keymap-variants
Show known X11 keyboard mapping variants.
list-x11-keymap-options
Show known X11 keyboard mapping options.
Note
Using any of the parameters listed above requires XKeyboard Config package from BLFS.
7.7. Configuring the System Locale
The /etc/locale.conf below sets some environment variables necessary for native language support. Setting
them properly results in:
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• The output of programs translated into the native language
• Correct classification of characters into letters, digits and other classes. This is necessary for bash to properly
accept non-ASCII characters in command lines in non-English locales
• The correct alphabetical sorting order for the country
• Appropriate default paper size
• Correct formatting of monetary, time, and date values
Replace <ll> below with the two-letter code for the desired language (e.g., “en”) and <CC> with the two-letter code
for the appropriate country (e.g., “GB”). <charmap> should be replaced with the canonical charmap for your chosen
locale. Optional modifiers such as “@euro” may also be present.
The list of all locales supported by Glibc can be obtained by running the following command:
locale -a
Charmaps can have a number of aliases, e.g., “ISO-8859-1” is also referred to as “iso8859-1” and “iso88591”. Some
applications cannot handle the various synonyms correctly (e.g., require that “UTF-8” is written as “UTF-8”, not “utf8”),
so it is safest in most cases to choose the canonical name for a particular locale. To determine the canonical name,
run the following command, where <locale name> is the output given by locale -a for your preferred locale
(“en_GB.iso88591” in our example).
LC_ALL=<locale name> locale charmap
For the “en_GB.iso88591” locale, the above command will print:
ISO-8859-1
This results in a final locale setting of “en_GB.ISO-8859-1”. It is important that the locale found using the heuristic
above is tested prior to it being added to the Bash startup files:
LC_ALL=<locale
LC_ALL=<locale
LC_ALL=<locale
LC_ALL=<locale
name>
name>
name>
name>
locale
locale
locale
locale
language
charmap
int_curr_symbol
int_prefix
The above commands should print the language name, the character encoding used by the locale, the local currency,
and the prefix to dial before the telephone number in order to get into the country. If any of the commands above fail
with a message similar to the one shown below, this means that your locale was either not installed in Chapter 6 or is
not supported by the default installation of Glibc.
locale: Cannot set LC_* to default locale: No such file or directory
If this happens, you should either install the desired locale using the localedef command, or consider choosing a different
locale. Further instructions assume that there are no such error messages from Glibc.
Some packages beyond LFS may also lack support for your chosen locale. One example is the X library (part of the X
Window System), which outputs the following error message if the locale does not exactly match one of the character
map names in its internal files:
Warning: locale not supported by Xlib, locale set to C
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In several cases Xlib expects that the character map will be listed in uppercase notation with canonical dashes. For
instance, "ISO-8859-1" rather than "iso88591". It is also possible to find an appropriate specification by removing the
charmap part of the locale specification. This can be checked by running the locale charmap command in both locales.
For example, one would have to change "de_DE.ISO-8859-15@euro" to "de_DE@euro" in order to get this locale
recognized by Xlib.
Other packages can also function incorrectly (but may not necessarily display any error messages) if the locale name
does not meet their expectations. In those cases, investigating how other Linux distributions support your locale might
provide some useful information.
Once the proper locale settings have been determined, create the /etc/locale.conf file:
cat > /etc/locale.conf << "EOF"
LANG=<ll>_<CC>.<charmap><@modifiers>
EOF
Note that you can modify /etc/locale.conf with systemd localectl utility. To use localectl for the example
above, run:
localectl set-locale LANG="<ll>_<CC>.<charmap><@modifiers>"
You can also specify other language specific environment variables such as LANG, LC_CTYPE, LC_NUMERIC or any
other environment variable from locale output. Just separate them with a space. An example where LANG is set as
en_US.UTF-8 but LC_CTYPE is set as just en_US is:
localectl set-locale LANG="en_US.UTF-8" LC_CTYPE="en_US"
Note
Please note that localectl command can be used only on a system booted with systemd.
The “C” (default) and “en_US” (the recommended one for United States English users) locales are different. “C” uses
the US-ASCII 7-bit character set, and treats bytes with the high bit set as invalid characters. That's why, e.g., the ls
command substitutes them with question marks in that locale. Also, an attempt to send mail with such characters from
Mutt or Pine results in non-RFC-conforming messages being sent (the charset in the outgoing mail is indicated as
“unknown 8-bit”). So you can use the “C” locale only if you are sure that you will never need 8-bit characters.
UTF-8 based locales are not supported well by many programs. Work is in progress to document and, if possible, fix
such problems, see http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/8.1/introduction/locale-issues.html.
7.8. Creating the /etc/inputrc File
The inputrc file is the configuration file for Readline library, which provides editing capabilities while the user is
entering a line from the terminal. It works by tranlating keyboard inputs into specific actions. Readline is used by Bash
and most other shells as well as many other applications.
Most people do not need user-specific functionality so the command below creates a global /etc/inputrc used
by everyone who logs in. If you later decide you need to override the defaults on a per-user basis, you can create a .
inputrc file in the user's home directory with the modified mappings.
For more information on how to edit the inputrc file, see info bash under the Readline Init File section. info readline
is also a good source of information.
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Below is a generic global inputrc along with comments to explain what the various options do. Note that comments
cannot be on the same line as commands. Create the file using the following command:
cat > /etc/inputrc << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/inputrc
# Modified by Chris Lynn <roryo@roryo.dynup.net>
# Allow the command prompt to wrap to the next line
set horizontal-scroll-mode Off
# Enable 8bit input
set meta-flag On
set input-meta On
# Turns off 8th bit stripping
set convert-meta Off
# Keep the 8th bit for display
set output-meta On
# none, visible or audible
set bell-style none
# All of the following map the escape sequence of the value
# contained in the 1st argument to the readline specific functions
"\eOd": backward-word
"\eOc": forward-word
# for linux console
"\e[1~": beginning-of-line
"\e[4~": end-of-line
"\e[5~": beginning-of-history
"\e[6~": end-of-history
"\e[3~": delete-char
"\e[2~": quoted-insert
# for xterm
"\eOH": beginning-of-line
"\eOF": end-of-line
# for Konsole
"\e[H": beginning-of-line
"\e[F": end-of-line
# End /etc/inputrc
EOF
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7.9. Creating the /etc/shells File
The shells file contains a list of login shells on the system. Applications use this file to determine whether a shell is
valid. For each shell a single line should be present, consisting of the shell's path, relative to the root of the directory
structure (/).
For example, this file is consulted by chsh to determine whether an unprivileged user may change the login shell for
her own account. If the command name is not listed, the user will be denied of change.
It is a requirement for applications such as GDM which does not populate the face browser if it can't find /etc/
shells, or FTP daemons which traditionally disallow access to users with shells not included in this file.
cat > /etc/shells << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/shells
/bin/sh
/bin/bash
# End /etc/shells
EOF
7.10. Systemd Usage and Configuration
7.10.1. Basic Configuration
The /etc/systemd/system.conf file contains a set of options to control basic systemd operations. The default
file has all entries commented out with the default settings indicated. This file is where the log level may be changed as
well as some basic logging settings. See systemd-system.conf(5) manual page for details on each configuration
option.
7.10.2. Disabling Screen Clearing at Boot Time
The normal behavior for systemd is to clear the screen at the end of the boot sequence. If desired, this behavior may
be changed by running the following command:
mkdir -pv /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d
cat > /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/noclear.conf << EOF
[Service]
TTYVTDisallocate=no
EOF
The boot messages can always be reviewed by using the journalctl -b command as the root user.
7.10.3. Disabling tmpfs for /tmp
By default, /tmp is created as a tmpfs. If this is not desired, it can be overridden by the following:
ln -sfv /dev/null /etc/systemd/system/tmp.mount
This is not necessary if there is a separate partition for /tmp specified in /etc/fstab.
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7.10.4. Configuring Automatic File Creation and Deletion
There are several services that create or delete files or directories:
• systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service
• systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service
• systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service
The system location for the configuration files is /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/*.conf. The local configuration
files are in /etc/tmpfiles.d. Files in /etc/tmpfiles.d override files with the same name in /usr/lib/
tmpfiles.d. See tmpfiles.d(5) manual page for file format details.
7.10.5. Overriding Default Services Behavior
The parameter of a unit can be overriden by creating a directory and a configuration file in /etc/systemd/system.
For example:
mkdir -pv /etc/systemd/system/foobar.service.d
cat > /etc/systemd/system/foobar.service.d/foobar.conf << EOF
[Service]
Restart=always
RestartSec=30
EOF
See systemd.unit(5) manual page for more information. After creating the configuration file, run systemctl
daemon-reload and systemctl restart foobar to activate the changes to a service.
7.10.6. Debugging the Boot Sequence
Rather than plain shell scripts used in SysVinit or BSD style init systems, systemd uses a unified format for different
types of startup files (or units). The command systemctl is used to enable, disable, control state, and obtain status of
unit files. Here are some examples of frequently used commands:
• systemctl list-units -t <service> [--all]: lists loaded unit files of type service.
• systemctl list-units -t <target> [--all]: lists loaded unit files of type target.
• systemctl show -p Wants <multi-user.target>: shows all units that depend on the multi-user target.
Targets are special unit files that are anogalous to runlevels under SysVinit.
• systemctl status <servicename.service>: shows the status of the servicename service. The .service
extension can be omitted if there are no other unit files with the same name, such as .socket files (which create a
listening socket that provides similar functionality to inetd/xinetd).
7.10.7. Working with the Systemd Journal
Logging on a system booted with systemd is handled with systemd-journald (by default), rather than a typical unix
syslog daemon. You can also add a normal syslog daemon and have both work side by side if desired. The systemdjournald program stores journal entries in a binary format rather than a plain text log file. To assist with parsing the file,
the command journalctl is provided. Here are some examples of frequently used commands:
• journalctl -r: shows all contents of the journal in reverse chronological order.
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• journalctl -u UNIT: shows the journal entries associated with the specified UNIT file.
• journalctl -b[=ID] -r: shows the journal entries since last successful boot (or for boot ID) in reverse chronological
order.
• journalctl -f: povides functionality similar to tail -f (follow).
7.10.8. Long Running Processes
Beginning with systemd-230, all user processes are killed when a user session is ended, even if nohup is used, or the
process uses daemon() or setsid(). This is a deliberate change from a historically permissive environment to
a more restrictive one. The new behavior may cause issues if you depend on long running programs (e.g., screen or
tmux) to remain active after ending your user session. There are three ways to enable lingering processes to remain
after a user session is ended.
