STUDENT BIBLE
Day one
A. KCSU Volunteering Opportunities
Each KCSU staff member is a director. Being a director means that they can accept a
team of interns for help. You can help out any department director you choose. Pick
something you are interested in such as web design, promotions, video, writing content,
local music, production and more. There is a lot more to do at KCSU than just DJing!
Getting involved shows that you care about KCSU and it puts you in a better position to
maybe get the job of the director you are shadowing. If you’re having trouble finding a
spot to volunteer/intern, talk to the training director, station manager, or broadcast
adviser. It is possible to earn credit for interning/volunteering; talk to the broadcast
adviser for more information.
○ Mentorship
When you finish your training (and hopefully pass you test), you now have the
opportunity to pick a mentor. We want DJ’s to get more involved in general but
now we want you involved in the production of radio. You can pick whatever
department you like and you will be given projects to work on and it is a great
way to find out if you want to work on staff...
B. What it means to be a DJ?
What even is a DJ? Unfortunately, there are no turntables immediately involved. We
broadcast 24/7, 365, and in a perfect world there would be a live human narrating and
selecting music always. That is where you come in, when you finish DJ training you will
have a 2 hour show in which you pick the music and topics of conversation to bless our
listeners with.
What type of show you will have
Once you pass your test and become an official DJ, you will have a ​Primetime​ show.
Since you are brand new, for your first semester you are only allowed to have a prime
time show. After that you have more options for shows or being more than a volunteer
DJ!
Show Choices
○ Primetime: Typically a __________ time slot and plays primarily in-rotation
music.
○ Speciality: Outside prime time hours and is a ______ shows that fits a specific
audience.
○ Experimental: ________ time slot and plays "free form"/experimental type music.
C. Station Basics
What is a source and how to turn it on
○ A source is anything feeding audio to the board that is controlled by a fader.
○ Press “ON” to turn on the source. CDs play automatically when you press on.
○ Press “OFF” to turn off the volume on a source. This doesn’t stop the source from
playing, it just turns off the volume.
Sources
○ Program 1: 90.5 KCSU Transmitter
○ Program 2: Zetta Production
○ Program 3: Edit PC
○ Program 4: World Feed Panel
Faders
○ These sliders control the level of your source volume to be broadcast on air.
○ Make sure your volume for that source plays between -12 and -6 dB. Generally
the appropriate fader placement for this is at “unity.” (Unity is the red line
between -10 and -15 dB on the board)
Cue
○ You can use the Cue button to listen to whatever will be played without playing it
on air
○ Put the CD into the CD player
○ Hit the Cue button, to the left of the fader, BUT DO NOT HIT CD ON
○ Then hit play on the CD player
○ Volume for Cue is controlled on the far right side of the board under the label
‘Control Room’
○ Twist the left dial to change the volume of the cued CD
Headphones
Whenever you are talking on the mic or about to, you should always have your
headphones on! Why you ask? Wearing headphones allows you to check your levels so
you can hear yourself if you are too quiet or loud. The magical sweet spot you want to be
in is ________. The orange meter light that constantly moves on your program 1 output
is what you should be monitoring to see if you are at the proper levels. These levels
should be maintained while you are talking and playing music! If you are ever too loud a
blue light will pop up next to your output levels.
Your guests, aka anyone else talking in studio, needs to be wearing headphones too. If
your guests are not wearing headphones, they may accidentally be talking off mic. This
sounds terrible because you may ask a question, and then all the radio listener hears is a
muffled far away voice.
How To Use The Dump
The dump button, sometimes referred to as the delay, delays our radio feed by 10 seconds
so that we can “dump” any inappropriate material off our air waves. ​The dump button
always needs to be active when you are in-studio.​ If you go into the studio and the top
three red lights "Active" "Half” and "Full" are not lit, you need to push "Start." If
something FCC inappropriate happens, push "Dump" ​immediately​. The on air feed will
jump forward 10 seconds, thereby “dumping” that bad content. The delay gathers little
bits of silence until it has 10 delayed seconds. At that time, the “Active” light will be lit.
The cough button dumps out material for the length of time that___________. If you
jump into a coughing fit on your break, or if your guests drops their guitar, then you can
hold down “cough” for up to 10 seconds. Wait until you are completely comfortable on
air before you start using the cough button.
