CCNA Command Quick Reference

CCNA Command Quick Reference
Scott Empson
Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA
ii
CCNA Command Quick Reference
Scott Empson
Copyright© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Cisco Press logo is a trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc.
Published by:
Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher,
except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review.
Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
First Printing March 2005
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Number: 2004116146
ISBN: 1-58713-159-5
Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Certified Cisco Networking
Associate (CCNA) exam and the commands needed at this level of Network
Administration. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate
as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied.
The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco
Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with
respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from
the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it.
The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of
Cisco Systems, Inc.
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iii
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John Wait
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About the Author
Scott Empson is currently an instructor in the Department of Telecommunications at the
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, where he is tasked
to teach Cisco routing, switching, and network design courses in a variety of different
programs—certificate, diploma, and applied degree—at the post-secondary level. Scott is
also the Program Coordinator of the Cisco Networking Academy Program at NAIT, a
Regional Academy covering Central and Northern Alberta. He has earned three undergraduate degrees: a bachelor of arts, with a major in English; a bachelor of education, again
with a major in English/language arts; and a bachelor of applied information systems
technology, with a major in network management. He currently holds several industry
certifications, including CCNP, CCDA, CCAI, and Network+. Prior to instructing at NAIT,
he was a junior/senior high school English/language arts/computer science teacher at
different schools throughout Northern Alberta. Upon completion of this project he plans to
complete a master’s degree. Scott lives in Edmonton, Alberta, with his wife and two
children.
v
About the Technical Reviewers
Gerlinde Brady, M.A., CCNP has been a Cisco Certified Academy Instructor (CCAI)
since 2000. She holds an M.A. degree in education from the University of Hanover,
Germany. Besides A+ certification courses and general IT courses, she has been teaching
Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College since 1999. Her industry experience
includes LAN design, network administration, and technical support.
David Kotfila is the director of the Cisco Networking Academy Program at Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York. He is also on the National Advisory Council
for the Networking Academy. In the past three years, more than 260 students have received
their CCNA, and 80 students their CCNP at RPI. Previously, David was the senior manager
in charge of training at PSINet, a Tier 1, global, Internet service provider. David enjoys
spending time with his family, hiking in the mountains, and kayaking.
vi
Dedications
To my wife, Trina, and my kids, Zachariah and Shaelyn. You are my meaning and purpose,
and I love you all.
vii
Acknowledgments
Wow, where do I begin? This book was not just me; it took a lot of people a lot of hours to
put this all together in the form you see it now. So I guess a big thanks goes out to everyone
at Cisco Press for making this all happen—Mary Beth Ray, Raina Han, and Chris
Cleveland.
Thanks to my technical reviewers—Gerlinde Brady and David Kotfila—who corrected me
when I was wrong or heading down the wrong path. Your dedication to your students and
to the Cisco Networking Academy Program is obvious; your students are very fortunate to
have you both as instructors.
Thanks to some former students of mine, both Academy and not—Wing, Lars, Brian, Mike,
and Kyle—who reviewed some (very) rough drafts of this book and told me what worked
and what didn’t from a student’s perspective. Good luck with the rest of your studies.
Special thanks go out to Terry Short, Chad Klymchuk, Colin Polanski, and Hans Roth for
all of their advice and suggestions. Your students are also very fortunate to have you as
instructors
Finally, a big note of thanks to William McBride and Randy Hirose for pushing me to do
this.
viii
Contents at a Glance
Introduction
Part I
CCNA 1
1
Part II
CCNA 2
3
xviii
Chapter 1 WANs and Routers
5
Chapter 2 Introduction to Routers
Chapter 3 Configuring a Router
11
17
Chapter 4 Learning About Other Devices
27
Chapter 5 Managing Cisco IOS Software
33
Chapter 6 Routing and Routing Protocols
43
Chapter 7 Distance Vector Routing Protocols
47
Chapter 8 TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages
Chapter 9 Basic Router Troubleshooting
Chapter 10 Intermediate TCP/IP
61
Chapter 11 Access Control Lists (ACLs)
Part III
CCNA 3
57
63
81
Chapter 1 Introduction to Classless Routing
Chapter 2 Single-Area OSPF
Chapter 3 EIGRP
87
97
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts
Chapter 5 Switches
103
105
Chapter 6 Switch Configuration
107
Chapter 7 Spanning Tree Protocol
Chapter 8 Virtual LANs
123
125
Chapter 9 VLAN Trunking Protocol
135
83
55
ix
Part IV
CCNA 4
153
Chapter 1 Scaling IP Technologies
Chapter 2 WAN Technologies
Chapter 3 PPP
155
165
167
Chapter 4 ISDN and DDR
Chapter 5 Frame Relay
173
185
Chapter 6 Introduction to Network Administration
Part V
Appendixes
197
Appendix A Subnetting
Appendix B VLSM
211
199
195
x
Contents
Introduction
Part I
CCNA 1
1
Part II
CCNA 2
3
xviii
Chapter 1 WANs and Routers 5
Connecting a Rollover Cable to Your Router or Switch
Terminal Settings 5
LAN Connections 6
Serial Cable Types 7
Which Cable to Use? 8
OS IP Verification Commands 10
Chapter 2 Introduction to Routers 11
Shortcuts for Entering Commands 11
Using the † Key to Complete Commands
Using the Question Mark for Help 11
enable Command 12
exit Command 12
disable Command 13
logout Command 13
Setup Mode 13
Keyboard Help 13
History Commands 14
show Commands 15
11
Chapter 3 Configuring a Router 17
Router Modes 17
Global Configuration Mode 18
Configuring a Router Name 18
Configuring Passwords 18
Password Encryption 19
show Commands 19
Interface Names 20
Moving Between Interfaces 21
Configuring a Serial Interface 21
Configuring an Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface 21
Creating a MOTD Banner 22
Setting the Clock Time Zone 22
Assigning a Local Host Name to an IP Address 22
no ip domain-lookup Command 23
logging synchronous Command 23
5
xi
exec-timeout Command 23
Saving Configurations 24
Erasing Configurations 24
Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration
Chapter 4 Learning About Other Devices
Cisco Discovery Protocol 27
Telnet 28
ping 30
traceroute 32
24
27
Chapter 5 Managing Cisco IOS Software 33
Boot System Commands 33
Configuration Register 33
Cisco IOS Software Prerelease 12.0 Commands Versus Cisco
IOS Software 12.x Commands 34
Backing Up Configurations 34
Restoring Configurations 35
Backing Up IOS to a TFTP Server 35
Restoring/Upgrading IOS from a TFTP Server 36
Restoring IOS from ROMmon Mode Using Xmodem 37
Restoring the IOS Using the ROMmon Environmental Variables
and tftpdnld Command 40
Password Recovery Procedures 41
Chapter 6 Routing and Routing Protocols 43
Static Routing 43
Default Routing 44
Verifying Static Routes 44
Configuration Example: Static Routes 44
Chapter 7 Distance Vector Routing Protocols 47
IP Classless 47
RIP Routing: Mandatory Commands 47
RIP Routing: Optional Commands 48
RIP Version 2 49
Troubleshooting RIP Issues 49
IGRP Routing: Mandatory Commands 49
IGRP Routing: Optional Commands 50
Troubleshooting IGRP Issues 50
Dynamic Routing Protocol Options 51
xii
Troubleshooting Dynamic Routing Protocol Issues
Verifying Routing 51
Configuration Example: Dynamic Routing 52
Chapter 8 TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages
ICMP Redirect Messages 55
ping Command 55
55
Chapter 9 Basic Router Troubleshooting 57
Viewing the Routing Table 57
Determining the Gateway of Last Resort 58
Determining the Last Routing Update 58
OSI Layer 3 Testing 58
OSI Layer 7 Testing 59
Using CDP to Troubleshoot 59
traceroute Command 60
show controllers Command 60
debug Commands 60
Chapter 10 Intermediate TCP/IP 61
ip http server Command 61
netstat Command 61
Chapter 11 Access Control Lists (ACLs) 63
Access List Numbers 63
Wildcard Masks 63
ACL Keywords 64
Creating Standard ACLs 64
Applying a Standard ACL to an Interface 66
Verifying ACLs 66
Removing An ACL 66
Creating Extended ACLs 67
Applying an Extended ACL to an Interface 68
Creating Named ACLs 68
Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 69
Configuration Example: Access Control Lists 70
Configuration Example: CCNA 2 72
Part III
CCNA 3
81
Chapter 1 Introduction to Classless Routing 83
Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) 83
Subnet Zero 83
RIP Version 2: Mandatory Commands 83
51
xiii
RIP Version 2: Optional Commands 84
Configuration Example: RIP-2 Routing 84
Chapter 2 Single-Area OSPF 87
OSPF Routing: Mandatory Commands 87
Using Wildcard Masks with OSPF Areas 88
OSPF Routing: Optional Commands 88
Loopback Interfaces 88
OSPF DR/BDR Election 88
Modifying OSPF Cost Metrics 89
OSPF Authentication: Simple 89
OSPF Authentication Using MD5 Encryption
OSPF Timers 90
Propagating a Default Route 90
Verifying OSPF Configuration 90
Troubleshooting OSPF 91
Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF 92
89
Chapter 3 EIGRP 97
Configuring EIGRP 97
EIGRP Auto Summarization 98
Verifying EIGRP 98
Troubleshooting EIGRP 99
Configuration Example: EIGRP 99
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts
Chapter 5 Switches
103
105
Chapter 6 Switch Configuration 107
Help Commands 107
Command Modes 107
Verifying Commands 108
Resetting Switch Configuration 108
Setting Host Names 109
Setting Passwords: 1900 Series Switches 109
Setting Passwords: 2900/2950 Series Switches 110
Setting IP Address and Default Gateway 110
Setting Interface Descriptions 111
Setting Duplex Settings: 1900 or 2900/2950 Series
Switches 112
Setting Speed Settings: 2900/2950 Series Switches 112
Setting Web-Based Interface for Configuration: 1900 and 2900/
2950 Series Switches 112
xiv
Managing the MAC Address Table: 1900 and 2900/2950 Series
Switches 113
Configuring Static MAC Addresses 113
Port Security: 1900 Series Switches 113
Verifying Port Security 114
Upgrading Catalyst 1900 Firmware with a TFTP Server 115
Copying IOS to TFTP Server 115
Restoring/Upgrading IOS/Startup-Config from TFTP
Server 116
Password Recovery for 1900 Series Switches 116
Password Recovery for 2900/2950 Series Switches 118
Firmware Upgrade of Catalyst 2950 Series Switches 119
Configuration Example: 2900 Series Switch 120
Chapter 7 Spanning Tree Protocol 123
Spanning-Tree Verification 123
Change Spanning-Tree Priority of a Switch 123
Changing the Stage of Spanning Tree on an Interface
124
Chapter 8 Virtual LANs 125
Displaying VLAN Information 125
Creating Static VLANs 126
Assigning Ports to VLANs 127
Assigning Ports Using the range Command (2950 Switch
Only) 128
Saving VLAN Configurations 128
Erasing VLAN Configurations 129
Troubleshooting VLANs 130
Configuration Example: 2900 Switch Configuration 131
Chapter 9 VLAN Trunking Protocol 135
Configuring ISL Trunks 135
Configuring Dot1Q Trunks 136
Verifying Trunking 136
VTP Configuration 137
Confirming VTP Configuration 138
Inter-VLAN Communication: Router-on-a-Stick 139
Router-on-a-Stick Tips 139
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
140
xv
Part IV
CCNA 4
153
Chapter 1 Scaling IP Technologies 155
Configuring Dynamic NAT: One Private to One Public Address
Translation 155
Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address
Translation 157
Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public
Address Translation 159
Verifying NAT and PAT Configuration 160
Troubleshooting NAT and PAT Configuration 160
Configuring DHCP 160
Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration 161
Configuring a DHCP Helper Address 161
Configuration Example: Port Address Translation 162
Chapter 2 WAN Technologies
165
Chapter 3 PPP 167
Configuring HDLC Encapsulation on a Serial Line 167
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Mandatory Commands) 167
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands):
Compression 168
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands):
Link Quality 168
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands):
Multilink 168
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands):
Authentication 168
Verifying or Troubleshooting a Serial Link/PPP
Encapsulation 170
Configuration Example: PPP 170
Chapter 4 ISDN and DDR 173
Configuring ISDN BRI: Setting the Switch Type 173
Configuring ISDN BRI: Setting SPIDs 174
Configuring ISDN PRI 174
Verifying ISDN Configuration 175
Troubleshooting ISDN 175
Configuring Legacy DDR 176
Configuring Dialer Profiles with DDR 177
Configuration Example: ISDN and DDR with No Dialer
Profiles 180
xvi
Chapter 5 Frame Relay 185
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay
Encapsulation Type 185
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay
Encapsulation LMI Type 186
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay DLCI
Number 186
Configuring a Frame Relay Map 186
Configuring a Description of the Interface (Optional) 187
Configuring Frame Relay Using Subinterfaces 187
Verifying Frame Relay 188
Troubleshooting Frame Relay 188
Configuration Example: Frame Relay 189
Chapter 6 Introduction to Network Administration
Configuring SNMP 195
Configuring Syslog 195
Part V
Appendixes
195
197
Appendix A Subnetting 199
Class A–E Addresses 199
Converting Between Decimal Numbers and Binary 200
Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary 200
Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary 204
The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting (or How to Subnet
Anything in Under a Minute) 208
Appendix B VLSM 211
IP Subnet Zero 211
VLSM Example 212
Step 1 Determine How Many H Bits Will Be Needed to
Satisfy the Largest Network 213
Step 2 Pick a Subnet for the Largest Network to Use 213
Step 3 Pick the Next Largest Network to Work With 214
Step 4 Pick the Third Largest Network to Work With 215
Step 5 Determine Network Numbers for Serial Links 217
xvii
Icons Used in This Book
Communication
Server
Router
Catalyst
Switch
Network Cloud
PC
File
Server
Terminal
Bridge
Multilayer
Switch
Line: Ethernet
Hub
ATM
Switch
Access
Server
DSU/CSU
DSU/CSU
ISDN/Frame Relay
Switch
Line: Serial
Line: Switched Serial
Command Syntax Conventions
The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions
used in the IOS Command Reference. The Command Reference describes these
conventions as follows:
• Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. In
actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax), boldface
indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command).
• Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values.
• Vertical bars (|) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements.
• Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements.
• Braces { } indicate a required choice.
• Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element.
xviii
Introduction
The Cisco Networking Academy Program has long prided itself on the ability to provide
superior training to both secondary and post-secondary students around the world in the
area of CCNA and CCNP. As an instructor in the program here in Edmonton, Canada, it is
so rewarding to use this curriculum and see students move from someone afraid to touch a
computer to someone who can design, configure, and troubleshoot a complex network.
One of the tools that I use, as do many other Networking Academy instructors, is the
engineering journal. I tell my students to write down in this journal anything they want that
they believe would help them in their jobs as network administrators. Anything is allowed,
as long as the notes are handwritten and not machine generated. This way students must
review and study the material to put in into their journal in a way that is meaningful to them.
The students put down all sorts of information: router commands; sample configurations,
complete with diagrams; tables of which cables to use in different situations; the difference
between a straight-through and a crossover cable. I even had one student attempt to write
down all the different possible combinations of subnet masks and corresponding address
ranges. He did this, he told me, so he would not have to learn how to subnet. I let my
students carry this engineering journal into any sort of practical exam; if they have spent
any amount of time on their journal, it can prove quite handy in a stressful period. During
a practical final exam, I looked at this one student’s journal, looking for the pages and pages
of subnet mask/address combinations. They were nowhere to be found. When I asked him
where they were, he told me that he ripped out those pages, because he didn’t need them.
After hours of writing out the combinations, he learned how to subnet and didn’t them
anymore!
So that is what this book is—an engineering journal that is cleaned up and definitely easier
to read than my own poor handwriting. It is a summary of commands that are used at the
CCNA level, following the format of the Cisco Networking Academy Program. But that is
not to say that the only people who will find value in this book are Networking Academy
students. Anyone preparing for the CCNA exam, or who needs to remember or review a
command, will find this book relevant.
My reasons for writing this book are in response to comments made to me by two other
Networking Academy instructors, William McBride and Randy Hirose. These two
gentlemen were on course with me for the Instructor’s CCNP 4 course in the Networking
Academy. Whenever I needed to refresh my memory, I would go to look at my own personal
engineering journals, but I could never find them; William or Randy had them. I would bug
them to build their own, because that is what we tell our students to do, but they would laugh
and say, “Publish this one, and I’ll buy it.” Bill and Randy—I did my part, now it’s your
turn!
Networking Devices Used in the Preparation of This Book
When working on this book, I tried to use devices that would be found in a majority of the
Networking Academies. The Cisco Network Academy Program has been around for a few
years now, and therefore there have been different devices used in Academy labs. Although
xix
I was not able to test and confirm the commands on all of the routers and switches that
Networking Academies have used, I did use the following equipment:
• C1720 router running Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(1)XA3, with a fixed Fast
Ethernet interface, and a WIC-2A/S serial interface card
• C2501 router running Cisco IOS Software Release 11.0(10c)XB1, with a fixed
Ethernet interface, and two fixed serial interfaces
• C2620 router running Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(7)T, with a fixed Fast Ethernet
interface, a WIC-2A/S serial interface card, and a NM-1E Ethernet interface
• WS-C1912-EN Catalyst switch, running Enterprise Edition software
• WS-C2912-XL Catalyst switch, running version 12.0(5.3)WC(1) Enterprise Edition
software
• WS-C2950-12 Catalyst switch, running version C2950-C3.0(5.3)WC(1) Enterprise
Edition software
These devices were not running the latest and greatest versions of IOS. Some of it is quite old.
Those of you familiar with Cisco devices will recognize that a majority of these commands
work across the entire range of the Cisco product line. These commands are not limited to
the platforms and IOS versions listed. In fact, these devices are in most cases adequate for
someone to continue their studies into the CCNP level as well.
Who Should Read This Book
This book is for those people preparing for the CCNA exam, whether through the Cisco
Networking Academy Program or through some other means. But for those of you in the
Networking Academy, this book follows the modules of the four courses of the CCNA
Program, allowing you a quick reference to commands learned in each module. There are
also some handy hints and tips along the way to hopefully make life a bit easier for you in
this endeavor. It is also small enough that you will find it easy to carry around with you. Big
heavy textbooks might look impressive on your bookshelf in your office, but can you really
carry them all around with you when you are working in some server room or equipment
closet somewhere?
Organization of This Book
This book follows the order of topics in the four CCNA courses of the Cisco Networking
Academy Program. As it is meant to be a command summary guide, there is little content
coming from CCNA 1—Networking Basics; the most important topic from this course is
subnetting, which you will find in Appendix A. Otherwise, the book follows the Networking
Academy curriculum, starting with CCNA 2, “Routers and Routing Basics,” moving into
CCNA 3, “Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing,” and finishing with CCNA 4,
“WAN Technologies.” There are two appendixes: one on subnetting, the other on variablelength subnet masking (VLSM).
xx
Specifically, the topics are as follows:
• CCNA 2 Module 1, “WANs and Routers”—An overview of how to connect to Cisco
devices, which cables to use for which interfaces, and how to verify your IP settings
using different operating systems.
• CCNA 2 Module 2, “Introduction to Routers”—How to navigate through the Cisco
IOS; IOS editing commands, keyboard shortcuts, and IOS help commands.
• CCNA 2 Module 3, “Configuring a Router”—Commands needed to configure a
single router: names, passwords, configuring interfaces, MOTD banners, IP host
tables, saving and erasing your configurations.
• CCNA 2 Module 4, “Learning About Other Devices”—Commands related to CDP
and about using Telnet to remotely connect to other devices.
• CCNA 2 Module 5, “Managing Cisco IOS Software”—Boot commands for the
IOS; backing up and restoring IOS using TFTP and Xmodem; password recovery
procedure for routers.
• CCNA 2 Module 6, “Routing and Routing Protocols”—How to configure static
routes in your internetwork.
• CCNA 2 Module 7, “Distance Vector Routing Protocols”—Commands on
configuring and verifying RIP and IGRP; how to see and clear your routing table.
• CCNA 2 Module 8, “TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages”—ICMP redirect
commands.
• CCNA 2 Module 9, “Basic Router Troubleshooting”—Various show commands
used to view the routing table.
• CCNA 2 Module 10, “Intermediate TCP/IP”—Turning on web servers on a router;
the netstat command.
• CCNA 2 Module 11, “Access Control Lists (ACLs)”—Configuring standard ACLs;
wildcard masking; creating extended ACLs; creating named ACLs; verifying ACLs.
• CCNA 3 Module 1, “Introduction to Classless Routing”—Configuring and
verifying RIP-2; the IP subnet-zero command.
• CCNA 3 Module 2, “Single-Area OSPF”—Configuring and verifying single-area
OSPF.
• CCNA 3 Module 3, “EIGRP”—Configuring and Verifying EIGRP.
• CCNA 3 Module 4, “Switching Concepts”—There are no commands affiliated with
this module.
• CCNA 3 Module 5, “Switches”—There are no commands affiliated with this
module.
• CCNA 3 Module 6, “Switch Configuration”—Commands needed for configuration
of Catalyst 1900/2900/2950 switches: names; passwords, IP addresses, and default
gateways; port speed and duplex; configuring static MAC addresses; managing the
MAC address table; port security; password recovery procedures; firmware upgrades.
xxi
• CCNA 3 Module 7, “Spanning Tree Protocol”—Verifying spanning tree; setting
switch priorities.
• CCNA 3 Module 8, “Virtual LANs”—Configuring static VLANs on 1900/2900/
2950 switches; troubleshooting VLANs; saving and deleting VLAN information.
• CCNA 3 Module 9, “VLAN Trunking Protocol”—Configuring a VLAN Trunk
Link; VTP configuration; verifying VTP; inter-VLAN communication; router-on-astick and subinterfaces.
• CCNA 4 Module 1, “Scaling IP Addresses”—Commands relating to NAT and
DHCP configuration and verification.
• CCNA 4, Module 2, “WAN Technologies”—There are no commands affiliated with
this module.
• CCNA 4, Module 3, “PPP”—Configuring PPP; authentication of PPP using PAP or
CHAP; compression in PPP; multilink in PPP; troubleshooting PPP; returning to
HDLC encapsulation.
• CCNA 4, Module 4, “ISDN and DDR”—Configuring a BRI interface; configuring a
PRI interface; verifying ISDN; configuring legacy DDR; verifying and
troubleshooting legacy DDR.
• CCNA 4, Module 5, “Frame Relay”—Configuring basic Frame Relay; Frame Relay
and subinterfaces; DLCIs; verifying and troubleshooting Frame Relay.
• CCNA 4, Module 6, “Introduction to Network Administration”—Configuring
SNMP; working with syslog.
• Appendix A, “Subnetting”—An overview of how to subnet; examples of subnetting
a Class C and a Class B address; the Enhanced Bob Maneuver to subnetting.
• Appendix B, “VLSM”—An overview of VLSM; an example of using VLSM to make
your IP plan more efficient.
Did I Miss Anything?
I am always interested to hear how my students do on both vendor exams and future studies.
If you would like to contact me and let me know how this book helped you in your certification goals, please do so. Did I miss anything? Let me know. I can’t guarantee I’ll answer
your e-mail message, but I can guarantee that I will read all of them. My e-mail address is
ccnaguide@empson.ca.
PART I
CCNA 1
PART I CCNA 1
There are no commands affiliated with the modules covered in CCNA 1 of
the Cisco Networking Academy Program curriculum. However, please refer
to Appendix A, “Subnetting,” to ensure that you have a solid understanding of
how to subnet. Your ability to quickly and correctly subnet can make a significant
difference as to whether you fail or pass the CCNA exam.
PART II
CCNA 2
WANs and Routers
Chapter 2
Introduction to Routers
Chapter 3
Configuring a Router
Chapter 4
Learning About Other Devices
Chapter 5
Managing Cisco IOS Software
Chapter 6
Routing and Routing Procotols
Chapter 7
Distance Vector Routing Protocols
Chapter 8
TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages
Chapter 9
Basic Router Troubleshooting
Chapter 10
Intermediate TCP/IP
Chapter 11
Access Control Lists (ACLs)
PART II CCNA 2
Chapter 1
CHAPTER 1
WANs and Routers
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Connecting a rollover cable to your router or switch
• Determining what your terminal settings should be
• Understanding the setup of different LAN connections
• Determining which cable to use to connect your router or switch to another
device
• Verifying IP settings depending on your operating system
Connecting a Rollover Cable to Your Router or Switch
Figure 1-1 shows how to connect a rollover cable from your PC to a router or switch.
Figure 1-1
Rollover Cable Connections
Terminal Settings
Figure 1-2 illustrates the settings that you should configure to have your PC connect
to the router or switch.
PART II CCNA 2
• Identifying different serial cable types
6
LAN Connections
Figure 1-2
PC Settings to Connect to a Router or Switch
LAN Connections
Table 1-1 shows the various port types and connections between LAN devices.
Table 1-1
LAN Connections
Port or Connection
Port Type
Connected To
Cable
Ethernet
RJ-45
Ethernet hub or
Ethernet switch
RJ-45
T1/E1 WAN
RJ-48C/CA81A
T1 or E1 network
Rollover
Console
8 pin
Computer COM port
Rollover
AUX
8 pin
Modem
RJ-45
BRI S/T
RJ-48C/CA81A
NT1 device or private
integrated network
exchange (PINX)
RJ-45
BRI U WAN
RJ-49C/CA11A
ISDN network
RJ-45
Serial Cable Types
7
Serial Cable Types
Figure 1-3 shows the DB-60 end of a Serial cable that connects to a 2500 series router.
Figure 1-4 shows the newer smart serial end of a serial cable that connects to a smart serial
port on your router.
Figure 1-5 shows examples of the male data terminal equipment (DTE) and the female data
communications equipment (DCE) ends that are on the other side of a serial or smart serial
cable.
Laptops released in the past few years come equipped with USB ports, not serial ports. For
these newer laptops, you need a USB-to-serial connector, as illustrated in Figure 1-6.
Figure 1-3
Serial Cable (2500)
Figure 1-4
Smart Serial Cable (1700 or 2600)
8
Which Cable to Use?
Figure 1-5
V.35 DTE and DCE Cables
NOTE: CCNA focuses on V.35 cables for back-to-back connections between
routers.
Figure 1-6
USB-to-Serial Connector for Laptops
Which Cable to Use?
Table 1-2 describes which cable should be used when wiring your devices together. It is
important to ensure you have proper cabling; otherwise, you might be giving yourself
problems before you even get started.
Which Cable to Use?
Table 1-2
Determining Which Cables to Use When Wiring Devices Together
If device A has a:
And device B has a:
Then use this cable:
Computer COM port
Console of router/switch
Rollover
Computer NIC
Switch/hub
Straight-through
Computer NIC
Computer NIC
Crossover
Switch or hub port
Router's Ethernet port
Straight-through
Switch or hub port
Switch or hub port
Crossover (check for uplink button
or toggle switch to defeat this)
Router's Ethernet port
Router's Ethernet port
Crossover
Computer NIC
Router's Ethernet port
Crossover
Router's serial port
Router's serial port
Cisco serial DCE/DTE cables
Table 1-3 lists the pinouts for straight-through, crossover, and rollover cables.
Table 1-3
Pinouts for Different Cables
Straight-Through Cable
Crossover Cable
Rollover Cable
Pin 1 – Pin 1
Pin 1 – Pin 3
Pin 1 – Pin 8
Pin 2 – Pin 2
Pin 2 – Pin 6
Pin 2 – Pin 7
Pin 3 – Pin 3
Pin 3 – Pin 1
Pin 3 – Pin 6
Pin 4 – Pin 4
Pin 4 – Pin 4
Pin 4 – Pin 5
Pin 5 – Pin 5
Pin 5 – Pin 5
Pin 5 – Pin 4
Pin 6 – Pin 6
Pin 6 – Pin 2
Pin 6 – Pin 3
Pin 7 – Pin 7
Pin 7 – Pin 7
Pin 7 – Pin 2
Pin 8 – Pin 8
Pin 8 – Pin 8
Pin 8 – Pin 1
9
10
OS IP Verification Commands
OS IP Verification Commands
The following are commands that you should use to verify what your IP settings are.
Different operating systems have different commands.
• ipconfig (Windows 2000/XP):
Click Start > Run > Command > ipconfig or ipconfig/all.
• winipcfg (Windows 95/98/Me):
Click Start > Run > winipcfg.
• ifconfig (Mac/Linux):
ifconfig
#i
CHAPTER 2
Introduction to Routers
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Navigating through command syntax and command modes
• The setup mode
• Keyboard help
• show commands relating to these topics
Shortcuts for Entering Commands
To enhance efficiency, Cisco IOS Software has some shortcuts for entering commands.
Although these are great to use in the real world, when it comes time to write a vendor
exam, make sure you know the full commands, and not just the shortcuts.
enable
Router>e
en
= Router>e
=
enab
Router>e
Entering a shortened form of a command
is sufficient as long as there is no confusion over which command you are asking
for
configure terminal
Router#c
is the same as:
config t
Router#c
Using the † Key to Complete Commands
Router#sh † = Router#show
Using the Question Mark for Help
The following output shows you how using the question mark can help you to work
your way through a command and all of its parameters.