• Enable process lingering for only needed users: normal users have permission to enable process lingering with
the command loginctl enable-linger for their own user. System administrators can use the same command with
a user argument to enable for a user. That user can then use the systemd-run command to start long running
processes. For example: systemd-run --scope --user /usr/bin/screen. If you enable lingering for your user, the
user@.service will remain even after all login sessions are closed, and will automatically start at system boot. This
has the advantage of explicitly allowing and disallowing processes to run after the user session has ended, but
breaks backwards compatibility with tools like nohup and utilities that use deamon().
• Enable system-wide process lingering: you can set KillUserProcesses=no in /etc/logind.conf to
enable process lingering globally for all users. This has the benefit of leaving the old method available to all users
at the expense of explicit control.
• Disable at build-time: You can enable lingering by default while building systemd by adding the switch -without-kill-user-processes to the configure command for systemd. This completely disables the
ability of systemd to kill user processes at session end.
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Chapter 8. Making the LFS System Bootable
8.1. Introduction
It is time to make the LFS system bootable. This chapter discusses creating an fstab file, building a kernel for the
new LFS system, and installing the GRUB boot loader so that the LFS system can be selected for booting at startup.
8.2. Creating the /etc/fstab File
The /etc/fstab file is used by some programs to determine where file systems are to be mounted by default, in
which order, and which must be checked (for integrity errors) prior to mounting. Create a new file systems table like this:
cat > /etc/fstab << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/fstab
# file system
#
mount-point
type
options
dump
fsck
order
/dev/<xxx>
/dev/<yyy>
/
swap
<fff>
swap
defaults
pri=1
1
0
1
0
# End /etc/fstab
EOF
Replace <xxx>, <yyy>, and <fff> with the values appropriate for the system, for example, sda2, sda5, and ext4.
For details on the six fields in this file, see man 5 fstab.
Filesystems with MS-DOS or Windows origin (i.e.: vfat, ntfs, smbfs, cifs, iso9660, udf) need the “iocharset” mount
option in order for non-ASCII characters in file names to be interpreted properly. The value of this option should be the
same as the character set of your locale, adjusted in such a way that the kernel understands it. This works if the relevant
character set definition (found under File systems -> Native Language Support) has been compiled into the kernel or
built as a module. The “codepage” option is also needed for vfat and smbfs filesystems. It should be set to the codepage
number used under MS-DOS in your country. E.g., in order to mount USB flash drives, a ru_RU.KOI8-R user would
need the following in the options portion of its mount line in /etc/fstab:
noauto,user,quiet,showexec,iocharset=koi8r,codepage=866
The corresponding options fragment for ru_RU.UTF-8 users is:
noauto,user,quiet,showexec,iocharset=utf8,codepage=866
Note
In the latter case, the kernel emits the following message:
FAT: utf8 is not a recommended IO charset for FAT filesystems,
filesystem will be case sensitive!
This negative recommendation should be ignored, since all other values of the “iocharset” option result in
wrong display of filenames in UTF-8 locales.
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It is also possible to specify default codepage and iocharset values for some filesystems during kernel configuration.
The relevant parameters are named “Default NLS Option” (CONFIG_NLS_DEFAULT), “Default Remote NLS
Option” (CONFIG_SMB_NLS_DEFAULT), “Default codepage for FAT” (CONFIG_FAT_DEFAULT_CODEPAGE),
and “Default iocharset for FAT” (CONFIG_FAT_DEFAULT_IOCHARSET). There is no way to specify these settings
for the ntfs filesystem at kernel compilation time.
It is possible to make the ext3 filesystem reliable across power failures for some hard disk types. To do this, add the
barrier=1 mount option to the appropriate entry in /etc/fstab. To check if the disk drive supports this option,
run hdparm on the applicable disk drive. For example, if:
hdparm -I /dev/sda | grep NCQ
returns non-empty output, the option is supported.
Note: Logical Volume Management (LVM) based partitions cannot use the barrier option.
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8.3. Linux-4.12.7
The Linux package contains the Linux kernel.
Approximate build time:
Required disk space:
4.4 - 66.0 SBU (typically about 6 SBU)
960 - 4250 MB (typically about 1100 MB)
8.3.1. Installation of the kernel
Building the kernel involves a few steps—configuration, compilation, and installation. Read the README file in the
kernel source tree for alternative methods to the way this book configures the kernel.
Prepare for compilation by running the following command:
make mrproper
This ensures that the kernel tree is absolutely clean. The kernel team recommends that this command be issued prior to
each kernel compilation. Do not rely on the source tree being clean after un-tarring.
Configure the kernel via a menu-driven interface. For general information on kernel configuration see http://www.
linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/kernel-configuration.txt. BLFS has some information regarding particular
kernel configuration requirements of packages outside of LFS at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/8.1/
longindex.html#kernel-config-index. Additional information about configuring and building the kernel can be found at
http://www.kroah.com/lkn/
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Note
A good starting place for setting up the kernel configuration is to run make defconfig. This will set the base
configuration to a good state that takes your current system architecture into account.
Be sure to enable or disable following features or the system might not work correctly or boot at all:
General setup -->
[ ] Enable deprecated sysfs features to support old userspace tools [CONF
[ ] Enable deprecated sysfs features by default [CONFIG_SYSFS_DEPRECATED_
[*] open by fhandle syscalls [CONFIG_FHANDLE]
[ ] Auditing support [CONFIG_AUDIT]
[*] Control Group support [CONFIG_CGROUPS]
Processor type and features --->
[*] Enable seccomp to safely compute untrusted bytecode [CONFIG_SECCOMP]
Networking support --->
Networking options --->
<*> The IPv6 protocol [CONFIG_IPV6]
Device Drivers --->
Generic Driver Options --->
[ ] Support for uevent helper [CONFIG_UEVENT_HELPER]
[*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev [CONFIG_DEVTMPFS]
[ ] Fallback user-helper invocation for firmware loading [CONFIG_FW_LOADE
Firmware Drivers --->
[*] Export DMI identification via sysfs to userspace [CONFIG_DMIID]
File systems --->
[*] Inotify support for userspace [CONFIG_INOTIFY_USER]
<*> Kernel automounter version 4 support (also supports v3) [CONFIG_AUTOF
Pseudo filesystems --->
[*] Tmpfs POSIX Access Control Lists [CONFIG_TMPFS_POSIX_ACL]
[*] Tmpfs extended attributes [CONFIG_TMPFS_XATTR]
Note
While "The IPv6 Protocol" is not strictly required, it is highly recommended by the systemd developers.
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Note
If your host hardware is using UEFI, then the 'make defconfig' above should automatically add in some EFIrelated kernel options.
In order to allow your LFS kernel to be booted from within your host's UEFI boot environment, your kernel
must have this option selected:
Processor type and features --->
[*]
EFI stub support [CONFIG_EFI_STUB]
A fuller description of managing UEFI environments from within LFS is covered by the lfs-uefi.txt hint at
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/lfs-uefi.txt.
The rationale for the above configuration items:
Support for uevent helper
Having this option set may interfere with device management when using Udev/Eudev.
Maintain a devtmpfs
This will create automated device nodes which are populated by the kernel, even without Udev running. Udev
then runs on top of this, managing permissions and adding symlinks. This configuration item is required for all
users of Udev/Eudev.
make menuconfig
The meaning of optional make environment variables:
LANG=<host_LANG_value> LC_ALL=
This establishes the locale setting to the one used on the host. This may be needed for a proper menuconfig ncurses
interface line drawing on a UTF-8 linux text console.
If used, be sure to replace <host_LANG_value> by the value of the $LANG variable from your host. You can
alternatively use instead the host's value of $LC_ALL or $LC_CTYPE.
Alternatively, make oldconfig may be more appropriate in some situations. See the README file for more information.
If desired, skip kernel configuration by copying the kernel config file, .config, from the host system (assuming it is
available) to the unpacked linux-4.12.7 directory. However, we do not recommend this option. It is often better
to explore all the configuration menus and create the kernel configuration from scratch.
Compile the kernel image and modules:
make
If using kernel modules, module configuration in /etc/modprobe.d may be required. Information pertaining to
modules and kernel configuration is located in Section 7.3, “Overview of Device and Module Handling” and in the
kernel documentation in the linux-4.12.7/Documentation directory. Also, modprobe.d(5) may be of
interest.
Install the modules, if the kernel configuration uses them:
make modules_install
After kernel compilation is complete, additional steps are required to complete the installation. Some files need to be
copied to the /boot directory.
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Caution
If the host system has a separate /boot partition, the files copied below should go there. The easiest way to do
that is to bind /boot on the host to /mnt/lfs/boot before proceeding. As the root user in the host system:
mount --bind /boot /mnt/lfs/boot
The path to the kernel image may vary depending on the platform being used. The filename below can be changed to
suit your taste, but the stem of the filename should be vmlinuz to be compatible with the automatic setup of the boot
process described in the next section. The following command assumes an x86 architecture:
cp -v arch/x86/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-4.12.7-lfs-8.1-systemd
System.map is a symbol file for the kernel. It maps the function entry points of every function in the kernel API, as
well as the addresses of the kernel data structures for the running kernel. It is used as a resource when investigating
kernel problems. Issue the following command to install the map file:
cp -v System.map /boot/System.map-4.12.7
The kernel configuration file .config produced by the make menuconfig step above contains all the configuration
selections for the kernel that was just compiled. It is a good idea to keep this file for future reference:
cp -v .config /boot/config-4.12.7
Install the documentation for the Linux kernel:
install -d /usr/share/doc/linux-4.12.7
cp -r Documentation/* /usr/share/doc/linux-4.12.7
It is important to note that the files in the kernel source directory are not owned by root. Whenever a package is unpacked
as user root (like we did inside chroot), the files have the user and group IDs of whatever they were on the packager's
computer. This is usually not a problem for any other package to be installed because the source tree is removed after
the installation. However, the Linux source tree is often retained for a long time. Because of this, there is a chance
that whatever user ID the packager used will be assigned to somebody on the machine. That person would then have
write access to the kernel source.
Note
In many cases, the configuration of the kernel will need to be updated for packages that will be installed later
in BLFS. Unlike other packages, it is not necessary to remove the kernel source tree after the newly built
kernel is installed.
If the kernel source tree is going to be retained, run chown -R 0:0 on the linux-4.12.7 directory to ensure
all files are owned by user root.
Warning
Some kernel documentation recommends creating a symlink from /usr/src/linux pointing to the kernel
source directory. This is specific to kernels prior to the 2.6 series and must not be created on an LFS system
as it can cause problems for packages you may wish to build once your base LFS system is complete.
