SA 9.10 Administration Guide

HP Server Automation
for the HP-UX, IBM AIX, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Solaris, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server,
VMware, and Windows® operating systems
Software Version: 9.10
Administration Guide
Document Release Date: June 2011
Software Release Date: June 2011
Legal Notices
Warranty
The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty statements
accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional
warranty. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein.
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
Restricted Rights Legend
Confidential computer software. Valid license from HP required for possession, use or copying. Consistent
with FAR 12.211 and 12.212, Commercial Computer Software, Computer Software Documentation, and
Technical Data for Commercial Items are licensed to the U.S. Government under vendor's standard
commercial license.
Copyright Notices
© Copyright 2000-2011 Hewlett-Packard Development Company L.P.
Trademark Notices
Adobe® is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
Intel® and Itanium® are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries.
Microsoft®, Windows®‚ Windows® XP are U.S. registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
UNIX® is a registered trademark of The Open Group.
2
Documentation Updates
The title page of this document contains the following identifying information:
•
Software Version number, which indicates the software version.
•
Document Release Date, which changes each time the document is updated.
•
Software Release Date, which indicates the release date of this version of the software.
To check for recent updates or to verify that you are using the most recent edition of a document, go to:
http://h20230.www2.hp.com/selfsolve/manuals
This site requires that you register for an HP Passport and sign in. To register for an HP Passport ID, go to:
http://h20229.www2.hp.com/passport-registration.html
Or click the New users - please register link on the HP Passport login page.
You will also receive updated or new editions if you subscribe to the appropriate product support service.
Contact your HP sales representative for details.
Document Changes
Chapter
Date
Version
Changes
June 2010
9.0
Document Created
Appendix
August 2010
9.0
New permissions
User and User
Groups
June 2011
9.10
Added administration of users, user groups and
permissions to the SA Client.
Support
Visit the HP Software Support Online web site at:
www.hp.com/go/hpsoftwaresupport
This web site provides contact information and details about the products, services, and support that HP
Software offers.
HP Software online support provides customer self-solve capabilities. It provides a fast and efficient way to
access interactive technical support tools needed to manage your business. As a valued support customer, you
can benefit by using the support web site to:
•
Search for knowledge documents of interest
•
Submit and track support cases and enhancement requests
•
Download software patches
•
Manage support contracts
•
Look up HP Server Automation Support contacts
•
Review information about available services
•
Enter into discussions with other software customers
•
Research and register for software training
3
Most of the support areas require that you register as an HP Passport user and sign in. Many also require a
support contract. To register for an HP Passport ID, go to:
http://h20229.www2.hp.com/passport-registration.html
To find more information about access levels, go to:
http://h20230.www2.hp.com/new_access_levels.jsp
4
Contents
1 User and User Group Setup and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
About SA Users and User Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
About Permission Types - Action, Resource and Folder Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
About Action Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Grouping Action Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Mapping Action Permissions (SA Client) and Feature Permissions (SA Web Client) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
About Resource Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Access to Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Facility Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Customer Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Device Group Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of Resource Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resource and Action Permissions Combined - Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Types of Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
19
19
20
20
21
22
22
About Folder Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Folder Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Folder Permissions and Action Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Folders, Customer Constraints and Software Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Folder Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
23
24
24
25
Membership in Multiple User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Restricted Views in the SA Client and SA Web Client Based on Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Predefined User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
About Private User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
About Super Administrators and Super Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
About Super Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Process Overview for Security Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
About Global File System (OGFS) Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Managing Users - SA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a New User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a User’s Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a User’s Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Users Changing Their Own Password and Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding the User Group a Particular Action Permission Comes From . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suspending a User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating a Suspended User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning a User to a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Users from an LDAP Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
32
33
33
34
36
36
36
37
37
38
38
5
Managing User Groups - SA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a New User Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a User to a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
Setting Permissions on User Groups - SA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Resource Permissions - Facilities, Customers and Device Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Action Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Folder Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting OGFS Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Private User Group Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
42
43
44
45
47
Setting Password, Account and Session Security Policies - SA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting Initial Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Password Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prohibiting Reuse of Old Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suspending User Accounts After Login Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suspending Inactive User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locking Inactive Sessions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying a User Login Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying a Banner on the SA Client Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
48
49
49
49
50
50
50
51
Managing Super Administrators - SA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing all SA Super Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Super Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a Super Administrator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
52
53
53
Managing Users - SA Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a New User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing User Profile Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing a User’s Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suspending a User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
53
54
55
55
55
Managing User Groups - SA Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning a User to a User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Private User Group Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
56
56
56
57
57
Setting Permissions on User Groups - SA Web Client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Customer Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Facility Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Device Group Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the General Feature Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Client Features Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Other Features Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Folder Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
58
58
58
60
60
61
61
Managing Passwords and Login Settings - SA Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6
Changing Passwords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying Password Character Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting Initial Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Password Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying Session Timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the User Agreement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Banner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
62
63
63
63
64
64
Managing Super Administrators and Customer Administrators - SA Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About Customer Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Super and Customer Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Super Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a Super Administrator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delegating User Group Management to a Customer Administrator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
65
65
66
66
66
Setting OGFS Permissions - SA Web Client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Authenticating with an External LDAP Directory Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imported Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SSL and External Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported External LDAP Directory Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modify the nsswitch.conf File (Linux) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using an LDAP Directory Server with SA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing a Server Certificate from the LDAP into SA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the JAAS Login Module (loginModule.conf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing External LDAP Users and User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
69
69
69
70
70
73
74
75
RSA SecurID®/SA Integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSA SecurID/SA Integration Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SecurID/SA Integration Platform Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SA/SecurID Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
86
86
87
87
89
Code Deployment Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Adding Members to a Code Deployment User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
User and Security Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2 SA Core and Component Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Introduction to SA Core and Component Security Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Enforcing Strict Control and Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stronger Controls and Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Read-only, Digitally Signed Audit Trails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signed MD5 Checksums for Packages in the Software Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Role-based Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audit Logging of User Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
92
93
93
93
94
Securing SA Internal Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication Between Components in an SA Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication Between Agents and SA Core Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication Between SA Cores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
95
96
97
SA Satellite Architecture and Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
The SA Network: Enabling Risk Mitigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
SA Compatibility with other Security Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
7
SA Core Recertification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Agent vs. Core Recertification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Upgrading after Core Recertification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Core Recertification Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Agent Recertification Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
SA Core Recertification Tool Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Core Recertification Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Creating the Core Recertification User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Removing a Core Recertification User. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Core Recert Prerequisites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Recertifying SA Cores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3 Multimaster Mesh Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Facility Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Customers Associated with a Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding or Modifying Custom Attributes for a Facility - SA Client.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying a Facility Name - SA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying a Facility Name - SA Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding or Modifying a Facility’s Custom Attributes - SA Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
121
121
122
123
123
124
Multimaster Mesh Conflict Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Types of Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
SA Transaction Conflict Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Causes of Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Overlap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Duplication of Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Out of Order Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
126
127
127
127
Best Practices for Preventing Multimaster Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Examining the State of the Multimaster Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
System Diagnosis Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Multimaster State Monitoring Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Best Practices for Resolving Database Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Types of Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Guidelines for Resolving Each Type of Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Model Repository Multimaster Component Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Resolving Model Repository Multimaster Component Conflicts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolving a Conflict by Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolving a Conflict by Transaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Administration for Multimaster Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multimaster Alert Emails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
133
133
134
138
140
141
4 Satellite Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Overview of the SA Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Management Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Facilities and Realms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Satellite Information and Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Permissions Required for Managing Satellites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
8
Viewing Satellite Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling the Display of Realm Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the Realm of a Satellite Managed Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing and Managing Satellite Gateway Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
148
150
151
151
Satellite Software Repository Cache Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Availability of Satellite Software Repository Cache Content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating Software in the Satellite Software Repository Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Software Repository Cache Manual Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staging Files to a Software Repository Cache. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microsoft Utility Uploads and Manual Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
155
156
156
160
162
163
5 SA Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
SA Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SA Component Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Diagnosis Testing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Core Components Tested by the System Diagnosis Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Access Engine Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Repository Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Services Data Access Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Engine Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Repository Multimaster Component Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
166
166
166
167
167
168
168
169
169
Running an SA Core Component System Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
The SA Core Health Check Monitor (HCM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Overview of HCM Local Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Overview of HCM Global Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Extensibility of the Health Check Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements for Extensions to HCM Local Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Categories and Local Test Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directory Layout for HCM Local Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HCM Local Test Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements for Extensions to HCM Global Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HCM Global Test Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directory Layout for HCM Global Tests: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HCM Global Test Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
175
175
177
177
178
178
179
180
180
SA Components Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boot Server Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Build Manager Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Engine Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Access Engine Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HP Live Network (HPLN) Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Server Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Repository Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Repository Multimaster Component Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agents Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SA Web Client Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Repository Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Services Data Access Engine Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
181
181
181
181
181
182
182
182
182
182
182
183
183
9
Gateway Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Global File System Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
HTTPS Server Proxy Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Global Shell Audit Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shell Event Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shell Stream Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shell Script Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Monitoring Global Shell Audit Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital Signatures in the Global Shell Audit Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage Management for the Global Shell Audit Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Global Shell Audit Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
184
185
186
186
186
187
187
189
Start Script for SA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax of the Start Script. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting an SA Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting a Multiple-Server SA Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting an SA Core Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
189
190
191
192
192
SA Core Component Internal Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Mass Deletion of Backup Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Syntax of Backup Deletion Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Deleting Backup Files with the Mass Deletion Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Multiple Data Access Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Multiple Data Access Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reassigning the Data Access Engine to a Secondary Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designating the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196
196
197
197
Scheduling Audit Result and Snapshot Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Web Services Data Access Engine Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a Configuration Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Services Data Access Engine Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Increasing the Web Services Data Access Engine Maximum Heap Memory Allocation . . . . . . . . . .