PART II CCNA 2
• History commands
12
exit Command
?
Router#?
Lists all commands available in the current
command mode
c?
Router#c
Lists all the possible choices that start with c
clear
clock
cl?
Router#c
clear
Lists all the possible choices that start with cl
clock
clock
Router#c
% Incomplete Command
Tells you that there are more parameters that
need to be entered
clock ?
Router#c
Shows all subcommands for this command
set
Sets the time and date
Router#clock set 19:50:00 14
July 2003 ? ®
Pressing the ® key confirms the time and
date configured
Router#
No Error message/Incomplete Command
message means the command was entered
successfully
enable Command
enable
Router>e
Moves user from user mode to privileged mode
Router#
exit Command
exit
Router#e
or
Logs a user off
exit
Router>e
Router(configexit
if)#e
Moves you back one level
Router(config)#
exit
Router(config)#e
Router#
Moves you back one level
Keyboard Help
13
disable Command
disable
Router#d
Moves you from privileged mode back to user mode
Router>
logout Command
logout
Router#l
Performs the same function as exit
Setup Mode
Starts automatically if no startup configuration present.
setup
Router#s
Enters startup mode from the command line
NOTE: The answer inside the square brackets [ ] is the default answer. If this is
the answer you want, just press ®.
Pressing Çc at any time will end the setup process, shut down all interfaces,
and take you to user mode (Router>).
NOTE: Setup mode cannot be used to configure an entire router. It does only
the basics. For example, you can only turn on either RIPv1 or IGRP, but not OSPF or
EIGRP. You cannot create ACLs here or enable NAT. You can assign an IP address
to an interface, but not a subinterface. All in all, setup mode is very limiting.
Entering setup mode is not a recommended practice. Instead, you should use the
command-line interface (CLI), which is more powerful:
Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes] : no
Would you like to enable autoinstall? [yes] no
Autoinstall is a feature that will try and broadcast out all interfaces to try and find
a configuration. If you say yes, you will have to wait for a few minutes while it
looks for a configuration to load. Very frustrating. Say no.
Keyboard Help
The keystrokes described in Table 2-1 are meant to help you in your editing of the configuration. Because there are certain tasks that you want to do over and over again, Cisco IOS
Software has in place certain keystroke combinations to help make the process more
efficient.
14
History Commands
Table 2-1
Keyboard Help
^ (carat symbol; above the 6 key)
See next row for an example
Shows you where you made a mistake in entering
a command
confog t
Router#c
^
% Invalid input detected at
‘^’ marker.
config t
Router#c
Router(config)#
Ça
Moves cursor to beginning of line
´b
Moves cursor back one word
Çb (or ≤ left arrow)
Moves cursor back one character
Çe
Moves cursor to end of line
Çf (or ≥ right arrow)
Moves cursor forward one character
´f
Moves cursor forward one word
Çz
Moves you from any prompt back down to
privileged mode
$
Indicates that the line has been scrolled to the left
terminal no editing
Router#t
Turns off the ability to use the previous keyboard
shortcuts
Router#
terminal editing
Router#t
Router#
Re-enables enhanced editing mode (can use
above keyboard shortcuts)
History Commands
Çp or ¯ (up arrow)
Recalls commands in the history buffer
in a backward sequence, beginning with
the most recent command
Çn or ˘ (down arrow)
Returns to more recent commands in the
history buffer after recalling commands
with ÇP key sequence
show Commands
terminal history size number See the
next row for an example
15
Sets the number of commands in the
buffer that can recalled by the router
(maximum number is 256)
terminal history size 25
Router#t
Router will now remember the last 25
commands in the buffer
no terminal history size 25
Router#n
Sets history buffer back to 10
commands, which is the default
NOTE: The history size command provides the same function as the terminal
history size command.
Be careful when you set the size to something larger than the default. By telling
the router to keep the last 256 commands in a buffer, you are taking memory
away from other parts of the router. What would you rather have: a router that
remembers what you last typed in, or a router that routes as efficiently as possible?
show Commands
show version
Router#s
Displays information about current IOS
show flash
Router#s
Displays information about Flash memory
show history
Router#s
Lists all commands in the history buffer
NOTE: The last line of output from the show version command tells you what the
configuration register is set to.
CHAPTER 3
Configuring a Router
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Configuring a router, specifically:
— Names
— Passwords
— MOTD banners
— IP host tables
— Saving and erasing your configurations
• show commands to verify the router configurations
Router Modes
Router>
User mode
Router#
Privileged mode
Router(config)#
Global configuration mode
Router(config-if)#
Interface mode
Router(config-subif)#
Subinterface mode
Router(config-line)#
Line mode
Router(config-router)#
Router configuration mode
TIP: There are other modes than these. Not all commands work in all
modes. Be careful. If you type in a command that you know is correct—show
run, for example—and you get an error, make sure that you are in the correct
mode.
PART II CCNA 2
— Interfaces
18
Configuring Passwords
Global Configuration Mode
Router>
Can see config, but not change
Router#
Can see config and move to make
changes
Router#config t
Moves to global config mode
Router(config)#
This prompt indicates that you can
start making changes
Configuring a Router Name
This command works on both routers and switches.
hostname Cisco
Router(config)#h
Name can be any word you choose
Cisco(config)#
Configuring Passwords
Works on both routers and switches.
enable password cisco
Router(config)#e
Sets enable password
enable secret class
Router(config)#e
Sets enable secret password
line con 0
Router(config)#l
Enters console-line mode
password console
Router(config-line)#p
Sets console-line mode password to
console
login
Router(config-line)#l
Enables password checking at login
line vty 0 4
Router(config)#l
Enters vty line mode for all 5 vty
lines
password telnet
Router(config-line)#p
Sets vty password to telnet
login
Router(config-line)#l
Enables password checking at login
show Commands
19
line aux 0
Router(config)#l
Enters auxiliary line mode
password backdoor
Router(config-line)#p
Sets auxiliary line mode password to
backdoor
login
Router(config-line)#l
Enables password checking at login
CAUTION: Enable secret password is encrypted by default. Enable password is
not. For this reason, recommended practice is that you never use the enable
password. Use only the enable secret password in a router configuration.
CAUTION: You cannot set both enable secret and enable password to the same
password. Doing so defeats the use of encryption.
Password Encryption
service passwordRouter(config)#s
encryption
Applies a weak encryption to
passwords
enable password cisco
Router(config)#e
Sets enable password to cisco
line con 0
Router(config)#l
…
password Cisco
Router(config-line)#p
Continue setting passwords as above
…
no service passwordRouter(config)#n
encryption
Turns off password encryption
CAUTION: If you have turned on service password encryption, used it, and then
turned it off, any passwords that you have encrypted will stay encrypted. New
passwords will remain unencrypted
show Commands
show ?
Router#s
Lists all show commands available
show interfaces
Router#s
Displays statistics for all interfaces
show interface serial 0
Router#s
Displays statistics for a specific
interface, in this case Serial 0
show ip interface brief
Router#s
Displays a summary of all
interfaces, including status and IP
address assigned
20
Interface Names
show controllers serial 0
Router#s
Displays statistics for interface
hardware. Statistics display if the
clock rate is set and if the cable is
DCE, DTE, or not attached
show clock
Router#s
Displays time set on device
show hosts
Router#s
Displays local host-to-IP address
cache. These are the names and
addresses of hosts on the network to
which you can connect
show users
Router#s
Displays all users connected to
device
show history
Router#s
Displays history of commands used
show flash
Router#s
Displays info about Flash memory
show version
Router#s
Displays info about loaded
software version
show arp
Router#s
Displays the ARP table
show protocols
Router#s
Displays status of configured Layer
3 protocols
show startup-config
Router#s
Displays configuration saved in
NVRAM
show running-config
Router#s
Displays configuration currently
running in RAM
Interface Names
One of the biggest problems that new administrators face is the names of the interfaces on
the different models of routers. The following chart lists the names of the Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet, and Serial interfaces on the 2500, 1700, and 2600 series of routers.
Fixed Interfaces (2500
Series)
Modular (Removable)
Interfaces (1700 Series)
Modular (Removable)
Interfaces (2600 Series)
int
Router(config)#i
erface type port
interf
Router(config)#i
ace type port
interface
Router(config)#i
type slot/port
int
Router(config)#i
serial0 (s0)
interf
Router(config)#i
ace serial 0
int serial
Router(config)#i
0/0 (s0/0)
int
Router(config)#i
ethernet 0 (e0)
interf
Router(config)#i
ace fastethernet 0
int
Router(config)#i
fastethernet 0/0 (fa0/0)
Configuring an Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface
21
Moving Between Interfaces
What happens in Column 1 is the same thing as is occurring in Column 2.
int s0
Router(config)#i
int s0
Router(config)#i
Moves to interface S0
mode
exit
Router(config-if)#e
int e0
Router(config-if)#i
In int S0, move to E0
int e0
Router(config)#i
Router(config-if)#
In E0 mode now
Router(config-if)#
Prompt does not
change; be careful
Configuring a Serial Interface
int s0/0
Router(config)#i
Moves to interface Serial 0/0
mode
description Link to ISP
Router(config-if)#d
Optional descriptor of the link is
locally significant
ip address 192.168.10.1
Router(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns address and subnet
mask to interface
clock rate 56000
Router(config-if)#c
Assigns a clock rate for the
interface
no shut
Router(config-if)#n
Turns interface on
TIP: The clock rate command is used only on a serial interface that has a DCE
cable plugged into it. There must be a clock rate set on every serial link between
routers. It does not matter which router has the DCE cable plugged into it, or which
interface the cable is plugged into. Serial 0 on one router can be plugged into
Serial 1 on another router.
Configuring an Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface
int fa0/0
Router(config)#i
Moves to Fast Ethernet 0/0
interface mode
description Accounting LAN
Router(config-if)#d
Optional descriptor of the
link is locally significant
22
Assigning a Local Host Name to an IP Address
ip address 192.168.20.1
Router(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns address and subnet
mask to interface
no shut
Router(config-if)#n
Turns interface on
Creating a MOTD Banner
banner motd # This is a
Router(config)#b
secure system. Authorized Personnel Only!
Router(config)#
#
# is known as a delimiting
character. The delimiting
character must surround the
banner message and can be
any character so long as it is
not a character used within
the body of the message
Setting the Clock Time Zone
clock timezone EST –5
Router(config)#c
Sets the time zone for
display purposes. Based on
coordinated universal time
(Eastern Standard Time is 5
hours behind UTC)
Assigning a Local Host Name to an IP Address
ip host london 172.16.1.3
Router(config)#i
Assigns a host name to the
IP address. After this
assignment, you can use the
host name instead of an IP
address when trying to
Telnet or ping to that
address
ping london
Router#p
=
ping 172.16.1.3
Router#p
TIP: The default port number in the ip host command is 23, or Telnet. If you want
to Telnet to a device, just enter the IP host name itself:
london = Router#t
telnet london = Router#t
telnet 172.16.1.3
Router#l
exec-timeout Command
23
no ip domain-lookup Command
no ip domain-lookup
Router(config)#n
Router(config)#
Turns off trying to
automatically resolve an
unrecognized command to a
local host name
TIP: Ever type in a command incorrectly and left having to wait for a minute or
two as the router tries to translate your command to a domain server of
255.255.255.255? The router is set by default to try to resolve any word that is not
a command to a DNS server at address 255.255.255.255. If you are not going to set
up DNS, turn this feature off to save you time as you type, especially if you are a
poor typist.
logging synchronous Command
line con 0
Router(config)#l
logging synchronous
Router(config-line)#l
Turns on synchronous
logging. Information items
sent to console will not
interrupt the command you
are typing. The command
will be moved to a new line
TIP: Ever try to type in a command and an informational line appears in the
middle of what you were typing? Lose your place? Do not know where you are in
the command, so you just press ® and start all over? The logging
synchronous command will tell the router that if any informational items get
displayed on the screen, your prompt and command line should be moved to a
new line, so as not to confuse you.
The informational line does not get inserted into the middle of the command you
are trying to type. If you were to continue typing, the command would execute
properly, even though it looks wrong on the screen
exec-timeout Command
line con 0
Router(config)#l
exec-timeout 0 0
Router(config-line)#e
Router(config-line)#
Sets time limit when console
automatically logs off. Set to
0 0 (minutes seconds) means
console never logs off
24
Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration
TIP: exec-timeout 0 0 is great for a lab because the console never logs out. This
is very dangerous in the real world (bad security).
Saving Configurations
copy run start
Router#c
Saves the running-config to local NVRAM
copy run tftp
Router#c
Saves the running-config remotely to TFTP server
Erasing Configurations
erase start
Router#e
Deletes the startup-config file from NVRAM
TIP: Running-config is still in dynamic memory. Reload the router to clear the
running-config.
Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration
Figure 3-1 shows the network topology for the configuration that follows, which shows a
basic router configuration using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 3-1
Network Topology for Basic Router Configuration
172.16.10.10
172.16.10.1
fa0/0
Network 172.16.10.0/24
s0/0
172.16.20.1
s0/1
DCE
Boston
172.16.20.2 Buffalo
Network 172.16.20.0/24
172.16.30.30
172.16.30.1
fa0/0
Network 172.16.30.0/24
Boston Router
en
Router>e
Enters privileged mode
clock set 18:30:00 15 Nov 2004
Router#c
Sets local time on router
config t
Router#c
Enters global config mode
Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration
hostname Boston
Router(config)#h
Sets router name to Boston
no ip domain-lookup
Boston(config)#n
Turns off name resolution on
unrecog-nized commands
(spelling mistakes)
banner motd #
Boston(config)#b
Creates an MOTD banner
This is
25
the Boston Router.
Authorized Access Only
#
clock timezone EST –5
Boston(config)#c
Sets time zone to Eastern
Standard Time (–5 from UTC)
enable secret cisco
Boston(config)#e
Enable secret password set to
cisco
service password-encryption
Boston(config)#s
Passwords will be given weak
encryption
line con 0
Boston(config)#l
Enters line console mode
logging sync
Boston(config-line)#l
Commands will not be
interrupted by unsolicited
messages
password class
Boston(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Boston(config-line)#l
Enables password checking at
login
line vty 0 4
Boston(config-line)#l
Moves to virtual Telnet lines 0
through 4
password class
Boston(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Boston(config-line)#l
Enables password checking at
login
line aux 0
Boston(config-line)#l
Moves to line auxiliary mode
password class
Boston(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Boston(config-line)#l
Enables password checking at
login
exit
Boston(config-line)#e
Moves back to global config
mode
26
Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration
no service passwordBoston(config)#n
encryption
Turns off password encryption
int fa 0/0
Boston(config)#i
Moves to Fast Ethernet 0/0
mode
desc Engineering LAN
Boston(config-if)#d
Sets locally significant
description of the interface
ip address 172.16.10.1
Boston(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and subnet
mask to the interface
no shut
Boston(config-if)#n
Turns on the interface
int s0/0
Boston(config-if)#i
Moves directly to Serial 0/0
mode
desc Link to Buffalo
Boston(config-if)#d
Router
Sets locally significant
description of the interface
ip address 172.16.20.1
Boston(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and subnet
mask to the interface
clock rate 56000
Boston(config-if)#c
Sets a clock rate for serial
transmission (DCE cable must
be plugged into this interface)
no shut
Boston(config-if)#n
Turns on the interface
exit
Boston(config-if)#e
Moves back to global config
mode
ip host buffalo 172.16.20.2
Boston(config)#i
Sets a local host name
resolution to IP address
172.16.20.2
exit
Boston(config)#e
Moves back to privileged
mode
Boston#copy run start
Saves running-config to
NVRAM
CHAPTER 4
Learning About
Other Devices
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Commands related to Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
• Using Telnet to remotely connect to other devices
show cdp
Router#s
Displays global CDP
information (such as timers)
show cdp neighbors
Router#s
Displays information about
neighbors
show cdp neighbors detail
Router#s
Displays more detail about
neighbor device
show cdp entry word
Router#s
Displays information about
device named word
show cdp entry *
Router#s
Displays information about all
devices
show cdp interface
Router#s
Displays info about interfaces
that have CDP running
show cdp interface x
Router#s
Displays info about specific
interface x running CDP
show cdp traffic
Router#s
Displays traffic info—packets
in/out/version
cdp holdtime x
Router(config)#c
Changes length of time to keep
CDP packets
cdp timer x
Router(config)#c
Changes how often CDP
updates are sent
cdp run
Router(config)#c
Enables CDP globally (on by
default)
no cdp run
Router(config)#n
Turns off CDP globally
PART II CCNA 2
Cisco Discovery Protocol
28
Telnet
cdp enable
Router(config-if)#c
Enables CDP on a specific
interface
no cdp enable
Router(config-if)#n
Turns off CDP on a specific
interface
clear cdp counters
Router#c
Resets traffic counters to 0
clear cdp table
Router#c
Deletes the CDP table
debug cdp adjacency
Router#d
Monitors CDP neighbor
information
debug cdp events
Router#d
Monitors all CDP events
debug cdp ip
Router#d
Monitors CDP events
specifically for IP
debug cdp packets
Router#d
Monitors CDP packet-related
information
CAUTION: Although CDP is an excellent source of information to you the network administrator, is it a potential security risk if a hacker gains access to one of
your systems. The information that you gain through CDP is also gained by the
hacker.
After you have used CDP to gather your information in a production environment, turn it off to thwart any bad people from using it for no good.
Telnet
The following five commands all achieve the same result—the attempt to connect remotely
to the router named paris at IP address 172.16.20.1.
telnet paris
Denver>t
Enter if ip host command was
used previously to create a
mapping of an IP address to the
word paris
telnet 172.16.20.1
Denver>t
paris
Denver>p
connect paris
Denver>c
172.16.20.1
Denver>1
Enter if ip host command is
using default port #
Telnet
29
Any of the preceding commands lead to the following configuration sequence:
Paris>
As long as vty password is set
(See caution following this
table)
exit
Paris>e
Terminates the Telnet session
Denver>
logout
Paris>l
Terminates the Telnet session
Denver>
Paris>ÇÍ6, release, then press
x
Suspends the Telnet session,
but does not terminate it
Denver>
Denver>®
Resumes the connection to
paris
Paris>
resume
Denver>r
Resumes the connection to
paris
Paris>
disconnect paris
Denver>d
Terminates the session to
paris
Denver>
show sessions
Denver#s
Displays connections you
opened to other sites
show users
Denver#s
Displays who is connected
remotely to you
30
ping
clear line x
Denver#c
Disconnects remote user
connected to you on line x
Line number is listed in the
output gained from the show
users command
line vty 0 4
Denver(config)#l
Denver(config-line) session-limit x
Limits the number of
simultaneous sessions per vty
line to x amount
CAUTION: The following configuration creates a big security hole. Never use in
a live production environment. Use in the lab only!
line vty 0 4
Denver(config)#l
.
no password
Denver(config-line)#n
Remote user is not challenged
when Telnetting to this device
no login
Denver(config-line)#n
Remote user moves straight
to user mode
NOTE: A device must have two passwords for a remote user to be able to make
changes to your configuration:
• Line vty password ( or have it explicitly turned off; see previous Caution)
• Enable or enable secret password
Without the enable or enable secret password, a remote user will only be able to
get to user mode, not to privileged mode. This is extra security.
ping
ping 172.168.20.1
Router#p
Performs basic Layer 3 test
to address
ping paris
Router#p
Same as above but through
IP host name
ping
Router#p
Enters extended ping mode.
Can now change
parameters of ping test
ping
Protocol [ip]:
®
31
Press ® to use ping
for IP
Target IP address: 172.16.20.1
Enter target IP address
100
Repeat count [5]:1
Enter number of echo
requests you want to send.
5 is the default
]:®
Datagram size [100]
Enter size of datagrams
being sent. 100 is the
default
Timeout in Seconds [2]:®
Enter timeout delay
between sending echo
requests
Extended commands [n]: yes
Allows you to configure
extended commands
Source address or interface: 10.0.10.1
Allows you to explicitly set
where the pings are
originating from
Type of Service [0]
Allows you to set the TOS
field in the IP Header
Set DF bit in IP header [no]
Allows you to set the DF bit
in the IP Header
Validate reply data? [no]
Allows you to set whether
you want validation
Data Pattern [0xABCD]
Allows you to change the
data pattern in the data
field of the ICMP Echo
request packet
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp,
Verbose[none]:®
Sweep range of sizes [no]:
®
Type escape sequence to abort
Sending 100, 100-byte ICMP Echos to
172.16.20.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (100/100) roundtrip min/avg/max = 1/1/4 ms
32
traceroute
traceroute
traceroute 172.168.20.1
Router#t
Discovers route taken to travel to destination
trace paris
Router#t
Short form of command with IP host name
CHAPTER 5
Managing Cisco IOS
Software
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Changing the order of from where IOS is loaded
• The configuration register
• Backing up and restoring configurations and IOS using TFTP
• Restoring IOS using Xmodem
• Restoring IOS using tftpdnld
• Password recovery procedures
Boot System Commands
boot system flash imageRouter(config)#b
name
Loads IOS with imagename
boot system tftp imageRouter(config)#b
name 172.16.10.3
Loads IOS with imagename from a TFTP server
boot system rom
Router(config)#b
Loads IOS from ROM
exit
Router(config)#e
copy run start
Router#c
Saves running-configuration to NVRAM
Router will execute
commands in order they
were entered on next reload
If you enter boot system flash first, that is the first place the router will go to look for
the IOS. If you want to go to a TFTP server first, make sure that the boot system tftp
command is the first one you enter.
Configuration Register
show version
Router#s
Last line tells you what the
configuration register is set to
config t
Router#c
Changes the configuration
register setting to 2142
config-register 0x2142
Router(config)#c
PART II CCNA 2
• Pre-IOS 12.0 commands versus 12.x commands
34
Backing Up Configurations
Cisco IOS Software Prerelease 12.0 Commands Versus Cisco IOS
Software 12.x Commands
Pre-IOS 12.0 Commands
IOS 12.x Commands
copy tftp running-config
copy tftp: system:running-config
copy tftp startup-config
copy tftp: nvram:startup-config
show startup-config
more nvram:startup-config
erase startup-config
erase nvram:
copy run start
copy system:running-config
nvram:startup-config
copy run tftp
copy system:running-config tftp:
show run
more system:running-config
Backing Up Configurations
copy run start
Denver#c
Saves running-config from
DRAM to NVRAM
(locally)
copy run tftp
Denver#c
Copies running-config to
remote TFTP server
Address or name of remote host[ ]?
192.168.119.20
IP address of TFTP server
Destination Filename [Denver-confg]?®
Name to use for file saved
on TFTP server
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Each bang symbol (!) = 1
datagram of data
624 bytes copied in 7.05 secs
Denver#
File has been transferred
successfully
NOTE: You can also use the preceding sequence for a copy start tftp command
sequence.
Backing Up IOS to a TFTP Server
35
Restoring Configurations
copy tftp run
Denver#c
Address or name of remote host[ ]?
Copies configuration file
from TFTP server to
DRAM
IP address of TFTP server
192.168.119.20
Denver-confg
Source filename [ ]?D
Enter the name of the file
you want to retrieve
Destination filename [runningconfig]?®
Accessing tftp://192.168.119.20/Denverconfg…
Loading Denver-confg from 192.168.119.02
(via Fast Ethernet 0/0):
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK-624 bytes]
624 bytes copied in 9.45 secs
Denver#
File has been transferred
successfully
NOTE: You can also use the preceding sequence for a copy tftp start command
sequence.
Backing Up IOS to a TFTP Server
copy flash tftp
Denver#c
Source filename [ ]? c2600-js-l_121-3.bin
Name of IOS image
Address or name of remote host [ ]?
192.168.119.20
Address of TFTP server
Destination filename [c2600-js-l_1213.bin]?®
Destination filename is
the same as the source
filename, so just press
®
36
Restoring/Upgrading IOS from a TFTP Server
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
8906589 bytes copied in 263.68 seconds
Denver#
Restoring/Upgrading IOS from a TFTP Server
copy tftp flash
Denver#c
Address or name of remote host [ ]?
192.168.119.20
Source filename [ ]? c2600-js-l_121-3.bin
Destination filename [c2600-js-l_1213.bin]?®
Accessing tftp://192.168.119.20/c2600-jsl_121-3.bin
Erase flash: before copying?
[confirm]®
If Flash memory is full,
must erase it first
Erasing the flash file system will remove
all files
Continue? [confirm]®
Press Çc if you want to
cancel
Erasing device
Each “e” represents data
being erased
eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee…erased
Loading c2600-js-l_121-3.bin from
192.168.119.20
(via) FastEthernet 0/0):
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!
Each bang symbol (!) = 1
datagram of data
Verifying Check sum ……………… OK
[OK – 8906589 Bytes]
8906589 bytes copied in 277.45 secs
Denver#
Success
Restoring IOS from ROMmon Mode Using Xmodem
37
Restoring IOS from ROMmon Mode Using Xmodem
The output that follows was taken from a 1720 router. Some of this output might vary from
yours, depending on the router model that you are using.
confreg
rommon 1 >c
Shows configuration summary.
Step through the questions,
answering defaults until you can
change the console baud rate.
Change it to 115200; makes
transfer go faster
Configuration Summary
enabled are:
load rom after netboot fails
console baud: 9600
boot: image specified by the boot
system commands
or default to: cisco2-c1700
do you wish to change the
configuration? y/n [n]: y
enable
“diagnostic mode”? y/n [n]: n
enable
“use net in IP bcast address”?
y/n [n]: n
disable
“load rom after netboot
fails”? y/n [n]: n
enable
[n]: n
“use all zero broadcast”? y/n
enable
[n]: n
“break/abort has effect”? y/n
enable
“ignore system config info”?
y/n [n]: n
change console baud rate? y/n [n]: y
enter rate: 0=9600, 1=4800, 2=1200,
3=2400
4=19200, 5=38400,
6=57600, 7=115200 [0]: 7
change the boot characteristics? y/n
[n]: n
Prompts will begin to ask a series
of questions that will allow you to
change the config-register. Answer
n to all questions except the one
that asks you to change the console
baud rate. For the enter rate, choose
7 because that is the number that
represents a baud rate of 115200
38
Restoring IOS from ROMmon Mode Using Xmodem
Configuration Summary
enabled are:
load rom after netboot fails
After the summary is shown again,
choose n to not change the
configuration and go to the
rommon> prompt again
console baud: 115200
boot: image specified by the boot
system commands
or default to: cisco2-c1700
do you wish to change the
configuration? y/n [n]: n
rommon2>
reset
rommon 2>r
Reloads router at new com speed.
Change HyperTerminal setting to
115200 to match the router’s new
console setting
xmodem c1700-js-l_121-3.bin
Rommon 1>x
Asking to transfer this image using
Xmodem
…<output cut>…
y
Do you wish to continue? y/n [n ]:y
Choose y to continue
In HyperTerminal, go to Transfer,
then Send File (see Figure 5-1).
Locate the IOS file on the hard drive
and click Send (see Figure 5-2)
Router will reload when transfer is
completed
Reset baud rate on router
Restoring IOS from ROMmon Mode Using Xmodem
line con 0
Router(config)#l
speed 9600
Router(config-line)#s
exit
Router(config-line)#e
HyperTerminal will stop responding. Reconnect to the router using
9600 baud, 8-N-1
Figure 5-1
Finding the IOS Image File
Figure 5-2
Sending the IOS Image File to the Router
39
40
Restoring the IOS Using the ROMmon Environmental Variables and tftpdnld
Restoring the IOS Using the ROMmon Environmental Variables and
tftpdnld Command
IP_ADDRESS=192.168.100.1
rommon 1>I
Indicates the IP address for this
unit
IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
rommon 2>I
Indicates the subnet mask for this
unit
DEFAULT_GATEWAY=192.168.100.1
rommon 3>D
Indicates the default gateway for
this unit
TFTP_SERVER=192.168.100.2
rommon 4>T
Indicates the IP address of the
TFTP server
TFTP_FILE= c2600-js-l_121-3.bin
rommon 5>T
Indicates the filename to fetch
from the TFTP server
tftpdnld
rommon 6>t
Starts the process
…<output cut>…
Do you wish to continue? y/n:
y
[n]:y
…<output cut>…
i
Rommon 7>i
Resets the router (i stands for
initialize)
NOTE: Commands and environmental variables are case sensitive, so be sure
that you have not accidentally added spaces between variables and answers.
Password Recovery Procedures
Password Recovery Procedures
Step
2500 Series Commands
Step 1: Boot the
router and interrupt
the boot sequence
as soon as text
appears on the
screen.
Press
>
rommon 1>
Step 2: Change the
configuration
register to ignore
contents of
NVRAM.
o/r 0x2142
>o
confreg 0x2142
rommon 1>c
>
rommon 2>
i
>i
reset
rommon 2>r
en
Router>e
en
Router>e
Router#
Router#
copy start run
Router#c
copy start run
Router#c
…<output cut>…
…<output cut>…
Denver#
Denver#
config t
Denver#c
config t
Denver#c
enable
Denver(config)#e
secret new
enable
Denver(config)#e
secret new
Denver(config)#
Denver(config)#
configDenver(config)#c
register 0x2102
configDenver(config)#c
register 0x2102
Step 3: Reload the
Çı
1700/2600 Series Commands
Press
Çı
router.
