High Density Flash Memory PMC
Up to 64 GB NAND Flash Memory in
2 Arrays
Transfer Rate of Up to 130 MB/s
High Performance Flash Controller
Low Power Consumption
PCI Rev. 2.3 Compliant Supporting
64-bit @ 66 MHz
Flash Low Level (FLL) Driver for
Basic Read/Write/Erase Functionality
Detection and Mapping of Bad Blocks
Write Protection
Interleaving Support for Flash Banks
Optional Flash Memory Manager (FMM)
for VxWorks
Full File System Read/Write Emulation
Detection and Mapping of Bad Blocks
Write Protection
Wear Leveling
Automatic Block Management
Error Correction Code
Parallel Access to Both Flash Banks
Support for GHS INTEGRITY FFS, with
IEEE 1386-2001 (Air Cooled) or
VITA 20-2001 (Conduction Cooled)
Commercial/Military Level
Vibration and Shock Resistant
Aitech Defense Systems, Inc.
A member of the Aitech Rugged Group, Inc.
19756 Prairie Street, Chatsworth, Ca. 91311
Tel: (888) Aitech-8 (248-3248) Fax: (818) 718-9787 e-mail: sales@rugged.com web: www.rugged.com
The Aitech M222 is a high capacity Flash memory PMC utilizing advanced high-performance,
high-capacity NAND Flash devices to provide up to 64 GB of mass storage in a single industry standard
PMC slot.
The board incorporates no moving parts, delivering significantly lower power consumption and higher
reliability as compared to hard drive storage solutions.
The PMC PCI interface provides 66 MHz/64-bit data access, and supports master/target functionality over
the PCI bus. As PCI master it utilizes its integrated DMA engine for block transfer modes.
Throughput of up to130 MB/s is achieved when DMA transfer mode is used to interface with a fast host
interface (at the carrier) via the M222 PLX PCI-to-Local Bus Bridge. (Note that performance is dependant
on operation mode, Host Bridge capabilities, and software overhead.)
The M222 software package includes the Aitech Flash Low Level (FLL) driver technology, which provides
support for basic Flash read/write/erase operations as well as additional features for basic data protection
and bank interleaving for enhanced performance. The optional Aitech Flash Memory Manager (FMM) goes
one step further, providing full hard drive emulation, wear leveling, and Error Correction Code (ECC) to
ensure data integrity. The FMM employs a unique write-forward mechanism to achieve higher performance
than standard file system software packages.
Flash File Array 0
Flash File Array 1
(Up to 4 Banks)
(Up to 4 Banks)
Flash Memory
Local Bus:
32-bit 66 MHz
PCI-to-Local Bus
PCI Bus:
64-bit 66 MHz
PMC PCI Connectors
M222 Block Diagram
NAND Flash Memory
The M222 features up to 64 GB of NAND Flash
memory that provides a highly cost-effective,
high-performance solution for solid-state mass
storage with low power consumption.
The Flash is organized in two physical arrays.
Each array is composed of 8 Flash devices (each
device is 8-bit wide) arranged in parallel to form a
64-bit wide port. The 64-bit wide port is a key
element in the high performance provided by the
Each array can host single, dual, or quad bank
Flash devices, thus making up to 8 Flash banks
available on the M222. Multiple banks are
another element essential for achieving high
performance through implementation of bank
interleaving. (After writing to a given bank, the
processor begins writing to a subsequent bank
before the current bank has completed its
internal programming procedure. This
overlapping of access enables the processor to
continue writing without having to wait for each
bank to finish its program.)
Available standard Flash densities include: 8 GB,
16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB. Special configurations
are available upon request
PCI Interface
The M222 is capable of master/target operation
on the PCI bus. The PCI interface is
implemented using PLX PCI9656 PCI-to-local
bus bridge. It supports 66 MHz/64-bit data
transfers on the PCI side, and a 66 MHz/32-bit
local bus.
The M222 PCI Bridge integrates DMA engines
utilized for high-performance data transfer
between the M222 Flash arrays and the host
Thanks to its advanced design, the M222 can
provide extremely high data transfer rates. Actual
performance will depend heavily on the carrier
PCI topology and load, host SBC Host Bridge,
and host SBC memory performance. Software
overhead is also likely to decrease data
The following sustained transfer rates have
been measured when mounting the M222 PMC
on the Aitech C100 SBC (PowerPC 7450
processor, Discovery I System Controller,
SDRAM @ 133MHz), employing the M222
integrated DMA engine, and using FLL software:
10 Sectors
59 MB/s
85 MB/s
105 MB/s
130 MB/s
120 MB/s
120 MB/s
120 MB/s
120 MB/s
Data transfer is based on 16 kB sectors.
The overhead of the start and end time intervals of the
Flash access is fixed, and becomes a smaller overall
percentage when the number of sectors is larger. This
operation mode is highly effective for the storage and
loading of large files and large data chunks.
Software Support
The M222 is delivered with drivers for VxWorks
The M222 for VxWorks is supplied with Aitech's
Flash Low Level (FLL) driver for VxWorks. The
FLL supports all basic Flash read/write/erase
operations, as well as providing the following
• Error detection for mapping bad or worn-out
Flash blocks
• Marking of bad blocks
• Write protection
• Fast format option
• Parallel bank writing option for increased
Aitech's Flash Memory Manager (FMM) software
package for VxWorks is also optionally available
for the M222. In addition to the features provided
by the FLL driver, the FMM package provides full
file system emulation, wear leveling, automatic
block management, and an Error Correction
Code (ECC) mechanism used to achieve a high
degree of data integrity. The ECC mechanism
corrects single bit errors and reports multi bit
errors. For more information on FMM, refer to the
FFM data sheet or contact an Aitech
The M222 for INTEGRITY is supplied with the
WLFS2 low-level driver that connects the M222
hardware to standard INTEGRITY file systems.
High power components are cooled by an
aluminum heatsink.
INTEGRITY’s higher level FFS file system can
also be mounted on the WLFS2 system. WLFS2
and FFS are not provided by Aitech and are
available from Green Hills Software.
Conduction cooled:
Mechanical Features
The M222 PMC is available in two mechanical
• Air-cooled per IEEE 1386-2001 for installation
on commercial and rugged air-cooled carrier
• Conduction cooled per ANSI/VITA20-2001 for
installation on IEEE 1101.2 conduction-cooled
carrier boards.
per IEEE 1386-2001
per ANSI/VITA 20-2001
Thermal Management
A careful mechanical design including custom
Heatsink modules combined with a metal frame
allow optimal heat dissipation and relief of the
Power Requirements
The M222 draws all its power from the +3.3V
power supply. On-board power circuits provide
other power levels required by its components.
Total power consumption: 1.5 W (typ)
Ordering Information for the M222
M222 -
Ruggedization Level
1 = Commercial
2 = Rugged
4 = Military
Aitech Item Number
A = Air
R = Conduction
Flash Memory Size
008 = 8 GB
016 = 16 GB
032 = 32 GB
064 = 64 GB
Configuration No.
To be assigned by Aitech
Example: 2M222-R064-00
For additional configurations, please contact your Aitech sales representative.
For more information about the M222 or any Aitech product, please contact Aitech Defense Systems sales
department at (888) Aitech-8 (248-3248).
Names, products, and/or services mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
All information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
Aitech Defense Systems, Inc.
A member of the Aitech Rugged Group, Inc.
19756 Prairie Street, Chatsworth, Ca. 91311
Tel: (888) Aitech-8 (248-3248) Fax: (818) 718-9787 e-mail: sales@rugged.com web: www.rugged.com
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