Day 2
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D. FCC
We are beholden to the FCC, who can fine our pants off! The key is to only play clean
material, which is material that does not have any obscene and indecent references in the
artist’s lyrics. The best rule of thumb is that if you are not sure if the lyrics in question are
clean to either ask another DJ for a second opinion or ​just don’t play it.
What is obscene or indecent material? Both can include anything of sexual context (the
act or specific organs) as well as swear words.
What’s a swear word you ask?
CLEAN​: Bitch, Hell, Damn, ass and drug lyrics (AS LONG the artist does not have
____________​
​).
Obscene​: Material that does not pass the three prong, Miller, test:
1) An average person, applying contemporary community standards, must find that the
material, as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest.
2) The materials must depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct
specifically defined by applicable law.
3) The material, taken as a whole, must lack serious literary, artistic, political or scientific
value.
Indecent: ​Of speech, the state of being crude and offensive, typically in a sexual manner.
1) Must describe or depict sexual or excretory activities or organs
2) Must be patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the
broadcast medium.
You are responsible for clean content _____!
Also keep in mind, as a DJ for KCSU you are not a musical artist. No DJ is allowed to
say swear words in the studio at any time! Mics could be hot and you may not know it.
Don’t wreck your career as a DJ or make KCSU pay exorbitant fines.
E. Defamation of Character
Defamation of character is “communication which exposes a person to hatred, ridicule, or
contempt, lowers him in the esteem of his fellows, causes him to be shunned, or injured
him in his business or calling.” Libel is the communication of such statements in a
printed or fixed medium [including kcsufm.com]. Slander is the communication of such
statements in a transitory or non-fixed medium, usually through oral (spoken)
representation, such as making defaming remarks on the radio. The National Association
of Broadcasters’ “FCC Rules and Policies for Radio” (2002) provides these examples of
potentially defamatory statements:
-Accusing a person of professional incompetence or unethical business dealings.
-Accusing a person of a crime or past criminal record without verification.
-Attacking the honesty, virtue, temperance or truthfulness of a person.
Calling someone, without verification, a liar or saying they have a drinking problem, a
disease or a history of psychological problems. Statements made against public figures
need to be made with “actual malice,” in which the speaker knew the information was
false and would cause harm to the subject but broadcast it anyhow or acted with reckless
disregard for the truth. Radio stations can also be charged with slander by re-broadcasting
a defamatory statement made by someone else (such as in sound clip from a news story).
The best defense against slander and libel is truth, so always double check your facts.
Liable : To be ___________________________ for your actions.
Slander: The action or crime of making ____________________ that can damage a
person’s reputation
○ Ex. of a slanderous statement:
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
○ Ex. of a libelous statement:
__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Payola: When you are given any form of payment for playing or saying something on air
○ Ex:_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Plugola: Endorsing a product or service for personal gain.
○ Ex:_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
● A DJ announces his public appearances (“I’ll be hosting 80s TV trivia tonight at the
Borough”) . ​ Plugola. The DJ personally benefits from increased attendance at the event.
● A DJ directs listeners to her Web site for booking information (“If you want to book me
for an upcoming gig, details are on my MySpace”). ​Plugola. The DJ is blatantly
promoting his or her personal business.
● A DJ is a waiter at a local Italian restaurant. In his sign off, he tells the listeners he is
going to work and if any listener wants to stop in, he’ll “treat you real nice.” ​While this
might not be explicitly payola, the DJ is promoting his place of work and encouraging
patronage with his promise of special service.
● A DJ is best friends with the bartender at a local pub. Each week, she mentions how
much fun she has at the pub. ​Probably not meant to be payola, but mentioning the same
business every week is promotional and should be avoided.
AIGHT
● A DJ is in a local band. When she reads the Rock Report, she includes information on the
band’s performance along with several other shows that night. ​This is perfectly
acceptable. The DJ has simply provided information, giving no preference to her show or
any of the other events mentioned.
● A DJ’s best friend from grade school now lives in Colorado and has released an album.
The DJ personally gives the album to the music director with a recommendation. ​This is
perfectly acceptable. The DJ is following proper procedure for submitting music.