Step 4: Enter
privileged mode
(do not enter
setup mode).
Step 5: Copy
startup-config into
running-config.
Step 6: Change the
password.
Step 7: Reset
configurationregister back to
default value.
41
42
Password Recovery Procedures
Step 8: Save the
configuration.
Step 9: Verify
Denver(config)#
Denver(config)#
exit
Denver(config)#e
exit
Denver(config)#e
copy run start
Denver#c
copy run start
Denver#c
Denver#
Denver#
show version
Denver#s
show version
Denver#s
…<output cut>…
…<output cut>…
Configuration register
is 0x2142 (will be
0x2102 at next reload)
Configuration register is
0x2142 (will be 0x2102 at
next reload)
Denver#
Denver#
reload
Denver#r
reload
Denver#r
configuration
register.
Step 10: Reload the
router.
CHAPTER 6
Routing and Routing
Protocols
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Configuring a static route on a router
• Configuring a default route on a router
Static Routing
When using the ip route command, you can identify where packets should be routed
to in two ways:
• The next-hop address
• The exit interface
Both ways are shown in both the “Configuration Example: Static Routes” section and
the “Default Routing” section.
ip route 172.16.20.0
Router(config)#i
255.255.255.0 172.16.10.2
172.16.20.0 = destination network
255.255.255.0 = subnet mask
172.16.10.2 = next-hop address
Read this to say: To get to the
destination network of
172.16.20.0, with a subnet mask
of 255.255.255.0, send all
packets to 172.16.10.2
ip route 172.16.20.0
Router(config)#i
255.255.255.0 s0/0
172.16.20.0 = destination network
255.255.255.0 = subnet mask
s0/0 = exit interface
Read this to say: To get to the
destination network of
172.16.20.0, with a subnet mask
of 255.255.255.0, send all
packets out interface Serial 0/0
PART II CCNA 2
• Verifying static routes
44
Configuration Example: Static Routes
Default Routing
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Router(config)#i
172.16.10.2
Send all packets destined for
networks not in my routing
table to 172.16.10.2
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0/0
Router(config)#i
Send all packets destined for
networks not in my routing
table out my Serial 0/0
interface
Verifying Static Routes
show ip route
Router#s
Displays contents of IP
routing table
NOTE: The codes to the left of the routes in the table tell you from where the
router learned the routes. A static route is described by the letter S.
Configuration Example: Static Routes
Figure 6-1 shows the network topology for the configuration that follows, which shows how
to configure static routes using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 6-1
Network Topology for Static Route Configuration
Network
172.16.20.0/24
Boston
.1 E0
s0
DCE
.1
Network
172.16.40.0/24
s1
.2 Buffalo
.1 E0
s0
DCE
.1
Network
172.16.10.0/24
W1
Station #1
172.16.10.10
s1
.2 Bangor
.1 E0
Network
172.16.30.0/24
W1
Station #2
172.16.30.30
Network
172.16.50.0/24
W1
Station #3
172.16.50.50
NOTE: The host name, password, and interfaces have all been configured as per
the configuration in the Chapter 3 configuration example.
Configuration Example: Static Routes
45
Boston Router
en
Boston>e
config t
Boston#c
ip route 172.16.30.0
Boston(config)#i
255.255.255.0 172.16.20.2
Configures a static route
using the next-hop address
ip route 172.16.40.0
Boston(config)#i
255.255.255.0 172.16.20.2
ip route 172.16.50.0
Boston(config)#i
255.255.255.0 172.16.20.2
exit
Boston(config)#e
copy run start
Boston#c
Buffalo Router
en
Buffalo>e
config t
Buffalo#c
ip route 172.16.10.0
Buffalo(config)#i
255.255.255.0 s1
Configures a static route
using the exit interface
ip route 172.16.50.0
Buffalo(config)#i
255.255.255.0 s0
exit
Boston(config)#e
copy run start
Boston#c
Bangor Router
en
Bangor>e
config t
Bangor#c
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s1
Bangor(config)#i
exit
Bangor(config)#e
copy run start
Bangor#c
Configures a static route
using the default route
CHAPTER 7
Distance Vector
Routing Protocols
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Mandatory and optional commands for configuring the Routing Information
Protocol (RIP)
• Commands for configuring the RIP Version 2 (RIP-2) routing protocol
• Dynamic routing protocol options
• Troubleshooting dynamic routing protocols
• Verifying routing
IP Classless
ip classless
Router(config)#i
Instructs IOS to forward
packets destined for an
unknown subnet to the best
supernet route
no ip classless
Router(config)#n
Turns off the ip classless
command
NOTE: A supernet route is a route that covers a range of subnets with a
single entry
NOTE: The ip classless command is enabled by default in Cisco IOS
Software Release 11.3 and later.
RIP Routing: Mandatory Commands
router rip
Router(config)#r
Enables RIP as a routing
protocol
network w.x.y.z
Router(config-router)#n
w.x.y.z is the network number
of the directly connected
network you want to advertise
PART II CCNA 2
• Mandatory and optional commands for configuring the Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol (IGRP)
48
RIP Routing: Optional Commands
NOTE:
You need to advertise only the classful network number, not a subnet:
network 172.16.0.0
Router(config-router)#n
not
network 172.16.10.0
Router(config-router)#n
If you advertise a subnet, you will not receive an error message, because the
router will automatically convert the subnet to the classful network address.
RIP Routing: Optional Commands
no router rip
Router(config)#n
Turns off the RIP routing
process
no network w.x.y.z
Router(config-router)#n
Removes network w.x.y.z
from the RIP routing process
passive-interface s0/0
Router(config-router)#p
RIP updates will not be sent
out this interface
neighbor a.b.c.d
Router(config-router)#n
Defines a specific neighbor
with which to exchange
information
no ip split-horizon
Router(config-router)#n
Turns off split horizon (on
by default)
ip split-horizon
Router(config-router)#i
Re-enables split horizon
timers basic 30 90 180
Router(config-router#t
270 360
Changes timers in RIP:
30 = Update timer (in
seconds)
90 = Invalid timer (in
seconds)
180 = Hold-down timer (in
seconds)
270 = Flush timer (in
seconds)
360 = Sleep time (in
milliseconds)
maximum-paths x
Router(config-router)#m
Limits the number of paths
for load balancing to x (4 =
default, 6 = maximum)
default-information
Router(config-router)#d
originate
Generates a default route
into RIP
IGRP Routing: Mandatory Commands
49
RIP Version 2
NOTE: RIP-2 is not part of the CCNA certification exam. Commands are listed
here for reference only.
version 2
Router(config-router)#v
RIP will now send and
receive RIP-2 packets
globally
ip rip send version 1
Router(config-if)#i
Interface will send only RIP1 packets
ip rip send version 2
Router(config-if)#i
Interface will send only RIP2 packets
ip rip send version 1 2
Router(config-if)#i
Interface will send both RIP1 and RIP-2 packets
ip rip receive version 1
Router(config-if)#i
Interface will receive only
RIP-1 packets
ip rip receive version 2
Router(config-if)#i
Interface will receive only
RIP-2 packets
ip rip receive version 1 2
Router(config-if)#i
Interface will receive both
RIP-1 and RIP-2 packets
Troubleshooting RIP Issues
debug ip rip
Router#d
Displays all RIP activity in
real time
show ip rip database
Router#s
Displays contents of the RIP
database
IGRP Routing: Mandatory Commands
router igrp
Router(config)#r
as-number
Enables IGRP routing
process. The autono-mous
system number (as-number)
used in the IGRP routing
process must match all other
routers in order for
communication to take
place
50
Troubleshooting IGRP Issues
network w.x.y.z
Router(config-router)#n
NOTE:
w.x.y.z is the network
number of the directly
connected network you
want to advertise
You need to advertise only the classful network number, not a subnet:
network 172.16.0.0
Router(config-router)#n
not
network 172.16.10.0
Router(config-router)#n
If you advertise a subnet, you will not receive an error message, because the
router will automatically convert the subnet to the classful network address.
IGRP Routing: Optional Commands
no router igrp as-number
Router(config)#n
Disables the IGRP routing
process
no network w.x.y.z
Router(config-router)#n
Removes network w.x.y.z
from the IGRP routing
process
bandwidth x
Router(config-if)#b
Sets the bandwidth of this
interface to x kilobits to
allow IGRP to make a better
routing decision
variance x
Router(config-router)#v
Allows IGRP to accept
unequal-cost routes
Troubleshooting IGRP Issues
debug ip igrp events
Router#d
Shows all IGRP events in
real time
debug ip igrp transactions
Router#d
Shows IGRP updates
between routers
CAUTION: IGRP as a routing protocol is no longer supported by Cisco as of
Cisco IOS Software Release 12.3. If you are using Cisco IOS 12.3 or newer code,
you must use either Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) or one of the other standards—
RIP-1, RIP-2, or OSPF.
Verifying Routing
51
Dynamic Routing Protocol Options
ip route-cache
Router(config-if)#i
Controls the use of highspeed switching caches for
IP routing
no ip route-cache
Router(config-if)#n
Disables any set switching
modes from previous
command
ip default-network w.x.y.z
Router(config)#i
Selects a network as a route
for generat-ing a gateway of
last resort
redistribute static
Router(config-router)#r
Takes static routes and
redistributes them into a
dynamic routing process
Troubleshooting Dynamic Routing Protocol Issues
debug ip packet
Router#d
Displays information about
all IP debugging information
undebug all
Router#u
Turns off all debugging
NOTE: Use the short form of undebug all to quickly turn off all debugging commands:
u all
Router#u
Verifying Routing
show ip route
Router#s
Displays the current routing
table
clear ip route *
Router#c
Deletes the current routing
table and forces a rebuild of
the table
show ip protocols
Router#s
Displays the current state of
all active routing protocol
processes
show interfaces
Router#s
Displays statistics for all
interfaces
52
Configuration Example: Dynamic Routing
show interface fa 0/0
Router#s
Displays statistics for
interface fa0/0
show ip interfaces
Router#s
Displays IP statistics for all
interfaces
show ip interface fa 0/0
Router#s
Displays IP statistics for
interface fa0/0
show ip interfaces brief
Router#s
Displays a summary of all
interfaces, their status, and
configured IP addresses
show running-config
Router#s
Displays the running-config
show run | begin word
Router#s
Displays the running-config
beginning with first instance
of word, which can be any
string of characters—
numbers or letters
Configuration Example: Dynamic Routing
Figure 7-1 shows the network topology for the configuration that follows, which shows a
dynamic routing configuration using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 7-1
Network Topology for Dynamic Routing Configuration
Network
172.16.20.0/24
s0/0
172.16.20.1
DCE
Boston
fa0/0 172.16.10.1
Network
172.16.40.0/24
s0/0
172.16.40.1
s0/1
s0/1
DCE
Buffalo
172.16.20.2
172.16.40.2 Bangor
fa0/0 172.16.30.1
fa0/0 172.16.50.1
Network
172.16.10.0/24
Station #1
172.16.10.10
Network
172.16.30.0/24
Station #2
172.16.30.30
Network
172.16.50.0/24
Station #3
172.16.50.50
NOTE: The host name, password, and interfaces have all been configured as
per the configuration example in Chapter 3.
Configuration Example: Dynamic Routing
53
Boston Router
en
Boston>e
config t
Boston#c
no ip route 172.16.30.0
Boston(config)#n
255.255.255.0 172.16.20.2
Removes static routes
no ip route 172.16.40.0
Boston(config)#n
255.255.255.0 172.16.20.2
no ip route 172.16.50.0
Boston(config)#n
255.255.255.0 172.16.20.2
router rip
Boston(config)#r
or
Enables RIP (or IGRP)
routing
router igrp 10
Boston(config)#r
IGRP routers must have the
same autonomous system
(AS) number
network 172.16.0.0
Boston(config-router)#n
Advertises directly
connected networks
(classful address only)
exit
Boston(config-router)#e
exit
Boston(config)#e
copy run start
Boston#c
Buffalo Router
en
Buffalo>e
config t
Buffalo#c
no ip route 172.16.10.0
Buffalo(config)#n
255.255.255.0 s0/1
Removes static routes
no ip route 172.16.50.0
Buffalo(config)#n
255.255.255.0 s0/0
router rip
Buffalo(config)#r
or
router igrp 10
Buffalo(config)#r
Enables RIP (or IGRP)
routing
IGRP routers have same
the same AS number
54
Configuration Example: Dynamic Routing
network 172.16.0.0
Buffalo(config-router)#n
Advertises directly
connected networks
(classful address only)
Buffalo(config-router)#Çz
Exits back to privileged
mode
copy run start
Boston#c
Bangor Router
en
Bangor>e
config t
Bangor#c
no ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0/
Bangor(config)#n
1
Removes static default
route
router rip
Bangor(config)#r
Enables RIP (or IGRP)
routing
or
router igrp 10
Bangor(config)#r
IGRP routers have the
same AS number
network 172.16.0.0
Bangor(config-router)#n
Advertises directly
connected networks
(classful address only)
Bangor(config-router)#Çz
Exits back to privileged
mode
copy run start
Bangor#c
CHAPTER 8
TCP/IP Suite Error and
Control Messages
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• ICMP redirect messages
• The ping command
no ip redirects
Router(config-if)#n
Disables ICMP redirects from this
specific interface
ip redirects
Router(config-if)#i
Re-enables ICMP redirects from this
specific interface
ping Command
ping w.x.y.z
Router#p
Checks for Layer 3 connectivity with
device at address w.x.y.z
ping
Router#p
Enters extended ping mode, which
provides more options
TIP: See Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 4, "Learning About Other Devices," for
output of an extended ping command.
The following table describes the possible ping output characters.
Character
Meaning
!
Successful receipt of a reply
.
Device timed out while waiting for reply
U
A destination unreachable error PDU was received
PART II CCNA 2
ICMP Redirect Messages
56
ping Command
Q
Source quench (destination too busy)
M
Could not fragment
?
Unknown packet type
&
Packet lifetime exceeded
CHAPTER 9
Basic Router
Troubleshooting
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Viewing the routing table
• Determining the gateway of last resort
PART II CCNA 2
• Determining the last routing update
• Testing OSI Layers 3 and 7
• Interpreting the show interface command
• The traceroute command
• The show controllers command
• debug Commands
• Using time stamps
Viewing the Routing Table
show ip route
Router#s
Displays entire routing table
show ip route protocol
Router#s
Displays table about a specific
protocol (for example, RIP or
IGRP)
show ip route w.x.y.z
Router#s
Displays info about route w.x.y.z
show ip route connected
Router#s
Displays table of connected
routes
show ip route static
Router#s
Displays table of static routes
58
OSI Layer 3 Testing
Determining the Gateway of Last Resort
ip default-network w.x.y.z
Router(config)#i
Sets network w.x.y.z to be the
default route. All routes not in
the routing table will be sent
to this network
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Router(config)#i
172.16.20.1
Specifies that all routes not in
the routing table will be sent
to 172.16.20.1
NOTE: You must use the ip default-network command with IGRP. Although you
can use it with EIGRP or RIP, it is not recommended. Use the ip route 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 command instead.
Routers that use the ip default-network command must have either a specific
route to that network or a 0.0.0.0 /0 default route
Determining the Last Routing Update
show ip route
Router#s
Displays the entire routing
table
show ip route w.x.y.z
Router#s
Displays info about route
w.x.y.z
show ip protocols
Router#s
Displays IP routing protocol
parameters and statistics
show ip rip database
Router#s
Displays the RIP database
OSI Layer 3 Testing
ping w.x.y.z
Router#p
Checks for Layer 3
connectivity with device at
address w.x.y.z
ping
Router#p
Enters extended ping mode,
which provides more options
TIP: See Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 4, "Learning About Other Devices," for output
of an extended ping command.
Using CDP to Troubleshoot
59
OSI Layer 7 Testing
NOTE: See Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 4 for all applicable Telnet commands.
debug telnet
Router#d
Displays Telnet negotiation
process
Interpreting the show interface command:
show interface serial 0/0
Router#s
Displays status and stats of
interface
Serial 0/0 is up, line protocol is up
First part refers to physical
status. Second part refers to
logical status
…<output cut>…
Possible output results:
Serial 0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Interface is up and working
Serial 0/0 is up, line protocol is down
Keepalive or connection
problem (no clock rate, bad
encapsulation)
Serial 0/0 is down, line protocol is down
Interface problem, or other
end has not been configured
Serial 0/0 is administratively down, line
protocol is down
Interface is disabled—shut
down
clear counters
Router#c
Resets all interface counters
to 0
clear counters interface type/slot
Router#c
Resets specific interface
counters to 0
Using CDP to Troubleshoot
See Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 4, for all applicable CDP commands.
60
debug Commands
traceroute Command
trace w.x.y.z
Router#t
Displays all routes used to reach the
destination of w.x.y.z
show controllers Command
show controllers serial 0/0
Router#s
Displays the type of cable plugged
into the serial interface (DCE or DTE)
and what the clock rate is, if it was set
debug Commands
debug all
Router#d
Turns on all possible debugging
u all
Router#u
Turns off all possible debugging
(short form of undebug all)
show debug
Router#s
Lists what debug commands are on
terminal monitor
Router#t
Debug output will now be seen
through a Telnet session (default is to
only send output on console screen)
service timestamps
Router(config)#s
Adds a time stamp to all system
logging messages
service timestamps
Router(config)#s
debug
Adds a time stamp to all debugging
messages
service timestamps
Router(config)#s
debug uptime
Adds a time stamp along with total
uptime of router to all debugging
messages
service timestamps
Router(config)#s
debug datetime localtime
Adds a time stamp displaying local
time and date to all debugging
messages
no service timestamps
Router(config)#n
Disables all time stamps
CAUTION: Turning all possible debugging on is extremely CPU intensive, and
will probably cause your router to crash. Use extreme caution if you try this on a
production device. Instead, be selective in which debug commands you turn on.
Do not leave debugging turned on. After you have gathered the necessary information from debugging, turn all debugging off.
TIP: Make sure you have the date and time set with the clock command at
privileged mode so that the time stamps will mean more.
CHAPTER 10
Intermediate TCP/IP
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Enabling the HTTP server
• Using the netstat command
ip http server
Router(config)#i
Enables the HTTP server, including the Cisco web browser user
interface
no ip http server
Router(config-if)#n
Disables the HTTP server
CAUTION: The HTTP server was introduced in Cisco IOS Software Release
11.0 to extend router management to the web. You have limited management capabilities to your router through a web browser if the ip http server
command is turned on.
Do not turn on the ip http server command unless you plan on using the
browser interface for the router. Having it on creates a potential security
hole, because another port is open.
netstat Command
netstat
C\>n
Used in Windows and UNIX/Linux to display TCP/IP connection
and protocol information. Used at the command prompt in
Windows
PART II CCNA 2
ip http server Command
CHAPTER 11
Access Control Lists
(ACLs)
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• The numbers assigned to the different types of access control lists (ACLs)
• The use of wildcard masks in ACLs
• How to create, apply, verify, and remove standard IP ACLs
• How to create, apply, verify, and remove extended IP ACLs
• How to create named ACLs
• How to restrict virtual terminal access
Access List Numbers
1–99 or 1300–1999
Standard IP
100–199 or 2000–2699
Extended IP
600–699
AppleTalk
800–899
IPX
900–999
Extended IPX
1000–1099
IPX Service Advertising Protocol
Wildcard Masks
When compared to an IP address, a wildcard mask will identify what addresses get
filtered out in an access list:
• A 0 (zero) in a wildcard mask means to check the corresponding bit in the address
for an exact match.
• A 1 (one) in a wildcard mask means to ignore the corresponding bit in the
address—can be either 1 or 0.
PART II CCNA 2
• The any and host keywords used by ACLs
64
Creating Standard ACLs
Example 1: 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255
172.16.0.0 = 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000
0.0.255.255 = 00000000.00000000.11111111.11111111
Result = 10101100.00010000.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx
172.16.x.x (anything between 172.16.0.0 and 172.16.255.255)
TIP: An octet of all zeros means that the address has to match the address in the
ACL exactly. An octet of all ones means that the address can be ignored.
Example 2: 172.16.8.0 0.0.7.255
172.168.8.0 = 10101100.00010000.00001000.00000000
0.0.0.7.255 = 00000000.00000000.00000111.11111111
Result = 10101100.00010000.00001xxx.xxxxxxxx
00001xxx = 00001000 to 00001111 = 8–15
xxxxxxxx = 00000000 to 11111111 = 0–255
Anything between 172.16.8.0 and 172.16.15.255
ACL Keywords
any
Used in place of 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255, will
match any address that it
is compared against
host
Used in place of 0.0.0.0 in
the wildcard mask; this
will match only one
specific address
Creating Standard ACLs
access-list 10 permit
Router(config)#a
172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255
Read this line to say: All
packets with a source IP
address of 172.16.x.x will
be permitted to continue
through the internetwork
access-list
ACL command
10
Arbitrary number between
1 and 99, designating this
as a standard IP ACL
Creating Standard ACLs
65
permit
Packets that match this
statement will be allowed
to continue
172.16.0.0
Source IP address to be
compared to
0.0.255.255
Wildcard mask
access-list 10 deny host
Router(config)#a
172.17.0.1
Read this line to say: All
packets with a source IP
address of 172.17.0.1 will
be dropped and discarded
access-list
ACL command
10
Number between 1 and 99,
designating this as a
standard IP ACL
deny
Packets that match this
statement will be dropped
and discarded
host
Keyword
172.17.0.1
Specific host address
access-list 10 permit any
Router(config)#a
Read this line to say: All
packets with any source IP
address will be permitted
to continue through the
internetwork
access-list
ACL command
10
Number between 1 and 99,
designating this as a
standard IP ACL
permit
Packets that match this
statement will be allowed
to continue
any
Keyword to mean all IP
addresses
66
Removing An ACL
TIP: There is an implicit deny statement that is hard coded into every ACL. You
cannot see it, but it states “deny everything.” This is always the last line of any
ACL. If you want to defeat this implicit deny, put a permit any statement in your
standard ACLs or permit ip any any in your extended ACLs as the last line.
Applying a Standard ACL to an Interface
int fa0/0
Router(config)#i
ip access-group 10 in
Router(config-if)#i
Takes all access list lines
that are defined as being
part of group 10 and
applies them in an inbound
manner. Packets going into
the router from FA0/0 will
be checked
TIP: Access lists can be applied in either an inbound direction (keyword in) or in
an outbound direction (keyword out).
Verifying ACLs
show ip interface
Router#s
Displays any ACLs applied
to that interface
show access-lists
Router#s
Displays contents of all
ACLs on the router
show access-list access-list-number
Router#s
Displays contents of ACL
by the number specified
show access-list name
Router#s
Displays contents of ACL
by the name specified
show run
Router#s
Displays all ACLs and
interface assign-ments
Removing An ACL
no access-list 10
Router(config)#n
Removes all ACLs
numbered 10
Creating Extended ACLs
67
Creating Extended ACLs
access-list 110 permit tcp
Router(config)#a
172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255 192.168.100.0 0.0.0.255
eq 80
Read this line to say:
HTTP packets with a
source IP address of
172.16.0.x will be
permitted to travel to
destination address of
192.168.100.x
access-list
ACL command
110
Number is between 100
and 199, designat-ing this
as an extended IP ACL
permit
Packets that match this
statement will be allowed
to continue
tcp
Protocol must be TCP
172.16.0.0
Source IP address to be
compared to
0.0.0.255
Wildcard mask
192.168.100.0
Destination IP address to
be compared to
0.0.0.255
Wildcard mask
eq
Operand, means “equal
to”
80
Port 80, indicating HTTP
traffic
access-list 110 deny tcp any
Router(config)#a
192.168.100.7 0.0.0.0 eq 23
Read this line to say:
Telnet packets with any
source IP address will be
dropped if they are
addressed to specific host
192.168.100.7
access-list
ACL command
68
Creating Named ACLs
110
Number is between 100
and 199, designat-ing this
as an extended IP ACL
deny
Packets that match this
statement will be dropped
and discarded
tcp
Protocol must be TCP
protocol
any
Any source IP address
192.168.100.7
Destination IP address to
be compared to
0.0.0.0
Wildcard mask; address
must match exactly
eq
Operand, means “equal to”
23
Port 23, indicating Telnet
traffic
Applying an Extended ACL to an Interface
int fa0/0
Router(config)#i
ip access-group 110 out
Router(config-if)#i
Takes all access list lines
that are defined as being
part of group 110 and
applies them in an outbound manner. Packets
going out FA0/0 will be
checked
TIP: Access lists can be applied in either an inbound direction (keyword in) or in
an outbound direction (keyword out).
Creating Named ACLs
ip access-list extended
Router(config)#i
serveraccess
Creates an extended
named ACL called
serveraccess
Restricting Virtual Terminal Access
69
permit tcp any host
Router(config-ext-nacl)#p
131.108.101.99 eq smtp
Permits mail packets
from any source to
reach host
131.108.101.99
permit udp any host
Router(config-ext-nacl)#p
131.108.101.99 eq domain
Permits DNS packets
from any source to
reach host
131.108.101.99
deny ip any any log
Router(config-ext-nacl)#d
Denies all other
packets from going
any-where. If any
packets do get denied,
then log the results for
me to look at later
exit
Router(config-ext-nacl)#e
int fa 0/0
Router(config)#i
ip access-group serveraccess
Router(config-if)#i
out
Applies this ACL to
the Fast Ethernet interface 0/0 in an
outbound direction
Restricting Virtual Terminal Access
access-list 2 permit host
Router(config)#a
172.16.10.2
Permits host
172.16.10.2 to Telnet
into this router (see
line 4 of this ACL)
access-list 2 permit 172.16.20.0
Router(config)#a
0.0.0.255
Permits anyone from
the 172.16.20.x
address range to
Telnet into this router
(see line 4 of this
ACL)
line vty 0 4
Router(config)#l
Denies all other Telnet
requests (because of
the implicit deny)
access-class 2 in
Router(config-line)a
Applies this ACL to
all five vty virtual
inter-faces
70
Configuration Example: Access Control Lists
Configuration Example: Access Control Lists
Figure 11-1 shows the network topology for the configuration that follows, which shows
five ACL examples using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 11-1
Network Topology for ACL Configuration
Network 172.16.X.X/24
Workstation
20.163
20.1
E1
Edmonton
10.1
Workstation
50.75
30.1
s0
E0
Workstation
10.5
Workstation
50.7
Workstation
80.16
50.1 E1
60.1
30.2
s1
s0 Red Deer
40.1 E0
Workstation
40.89
80.1
E1
s0
60.2 Calgary
70.1 E0
Workstation
70.5
Tower Box
70.2
Example 1: Write an ACL that prevents the 10.0 network from accessing the 40.0
network, but everyone else can.
access-list 10 deny 172.16.10.0
RedDeer(config)#a
0.0.0.255
Standard ACL denies
complete network for
complete TCP/IP suite
of protocols
access-list 10 permit any
RedDeer(config)#a
Defeats the implicit
deny
int e0
RedDeer(config)#i
ip access-group 10 out
RedDeer(config)#i
Applies ACL in an
outbound direction
Configuration Example: Access Control Lists
71
Example 2: Write an ACL which states that 10.5 cannot access 50.7. Everyone else can.
access list 115 deny ip host
Edmonton(config)#a
172.16.10.5 host 172.16.50.7
Extended ACL denies
specific host for entire
TCP/IP suite
access list 115 permit ip any
Edmonton(config)#a
any
All others permitted
through
int e0
Edmonton(config)#i
ip access-group 115 in
Edmonton(config)#i
Applies ACL in an
inbound direction
Example 3: Write an ACL which states that 10.5 can Telnet to the Red Deer router. No
one else can.
access-list 20 permit host
RedDeer(config)#a
172.16.10.5
line vty 0 4
RedDeer(config)#l
Go to virtual terminal
lines
access-class 20 in
RedDeer(config-line)#a
Use access-class, not
access-group
Example 4: Write an ACL which states that 20.163 can Telnet to 70.2. No one else
from 20.0 can Telnet to 70.2. Any other host from any other subnet can connect to
70.2 using anything that is available.
access list 150 permit tcp host
Calgary(config)#a
172.16.20.163 host 172.16.70.2 eq 23
access list 150 deny tcp
Calgary(config)#a
172.16.20.0 0.0.0.255 host 172.16.70.2 eq 23
access list 150 permit ip any any
Calgary(config)#a
Defeats the implicit
deny
int e0
Calgary(config)#i
ip access-group 150 out
Calgary(config)#i
Example 5: Write an ACL which states that 50.1–50.63 are not allowed web access to
80.16. Hosts 50.64–50.254 are. Everyone can do everything else.
access-list 101 deny tcp
RedDeer(config)#a
172.16.50.0 0.0.0.63 host 172.16.80.16 eq 80
access-list 101 permit ip any any
RedDeer(config)#a
Allows device to do
everything, including
Telnet
72
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
int e1
RedDeer(config)#i
ip access-group 101 in
RedDeer(config)#i
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
Figure 11-2 shows the network topology for a three-router internetwork. The configurations
of the three routers follow.
Figure 11-2
Three-Router Internetwork
Use IGRP 1
Create an ACL that prevents 10.0
network from accessing 50.0 network.