199
199
199
201
Changing Software Repository Mirroring Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Changing a Configuration Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Software Repository Mirroring Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6 Monitoring SA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Overview of SA Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Agent Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agent Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agent URL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agent Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
204
204
204
205
205
Agent Cache Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agent Cache Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for the Agent Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agent Cache Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
206
206
206
206
Command Center Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Command Center Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Monitoring Processes for the Command Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
10
Command Center URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Command Center Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Load Balancing Gateway Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Balancing Gateway Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for the Load Balancing Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Balancing Gateway Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
208
208
208
208
Data Access Engine Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Access Engine Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multimaster Central Data Access Engine Port Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for the Data Access Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Access Engine URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Access Engine Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
208
208
209
209
210
210
Web Services Data Access Engine Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Services Data Access Engine Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for the Web Services Data Access Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Services Data Access Engine URL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Services Data Access Engine Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
210
210
210
211
211
Command Engine Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Engine Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for the Command Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Engine URL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Engine Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
212
212
212
213
213
Software Repository Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Repository Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for the Software Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Repository Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Repository Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
213
213
213
214
214
Model Repository Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Repository Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for the Model Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Repository Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table Space Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multimaster Conflicts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
215
215
215
216
216
216
Model Repository Multimaster Component Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Repository Multimaster Component Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Processes for the Model Repository Multimaster Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Repository Multimaster Component Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
217
217
217
218
Global File System Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Monitoring Process for the Global File System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Spoke Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Spoke Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Monitoring Processes for the Spoke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Gateway Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
OS Build Manager Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
OS Boot Server Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
OS Boot Server Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
OS Boot Server Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
11
OS Media Server Monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
OS Media Server Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
OS Media Server Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
7 SA Notification Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Configuring SA Administrator Contact Information in SA Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Configuring the Mail Server for a Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Configuring the Command Engine Notification Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Setting Email Alert Addresses for an SA Core. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Configuring Email Alert Addresses for a Multimaster Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Configuring Email Notification Addresses for Code Deployment and Rollback (CDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
8 Global Shell: Windows Subauthentication Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Microsoft Windows Authentication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Microsoft Windows Subauthentication Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
SA Subauthentication Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
SA Agent Installation Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
SA Agent Uninstallation Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
A Permissions Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Permissions Required for the SA Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Storage Visibility and Automation Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Permissions Required for the SA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
More Information for Security Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Configuration Management Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device Group Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Server Agent Deployment Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flow Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patch Management for Windows - Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patch Management for Solaris - Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solaris Patch Policy Management - Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patch Management for Other Unix - Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Management Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Script Execution Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audit and Remediation Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Automation Visualizer Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Server Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OS Provisioning Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compliance View Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Server Property and Reboot Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Server Objects Permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
241
241
241
248
249
250
250
250
254
256
259
261
270
277
292
294
296
303
305
305
Predefined User Group Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Private User Group Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Code Deployment User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
12
1 User and User Group Setup and Security
SA provides a role-based security model that allows only authorized users to perform specific
operations on specific servers. Intended for security administrators, this chapter explains how
to set up a role-based security structure for SA.
About SA Users and User Groups
An SA user group represents a role and defines the set of permissions needed to perform
that role. You grant a set of permissions to each user group and then assign users to one or
more user groups. Each user group grants a set of permissions to all the users who belong to
that group.
All users can belong to one or more SA user groups. The tasks that a user is authorized to
perform are defined by the user groups the user is a member of.
Each SA user group:
•
Represents a role which is a set of tasks and responsibilities
•
Defines a set of permissions that enable the set of tasks needed to perform that role
•
Contains the set of SA users who perform that role
Figure 1 shows two example user groups, one for compliance managers whose role is to run
audit reports and ensure compliance of servers to corporate policies. The other example user
group is for system operators whose role is to monitor servers and install software and
patches. Each user group contains a set of permissions and a set of users:
Figure 1
Contents of User Groups, Based on Roles
13
SA provides a set of predefined user groups but you can create your own user groups to match
the roles in your organization. For more information, see Predefined User Groups on page 27.
About Permission Types - Action, Resource and Folder Permissions
SA provides three types of permissions needed to perform any action on servers:
•
Action permissions specify the actions or tasks that users can perform.
•
Resource permissions specify the servers that users can perform these actions on. All
servers are grouped by facility, by customer and by device groups. You set resource
permissions by specifying access to facilities, customers and device groups.
•
Folder permissions specify access permissions to items in the SA Library, such as OS
build plans, software packages, software policies, patch policies, audit policies, and so
forth.
Figure 2
14
SA Permission Types Needed to Perform a Task
Chapter 1
For example, to install software using a software policy, a user would need (at least) the
following permissions:
Figure 3
Permissions Needed to Install Software
These permissions (and others) are set in the predefined user group Software Deployers. For
more information, see Predefined User Groups on page 27.
The figure below shows the predefined user group named Software Deployers and the SA
users who are members of the group. The Views navigation panel also shows the Resource
Permissions, Folder Permissions, Action Permissions and OGFS Permissions of this user
group.
Figure 4
User Group Browser Showing Users who are Members
User and User Group Setup and Security
15
About Action Permissions
Action permissions define the tasks that can be performed by users. Some action permissions
specify the following types of access:
•
Read: Users can perform the task but in a read-only mode.
•
Read & Write: Users can fully perform the task.
•
None: The task does not appear in the SA Client or the SA Web Client. Users cannot view
or perform the task.
Other types of action permissions specify the following types of access:
•
Yes: Users can perform the task.
•
No: Users cannot perform the task.
For a complete list of action permissions, see Permissions Reference on page 239.
See also Setting Action Permissions on page 43.
Grouping Action Permissions
The SA Client displays the action permissions for a user group when you open the user group.
The action permissions are grouped by category as shown in Figure 5 below.