● A DJ plays the same song by the same artist every week on her radio show. ​While
probably not payola, that’s just bad radio.
F. Station Basics 2
Rotation
That is what rotation is made of! Once the music director's process it, the CD gets
assigned either: red, yellow, blue or green!
_____ is heavy rotation.
_____ is medium rotation.
_______ is light rotation.
_______ is local music.
For a regular primetime show, DJs must play ⅔ rotation music and ⅓ of their own choice
of music. Normally this means a DJ will grab 10 reds, 5-7 yellows and 1 or 2 blues.
Greens are up for grabs as for how much local music you would like to play.
At KCSU the method of playing new music is via CDs. To play a CD, simply insert it
into the CD player and wait for it to load. Then use the scroll on the far right of that CD
player to cue your desired track. Even if the track you want to play pops up first, you still
need to turn the scroll to that track. All you have to do is press the “ON” button on the
source designated with the CD player and your song will play.
Don’t forget that when playing CDs, you abide by the _____​
​ system.
Timer
All your breaks for music shows must be 3 minutes or less in length. Sports and news
breaks can go longer, but regardless of who you are, it’s important to know how long you
are talking. On the bottom right of the board there is a timer. Use it. Push “start” at the
beginning of your break and you will see an orange clock count up on the top right of the
board meters. When you are done with your break, push “stop.” Recognize how long
your break was and consider if it felt too long or too short. Press “reset” and repeat for
your next break. Use the timer until you have developed a good internal clock.
Remember some of the best breaks are 30 seconds or less.
Zetta and Automation
When you walk into the studio to start your shift there will either be a live DJ handing the
studio to you, or you will be taking over automation. If there is a DJ before you, get to
know them. Say thanks and ask them if there’s anything going on today that you should
know about. If no one is there, get your music/content ready, then turn off automation.
The right hand monitor is what controls ​Zetta​. Press ​“Manual” ​which is in a drop down
at the top of the On-Air Module. Once you press “Manual”, you have control of Zetta.
You have two options when a song starts, to continue the automatic “segue” (the arrow
looking symbol next to the song) or “chain stop” (the stop sign). To have control of the
board after the song is over click on the segue icon and change it to chain stop. Once the
song is over you will have dead air until you either play a CD or a song from our vault.
When you turn on Manual, auto segues are turned off and you are in full control. If you
turn on “Live Assist”, auto segues will remain on, but you will be cut off at each hour
when a Legal ID plays. (Do not turn on Satellite and use Live Assist with caution, if at
all)
If you are playing a song from the vault, simply search for it in the library section under
‘songs’; then drag and drop it to either the top section of Zetta or the logs that
corresponds to the current time! When a song has a yellow bar this represents the
‘in-ramp’ time and (just like your CD reviews) this is the amount of time before any
vocals kick in. Once the song that is playing is highlighted green, then the song will
continue for the rest of its duration. ​Important note:​ not all songs that are vaulted will
have the yellow bar pop up!
In Zetta you will notice different sections or “Modules” of the screen labeled: Logs,
Library, and Hot Keys.
● Logs​ show what songs are lined up from our automation as well as what other songs
were played previously that day. The numbers at the top represent what time of the
day you are looking at. If you ever get lost in the logs, click the home (it is a literal
house button) button in this section of the screen to see the current hour.
● The ​Library​ has 2 sub sections you will use as a DJ, songs and links. Songs have all
of our music that has been entered into our vault here at KCSU. Links contain our
entire collection of beds, promos, PSAs etc. There are also individual links specified
for PSAs, underwritings, beds, etc.
● Hot Keys​ is one way of lining up any beds or songs you want to play during your
show. However since all DJs will use Zetta for their show, these can be constantly
deleted/edited so ​do not ​rely too much on hot keys to save your preferences for your
show next week.
The other in-studio computer (the left hand monitor) allows you to log the music that you
are playing during show through ​Spinitron​. Once you have made an account, after you
have finished training, login. Under the left hand box ‘playlist’ go to ‘new playlist’.
Before you start making your playlist make sure you have it set to“​live on-air​”’ and
“​automatic time stamps​”. After this you can just enter the artist, song and album
throughout your show. Once you are finished with your show simply ‘close your playlist’
and then logout!