Network
172.16.20.0/24
Boston
.1 E0
s0
DCE
.1
Network
172.16.40.0/24
s1
.2
Buffalo
.1 E0
s0
DCE
.1
Network
172.16.10.0/24
Bangor
.1 E0
Network
172.16.30.0/24
W1
Station #1
172.16.10.10
s1
.2
W1
Station #2
172.16.30.30
Network
172.16.50.0/24
W1
Station #3
172.16.50.50
Boston Router
en
Router>e
Enters privileged mode
clock set 10:30:00 15 Nov 2004
Router#c
Sets local time on
router
config t
Router#c
Enters global config
mode
hostname Boston
Router(config)#h
Sets router name to
Boston
no ip domain-lookup
Boston(config)#n
Turns off name
resolution on
unrecognized
commands (spelling
mistakes)
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
banner motd #
Boston(config)#b
This is the Boston Router.
73
Creates an MOTD
banner
Authorized Access Only
#
clock timezone EST –5
Boston(config)#c
Sets time zone to
Eastern Standard Time
(5 hours behind UTC)
enable secret cisco
Boston(config)#e
Enable secret password
set to cisco
service password-encryption
Boston(config)#s
Passwords will be
given weak encryption
line con 0
Boston(config)#l
Enters line console
mode
logging sync
Boston(config-line)#l
Commands will be
appended to a new line
if interrupted by
unsolicited messages
password class
Boston(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Boston(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
exec-timeout 0 0
Boston(config-line)#e
Router will not log
itself out
line vty 0 4
Boston(config-line)#l
Moves to virtual
terminal lines 0
through 4
password class
Boston(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Boston(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
line aux 0
Boston(config-line)#l
Moves to line auxiliary
mode
password class
Boston(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Boston(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
74
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
exit
Boston(config-line)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
no service password-encryption
Boston(config)#n
Turns off password
encryption
int E0
Boston(config)#i
Moves to Ethernet 0
desc Engineering LAN
Boston(config-if)#d
Sets locally significant
description of the
interface
ip address 172.16.10.1
Boston(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and
subnet mask to
interface
no shut
Boston(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
int s0
Boston(config-if)#i
Moves directly to
Serial 0 mode
desc Link to Buffalo Router
Boston(config-if)#d
Sets locally significant
description of the
interface
ip address 172.16.20.1
Boston(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and
subnet mask to
interface
clock rate 56000
Boston(config-if)#c
Sets a clock rate for
serial transmission
(DCE cable must be
plugged into this
interface)
no shut
Boston(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
exit
Boston(config-if)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
ip host buffalo 172.16.20.2
Boston(config)#i
Sets a local host name
resolution to IP address
172.16.20.2
ip host bangor 172.16.40.2
Boston(config)#i
Sets a local host name
resolution to IP address
172.16.40.2
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
75
router igrp 1
Boston(config)#r
Turns on IGRP routing
process
network 172.16.0.0
Boston(config-router)#n
Tells router on which
interfaces to run IGRP
exit
Boston(config-router)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
exit
Boston(config)#e
Moves back to
privileged mode
copy run start
Boston#c
Saves config to
NVRAM
Buffalo Router
en
Router>e
Enters privileged mode
clock set 10:45:00 15 Nov 2004
Router#c
Sets local time on
router
config t
Router#c
Enters global config
mode
hostname Buffalo
Router(config)#h
Sets router name to
Buffalo
no ip domain-lookup
Buffalo(config)#n
Turns off name
resolution on
unrecognized
commands (spelling
mistakes)
banner motd #
Buffalo(config)#b
Creates an MOTD
banner
This is the Buffalo Router.
Authorized Access Only
#
clock timezone EST –5
Buffalo(config)#c
Sets time zone to
Eastern Standard Time
(5 hours behind UTC)
enable secret cisco
Buffalo(config)#e
Enable secret password
set to cisco
service password-encryption
Buffalo(config)#s
Passwords will be given
weak encryption
76
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
line con 0
Buffalo(config)#l
Enters line console
mode
logging sync
Buffalo(config-line)#l
Commands will be
appended to a new line
if interrupted by
unsolicited messages
password class
Buffalo(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Buffalo(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
exec-timeout 0 0
Buffalo(config-line)#e
Router will not log
itself out
line vty 0 4
Buffalo(config-line)#l
Moves to virtual
terminal lines 0 through
4
password class
Buffalo(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Buffalo(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
line aux 0
Buffalo(config-line)#l
Moves to line auxiliary
mode
password class
Buffalo(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Buffalo(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
exit
Buffalo(config-line)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
no service password-encryption
Buffalo(config)#n
Turns off password
encryption
int E0
Buffalo(config)#i
Moves to Ethernet 0
desc Sales LAN
Buffalo(config-if)#d
Sets locally significant
description of the
interface
ip address 172.16.30.1
Buffalo(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and
subnet mask to
interface
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
77
no shut
Buffalo(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
int s0
Buffalo(config-if)#i
Moves directly to Serial
0 mode
desc Link to Bangor Router
Buffalo(config-if)#d
Sets locally significant
description of the
interface
ip address 172.16.40.1
Buffalo(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and
subnet mask to
interface
clock rate 56000
Buffalo(config-if)#c
Sets a clock rate for
serial transmission
(DCE cable must be
plugged into this
interface)
no shut
Buffalo(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
int s1
Buffalo(config-if)#i
Moves directly to Serial
1 mode
desc Link to Boston Router
Buffalo(config-if)#d
Sets locally significant
description of the
interface
ip address 172.16.20.2
Buffalo(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and
subnet mask to
interface
no shut
Buffalo(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
exit
Buffalo(config-if)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
ip host boston 172.16.20.1
Buffalo(config)#i
Sets a local host name
resolution to IP address
172.16.20.1
ip host bangor 172.16.40.2
Buffalo(config)#i
Sets a local host name
resolution to IP address
172.16.40.2
router igrp 1
Buffalo(config)#r
Turns on IGRP routing
process
78
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
network 172.16.0.0
Buffalo(config-router)#n
Tells router on which
interfaces to run IGRP
exit
Buffalo(config-router)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
exit
Buffalo(config)#e
Moves back to
privileged mode
copy run start
Buffalo#c
Saves config to
NVRAM
Bangor Router
en
Router>e
Enters privileged mode
clock set 11:00:00 15 Nov 2004
Router#c
Sets local time on router
config t
Router#c
Enters global config
mode
hostname Bangor
Router(config)#h
Sets router name to
Bangor
no ip domain-lookup
Bangor(config)#n
Turns off name
resolution on
unrecognized
commands (spelling
mistakes)
banner motd #
Bangor(config)#b
Creates an MOTD
banner
This is the Bangor Router.
Authorized Access Only
#
clock timezone EST –5
Bangor(config)#c
Sets time zone to
Eastern Standard Time
(5 hours behind UTC)
enable secret cisco
Bangor(config)#e
Enable secret password
set to cisco
service password-encryption
Bangor(config)#s
Passwords will be given
weak encryption
line con 0
Bangor(config)#l
Enters line console
mode
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
79
logging sync
Bangor(config-line)#l
Commands will be
appended to a new line
if interrupted by
unsolicited messages
password class
Bangor(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Bangor(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
exec-timeout 0 0
Bangor(config-line)#e
Router will not log
itself out
line vty 0 4
Bangor(config-line)#l
Moves to virtual
terminal lines 0 through
4
password class
Bangor(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Bangor(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
line aux 0
Bangor(config-line)#l
Moves to line auxiliary
mode
password class
Bangor(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
login
Bangor(config-line)#l
Enables password
checking at login
exit
Bangor(config-line)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
no service password-encryption
Bangor(config)#n
Turns off password
encryption
int E0
Bangor(config)#i
Moves to Ethernet 0
desc Executive LAN
Bangor(config-if)#d
Sets locally significant
description of the
interface
ip address 172.16.50.1
Bangor(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and
subnet mask to interface
no shut
Bangor(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
int s1
Bangor(config-if)#i
Moves directly to Serial
1 mode
80
Configuration Example: CCNA 2
desc Link to Buffalo Router
Bangor(config-if)#d
Sets locally significant
description of the
interface
ip address 172.16.40.2
Bangor(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address and
subnet mask to interface
no shut
Bangor(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
exit
Bangor(config-if)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
ip host buffalo 172.16.40.1
Bangor(config)#i
Sets a local host name
resolution to IP address
192.168.40.1
ip host bangor 172.16.20.1
Bangor(config)#i
Sets a local host name
resolution to IP address
192.168.20.2
router igrp 1
Bangor(config)#r
Turns on IGRP routing
process
network 172.16.0.0
Bangor(config-router)#n
Tells router on which
interfaces to run IGRP
exit
Bangor(config-router)#e
Moves back to global
config mode
exit
Bangor(config)#e
Moves back to
privileged mode
copy run start
Bangor#c
Saves config to
NVRAM
PART III
CCNA 3
Introduction to Classless Routing
Chapter 2
Single-Area OSPF
Chapter 3
EIGRP
Chapter 4
Switching Concepts
Chapter 5
Switches
Chapter 6
Switch Configuration
Chapter 7
Spanning Tree Protocol
Chapter 8
Virtual LANs
Chapter 9
VLAN Trunking Protocol
PART III CCNA 3
Chapter 1
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to
Classless Routing
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• The ip subnet-zero command
• Mandatory and optional commands for configuring RIP Version 2 (RIP-2)
Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)
See Appendix B, “VLSM,” for information on this topic.
Subnet Zero
Allows the use of the all-0 subnets
no ip subnet-zero
Router(config)#n
Disables the use of the all-0 subnet
NOTE: With ip subnet-zero turned on, you now have the ability to use
subnet-zero. Current common practice is to use the all-ones subnet when
working with VLSM. Therefore, you no longer use the formula 2N – 2 for
the number of valid subnets created, but rather use the formula 2N, where
N = number of bits borrowed.
The command ip subnet-zero is on by default in version Cisco IOS Software
Release 12.0 and later.
RIP Version 2: Mandatory Commands
router rip
Router(config)#r
Turns on the RIP routing process;
the same command as used for
RIP Version 1 (RIP-1)
version 2
Router(config-router)#v
Turns on Version 2 of the routing
process. Version 1 is default
network
Router(config-router)#n
w.x.y.z
w.x.y.z is the network number of
the directly connected classful
network you want to advertise
PART III CCNA 3
ip subnet-zero
Router(config)#i
84
Configuration Example: RIP-2 Routing
RIP Version 2: Optional Commands
no version 2
Router(config-router)#n
Changes back to RIP-1
version 1
Router(config-router)#v
Changes RIP routing to RIP-1
no auto-summary
Router(config-router)#n
RIP-2 summarizes networks at the
classful boundary. This command
turns autosummarization off
auto-summary
Router(config-router)#a
Re-enables autosummarization at
the classful boundary
NOTE: The optional commands covered in Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 7,
"Distance Vector Routing Protocols," for RIP-1 also work on RIP-2.
NOTE: The verification commands covered in Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 7 for
dynamic routing protocols also work on RIP-2.
NOTE: The troubleshooting commands covered in Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 7
for RIP-1 also work on RIP-2.
Configuration Example: RIP-2 Routing
Figure 1-1 shows the network topology for the configuration that follows, which shows how
to configure RIP-2 using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 1-1
Network Topology for RIP-2 Routing Configuration
Network
172.16.20.0/24
s0/0
172.16.20.1
DCE
Boston
fa0/0 172.16.10.1
Network
172.16.40.0/24
s0/0
172.16.40.1
s0/1
s0/1
DCE
172.16.20.2 Buffalo
172.16.40.2 Bangor
fa0/0 172.16.30.1
fa0/0 172.16.50.1
Network
172.16.30.0/24
Network
172.16.10.0/24
Station #1
172.16.10.10
Station #2
172.16.30.30
Network
172.16.50.0/24
Station #3
172.16.50.50
Configuration Example: RIP-2 Routing
85
NOTE: The host name, password, and interfaces have all been configured as per
the configuration example in Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 3, "Configuring a Router,"
of this book.
Boston Router
en
Boston>e
config t
Boston#c
router rip
Boston(config)#r
Enables RIP routing
version 2
Boston(config-router)#v
Enables RIP-2
network 172.16.0.0
Boston(config-router)#n
Advertises directly connected
networks (classful address only)
no auto-summary
Boston(config-router)#n
Turns off autosummarization
exit
Boston(config-router)#e
exit
Boston(config)#e
copy run start
Boston#c
Buffalo Router
en
Buffalo>e
config t
Buffalo#c
router rip
Buffalo(config)#r
Enables RIP routing
version 2
Buffalo(config-router)#v
Enables RIP-2
network 172.16.0.0
Buffalo(config-router)#n
Advertises directly connected
networks (classful address only)
no auto-summary
Buffalo(config-router)#n
Turns off autosummarization
Buffalo(config-router)#Çz
Exits back to privileged mode
copy run start
Buffalo#c
Bangor Router
en
Bangor>e
86
Configuration Example: RIP-2 Routing
config t
Bangor#c
router rip
Bangor(config)#r
Enables RIP routing
version 2
Bangor(config-router)#v
Enables RIP-2
network 172.16.0.0
Bangor(config-router)#n
Advertises directly connected
networks (classful address only)
no auto-summary
Bangor(config-router)#n
Turns off autosummarization
Bangor(config-router)#Çz
Exits back to privileged mode
copy run start
Bangor#c
CHAPTER 2
Single-Area OSPF
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following Open
Shortest Path First (OSPF) topics:
• Configuring single-area OSPF (mandatory commands)
• Using wildcard masks with OSPF areas
• Configuring single-area OSPF (optional commands), regarding
— Loopback interfaces
— DR/BDR election priority
— Cost metrics
— Authentication
— Timers
— Propagating a default route
• Verifying OSPF
OSPF Routing: Mandatory Commands
router ospf 123
Router(config)#r
Router(config-router)#
network 172.16.10.0
Router(config-router)#n
0.0.0.255 area 0
Turns on OSPF
process number 123.
The process ID is any
value between 1–
65535. The process ID
does not equal the
OSPF area
OSPF advertises
interfaces, not
networks. Uses the
wildcard mask to
determine which
interfaces to advertise.
Read this line to say:
Any interface with an
address of 172.16.10.x
is to be put into Area 0
PART III CCNA 3
• Troubleshooting OSPF
88
OSPF Routing: Optional Commands
NOTE: The process ID number of one router does not have to match the process
ID number of any other router. Unlike Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) or
Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP), matching this number across all routers does not ensure
network adjacencies will form.
Using Wildcard Masks with OSPF Areas
network 172.16.10.1
Router(config-router)#n
0.0.0.0 area 0
Read this line to say: Any
interface with an exact
address of 172.16.10.1 is
to be put into Area 0
network 172.16.10.0
Router(config-router)#n
0.0.255.255 area 0
Read this line to say: Any
interface with an address
of 172.16.x.x is to be put
into Area 0
network 0.0.0.0
Router(config-router)#n
255.255.255.255 area 0
Read this line to say: Any
interface with any address
is to be put into Area 0
OSPF Routing: Optional Commands
Loopback Interfaces
interface lo0
Router(config)#i
Moves to virtual interface
Loopback 0
ip address 192.168.100.1
Router(config-if)#i
255.255.255.255
Assigns IP address to
interface
NOTE: Loopback interfaces are always "up and up" and do not go down. Great
for using as an OSPF router ID.
OSPF DR/BDR Election
int S0/0
Router(config)#i
ip ospf priority 50
Router(config-if)#i
Changes OSPF interface
priority to 50
NOTE: The assigned priority can be between 0 and 255. A priority of 0 guarantees
that the router never wins a designated router (DR) election, and 255 guarantees
a tie in the election (tie broken by highest router ID). The default priority is 1.
OSPF Routing: Optional Commands
89
Modifying OSPF Cost Metrics
int s 0/0
Router(config)#i
bandwidth 128
Router(config-if)#b
By changing the
bandwidth, OSPF will
recalculate cost of link
or
ip ospf cost 1564
Router(config-if)#i
Changes the cost to a
value of 1564
NOTE: The cost of a link is determined by dividing the reference bandwidth by
the interface bandwidth.
The reference bandwidth is 108.
Bandwidth is a number between 1–10000000 and is measured in kilobits.
Cost is a number between 1–65535. Cost has no unit of measurement—it is just a number.
OSPF Authentication: Simple
router ospf 456
Router(config)#r
area 0 authentication
Router(config-router)#a
Turns on simple
authentication—
password sent in clear
text
exit
Router(config-router)#e
int fa 0/0
Router(config)#i
ip ospf authentication-key
Router(config-if)#i
fred
Sets key (password) to
fred
OSPF Authentication Using MD5 Encryption
router ospf 456
Router(config)#r
area 0 authentication
Router(config-router)#a
message-digest
exit
Router(config-router)#e
int fa 0/0
Router(config)#i
Enables authentication
with MD5 password
encryption
90
Verifying OSPF Configuration
ip ospf message-digest-key 1
Router(config-if)#i
md5 fred
1 is the key-id. This
value must be the same
as that of the
neighboring router
md5 indicates that the
MD5 hash algorithm
will be used
fred is the key
(password) and must be
the same as that of the
neighboring router
OSPF Timers
ip ospf hello-interval timer
Router(config-if)#i
20
Changes Hello timer to
20 seconds
ip ospf dead-interval 80
Router(config-if)#i
Changes Dead Interval
timer to 80 seconds
NOTE: The Hello and Dead Interval timers must match for routers to become
neighbors.
Propagating a Default Route
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0/0
Router(config)#i
Creates a default route
router ospf 1
Router(config)#r
default-informationRouter(config-router)#d
originate
Sets the default route to
be propagated to all
OSPF routers
Verifying OSPF Configuration
show ip protocol
Router#s
Displays parameters for
all protocols running on
router
show ip route
Router#s
Displays complete IP
routing table
show ip ospf
Router#s
Displays basic
information
Troubleshooting OSPF
91
show ip ospf interface
Router#s
Displays OSPF
information as it relates
to all interfaces
show ip ospf int fa 0/0
Router#s
Displays OSPF
information for interface
fa 0/0
show ip ospf neighbor
Router#s
Lists all OSPF neighbors
and their states
show ip ospf neighbor detail
Router#s
Displays a detailed list
of neighbors
show ip ospf database
Router#s
Displays contents of
OSPF database
Troubleshooting OSPF
clear ip route *
Router#c
Clears entire routing
table, forcing it to
rebuild
clear ip route a.b.c.d
Router#c
Clears specific route to
network a.b.c.d
clear ip ospf counters
Router#c
Resets OSPF counters
clear ip ospf process
Router#c
Resets entire OSPF
process forcing OSPF to
re-create neighbors,
database, and routing
table
debug ip ospf events
Router#d
Displays all OSPF
events
debug ip ospf adj
Router#d
Displays various OSPF
states and DR and BDR
election between
adjacent routers
debug ip ospf packets
Router#d
Displays OPSF packets
92
Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF
Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF
Figure 2-1 shows the network topology for the configuration that follows, which shows a
single-area OSPF network configuration using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 2-1
Network Topology for Single-Area OSPF Configuration
Network
172.16.20.0/24
s0/0
172.16.20.1
DCE
Boston
fa0/0 172.16.10.1
Network
172.16.40.0/24
s0/0
172.16.40.1
s0/1
s0/1
DCE
172.16.20.2 Buffalo
172.16.40.2 Bangor
fa0/0 172.16.30.1
fa0/0 172.16.50.1
Network
172.16.10.0/24
Station #1
172.16.10.10
Network
172.16.30.0/24
Station #2
172.16.30.30
Network
172.16.50.0/24
Station #3
172.16.50.50
Boston Router
en
Router>e
config t
Router#c
no ip domain-lookup
Router(config)#n
Turns off DNS queries
so that spelling mistakes
will not slow you down
hostname Boston
Router(config)#h
Sets host name
line con 0
Boston(config)#l
logging sync
Boston(config-line)#l
exit
Boston(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Boston(config)#i
ip add 172.16.10.1
Boston(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
no shut
Boston(config-if)#n
Commands interrupted
by console messages
will be appended to a
new line
Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF
93
int s0/0
Boston(config-if)#i
ip add 172.16.20.1
Boston(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
clock rate 56000
Boston(config-if)#c
DCE cable connected to
this interface
no shut
Boston(config-if)#n
exit
Boston(config-if)#e
router ospf 1
Boston(config)#r
Turns on OSPF process
1
net 172.16.10.0 0.0.0.255
Boston(config-router)#n
area 0
Any interface with
address of 172.10.10.x
will be part of Area 0
net 172.16.20.0 0.0.0.255
Boston(config-router)#n
area 0
Any interface with
address of 172.16.20.x
will be part of Area 0
Boston(config-router)#Çz
copy run start
Boston#c
Buffalo Router
en
Router>e
config t
Router#c
no ip domain-lookup
Router(config)#n
Turns off DNS queries
so that spelling mistakes
will not slow you down
hostname Buffalo
Router(config)#h
Sets host name
line con 0
Buffalo(config)#l
logging sync
Buffalo(config-line)#l
exit
Buffalo(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Buffalo(config)#i
Commands interrupted
by console mes-sages
will be appended to a
new line
94
Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF
ip add 172.16.30.1
Buffalo(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
no shut
Buffalo(config-if)#n
int s0/0
Buffalo(config-if)#i
ip add 172.16.40.1
Buffalo(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
clock rate 56000
Buffalo(config-if)#c
DCE cable connected to
this interface
no shut
Buffalo(config-if)#n
int s 0/1
Buffalo(config)#i
ip add 172.16.20.2
Buffalo(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
no shut
Buffalo(config-if)#n
exit
Buffalo(config-if)#e
router ospf 463
Buffalo(config)#r
Turns on OSPF process
463
net 172.16.0.0
Buffalo(config-router)#n
0.0.255.255 area 0
Any interface with
address of 172.16.x.x
will be part of Area 0
Buffalo(config-router)#Çz
copy run start
Buffalo#c
Bangor Router
en
Router>e
config t
Router#c
no ip domain-lookup
Router(config)#n
Turns off DNS queries
so that spelling mistakes
will not slow you down
hostname Buffalo
Router(config)#h
Sets host name
line con 0
Bangor(config)#l
Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF
logging sync
Bangor(config-line)#l
95
Commands interrupted
by console mes-sages
will be appended to a
new line
exit
Bangor(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Bangor(config)#i
ip add 172.16.50.1
Bangor(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
no shut
Bangor(config-if)#n
int s 0/1
Bangor(config)#i
ip add 172.16.40.2
Bangor(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
no shut
Bangor(config-if)#n
exit
Bangor(config-if)#e
router ospf 100
Bangor(config)#r
Turns on OSPF process
100
net 172.16.40.2 0.0.0.0
Bangor(config-router)#n
area 0
Interface with address of
172.16.40.2 will be part
of Area 0
net 172.16.50.1 0.0.0.0
Bangor(config-router)#n
area 0
Interface with address of
172.16.50.1 will be part
of Area 0
Bangor(config-router)#Çz
copy run start
Bangor#c
CHAPTER 3
EIGRP
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Configuring EIGRP
• EIGRP auto summarization
• Verifying EIGRP
• Troubleshooting EIGRP
Configuring EIGRP
router eigrp 100
Router(config)#r
Turns on the EIGRP
process
All routers in the same
AS must use the same AS
number
network 10.0.0.0
Router(config-router)#n
Specifies which network
to advertise in EIGRP
eigrp log-neighborRouter(config-router)#e
changes
Logs any changes to
an EIGRP neighbor
adjacency
TIP: The eigrp log-neighbor-changes command, although optional, is
recommended to help with troubleshooting.
bandwidth x
Router(config-if)#b
Sets the bandwidth to
match the interface’s line
speed
no network 10.0.0.0
Router(config-router)#n
Removes the network
from the EIGRP process
no eigrp 100
Router(config)#n
Disables routing process
100
PART III CCNA 3
100 is the autonomous
system (AS) number,
which can be a number
between 1 and 65535
98
Verifying EIGRP
EIGRP Auto Summarization
no auto-summary
Router(config-router)#n
Turns off the autosummarization feature.
Networks are summarized
at the classful boundary by
default
int fa 0/0
Router(config)#i
ip summary-address eigrp
Router(config-if)#i
100 10.10.0.0 255.255.0.0
Enables manual
summarization on this
specific interface for the
given address and mask
CAUTION: EIGRP automatically summarizes networks at the classful boundary.
A poorly designed network with discontiguous subnets could have problems
with connectivity if the summarization feature is left on. You could have two routers advertise the same network—172.16.0.0/16—when in fact the intention is for
the routers to advertise two different networks—172.16.10.0/24 and 172.16.20.0/24.
Recommended practice is that you turn off automatic summarization, use the ip
summary-address command, and summarize manually what you need to.
Verifying EIGRP
show ip eigrp neighbors
Router#s
Displays a neighbor table
show ip eigrp neighbors detail
Router#s
Displays a detailed neighbor
table
show ip eigrp interfaces
Router#s
Displays information for
each interface
show ip eigrp int s 0/0
Router#s
Displays information for a
specific interface
show ip eigrp int 100
Router#s
Displays information for
interfaces running process
100
show ip eigrp topology
Router#s
Displays the topology table.
This command will show
you where your feasible
successors are
show ip eigrp traffic
Router#s
Displays the number and
type of packets sent and
received
Configuration Example: EIGRP
99
Troubleshooting EIGRP
debug eigrp fsm
Router#d
Displays events/actions related to
the DUAL FSM
debug eigrp packet
Router#d
Displays events/actions related to
EIGRP packets
debug eigrp neighbor
Router#d
Displays events/actions related to
EIGRP neighbors
Configuration Example: EIGRP
Figure 3-1 shows the network topology for the configuration that follows, which shows how
to configure EIGRP using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 3-1
Network Topology for EIGRP Configuration
Network
172.16.20.0/24
s0/0
172.16.20.1
DCE
Boston
fa0/0 172.16.10.1
Network
172.16.40.0/24
s0/0
172.16.40.1
s0/1
s0/1
DCE
172.16.20.2 Buffalo
172.16.40.2 Bangor
fa0/0 172.16.30.1
fa0/0 172.16.50.1
Network
172.16.30.0/24
Network
172.16.10.0/24
Station #1
172.16.10.10
Station #2
172.16.30.30
Network
172.16.50.0/24
Station #3
172.16.50.50
NOTE: The host name, password, and interfaces have all been configured as per
the configuration example in the Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 3, “Configuring a Router.”
Boston Router
en
Boston>e
config t
Boston#c
router eigrp 100
Boston(config)#r
Enables EIGRP routing
100
Configuration Example: EIGRP
no auto-summary
Boston(config-router)#n
Disables auto
summarization
eigrp log-neighbor-changes
Boston(config-router)#e
Changes with
neighbors will be
displayed
network 172.16.0.0
Boston(config-router)#n
Advertises directly
connected networks
(classful address only)
exit
Boston(config-router)#e
exit
Boston(config)#e
copy run start
Boston#c
Buffalo Router
en
Buffalo>e
config t
Buffalo#c
router eigrp 100
Buffalo(config)#r
Enables EIGRP routing
no auto-summary
Buffalo(config-router)#n
Disables auto
summarization
eigrp log-neighborBuffalo(config-router)#e
changes
Changes with
neighbors will be
displayed
network 172.16.0.0
Buffalo(config-router)#n
Advertises directly
connected networks
(classful address only)
Buffalo(config-router)#Çz
Exits back to
privileged mode
copy run start
Buffalo#c
Bangor Router
en
Bangor>e
config t
Bangor#c
Configuration Example: EIGRP
101
router eigrp 100
Bangor(config)#r
Enables EIGRP routing
no auto-summary
Bangor(config-router)#n
Disables auto
summarization
eigrp log-neighbor-changes
Bangor(config-router)#e
Changes with
neighbors will be
displayed
network 172.16.0.0
Bangor(config-router)#n
Advertises directly
connected networks
(classful address only)
Bangor(config-router)#Çz
Exits back to
privileged mode
copy run start
Bangor#c
CHAPTER 4
Switching Concepts
There are no commands affiliated with this module of CCNA 3 as covered in the Cisco
Networking Academy Program curriculum.
PART III CCNA 3
CHAPTER 5
Switches
There are no commands affiliated with this module of CCNA 3 as covered in the
Cisco Networking Academy Program curriculum.
PART III CCNA 3
CHAPTER 6
Switch Configuration
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Configuring a switch (1900/2900/2950 Series), including
— Host names
— Passwords
— IP addresses and default gateways
— Interface descriptions
— Duplex and speed settings
— Working with the MAC address table
— Port security
• Resetting switch configurations (1900/2900/2950 series)
• Upgrading firmware
• Password recovery procedures
TIP: The 1900 series switch uses an interactive menu system. Selecting
different letters from the menu will take you to different places in the
operating system. For this book, and for a better control of the 1900 series
switch, select the command-line option by pressing the letter K to get to the
user mode prompt >.
Help Commands
?
switch>?