Figure 5
16
User Group Window - Action Permissions View, Grouped by Category
Chapter 1
You can ungroup the action permissions or group them by other columns by right-clicking on
any column as shown in Figure 6 below.
Figure 6
User Group Window - Action Permissions View, Grouping Menu
User and User Group Setup and Security
17
Mapping Action Permissions (SA Client) and Feature Permissions
(SA Web Client)
Action permissions in the SA Client are called Feature permissions in the SA Web Client. If
you are familiar with the SA Web Client, Figure 7 below shows where these permissions are
located in the SA Web Client and where the corresponding permissions are located in the SA
Client. These permissions are displayed whenever you open a user group.
Figure 7
18
SA Web Client Permissions Mapped to SA Client
Chapter 1
The SA Web Client is deprecated for managing permissions. Use the SA Client to manage
permissions. See Managing Users - SA Client on page 32 and Managing User Groups - SA
Client on page 39.
About Resource Permissions
A resource is one or more managed servers. Server resources are organized into the following
categories:
•
Facilities: The servers associated with an SA Facility. Every managed server belongs to
one and only one of your facilities.
•
Customers: The servers associated with a customer. You create customers and assign
each server to one customer. Every server belongs to one and only one customer, which
may be the “Not Assigned” customer group.
•
Device Groups: The servers belonging to a device group. You create device groups and
assign servers to them. Every server can belong to one or more device groups.
Resource permissions for a user group determine if the users in the user group can view or
modify the servers. A user group only has access to the servers in the facilities, customers and
device groups for which it has been granted resource permissions. Since every server belongs
to one facility, one customer and at least one device group, to have access to servers, a user
group must have permissions to at least one facility, at least one customer and at least one
device group.
You can combine customer, facility, and device group permissions to implement security
policies. For example, you can restrict access to servers that are associated with the Acme
Corp. customer, reside in the Fresno facility, and belong to a device group that contains only
Windows servers. See Examples of Resource Permissions on page 21.
Any one server is in a facility, is associated with a customer and is in one or more device
groups. A user needs access to that facility, and to that customer and to at least one device
group containing that server to get access to that server.
See also Setting Resource Permissions - Facilities, Customers and Device Groups on page 42.
Types of Access to Resources
Resource permissions must specify one of the following types of access:
•
Read: Users can view the resource only.
•
Read & Write: Users can view, create, modify or delete the resource.
•
None: The resource does not appear in the SA Client or the SA Web Client. Users cannot
view or modify the resource.
About Facility Permissions
Every server is in one and only one facility. To modify a server in a particular facility, a user
must belong to a user group that has Read & Write permission for the facility. For example, if
you want the users of a group to be able to view (but not modify) the servers in the London
facility, set the permission to Read.
User and User Group Setup and Security
19
The facility permissions also control access to the facility object itself. For example, to modify
a property of a facility, a user must belong to a group that has Read & Write permission to the
facility and the action permission to modify facilities.
About Customer Permissions
Every server is associated with one and only one customer, even if it is the “Not Assigned”
customer group. You can also associate other resources with a customer, including folders,
application configurations, and OS build plans. By setting the customer permissions, you
control the access that the users in the user group have to the resources associated with the
customer. For example, if you want the users of a group to be able to view (but not modify) the
servers associated with the Widget Inc. customer, set the permission to Read.
The customer permissions also control access to the customer object itself. For example, to add
a custom attribute to a customer, a user must belong to a group that has Read & Write
permission to the specific customer and the action permission to modify customers.
About Device Group Permissions
Every server can belong to one or more device groups. By setting the device group
permissions, you control the access that the users in the user group have to the servers in the
device group. For example, if you want the users of a group to be able to view (but not modify)
the servers in the Windows Server 2008 device group, set the permission to Read.
By default, each server belongs to a public device group based on its operating system. You
can view these device groups in the SA Client by selecting the Devices tab and selecting
Device Groups ➤ Public ➤ Opsware ➤ Operating Systems.
If a server belongs to more than one device group, the user group needs permission to only one
of the device groups to get access to that server.
While a device group can contain other device groups, permissions are not inherited by the
contained device groups.
You cannot control access to a private device group. Private device groups are visible only to
the user who created them.
The device group permissions control access to servers that belong to device groups. However,
these permissions do not control the management of the device groups. To create, modify, or
delete device groups, a user must belong to a user group that has the Manage Public Device
Groups and the Model Public Device Groups action permissions, and the Managed Servers
and Groups action permission. To add devices to a device group being used as an Access
Control Group, the user must be a Super Administrator.
20
Chapter 1
Examples of Resource Permissions
For example, suppose that a server resides in the Fresno facility, is associated with the
Widget, Inc. customer, and belongs to the Accounting device group. To modify the server, the
user group could have the permissions listed in Table 1. These permissions are also shown in
Figure 8 for the user group named Win-patchers.
Table 1
Example of Resource Permissions
Resource
Access Permission
Facility: Fresno
Read & Write
Customer: Widget, Inc.
Read & Write
Device Group: Accounting
Read & Write
Figure 8
Resource Permissions View in the User Group Screen
If the access permissions for the facility, customer or device group do not match, then the
most restrictive permissions are enforced.
User and User Group Setup and Security
21
For example, as Table 2 below shows, if the permission for the customer and the device group
is Read & Write, but the permission for the facility is Read, then the Read permission is
enforced and the user will not be able to modify the servers.
If the permission for the customer is None, then the server cannot be viewed, even if the other
permissions for the user group specify Read, or Read & Write.
Table 2
Example of Mismatched Resource Permissions
Resource
Permission
Facility: Fresno
Read
Customer: Widget, Inc.
Read & Write
Device Group: Accounting
Read & Write
Resource and Action Permissions Combined - Example
To perform an action on a resource, the user must belong to a group that has the necessary
permissions for both the action and the resource (server). For example, suppose that a server
is associated with these resources: the Widget, Inc. customer and the Fresno facility and the
Red Hat AS 4 device group. To install a patch on this server, the user could belong to a group
with the permissions listed in Table 3.
Table 3
Example of Resources Permissions and Action Permissions
Resource and Action
Permission
Customer: Widget, Inc.
Read & Write
Facility: Fresno
Read & Write
Device Group: Red Hat AS 4
Read & Write
Action: Install Patch
Yes
Other Types of Resources
Managed servers are the most common resources. Other types of resources are
•
Hardware definitions
•
Realms
•
OS installation profiles
Each of these resources can be associated with customers.
Folders can also be associated with customers, but access to folders is controlled in a different
way. See About Folder Permissions on page 23.
22
Chapter 1
About Folder Permissions
Folder permissions control access to the contents of folders in the SA Library, such as software
policies, patch policies, OS build plans, server scripts, and subfolders. A folder’s permissions
apply only to the items directly under the folder. They do not apply to items lower down in the
hierarchy, such as the subfolders of subfolders.
See also Setting Folder Permissions on page 44.
Types of Folder Permissions
In the Folders Properties window of the SA Client, you can assign the following permissions to
an individual user or a user group:
•
List Contents of Folder: Navigate to the folder in the hierarchy, click on the folder, view
the folder’s properties, see the name and type of the folder’s contents (but not the
attributes of the contents).
•
Read Objects Within Folder: View all attributes of the folder’s contents, open object
browsers on folder’s contents, use folder’s contents in actions.
For example, if the folder contains a software policy, users can open (view) the policy and
use the policy to remediate a server. However, users cannot modify the policy. (For
remediation, action and resource permissions are also required.)
Selecting this permission automatically adds the List Contents of Folder permission.