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Warning
The headers in the system's include directory (/usr/include) should always be the ones against which
Glibc was compiled, that is, the sanitised headers installed in Section 6.7, “Linux-4.12.7 API Headers”.
Therefore, they should never be replaced by either the raw kernel headers or any other kernel sanitized headers.
8.3.2. Configuring Linux Module Load Order
Most of the time Linux modules are loaded automatically, but sometimes it needs some specific direction. The program
that loads modules, modprobe or insmod, uses /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf for this purpose. This file needs
to be created so that if the USB drivers (ehci_hcd, ohci_hcd and uhci_hcd) have been built as modules, they will be
loaded in the correct order; ehci_hcd needs to be loaded prior to ohci_hcd and uhci_hcd in order to avoid a warning
being output at boot time.
Create a new file /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf by running the following:
install -v -m755 -d /etc/modprobe.d
cat > /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf
install ohci_hcd /sbin/modprobe ehci_hcd ; /sbin/modprobe -i ohci_hcd ; true
install uhci_hcd /sbin/modprobe ehci_hcd ; /sbin/modprobe -i uhci_hcd ; true
# End /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf
EOF
8.3.3. Contents of Linux
Installed files:
Installed directories:
config-4.12.7, vmlinuz-4.12.7-lfs-8.1-systemd, and System.map-4.12.7
/lib/modules, /usr/share/doc/linux-4.12.7
Short Descriptions
config-4.12.7
Contains all the configuration selections for the kernel
vmlinuz-4.12.7-lfs-8.1-systemd
The engine of the Linux system. When turning on the computer, the
kernel is the first part of the operating system that gets loaded. It detects
and initializes all components of the computer's hardware, then makes
these components available as a tree of files to the software and turns
a single CPU into a multitasking machine capable of running scores of
programs seemingly at the same time
System.map-4.12.7
A list of addresses and symbols; it maps the entry points and addresses
of all the functions and data structures in the kernel
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8.4. Using GRUB to Set Up the Boot Process
8.4.1. Introduction
Warning
Configuring GRUB incorrectly can render your system inoperable without an alternate boot device such as a
CD-ROM. This section is not required to boot your LFS system. You may just want to modify your current
boot loader, e.g. Grub-Legacy, GRUB2, or LILO.
Ensure that an emergency boot disk is ready to “rescue” the computer if the computer becomes unusable (un-bootable).
If you do not already have a boot device, you can create one. In order for the procedure below to work, you need to
jump ahead to BLFS and install xorriso from the libisoburn package.
cd /tmp
grub-mkrescue --output=grub-img.iso
xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrw blank=as_needed grub-img.iso
Note
To boot LFS on host systems that have UEFI enabled, the kernel needs to have been built with the
CONFIG_EFI_STUB capabality described in the previous section. However, LFS can be booted using
GRUB2 without such an addition. To do this, the UEFI Mode and Secure Boot capabilities in the host system's
BIOS need to be turned off. For details, see the lfs-uefi.txt hint at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/
downloads/files/lfs-uefi.txt.
8.4.2. GRUB Naming Conventions
GRUB uses its own naming structure for drives and partitions in the form of (hdn,m), where n is the hard drive number
and m is the partition number. The hard drive number starts from zero, but the partition number starts from one for
normal partitions and five for extended partitions. Note that this is different from earlier versions where both numbers
started from zero. For example, partition sda1 is (hd0,1) to GRUB and sdb3 is (hd1,3). In contrast to Linux, GRUB
does not consider CD-ROM drives to be hard drives. For example, if using a CD on hdb and a second hard drive on
hdc, that second hard drive would still be (hd1).
8.4.3. Setting Up the Configuration
GRUB works by writing data to the first physical track of the hard disk. This area is not part of any file system. The
programs there access GRUB modules in the boot partition. The default location is /boot/grub/.
The location of the boot partition is a choice of the user that affects the configuration. One recommendation is to have
a separate small (suggested size is 100 MB) partition just for boot information. That way each build, whether LFS or
some commercial distro, can access the same boot files and access can be made from any booted system. If you choose
to do this, you will need to mount the separate partition, move all files in the current /boot directory (e.g. the linux
kernel you just built in the previous section) to the new partition. You will then need to unmount the partition and
remount it as /boot. If you do this, be sure to update /etc/fstab.
Using the current lfs partition will also work, but configuration for multiple systems is more difficult.
Using the above information, determine the appropriate designator for the root partition (or boot partition, if a separate
one is used). For the following example, it is assumed that the root (or separate boot) partition is sda2.
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Install the GRUB files into /boot/grub and set up the boot track:
Warning
The following command will overwrite the current boot loader. Do not run the command if this is not desired,
for example, if using a third party boot manager to manage the Master Boot Record (MBR).
grub-install /dev/sda
8.4.4. Creating the GRUB Configuration File
Generate /boot/grub/grub.cfg:
cat > /boot/grub/grub.cfg << "EOF"
# Begin /boot/grub/grub.cfg
set default=0
set timeout=5
insmod ext2
set root=(hd0,2)
menuentry "GNU/Linux, Linux 4.12.7-lfs-8.1-systemd" {
linux
/boot/vmlinuz-4.12.7-lfs-8.1-systemd root=/dev/sda2 ro
}
EOF
Note
From GRUB's perspective, the kernel files are relative to the partition used. If you used a separate /boot
partition, remove /boot from the above linux line. You will also need to change the set root line to point to
the boot partition.
GRUB is an extremely powerful program and it provides a tremendous number of options for booting from a wide
variety of devices, operating systems, and partition types. There are also many options for customization such as
graphical splash screens, playing sounds, mouse input, etc. The details of these options are beyond the scope of this
introduction.
Caution
There is a command, grub-mkconfig, that can write a configuration file automatically. It uses a set of scripts
in /etc/grub.d/ and will destroy any customizations that you make. These scripts are designed primarily for
non-source distributions and are not recommended for LFS. If you install a commercial Linux distribution,
there is a good chance that this program will be run. Be sure to back up your grub.cfg file.
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Chapter 9. The End
9.1. The End
Well done! The new LFS system is installed! We wish you much success with your shiny new custom-built Linux
system.
Create an /etc/os-release file required by systemd:
cat > /etc/os-release << "EOF"
NAME="Linux From Scratch"
VERSION="8.1-systemd"
ID=lfs
PRETTY_NAME="Linux From Scratch 8.1-systemd"
VERSION_CODENAME="<your name here>"
EOF
Creating the file /etc/lfs-release is recommended for compatibility with the non-systemd branch. By having
this file, it is very easy for you (and for us if you need to ask for help at some point) to find out which LFS version is
installed on the system. Create this file by running:
echo 8.1-systemd > /etc/lfs-release
It is also a good idea to create a file to show the status of your new system with respect to the Linux Standards Base
(LSB). To create this file, run:
cat > /etc/lsb-release << "EOF"
DISTRIB_ID="Linux From Scratch"
DISTRIB_RELEASE="8.1-systemd"
DISTRIB_CODENAME="<your name here>"
DISTRIB_DESCRIPTION="Linux From Scratch"
EOF
Be sure to put some sort of customization for the field 'DISTRIB_CODENAME' to make the system uniquely yours.
9.2. Get Counted
Now that you have finished the book, do you want to be counted as an LFS user? Head over to http://www.
linuxfromscratch.org/cgi-bin/lfscounter.php and register as an LFS user by entering your name and the first LFS version
you have used.
Let's reboot into LFS now.
9.3. Rebooting the System
Now that all of the software has been installed, it is time to reboot your computer. However, you should be aware of a
few things. The system you have created in this book is quite minimal, and most likely will not have the functionality
you would need to be able to continue forward. By installing a few extra packages from the BLFS book while still in
our current chroot environment, you can leave yourself in a much better position to continue on once you reboot into
your new LFS installation. Here are some suggestions:
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• A text mode browser such as Lynx will allow you to easily view the BLFS book in one virtual terminal, while
building packages in another.
• The GPM package will allow you to perform copy/paste actions in your virtual terminals.
• If you are in a situation where static IP configuration does not meet your networking requirements, installing a
package such as dhcpcd or the client portion of dhcp may be useful.
• Installing sudo may be useful for building packages as a non-root user and easily installing the resulting packages
in your new system.
• If you want to access your new system from a remote system within a comfortable GUI environment, install
openssh and its prerequisite, openssl.
• To make fetching files over the internet easier, install wget.
• If one or more of your disk drives have a GUID partition table (GPT), either gptfdisk or parted will be useful.
• Finally, a review of the following configuration files is also appropriate at this point.
• /etc/bashrc
• /etc/dircolors
• /etc/fstab
• /etc/hosts
• /etc/inputrc
• /etc/profile
• /etc/resolv.conf
• /etc/vimrc
• /root/.bash_profile
• /root/.bashrc
Now that we have said that, let's move on to booting our shiny new LFS installation for the first time! First exit from
the chroot environment:
logout
Then unmount the virtual file systems:
umount
umount
umount
umount
umount
-v
-v
-v
-v
-v
$LFS/dev/pts
$LFS/dev
$LFS/run
$LFS/proc
$LFS/sys
Unmount the LFS file system itself:
umount -v $LFS
If multiple partitions were created, unmount the other partitions before unmounting the main one, like this:
umount -v $LFS/usr
umount -v $LFS/home
umount -v $LFS
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Now, reboot the system with:
shutdown -r now
Assuming the GRUB boot loader was set up as outlined earlier, the menu is set to boot LFS 8.1 automatically.
When the reboot is complete, the LFS system is ready for use and more software may be added to suit your needs.
9.4. What Now?
Thank you for reading this LFS book. We hope that you have found this book helpful and have learned more about
the system creation process.
Now that the LFS system is installed, you may be wondering “What next?” To answer that question, we have compiled
a list of resources for you.
• Maintenance
Bugs and security notices are reported regularly for all software. Since an LFS system is compiled from source,
it is up to you to keep abreast of such reports. There are several online resources that track such reports, some of
which are shown below:
• CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team)
CERT has a mailing list that publishes security alerts concerning various operating systems and applications.
Subscription information is available at http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/signup.html.
• Bugtraq
Bugtraq is a full-disclosure computer security mailing list. It publishes newly discovered security issues, and
occasionally potential fixes for them. Subscription information is available at http://www.securityfocus.com/
archive.
• Beyond Linux From Scratch
The Beyond Linux From Scratch book covers installation procedures for a wide range of software beyond the
scope of the LFS Book. The BLFS project is located at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/.