The ? works here the same as
in a router
Command Modes
enable
switch>e
User mode, same as a router
switch#
Privileged mode
disable
switch#d
Leaves privileged mode
exit
switch>e
Leaves user mode
PART III CCNA 3
• Backing up/restoring/upgrading IOS using a TFTP server
108
Resetting Switch Configuration
Verifying Commands
show version
switch#s
Displays information on
software and hardware
show flash:
switch#s
Displays information on
Flash memory (for the 2900/
2950 series only)
show mac-address-table
switch#s
Displays current MAC
address forwarding table
show controllers ethernet-controller
switch#s
Displays information about
Ethernet controller
show running-config
switch#s
Displays current
configuration in DRAM
show start
switch#s
Displays current
configuration in NVRAM
show post
switch#s
Displays whether the switch
passed POST
show vlan
switch#s
Displays the current VLAN
config-uration
show interfaces
switch#s
Displays interface configuration and status of line: up/
up, up/down, admin down
show interface vlan1
switch#s
Displays setting of virtual
interface VLAN 1, the default
VLAN on the switch
Resetting Switch Configuration
1900 Series Switch
delete vtp
1900switch#d
Removes VLAN Trunking
Protocol (VTP) information
delete nvram
1900switch#d
Resets switch back to factory
defaults
en
1900switch>e
reload
1900switch#r
Restarts the switch
Setting Passwords: 1900 Series Switches
109
2900/2950 Series Switch
delete flash:vlan.dat
switch#d
Removes VLAN database
from Flash memory
Delete filename [vlan.dat]?
Press ®
Delete flash:vlan.dat? [confirm]
Reconfirm by pressing ®
erase startup-config
Switch#e
Erases file from NVRAM
<output omitted>
reload
Switch#r
Restarts the switch
Setting Host Names
1900 Series Switch
config t
#c
hostname 1900Switch
(config)#h
Same method as the router
1900Switch(config)#
2900/2950 Series Switch
config t
Switch#c
hostname 2900Switch
Switch(config)#h
Same method as the router
2900Switch(config)#
Setting Passwords: 1900 Series Switches
enable password level 1
1900Switch(config)#e
cisco
Sets the user mode password
to cisco
enable password level 15
1900Switch(config)#e
class
Sets the enable mode
password to class
enable secret scott
1900Switch(config)#e
Sets the enable secret
password to scott
110
Setting IP Address and Default Gateway
TIP: The user mode password is what you need to enter to move from the menu
system to the CLI. The enable mode password is what you use to move from user
mode to privileged mode.
Setting Passwords: 2900/2950 Series Switches
Setting passwords for the 2900/2950 series switches is the same method as used for a router.
enable password cisco
2900Switch(config)#e
Sets enable password to cisco
enable secret class
2900Switch(config)#e
Sets encrypted secret
password to class
line con 0
2900Switch(config)#l
Enters line console mode
login
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Enables password checking
password cisco
2900Switch(config-line)#p
Sets password to cisco
exit
2900Switch(config-line)#e
Exits line console mode
line aux 0
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Enters line auxiliary mode
login
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Enables password checking
password cisco
2900Switch(config-line)#p
Sets password to cisco
exit
2900Switch(config-line)#e
Exits line auxiliary mode
line vty 0 4
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Enters line vty mode for all
five virtual ports
login
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Enables password checking
password cisco
2900Switch(config-line)#p
Sets password to cisco
exit
2900Switch(config-line)#e
Exits line vty mode
2900Switch(config)#
Setting IP Address and Default Gateway
1900 Series Switch
ip address 172.16.10.2
1900Switch(config)#i
255.255.255.0
Sets the IP address and mask
to allow for remote access to
the switch
Setting Interface Descriptions
ip default-gateway
1900Switch(config)#i
172.16.10.1
111
Sets the default gateway
address to allow IP
information an exit to the
local network
1900Switch(config)#
2900/2950 Series Switch
int vlan1
2900Switch(config)#i
Enters virtual interface for
VLAN 1, the default VLAN
on the switch
ip address 172.16.10.2
2900Switch(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Sets the IP address and mask
to allow for remote access to
the switch
exit
2900Switch(config-if)#e
ip default-gateway
2900Switch(config)#i
172.16.10.1
To allow IP information an
exit to the local network
TIP: For the 2900/2950 series switches, the IP address of the switch is just that—
the IP address for the entire switch. That is why you set the address in VLAN 1—
the default VLAN of the switch—and not in a specific Ethernet interface
Setting Interface Descriptions
1900 Series Switch
description Finance VLAN
1900Switch(config-if)#d
Adds description of
interface
2900/2950 Series Switch
int fa0/1
2900Switch(config)#i
Enters interface mode
description Finance VLAN
2900Switch(config-if)#d
Adds description of
interface
TIP: The 1900 series switch has either 12 or 24 Ethernet ports named e0/1, e0/2,
…e0/24. There is also an Ethernet port named e0/25 that is in the back of the switch
using an AUI interface. Ports A and B on the front of the switch are named fa0/26
and fa0/27, respectively. Ports A and B are Fast Ethernet.
112
Setting Web-Based Interface for Configuration: 1900 and 2900/2950 Series
TIP: The 2900 and 2950 series switches have either 12 or 24 Fast Ethernet ports
named fa0/1, fa0/2, …fa0/24.
Setting Duplex Settings: 1900 or 2900/2950 Series Switches
int e0/1
1900Switch(config)#i
Use e0/1 on 2900/2950
duplex full
1900Switch(config-if)#d
Forces full-duplex operation
duplex auto
1900Switch(config-if)#d
Enables auto-duplex config
duplex half
1900Switch(config-if)#d
Forces half-duplex
operation
Setting Speed Settings: 2900/2950 Series Switches
int fa0/1
2900Switch(config)#i
speed 10
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Forces 10-Mbps operation
speed 100
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Forces 100-Mbps operation
speed auto
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Enables autospeed
configuration
Setting Web-Based Interface for Configuration: 1900 and 2900/2950
Series Switches
ip http server
X900Switch(config)#i
Turns on HTTP service
ip http port 80
X900Switch(config)#i
Sets port number for HTTP.
This port should be turned
off for security reasons
unless it is being used
Port Security: 1900 Series Switches
113
Managing the MAC Address Table: 1900 and 2900/2950 Series
Switches
show mac-address-table
switch#s
Displays current MAC
address forwarding table
clear mac-address-table
switch#c
Deletes all entries from
current MAC address
forwarding table
clear mac-address-table dynamic
switch#c
Deletes only dynamic
entries from table
Configuring Static MAC Addresses
1900 Series Switch
mac-address-table
1900Switch(config)#m
permanent aaaa.aaaa.aaaa e0/1
Sets a permanent address of
aaaa.aaaa.aaaa in the
MAC address table for
interface e0/1
clear mac-address-table perm
1900switch#c
Deletes all permanent
entries
2900/2950 Series Switch
mac-address-table static
2900Switch(config)#m
aaaa.aaaa.aaaa fa0/1 vlan 1
Sets a permanent address to
fa0/1 in VLAN 1
no mac-address-table
2900Switch(config)#n
static aaaa.aaaa.aaaa fa0/1 vlan 1
Removes permanent
address to
fa0/1 in VLAN 1
Port Security: 1900 Series Switches
1900 Series Switch
port secure
1900Switch(config-if)#p
Interface will become secure
port secure max-mac1900Switch(config-if)#p
count 1
Only one MAC address will
be allowed in the MAC table
for this interface
114
Verifying Port Security
2900 Series Switch
int fa0/1
2900Switch(config)#i
port security
2900Switch(config-if)#p
port security max-mac2900Switch(config-if)#p
count 1
Only one MAC address will
be allowed for this interface
port security action
2900Switch(config-if)#p
shutdown
Port will shut down if
violation occurs
2950 Series Switch
int fa 0/1
2950Switch(config)#i
switchport port2950Switch(config-if)#s
security
switchport port2950Switch(config-if)#s
security mac-address sticky
Interface converts all MAC
addresses to sticky secure
addresses—only the MAC
address learned first will
now be accepted on this port
switchport port2950Switch(config-if)#s
security maximum 1
Only one MAC address will
be allowed for this interface
switchport port2950Switch(config-if)#s
security violation shutdown
Port will shut down if
violation occurs
Verifying Port Security
1900 Series Switch
show mac-address-table security
1900Switch#s
Displays the MAC address
table with security information
2900/2950 Series Switch
show port security
2900Switch#s
Displays the MAC address
table with security
information
Copying IOS to TFTP Server
115
Upgrading Catalyst 1900 Firmware with a TFTP Server
To upgrade the Catalyst 1900 series switch firmware with a TFTP server, you must use the
interactive menu.
Select option F from main menu
F for firmware
Select option S from Firmware menu
S for TFTP server
Enter in address for TFTP server
Select option F from Firmware menu
F for firmware upgrade
filename
Enter name of firmware upgrade file
Select option T from Firmware menu
Initiates TFTP upgrade
Switch will reset itself automatically and load new
firmware
Copying IOS to TFTP Server
2900 Series Switch
copy flash:c2900XL-hs-mz2900Switch#c
112.8.10-SA6.bin tftp
Same procedure as with
router
Source filename [c2900XL-hs-mz-112.8.10SA6.bin]?
Just press ®
Destination IP address or hostname [ ]
192.168.1.3
Address of TFTP server
Destination filename [c2900XL-hs-mz112.8.10-SA6.bin]?
Just press ®
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Each bang symbol = 1
datagram sent
<output cut>
1119104 bytes copied in 21.43 secs
2900Switch#
116
Password Recovery for 1900 Series Switches
2950 Series Switch
copy flash tftp
2950Switch#c
Same procedure as with
router
Source filename [ ]? c2950-c3h2s-mz.1205.3.WC.1.bin
Destination IP address or hostname [ ]
192.168.1.3
Address of TFTP server
Destination filename [c2950-c3h2s-mz.1205.3.WC.1.bin]?
Just press ®
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Each bang symbol = 1
datagram sent
<output cut>
1674921 bytes copied in 31.542 secs
2950Switch#
Restoring/Upgrading IOS/Startup-Config from TFTP Server
The procedure is the same for a switch as it is for a router. See Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter
5, “Managing Cisco IOS Software.”
Password Recovery for 1900 Series Switches
Unplug the power supply from the back of the switch
Press and hold the Mode button on the front of the
switch
Plug the switch back in
Wait until the LED above port 1X goes out, and then
release the Mode button
Press ® to continue
This allows you to access the
Systems-Engineering menu,
which
is a diagnostic menu for
troubleshooting issues
Password Recovery for 1900 Series Switches
Press ® to display the Systems-Engineering menu
117
Note which firmware version
is on the switch
Password Recovery for
Firmware 1.10 or Later
Power-cycle the switch
Unplug, then plug the switch
back in
After POST complete, you see the following:
Do you wish to clear the passwords? [Y]es or [N]o
You have 10 seconds to
respond
Enter Y to delete the password
Assign a new password from either the menu console or
the CLI
To View the Password You Are Trying to Recover
As per the section on
assigning passwords in this
chapter
Valid on Firmware
Between
1.10 and 3.02
Unplug the power supply from the back of the switch
Press and hold the Mode button on the front of the
switch
Plug the switch back in
Wait until the LED above port 1X goes out, then release
the Mode button
This allows you to access the
Systems-Engineering menu,
which
is a diagnostic menu for
troubleshooting issues
Press ® to continue
Press ®
Select S on the Diagnostic-Console Systems
Engineering menu
Select V on the System-Debug interface
Select M option on the Console Settings menu
Displays the management
console password
118
Password Recovery for 2900/2950 Series Switches
Password Recovery for Firmware 1.09
and Earlier
You must contact Cisco Technical Assistance Center
(TAC)
Make sure you have the switch serial number or MAC
address of the switch
Password Recovery for 2900/2950 Series Switches
Unplug the power supply from the back of the switch
Press and hold the Mode button on the front of the
switch
Plug the switch back in
Wait until the LED above port 1X goes out, then release
the Mode button
For the 2900 series switch
or
Wait until the STAT LED goes out, then release the
Mode button
For the 2950 series switch
Issue the following commands:
switch: flash_init
Initializes the Flash memory
switch: load_helper
switch: flash:
Do not forget the colon. This
displays what files are in
Flash memory
switch: rename flash:config.text
flash:config.old
The config.text file contains
the password
switch: boot
Boots the switch
Type n to exit the initial configuration
dialog
Takes you to user mode
Firmware Upgrade of Catalyst 2950 Series Switches
119
en
switch>e
Enters privileged mode
rename flash:config.old
switch#r
flash:config.text
Renames the file back to the
original name
Destination filename [config.text]
Press ®
copy flash:config.text
switch#c
system:running-config
Copies config file into
memory
768 bytes copied in 0.624 seconds
2900Switch#
Config file is now reloaded
config t
2900Switch#c
Enters global configuration
mode
2900Switch(config)#
Proceed to change the passwords as needed
exit
2900Switch(config)#e
copy run start
2900Switch#c
Saves config with new
passwords
Firmware Upgrade of Catalyst 2950 Series Switches
archive tar /x tftp://
2950Switch#a
192.168.1.3/c2950-c3h2s-mz.120-5.3.WC.1.tar
flash:
Extracts a new IOS image
into Flash memory. The
image c2950-c3h2s-mz.1205.3.WC.1.tar must be on the
TFTP server located at
192.168.1.3
boot system flash c29502950Switch(config)#b
c3h2s-mz.120-5.3.WC.1.bin
Switch will now boot to this
IOS
exit
2950Switch(config)#e
reload
2950Switch#r
Restarts the switch
120
Configuration Example: 2900 Series Switch
NOTE: Tape Archive (TAR) is a compression format used in the transfer of files.
TAR is a UNIX utility.
BIN is an abbreviation for the word binary. A binary (.bin) file is a file containing
information in binary form.
Because Cisco IOS Software was based originally on a UNIX platform, IOS
images are .bin or .tar files
Configuration Example: 2900 Series Switch
Figure 6-1 shows the network topology for the basic configuration of a 2900 series switch
using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 6-1
Network Topology for 2900 Series Switch Configuration
Network 192.168.1.0/24
Bismarck
fa0/0 192.168.1.1
2900Switch 192.168.1.2
fa0/1
fa0/4
fa0/8
Workstation A
192.168.1.10
Workstation B
192.168.1.11
en
switch>e
Enters privileged mode
config t
switch#c
Enters global config mode
no ip domain-lookup
switch(config)#n
Turns off DNS queries so
that spelling mistakes will
not slow you down
hostname 2900
switch(config)#h
Sets host name
enable secret cisco
2900(config)#e
Sets encrypted secret
password to cisco
line con 0
2900(config)#l
Enters line console mode
logging synchronous
2900(config-line)#l
Appends commands to new
line; router information will
not interrupt
Configuration Example: 2900 Series Switch
121
login
2900(config-line)#l
User must log in to console
before use
password switch
2900(config-line)#p
Sets password to switch
exec-timeout 0 0
2900(config-line)#e
Console will never log out
exit
2900(config-line)#e
Moves back to global config
mode
line aux 0
2900(config)#l
Moves to line auxiliary
mode
login
2900(config-line)#l
User must log in to auxiliary
port before use
password class
2900(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
exit
2900(config-line)#e
Back to global config mode
line vty 0 15
2900(config)#l
Moves to configure all 16
vty ports at same time
login
2900(config-line)#l
User must log in to vty port
before use
password class
2900(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
exit
2900(config-line)#e
Back to global config mode
ip default-gateway 192.168.1.1
2900(config)#i
Sets default gateway
int vlan 1
2900(config)#i
Moves to virtual interface
VLAN 1
ip add 192.168.1.2
2900(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Sets IP address for switch
no shut
2900(config-if)#n
Turns virtual interface on
int fa 0/1
2900(config-if)#i
Moves to interface fa 0/1
desc Link to Router
2900(config-if)#d
Sets local description
int fa 0/4
2900(config-if)#i
Moves to interface fa 0/4
desc Link to Workstation A
2900(config-if)#d
Sets local description
port security
2900(config-if)#p
Activates port security
122
Configuration Example: 2900 Series Switch
port security max-mac-count 1
2900(config-if)#p
Only one MAC address will
be allowed in the MAC table
port security action shutdown
2900(config-if)#p
Port will be turned off if
more than one MAC address
is reported
int fa 0/8
2900(config-if)#i
Moves to interface fa 0/8
desc Link to Workstation B
2900(config-if)#d
Sets local description
port security
2900(config-if)#p
Activates port security
port security max-mac-count 1
2900(config-if)#p
Only one MAC address will
be allowed in the MAC table
port security action shutdown
2900(config-if)#p
Port will be turned off if
more than one MAC address
is reported
exit
2900(config-if)#e
Returns to global config
mode
exit
2900(config)#e
Returns to privileged mode
copy run start
2900#c
Saved configuration to
NVRAM
2900#
CHAPTER 7
Spanning Tree Protocol
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Verifying the spanning-tree table of a switch
• Changing the spanning-tree priority of a switch
• Changing the Spanning Tree Protocol stage of a switch
Spanning-Tree Verification
show spanning-tree
Switch#s
brief
Displays the spanningtree table of the switch
Cisco IOS
Software Release
12.1
show spanning-tree
Switch#s
Displays the spanningtree table of the switch
Change Spanning-Tree Priority of a Switch
Cisco IOS
Software Release
12.0
spanningSwitch(config)#s
tree priority 1
Number can be from
1–65535. Lower
number means better
chance of being elected
the Root Bridge
The default is 32768
Cisco IOS
Software Release
12.1
spanningSwitch(config)#s
tree vlan 1 priority 1
Number can be from
1–65535. Lower
number means better
chance of being elected
the Root Bridge
The default is 32768
NOTE: In Cisco IOS Software Release 12.1, the priority is changed on a
specific VLAN rather than on the switch itself.
PART III CCNA 3
Cisco IOS
Software Release
12.0
124
Changing the Stage of Spanning Tree on an Interface
Changing the Stage of Spanning Tree on an Interface
int fa 0/1
Switch(config)#i
spanning-tree portfast
Switch(config-if)#s
See the Caution that follows
CAUTION: The command spanning-tree portfast forces a port to move directly
to the Forwarding state, without having to transition from Blocking state to Listening, then Learning, and then finally Forwarding state. This can save up to 50
seconds of wait time. This is an excellent command on access ports that will
never be hooked up to another switch (that is, ports connected to computers or
other end devices, such as printers, servers, and so on). You must exercise caution with this command, however, because if a switch port is plugged into
another switch and the portfast command is enabled, spanning tree will be
defeated and a switching loop might be created.
CHAPTER 8
Virtual LANs
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics for
1900, 2900, and 2950 series switches:
• Displaying VLAN information
• Creating static VLANs
• Assigning ports to VLANs
• Assigning ports using the range command (2950 series switch only)
• Saving VLAN configurations
• Erasing VLAN configurations
• Troubleshooting VLANs
Displaying VLAN Information
show vlan
1900Switch#s
Shows VLAN information
show vlan-membership
1900Switch#s
Shows which ports belong to which
VLAN
show vlan 2
1900Switch#s
Displays information about VLAN
2 only
2900/2950 Series Switch
show vlan
2900Switch#s
Shows all VLAN status
show vlan brief
2900Switch#s
Shows all VLAN status in brief
show vlan id 2
2900Switch#s
Displays information of VLAN 2
only
show vlan name Marketing
2900Switch#s
Displays information of VLAN
named Marketing only
PART III CCNA 3
1900 Series Switch
126
Creating Static VLANs
Creating Static VLANs
1900 Series Switch
config t
1900Switch#c
vlan 2 name Engineering
1900Switch(config)#v
Creates VLAN 2 and names it
Engineering
vlan 3 name Marketing
1900Switch(config)#v
Creates VLAN 3 and names it
Marketing
2900 Series Switch
vlan database
2900Switch#v
Enters VLAN database mode
vlan 2 name Engineering
2900(vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 2 and names it
Engineering
vlan 3 name Marketing
2900(vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 3 and names it
Marketing
exit
2900(vlan)#e
Applies changes and exits
VLAN database mode
2900#
2950 Series Switch
config t
2950Switch#c
Enters global config mode
vlan 10
2950Switch(config)#v
Creates VLAN 10 and enters
VLAN config mode for further
definitions
name Accounting
2950Switch(config-vlan)#n
Assigns a name to a VLAN
exit
2950Switch(config-vlan)#e
Moves back to global config
mode
vlan 20
2950Switch(config)#v
Creates VLAN 20 and enters
VLAN config mode for further
definitions
name Sales
2950Switch(config-vlan)#n
Assigns a name to a VLAN
exit
2950Switch(config-vlan)#e
Moves back to global config
mode
Assigning Ports to VLANs
127
TIP: For the 2900 series switch, you must apply the changes to the VLAN
database for the changes to take effect. You can also use the command apply in
the VLAN database, which will apply the changes, but not exit the mode. Using
the Çz command to exit out of the VLAN database will not apply the changes
to the VLAN database.
TIP: For the 2950 series switch, the use of the VLAN database is being phased
out, in favor of creating VLANs in the manner demonstrated in the preceding
command syntax. If you use the vlan database command at the 2950Switch#
prompt, the 2950 IOS will tell you this but will still allow you to use commands the
same as the 2900 series switch. Get used to this style; it is the method to be used
on all future releases of switches.
Assigning Ports to VLANs
1900 Series Switch
config t
1900Switch#c
int e0/2
1900Switch(config)#i
Moves to interface mode
vlan static 2
1900Switch(config-if)#v
Assigns this port to
VLAN 2
int e0/3
1900Switch(config-if)#i
Moves to interface mode
vlan static 3
1900Switch(config-if)#v
Assigns this port to
VLAN 3
exit
1900Switch(config-if)#e
Exits interface mode
1900Switch(config)#
2900/2950 Series Switch
config t
2900Switch#c
int fa0/2
2900Switch(config)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 2
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to
VLAN 2
int fa0/3
2900Switch(config-if)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets switchport mode to
access
128
Saving VLAN Configurations
switchport access vlan 3
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to
VLAN 3
exit
2900Switch(config-if)#e
Exits interface mode
2900Switch(config)#
Assigning Ports Using the range Command (2950 Switch Only)
int range fa 0/1 - 4
2950Switch(config)#i
Enables you to set the
same configuration parameters on multiple ports at
the same time. Note that
there is a space before and
after the hyphen
switchport mode
2950Switch(config-if-range)#s
access
Sets all ports to access
mode
switchport access
2950Switch(config-if-range)#s
vlan 10
Assigns all ports to
VLAN 10
Saving VLAN Configurations
1900 Series Switch
Any command made to a 1900 series switch is automatically saved to NVRAM. There is
no copy run start command on a 1900 series switch
2900/2950 Series Switch
Any command entered in the VLAN database is automatically saved as long as you leave
the VLAN database properly with the exit command, and not Çz
copy run start
Router#c
Saves the running-config to
NVRAM
Erasing VLAN Configurations
129
Erasing VLAN Configurations
1900 Series Switch
delete vtp
1900Switch#d
Deletes all VLAN
information from the
switch and resets VTP
parameters to the factory
defaults
Or:
int fa 0/2
1900Switch(config)#i
no vlan static 2
1900Switch(config-if)#n
Removes interface from
VLAN 2 and puts it back
into default VLAN 1
exit
1900Switch(config-if)#e
no vlan 2 name Engineering
1900Switch(config)#n
Removes only VLAN 2
from database
1900Switch(config)#
2900/2950 Series Switch
delete flash:vlan.dat
2900Switch#d
Removes entire VLAN
database from Flash
memory
Make sure there is no
space between the colon (:)
and the characters
vlan.dat. You can
potentially erase the entire
contents of Flash memory
with this command if the
syntax is not correct
delete flash:
2900Switch#d
Delete filename [ ]? vlan.dat
Removes entire VLAN
database from Flash
memory
Delete flash:vlan.dat? [confirm]
Press the ® key
2900Switch#
130
Troubleshooting VLANs
Or:
config t
2900Switch#c
int fa 0/3
2900Switch(config)#i
no switchport access
2900Switch(config-if)#n
vlan 3
Removes port from VLAN
3 and reassigns it to default
VLAN 1
exit
2900Switch(config-if)#e
exit
2900Switch(config)#e
vlan database
2900Switch#v
Enters VLAN database
mode
no vlan 3
2900(vlan)#n
Removes only VLAN 2
from database
exit
2900(vlan)#e
Applies changes and exits
VLAN database mode
NOTE: For the 1900 series switch, removing a VLAN from the database does not
reassign ports in that VLAN back to the default Management VLAN. You must also
go into the specific interface and reassign the ports as well.
NOTE: For any series switch, you cannot remove VLAN 1.
Troubleshooting VLANs
show vlan
2900Switch#s
Displays the complete
VLAN database
show vlan brief
2900Switch#s
Displays a summary of the
VLAN database
show interfaces
2900Switch#s
Displays a summary of each
interface, including speed
and duplex settings
debug sw-vlan packets
2900Switch#d
Displays information about
VLAN packets a router has
received but not capable of
supporting
Configuration Example: 2900 Switch Configuration
131
Configuration Example: 2900 Switch Configuration
Figure 8-1 shows the network topology for the configuration of VLANs on a 2900 series
switch using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 8-1
Network Topology for VLAN Configuration on a 2900 Series Switch
s0/0 200.200.200.13/30
ISP
DCE
s1
CORP-1721
200.200.200.14/30
VLAN1: 192.168.1.0/24
VLAN 10: 192.168.10.0/24
VLAN 20: 192.168.20.0/24
VLAN 30: 192.168.30.0/24
Trunk Link
172.16.1.1/24
Lo 0
fa0
fa0-no IP Address
fa0.1-192.168.1.1/24
fa0.10-192.168.10.1/24
fa0.20-192.168.20.1/24
fa0.30-192.168.30.1/24
Ffa0/1
VLAN 1
Native
VLAN 30
Marketing
2900Switch
VLAN 10
Sales
Trunk Link Assigned on Port fa0/1
VLAN 10 Assigned on Ports fa0/2-4
VLAN 20 Assigned on Ports fa0/5-8
VLAN 30 Assigned on Ports fa0/9-12
VLAN 20
Engineering
192.168.30.30/24
plugged into fa0/10
192.168.20.20/24
plugged into fa0/6
NOTE: This example shows the configuration of the switch only. Part III, “CCNA
3,” Chapter 9, "VLAN Trunking Protocol," covers configuration of the routers.
en
switch>e
Enters privileged mode
config t
switch#c
Enters global configuration
mode
hostname 2900Switch
switch(config)#h
Sets the host name
no ip domain-lookup
2900Switch(config)#n
Turns off checking for DNS
entries on spelling mistakes
enable secret cisco
2900Switch(config)#e
Sets the secret password to
cisco
line con 0
2900Switch(config)#l
Enters console mode
132
Configuration Example: 2900 Switch Configuration
logging synchronous
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Informational lines will not
affect the command being
entered
login
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Turns on password challenge
for console mode
password class
2900Switch(config-line)#p
Sets password to class
exit
2900Switch(config-line)#e
Returns to global config mode
line vty 0 15
2900Switch(config)#l
Enters ALL 16 vty modes.
The same commands will
apply to all lines
login
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Challenges a remote user for
a password
password
2900Switch(config-line)#p
class
Sets the password to class
exit
2900Switch(config-line)#e
Returns to global config mode
ip default-gateway
2900Switch(config)#i
192.168.1.1
Sets the default gateway for
switch
int vlan1
2900Switch(config)#i
Enters the virtual interface
VLAN 1
ip address 192.168.1.2
2900Switch(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Sets the IP address of the
switch
no shut
2900Switch(config-if)#n
Turns on the interface
exit
2900Switch(config-if)#e
Returns to global config mode
exit
2900Switch(config)#e
Returns to privileged mode
vlan database
2900Switch#v
Enters the VLAN database
vlan 10 name Sales
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 10
vlan 20 name Engineering
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 20
vlan 30 name Marketing
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 30
exit
2900Switch(vlan)#e
Applies VLAN information
and exits
config t
2900Switch#c
Enters global configuration
mode
Configuration Example: 2900 Switch Configuration
133
int fa0/2
2900Switch(config)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 10
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 10
int fa0/3
2900Switch(config-if)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 10
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 10
int fa0/4
2900Switch(config)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 10
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 10
int fa0/5
2900Switch(config-if)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 20
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 20
int fa0/6
2900Switch(config)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 20
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 20
int fa0/7
2900Switch(config-if)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 20
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 20
int fa0/8
2900Switch(config)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan
2900Switch(config-if)#s
20
Assigns this port to VLAN 20
int fa0/9
2900Switch(config-if)#i
Moves to interface mode
134
Configuration Example: 2900 Switch Configuration
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 30
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 30
int fa0/10
2900Switch(config)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 30
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 30
int fa0/11
2900Switch(config-if)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 30
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 30
int fa0/12
2900Switch(config)#i
Moves to interface mode
switchport mode access
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Sets the switchport mode to
access
switchport access vlan 30
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns this port to VLAN 30
2900Switch(config-if)#Çz
Returns to privileged mode
copy run start
2900Switch#c
Saves config to NVRAM
CHAPTER 9
VLAN Trunking
Protocol
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics for
1900, 2900, and 2950 series switches:
• Configuring ISL trunks
• Configuring Dot1Q trunks
• Verifying trunking
• VTP configuration
• Confirming VTP configuration
• Inter-VLAN communication: Router-on-a-stick
• Router-on-a-stick tips
Configuring ISL Trunks
1900 Series Switch
int fa 0/26
1900Switch(config)#i
Enters interface mode
trunk on
1900Switch(config-if)#t
Turns trunking mode
on
2900 Series Switch
int fa 0/1
2900Switch(config)#i
Enters interface mode
switchport mode trunk
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Turns port to trunking
mode
switchport trunk
2900Switch(config-if)#s
encapsulation isl
Sets encapsulation
type to ISL
NOTE: Trunking can only occur on a Fast Ethernet port. A 1900 series switch
has only two Fast Ethernet ports—ports A and B. These are defined as FA 0/
26 and FA 0/27 in the command-line interface (CLI).