•
Write Objects Within Folder: View, use, create and modify the folder’s contents.
This permission permits actions such as New Folder and New Software Policy. To perform
most actions, action permissions are also required.
Selecting this permission automatically adds the List Contents of Folder and the Read
Objects Within Folder permissions.
•
Execute Objects Within Folder: Run the scripts contained in the folder and view the
names of the folder’s contents.
This permission allows users to run scripts, but not to read or write them. To view the
contents of scripts, users need the Read Objects Within Folder permission and the
appropriate action permission. To create scripts, they need the Write Objects Within
Folder permission and the appropriate action permission.
Selecting the Execute Objects Within Folder permission automatically adds the List
Contents of Folder permission.
•
Edit Folder Permissions: Modify the permissions or add customers to the folder.
This permission enables users to delegate the permissions management of a folder (and
its contents) to another user group.
Selecting this permission automatically adds the List Contents of Folder permission.
User and User Group Setup and Security
23
Figure 9 shows the user group named Win-patchers with the Folder Permissions view
selected. This user group has list, read, write and execute permissions to the folder named
/Library/A-WinPatch.
Figure 9
Folder Permissions View in the User Group Window
Folder Permissions and Action Permissions
Action permissions determine what actions users can perform with the SA Client. Folder
permissions specify which folders in the SA Library users have access to.
To perform most actions on folders and the items they contain, users need both folder and
action permissions. For example, to add a software policy to a folder, users must belong to a
group that has the Write Objects Within Folder permission on a particular folder and the
Manage Software Policy action permission (Read & Write).
Folders, Customer Constraints and Software Policies
If a customer is assigned to a folder, the customer constrains some of the actions on the
software policies contained in the folder. These constraints are enforced through filtering: The
objects that can be associated with the software policies must have a matching customer.
For example, suppose that you want to add the quota.rpm package to a software policy. The
package and the software policy reside in different folders. The customer of the policy’s folder
is Widget and the customer of the package’s folder is Acme. When you perform the Add
Package action on the policy, the packages that you can choose will not include quota.rpm.
The customer of the policy’s folder (Widget) acts as a filter, restricting the objects that can be
added to the policy. If you add the Widget customer to the folder of quota.rpm, then you can
add quota.rpm to the policy.
The following list summarizes the customer constraints for software policy actions. These
constraints are invoked only if the software policy’s folder has one or more customers.
Software policy actions not listed here, such as New Folder, do not have customer constraints.
•
24
Attach Software Policy: The customer of the server being attached must be one of the
customers of the software policy's folder.
Chapter 1
•
Install Software Policy Template: The customer of the server must be one of the
customers of the folder of each software policy contained in the template.
Default Folder Permissions
When SA is first installed, the predefined user groups are assigned permissions to the
top-level folders such as Package Repository. When you create a new folder, it has the same
permissions and customer as its parent.
Membership in Multiple User Groups
If a user belongs to more than one user group, the user’s permissions are derived from the
resource and action permissions of all of the groups. The way the permissions are derived
depends on whether or not the resources are folders.
If the resources are not folders, then the derived permissions are a cross-product of the
resource and action permissions of all groups that the user belongs to. With a cross product,
all action permissions apply to all resource permissions. For example, Jane Doe belongs to
both of the Atlanta and Portland groups, which have the permissions listed in Table 4.
Because the derived permissions are a cross-product, Jane can perform the System Diagnosis
task on the managed servers associated with the Widget Inc. customer, even though neither
the Atlanta nor Portland group has this capability.
Table 4
Example of Cross-Product Permissions
Atlanta User Group
Permission
Portland User Group
Permission
Resource:
Customer: Widget, Inc.
Read & Write
None
Resource:
Customer: Acme Corp.
None
Read & Write
Action:
System Diagnosis
No
Yes
Resource or Action
If the resources are folders (or their contents), then the derived permissions for the user are
cumulative, but do not cross user groups. For example, Joe Smith belongs to both the
Sunnyvale and Dallas groups shown in Table 5. Joe can create packages under the Webster
folder because the Sunnyvale group has Read & Write permissions for that folder and for the
User and User Group Setup and Security
25
Manage Package action. However, Joe cannot create packages under the Kiley folder, because
neither user group can do so. Joe can create OS Sequences under the Kiley folder, but not
under the Webster folder.
Table 5
Example of Cumulative Permissions
Sunnyvale User Group
Permission
Dallas User Group
Permission
Resource:
Folder Webster
Read & Write
None
Resource:
Folder Kiley
None
Read & Write
Action:
Manage Packages
Read & Write
None
Action:
Manage OS Sequences
None
Read & Write
Resource or Action
Restricted Views in the SA Client and SA Web Client Based on
Permissions
The SA Client and the SA Web Client display only those resources for which the user’s group
has Read or Read & Write permissions.
For example, John Smith belongs to the Basic Users group, which has the permissions listed
in Table 6. When John logs in, the SA Client and the SA Web Client display only the servers
for Widget Inc., but not those of Acme Corp. In the navigation panel of the SA Web Client, the
Operating Systems link appears, but not the Scripts link.
Table 6
Example of Permissions and Restricted Views
Resource or Action
Basic Group Permission
Customer: Widget, Inc.
Read & Write
Customer: Acme Corp.
None
Wizard: Prepare OS
Yes
Wizard: Run Scripts
No
To locate or view a server, a user must belong to a user group that has Read (or Read & Write)
permission to the customer and the facility and at least one device group associated with the
server. Otherwise the user cannot see the server in the SA Client or the SA Web Client.
26
Chapter 1
Predefined User Groups
During an SA installation or upgrade, SA creates a set of predefined user groups based on
user roles. You must grant read and/or write permissions to the first Facility and other
appropriate permissions to these user groups. Use of the predefined user groups is optional.
You can modify the permissions of the predefined user groups and you can also delete or copy
these groups to create your own user groups. Changes or deletions of the predefined user
groups are not affected by SA upgrades. Table 7 shows the predefined user groups:
Table 7
Predefined User Groups
User Group Name
Description
System Administrators
Access to administer the SA application.
Superusers
Complete access to all SA-managed objects and
operations.
Viewers
Read-only access to all resources.
Reporters
Access to reporting only.
OS Policy Setters
Access to import & define OS build plans.
OS Deployers
Access to provision servers.
Patch Policy Setters
Access to set patching policy.
Patch Deployers
Access to install patches.
Software Policy Setters
Access to set software policy.
Software Deployers
Access to install software.
Compliance Policy Setters
Access to define compliance policies.
Compliance Auditors
Access to execute compliance scans.
Compliance Enforcers
Access to remediate compliance failures.
Hypervisor Managers
Access to create, delete and register VMs.
Virtual Machine Managers
Access to start and stop VMs.
Command Line Administrators
Shell access to servers.
Server Storage Managers
Access to manage server storage.
Storage System Managers
Access to manage storage systems.
Storage Fabric Managers
Access to manage storage fabrics.
About Private User Groups
Private user groups are intended for migrating scripts into folders in the SA Library. You
should not assign permissions to users using private user groups. You should use regular user
groups. For more information, see About SA Users and User Groups on page 13.
User and User Group Setup and Security
27
When an SA administrator creates a new user, SA automatically creates a private user group
for the new user and assigns the new user to the private user group. The name of the private
user group is the user name.
A private user group can contain only one SA user and every SA user can belong to only one
private user group. The SA administrator can then assign action and resource permissions to
the private user group. The permissions that you specify for a private user group determines
what the user can do with SA. Action permissions specify what actions the user can perform;
resource permissions indicate which servers the user can perform the actions on. OGFS
permissions cannot be assigned to a private user group.