• LFS Hints
The LFS Hints are a collection of educational documents submitted by volunteers in the LFS community. The
hints are available at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/list.html.
• Mailing lists
There are several LFS mailing lists you may subscribe to if you are in need of help, want to stay current with
the latest developments, want to contribute to the project, and more. See Chapter 1 - Mailing Lists for more
information.
• The Linux Documentation Project
The goal of The Linux Documentation Project (TLDP) is to collaborate on all of the issues of Linux
documentation. The TLDP features a large collection of HOWTOs, guides, and man pages. It is located at http://
www.tldp.org/.
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Part IV. Appendices
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Appendix A. Acronyms and Terms
ABI
Application Binary Interface
ALFS
Automated Linux From Scratch
API
Application Programming Interface
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System
BLFS
Beyond Linux From Scratch
BSD
Berkeley Software Distribution
chroot
change root
CMOS
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
COS
Class Of Service
CPU
Central Processing Unit
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
CVS
Concurrent Versions System
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS
Domain Name Service
EGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter
ELF
Executable and Linkable Format
EOF
End of File
EQN
equation
ext2
second extended file system
ext3
third extended file system
ext4
fourth extended file system
FAQ
Frequently Asked Questions
FHS
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
FIFO
First-In, First Out
FQDN
Fully Qualified Domain Name
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
GB
Gigabytes
GCC
GNU Compiler Collection
GID
Group Identifier
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language
IDE
Integrated Drive Electronics
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
IO
Input/Output
IP
Internet Protocol
IPC
Inter-Process Communication
IRC
Internet Relay Chat
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
ISP
Internet Service Provider
KB
Kilobytes
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LFS
Linux From Scratch
LSB
Linux Standard Base
MB
Megabytes
MBR
Master Boot Record
MD5
Message Digest 5
NIC
Network Interface Card
NLS
Native Language Support
NNTP
Network News Transport Protocol
NPTL
Native POSIX Threading Library
OSS
Open Sound System
PCH
Pre-Compiled Headers
PCRE
Perl Compatible Regular Expression
PID
Process Identifier
PTY
pseudo terminal
QOS
Quality Of Service
RAM
Random Access Memory
RPC
Remote Procedure Call
RTC
Real Time Clock
SBU
Standard Build Unit
SCO
The Santa Cruz Operation
SHA1
Secure-Hash Algorithm 1
TLDP
The Linux Documentation Project
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TLS
Thread-Local Storage
UID
User Identifier
umask
user file-creation mask
USB
Universal Serial Bus
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
UUID
Universally Unique Identifier
VC
Virtual Console
VGA
Video Graphics Array
VT
Virtual Terminal
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Appendix B. Acknowledgments
We would like to thank the following people and organizations for their contributions to the Linux From Scratch Project.
• Gerard Beekmans <gerard@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Creator
• Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Managing Editor
• Jim Gifford <jim@linuxfromscratch.org> – CLFS Project Co-Leader
• Pierre Labastie <pierre@linuxfromscratch.org> – BLFS Editor and ALFS Lead
• DJ Lucas <dj@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS and BLFS Editor
• Ken Moffat <ken@linuxfromscratch.org> – BLFS Editor
• Douglas R. Reno <renodr@linuxfromscratch.org> – Systemd Editor
• Countless other people on the various LFS and BLFS mailing lists who helped make this book possible by giving
their suggestions, testing the book, and submitting bug reports, instructions, and their experiences with installing
various packages.
Translators
• Manuel Canales Esparcia <macana@macana-es.com> – Spanish LFS translation project
• Johan Lenglet <johan@linuxfromscratch.org> – French LFS translation project until 2008
• Jean-Philippe Mengual <jmengual@linuxfromscratch.org> – French LFS translation project 2008-2016
• Julien Lepiller <jlepiller@linuxfromscratch.org> – French LFS translation project 2017-present
• Anderson Lizardo <lizardo@linuxfromscratch.org> – Portuguese LFS translation project
• Thomas Reitelbach <tr@erdfunkstelle.de> – German LFS translation project
Mirror Maintainers
North American Mirrors
• Scott Kveton <scott@osuosl.org> – lfs.oregonstate.edu mirror
• William Astle <lost@l-w.net> – ca.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
• Eujon Sellers <jpolen@rackspace.com> – lfs.introspeed.com mirror
• Justin Knierim <tim@idge.net> – lfs-matrix.net mirror
South American Mirrors
• Manuel Canales Esparcia <manuel@linuxfromscratch.org> – lfsmirror.lfs-es.info mirror
• Luis Falcon <Luis Falcon> – torredehanoi.org mirror
European Mirrors
• Guido Passet <guido@primerelay.net> – nl.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
• Bastiaan Jacques <baafie@planet.nl> – lfs.pagefault.net mirror
• Sven Cranshoff <sven.cranshoff@lineo.be> – lfs.lineo.be mirror
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• Scarlet Belgium – lfs.scarlet.be mirror
• Sebastian Faulborn <info@aliensoft.org> – lfs.aliensoft.org mirror
• Stuart Fox <stuart@dontuse.ms> – lfs.dontuse.ms mirror
• Ralf Uhlemann <admin@realhost.de> – lfs.oss-mirror.org mirror
• Antonin Sprinzl <Antonin.Sprinzl@tuwien.ac.at> – at.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
• Fredrik Danerklint <fredan-lfs@fredan.org> – se.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
• Franck <franck@linuxpourtous.com> – lfs.linuxpourtous.com mirror
• Philippe Baque <baque@cict.fr> – lfs.cict.fr mirror
• Vitaly Chekasin <gyouja@pilgrims.ru> – lfs.pilgrims.ru mirror
• Benjamin Heil <kontakt@wankoo.org> – lfs.wankoo.org mirror
Asian Mirrors
• Satit Phermsawang <satit@wbac.ac.th> – lfs.phayoune.org mirror
• Shizunet Co.,Ltd. <info@shizu-net.jp> – lfs.mirror.shizu-net.jp mirror
• Init World <http://www.initworld.com/> – lfs.initworld.com mirror
Australian Mirrors
• Jason Andrade <jason@dstc.edu.au> – au.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
Former Project Team Members
• Christine Barczak <theladyskye@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Book Editor
• Archaic <archaic@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Technical Writer/Editor, HLFS Project Leader, BLFS Editor,
Hints and Patches Project Maintainer
• Matthew Burgess <matthew@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Project Leader, LFS Technical Writer/Editor
• Nathan Coulson <nathan@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS-Bootscripts Maintainer
• Timothy Bauscher
• Robert Briggs
• Ian Chilton
• Jeroen Coumans <jeroen@linuxfromscratch.org> – Website Developer, FAQ Maintainer
• Manuel Canales Esparcia <manuel@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS/BLFS/HLFS XML and XSL Maintainer
• Alex Groenewoud – LFS Technical Writer
• Marc Heerdink
• Jeremy Huntwork <jhuntwork@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Technical Writer, LFS LiveCD Maintainer
• Bryan Kadzban <bryan@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Technical Writer
• Mark Hymers
• Seth W. Klein – FAQ maintainer
• Nicholas Leippe <nicholas@linuxfromscratch.org> – Wiki Maintainer
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
• Anderson Lizardo <lizardo@linuxfromscratch.org> – Website Backend-Scripts Maintainer
• Randy McMurchy <randy@linuxfromscratch.org> – BLFS Project Leader, LFS Editor
• Dan Nicholson <dnicholson@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS and BLFS Editor
• Alexander E. Patrakov <alexander@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Technical Writer, LFS Internationalization
Editor, LFS Live CD Maintainer
• Simon Perreault
• Scot Mc Pherson <scot@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS NNTP Gateway Maintainer
• Ryan Oliver <ryan@linuxfromscratch.org> – CLFS Project Co-Leader
• Greg Schafer <gschafer@zip.com.au> – LFS Technical Writer and Architect of the Next Generation 64-bitenabling Build Method
• Jesse Tie-Ten-Quee – LFS Technical Writer
• James Robertson <jwrober@linuxfromscratch.org> – Bugzilla Maintainer
• Tushar Teredesai <tushar@linuxfromscratch.org> – BLFS Book Editor, Hints and Patches Project Leader
• Jeremy Utley <jeremy@linuxfromscratch.org> – LFS Technical Writer, Bugzilla Maintainer, LFS-Bootscripts
Maintainer
• Zack Winkles <zwinkles@gmail.com> – LFS Technical Writer
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Appendix C. Dependencies
Every package built in LFS relies on one or more other packages in order to build and install properly. Some packages
even participate in circular dependencies, that is, the first package depends on the second which in turn depends on the
first. Because of these dependencies, the order in which packages are built in LFS is very important. The purpose of
this page is to document the dependencies of each package built in LFS.
For each package we build, we have listed three, and sometimes four, types of dependencies. The first lists what other
packages need to be available in order to compile and install the package in question. The second lists what packages,
in addition to those on the first list, need to be available in order to run the test suites. The third list of dependencies
are packages that require this package to be built and installed in its final location before they are built and installed. In
most cases, this is because these packages will hard code paths to binaries within their scripts. If not built in a certain
order, this could result in paths of /tools/bin/[binary] being placed inside scripts installed to the final system. This is
obviously not desirable.
The last list of dependencies are optional packages that are not addressed in LFS, but could be useful to the user.
These packages may have additional mandatory or optional dependencies of their own. For these dependencies, the
recommended practice is to install them after completion of the LFS book and then go back and rebuild the LFS package.
In several cases, re-installation is addressed in BLFS.
acl
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Attr, Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo
Automake, Diffutils, Findutils, and Libtool
Coreutils, Sed, Tar, Vim
None
attr
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo
Automake, Diffutils, Findutils, and Libtool
Acl, Libcap
None
Autoconf
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Coreutils, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo
Automake, Diffutils, Findutils, GCC, and Libtool
Automake
Emacs
Automake
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Autoconf, Bash, Coreutils, Gettext, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo
Binutils, Bison, Bzip2, DejaGNU, Diffutils, Expect, Findutils, Flex, GCC, Gettext, Gzip,
Libtool, and Tar.