NOTE: For any series switch, you must set trunk mode at both ends of the
link for the trunk to become active
PART III CCNA 3
NOTE: The 1900 series switch supports only Inter-Switch Link (ISL) trunking.
The 2900 series switch supports both ISL and Dot1Q trunking. The 2950 series
switch supports only Dot1Q trunking.
136
Verifying Trunking
Configuring Dot1Q Trunks
2900 Series Switch
int fa 0/1
2900Switch(config)#i
Enters interface mode
switchport mode trunk
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Turns port to trunking
mode
switchport trunk
2900Switch(config-if)#s
encapsulation dot1q
Sets encapsulation type
to Dot1Q—this is the
default encapsulation
type
2950 Series Switch
int fa 0/1
2950Switch(config)#i
Enters interface mode
switchport mode trunk
2950Switch(config-if)#s
Turns port to trunking
mode
Verifying Trunking
1900 Series Switch
show trunk A
1900Switch#s
Displays trunking
information about port
0/26
DISL state: On, Trunking: On, Encapsulation type:
ISL
1900Switch#
2900 and 2950 Series Switches
show int fa 0/1 switchport
29x0Switch#s
Name: Fa0/1
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative mode: trunk
Operational Mode: trunk
Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: isl
Operational Trunking Encapsulation: isl
<output cut>
29x0Switch#
Shows the status of the
interface, including
trunking information
VTP Configuration
137
VTP Configuration
1900 Series Switch
vtp client
1900Switch(config)#v
Changes the switch to VTP client
mode
vtp server
1900Switch(config)#v
Changes the switch to default VTP
server mode
vtp transparent
1900Switch(config)#v
Changes the switch to VTP
transparent mode
vtp domain CNAP
1900Switch(config)#v
Sets the name of the VTP
management domain to CNAP
vtp password cisco
1900Switch(config)#v
Sets the VTP password to cisco
2900 Series Switch
vlan database
2900Switch#v
Enters VLAN database mode
vtp client
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Changes the switch to client mode
vtp server
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Changes the switch to server mode
vtp transparent
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Changes the switch to transparent
mode
vtp domain academy
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Sets the name of the VTP
management domain to academy
vtp password catalyst
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Sets the VTP password to catalyst
vtp v2-mode
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Sets VTP mode to version 2
vtp pruning
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Enables VTP pruning
exit
2900Switch(vlan)#e
Applies the changes and exits
mode
2900Switch#
2950 Series Switch
config t
2950Switch#c
Enters global config mode
vtp mode client
2950Switch(config)#v
Changes the switch to client mode
vtp mode server
2950Switch(config)#v
Changes the switch to server mode
138
Confirming VTP Configuration
vtp mode transparent
2950Switch(config)#v
Changes the switch to transparent
mode
vtp domain academy
2950Switch(config)#v
Sets the name of the VTP
management domain to academy
vtp password
2950Switch(config)#v
catalyst
Sets the VTP password to catalyst
vtp v2-mode
2950Switch(config)#v
Sets VTP mode to version 2
vtp pruning
2950Switch(config)#v
Enables VTP pruning
NOTE: VTP versions 1 and 2 are not interoperable. All switches must use the
same version. The biggest difference between version 1 and 2 is that version 2 has
support for Token Ring VLANs.
CAUTION: Switches that are in client mode update their VLAN database from
switches that are in server mode. If you have two or more switches interconnected and you delete a VLAN database, you may find that it becomes updated
from a server switch because of your VTP mode.
Another serious problem occurs when you take a new switch in server mode (the
default mode) and plug it into an existing network. If the VTP revision number is
higher on the new switch, it sends an update to all other switches to overwrite
their VLAN database with new information—in this case, an empty VLAN database. You now have a production network with no VLAN information.
Recommended practice is that you put a switch into VTP client mode first before
adding them into a production network, allow it to receive an update of current
VLAN information, and then change it to VTP server mode.
Confirming VTP Configuration
1900 Series Switch
show vtp
1900Switch#s
Displays all VTP information
2900/2950 Series Switch
show vtp status
29x0Switch#s
Displays VTP domain status
show vtp counters
29x0Switch#s
Displays VTP statistics
Router-on-a-Stick Tips
139
Inter-VLAN Communication: Router-on-a-Stick
int fa 0/0
Router(config)#i
Enters interface mode for
interface FA 0/0
no shut
Router(config-if)#n
Turns the interface on
int fa 0/0.1
Router(config-if)#i
Creates subinterface 0/0.1
encapsulation dot1q 1
Router(config-subif)#e
native
Assigns the native VLAN
(usually VLAN 1) to this
logical subinterface
ip address 192.168.1.1
Router(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address to
the subinterface
int fa 0/0.10
Router(config-subif)#i
Creates subinterface 0/
0.10
encapsulation dot1q 10
Router(config-subif)#e
Assigns VLAN 10 to this
subinterface
ip address 192.168.10.1
Router(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address to
the subinterface
Router(config-subif)#Çz
Router#
Router-on-a-Stick Tips
• The 1900 series switch has ISL capability only. If connecting a router to a 1900 series
switch, replace the router command encapsulation dot1q x with encapsulation isl x.
• The native VLAN (usually VLAN 1) cannot be configured on a logical subinterface in
Cisco IOS Software releases earlier than 12.1(3)T. Native IP addresses therefore have
to be configured on the physical interface:
Router(config)#int fa 0/0
Router(config-if)#encapsulation dot1q 1 native
Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)#int fa 0/0.10
Router(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 10
Router(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0
140
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
• The 1721 and the 1760 series routers have Dot1Q capability only. They cannot
perform ISL encapsulation.
• The 2620 and 2621 series routers have both Dot1Q and ISL encapsulation methods
• The number of the subinterface can be any number from 0–4294967295.
• Use the same number of the VLAN number for the subinterface number.
Troubleshooting VLAN 10 on subinterface FA 0/0.10 is more intuitive than
troubleshooting it on FA 0/0.2
• On a 1721 or 1760 series router, the name of the Fast Ethernet interface is FA 0.x
• On a 2620 or 2621 series router, the name of the Fast Ethernet interface is FA 0/0.x or
0/1.x
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
Figure 9-1 shows the network topology for the configuration of VTP and inter-VLAN
routing. There are separate sections on configuring both 2900 and 2950 series switches.
Figure 9-1
Network Topology for VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration
s0/0 200.200.200.13/30
ISP
DCE
s1
CORP-1721
200.200.200.14/30
VLAN1: 192.168.1.0/24
VLAN 10: 192.168.10.0/24
VLAN 20: 192.168.20.0/24
VLAN 30: 192.168.30.0/24
Trunk Link
172.16.1.1/24
Lo 0
fa0
fa0-no IP Address
fa0.1-192.168.1.1/24
fa0.10-192.168.10.1/24
fa0.20-192.168.20.1/24
fa0.30-192.168.30.1/24
Ffa0/1
VLAN 1
Native
2900Switch
VLAN 10
Sales
Trunk Link Assigned on Port fa0/1
VLAN 10 Assigned on Ports fa0/2-4
VLAN 20 Assigned on Ports fa0/5-8
VLAN 30 Assigned on Ports fa0/9-12
VLAN 30
Marketing
VLAN 20
Engineering
192.168.20.20/24
plugged into fa0/6
192.168.30.30/24
plugged into fa0/10
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
141
ISP Router
en
Router>e
config t
Router>#c
hostname ISP
Router(config)#h
Sets the host name
no ip domain-lookup
ISP(config)#n
Turns off DNS resolution
to avoid wait time due to
DNS lookup of spelling
errors
line con 0
ISP(config)#l
logging synchronous
ISP(config-line)#l
Appends the command
line to a new line—no
interruption from info
items
exec-timeout 0 0
ISP(config-line)#e
Console session will never
time out
exit
ISP(config-line)#e
enable secret cisco
ISP(config)#e
Sets the secret password to
cisco
int lo 0
ISP(config)#i
Creates a loopback address
for testing purposes
description simulated address
ISP(config-if)#d
representing remote website
ip address 172.16.1.1
ISP(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
int s0/0
ISP(config-if)#i
Enters serial interface
configuration mode
description WAN link to the
ISP(config-if)#d
Corporate Router
ip address 200.200.200.13
ISP(config-if)#i
255.255.255.252
clock 56000
ISP(config-if)#c
no shut
ISP(config-if)#n
Sets the clock rate for the
serial link
142
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
exit
ISP(config-if)#e
router eigrp 10
ISP(config-if)#r
Turns on the EIGRP
routing process
network 172.16.0.0
ISP(config-router)#n
Advertises the 172.16.0.0
network
network 200.200.200.0
ISP(config-router)#n
Advertises the
200.200.200.0 network
no auto-summary
ISP(config-router)#n
Turns off automatic
summarization at the
classful boundary
exit
ISP(config-router)#e
exit
ISP(config)#e
copy run start
ISP#c
Saves the configuration to
NVRAM
CORP Router (1721 Router Running Cisco IOS
Software Release 12.2(4)
These Commands Work
Also for the 1760 and the
2620/2621 Series Routers
en
Router>e
config t
Router#c
hostname CORP
Router(config)#h
Sets host name
no ip domain-lookup
CORP(config)#n
Turns off resolution to
avoid wait time due to
DNS lookup of spelling
errors
line con 0
CORP(config)#l
logging synchronous
CORP(config-line)#l
Appends the command
line to a new line—no
interruption from info
items
exec-timeout 0 0
CORP(config-line)#e
Console session will never
time out
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
143
exit
CORP(config-line)#e
enable secret cisco
CORP(config)#e
Sets the secret password to
cisco
int s1
CORP(config)#i
desc WAN link to ISP Router
CORP(config-if)#d
ip add 200.200.200.14
CORP(config-if)#i
255.255.255.252
no shut
CORP(config-if)#n
exit
CORP(config-if)#e
int fa0
CORP(config)#i
full duplex
CORP(config-if)#f
no shut
CORP(config-if)#n
int fa0.1
CORP(config-if)#i
Creates a subinterface
desc Management VLAN 1
CORP(config-subif)#d
Assigns a description to
the subinterface
encapsulation dot1q 1
CORP(config-subif)#e
native
Enables Dot1Q encapsulation with VLAN 1 as the
native VLAN
ip add 192.168.1.1
CORP(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address to
the subinterface
int fa0.10
CORP(config-subif)#i
Creates a subinterface
desc Sales VLAN 10
CORP(config-subif)#d
Assigns a description to
the subinterface
encapsulation dot1q 10
CORP(config-subif)#e
Enables Dot1Q encapsulation on VLAN 10
ip add 192.168.10.1
CORP(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address to
the subinterface
int fa0.20
CORP(config-subif)#i
Creates a subinterface
144
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
desc Engineering VLAN 20
CORP(config-subif)#d
Assigns a description to
the subinterface
encapsulation dot1q 20
CORP(config-subif)#e
Enables Dot1Q encapsulation on VLAN 20
ip add 192.168.20.1
CORP(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address to
the subinterface
int fa0.30
CORP(config-subif)#i
Creates a subinterface
desc Marketing VLAN 30
CORP(config-subif)#d
Assigns a description to
the subinterface
encapsulation dot1q 30
CORP(config-subif)#e
Enables Dot1Q encapsulation on VLAN 30
ip add 192.168.1.1
CORP(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address to
the subinterface
exit
CORP(config-subif)#e
router eigrp 10
CORP(config)#r
Turns on the EIGRP
routing process
network 192.168.1.0
CORP(config-router)#n
Advertises the 192.168.1.0
network
network 192.168.10.0
CORP(config-router)#n
Advertises the
192.168.10.0 network
network 192.168.20.0
CORP(config-router)#n
Advertises the
192.168.20.0 network
network 192.168.30.0
CORP(config-router)#n
Advertises the
192.168.30.0 network
network 200.200.200.0
CORP(config-router)#n
Advertises the
200.200.200.0 network
no auto-summary
CORP(config-router)#n
Turns off auto summarization
exit
CORP(config-router)#e
exit
CORP(config)#e
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
copy run start
CORP#c
145
Saves the configuration to
NVRAM
Caution: Remember to
advertise all networks.
Advertising 192.168.0.0
does not advertise
networks from
192.168.0.0–
192.168.255.0. These are
separate classful networks,
so they must be advertised
separately, just like
200.200.200.0 is
advertised separately
2900 Series Switch
en
switch>e
config t
switch>#c
hostname 2900Switch
switch(config)#h
Sets host name
no ip domain-lookup
2900Switch(config)#n
Turns off DNS resolution
to avoid wait time due to
DNS lookup of spelling
errors
line con 0
2900Switch(config)#l
logging synchronous
2900Switch(config-line)#l
Appends the command
line to a new line—no
interruption from info
items
exec-timeout 0 0
2900Switch(config-line)#e
Console session will never
time out
exit
2900Switch(config-line)#e
enable secret cisco
2900Switch(config)#e
Sets the secret password to
cisco
exit
2900Switch(config)#e
vlan database
2900Switch#v
Enters VLAN database
mode
146
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
vlan 10 name Sales
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 10 with the
name Sales
vlan 20 name Engineering
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 20 with the
name Engineering
vlan 30 name Marketing
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 30 with the
name Marketing
vtp server
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Makes the switch a VTP
server
vtp domain academy
2900Switch(vlan)#v
Assigns a domain name of
academy
exit
2900Switch(vlan)#e
Applies all changes to
VLAN database and exits
mode
config t
2900Switch#c
int vlan1
2900Switch(config)#i
ip add 192.168.1.2
2900Switch(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
no shutdown
2900Switch(config-if)#n
exit
2900Switch(config-if)#e
ip default-gateway
2900Switch(config)#i
192.168.1.1
int fa 0/1
2900Switch(config)#i
desc Trunk Link to CORP
2900Switch(config-if)#d
Router
switchport mode trunk
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Creates a trunk link
switchport trunk
2900Switch(config-if)#s
encapsulation dot1q
Sets encapsulation to
Dot1Q
int fa 0/2
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 10
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 10
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
147
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in Spanning Tree
Protocol (STP)
Note: The command
switchport mode access
is not needed, because this
is the default mode for
interfaces. Use it only if
the port was previously set
to be a trunk link
int fa0/3
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 10
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 10
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/4
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 10
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 10
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/5
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 20
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 20
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/6
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 20
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 20
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/7
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 20
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 20
148
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/8
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 20
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 20
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/9
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 30
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 30
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/10
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 30
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 30
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/11
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 30
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 30
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
int fa0/12
2900Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access vlan 30
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Assigns a port to VLAN 30
spanning-tree portfast
2900Switch(config-if)#s
Transitions the port
directly to the Forwarding
state in STP
2900Switch(config-if)#Çz
copy run start
2900Switch#c
2900Switch#
Saves the configuration to
NVRAM
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
149
2950 Series Switch
en
switch>e
config t
switch>#c
hostname 2950Switch
switch(config)#h
Sets the host name
no ip domain-lookup
2950Switch(config)#n
Turns off DNS resolution
to avoid wait time due to
DNS lookup of spelling
errors
line con 0
2950Switch(config)#l
logging synchronous
2950Switch(config-line)#l
Appends the command
line to a new line—no
interruption from info
items
exec-timeout 0 0
2950Switch(config-line)#e
Console session will never
time out
exit
2950Switch(config-line)#e
enable secret cisco
2950Switch(config)#e
Sets the secret password to
cisco
vlan 10
2950Switch(config)#v
Creates VLAN 10
name Sales
2950Switch(config-vlan)#n
Defines the name of Sales
vlan 20
2950Switch(config-vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 20
name Engineering
2950Switch(config-vlan)#n
Defines the name of
Engineering
vlan 30
2950Switch(config-vlan)#v
Creates VLAN 30
name Marketing
2950Switch(config-vlan)#n
Defines the name of
Marketing
exit
2950Switch(config-vlan)#e
vtp mode server
2950Switch(config)#v
Makes the switch a VTP
server
vtp domain academy
2950Switch(config)#v
Assigns a domain name of
academy
150
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
int vlan1
2950Switch(config)#i
Creates the virtual VLAN
1 interface
ip add 192.168.1.2
2950Switch(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address to
the interface
no shutdown
2950Switch(config-if)#n
exit
2950Switch(config-if)#e
ip default-gateway
2950Switch(config)#i
192.168.1.1
Assigns the IP address of
the default gateway
int fa 0/1
2950Switch(config)#i
desc Trunk Link to CORP
2950Switch(config-if)#d
Router
switchport mode trunk
2950Switch(config-if)#s
Creates a trunk link
int range fa 0/2 – 4
2950Switch(config-if)#i
switchport access
2950Switch(config-if-range)#s
vlan 10
Assigns ports to VLAN 10
spanning-tree
2950Switch(config-if-range)#s
portfast
Transitions ports directly
to the Forwarding state in
STP
Note: The command
switchport mode access
is not needed, because this
is the default mode for
interfaces. Use it only if
the port was previously set
to be a trunk link
int range fa0/5 – 8
2950Switch(config-if-range)#i
switchport access
2950Switch(config-if-range)#s
vlan 20
Assigns ports to VLAN 20
spanning-tree
2950Switch(config-if-range)#s
portfast
Transitions ports directly
to the Forwarding state in
STP
int range fa0/9 2950Switch(config-if-range)#i
12
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing
151
switchport access
2950Switch(config-if-range)#s
vlan 30
Assigns ports to VLAN 10
spanning-tree
2950Switch(config-if-range)#s
portfast
Transitions ports directly
to the Forwarding state in
STP
2950Switch(config-if-range)#Çz
copy run start
2950Switch#c
Saves the configuration to
NVRAM
PART IV
CCNA 4
Chapter 1
Scaling IP Addresses
Chapter 2
WAN Technologies
Chapter 3
PPP
Chapter 4
ISDN and DDR
Chapter 5
Frame Relay
Chapter 6
Introduction to Network Administration
PART IV CCNA 4
CHAPTER 1
Scaling IP Technologies
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Configuring dynamic NAT
• Configuring PAT
• Configuring static NAT
• Verifying NAT and PAT configuration
• Troubleshooting NAT and PAT configuration
• Configuring DHCP
• Verifying and troubleshooting DHCP configuration
• Configuring a DHCP helper address
The following table lists the address ranges as specified in RFC 1918 that can be used
as internal private addresses. These will be your “inside the LAN” addresses that will
have to be translated into public addresses that can be routed across the Internet. Any
network is allowed to use these addresses; however, these addresses are not allowed to
be routed onto the public Internet.
Private Addresses
RFC 1918 Internal Address Range
CIDR Prefix
A
10.0.0.0–10.255.255.255
10.0.0.0/8
B
172.16.0.0–172.31.255.255
172.16.0.0/12
C
192.168.0.0–192.168.255.255
192.168.0.0/16
Configuring Dynamic NAT: One Private to One Public Address
Translation
NOTE: For a complete configuration of NAT/PAT with a diagram for visual
assistance, see the sample configuration at the end of this chapter
PART IV CCNA 4
Class
156
Configuring Dynamic NAT: One Private to One Public Address Translation
Step 1: Define a
static route on
the remote
router stating
where public
addresses
should be
routed.
Step 2: Define a
pool of usable
public IP
addresses on
your router that
will perform
NAT.
ip route
ISP(config)#i
64.64.64.64
255.255.255.255.128 s0/0
Informs the ISP router
where to send packets with
addresses destined for
64.64.64.64
255.255.255.255.128
Private address will receive
first available public address
in pool
ip nat pool
Corp(config)#i
scott 64.64.64.70
64.64.64.126 netmask
255.255.255.128
Defines the following:
• Name of pool is scott (the
name of the pool can be
anything)
• Start of pool is
64.64.64.70
• End of pool is
64.64.64.126
• Subnet mask is
255.255.255.128
Step 3: Create
an ACL that
will identify
which private
IP addresses
will be translated.
access-list 1
Corp(config)#a
permit 172.16.10.0 0.0.0.255
Step 4: Link the
access control
list (ACL) to the
pool of addresses (create the
translation).
ip nat inside
Corp(config)#i
source list 1 pool scott
Step 5: Define
which interfaces are inside
(contain the
private
addresses).
int fa 0/0
Router(config)#i
Defines the following:
• The source of the private
addresses is from ACL 1
• The pool of available
public addresses is named
scott
ip nat
Router(config-if)#i
inside
You can have more than one
inside interface on a router.
Addresses from each inside
interface are then allowed to
be translated into a public
address
Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation
Step 6: Define
the outside
interface (the
interface leading to the public
network).
157
int s 0/0
Router(config)#i
ip nat
Router(config-if)#i
outside
Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation
Private addresses all use a single public IP address and numerous port numbers for
translation.
Step 1: Define a
static route on the
remote router
stating where
public addresses
should be routed.
ip route
ISP(config)#i
64.64.64.64
255.255.255.255.128 s0/0
Informs the ISP where to
send packets with addresses
destined for 64.64.64.64
255.255.255.128
Use this step if you have
many private addresses to
translate. A single public IP
address can handle thousands of private addresses.
Without using a pool of
addresses, you can translate
all private addresses into the
IP address of the exit interface—the serial link to the
ISP, for example
Step 2: Define a
pool of usable
public IP addresses on your
router that will
perform NAT
(optional).
ip nat pool
Corp(config)#i
scott 64.64.64.70
64.64.64.126 netmask
255.255.255.128
Defines the following:
• Name of pool is scott (the
name of the pool can be
anything)
• Start of pool is
64.64.64.70
• End of pool is
64.64.64.126
• Subnet mask is
255.255.255.128
158
Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation
Step 3: Create an
ACL that will
identify which
private IP addresses will be translated.
access-list 1
Corp(config)#a
permit 172.16.10.0
0.0.0.255
Step 4 (Option 1):
Link the ACL to
the outside public
interface (create
the translation).
ip nat inside
Corp(config)#i
source list 1 interface
serial 0/0 overload
The source of the private
addresses is from ACL 1
The public address to be
translated into is the one
assigned to Serial 0/0
The overload keyword
states that port numbers will
be used to handle many
translations
Step 4 (Option 2):
Link the ACL to
the pool of addresses (create the
translation).
If using the pool created in
Step 1
ip nat inside
Corp(config)#i
source list 1 pool scott
overload
The source of the private
addresses is from ACL 1
The pool of available
addresses is named scott
The overload keyword
states that port numbers will
be used to handle many
translations
Step 5: Define
which interfaces
are inside (contain the private
addresses).
Step 6: Define the
outside interface
(the interface
leading to the
public network).
int fa 0/0
Corp(config)#i
ip nat
Corp(config-if)#i
inside
int s 0/0
Corp(config)#i
ip nat
Corp(config-if)#i
outside
You can have more than one
inside interface on a router
Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public Address Translation
Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public
Address Translation
Step 1: Define a static
route on the remote
router stating where
public addresses
should be routed.
ip route
ISP(config)#i
64.64.64.64
255.255.255.255.128 s0/0
Informs the ISP where
to send packets with
addresses destined for
64.64.64.64
255.255.255.128
Step 2: Create a static
mapping on your
router that will
perform NAT.
ip nat inside
Corp(config)i
source static 172.16.10.5
64.64.64.65
Permanently translates
inside address of
172.16.10.5 to a public
address of 64.64.64.65
Use the command for
each of the private IP
addresses you want to
statically map to a
public address
Step 3: Define which
interfaces are inside
(contain the private
addresses).
int fa 0/0
Corp(config)#i
ip nat
Corp(config-if)#i
inside
Step 4: Define the
outside interface (the
interface leading to the
public network).
You can have more than
one inside interface on a
router
int s 0/0
Corp(config)#i
ip nat
Corp(config-if)#i
outside
CAUTION: Make sure that you have in your router configurations a way for
packets to travel back to your NAT router. Include a static route on the ISP router
advertising your NAT pool and how to travel back to your internal network. Without this in place, a packet can leave your network with a public address, but will
not be able to return if your ISP router does not know where the pool of public
addresses exists in the network. You should be advertising the pool of public
addresses, not your private addresses.
160
Configuring DHCP
Verifying NAT and PAT Configuration
show ip nat translations
Router#s
Displays translation table
show ip nat statistics
Router#s
Displays NAT statistics
clear ip nat translations inside
Router#c
a.b.c.d outside e.f.g.h
Clears a specific translation
from the table before they
time out
clear ip nat translations *
Router#c
Clears the entire translation
table before entries time out
Troubleshooting NAT and PAT Configuration
debug ip nat
Router#d
Displays information about
every packet that is translated
Be careful with this
command. The router’s CPU
might not be able to handle
this amount of output and
might therefore hang the
system
debug ip nat detailed
Router#d
Displays greater detail about
packets being translated
Configuring DHCP
ip dhcp pool academy
Router(config)#i
Creates a DHCP pool called
academy
network 172.16.10.0
Router(dhcp-config)#n
255.255.255.0
Defines the range of
addresses to be leased
default-router
Router(dhcp-config)#d
172.16.10.1
Defines the address of the
default router for the client
dns-server 172.16.10.10
Router(dhcp-config)#d
Defines the address of the
DNS server for the client
netbios-name-server
Router(dhcp-config)#n
172.16.10.10
Defines the address of the
NetBIOS server for the client
Configuring a DHCP Helper Address
161
domain-name empson.ca
Router(dhcp-config)#d
Defines the domain name for
the client
lease 14 12 23
Router(dhcp-config)#l
Defines the lease time to be
14 days, 12 hours, 23 minutes
lease infinite
Router(dhcp-config)#l
Sets the lease time to infinity
(default time is 1 day)
exit
Router(dhcp-config)#e
ip dhcp excluded-address
Router(config)#i
172.16.10.1 172.16.10.9
Specifies the range of
addresses not to be leased out
to clients
no service dhcp
Router(config)#n
Turns the DHCP service off
(service is on by default in
IOS)
service dhcp
Router(config)#s
Turns the DHCP service on
Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration
show ip dhcp binding
Router#s
Displays a list of all bindings
created
show ip dhcp server statistics
Router#s
Displays a list of the number
of messages sent and received
by the DHCP server
debug ip dhcp server events
Router#d
Displays the DHCP process
of addresses being leased and
returned
Configuring a DHCP Helper Address
int fa 0/0
Router(config)#i
ip helper-address
Router(config-if)#i
172.16.20.2
Defines that DHCP broadcasts
will be forwarded to this
specific address rather than be
dropped by the router
162
Configuration Example: Port Address Translation
Configuration Example: Port Address Translation
Figure 1-1 shows the network topology for the PAT configuration that follows using the
commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 1-1
Port Address Translation Configuration
Network 172.16.10.0/24
Network 199.85.64.4/30
s0/0
199.85.64.5/30
fa0/0
172.16.10.1
Company
172.16.10.10
DCE
s0/1
199.85.64.6/30
ISP
IP NAT IP NAT
Inside Outside
ISP Router
en
router>e
config t
router#c
host ISP
router(config)#h
Sets host name
no ip domain-lookup
ISP(config)#n
Turns off DNS resolution to avoid
wait time due to DNS lookup of
spelling errors
enable secret cisco
ISP(config)#e
Sets encrypted password
line con 0
ISP(config)#l
login
ISP(config-line)#l
password class
ISP(config-line)#p
Sets console line password to class
logging synchronous
ISP(config-line)#l
Commands will be appended to a new
line
exit
ISP(config-line)#e
int s 0/1
ISP(config)#i
ip address 199.85.64.6
ISP(config-if)#i
255.255.255.252
Assigns IP address
Configuration Example: Port Address Translation
clockrate 56000
ISP(config-if)#c
163
Assigns clock rate to data communications equipment (DCE) cable on
this side of link
no shut
ISP(config-if)#n
int lo0
ISP(config-if)#i
Creates loopback interface 0
ip address
ISP(config-if)#i
200.200.200.1 255.255.255.255
Assigns IP address
exit
ISP(config-if)#e
exit
ISP(config)#e
copy run start
ISP#c
Saves config to NVRAM
Company Router
en
router>e
config t
router#c
host Company
router(config)#h
Sets host name
no ip domain-lookup
Company(config)#n
Turns off DNS resolution to avoid
wait time due to DNS lookup of
spelling errors
enable secret cisco
Company(config)#e
Sets secret password
line con 0
Company(config)#l
login
Company(config-line)#l
password class
Company(config-line)#p
Sets console line password to class
logging
Company(config-line)#l
synchronous
Commands will be appended to a new
line
exit
Company(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Company(config)#i
ip address
Company(config-if)#i
172.16.10.1 255.255.255.0
no shut
Company(config-if)#n
int s0/0
Company(config-if)#i
164
Configuration Example: Port Address Translation
ip add 199.85.64.5
Company(config-if)#i
255.255.255.252
no shut
Company(config-if)#n
exit
Company(config-if)#e
ip route 0.0.0.0
Company(config)#i
0.0.0.0 199.85.64.6
Sends all packets not defined in the
routing table to the ISP router
access-list 1 permit
Company(config)#a
172.16.10.0 0.0.0.255
Defines which addresses are
permitted through—these addresses
are those that will be allowed to be
translated with NAT
ip nat inside source
Company(config)#i
list 1 int s 0/0 overload
Creates NAT by combining List 1
with the interface S0/0. Overloading
will take place
int fa 0/0
Company(config)#i
ip nat inside
Company(config-if)#i
Location of private inside addresses
int s 0/0
Company(config-if)#i
ip nat outside
Company(config-if)#i
Company(config-if)#Ç
copy run start
Company#c
z
Location of public outside addresses
CHAPTER 2
WAN Technologies
There are no commands affiliated with this module of CCNA 4 as covered in the Cisco
Networking Academy Program curriculum.