For example, when an SA Administrator creates a new user with user name john, a private
user group john is also created and a default folder called john is created in the Home
directory. The SA Administrator can then assign action and resource permissions to the
private user group john.
An SA user can be a member of multiple user groups and belong to the user’s private group.
But then the derived permissions of the private user group is not a cross-product of the
resource and action permissions of all groups that the user belongs to.
When a user is deleted, SA automatically deletes the corresponding private user group and
the default folder for that user is moved to the location /Home/deleted_users in the SA
Library.
For more information, see Setting Private User Group Permissions on page 47.
About Super Administrators and Super Users
A Super Administrator is an SA user who can create users and user groups, specify
permissions for user groups, and assign users to user groups. Super administrators can also
manage customers and facilities, as well as set folder permissions. To perform most of the
tasks described in this chapter, you must log in to the SA Client as a super administrator.
The SA installer creates a single default user, the super administrator named admin. The
password for admin is specified during the installation and should be changed immediately
afterwards.
As a best practice, you should not add the admin user to other user groups.
About Super Users
A Super User is different from a Super Administrator and is not automatically a Super
Administrator. A Super User is any user who belongs to the predefined Superusers group. A
Super User has full permissions to perform all actions except create and modify users and
user groups. However, a super user does not automatically have access to any servers. You
would need to give access to facilities, customers and device groups as described in Setting
Resource Permissions - Facilities, Customers and Device Groups on page 42.
To create a super user, add the user to the Superusers predefined user group. For more
information, see Predefined User Groups on page 27 and Adding a User to a User Group on
page 42.
28
Chapter 1
Process Overview for Security Administrators
The person responsible for the security of SA creates and maintains users and user groups,
sets permissions on user groups and assigns users to user groups. This person must be able to
log in to the SA Client as a user who is a super administrator. For more information, see
About Super Administrators and Super Users on page 28.
The following steps provide an overview of security administration for SA:
1
Identify the people in your organization who will manage SA security.
2
For each user identified in the preceding step, create a super administrator.
For instructions, see Creating a Super Administrator on page 53.
3
Note the facility that the managed servers belong to.
A facility represents a data center or physical location. Depending on your organization,
you may want to name the facility after the city, building, or room where the servers
reside. The person who installs SA specifies the name of the facility for the core.
4
Associate managed servers with customers.
In SA, a customer represents a set of servers associated with a business organization,
such as a division or a company. Typically a server is associated with a customer because
it runs applications for that customer.
For more information on grouping servers by customer, see the SA User Guide: Server
Automation.
5
(Optional) Create device groups and assign servers to the groups. Device groups are
another way to organize your managed servers.
For more information on device groups, see the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
6
Plan your user groups.
Decide which SA tasks specific groups of users will perform and on which servers. Usually
a user group represents a role or a job category. Examples of user groups are: Unix System
Admins, Windows Admins, DBAs, Policy Setters, Patch Admins, and so forth. See the
Predefined User Groups on page 27.
7
If the predefined user groups do not meet your needs, create your own user groups.
For instructions, see Creating a New User Group on page 39.
8
Set the resource permissions on the user groups.
These permissions specify read and write access to servers associated with facilities,
customers, and device groups. Resource permissions control which servers the members of
a user group can access.
For more information, see Setting Resource Permissions - Facilities, Customers and
Device Groups on page 42.
9
Set the action permissions on the user groups.
To determine which action permissions are required to perform a specific task, see the
tables in Permissions Reference on page 239. For example, if you have a user group named
Software Managers, see Software Management Permissions Required for User Actions on
page 261.
For more information, see Setting Action Permissions on page 43.
10 Set the OGFS permissions on the user groups.
User and User Group Setup and Security
29
OGFS permissions are required for certain actions, for example for actions that require
access to a managed server’s file system. The OGFS permissions are included in the tables
in Permissions Reference on page 239.
For instructions, see Setting OGFS Permissions on page 45.
11
Create the folder hierarchy in the SA Library using the SA Client.
For more information on the SA Library, see the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
12 Set the folder permissions.
In general, you need read permission on a folder to use its contents in an operation, write
permission to create or modify folder contents, and execute permission to run scripts that
reside in a folder.
For more information, see Setting Folder Permissions on page 44.
13 (Optional) Delegate the management of folder permissions to certain user groups.
For instructions, see Setting Folder Permissions on page 44.
14 Create new users in SA or import existing users from an external LDAP directory.
For instructions, see Creating a New User on page 32 and Authenticating with an
External LDAP Directory Service on page 69.
15 Assign users to the appropriate groups.
For instructions, see Adding a User to a User Group on page 42.
About Global File System (OGFS) Permissions
To use the Global File System (OGFS), you need to grant OGFS permissions. OGFS
permissions are separate but related to the action permissions, resource permissions and
folder permissions described in About Permission Types - Action, Resource and Folder
Permissions on page 14. See also Setting OGFS Permissions on page 45.
The OGFS is a virtual file system that gives you access to all your managed servers and all
their file systems. It underlies many SA Client actions, such as browsing managed server file
systems and scanning servers for compliance. To perform actions that use the OGFS, you
must belong to a user group that has OGFS permissions. Table 8 lists the operations you
control with OGFS permissions.
Table 8
30
OGFS Permissions
OGFS Permission
Tasks Allowed by this Permission
Launch Global Shell
Launch the Global Shell.
Log In To Server
Open a shell session on a Unix server. In the SA Client,
open a Remote Terminal. In the Global Shell, you can use
the rosh command.
Read COM+ Database
Read COM Plus objects as a specific login. In the
SA Client, use the Device Explorer to browse these
objects on a Windows server.
Chapter 1
Table 8
OGFS Permissions (cont’d)
OGFS Permission
Tasks Allowed by this Permission
Read Server File System
Read a managed server as a specific login. In the
SA Client, use the Device Explorer to browse the file system of a managed server.
Read IIS Metabase
Read IIS Metabase objects as a specific login. In the
SA Client, use the Device Explorer to browse these
objects on a Windows server.
Read Server Registry
Read registry files as a specific login. In the SA Client,
use the Device Explorer to view the Windows Registry.
Relay RDP Session To Server
Open an RDP session on a Windows server. In the
SA Client, this is the Remote Terminal menu that opens
an RDP client window for a Windows server.
Run Command On Server
Run a command or script on a managed server using the
rosh utility, where that command or script already exists.
In the SA Client, this is used for Windows
Services accessed by the Device Explorer.
Write Server File System
Modify files on a managed server as a specific login. In
the SA Client, you can use the Device Explorer to modify
the file system of a managed server.
When setting an OGFS permission, in addition to specifying an operation such as Write
Server File System, you also specify which managed servers the operation can be applied to.
You specify the managed servers by selecting a facility or a customer or a device group. You
also specify the login name for the managed server where the operation runs. (The Launch
Global Shell operation is an exception, as explained below.)
For example, suppose you specify the Read Server File System permission. For the servers,
you select a device group named Sunnyvale Servers. For the login name, you select the SA
user name. Later on, in the SA Client, the SA user jdoe opens a server belonging to the
Sunnyvale Servers device group in the Device Explorer. In the Views pane, the string jdoe
appears in parentheses next to the File System label. When the user drills down into the file
system, the Device Explorer displays the files and directories that the Unix user jdoe has
access to.
If you specify a super user like root for the login name, make sure that the resource you select
only allows access to the correct set of servers. For root, you should limit access to servers by
customer or device group, not by facility.