○ Zip-Wip​ is the basic texting system we use here at KCSU. When people text in
you can respond to them through this program.
○ Radio FX​ is the radio app that we use to interact with your audience. Once you
create an account you will login to this site when you start your show. Radio FX
gives the DJ the ability to: create a topic for their listeners to discuss, polls for
listeners to participate in, and contests as well.
○ Dump: Your Lord and Savior
The station is always on a 10 second delay. The dump button clears the air for 10
seconds. If you catch yourself swearing, calling to action, playing a curse through
a song, or are in any doubt about the quality of broadcast. HIT THE BUTTON.
You will never be punished for hitting the dump button. If you are ever in any
doubt about what was just played. Push the button!
Once you've hit the dump button. You will have to restart the dump program.
When you hit the button, there is a button on the same panel labeled ‘start’. You
must hit this button to restart the program. The program takes about 2-4 minutes
to ‘recharge’. This is the time to be EVEN MORE careful than usual, as your
dump button will work, but it will not be filled to the full 10 seconds.
i.
When in doubt, Dump it.
G. Shadowing
You need to complete two shadowings before you take your test. You will receive a list
of current DJ’s and their emails that corresponds to the big schedule. Pick a show that
works with your schedule and email a DJ and ask if you can shadow their show!
H. Emergencies
If the station or the web stream is down, meaning that there is only dead air playing, call
the managers listed on the in-studio emergency list, ​IMMEDIATELY​. Do not assume
managers are aware. Even if you are just listening in your car/home and you don’t hear
the radio, call the station manager.
If there is ever a CD missing from its case, if one of the CD players is not working or if
anything seems out of the ordinary (like the station is not playing music when you walk
into the studio) post it to the Facebook group, ​and​ call the station manager.
Radio is a fast business. You must respond to emails directed to you about KCSU
business within 24 hours of receiving the email. We also might text or call you if
something immediately affects your show.
Day 3
I. FCC quiz
Q: What is our Legal ID?
Q: The legal ID must be said/played when?
Q: ​How many songs can you play by a particular artist during your 2 hour show?
Q: Where is the KCSU Public Inspection File?
Q: What is a call to action and is it acceptable?
Q: What is the difference between payola & plugola?
Q: ​What actions should you take if you accidentally play obscene/indecent/profane
material?
Q: ​What should you do if the station goes off air while you're DJing?
J. DJ Responsibilities
○ Show Promo and Legal ID
A show promo​ is a 10-40 second recorded message that promotes your show. All DJs are
required to record a show promo within ​
​of their first show on air
each semester. Failure to do so results in an absence. To record a show promo, email our
production directors at ​production@kcsufm.com​.
A good show promo, or any promo for that matter, needs to tell the listen the Who, What,
Where, When, and Why of the show. Consider your audience, and speak directly to them.
Pick a music bed that reflects the personality of your show. Add sound effects. Be funny
if you can. The very best promotions are ones that listeners can look forward to. You’re
only required to make one promo, but you make one that is updated weekly to promote
the specifics of your upcoming show. You can also make multiple legal IDs.
EX 1:
“I’m Stat Cat (who) from the Ramblers show (what), Monday nights from 7 to 9 (when)
on 90.5 KCSU (where). Tune into Ramblers for analytics of CSU sports that you can
find nowhere else (why)! From hockey, to rock climbing, to baseball- we cover it all,
and you should join the conversation. See you Monday nights at 7 for Ramblers, your
source for CSU sports talk.”
EX 2:
Playing CSU fight song as a music bed. The promo starts with a referee whistle.
“You’re listening to 90.5 KCSU (where) which means you obviously have stellar music
taste, but where do you turn to get your CSU sports fix (addressing the audience)? I’m
Stat Cat (who) here to let you know that KCSU also has sports analytics that you can
brag about to all your friends, and call-in to tell us what you think (why)! It’s all on
Ramblers (what)...Monday nights from 7 to 9 (when) on 90.5 KCSU Fort Collins.”
You are also required to make a Legal ID for KCSU​ within the first two weeks after
you first show. Make your Legal ID at the SAME TIME you produce your show promo
with the production’s director. This will save both of you time. To fill our legal
requirements and create a small promo all at once, your Legal ID must include your
____​ ​_____​ ​, the time/name​
​, and the words “
.”