PART IV CCNA 4
CHAPTER 3
PPP
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following Point-toPoint Protocol (PPP) topics:
• Configuring High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) encapsulation on a serial
line
• Configuring PPP on a serial line (mandatory commands)
• Configuring PPP on a serial line (optional commands), including those
commands concerning the following:
— Compression
— Link quality
— Multilink
— Authentication
• Verifying or troubleshooting a serial link/PPP encapsulation
Configuring HDLC Encapsulation on a Serial Line
config t
Router#c
int s 0/0
Router(config)#i
NOTE: HDLC is the default encapsulation for synchronous serial links on
Cisco routers. You would only use the encapsulation hdlc command to return
the link back to its default state.
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Mandatory Commands)
config t
Router#c
int s 0/0
Router(config)#i
encapsulation ppp
Router(config-if) #e
Changes encapsulation from
default HDLC to PPP
PART IV CCNA 4
encapsulation hdlc
Router(config-if))#e
168
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Authentication
NOTE: You must execute the encapsulation ppp command on both sides of the
serial link for the link to become active.
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Compression
compress predictor
Router(config-if)#c
Enables the predictor compression
algorithm
compress stac
Router(config-if)#c
Enables the stac compression
algorithm
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Link Quality
ppp quality x
Router(config-if)#p
Ensures the link must have a
quality of x percent; otherwise, the
link will shut down
NOTE: In PPP, the Link Control Protocol allows for an optional link quality
determination phase. In this phase, the link is tested to determine whether the link
quality is sufficient to bring up any Layer 3 protocols. If you use the command ppp
quality x, where x is equal to a certain percent, you must meet that percentage of
quality on the link. If the link does not meet that percentage level, the link cannot
be created and will shut down.
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Multilink
ppp multilink
Router(config-if)#p
Enables load balancing across
multiple links
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands):
Authentication
username routerb
Router(config)#u
password cisco
int s 0/0
Router(config)#i
Sets a username of routerb and a
password of cisco for authentication
from the other side of the PPP serial
link. This is used by the local router
to authenticate the PPP peer
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Authentication
169
ppp authentication
Router(config-if)#p
pap
Turns on PAP authentication only
ppp authentication
Router(config-if)#p
chap
Turns on CHAP authentication only
ppp authentication
Router(config-if)#p
pap chap
Defines that the link will use PAP
authentication, but will try CHAP if
PAP fails or is rejected by other side
ppp authentication
Router(config-if)#p
chap pap
Defines that the link will use CHAP
authentication, but will try PAP if
CHAP fails or is rejected by other
side
ppp pap sent-username
Router(config-if)#p
routerb password cisco
This command must be set if using
PAP in Cisco IOS Software Release
11.1 or later
TIP: When setting authentication, make sure that your usernames match the
name of the router on the other side of the link, and that the passwords on each
router match each other. Usernames and passwords are case-sensitive. Consider
the following example:
username Calgary
Edmonton(config)#u
password cisco
username Edmonton
Calgary(config)#u
password cisco
int s 0/0
Edmonton(config)#i
int s 0/0
Calgary(config)#i
encapsulation
Edmonton(config-if)#e
ppp
encapsulation
Calgary(config-if)#e
ppp
ppp
Edmonton(config-if)#p
authentication chap
ppp
Calgary(config-if)#p
authentication chap
NOTE: Because Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) does not encrypt its
password as it is sent across the link, recommended practice is that you use
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) as your authentication
method.
170
Configuration Example: PPP
Verifying or Troubleshooting a Serial Link/PPP Encapsulation
show interfaces serial x
Router#s
Lists info for serial interface x
show controllers serial x
Router#s
Tells you what type of cable (DCE/
DTE) is plugged into your interface
and whether a clock rate has been set
debug serial interface
Router#d
Displays whether serial keepalive
counters are incrementing
debug ppp
Router#d
Displays any traffic related to PPP
debug ppp packet
Router#d
Displays PPP packets that are being
sent and received
debug ppp negotiation
Router#d
Displays PPP packets related to the
negotiation of the PPP link
debug ppp error
Router#d
Displays PPP error packets
debug ppp authentication
Router#d
Displays PPP packets related to the
authentication of the PPP link
debug ppp compression
Router#d
Displays PPP packets related to the
compression of packets across the
link
TIP: With frequent lab use, serial cable pins often get bent, which may prevent
the router from seeing the cable. The output from the command show controllers
interface serial x will show no cable even though a cable is physically present.
Configuration Example: PPP
Figure 3-1 shows the network topology for the configuration that follows, which shows how
to configure PPP using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 3-1
Network Topology for PPP Configuration
Network 172.16.10.0/24
Network 172.16.20.0/24
s0/0
172.16.20.1
fa0/0
172.16.10.1
Boston
172.16.10.10
DCE
Network 172.16.30.0/24
fa0/0
172.16.30.1
s0/1
172.16.20.2
Buffalo
172.16.30.30
Configuration Example: PPP
171
NOTE: The host name, password, and interfaces have all been configured as per
the configuration example in Part II, “CCNA 2,” Chapter 3, "Configuring a Router."
Boston Router
en
Boston>e
config t
Boston#c
username Buffalo password
Boston(config)#u
academy
Sets the local username and
password for PPP
authentication of the PPP peer
int s 0/0
Boston(config-if)#i
desc Link to Buffalo
Boston(config-if)#d
Router
Defines the locally significant
link description
ip add 172.16.20.1
Boston(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address to interface
clockrate 56000
Boston(config-if)#c
Sets clock rate to data
communications equipment
(DCE) side of link
encapsulation ppp
Boston(config-if) #e
Turns on PPP encapsulation
ppp authentication chap
Boston(config-if)#p
Turns on CHAP authentication
no shut
Boston(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
exit
Boston(config-if)#e
Exits interface mode
exit
Boston(config)#e
Exits global config mode
copy run start
Boston#c
Saves config to NVRAM
Buffalo Router
en
Buffalo>e
config t
Buffalo#c
username Boston password
Buffalo(config)#u
academy
int s 0/1
Buffalo(config-if)#i
Sets username and password for
PPP authentication
172
Configuration Example: PPP
desc Link to Boston
Buffalo(config-if)#d
Router
Defines the locally significant
link description
ip add 172.16.20.2
Buffalo(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address to interface
encapsulation ppp
Buffalo(config-if) #e
Turns on PPP encapsulation
ppp authentication
Buffalo(config-if)#p
chap
Turns on CHAP authentication
no shut
Buffalo(config-if)#n
Turns on interface
Buffalo(config-if)#Ç
Exits back to privileged mode
copy run start
Buffalo#c
z
Saves config to NVRAM
CHAPTER 4
ISDN and DDR
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Setting the switch type in an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic
Rate Interface (BRI) configuration
• Setting service profile identifiers (SPIDs) in an ISDN BRI configuration
• Configuring ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
• Verifying ISDN configuration
• Troubleshooting ISDN
• Configuring legacy dial-on-demand routing (DDR)
• Configuring dialer profiles with DDR
Configuring ISDN BRI: Setting the Switch Type
isdn switch-type
Router(config)#i
switch-type
Sets the switch type
globally for all ISDN
interfaces
int bri 0
Router(config)#i
NOTE:
Sets the switch type for this
specific interface. Can be
different from global switch
type if necessary
The switch type will be given to you from your service provider.
A main office with 30 branch offices might have 28 offices using one switch
type and two offices using a different switch type. Thus, you would use the
global-level command to set the switch type to the one required by the 28
offices, and the interface-level command to override this on the two interfaces that needed a different switch type.
PART IV CCNA 4
isdn switch-type
Router(config-ifg)#i
switch-type
174
Configuring ISDN PRI
Configuring ISDN BRI: Setting SPIDs
interface bri 0
Router(config)#i
isdn spid1
Router(config-if)#i
51055510000001 5551000
Defines the SPID number for channel
B1, as assigned by the service provider
The second number (5551000) is the
local dial directory number (LDN),
which usually matches the information
coming from the ISDN switch
isdn spid2
Router(config-if)#i
51055510010001 5551001
Defines the SPID number for channel
B2, as assigned by the service provider
NOTE: Not all switch types need SPIDs assigned to your router. Your service
provider will let you know whether you need to configure SPIDs.
Configuring ISDN PRI
isdn switch-type
Router(config)#i
switch-type
Same command as with BRI. Can be
done globally or in interface config
mode
controller t1 1/0
Router(config)#c
Enters into controller config mode
where the PRI card is located
framing
Router(config-controller)#f
sf | esf}
{s
Sets framing to either Superframe
Format (SF) or Extended Superframe
Format (ESF) as dictated by the service
provider. ESF is the most commonly
used framing
linecode
Router(config-controller)#l
ami | b8zs | hdb3}
{a
Sets Layer 1 signaling method to
alternate mark inversion (AMI), binary
8-zero substitution (B8ZS) or highdensity bipolar three (HDB3). B8ZS is
used in North America
pri-group
Router(config-controller)#p
timeslots 1-24
Configures the number of timeslots
allocated by the provider, if using a
channelized T1 controller
interface
Router(config-controller)#i
serial0/0:23
Specifies an interface to be used for PRI
D-channel operation. This command
says to use channel 24 of interface
Serial 0/0
Troubleshooting ISDN
175
NOTE: Channels are numbered starting at zero (0) not one (1). Therefore, the 16th
channel would be numbered 15; channel 24 would be numbered 23.
CAUTION: Subinterfaces on a serial interface are shown with a dot (.). Channels
are shown with a colon (:). For example,
Serial0/0.23 is subinterface 23.
Serial 0/0:23 is channel 23.
Verifying ISDN Configuration
show isdn status
Router#s
Confirms BRI operations
show isdn active
Router#s
Displays current call information
show dialer
Router#s
Displays information about the dialer
interface (used in DDR)
show interface bri 0/0
Router#s
Displays statistics about interface bri 0/0
show interface bri 0/0:1
Router#s
Displays statistics about channel 1 of
interface bri 0/0
clear interface bri 0/0
Rourer#c
Manually resets the interface. All ISDN
information will have to be re-sent
TIP: If, after you have set the SPIDs on an interface, the SPIDs have not been sent
and verified by the ISDN switch, issue a clear interface bri 0/0 (or bri 0) command
to force the router to renegotiate ISDN info with the switch. You might need to
issue the clear interface command three or four times for the interface to come up.
Troubleshooting ISDN
debug isdn q921
Router#d
Displays info about Layer 2 (data link
layer) access taking place on the D channel
debug isdn q931
Router#d
Displays info about Layer 3 (network
layer) call setup and teardown between
your router and the service provider switch
debug dialer events
Router#d
Displays messages when the DDR link has
connected and what traffic caused it to
connect
debug dialer packets
Router#d
Displays a message every time a packet is
sent out the DDR interface
176
Configuring Legacy DDR
NOTE: PPP is often used as an encapsulation method when working with ISDN.
Therefore, the PPP configuration commands, along with the PPP debug commands are applicable here, too.
Configuring Legacy DDR
Step 1: Configure
static routes on
router.
Using static routes instead of
dynamic routing will save on
ISDN costs. The link will not
always be up because routing
updates trigger link to
become active
config t
Edmonton#c
ip route
Edmonton(config)#i
172.16.30.0 0.0.0.255
172.16.20.2
Specifies what type of
traffic will trigger the router
to make an ISDN call to
establish the link
Step 2 (Option 1):
Define interesting
traffic without
access lists.
Tip: The dialer-list and
dialer-group commands
can be compared to the
access-list and accessgroup commands in access
control lists (ACLs)
dialerEdmonton(config)#d
list 1 protocol ip permit
States that all IP traffic is
interesting
int bri 0
Edmonton(config)#i
dialerEdmonton(config-if)#d
group 1
Step 2 (Option 2):
Define interesting
traffic with access
lists (for better
control).
Groups all dialer-list 1
statements together to apply
to this interface
Using access lists within
dialer lists gives you more
control as to what traffic is
defined as interesting
dialerEdmonton(config)#d
list 2 protocol ip list 150
Points dialer list to ACL 150
accessEdmonton(config)#a
list 150 deny udp any any
eq tftp
Denies TFTP traffic
Configuring Dialer Profiles with DDR
accessEdmonton(config)#a
list 150 deny tcp any any
eq telnet
Denies Telnet traffic
accessEdmonton(config)#a
list 150 permit ip any any
Permits everything else
177
int bri 0
Edmonton(config)#i
Step 3: Configure
DDR dialer
information.
dialerEdmonton(config-if)#d
group 2
Groups all dialer-list 2
statements together on this
interface
username
Edmonton(config)#u
Calgary password academy
For PPP encapsulation with
authentication across ISDN
(optional)
int bri 0
Edmonton(config)#i
encap
Edmonton(config-if)#e
ppp
Turns on PPP encapsulation
ppp
Edmonton(config-if)#p
authentication chap
Turns on CHAP
authentication
dialer
Edmonton(config-if)#d
idle-timeout 150
Specifies the number of
seconds after last interesting
traffic is sent before the call
terminates(default is 120
seconds)
dialer
Edmonton(config-if)#d
map ip 172.16.20.2 name
Calgary 5552000
Defines the following:
• 172.16.20.2 = IP address
of next-hop router
• Calgary = host name of
remote router
• 5552000 = number to dial
to get there
Configuring Dialer Profiles with DDR
TIP: Using a dial map applies the configuration directly to the interface. Using a
dialer profile allows you to have a more dynamic configuration—the physical
interface will act differently depending on your specific call requirements, such as
the following:
• Do you want HDLC encapsulation instead of PPP?
• Do you want an extended ACL rather than a standard one?
• Do you want a different idle-timeout threshold?
178
Configuring Dialer Profiles with DDR
Step 1: Configure
static routes on
router.
Using static routes
rather than dynamic
routing will save on
ISDN costs. The link
will not always be up
because routing
updates trigger link to
remain become active
config t
Edmonton#c
ip route
Edmonton(config)#i
172.16.30.0 0.0.0.255 172.16.20.2
Step 2 (Option 1):
Define interesting
traffic without
access lists.
dialer-list 1
Edmonton(config)#d
protocol ip permit
int dialer 0
Edmonton(config)#i
Go to virtual dialer
interface as opposed
to physical BRI 0
interface
dialer-group 1
Edmonton(config-if)#d
Step 2 (Option 2):
Define interesting
traffic with access
lists.
dialer-list 2
Edmonton(config)#d
protocol ip list 150
access-list 150
Edmonton(config)#a
deny udp any any eq tftp
access-list 150
Edmonton(config)#a
deny tcp any any eq telnet
access-list 150
Edmonton(config)#a
permit ip any any
int dialer 0
Edmonton(config)#i
dialer-group 2
Edmonton(config-if)#d
Go to virtual dialer
interface as opposed
to physical BRI 0
interface.
Configuring Dialer Profiles with DDR
179
Step 3: Configure
DDR dialer
information.
username Calgary
Edmonton(config)#u
password academy
For PPP encapsulation
across ISDN
(optional)
int dialer 0
Edmonton(config)#i
ip address
Edmonton(config-if)#i
172.16.20.1 255.255.255.0
int bri 0
Edmonton(config-if)#i
encap ppp
Edmonton(config-if)#e
Turns on PPP
encapsulation
ppp
Edmonton(config-if)#p
authentication chap
Turns on CHAP
authentication
dialer idleEdmonton(config-if)#d
timeout 150
Specifies the number
of seconds after last
interesting traffic is
sent before the call
terminates (default is
120 seconds)
int dialer 0
Edmonton(config)#i
Enters dialer interface
Step 4: Configure
dialer information.
dialer remote
Edmonton(config-if)#d
name Calgary
dialer string
Edmonton(config-if)#d
5552000
Step 5: Associate
dialer profile.
interface bri 0
Edmonton(config)#i
dialer poolEdmonton(config-if)#d
member 1
Or 2 if using dialgroup 2
interface
Edmonton(config-if)#i
dialer 0
dialer pool 1
Edmonton(config-if)#d
Or 2 if using dialgroup 2
180
Configuration Example: ISDN and DDR with No Dialer Profiles
Configuration Example: ISDN and DDR with No Dialer Profiles
Figure 4-1 shows the network topology for the ISDN and DDR with no dialer profiles
configuration that follows using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 4-1
ISDN/DDR with No Dialer Profiles Configuration
Host A
172.16.10.2/24
fa0/0
172.16.10.1/24
Host A
172.16.30.2/24
Atlas 4/1
ISP
BRI0/0
172.16.20.2/24
fa0/0
172.16.30.1/24
Atlas 4/2
ISDN
PPP
Ph: 555-1234, 555-1235
SPID: 51055512340001
SPID: 51055512350001
ISP
BRI0/0
172.16.20.2/24
Ph: 555-4000, 555-4001
SPID: 51055540000001
SPID: 51055540010001
Edmonton Router
en
router>e
config t
router#c
host Edmonton
router(config)#h
Sets host name
no ip domain-lookup
Edmonton(config)#n
Turns off DNS resolution to
avoid wait time due to DNS
lookup of spelling errors
enable secret cisco
Edmonton(config)#e
Sets encrypted password to
cisco
line con 0
Edmonton(config)#l
login
Edmonton(config-line)#l
password class
Edmonton(config-line)#p
Sets console line password to
class
Configuration Example: ISDN and DDR with No Dialer Profiles
logging synchronous
Edmonton(config-line)#l
181
Returns prompt to same
location after info messages
interrupt
exit
Edmonton(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Edmonton(config)#i
ip add 172.16.10.1
Edmonton(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address to interface
no shut
Edmonton(config-if)#n
Turns interface on
exit
Edmonton(config-if)#e
username Calgary password
Edmonton(config)#u
academy
For PPP encapsulation across
ISDN (optional)
isdn switch-type basic-ni
Edmonton(config)#i
Sets ISDN switch type for all
interfaces to match service
provider
dialer-list 1 protocol ip
Edmonton(config)#d
permit
Defines interesting traffic—all
IP
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Edmonton(config)#i
172.16.20.2
Creates a static route that will
send all traffic not defined in
the routing table to the nexthop address of 172.16.20.2
int bri 0/0
Edmonton(config)#i
ip add 172.16.20.1
Edmonton(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address to interface
encap ppp
Edmonton(config-if)#e
Turns on PPP encapsulation
ppp authen chap
Edmonton(config-if)#p
Turns on CHAP authentication
dialer-group 1
Edmonton(config-if)#d
Assigns traffic from dialer list
1 to this group
isdn spid1
Edmonton(config-if)#i
51055512340001 5551234
Assigns SPID 1
isdn spid2
Edmonton(config-if)#i
51055512350001 5551235
Assigns SPID 2
dialer idle-timeout 90
Edmonton(config-if)#d
Specifies that the interface will
disconnect after 90 seconds of
no traffic
182
Configuration Example: ISDN and DDR with No Dialer Profiles
dialer map ip
Edmonton(config-if)#d
172.16.20.2 name Calgary 5554000
Sets map to find remote router
no shut
Edmonton(config-if)#n
Edmonton(config-if)#Çz
copy run start
Edmonton#c
Saves configuration to
NVRAM
Calgary Router
en
router>e
config t
router#c
host Calgary
router(config)#h
Sets host name
no ip domain-lookup
Calgary(config)#n
Turns off DNS resolution to
avoid wait time due to DNS
lookup of spelling errors
enable secret cisco
Calgary(config)#e
Sets encrypted password
line con 0
Calgary(config)#l
login
Calgary(config-line)#l
password console
Calgary(config-line)#p
Sets console line password
logging synchronous
Calgary(config-line)#l
Returns prompt to same
location after info messages
interrupt
exit
Calgary(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Calgary(config)#i
ip add 172.16.30.1
Calgary(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address to interface
no shut
Calgary(config-if)#n
Turns interface on
exit
Calgary(config-if)#e
username Edmonton password
Calgary(config)#u
academy
For PPP encapsulation across
ISDN (optional)
Configuration Example: ISDN and DDR with No Dialer Profiles
183
Calgary(config)#isdn switch-type basic-ni
Sets ISDN switch type for all
interfaces to match service
provider
Calgary(config)#dialer-list 1 protocol ip
permit
Defines interesting traffic—all
IP
Calgary(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
172.16.20.1
Creates a static route that will
send all traffic not defined in
the routing table to the nexthop address of 172.16.20.1
int bri 0/0
Calgary(config)#i
ip add 172.16.20.2
Calgary(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address to interface
encap ppp
Calgary(config-if)#e
Turns on PPP encapsulation
ppp authen chap
Calgary(config-if)#p
Turns on CHAP authentication
dialer-group 1
Calgary(config-if)#d
Assigns traffic from dialer list
1 to this group
isdn spid1
Calgary(config-if)#i
51055540000001 5554000
Assigns SPID 1
isdn spid2
Calgary(config-if)#i
51055540010001 5554001
Assigns SPID 2
dialer idle-timeout 60
Calgary(config-if)#d
Specifies that the interface will
disconnect after 60 seconds of
no traffic
dialer map ip
Calgary(config-if)#d
172.16.20.1 name Edmonton 5551234
Sets map to find remote router
no shut
Calgary(config-if)#n
Calgary(config-if)#Çz
copy run start
Calgary#c
Saves configuration to
NVRAM
CHAPTER 5
Frame Relay
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Configuring Frame Relay
— Setting the encapsulation type
— Setting the LMI type
— Setting the DLCI number
— Configuring a Frame Relay map statement
— Configuring Frame Relay using subinterfaces
• Verifying Frame Relay
• Troubleshooting Frame Relay
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay
Encapsulation Type
int s 0/0
Router(config)#i
encapsulation frame-relay
Router(config-if)#e
or
encapsulation frame-relay
Router(config-if)#e
ietf
Turns on Frame Relay
encapsulation with the
encapsulation type of
ietf (RFC 1490). Use
the ietf encapsulation
method if connecting to
a non-Cisco router
PART IV CCNA 4
Turns on Frame Relay
encapsulation with the
default encapsulation
type of cisco
186
Configuring a Frame Relay Map
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay
Encapsulation LMI Type
frame-relay lmi-type {ansi |
Router(config-if)#f
cisco | q933a}
Depending on the
option you select, this
command sets the LMI
type to the ANSI
standard, the Cisco
standard, or the ITU-T
Q.933 Annex A
standard
NOTE: As of Cisco IOS Software Release 11.2 the LMI type is auto-sensed,
making this command optional
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay DLCI Number
frame-relay interface-dlci 110
Router(config-if)#f
Sets the DLCI number
of 110 on the local
interface
exit
Router(config-fr-dlci)#e
Router(config)#
Configuring a Frame Relay Map
frame-relay map ip
Router(config-if)#f
192.168.100.1 110 broadcast
Maps the remote IP
address (192.168.100.1)
to the local DLCI
number (110)
The optional broadcast
keyword specifies that
broadcasts across IP
should be forwarded to
this address. This is
necessary when using
dynamic routing
protocols
no frame-relay inverse arp
Router(config-if)#n
Turns off Inverse ARP
Configuring Frame Relay Using Subinterfaces
187
NOTE: Cisco routers have Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) turned on
by default. This means that the router will go out and create the mapping for you.
If the remote router does not support Inverse ARP, or you want to control broadcast traffic over the permanent virtual circuit (PVC), you must statically set the
DLCI/IP mappings and turn off Inverse ARP.
You need to issue the no frame-relay inverse-arp command before you issue the
no shutdown command; otherwise, the interface performs Inverse ARP before
you can turn it off.
Configuring a Description of the Interface (Optional)
description Connection to the
Router(config-if)#d
Branch office
Optional command to
allow you to enter in
additional information
such as contact name,
PVC description, and so
on
Configuring Frame Relay Using Subinterfaces
Subinterfaces enable you to solve split-horizon problems and to create multiple PVCs on a
single physical connection to the Frame Relay cloud.
int s 0/0
Router(config)#i
encapsulation frame-relay
Router(config-if)#e
ietf
Sets the Frame Relay
encapsulation type for all
subinterfaces on this
interface
frame-relay lmi-type ansi
Router(config-if)#f
Sets the LMI type for all
subinterfaces on this
interface
no shut
Router(config-if)#n
interface s 0/0.102 point-toRouter(config-if)#i
point
Creates a point-to-point
subinterface numbered
102
ip address 192.168.10.1
Router(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address to
the subinterface
frame-relay interfaceRouter(config-subif)#f
dlci 102
Assigns a DLCI to the
subinterface
188
Troubleshooting Frame Relay
int s 0/0.103 point-toRouter(config-subif)#i
point
Creates a point-to-point
subinterface numbered
103
ip address 192.168.20.1
Router(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns a IP address to
the subinterface
frame-relay interfaceRouter(config-subif)#f
dlci 103
Assigns a DLCI to the
subinterface
exit
Router(config-subif)#e
exit
Router(config-if)#e
Router(config)#
NOTE:
There are two types of subinterfaces:
• Point-to-point, where a single PVC connects one router to another and each
subinterface is in its own IP subnet.
• Multipoint, where the router is the middle point of a group of routers. All other
routers connect to each other through this router and all routers are in the
same subnet.
NOTE: Use the no ip split-horizon command to turn off split-horizon commands
on multipoint interfaces so that remote sites can see each other.
Verifying Frame Relay
show frame-relay map
Router#s
Displays IP/DLCI map entries
show frame-relay pvc
Router#s
Displays status of all PVCs configured
show frame-relay lmi
Router#s
Displays LMI statistics
clear frame-relay-inarp
Router#c
Clears all Inverse ARP entries from the
map table
TIP: If the clear frame-relay-inarp command does not clear Frame Relay maps,
you might need to reload the router.
Troubleshooting Frame Relay
debug frame-relay lmi
Router#d
Used to help determine whether a router
and Frame Relay switch are exchanging
LMI packets properly
Configuration Example: Frame Relay
189
Configuration Example: Frame Relay
Figure 5-1 shows the network topology for the Frame Relay configuration that follows
using the commands covered in this chapter.