For the Launch Global Shell permission, you do not specify the managed servers because a
Global Shell session is not associated with a particular server. Also, you do not specify the
login user for this permission. If you open a Global Shell session with the SA Client, you do so
as your current SA login. If you open it with the ssh command, you are prompted for an SA
login (user name).
User and User Group Setup and Security
31
Managing Users - SA Client
This section describes how to manage users with the SA Client. To manage users, you must
log in to the SA Client as a super administrator (admin) and select the Administration tab, as
shown in Figure 10.
Figure 10 Users Listed Under the Administration Tab
Creating a New User
To create a new SA user from the SA Client, perform the following steps.
32
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your SA users.
4
Select the Actions ➤ New menu or select the New User icon. This displays the New User
window.
5
Enter the first name, last name and full name of the user.
6
To allow the new user to administer users and user groups, select the check box labelled
Super Administrator. For more information, see About Super Administrators and Super
Users on page 28.
7
Enter the contact information for the new user. An email address is required.
8
Enter the log-in information for the new user.
Chapter 1
9
•
The user credentials can be stored in HP SA or on an RSA SecurID server connected
to SA. You can change the user password in the SA Client only if the credential store
is HP SA.
•
The SA user name must be made up of letters, numbers, periods, hyphens and
underscores. SA user names are not case sensitive.
•
The password must be at least six ASCII characters long and may not include the “\”
or “^” characters.
Enter the locale, time zone and date format preferences.
10 Select the User Groups view to assign the user to one or more user groups. Assigning the
user to user groups grants the corresponding permissions to the user. Use the “+” button
to add the user to a user group. Use the “-” button to remove the user from the selected
user group.
11
Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
12 Select File ➤ Save to save the new user.
Changing a User’s Permissions
All permissions are contained in user groups. Each user’s permissions are determined by the
user groups they belong to. To modify user permissions you must modify the permissions
defined in the user groups the user belongs to or change which user groups the user belongs
to. For more information, see Assigning a User to a User Group on page 38 and Setting
Permissions on User Groups - SA Client on page 42.
Changing a User’s Password
Only a super administrator (admin) can change the passwords of other SA users. If the user
name has been imported from an external LDAP directory, then the password cannot be
changed with the SA Client. For more information, see Authenticating with an External
LDAP Directory Service on page 69.
To change a user’s password you need to open the user in a user window and select the
Properties view. Perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your SA users.
4
Select the user you want to modify.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select Open. This displays the user
information in a new window.
6
Select the Properties view. This displays the user’s login information including a Change
Password link.
7
Select the Change Password link. This displays the Change Password dialog.
8
Enter the new password. Note that when you modify the user’s password, the change
takes effect immediately.
9
Select OK. This modifies the user’s password.
User and User Group Setup and Security
33
Users Changing Their Own Password and Other Properties
Any user can change their own password and their profile information as follows.
Figure 11 Users Changing Their Own Password
1
34
From the SA Client screen, select the “Logged in as” link in the upper right corner, as
shown above. This displays the user properties window, as shown below.
Chapter 1
Figure 12 User Properties Window and Change Password Link
2
To change password, select the Change Password link. Note that when modifying a
password, the change takes effect immediately.
3
Change other properties as needed.
4
If any properties were changed, select File ➤ Save.
5
Select File ➤ Close.
User and User Group Setup and Security
35
Changing a User
To modify an SA user from the SA Client, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your SA users.
4
Select the user you want to modify.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select Open. This displays the user
information in a new window.
6
Optionally modify any of the user’s properties. The Properties view lists the user’s name,
contact information, login information, where their credentials are stored, their user
name, a link to change their password, and their date and time settings. Note that when
you modify the user’s password, the change takes effect immediately.
7
Optionally add or remove the user from a user group. The User Groups view lists the
user groups the user belongs to. Each user group grants a set of permissions to all the
users who belong to the group.
8
The permissions are viewable but not modifiable from the user window. To modify
permissions you need to modify user groups as described in Setting Permissions on User
Groups - SA Client on page 42.
9
Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
10 Select File ➤ Save to save the changes.
Deleting a User
To delete an SA user from the SA Client, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your SA users.
4
Select one or more users that you want to delete.
5
Select the Actions ➤ Delete menu or select the delete icon.
Finding the User Group a Particular Action Permission Comes From
If a user belongs to more than one user group, you can determine which user group grants a
particular action permission as follows.
36
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your SA users.
4
Select the user you want to view.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select Open. This displays the user
information in a new window.
Chapter 1
6
Select the Action Permissions view. This displays all the action permissions organized by
the user groups the user belongs to.
7
You can also right-click on any column header and ungroup the User Group column, then
use the column selector at the far right of the column headers to display the User Group
column. This will show each permission followed by the user group that grants that
permission.
Suspending a User
A suspended user cannot log in to SA, but the user name has not been deleted. A suspended
user is indicated by a status of Suspended in the SA Client. A user can be suspended in the
following ways:
•
Login Failure: If you select the check box labelled Login Failure on the Security Settings
tab, and someone tries to log in with the wrong password a specified number of times, the
user account is suspended. For instructions on accessing the Security Settings tab, see the
first two steps of Resetting Initial Passwords on page 63.
•
Account Inactivity: If you select the check box labelled Account Inactivity on the
Security Settings tab, and the user has not logged on for the specified number of days, the
user account is suspended.
•
Expired Password: A user can be suspended if the password has expired and the
expiration count is full.
•
Suspend: You can suspend a user’s account as described below. If the user is logged in, a
message will be displayed and they will be logged out.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your users.
4
Select the user you want to suspend.
5
Select the
button or select Actions ➤ Suspend.
Activating a Suspended User
To activate a suspended user, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your users.
4
Select the suspended user you want to activate.
5
Select the
User and User Group Setup and Security
button or select Actions ➤ Activate.
37
Assigning a User to a User Group
Assign each SA user to a group reflecting the user’s role in your organization. To assign an SA
user to a user group, perform the following steps:
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your SA users.
4
Select the user you want to assign.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select Open. This displays the user
information in a new screen.
6
Select the User Groups view. This displays the user groups that the user is a member of.
7
Select the “+” button or select the Actions ➤ Add menu. This displays all the user
groups.
8
Select one or more user groups.
9
Select the Select button. This adds the user to the user groups.
10 Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
11
Select File ➤ Save.
Importing Users from an LDAP Directory
You can import user information from an LDAP directory and use the LDAP directory for
authentication when logging into SA. For information on setting this up, see Authenticating
with an External LDAP Directory Service on page 69.
38
Chapter 1
Managing User Groups - SA Client
This section describes how perform tasks with user groups. To manage user groups, you must
log in to the SA Client as a super administrator (admin) and select the Administration tab, as
shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13 User Groups Listed Under the Administration Tab
Creating a New User Group
To create a new user group from the SA Client, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the New menu. This displays the new
user group window.
5
Select the Properties view. Enter the name and a description for the user group.
6
Set the permissions for the user group and add users to the user group as described in
Setting Permissions on User Groups - SA Client on page 42.
User and User Group Setup and Security
39
7
Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
8
Select File ➤ Save to save your changes.
Viewing User Groups
To view your user groups from the SA Client, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select a user group to display information about that user group.
5
In the View drop-down list, select any of the following.
•
Properties displays the name, description and SA object ID of the selected user
group.
•
Users displays all the SA users who are members of the selected user group.
•
Resource Permissions displays the customers, facilities and device groups that
members of the user group have access to. It also lists the type of access to each
customer, facility and device group: Read access or read and write access.
•
Folder Permissions shows the access permissions to folders in the SA Library
granted to members of the group.
•
Action Permissions show the actions that members of the user group can perform
with the SA Client.