○ DJ Meetings
There are DJ meetings once a month and you are ​required​ to attend. You will find out
when they are via the facebook page. If you can’t make a meeting email
programming@kcsufm.com​ and you can find a way to make it up!
○ Paid DJ’s Whaaat
At KCSU, we have started to reward the hard work of putting effort and time into the
station with a $100 per show stipend. To be eligible for this payment, you must be
eligible for a specialty show. DJs must then complete a list of tasks throughout the
semester. These tasks are always subject to change depending on what the current staff
decide to be a fair amount of work. These tasks will usually involve online written
content, volunteering at remotes or promotional events, and doing CD reviews.
Remember, this also applies to news and sports reporters.
K. Attendance
If you miss a show, it counts as an absence. You are allowed up to __​ ​______. If you
have more than three absences, you are no longer allowed to have that show at KCSU for
the semester. You can makeup absences by subbing for other DJs at the same time. You
can also earn absence credit by subbing for a DJ who needs it, even if you don’t have an
absence yet. For example, if you know you will be gone in 3 weeks for a vacation, you
can sub for another DJ and notify the program director of your absence credit.
If you have to miss a show because of X reason, you are required to post it on the ​KCSU
DJ Absenteeism Facebook page,​ so another DJ can take your place and have live music
playing instead of automation. Once you miss your show, try subbing in for another DJ
when they miss a show; that way you can avoid having one absence counted for. If you
miss a show without subbing for another or miss a DJ meeting then it counts for one
missed absence.
On the ​KCSU DJs and Volunteers Facebook page​, (which you will be added to once you
have a time slot and are an official DJ) you will posts technical issues, the monthly DJ
meeting...
Absences
Here’s a list of all the reasons you could receive an absence at KCSU. Remember, 3
strikes (of absences) and you’re out.
● Missing your show.
● Not coming to DJ meetings.
● Not creating a show promo within two weeks of your first show.
● Now creating a legal ID within two weeks of your first show.
● Not doing 2 CD Reviews per month
Here’s a list of ways to ​make up an absence​. Remember you must notify the
programming director of these.:
● Covering by subbing for a DJ’s show.
● Making content on KCSUFM.com such as a concert or album review.
● Voice tracking a show (after your second semester of DJing)
● Producing a volleyball game. (Talk to the sports directors)
● Producing a live remote. (Talk to broadcast adviser or promotions director)
● Attending a promotional event such as tabling or a recruitment meeting.
L. CD Reviews
One of your responsibilities as a DJ for KCSU is to do ___ CD reviews per month to help
bring variety to our in-studio rotation. We have different labels send in various bands,
albums, and EPs. You can find these CDs on a shelf in the music director’s office. When
you do chose what CD you want to review be sure to check it out by signing the ‘CD
Check Out Sheet’ by the office door. When you review a CD you are held to the
expectation of making sure all the lyrics are clean for whichever track you choose to
review. What does a CD review look like you ask? Don’t forget you can watch out CD
Review video on KCSU Video’s YouTube channel.
For each CD review you will write in:
a. Star/dot/completely blacked out track
b. In-ramp time
c. 1 sentence describing the vibe of the track
For each album we follow the____​
​ system. If you think the song is perfect for
KCSU, give it a star. If the song is kind of so-so or should not be played often, give it a
dot. If the song/track isn’t clean then black out the entire line for it in the CD review!
When you do not like the song enough to give it a review, simply leave the entire track
blank with no review/rating or in ramp time.
Albums with 3 stars total end up in our heavy rotation. Two stars are placed in medium
rotation, and or course 1 star ends up in our light rotation. Dots represent that there are
other good songs on the album, but they do not affect the placement of the album in
rotation.
In-ramp time​ is the amount of time it takes for lyrics to kick in. This allows the DJ to
have the song start while they are talking before any lyrics start when they finish talking.
The song description​ should not just say “really good” or “great for radio”. Get creative
and funny with it! Descriptions that paint a vivid image such as “perfect for a prom
dance” or “great for a late night ride around old town” immediately give a sense of what
kind of vibes the DJ can play for their show.