None
None
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Bash
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses,
Patch, Readline, Sed, and Texinfo
Shadow
None
Xorg
Bc
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Readline
Gawk
Linux Kernel
None
Binutils
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, File, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed,
Texinfo and Zlib
DejaGNU and Expect
None
None
Bison
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, and Sed
Diffutils, Findutils, and Flex
Kbd and Tar
Doxygen (test suite)
Bzip2
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Patch
None
None
None
Check
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
GCC, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
None
None
None
Coreutils
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, GMP, Grep, Make, Patch, Perl, Sed, and
Texinfo
Diffutils, E2fsprogs, Findutils, Shadow, and Util-linux
Bash, Diffutils, Findutils, Man-DB, and Eudev
Perl Expect and IO:Tty modules (for test suite)
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
DejaGNU
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Grep, Make, and Sed
None
None
None
Diffutils
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
Diffutils, Perl
None
None
Eudev
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Gperf, Make, and Sed
None
None
None
Expat
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed
None
XML::Parser
None
Expect
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Patch, Sed, and Tcl
None
None
None
E2fsprogs
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Gzip, Make, Sed, Texinfo,
and Util-linux
Procps-ng,Psmisc
None
None
File
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Zlib
None
None
None
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Findutils
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
DejaGNU, Diffutils, and Expect
None
None
Flex
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, Patch, Sed, and Texinfo
Bison and Gawk
IPRoute2, Kbd, and Man-DB
None
Gawk
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, GMP, Grep, Make, MPFR, Patch,
Readline, Sed and Texinfo
Diffutils
None
None
Gcc
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Findutils, Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, GMP, Grep,
M4, Make, MPC, MPFR, Patch, Perl, Sed, Tar, and Texinfo
DejaGNU and Expect
None
CLooG-PPL, GNAT and PPL
GDBM
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Grep, Make, and Sed
None
None
None
Gettext
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
Diffutils, Perl, and Tcl
Automake
None
Glibc
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Grep, Gzip, Linux API
Headers, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo
File
None
None
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
GMP
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, Sed and
Texinfo
None
MPFR, GCC
None
Gperf
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make
Diffutils, Expect
None
None
Grep
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Patch, Sed, and
Texinfo
Gawk
Man-DB
Pcre
Groff
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Patch, Sed, and
Texinfo
No test suite available
Man-DB and Perl
GPL Ghostscript
GRUB
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses,
Sed, Texinfo, and Xz
None
None
None
Gzip
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
Diffutils, Less
Man-DB
None
Iana-Etc
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Coreutils, Gawk, and Make
No test suite available
Perl
None
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Inetutils
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, Patch, Sed, Texinfo, and
Zlib
No test suite available
Tar
None
Intltool
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Gawk, Glibc, Make, Perl, Sed, and XML::Parser
Perl
None
None
IProute2
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Bison, Coreutils, Flex, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Linux API Headers
No test suite available
None
None
Kbd
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Bison, Check, Coreutils, Flex, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Gzip, Make, Patch,
and Sed
No test suite available
None
None
Kmod
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Flex, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Gzip, Make, Sed, Xz-Utils,
Zlib
No test suite available
Eudev
None
Less
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed
No test suite available
Gzip
Pcre
Libcap
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Attr, Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Perl, Make, and Sed
No test suite available
None
Linux-PAM
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Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Libpipeline
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
Check
Man-DB
None
Libtool
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
Autoconf, Automake, Findutils
None
None
Linux Kernel
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Bc, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Findutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Gzip, Kmod, Make,
Ncurses, Perl, and Sed
No test suite available
OpenSSL
None
M4
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
Diffutils
Autoconf and Bison
libsigsegv
Make
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
Perl and Procps-ng
None
None
Man-DB
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Bzip2, Coreutils, Flex, GCC, GDBM, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Groff, Gzip,
Less, Libpipeline, Make, Sed, and Xz
Util-linux
None
None
Man-Pages
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Coreutils, and Make
No test suite available
None
None
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MPC
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, GMP, Make, MPFR, Sed
and Texinfo
None
GCC
None
MPFR
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, GMP, Make, Sed and
Texinfo
None
Gawk, GCC
None
Ncurses
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Patch, and Sed
No test suite available
Bash, GRUB, Inetutils, Less, Procps-ng, Psmisc, Readline, Texinfo, Util-linux, and Vim
None
Patch
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed
Diffutils
None
Ed
Perl
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, GDBM, Glibc, Grep, Groff, Make, Sed, and Zlib
Iana-Etc and Procps-ng
Autoconf
None
Pkg-config
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Popt, and Sed
None
Kmod
None
Popt
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make
Diffutils and Sed
Pkg-config
None
262
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Procps-ng
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Ncurses
DejaGNU
None
None
Psmisc
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed
No test suite available
None
None
Readline
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, Patch, Sed, and
Texinfo
No test suite available
Bash, Gawk
None
Sed
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo
Diffutils and Gawk
E2fsprogs, File, Libtool, and Shadow
Cracklib
Shadow
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Findutils, Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make,
and Sed
No test suite available
Coreutils
Acl, Attr, Cracklib, PAM
Sysklogd
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Patch
No test suite available
None
None
Sysvinit
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Sed
No test suite available
None
None
263
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Tar
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Acl, Attr, Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Inetutils, Make,
Sed, and Texinfo
Autoconf, Diffutils, Findutils, Gawk, and Gzip
None
None
Tcl
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed
None
None
None
Texinfo
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, Patch, and Sed
None
None
None
Util-linux
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Findutils, Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make,
Ncurses, Sed, Eudev, and Zlib
None
None
libcap-ng
Vim
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Acl, Attr, Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed
None
None
Xorg, GTK+2, LessTif, Python, Tcl, Ruby, and GPM
XML::Parser
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Expat, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Perl
Perl
Intltool
None
Xz
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC, Glibc, and Make.
None
GRUB, Kmod, Man-DB, Eudev
None
264
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Zlib
Installation depends on:
Test suite depends on:
Must be installed before:
Optional dependencies:
Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make, and Sed
None
File, Kmod, Perl, and Util-linux
None
265
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Appendix D. LFS Licenses
This book is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 License.
Computer instructions may be extracted from the book under the MIT License.
D.1. Creative Commons License
Creative Commons Legal Code
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0
Important
CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION IS NOT A LAW FIRM AND DOES NOT PROVIDE LEGAL
SERVICES. DISTRIBUTION OF THIS LICENSE DOES NOT CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT
RELATIONSHIP. CREATIVE COMMONS PROVIDES THIS INFORMATION ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS.
CREATIVE COMMONS MAKES NO WARRANTIES REGARDING THE INFORMATION PROVIDED,
AND DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ITS USE.
License
THE WORK (AS DEFINED BELOW) IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS CREATIVE COMMONS
PUBLIC LICENSE ("CCPL" OR "LICENSE"). THE WORK IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT AND/OR OTHER
APPLICABLE LAW. ANY USE OF THE WORK OTHER THAN AS AUTHORIZED UNDER THIS LICENSE OR
COPYRIGHT LAW IS PROHIBITED.
BY EXERCISING ANY RIGHTS TO THE WORK PROVIDED HERE, YOU ACCEPT AND AGREE TO BE
BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. THE LICENSOR GRANTS YOU THE RIGHTS CONTAINED
HERE IN CONSIDERATION OF YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF SUCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS.
1. Definitions
a. "Collective Work" means a work, such as a periodical issue, anthology or encyclopedia, in which the Work in its
entirety in unmodified form, along with a number of other contributions, constituting separate and independent
works in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a Collective Work will not
be considered a Derivative Work (as defined below) for the purposes of this License.
b. "Derivative Work" means a work based upon the Work or upon the Work and other pre-existing works, such as
a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art
reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which the Work may be recast, transformed, or
adapted, except that a work that constitutes a Collective Work will not be considered a Derivative Work for the
purpose of this License. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical composition or sound recording,
the synchronization of the Work in timed-relation with a moving image ("synching") will be considered a
Derivative Work for the purpose of this License.
c. "Licensor" means the individual or entity that offers the Work under the terms of this License.
d. "Original Author" means the individual or entity who created the Work.
e. "Work" means the copyrightable work of authorship offered under the terms of this License.
f. "You" means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has not previously violated the
terms of this License with respect to the Work, or who has received express permission from the Licensor to
exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation.
266
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
g. "License Elements" means the following high-level license attributes as selected by Licensor and indicated in
the title of this License: Attribution, Noncommercial, ShareAlike.
2. Fair Use Rights. Nothing in this license is intended to reduce, limit, or restrict any rights arising from fair use, first
sale or other limitations on the exclusive rights of the copyright owner under copyright law or other applicable laws.
3. License Grant. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royaltyfree, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the
Work as stated below:
a. to reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collective Works, and to reproduce the Work
as incorporated in the Collective Works;
b. to create and reproduce Derivative Works;
c. to distribute copies or phonorecords of, display publicly, perform publicly, and perform publicly by means of a
digital audio transmission the Work including as incorporated in Collective Works;
d. to distribute copies or phonorecords of, display publicly, perform publicly, and perform publicly by means of
a digital audio transmission Derivative Works;
The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereafter devised. The above
rights include the right to make such modifications as are technically necessary to exercise the rights in other media
and formats. All rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved, including but not limited to the rights
set forth in Sections 4(e) and 4(f).
4. Restrictions.The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and limited by the following
restrictions:
a. You may distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform the Work only under the
terms of this License, and You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier for, this License with
every copy or phonorecord of the Work You distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally
perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that alter or restrict the terms of this License
or the recipients' exercise of the rights granted hereunder. You may not sublicense the Work. You must keep
intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties. You may not distribute, publicly
display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform the Work with any technological measures that control
access or use of the Work in a manner inconsistent with the terms of this License Agreement. The above applies
to the Work as incorporated in a Collective Work, but this does not require the Collective Work apart from
the Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collective Work, upon notice
from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Collective Work any reference to such
Licensor or the Original Author, as requested. If You create a Derivative Work, upon notice from any Licensor
You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Derivative Work any reference to such Licensor or the
Original Author, as requested.
b. You may distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform a Derivative Work only
under the terms of this License, a later version of this License with the same License Elements as this License, or a
Creative Commons iCommons license that contains the same License Elements as this License (e.g. AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Japan). You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier for, this
License or other license specified in the previous sentence with every copy or phonorecord of each Derivative
Work You distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform. You may not offer or
impose any terms on the Derivative Works that alter or restrict the terms of this License or the recipients'
exercise of the rights granted hereunder, and You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to
the disclaimer of warranties. You may not distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally
perform the Derivative Work with any technological measures that control access or use of the Work in a manner
267
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
inconsistent with the terms of this License Agreement. The above applies to the Derivative Work as incorporated
in a Collective Work, but this does not require the Collective Work apart from the Derivative Work itself to be
made subject to the terms of this License.