•
OGFS Permissions show the Global Shell and Global File System actions that
members of the user group can perform, the resources they have access to and what
user name they will use to log in to managed servers to perform those actions.
Copying a User Group
You can duplicate an existing user group as follows.
40
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select the user group that you want to copy.
5
Select the duplicate icon or select the Actions ➤ Duplicate menu or right-click on the
user group and select the Duplicate menu. This displays the Duplicate User Group screen.
6
Enter the name and a description of the new user group. The name must be unique.
7
Select the Duplicate button. This creates a new user group that is a copy of the existing
user group.
Chapter 1
Changing a User Group
User groups define resource, folder, action and Global Shell (OGFS) permissions. Every user
who is a member of the user group has those permissions. To modify a user group from the SA
Client, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select a user group. This displays information about that user group in the lower part of
the screen.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the user
group in a new window.
6
In the navigation pane, select any of the following views.
•
Properties displays the name, description and SA object ID of the selected user
group. You can change the name and description of the user group.
•
Users displays all the SA users who are members of the selected user group. Use the
“+” and “-” buttons to add and remove users from the user group. For more
information, see Adding a User to a User Group on page 42.
•
Resource Permissions displays the facilities, customers and device groups that
members of the user group have access to. It also lists the type of access granted to
each facility, customer and device group: read access or read and write access. Use the
“+” and “-” buttons to add and remove facilities, customers and device groups from the
user group and to set the type of access. For more information, see Setting Resource
Permissions - Facilities, Customers and Device Groups on page 42.
•
Folder Permissions displays the folders in the SA Library and the access permission
granted to each folder for the user group. Select a folder, select the Actions menu or
right click and select the Folder Properties menu to display the folder properties
window. Select the Permissions tab to view and modify the permissions. For more
information, see Setting Folder Permissions on page 44.
•
Action Permissions displays the tasks that can be performed by members of the
user group. Select the Permission column next to the permission you want to change
and select the new permission. For more information, see Setting Action Permissions
on page 43.
•
OGFS Permissions displays the Global File System (OGFS) and Global Shell
(OGSH) permissions. Select the “+” and “-” icons to add and remove permissions. For
more information, see Setting OGFS Permissions on page 45.
7
Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
8
Select File ➤ Save.
Deleting a User Group
You can delete one or more existing user groups as follows.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
User and User Group Setup and Security
41
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select one or more user groups that you want to delete.
5
Select the delete icon or select the Actions ➤ Delete menu or right-click on the user
group and select the Delete menu or press the Delete key on your keyboard.
Adding a User to a User Group
You can add one or more users to any user group as follows.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select a user group. This displays information about that user group in the lower part of
the screen.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the user
group in a new screen.
6
In the navigation pane, select Users view. This displays all the users who are members of
the group.
7
Select the “+” icon or the Actions ➤ Add menu. This displays all the SA users.
8
Select one or more users.
9
Select the Select button. This adds the users to the user group.
10 Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
11
Select File ➤ Save.
Setting Permissions on User Groups - SA Client
This section describes how to set action permissions, resource permissions, folder
permissions and OGFS permissions for a user group. All those permissions are granted to
the users who are members of the user group.
Setting Resource Permissions - Facilities, Customers and Device Groups
All managed servers are grouped by customers, facilities and device groups. The Resource
Permissions view lists the customers, facilities and device groups the user group has
access to. For more information, see About Resource Permissions on page 19.
To modify resource permissions for a user group, perform the following steps.
42
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
Chapter 1
4
Select a user group. This displays information about that user group in the lower part of
the screen.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the user
group in a new screen.
6
In the navigation pane, select the Resource Permissions view. This displays all the
facilities, customers and device groups the user group has access to.
7
To add access to a customer, perform the following steps.
a
Select the “+” icon under the Customers heading. This displays a list of all customers
in a separate window.
b
Select one or more customers.
c
Select the access, either Read or Read & Write.
d
Select the Add button.
8
To remove access to a customer, select the customer and select the “-” button.
9
To add access to a facility, perform the following steps.
a
Select the “+” icon under the Facilities heading. This displays a list of all facilities in a
separate window.
b
Select one or more facilities.
c
Select the access, either Read or Read & Write.
d
Select the Add button.
10 To remove access to a facility, select the facility and select the “-” button.
11
To add access to all device groups, select the check box labelled Allow access to all device
groups.
12 To add access to a subset of device groups, perform the following steps.
a
Clear the check box labelled Allow access to all device groups. This displays the “+”
icon.
b
Select the “+” icon under the Device Groups heading. This displays a list of all public
device groups in a separate window.
c
Select one or more device groups.
d
Select the access, either Read or Read & Write.
e
Select the Add button.
13 To remove access to a device group, select the device group and select the “-” button.
14 Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
15 Select File ➤ Save.
Setting Action Permissions
This section describes how to set action permissions for a user group. For more information,
see About Action Permissions on page 16.
To modify action permissions for a user group, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
User and User Group Setup and Security
43
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select a user group. This displays information about that user group in the lower part of
the screen.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the user
group in a new screen.
6
In the navigation pane, select the Action Permissions view.
7
Locate the permission you want to modify using the Name and Description columns. You
can right click on any column to group or ungroup by that column for easier browsing.
8
Select the current value for the permission in the Permission column. This displays a
drop-down list of the available values. Select the desired value.
If a permission value is grayed out, that permission is controlled by another, related
permission that needs to be changed first. For example, the permissions “Create
Applications” and “Manage Application Deployment” both require that the permission
“Access Application Deployment” be set to Yes before they can be set.
9
Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
10 Select File ➤ Save.
Setting Folder Permissions
This section describes how to set folder permissions for a user group. For more information,
see About Folder Permissions on page 23.
To modify folder permissions for a user group, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select a user group. This displays information about that user group in the lower part of
the screen.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the user
group in a new screen.
6
In the navigation pane, select the Folder Permissions view. This displays all the folders in
the SA Library and their current permissions.
7
Locate and select the folder you want to modify.
8
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Folder Properties menu. This
displays the folder properties in a new window.
9
Select the Permissions tab. This displays all the users and user groups that have access to
the folder.
10 Select a user or a user group. This displays the current access permissions at the bottom
of the window.
11
44
Set the access permissions at the bottom of the screen.
Chapter 1
12 To optionally give access to other users or user groups, select the Add button, select one or
more users or user groups and select the Add button.
13 To optionally remove access for a user or user group, select the user or user group and
select the Remove button.
14 Select the OK button.
15 Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
16 Select File ➤ Save.
Setting OGFS Permissions
This section describes how to set OGFS permissions for a user group. For more information,
see About Global File System (OGFS) Permissions on page 30.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the User Groups
node.
3
Select the User Groups node. This displays all your user groups.
4
Select a user group. This displays information about that user group in the lower part of
the screen.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the user
group in a new window.
6
In the navigation pane, select OGFS permissions. This displays the current OGFS
permissions.
User and User Group Setup and Security
45
7
To add permissions, select the “+” icon. This displays the Add OGFS Permissions window
as shown below. This screen has three main parts:
— Features lists the action permissions for performing tasks with the OGFS and
OGSH.
— Groups lists the servers that the actions can be performed on. Servers are grouped by
facilities, customers or device groups.
— Logins specifies the login name to be used when connecting to servers using the
OGFS and OGSH.
Figure 14 Add OGFS Permissions Window
46
8
In the Features section, select the OGFS actions you want to grant under the Available
list. Select the arrow to move those actions to the Selected list.
9
In the Groups section, first select the type of server group you want to select from in the
Servers In drop-down list. Select either Customers, Facilities or Device Groups.