After you have reviewed your CD​ turn it back into the music director’s office in the
‘reviewed’ CD drawer by the music director’s computer. Also be sure to check your CD
in on the ‘CD Checkout Sheet’ so that the music directors know you returned the CD
back! A CD must be returned back in the music director’s office in one week’s time.
M. On air pointers
Intros/Outros and Everything In Between
Always have a plan on what to talk about ​before you turn the mic on​. Not only will it
sound like you know what you are doing but this also gives structure to your show.
You’re not just representing yourself when you’re on the mic. You’re representing the
whole station at KCSU. This is a college radio station and you have the freedom to play
your choice of music (within FCC rules). Even if you aren’t interested in going into
professional radio, this is a great practice for life after college on how to stay organized.
Here is a rough guideline to follow when you start (intro) and end (outro) your show:
Intro​: “I’m DJ “ ”and this is 90.5 KCSU Fort Collins! You are now listening to the “ “
show (and have a short description of what you play during your show typically). Up
next is (song title) by (artist) on 90.5 KCSU.
Outro​: “This is 90.5 KCSU Fort Collins. That last song was “ ” by (artist) and up next
is the final song of the show “ ” by (artist). Thank you so much for listening to (your
show name). I’m DJ “ ” and after this show DJ “ ” will be taking over on 90.5
KCSU.”
* Remember​! You have to say the ​Legal ID every hour​, within 5 minutes before or
after the hour.
How to Answer a Live Call
There are a couple of different reasons that warrant you taking in a live caller. The main
reason would be because you are trying to create more audience engagement. Maybe you
could be requesting the most bizarre story a listener has about attending a concert and
you want to give your audience a chance to broadcast their story over the air waves. This
is how KCSU stays unique from other streaming services like Spotify. We offer an
intimacy in our traditional radio services to make our content as personable as possible.
When taking a live caller there is a specific step by step process you must follow before
putting the caller on air:
1. ​If you are in the studio set Fader #11 to “A-Phone”
2. To take the caller off the air (WHICH IS WHAT YOU SHOULD DO FIRST)
turn your mic and Fader #11 to Program 3 only. Your caller will receive all of the
Program 3’s signals, so to ensure that your caller is just listening to you turn all of
the “Program 3” sources off, OTHER THAN YOUR OWN i.e. “Mic 1.”
3. To be able to hear your caller you will want to locate the Monitor panel in the top
right corner of the board. You’ll see 3 columns, you’re going to want to change
the Control Room Column to “Program 3.”
4. Hit the grey “ON” button on the DH20 black box immediately above the CD
players. Doing this automatically answers the phone so you can talk with the
caller. DO NOT TOUCH THE ACTUAL PHONE.
5. To alter any of the levels with the caller use the the fader to increase their volume.
In this phase you want screen the caller to ensure that they are not going to say
anything profane or have any calls to action. Also make sure they are not high,
drunk, or rude. If they indicate they’re any of these/ do a call to action hang up on
them by selecting “OFF” on the DH20 black box. We don’t want to be liable for
what they say.
6. To listen to the caller you must have Fader #11 “ON” and in the red unity to
monitor their levels.
7. Ask them kindly to hold by sending them the music that you’re playing through
Zetta, CD 1, CD 2, CD 3. Turn off your “Mic 1” audio out through “Program 3.”
8. About 30-seconds before you go, turn your “Mic 1” audio on back to Program 3
and whatever the caller listening (Zetta, CD 1, etc) to “Program 3” off so it
doesn’t blink. DO NOT hit the off button on the fader, just turn the source off.
Then explain to the caller that you’re going on air soon and to be silent while you
start the break and then introduce them.
9. Change Control Room column back to “Program 1.”
10. Once you’re ready to start your break put Mic 1 back on BOTH “Program 1 and
3” and begin your break.
11. Introduce your guest and send the “A-Phone” output through “Program 1.”
12. Continue as normal but have your hand hovering the DUMP button if the caller
decides to say anything profane or not FCC clean. If you have to dump the call,
turn “A-Phone” channel off, and let the listeners know there was a disconnection.
13. When you’re done talking with the caller hit “OFF” on “A-Phone” even if you’re
still doing your break. The caller might hang up and have a nasty noise be
broadcasted.
14. If your caller hasn’t hung up already when you finish your break, take your “Mic
1” and A Phone off “Program 1” and say thank you to the caller.