Figure 5-1
Frame Relay Network
192.168.20.0/24
Ethernet
Edmonton
s0/0.22
192.168.3.1
s0/0.20
192.168.1.1
22 20
1/1
Atlas Port
Frame Relay
(Atlas 550)
Atlas Port
2/1
40 41
s0/0.40
192.168.3.2
s0/0.41
192.168.4.1
Calgary
Ethernet
192.168.40.0/24
Atlas Port
2/1
31 30
s0/0.31
192.168.4.2
s0/0.30
192.168.1.2
Winnipeg
Ethernet
192.168.30.0/24
Edmonton Router
en
router>e
config t
router#c
host Edmonton
router(config)#h
Sets the host name
no ip domain-lookup
Edmonton(config)#n
Turns off DNS queries so
that spelling mistakes will
not slow you down
190
Configuration Example: Frame Relay
enable secret cisco
Edmonton(config)#e
Sets the encrypted password
line con 0
Edmonton(config)#l
login
Edmonton(config-line)#l
password class
Edmonton(config-line)#p
Sets console line password
to class
logging synchronous
Edmonton(config-line)#l
Command being entered
will be appended to a new
line
exit
Edmonton(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Edmonton(config)#i
ip address 192.168.20.1
Edmonton(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns IP address
no shut
Edmonton(config-if)#n
int s 0/0
Edmonton(config-if)#i
encapsulation frameEdmonton(config-if)#e
relay
Turns on Frame Relay
encapsulation
no shut
Edmonton(config-if)#n
int s0/0.20 point-toEdmonton(config-if)#i
point
Creates subinterface 20
desc link to Winnipeg
Edmonton(config-subif)#d
router DLCI 20
ip address
Edmonton(config-subif)#i
192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address
frame-relay
Edmonton(config-subif)#f
interface-dlci 20
Assigns a DLCI number
interface s 0/0.22
Edmonton(config-subif)#i
Creates subinterface 22
desc link to Calgary
Edmonton(config-subif)#d
router DLCI 22
ip address
Edmonton(config-subif)#i
192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address
frame-relay interface
Edmonton(config-subif)#f
dlci 22
Assigns a DLCI number
Configuration Example: Frame Relay
191
exit
Edmonton(config-subif)#e
exit
Edmonton(config-if)#e
router eigrp 100
Edmonton(config)#r
Turns on the EIGRP routing
process 100
network 192.168.1.0
Edmonton(config-router)#n
Advertises network
192.168.1.0, which connects
to Winnipeg
network 192.168.3.0
Edmonton(config-router)#n
Advertises network
192.168.3.0, which connects
to Calgary
network 192.168.20.0
Edmonton(config-router)#n
Advertises network
192.168.20.0, which is
directly connected to local
FA 0/interface
Edmonton(config-router)#Çz
copy run start
Edmonton#c
Saves the configuration to
NVRAM
Winnipeg Router
en
router>e
config t
router#c
host Winnipeg
router(config)#h
Sets the host name
no ip domain-lookup
Winnipeg(config)#n
Turns off DNS queries so
that spelling mistakes will
not slow you down
enable secret cisco
Winnipeg(config)#e
Sets the encrypted password
to cisco
line con 0
Winnipeg(config)#l
login
Winnipeg(config-line)#l
password class
Winnipeg(config-line)#p
Sets the console line
password to class
192
Configuration Example: Frame Relay
logging synchronous
Winnipeg(config-line)#l
Command being entered
will be appended to a new
line
exit
Winnipeg(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Winnipeg(config)#i
ip address 192.168.30.1
Winnipeg(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address
no shut
Winnipeg(config-if)#n
int s 0/0
Winnipeg(config-if)#i
encapsulation frameWinnipeg(config-if)#e
relay
Turns on Frame Relay
encapsulation
no shut
Winnipeg(config-if)#n
int s0/0.30 point-toWinnipeg(config-if)#i
point
Creates subinterface 30
desc link to Edmonton
Winnipeg(config-subif)#d
router DLCI 30
ip address
Winnipeg(config-subif)#i
192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address
frame-relay
Winnipeg(config-subif)#f
interface-dlci 30
Assigns a DLCI number
interface s 0/0.31
Winnipeg(config-subif)#i
Creates subinterface 31
desc link to Calgary
Winnipeg(config-subif)#d
router DLCI 31
ip address
Winnipeg(config-subif)#i
192.168.4.2 255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address
frame-relay
Winnipeg(config-subif)#f
interface-dlci 31
Assigns a DLCI number
exit
Winnipeg(config-subif)#e
exit
Winnipeg(config-if)#e
router eigrp 100
Winnipeg(config)#r
Turns on EIGRP routing
process 100
network 192.168.1.0
Winnipeg(config-router)#n
Advertises network
192.168.1.0 (to Winnipeg)
Configuration Example: Frame Relay
network 192.168.4.0
Winnipeg(config-router)#n
Advertises network to
192.168.4.0 (to Calgary)
network 192.168.30.0
Winnipeg(config-router)#n
Advertises network
192.168.30.0 directly
connected to FA 0/0
193
Winnipeg(config-router)#Çz
copy run start
Winnipeg#c
Saves the configuration to
NVRAM
Calgary Router
en
router>e
config t
router#c
host Calgary
router(config)#h
Sets the host name
no ip domain-lookup
Calgary(config)#n
Turns off DNS queries so
that spelling mistakes will
not slow you down
enable secret cisco
Calgary(config)#e
Sets the encrypted password
to cisco
line con 0
Calgary(config)#l
login
Calgary(config-line)#l
password class
Calgary(config-line)#p
Sets the console line
password to class
logging synchronous
Calgary(config-line)#l
Command being entered
will be appended to a new
line
exit
Calgary(config-line)#e
int fa 0/0
Calgary(config)#i
ip address 192.168.40.1
Calgary(config-if)#i
255.255.255.0
no shut
Calgary(config-if)#n
int s 0/0
Calgary(config-if)#i
Assigns an IP address
194
Configuration Example: Frame Relay
encapsulation frame-relay
Calgary(config-if)#e
Turns on Frame Relay
encapsulation
no shut
Calgary(config-if)#n
int s0/0.40 point-toCalgary(config-if)#i
point
Creates subinterface 40
desc link to Edmonton
Calgary(config-subif)#d
router DLCI 40
ip address 192.168.3.2
Calgary(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address
frame-relay interfaceCalgary(config-subif)#f
dlci 40
Assigns a DLCI number
interface s 0/0.41
Calgary(config-subif)#i
Creates subinterface 41
desc link to Winnipeg
Calgary(config-subif)#d
router DLCI 41
ip address 192.168.4.1
Calgary(config-subif)#i
255.255.255.0
Assigns an IP address
frame-relay interfaceCalgary(config-subif)#f
dlci 41
Assigns a DLCI number
exit
Calgary(config-subif)#e
exit
Calgary(config-if)#e
router eigrp 100
Calgary(config)#r
Turns on EIGRP routing
process 100
network 192.168.3.0
Calgary(config-router)#n
Advertises the network to
Winnipeg
network 192.168.4.0
Calgary(config-router)#n
Advertises the network to
Calgary
network 192.168.40.0
Calgary(config-router)#n
Advertises the local fa 0/0
network
Calgary(config-router)#Çz
copy run start
Calgary#c
Saves the configuration to
NVRAM
CHAPTER 6
Introduction to Network
Administration
This chapter provides information and commands concerning the following topics:
• Configuring Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
• Configuring Syslog
Configuring SNMP
Sets a read-only (ro)
community string called
academy
snmp-server community
Router(config)#s
academy rw
Sets a read-write (rw)
community string called
academy
snmp-server location 2nd
Router(config)#s
Floor IDF
Defines an SNMP string
that describes the physical
location of the SNMP
server
snmp-server contact Scott
Router(config)#s
Empson 555-5236
Defines an SNMP string
that describes the
sysContact information
NOTE: A community string is like a password. In the case of the first
command, the community string grants you access to SNMP.
Configuring Syslog
logging on
Router(config)#l
Enables logging to all
supported destinations
logging 192.168.10.53
Router(config)#l
Logging messages will be
sent to a syslog server
host at address
192.168.10.53
PART IV CCNA 4
snmp-server community
Router(config)#s
academy ro
196
Configuring Syslog
logging sysadmin
Router(config)#l
Logging messages will be
sent to a syslog server
host named sysadmin
logging trap x
Router(config)#l
Sets the syslog server
logging level to value x,
where x is a number
between 0 and 7 or a word
defining the level. The
table that follows
provides more details
service timestamps log
Router(config)#s
datetime
Syslog messages will now
have a time stamp
included
There are eight levels of severity in logging messages, as follows:
0
Emergencies
System is unusable
1
Alerts
Immediate action needed
2
Critical
Critical conditions
3
Errors
Error conditions
4
Warnings
Warning conditions
5
Notifications
Normal but significant conditions
6
Informational
Informational messages (default level)
7
Debugging
Debugging messages
Setting a level means you will get that level and everything below it. Level 6 means you
will receive level 6 and 7 messages. Level 4 means you will get levels 4 through 7.
PART V
Appendixes
Appendix A Subnetting
Appendix B VLSM
PART V APPENDIXES
APPENDIX A
Subnetting
Class A–E Addresses
Class
Leading
Bit Pattern
First Octet
in Decimal
Notes
Formulae
A
0xxxxxxx
0–127
0 is invalid
2N
127 reserved
for loopback
testing
Where N is
equal to
number of
bits
borrowed
Number of
total subnets
created
B
10xxxxxx
128–191
2N – 2
Number of
valid subnets
created
C
110xxxxx
192–223
2H
Number of
total hosts
per subnet
Where H is
equal to
number of
host bits
D
1110xxxx
224–239
Reserved for
multicasting
E
1111xxxx
240–255
Reserved for
future use/
testing
N
H
H
H
Class B Address
N
N
H
H
Class C Address
N
N
N
H
N = Network bits
H = Host bits
All 0s in host portion = Network or subnetwork address
All 1s in host portion = Broadcast address
Combination of 1s and 0s in host portion = Valid host address
Number of
valid hosts
per subnet
PART V APPENDIXES
Class A Address
2H – 2
200
Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary
Converting Between Decimal Numbers and Binary
In any given octet of an IP address, the 8 bits can be defined as follows:
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
To convert a decimal number into binary, you must turn on the bits (make them a 1) that
would add up to that number, as follows:
187 = 10111011 = 128+32+16+8+2+1
224 = 11100000 = 128+64+32
To convert a binary number into decimal, you must add the bits that have been turned on
(the 1s), as follows:
10101010 = 128+32+8+2 = 170
11110000 = 128+64+32+16 = 240
The IP address 138.101.114.250 is represented in binary as:
10001010.01100101.01110010.11111010
The subnet mask of 255.255.255.192 is represented in binary as:
11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000
Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary
You have a Class C address of 192.168.100.0 /24. You need nine subnets. What is the IP
plan of network numbers, broadcast numbers, and valid host numbers? What is the subnet
mask needed for this plan?
You cannot use N bits, only H bits. Therefore, ignore 192.168.100. These numbers cannot
change.
Step 1
Determine how many H bits you need to borrow to create nine valid subnets.
2N – 2 ≥ 9
N = 4, so you need to borrow 4 H bits and turn them into N bits.
Start with 8 H bits
HHHHHHHH
Borrow 4 bits
NNNNHHHH
Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary
Step 2
201
Determine the first valid subnet in binary.
0001HHHH
Cannot use subnet 0000 because it is invalid. Therefore, you
must start with the bit pattern of 0001
00010000
All 0s in host portion = subnetwork number
00010001
First valid host number
.
.
.
00011110
Last valid host number
00011111
All 1s in host portion = broadcast number
Step 3
Convert binary to decimal.
00010000 = 16
Subnetwork number
00010001 = 17
First valid host number
.
.
.
00011110 = 30
Last valid host number
00011111 = 31
All 1s in host portion = broadcast number
Step 4
Determine the second valid subnet in binary.
0010HHHH
0010 = 2 in binary = second valid subnet
00100000
All 0s in host portion = subnetwork number
00100001
First valid host number
.
.
.
00101110
Last valid host number
00101111
All 1s in host portion = broadcast number
202
Step 5
Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary
Convert binary to decimal.
00100000 = 16
Subnetwork number
00100001 = 17
First valid host number
.
.
.
00101110 = 30
Last valid host number
00101111 = 31
All 1s in host portion = broadcast number
Step 6
Create IP plan table.
Valid Subnet
Network Number
Range of Valid Hosts
Broadcast Number
1
16
17–30
31
2
32
33–46
47
3
48
49–62
63
Notice a pattern? Counting by 16.
Step 7
Verify pattern in binary (third valid subnet in binary used here).
0011HHHH
Third valid subnet
00110000 = 48
Subnetwork number
00110001 = 49
First valid host number
.
.
.
00111110 = 62
Last valid host number
00111111 = 63
Broadcast number
Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary
Step 8
203
Finish IP plan table.
Network Address
Range of Valid Hosts
Broadcast Address
Subnet
(0000)
(0001–1110)
(1111)
0 (0000)
invalid
192.168.100.0
192.168.100.1–
192.168.100.14
192.168.100.15
1 (0001)
192.168.100.16
192.168.100.17–
192.168.100.30
192.168.100.31
2 (0010)
192.168.100.32
192.168.100.33–
192.168.100.46
192.168.100.47
3 (0011)
192.168.100.48
192.168.100.49–
192.168.100.62
192.168.100.63
4 (0100)
192.168.100.64
192.168.100.65–
192.168.100.78
192.168.100.79
5 (0101)
192.168.100.80
192.168.100.81–
192.168.100.94
192.168.100.95
6 (0110)
192.168.100.96
192.168.100.97–
192.168.100.110
192.168.100.111
7 (0111)
192.168.100.112
192.168.100.113–
192.168.100.126
192.168.100.127
8 (1000)
192.168.100.128
192.168.100.129–
192.168.100.142
192.168.100.143
9 (1001)
192.168.100.144
192.168.100.145–
192.168.100.158
192.168.100.159
10 (1010)
192.168.100.160
192.168.100.161–
192.168.100.174
192.168.100.175
11 (1011)
192.168.100.176
192.168.100.177–
192.168.100.190
192.168.100.191
12 (1100)
192.168.100.192
192.168.100.193–
192.168.100.206
192.168.100.207
13 (1101)
192.168.100.208
192.168.100.209–
192.168.100.222
192.168.100.223
204
Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary
14 (1110)
192.168.100.224
192.168.100.225–
192.168.100.238
192.168.100.239
15 (1111)
invalid
192.168.100.240
192.168.100.241–
192.168.100.254
192.168.100.255
Quick
Check
Always an even
number
First valid host is
always an odd #
Always an odd
number
Last valid host is
always even #
Use any nine subnets—the rest are for future growth
Step 9
Calculate subnet mask.
The default subnet mask for a Class C network is as follows:
Decimal
Binary
255.255.255.0
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
1 = Network or subnetwork bit
0 = Host bit
You borrowed 4 bits; therefore, the new subnet mask is the following:
11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000
255.255.255.240
NOTE: You subnet a Class B or a Class A network with exactly the same steps as
for a Class C network; the only difference is that you start with more H bits.
Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary
You have a Class B address of 172.16.0.0 /16. You need nine subnets. What is the IP plan
of network numbers, broadcast numbers, and valid host numbers? What is the subnet mask
needed for this plan?
You cannot use N bits, only H bits. Therefore, ignore 172.16. These numbers cannot
change.
Step 1
Determine how many H bits you need to borrow to create nine valid subnets.
2N – 2 ≥ 9
N = 4, so you need to borrow 4 H bits and turn them into N bits.
Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary
205
Start with 16 H bits
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH (Remove the decimal point for
now)
Borrow 4 bits
NNNNHHHHHHHHHHHH
Step 2
Determine the first valid subnet in binary (without using decimal points).
0001HHHHHHHHHHHH
0001000000000000
Subnet number
0001000000000001
First valid host
.
.
.
0001111111111110
Last valid host
0001111111111111
Broadcast number
Step 3
Convert binary to decimal (replacing the decimal point in the binary numbers).
00010000.00000000 = 16.0
Subnetwork number
00010000.00000001 = 16.1
First valid host number
.
.
.
00011111.11111110 = 31.254
Last valid host number
00011111.11111111 = 31.255
Broadcast number
Step 4
Determine the second valid subnet in binary (without using decimal points).
0010HHHHHHHHHHHH
0010000000000000
Subnet number
0010000000000001
First valid host
.
.
206
Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary
.
0010111111111110
Last valid host
0010111111111111
Broadcast number
Step 5
Convert binary to decimal (replacing the decimal point in the binary numbers).
00100000.00000000 = 32.0
Subnetwork number
00100000.00000001 = 32.1
First valid host number
.
.
.
00101111.11111110 = 47.254
Last valid host number
00101111.11111111 = 47.255
Broadcast number
Step 6
Create IP plan table.
Valid Subnet
Network Number
Range of Valid Hosts
Broadcast Number
1
16.0
16.1–31.254
31.255
2
32.0
32.1–47.254
47.255
3
48.0
48.1–63.254
63.255
Notice a pattern? Counting by 16.
Step 7
Verify pattern in binary (third valid subnet in binary used here).
0011HHHHHHHHHHHH
Third valid subnet
00110000.00000000 = 48.0
Subnetwork number
00110000.00000001 = 48.1
First valid host number
.
.
.
00111111.11111110 = 63.254
Last valid host number
00111111.11111111 = 63.255
Broadcast number
Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary
Step 8
207
Finish IP plan table.
Network
Address
Range of Valid Hosts
Broadcast
Address
Subnet
(0000)
(0001–1110)
(1111)
0 (0000)
invalid
172.16.0.0
172.16.0.1–172.16.15.254
172.16.15.255
1 (0001)
172.16.16.0
172.16.16.1–172.16.31.254
172.16.31.255
2 (0010)
172.16.32.0
172.16.32.1–172.16.47.254
172.16.47.255
3 (0011)
172.16.48.0
172.16.48.1–172.16.63.254
172.16.63.255
4 (0100)
172.16.64.0
172.16.64.1–172.16.79.254
172.16.79.255
5 (0101)
172.16.80.0
172.16.80.1–172.16.95.254
172.16.95.255
6 (0110)
172.16.96.0
172.16.96.1–172.16.111.254
172.16.111.255
7 (0111)
172.16.112.0
172.16.112.1–172.16.127.254
172.16.127.255
8 (1000)
172.16.128.0
172.16.128.1–172.16.143.254
172.16.143.255
9 (1001)
172.16.144.0
172.16.144.1–172.16.159.254
172.16.159.255
10 (1010)
172.16.160.0
172.16.160.1–172.16.175.254
172.16.175.255
11 (1011)
172.16.176.0
172.16.176.1–172.16.191.254
172.16.191.255
12 (1100)
172.16.192.0
172.16.192.1–172.16.207.254
172.16.207.255
13 (1101)
172.16.208.0
172.16.208.1–172.16.223.254
172.16.223.255
14 (1110)
172.16.224.0
172.16.224.1–172.16.239.254
172.16.239.255
15 (1111)
invalid
172.16.240.0
172.16.240.1–172.16.255.254
172.16.255.255
Quick
Check
Always in form
even #.0
First valid host is always even
#.1
Always odd #.255
Last valid host is always odd
#.254
Use any nine subnets—the rest are for future growth.
Step 9
Calculate the subnet mask.
208
The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting
The default subnet mask for a Class B network is as follows:
Decimal
Binary
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
1 = Network or subnetwork bit
0 = Host bit
You borrowed 4 bits; therefore, the new subnet mask is the following:
11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000
255.255.240.0
The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting (or How to Subnet
Anything in Under a Minute)
Legend has it that once upon a time a networking instructor named Bob taught a class of
students a method of subnetting any address using a special chart. This was known as the
Bob Maneuver. These students, being the smart type that networking students usually are,
added a row to the top of the chart and the Enhanced Bob Maneuver was born. The chart
and instructions on how to use it follow. With practice, you should be able to subnet any
address and come up with an IP plan in under a minute. After all, it’s just math!
The Bob of the Enhanced Bob Maneuver was really a manager/instructor at SHL. He taught
this maneuver to Bruce, who taught it to Chad Klymchuk. Chad and a coworker named Troy
added the top line of the chart, enhancing it. Chad was first my instructor in Microsoft, then
my coworker here at NAIT, and now is one of my Academy Instructors—I guess I am now
his boss. And the circle is complete.
The Enhanced Bob Maneuver
192
224
240
248
252
254
255
Subnet Mask
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
Target Number
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit Place
126
62
30
14
6
4
N/A
Number of Valid Subnets
Suppose that you have a Class C network and you need nine subnets.
1. On the bottom line (Number of Valid Subnets), move from right to left and find the
closest number that is bigger than or equal to what you need:
Nine subnets—move to 14.
2. From that number (14), move up to the line called Bit Place.
The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting
209
Above 14 is bit place 4.
3. The dark line is called the high-order line. If you cross the line, you have to reverse
direction
You were moving right to left; now you have to move from left to right.
4. Go to the line called Target Number. Counting from the left, move over the number of
spaces that the bit place number tells you
Starting on 128, moving 4 places takes you to 16.
5. This target number is what you need to count by, starting at 0, and going until you hit
255 or greater. Stop before you get to 256:
0
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
192
208
224
240
256 Stop—too far!
210
The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting
6. These numbers are your network numbers. Expand to finish your plan.
Network #
Range of Valid Hosts
Broadcast Number
0 (invalid)
1–14
15
16
17–30
31 (1 less than next network #)
(17 is 1 more than network #
30 is 1 less than broadcast#)
32
33–46
47
48
49–62
63
64
65–78
79
80
81–94
95
96
97–110
111
112
113–126
127
128
129–142
143
144
145–158
159
160
161–174
175
176
177–190
191
192
193–206
207
208
209–222
223
224
225–238
239
240 (invalid)
241–254
255
Notice that there are 14 subnets created from .16 to .224.
7. Go back to the Enhanced Bob Maneuver chart and look above your target number to
the top line. The number above your target number is your subnet mask
Above 16 is 240. Because you started with a Class C network, the new subnet mask is
255.255.255.240.
APPENDIX B
VLSM
Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) is the more realistic way of subnetting a
network to make for the most efficient use of all of the bits.
Remember that when you perform classful (or what I sometimes call classical)
subnetting, all subnets have the same number of hosts because they all use the same
subnet mask. This leads to inefficiencies. For example, if you borrow 4 bits on a Class
C network, you end up with 14 valid subnets of 14 valid hosts. A serial link to another
router only needs 2 hosts, but with classical subnetting you end up wasting 12 of those
hosts. Even with the ability to use NAT and private addresses, where you should never
run out of addresses ever in a network design, you still want to ensure that the IP plan
that you create is as efficient as possible. This is where VLSM comes in to play.
VLSM is the process of “subnetting a subnet” and using different subnet masks for
different networks in your IP plan. What you have to remember is that you need to
make sure that there is no overlap in any of the addresses.
IP Subnet Zero
When you work with classical subnetting, you always have to eliminate the subnets
that contain either all zeros or all ones in the subnet portion. Hence, you always used
the formula 2N – 2 to define the number of valid subnets created. However, Cisco
devices can use those subnets, as long as the command ip subnet-zero is in the
configuration. This command is on by default in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0 and
later; if it was turned off for some reason, however, you can re-enable it by using the
following command:
ip subnet-zero
Router(config)#i
Now you can use the formula 2N rather than 2N – 2.
Number of total subnets created
2N – 2
Number of valid subnets created
2H
Number of total hosts per subnet
2H – 2
Number of valid hosts per subnet
No longer needed because you
have the ip subnet-zero command enabled
PART V APPENDIXES
2N
212
VLSM Example
VLSM Example
You follow the same steps in performing VLSM as you did when performing classical
subnetting.
Consider Figure B-1 as you work through an example.
Figure B-1
Sample Network Needing a VLSM Address Plan
50 Hosts
A
E
F
27 Hosts
B
G
12 Hosts
C
H
12 Hosts
D
A Class C network—192.168.100.0/24—is assigned. You need to create an IP plan for this
network using VLSM.
Once again, you cannot use the N bits—192.168.100. You can use only the H bits.
Therefore, ignore the N bits, because they cannot change!
The steps to create an IP plan using VLSM for the network illustrated in Figure B-1 are as
follows:
Step 1
Determine how many H bits will be needed to satisfy the largest network.
Step 2
Pick a subnet for the largest network to use.
Step 3
Pick the next largest network to work with.
Step 4
Pick the third largest network to work with.
Step 5
Determine network numbers for serial links.
The remainder of the chapter details what is involved with each step of the process.
VLSM Example
213
Step 1 Determine How Many H Bits Will Be Needed to Satisfy the Largest Network
A is the largest network with 50 hosts. Therefore, you need to know how many H bits will
be needed:
2H – 2 = Number of valid hosts per subnet
2H – 2 ≥ 50
H=6
You need 6 H bits to satisfy the requirements of Network A.
If you need 6 H bits and you started with 8 N bits, you are left with 8 – 6 = 2 N bits to create
subnets:
Started with: NNNNNNNN (these are the 8 bits in the fourth octet)
Now have: NNHHHHHH
All subnetting will now have to start at this reference point, to satisfy the requirements of
Network A.
Step 2 Pick a Subnet for the Largest Network to Use
You have 2 N bits to work with, leaving you with 2N or 22 or 4 subnets to work with:
NN = 00HHHHHH (The Hs = The 6 H bits you need for Network A)
01HHHHHH
10HHHHHH
11HHHHHH
If you add all zeros to the H bits, you are left with the network numbers for the four subnets:
00000000 = .0
01000000 = .64
10000000 = .128
11000000 = .192
All of these subnets will have the same subnet mask, just like in classful subnetting.
Two borrowed H bits means a subnet mask of:
11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000
or
255.255.255.192
or
/26
The /x notation represents how to show different subnet masks when using VLSM.
/8 means that the first 8 bits of the address are network, the remaining 24 bits are H bits
/24 means that the first 24 bits are network, the last 8 are host—this is either a traditional
default Class C address, or a traditional Class A network that has borrowed 16 bits, or even
a traditional Class B network that has borrowed 8 bits!
214
VLSM Example
Pick one of these subnets to use for Network A. The rest of the networks will have to use
the other three subnets.
For purposes of this example, pick the .64 network.
00000000 =
.0
01000000 =
.64
10000000 =
.128
11000000 =
.192
Network A
Step 3 Pick the Next Largest Network to Work With
Network B = 27 hosts
Determine the number of H bits needed for this network:
2H – 2 ≥ 27
H=5
You need 5 H bits to satisfy the requirements of Network B.
You started with a pattern of 2 N bits and 6 H bits for Network A. You have to maintain that
pattern.
Pick one of the remaining /26 networks to work with Network B.
For purposes of this example, select the .128/26 network:
10000000
But you need only 5 H bits, not 6. Therefore, you are left with:
10N00000
where:
10 represents the original pattern of subnetting.
N represents the extra bit we have.
00000 represents the 5 H bits you need for Network B.
Because you have this extra bit, you can create two smaller subnets from the original
subnet:
10000000
10100000
Converted to decimal, these subnets are as follows:
10000000 =.128
10100000 =.160
You have now subnetted a subnet! This is the basis of VLSM.
Each of these sub-subnets will have a new subnet mask. The original subnet mask of /24
was changed into /26 for Network A. You then take one of these /26 networks and break it
into two /27 networks:
VLSM Example
215
10000000 and 10100000 both have 3 N bits and 5 H bits.
The mask now equals:
11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
or
255.255.255.224
or
/27
Pick one of these new sub-subnets for Network B:
10000000 /27 = Network B
Use the remaining sub-subnet for future growth, or you can break it down further if needed.
You want to make sure the addresses are not overlapping with each other. So go back to the
original table.
00000000 =
.0/26
01000000 =
.64/26
10000000 =
.128/26
11000000 =
.192/26
Network A
You can now break the .128/26 network into two smaller /27 networks and assign Network B.
00000000 =
.0/26
01000000 =
.64/26
Network A
10000000 =
.128/26
Cannot use because it has been subnetted
10000000 =
.128/27
Network B
10100000 =
160/27
11000000 =
.192/26
The remaining networks are still available to be assigned to networks, or subnetted further
for better efficiency.
Step 4 Pick the Third Largest Network to Work With
Networks C and Network D = 12 hosts each
Determine the number of H bits needed for these networks:
2H – 2 ≥ 12
H=4
You need 4 H bits to satisfy the requirements of Network C and Network D.
216
VLSM Example
You started with a pattern of 2 N bits and 6 H bits for Network A. You have to maintain that
pattern.
You now have a choice as to where to put these networks. You could go to a different /26
network, or you could go to a /27 network and try to fit them into there.
For the purposes of this example, select the other /27 network—.160/27:
10100000 (The 1 in the third bit place is no longer bold, because it is part of the N bits.)
But you only need 4 H bits, not 5. Therefore you are left with:
101N0000
where:
10 represents the original pattern of subnetting.
N represents the extra bit you have.
00000 represents the 5 H bits you need for Network B.
Because you have this extra bit, you can create two smaller subnets from the original subnet:
10100000
10110000
Converted to decimal, these subnets are as follows:
10100000 = .160
10110000 = .176
These new sub-subnets will now have new subnet masks. Each sub-subnet now has 4 N bits
and 4 H bits, so their new masks will be:
11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000
or
255.255.255.240
or
/28
Pick one of these new sub-subnets for Network C and one for Network D.
00000000 =
.0/26
01000000 =
.64/26
Network A
10000000 =
.128/26
Cannot use because it has been subnetted
10000000 =
.128/27
Network B
10100000 =
160/27
Cannot use because it has been subnetted
10100000
160/28
Network C
10110000
176/28
Network D
11000000 =
.192/26
VLSM Example
217
You have now used two of the original four subnets to satisfy the requirements of four
networks. Now all you need to do is determine the network numbers for the serial links
between the routers.
Step 5 Determine Network Numbers for Serial Links
Serial links between routers all have the same property in that they only need two addresses
in a network—one for each router interface.
Determine the number of H bits needed for these networks:
2H – 2 ≥ 2
H=2
You need 2 H bits to satisfy the requirements of Networks E, F, G, and H.
You have two of the original subnets left to work with.
For purposes of this example, select the .0/26 network:
00000000
But you need only 2 H bits, not 6. Therefore, you are left with:
00NNNN00
where:
00 represents the original pattern of subnetting.
NNNN represents the extra bits you have.
00 represents the 2 H bits you need for the serial links.
Because you have 4 N bits, you can create 16 sub-subnets from the original subnet:
00000000 = .0/30
00000100 = .4/30
00001000 = .8/30
00001100 = .12/30
00010000 = .16/30
.
.
.
00111000 = .56/30
00111100 = .60/30
You need only four of them. You can hold the rest for future expansion, or recombine them
for a new, larger subnet:
00010000 = .16/30
.
.
.
00111000 = .56/30
00111100 = .60/30
218
VLSM Example
These can all be recombined into the following:
00010000 = .16/28
Going back to the original table, you now have the following:
00000000 =
.0/26
Cannot use because it has been subnetted
00000000 =
.0/30
Network E
00000100 =
.4/30
Network F
00001000 =
.8/30
Network G
00001100 =
.12/30
Network H
00010000 =
.16/28
Future growth
01000000 =
.64/26
Network A
10000000 =
.128/26
Cannot use because it has been subnetted
10000000 =
.128/27
Network B
10100000 =
160/27
Cannot use because it has been subnetted
10100000
160/28
Network C
10110000
176/28
Network D
11000000 =
.192/26
Future growth
Looking at the plan, you can see that no number is used twice. You have now created an IP
plan for the network, and have made the plan as efficient as possible, wasting no addresses
in the serial links and leaving room for future growth. This is the power of VLSM!