c. You may not exercise any of the rights granted to You in Section 3 above in any manner that is primarily intended
for or directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation. The exchange of the Work for
other copyrighted works by means of digital file-sharing or otherwise shall not be considered to be intended for
or directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation, provided there is no payment of
any monetary compensation in connection with the exchange of copyrighted works.
d. If you distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform the Work or any Derivative
Works or Collective Works, You must keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and give the Original Author
credit reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing by conveying the name (or pseudonym if applicable)
of the Original Author if supplied; the title of the Work if supplied; to the extent reasonably practicable, the
Uniform Resource Identifier, if any, that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work, unless such URI
does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work; and in the case of a Derivative
Work, a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Derivative Work (e.g., "French translation of the Work by
Original Author," or "Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author"). Such credit may be implemented
in any reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Derivative Work or Collective Work, at a
minimum such credit will appear where any other comparable authorship credit appears and in a manner at least
as prominent as such other comparable authorship credit.
e. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical composition:
i. Performance Royalties Under Blanket Licenses. Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect, whether
individually or via a performance rights society (e.g. ASCAP, BMI, SESAC), royalties for the public
performance or public digital performance (e.g. webcast) of the Work if that performance is primarily intended
for or directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation.
ii. Mechanical Rights and Statutory Royalties. Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect, whether
individually or via a music rights agency or designated agent (e.g. Harry Fox Agency), royalties for any
phonorecord You create from the Work ("cover version") and distribute, subject to the compulsory license
created by 17 USC Section 115 of the US Copyright Act (or the equivalent in other jurisdictions), if Your
distribution of such cover version is primarily intended for or directed toward commercial advantage or private
monetary compensation. 6. Webcasting Rights and Statutory Royalties. For the avoidance of doubt, where
the Work is a sound recording, Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect, whether individually or via a
performance-rights society (e.g. SoundExchange), royalties for the public digital performance (e.g. webcast)
of the Work, subject to the compulsory license created by 17 USC Section 114 of the US Copyright Act (or
the equivalent in other jurisdictions), if Your public digital performance is primarily intended for or directed
toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation.
f. Webcasting Rights and Statutory Royalties. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a sound recording,
Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect, whether individually or via a performance-rights society
(e.g. SoundExchange), royalties for the public digital performance (e.g. webcast) of the Work, subject to the
compulsory license created by 17 USC Section 114 of the US Copyright Act (or the equivalent in other
jurisdictions), if Your public digital performance is primarily intended for or directed toward commercial
advantage or private monetary compensation.
5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer
268
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
UNLESS OTHERWISE MUTUALLY AGREED TO BY THE PARTIES IN WRITING, LICENSOR
OFFERS THE WORK AS-IS AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY
KIND CONCERNING THE WORK, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING,
WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTIBILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, NONINFRINGEMENT, OR THE ABSENCE OF LATENT OR OTHER DEFECTS, ACCURACY,
OR THE PRESENCE OF ABSENCE OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT DISCOVERABLE. SOME
JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES, SO SUCH EXCLUSION
MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
6. Limitation on Liability. EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT
WILL LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL THEORY FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL,
CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS LICENSE OR THE
USE OF THE WORK, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGES.
7. Termination
a. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any breach by You of the terms
of this License. Individuals or entities who have received Derivative Works or Collective Works from You under
this License, however, will not have their licenses terminated provided such individuals or entities remain in full
compliance with those licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 will survive any termination of this License.
b. Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is perpetual (for the duration of the applicable
copyright in the Work). Notwithstanding the above, Licensor reserves the right to release the Work under
different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at any time; provided, however that any such election
will not serve to withdraw this License (or any other license that has been, or is required to be, granted under the
terms of this License), and this License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above.
8. Miscellaneous
a. Each time You distribute or publicly digitally perform the Work or a Collective Work, the Licensor offers to the
recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
b. Each time You distribute or publicly digitally perform a Derivative Work, Licensor offers to the recipient a
license to the original Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
c. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity
or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License, and without further action by the parties to this
agreement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and
enforceable.
d. No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to unless such waiver or
consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged with such waiver or consent.
e. This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed here. There
are no understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified here. Licensor shall
not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any communication from You. This License may
not be modified without the mutual written agreement of the Licensor and You.
269
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Important
Creative Commons is not a party to this License, and makes no warranty whatsoever in connection with
the Work. Creative Commons will not be liable to You or any party on any legal theory for any damages
whatsoever, including without limitation any general, special, incidental or consequential damages arising
in connection to this license. Notwithstanding the foregoing two (2) sentences, if Creative Commons has
expressly identified itself as the Licensor hereunder, it shall have all rights and obligations of Licensor.
Except for the limited purpose of indicating to the public that the Work is licensed under the CCPL, neither
party will use the trademark "Creative Commons" or any related trademark or logo of Creative Commons
without the prior written consent of Creative Commons. Any permitted use will be in compliance with
Creative Commons' then-current trademark usage guidelines, as may be published on its website or otherwise
made available upon request from time to time.
Creative Commons may be contacted at http://creativecommons.org/.
D.2. The MIT License
Copyright © 1999-2017 Gerard Beekmans
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons
to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR
COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH
THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
270
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
tools: 65
Findutils: 184
tools: 66
Findutils: 184
tools: 66
Flex: 143
Gawk: 183
tools: 67
Gawk: 183
tools: 67
GCC: 119
tools, libstdc++: 46
tools, pass 1: 39
tools, pass 2: 50
GCC: 119
tools, libstdc++: 46
tools, pass 1: 39
tools, pass 2: 50
GCC: 119
tools, libstdc++: 46
tools, pass 1: 39
tools, pass 2: 50
GCC: 119
tools, libstdc++: 46
tools, pass 1: 39
tools, pass 2: 50
GDBM: 148
Gettext: 165
tools: 68
Gettext: 165
tools: 68
Glibc: 95
tools: 43
Glibc: 95
tools: 43
GMP: 115
Gperf: 149
Grep: 144