15. Hang up the phone afterwards by selecting “OFF” on the DH20 black box. Note:
if you plan on taking the caller on air, you will NEVER need to touch the physical
phone.
What To Avoid: Radio Tech Terms, Calls To Action, FCC Rule Breaking
Whenever you are talking on air, you already know now to keep your breaks brief and to
the point. However another thing to keep in mind is to avoid using radio technical terms.
For example if someone texts in a request and we do not have it in our zetta, do not reply
to the person saying “Sorry, it’s not available in our vault”. Rather say, “Sorry we do not
have that specific song. Do you have another request?”.
Another thing you are not allowed to do at KCSU is promote with a call to action. As you
know a call to action is_______________________________________. While you are
on-air, for the most part, you will talk about the music you are playing. You are allowed
to talk about your favorite artist and if they are on tour and coming to Colorado. You can
tell listeners where and when their show it. But ​you can’t tell the listeners to go to the
concert and you cannot mention prices​! You are giving the listener information. You
can inform them of the show, then move right on to your next talking point. There is no
need to linger. ​There is especially no need to say “check it out.”
N. Talking Points
For the most part you will talk about the music you are playing during your show. From
your favorite artists/bands to local events that are happening, you do have some freedom
to talk about whatever you chose so long as it ​does not​ involve: criticism, ridicule, and
humor concerning individual groups, and institutions. Here are a few pointers to keep in
mind:
Keep it brief​! For this first Prime Time semester, your show is made for playing music.
It’s not a talk show. Ideally a break should last _______ to a max of _______.
Engage your audience​! You can ask them to text in to join the conversation and to see
what they think about the music you’re playing. When you talk to your audience imagine
as if one singular person is listening. So trade in saying ‘you guys’ with ‘you’! Most
people listen to the radio alone. Talk to them one on one.
Back Sell/Front Sell​. Whenever you do a break between every 2 to 3 songs always say
what you just played and what you will play next! It is imperative that you mention your
name, your show name, and the Legal ID constantly. It may feel redundant to you, but
listeners are constantly distracted and appreciate the reminders.
Watch your tone​! Remember that when you’re on air, no one can see your face. So what
you emphasize while talking can have a huge impression. It is very noticeable if you are
smiling while talking or have just come back from a bad day of classes. When you enter
the studio it’s a privilege to have a show, so enjoy every bit of it! Smile when you’re on
the air and breath normally. All of this is audible to the listener.
Requests​. When someone calls or texts in a request, remember that you do not always
have to accept them whether it is in Zetta or not! You are the DJ playing the music, not
Jimmy from next door who wants to hear Billboard 100 music all day long. That type of
music isn’t bad, it’s just that we are a college radio station so we typically play music that
isn’t played on any other radio stations.
O. Playing Bumps, Promos, PSA’s etc
Every time you walk into the studio there will be a _​
​_ for the entire day. Be sure to
follow the logs as close as possible and mark the time you played that spot. We use this
information for ourselves and for our clients that buy spots to be played on the radio. You
must sign the sheet at the end of your show. This sheet helps guide what to play every
_____​
​______ (either bump, Legal ID, promo, PSA, or underwriting). Here is
what each of those exactly are:
Bump​: A piece of audio used to promote KCSU. These vary in length and content.
Legal ID​: A 15 second segment (or less) that says our legal ID: ​KCSU Fort Collins​.
This can be a DJ, celebrity, newscaster, artists, or whoever!
*Even though you will play a legal ID every hour you still should__​
​________​!
Promo​: A piece of audio less than a minute in length that promotes something for KCSU
or another organization approved by KCSU i.e: concerts, food drives, public speakers etc.
PSA (Public Service Announcement): ​A message for the public interest with the
objective of raising awareness, changing public attitudes and behavior towards a social
issue.
Underwriting​: Promotions that local businesses or organizations hire us to say over the
air. These are not commercials since they​ do not have a call to action​ for the listener to
go to said business or do something. Think of these as a shout out for said business for
working with us. A green binder that says “underwriting scripts” is always in-studio for
you to read live underwriting spots if you wish.
TO TAKE YOUR TEST YOU NEED
● A completed shadowing sheet (with 2 shadows)
● A completed signature sheet, the training director will be your last signature, after your
shadowing is done
● You need to pass the test with an 80% or better to become a DJ
KCSU Manager Interview Sheet
To ensure that you fully understand all the facets behind KCSU-FM, it is required of you in addition to
your DJ shadowing, that you go to the following departments and have a conversation with each manager
about their department. That department manager MUST sign next to their name on this sheet for this part
of the Training process to be fully valid. ​This sheet must be signed by 6 of the following managers​,4 of
which are mandatory and marked with the ‘*’
* Station Manager: ​__________________________________________
Bryan Teisl
Date:_______
* Programming Director: ​____________________________________
Kara Zehner
Date:_______
Broadcast Engineer: ​________________________________________
Henry Benerman
Date:_______
Music Directors: ​________________________________________
Monty Daniel, Mimi Hibben
Local Music Director: ​________________________________________
Haley Justino
Production Directors: ​_______________________________________
Ave Martin
Podcast Director: ​_______________________________________
Cheyenne Duba
Web Editor: ​________________________________________
Deanna Fuhr
Date:_______
Date:_______
Date:_______
Date:_______
Date:_______
Promotions Director: ​________________________________________
Chiara Garland, Alex Scott
Date:_______
Sports Directors: ​________________________________________
Nick Baker, Bryan Buck
Date:_______
News Directors: ​________________________________________
Gabe Peterson, Julia Battagliese
Date:_______
Video Production: ​________________________________________
Sam Bulkley, Mat Huck
Date:_______
*General Manager: ​________________________________________
Hannah Copeland
Date:_______
* Training Director: ​________________________________________
Isaiah Reyes
Date:_______
KCSU On-Air Shadowing Sheet
As part of your KCSU-FM training experience, you must complete ​at least 4 hours​ of on-air
shadowing, which includes running the studio board for ​at least​ two hours total. You must
shadow a prime-time DJ at least once, and you may shadow any other show you seem interested
in, with the consent of the DJ you would like to shadow. It is strongly urged that if you are
interested in becoming a Prime-time DJ you shadow a Primetime DJ twice; if you would like to
be on a talk show, you should shadow a specialty show at least once. This sheet must be fully
signed to be valid, and handed in with your KCSU Manager Sheet before taking your Training
test.
Primetime DJ Shadow (2 hrs.)
Date: ____________
Primetime DJ name: ______________________
# of hours shadowed: __________________
❏ Ran board for an hour
❏ ​ ​Signed Underwriting Logs
Trainee’s Choice Shadow (2 hrs.)
Date: ____________
DJ name/show: ________________
# of hours shadowed: __________________
❏ Ran board for an hour
❏ ​ ​Signed Underwriting Logs
Optional 3​rd​ Shadowing
Date: ____________
DJ name/show: ______________________
DJ Signature: _________________
DJ Signature: _________________
DJ Signature:_________________
# of hours shadowed: __________________
❏ Ran board for an hour
❏ ​ ​Signed Underwriting Logs
Dear DJ, please show your shadow some cool radio stuff. We have provided a list for you to
check off to ensure all DJ’s are being taught as much as possible!
WHAT TO DO WHEN YOU HAVE A SHADOW*
* See next page!
Primetime DJ’s​ teaching list (please check
Second DJ​ teaching list (please check off
off as you go)
as you go)
❏ P
​ icking CD’s from rotation: What to
pick when you don’t know what to
pick. How much heavy/medium/light
❏ U
​ sing beds
❏ W
​ hen and why we use headphones
should you play?
❏ H
​ ow to transition to links
❏ Room/ Headphone volume
(Underwriting/PSA’s/Promos: play
right after your break before your
❏ Music/Microphone levels: not too
quiet and not peaking (between -12
and -6)
❏ Doing a good break and when to do
a break (every 2-3 songs)
first song starts. No need to
announce the PSA’s, etc).
❏ H
​ ow to read and check off the
underwriting logs
❏ How to answer the phone
professionally
❏ Using the CD players
❏ U
​ sing Zetta
❏ How to do a break with the legal ID,
when to do the legal ID, and what is
it.
❏ L
​ ogging songs in Spinitron
❏ Putting back CD’s alphabetically and
spine-up
❏ How to respond to text messages
(Zip-Wip)
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