tools: 69
Grep: 144
tools: 69
Groff: 186
GRUB: 189
Gzip: 192
tools: 70
Gzip: 192
tools: 70
Index
Packages
Acl: 132
Attr: 130
Autoconf: 158
Automake: 160
Bash: 145
tools: 60
Bash: 145
tools: 60
Bc: 110
Binutils: 112
tools, pass 1: 37
tools, pass 2: 48
Binutils: 112
tools, pass 1: 37
tools, pass 2: 48
Binutils: 112
tools, pass 1: 37
tools, pass 2: 48
Bison: 142
tools: 61
Bison: 142
tools: 61
Bzip2: 124
tools: 62
Bzip2: 124
tools: 62
Check: 58
Coreutils: 177
tools: 63
Coreutils: 177
tools: 63
D-Bus: 201
DejaGNU: 57
Diffutils: 182
tools: 64
Diffutils: 182
tools: 64
E2fsprogs: 174
Expat: 150
Expect: 55
File: 106
tools: 65
File: 106
271
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
Iana-Etc: 141
Inetutils: 151
Intltool: 157
IPRoute2: 194
Kbd: 196
Kmod: 163
Less: 191
Libcap: 134
Libpipeline: 198
Libtool: 147
Linux: 238
API headers: 93
tools, API headers: 42
Linux: 238
API headers: 93
tools, API headers: 42
Linux: 238
API headers: 93
tools, API headers: 42
M4: 109
tools: 71
M4: 109
tools: 71
Make: 199
tools: 72
Make: 199
tools: 72
Man-DB: 208
Man-pages: 94
MPC: 118
MPFR: 117
Ncurses: 127
tools: 59
Ncurses: 127
tools: 59
Patch: 200
tools: 73
Patch: 200
tools: 73
Perl: 153
tools: 74
Perl: 153
tools: 74
Pkgconfig: 126
Procps-ng: 172
Psmisc: 140
Readline: 107
Sed: 135
tools: 75
Sed: 135
tools: 75
Shadow: 136
configuring: 137
Shadow: 136
configuring: 137
systemd: 167
Tar: 211
tools: 76
Tar: 211
tools: 76
Tcl-core: 53
Texinfo: 212
tools: 77
Texinfo: 212
tools: 77
Udev
usage: 223
Util-linux: 203
tools: 78
Util-linux: 203
tools: 78
Vim: 214
XML::Parser: 156
Xz: 161
tools: 79
Xz: 161
tools: 79
Zlib: 105
Programs
accessdb: 208, 210
aclocal: 160, 160
aclocal-1.15: 160, 160
addftinfo: 186, 186
addpart: 203, 204
addr2line: 112, 113
afmtodit: 186, 186
agetty: 203, 204
apropos: 208, 210
ar: 112, 113
as: 112, 113
attr: 130, 130
autoconf: 158, 158
autoheader: 158, 158
272
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
autom4te: 158, 158
automake: 160, 160
automake-1.15: 160, 160
autopoint: 165, 165
autoreconf: 158, 158
autoscan: 158, 158
autoupdate: 158, 159
awk: 183, 183
badblocks: 174, 175
base64: 177, 178, 177, 178
base64: 177, 178, 177, 178
basename: 177, 178
bash: 145, 146
bashbug: 145, 146
bc: 110, 111
bison: 142, 142
blkdiscard: 203, 204
blkid: 203, 204
blockdev: 203, 204
bootctl: 167, 169
bridge: 194, 194
bunzip2: 124, 125
busctl: 167, 169
bzcat: 124, 125
bzcmp: 124, 125
bzdiff: 124, 125
bzegrep: 124, 125
bzfgrep: 124, 125
bzgrep: 124, 125
bzip2: 124, 125
bzip2recover: 124, 125
bzless: 124, 125
bzmore: 124, 125
c++: 119, 122
c++filt: 112, 113
c2ph: 153, 154
cal: 203, 204
capsh: 134, 134
captoinfo: 127, 128
cat: 177, 178
catchsegv: 95, 100
catman: 208, 210
cc: 119, 122
cfdisk: 203, 204
chacl: 132, 133
chage: 136, 138
chattr: 174, 175
chcon: 177, 179
chcpu: 203, 204
checkmk: 58, 58
chem: 186, 186
chfn: 136, 138
chgpasswd: 136, 138
chgrp: 177, 179
chmod: 177, 179
chown: 177, 179
chpasswd: 136, 138
chroot: 177, 179
chrt: 203, 204
chsh: 136, 138
chvt: 196, 197
cksum: 177, 179
clear: 127, 129
cmp: 182, 182
code: 184, 184
col: 203, 204
colcrt: 203, 204
colrm: 203, 204
column: 203, 204
comm: 177, 179
compile_et: 174, 175
coredumpctl: 167, 169
corelist: 153, 154
cp: 177, 179
cpan: 153, 154
cpp: 119, 123
csplit: 177, 179
ctrlaltdel: 203, 204
ctstat: 194, 194
cut: 177, 179
date: 177, 179
dbus-cleanup-sockets: 201, 202
dbus-daemon: 201, 202
dbus-launch: 201, 202
dbus-monitor: 201, 202
dbus-run-session: 201, 202
dbus-send: 201, 202
dbus-test-tool: 201, 202
dbus-update-activation-environment: 201, 202
dbus-uuidgen: 201, 202
dc: 110, 111
dd: 177, 179
deallocvt: 196, 197
debugfs: 174, 175
273
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
delpart: 203, 204
depmod: 163, 163
df: 177, 179
diff: 182, 182
diff3: 182, 182
dir: 177, 179
dircolors: 177, 179
dirname: 177, 179
dmesg: 203, 204
dnsdomainname: 151, 152
du: 177, 179
dumpe2fs: 174, 175
dumpkeys: 196, 197
e2freefrag: 174, 175
e2fsck: 174, 175
e2image: 174, 175
e2label: 174, 176
e2undo: 174, 176
e4defrag: 174, 176
echo: 177, 179
egrep: 144, 144
eject: 203, 204
elfedit: 112, 113
enc2xs: 153, 154
encguess: 153, 154
env: 177, 179
envsubst: 165, 165
eqn: 186, 186
eqn2graph: 186, 186
ex: 214, 216
expand: 177, 179
expect: 55, 56
expiry: 136, 138
expr: 177, 179
factor: 177, 179
faillog: 136, 138
fallocate: 203, 205
false: 177, 179
fdformat: 203, 205
fdisk: 203, 205
fgconsole: 196, 197
fgrep: 144, 144
file: 106, 106
filefrag: 174, 176
find: 184, 184
findfs: 203, 205
findmnt: 203, 205
flex: 143, 143
flex++: 143, 143
flock: 203, 205
fmt: 177, 179
fold: 177, 179
free: 172, 173
fsck: 203, 205
fsck.cramfs: 203, 205
fsck.ext2: 174, 176
fsck.ext3: 174, 176
fsck.ext4: 174, 176
fsck.ext4dev: 174, 176
fsck.minix: 203, 205
fsfreeze: 203, 205
fstrim: 203, 205
ftp: 151, 152
fuser: 140, 140
g++: 119, 123
gawk: 183, 183
gawk-4.1.4: 183, 183
gcc: 119, 123
gc-ar: 119, 123
gc-nm: 119, 123
gc-ranlib: 119, 123
gcov: 119, 123
gdbmtool: 148, 148
gdbm_dump: 148, 148
gdbm_load: 148, 148
gdiffmk: 186, 186
gencat: 95, 100
genl: 194, 194
getcap: 134, 134
getconf: 95, 101
getent: 95, 101
getfacl: 132, 133
getfattr: 130, 131
getkeycodes: 196, 197
getopt: 203, 205
getpcaps: 134, 134
gettext: 165, 165
gettext.sh: 165, 165
gettextize: 165, 165
glilypond: 186, 186
gpasswd: 136, 138
gperf: 149, 149
gperl: 186, 186
gpinyin: 186, 186
274
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
gprof: 112, 113
grap2graph: 186, 187
grep: 144, 144
grn: 186, 187
grodvi: 186, 187
groff: 186, 187
groffer: 186, 187
grog: 186, 187
grolbp: 186, 187
grolj4: 186, 187
gropdf: 186, 187
grops: 186, 187
grotty: 186, 187
groupadd: 136, 138
groupdel: 136, 138
groupmems: 136, 138
groupmod: 136, 138
groups: 177, 179
grpck: 136, 138
grpconv: 136, 138
grpunconv: 136, 138
grub-bios-setup: 189, 189
grub-editenv: 189, 189
grub-file: 189, 189
grub-fstest: 189, 189
grub-glue-efi: 189, 190
grub-install: 189, 190
grub-kbdcomp: 189, 190
grub-macbless: 189, 190
grub-menulst2cfg: 189, 190
grub-mkconfig: 189, 190
grub-mkimage: 189, 190
grub-mklayout: 189, 190
grub-mknetdir: 189, 190
grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2: 189, 190
grub-mkrelpath: 189, 190
grub-mkrescue: 189, 190
grub-mkstandalone: 189, 190
grub-ofpathname: 189, 190
grub-probe: 189, 190
grub-reboot: 189, 190
grub-render-label: 189, 190
grub-script-check: 189, 190
grub-set-default: 189, 190
grub-setup: 189, 190
grub-syslinux2cfg: 189, 190
gunzip: 192, 192
gzexe: 192, 192
gzip: 192, 192
h2ph: 153, 154
h2xs: 153, 154
halt: 167, 169
head: 177, 179
hexdump: 203, 205
hostid: 177, 179
hostname: 151, 152
hostnamectl: 167, 169
hpftodit: 186, 187
hwclock: 203, 205
i386: 203, 205
iconv: 95, 101
iconvconfig: 95, 101
id: 177, 179
ifcfg: 194, 194
ifconfig: 151, 152
ifnames: 158, 159
ifstat: 194, 194
igawk: 183, 183
indxbib: 186, 187
info: 212, 213
infocmp: 127, 129
infotocap: 127, 129
init: 167, 169
insmod: 163, 164
install: 177, 179
install-info: 212, 213
instmodsh: 153, 154
intltool-extract: 157, 157
intltool-merge: 157, 157
intltool-prepare: 157, 157
intltool-update: 157, 157
intltoolize: 157, 157
ionice: 203, 205
ip: 194, 194
ipcmk: 203, 205
ipcrm: 203, 205
ipcs: 203, 205
isosize: 203, 205
join: 177, 179
journalctl: 167, 169
json_pp: 153, 154
kbdinfo: 196, 197
kbdrate: 196, 197
kbd_mode: 196, 197
275
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
kernel-install: 167, 169
kill: 203, 205
killall: 140, 140
kmod: 163, 164
last: 203, 205
lastb: 203, 205
lastlog: 136, 138
ld: 112, 113
ld.bfd: 112, 113
ld.gold: 112, 113
ldattach: 203, 205
ldconfig: 95, 101
ldd: 95, 101
lddlibc4: 95, 101
less: 191, 191
lessecho: 191, 191
lesskey: 191, 191
lex: 143, 143
lexgrog: 208, 210
lfskernel-4.12.7: 238, 242
libasan: 119, 123
libnetcfg: 153, 154
libtool: 147, 147
libtoolize: 147, 147
link: 177, 179
linux32: 203, 205
linux64: 203, 205
lkbib: 186, 187
ln: 177, 180
lnstat: 194, 195
loadkeys: 196, 197
loadunimap: 196, 197
locale: 95, 101
localectl: 167, 169
localedef: 95, 101
locate: 184, 184
logger: 203, 205
login: 136, 138
loginctl: 167, 169
logname: 177, 180
logoutd: 136, 138
logsave: 174, 176
look: 203, 205
lookbib: 186, 187
losetup: 203, 205
ls: 177, 180
lsattr: 174, 176
lsblk: 203, 205
lscpu: 203, 205
lsipc: 203, 205
lslocks: 203, 205
lslogins: 203, 205
lsmod: 163, 164
lzcat: 161, 161
lzcmp: 161, 161
lzdiff: 161, 161
lzegrep: 161, 161
lzfgrep: 161, 161
lzgrep: 161, 161
lzless: 161, 162
lzma: 161, 162
lzmadec: 161, 162
lzmainfo: 161, 162
lzmore: 161, 162
m4: 109, 109
machinectl: 167, 169
make: 199, 199
makedb: 95, 101
makeinfo: 212, 213
man: 208, 210
mandb: 208, 210
manpath: 208, 210
mapscrn: 196, 197
mcookie: 203, 206
md5sum: 177, 180
mesg: 203, 206
mkdir: 177, 180
mke2fs: 174, 176
mkfifo: 177, 180
mkfs: 203, 206
mkfs.bfs: 203, 206
mkfs.cramfs: 203, 206
mkfs.ext2: 174, 176
mkfs.ext3: 174, 176
mkfs.ext4: 174, 176
mkfs.ext4dev: 174, 176
mkfs.minix: 203, 206
mklost+found: 174, 176
mknod: 177, 180
mkswap: 203, 206
mktemp: 177, 180
mk_cmds: 174, 176
mmroff: 186, 187
modinfo: 163, 164
276
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
modprobe: 163, 164
more: 203, 206
mount: 203, 206
mountpoint: 203, 206
msgattrib: 165, 166
msgcat: 165, 166
msgcmp: 165, 166
msgcomm: 165, 166
msgconv: 165, 166
msgen: 165, 166
msgexec: 165, 166
msgfilter: 165, 166
msgfmt: 165, 166
msggrep: 165, 166
msginit: 165, 166
msgmerge: 165, 166
msgunfmt: 165, 166
msguniq: 165, 166
mtrace: 95, 101
mv: 177, 180
namei: 203, 206
ncursesw6-config: 127, 129
neqn: 186, 187
networkctl: 167, 169
newgidmap: 136, 138
newgrp: 136, 138
newuidmap: 136, 138
newusers: 136, 138
ngettext: 165, 166
nice: 177, 180
nl: 177, 180
nm: 112, 113
nohup: 177, 180
nologin: 136, 138
nproc: 177, 180
nroff: 186, 187
nscd: 95, 101
nsenter: 203, 206
nstat: 194, 195
numfmt: 177, 180
objcopy: 112, 113
objdump: 112, 114
od: 177, 180
oldfind: 184, 184
openvt: 196, 197
partx: 203, 206
passwd: 136, 138
paste: 177, 180
patch: 200, 200
pathchk: 177, 180
pdfmom: 186, 187
pdfroff: 186, 187
pdftexi2dvi: 212, 213
peekfd: 140, 140
perl: 153, 154
perl5.26.0: 153, 154
perlbug: 153, 154
perldoc: 153, 154
perlivp: 153, 154
perlthanks: 153, 154
pfbtops: 186, 187
pg: 203, 206
pgrep: 172, 173
pic: 186, 187
pic2graph: 186, 187
piconv: 153, 155
pidof: 172, 173
ping: 151, 152
ping6: 151, 152
pinky: 177, 180
pivot_root: 203, 206
pkg-config: 126, 126
pkill: 172, 173
pl2pm: 153, 155
pldd: 95, 101
pmap: 172, 173
pod2html: 153, 155
pod2man: 153, 155
pod2texi: 212, 213
pod2text: 153, 155
pod2usage: 153, 155
podchecker: 153, 155
podselect: 153, 155
post-grohtml: 186, 187
poweroff: 167, 169
pr: 177, 180
pre-grohtml: 186, 187
preconv: 186, 187
printenv: 177, 180
printf: 177, 180
prlimit: 203, 206
prove: 153, 155
prtstat: 140, 140
ps: 172, 173
277
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
psfaddtable: 196, 197
psfgettable: 196, 197
psfstriptable: 196, 197
psfxtable: 196, 197
pstree: 140, 140
pstree.x11: 140, 140
pstruct: 153, 155
ptar: 153, 155
ptardiff: 153, 155
ptargrep: 153, 155
ptx: 177, 180
pwck: 136, 138
pwconv: 136, 138
pwd: 177, 180
pwdx: 172, 173
pwunconv: 136, 138
ranlib: 112, 114
raw: 203, 206
readelf: 112, 114
readlink: 177, 180
readprofile: 203, 206
realpath: 177, 180
reboot: 167, 169
recode-sr-latin: 165, 166
refer: 186, 187
rename: 203, 206
renice: 203, 206
reset: 127, 129
resize2fs: 174, 176
resizepart: 203, 206
rev: 203, 206
rm: 177, 180
rmdir: 177, 180
rmmod: 163, 164
roff2dvi: 186, 187
roff2html: 186, 188
roff2pdf: 186, 188
roff2ps: 186, 188
roff2text: 186, 188
roff2x: 186, 188
routef: 194, 195
routel: 194, 195
rtacct: 194, 195
rtcwake: 203, 206
rtmon: 194, 195
rtpr: 194, 195
rtstat: 194, 195
runcon: 177, 180
runlevel: 167, 169
runtest: 57, 57
rview: 214, 216
rvim: 214, 216
script: 203, 206
scriptreplay: 203, 206
sdiff: 182, 182
sed: 135, 135
seq: 177, 180
setarch: 203, 206
setattr: 130, 131
setcap: 134, 134
setfacl: 132, 133
setfont: 196, 197
setkeycodes: 196, 197
setleds: 196, 197
setmetamode: 196, 197
setsid: 203, 206
setterm: 203, 206
setvtrgb: 196, 197
sfdisk: 203, 206
sg: 136, 139
sh: 145, 146
sha1sum: 177, 180
sha224sum: 177, 180
sha256sum: 177, 180
sha384sum: 177, 180
sha512sum: 177, 180
shasum: 153, 155
showconsolefont: 196, 197
showkey: 196, 197
shred: 177, 180
shuf: 177, 181
shutdown: 167, 169
size: 112, 114
slabtop: 172, 173
sleep: 177, 181
sln: 95, 101
soelim: 186, 188
sort: 177, 181
sotruss: 95, 101
splain: 153, 155
split: 177, 181
sprof: 95, 101
ss: 194, 195
stat: 177, 181
278
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
stdbuf: 177, 181
strings: 112, 114
strip: 112, 114
stty: 177, 181
su: 136, 139
sulogin: 203, 206
sum: 177, 181
swaplabel: 203, 206
swapoff: 203, 206
swapon: 203, 206
switch_root: 203, 206
sync: 177, 181
sysctl: 172, 173
systemctl: 167, 170
systemd-analyze: 167, 170
systemd-ask-password: 167, 170
systemd-cat: 167, 170
systemd-cgls: 167, 170
systemd-cgtop: 167, 170
systemd-delta: 167, 170
systemd-detect-virt: 167, 170
systemd-escape: 167, 170
systemd-hwdb: 167, 170
systemd-inhibit: 167, 170
systemd-machine-id-setup: 167, 170
systemd-mount: 167, 170
systemd-notify: 167, 170
systemd-nspawn: 167, 170
systemd-path: 167, 170
systemd-resolve: 167, 170
systemd-run: 167, 170
systemd-socket-activate: 167, 170
systemd-tmpfiles: 167, 170
systemd-tty-ask-password-agent: 167, 170
tabs: 127, 129
tac: 177, 181
tail: 177, 181
tailf: 203, 206
talk: 151, 152
tar: 211, 211
taskset: 203, 207
tbl: 186, 188
tc: 194, 195
tclsh: 53, 54
tclsh8.6: 53, 54
tee: 177, 181
telinit: 167, 170
telnet: 151, 152
test: 177, 181
texi2dvi: 212, 213
texi2pdf: 212, 213
texi2any: 212, 213
texindex: 212, 213
tfmtodit: 186, 188
tftp: 151, 152
tic: 127, 129
timedatectl: 167, 170
timeout: 177, 181
tload: 172, 173
toe: 127, 129
top: 172, 173
touch: 177, 181
tput: 127, 129
tr: 177, 181
traceroute: 151, 152
troff: 186, 188
true: 177, 181
truncate: 177, 181
tset: 127, 129
tsort: 177, 181
tty: 177, 181
tune2fs: 174, 176
tzselect: 95, 101
udevadm: 167, 170
ul: 203, 207
umount: 203, 207
uname: 177, 181
uname26: 203, 207
uncompress: 192, 192
unexpand: 177, 181
unicode_start: 196, 197
unicode_stop: 196, 197
uniq: 177, 181
unlink: 177, 181
unlzma: 161, 162
unshare: 203, 207
unxz: 161, 162
updatedb: 184, 185
uptime: 172, 173
useradd: 136, 139
userdel: 136, 139
usermod: 136, 139
users: 177, 181
utmpdump: 203, 207
279
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
uuidd: 203, 207
uuidgen: 203, 207
vdir: 177, 181
vi: 214, 216
view: 214, 216
vigr: 136, 139
vim: 214, 216
vimdiff: 214, 216
vimtutor: 214, 216
vipw: 136, 139
vmstat: 172, 173
w: 172, 173
wall: 203, 207
watch: 172, 173
wc: 177, 181
wdctl: 203, 207
whatis: 208, 210
whereis: 203, 207
who: 177, 181
whoami: 177, 181
wipefs: 203, 207
x86_64: 203, 207
xargs: 184, 185
xgettext: 165, 166
xmlwf: 150, 150
xsubpp: 153, 155
xtrace: 95, 101
xxd: 214, 216
xz: 161, 162
xzcat: 161, 162
xzcmp: 161, 162
xzdec: 161, 162
xzdiff: 161, 162
xzegrep: 161, 162
xzfgrep: 161, 162
xzgrep: 161, 162
xzless: 161, 162
xzmore: 161, 162
yacc: 142, 142
yes: 177, 181
zcat: 192, 192
zcmp: 192, 192
zdiff: 192, 192
zdump: 95, 101
zegrep: 192, 192
zfgrep: 192, 192
zforce: 192, 192
zgrep: 192, 192
zic: 95, 101
zipdetails: 153, 155
zless: 192, 193
zmore: 192, 193
znew: 192, 193
zramctl: 203, 207
Libraries
Expat: 156, 156
ld-2.26.so: 95, 101
libacl: 132, 133
libanl: 95, 101
libasprintf: 165, 166
libattr: 130, 131
libbfd: 112, 114
libblkid: 203, 207
libBrokenLocale: 95, 101
libbz2: 124, 125
libc: 95, 101
libcap: 134, 134
libcheck: 58, 58
libcidn: 95, 101
libcom_err: 174, 176
libcrypt: 95, 101
libcursesw: 127, 129
libdbus-1: 201, 202
libdl: 95, 101
libe2p: 174, 176
libexpat: 150, 150
libexpect-5.45: 55, 56
libext2fs: 174, 176
libfdisk: 203, 207
libfl: 143, 143
libformw: 127, 129
libg: 95, 101
libgcc: 119, 123
libgcov: 119, 123
libgdbm: 148, 148
libgdbm_compat: 148, 148
libgettextlib: 165, 166
libgettextpo: 165, 166
libgettextsrc: 165, 166
libgmp: 115, 116
libgmpxx: 115, 116
libgomp: 119, 123
libhistory: 107, 107
280
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
libiberty: 119, 123
libieee: 95, 101
libkmod: 163
libltdl: 147, 147
liblto_plugin: 119, 123
liblzma: 161, 162
libm: 95, 101
libmagic: 106, 106
libman: 208, 210
libmandb: 208, 210
libmcheck: 95, 101
libmemusage: 95, 102
libmenuw: 127, 129
libmount: 203, 207
libmpc: 118, 118
libmpfr: 117, 117
libncursesw: 127, 129
libnsl: 95, 102
libnss: 95, 102
libopcodes: 112, 114
libpanelw: 127, 129
libpipeline: 198
libprocps: 172, 173
libpthread: 95, 102
libquadmath: 119, 123
libreadline: 107, 108
libresolv: 95, 102
librpcsvc: 95, 102
librt: 95, 102
libSegFault: 95, 101
libsmartcols: 203, 207
libss: 174, 176
libssp: 119, 123
libstdbuf: 177, 181
libstdc++: 119, 123
libsupc++: 119, 123
libsystemd: 167, 170
libtcl8.6.so: 53, 54
libtclstub8.6.a: 53, 54
libthread_db: 95, 102
libtsan: 119, 123
libudev: 167, 171
libutil: 95, 102
libuuid: 203, 207
liby: 142, 142
libz: 105, 105
preloadable_libintl: 165, 166
Scripts
clock
configuring: 227
console
configuring: 228
hostname
configuring: 222
localnet
/etc/hosts: 222
network
/etc/hosts: 222
configuring: 220
network
/etc/hosts: 222
configuring: 220
Others
/boot/config-4.12.7: 238, 242
/boot/System.map-4.12.7: 238, 242
/dev/*: 83
/etc/fstab: 236
/etc/group: 89
/etc/hosts: 222
/etc/inputrc: 231
/etc/ld.so.conf: 100
/etc/lfs-release: 245
/etc/localtime: 98
/etc/lsb-release: 245
/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf: 242
/etc/nsswitch.conf: 98
/etc/os-release: 245
/etc/passwd: 89
/etc/protocols: 141
/etc/resolv.conf: 221
/etc/services: 141
/etc/vimrc: 215
/usr/include/asm-generic/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/asm/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/drm/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/linux/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/mtd/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/rdma/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/scsi/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/sound/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/video/*.h: 93, 93
/usr/include/xen/*.h: 93, 93
281
Linux From Scratch - Version 8.1-systemd
/var/log/btmp: 89
/var/log/lastlog: 89
/var/log/wtmp: 89
/var/run/utmp: 89
/etc/locale.conf: 229
/etc/shells: 233
man pages: 94, 94
Systemd Customization: 233
282
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