Chapter 1
10 Select one or more customers, facilities or device groups. Select the arrow to move them to
the Selected list.
11
In the Logins section, select the check box labelled SA user name if you want OGFS users
to log in with their SA user name. Otherwise select the check box labelled Login as and
enter one or more user names for logging into servers with the OGFS.
12 Select the Add button.
13 To remove permissions, select one or more permissions and select the “-” button.
14 Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
15 Select File ➤ Save to save your changes.
For more information on OGFS permissions, see About Global File System (OGFS)
Permissions on page 30.
Setting Private User Group Permissions
Private user groups are intended for migrating scripts into folders in the SA Library. You
should not assign permissions to users using private user groups. You should use regular user
groups. For more information, see About SA Users and User Groups on page 13.
For information about private user groups, see About Private User Groups on page 27. To
modify a private user group, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your SA users.
4
Select the user you want to set private user group permissions for.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select Open. This displays the user
information in a new window.
6
Select the User Groups view. This displays all the user groups the user is a member of,
including the private user group. The private user group has the same name as the user.
7
Select the private user group.
8
Select the Actions menu or right click and select Open. This displays the private user
group in a new window.
9
To modify resource permissions, select the Resource Permissions view. For more
information, see Setting Resource Permissions - Facilities, Customers and Device Groups
on page 42.
10 To modify action permissions, select the Action Permissions view. For more information,
see Setting Action Permissions on page 43.
11
Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
12 Select File ➤ Save to save the changes.
User and User Group Setup and Security
47
Setting Password, Account and Session Security Policies - SA
Client
You can set several policies to keep your SA user passwords secure, automatically disable
inactive user accounts and automatically lock inactive user sessions. Perform the following
steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the password policy settings.
4
Set any of the following policies:
•
Reset forces each user to reset their password the first time they log in to SA.
•
Expiration forces each user to change their password after the specified number of
days. You can also specify how many times the user can postpone the change before it
is required by specifying a number for “Allow graceful logins.”
•
Retention specifies how many previous passwords to save. This setting prohibits
users from reusing passwords. For example, if you specify 10, users cannot reuse their
previous ten passwords.
•
Login Failure specifies how many times someone can attempt to log in with the
wrong password before the user account is suspended. When a user account is
suspended you can reactivate it by selecting Administration ➤ Users and Groups,
selecting the user and selecting the Activate button. For more information, see
Suspending a User on page 37.
•
Account Inactivity specifies how long a user account can be unused before it is
suspended. When a user account is not used for the specified number of days, the user
account is suspended. When a user account is suspended you can reactivate it by
selecting Administration ➤ Users and Groups, selecting the user and selecting the
Activate button. For more information, see Suspending a User on page 37.
•
SA Client Session Inactivity specifies how long a user session can be idle before the
SA Client is locked. Specify a value in minutes.
5
To revert to the previously saved settings, select the View ➤ Refresh menu or press the
F5 key on your keyboard.
6
After setting the values you want, select the Save button.
Resetting Initial Passwords
To require users to reset their passwords the first time they log in to SA, perform the
following steps:
48
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the password policy settings.
4
Set the check box labelled “Reset password on first login.”
5
Select the Save button.
Chapter 1
Setting Password Expiration
To require SA users to change passwords after a certain number of days, perform the
following steps:
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the password policy settings.
4
Select the check box labelled Expiration.
5
Enter the number of days before password expiration.
6
Enter the number of graceful logins with the old password that will be allowed before the
user is suspended.
7
Select the Save button.
To activate a suspended user, see Activating a Suspended User on page 37.
Prohibiting Reuse of Old Passwords
To save a copy of users’ old passwords and prevent them from reusing their old passwords,
perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the password policy settings.
4
Set the check box labelled Retention.
5
Enter the number of old password to save and prohibit.
6
Select the Save button.
Suspending User Accounts After Login Failures
You can suspend a user account if someone attempts to log in with the wrong password after a
certain number of tries as follows.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the password policy settings.
4
Set the check box labelled Login Failure.
5
Enter the number of failed login attempts. If someone tries to log in to any account and
fails after the specified number of tries, the user account will be suspended.
6
Select the Save button.
To activate a suspended user, see Activating a Suspended User on page 37.
User and User Group Setup and Security
49
Suspending Inactive User Accounts
You can automatically suspend user account if they do not log in for a certain period of time.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the password policy settings.
4
Set the check box labelled Account Inactivity.
5
Enter the number of days. If any user does not log in for the specified number of days, the
user account will be suspended.
6
Select the Save button.
To activate a suspended user, see Activating a Suspended User on page 37.
Locking Inactive Sessions
You can automatically lock any SA Client session if the user has been inactive for a certain
period of time. The user must enter their password to unlock the session.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the password policy settings.
4
Set the check box labelled SA Client Session Inactivity.
5
Enter the number of minutes. If any logged in user does use the SA Client for the specified
number of minutes, the SA Client will be locked and the user will have to enter their
password.
6
Select the Save button.
Displaying a User Login Agreement
You can display a message whenever a user logs in and require that they acknowledge the
message. Perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the user agreement settings and the
banner settings.
4
Under User Agreement Settings, select “Enable display.”
5
Enter the text you want displayed in the user agreement.
6
Select the Save button.
Whenever any user logs in to the SA Client, the specified message is displayed and the user
must acknowledge the message, as shown below.
50
Chapter 1
Figure 15 User Login Confirmation Dialog
Displaying a Banner on the SA Client Screen
You can display a message at the top of each SA Client screen in any background color.
Perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab.
2
In the navigation panel, open the Users and Groups node. This displays the Security
Settings node.
3
Select the Security Settings node. This displays the user agreement settings and the
banner settings.
4
Under Banner Settings, select “Enable banner display.”
5
Select either a color from the drop-down list or specify a hexadecimal color code between
000000 and FFFFFF. The first 2 digits are the red component, the second 2 digits are the
green component and the last 2 digits are the blue component.
6
Enter the text you want displayed in the banner.
7
Select the Save button. This displays the banner at the top of all SA Client screens as
shown below.
User and User Group Setup and Security
51
Figure 16 SA Client Banner Settings
Managing Super Administrators - SA Client
Super administrators can assign permissions to user groups and assign users to user
groups. To manage super administrators, you must log in to the SA Client as a super
administrator. When SA is first installed, the default super administrator is the admin user.
See also About Super Administrators and Super Users on page 28.
Viewing all SA Super Administrators
To view all SA super administrators, perform the following steps.
52
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Super
Administrators node.
3
Select the Super Administrators node. This displays all your super administrators.
Chapter 1
Creating a Super Administrator
An SA super administrator is an SA user who can create and modify SA users and user
groups. To create an SA super administrator, follow the steps described in Creating a New
User on page 32 and check the box labelled “Super Administrator.”
To make an existing user into a Super Administrator, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Super
Administrators node.
3
Select the Super Administrators node. This displays all your super administrators.
4
Select the Actions ➤ Add menu or select the New User icon. This displays a list of all SA
users.
5
Select one or more users that you want to make super administrators.
6
Click the Select button. This changes the selected users into super administrators.
Deleting a Super Administrator
To remove super administrator privileges from an SA user and leave that user’s other
permissions, follow the steps described in Changing a User on page 36 and clear the check box
labelled Super Administrator. Alternatively, perform the following steps.
1
In the SA Client, select the Administration tab in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Super
Administrators node.
3
Select the Super Administrators node. This displays all your super administrators.
4
Select one or more users.
5
Select the Actions ➤ Remove menu, right click and select Remove or select the remove
button.
Managing Users - SA Web Client
The SA Web Client is deprecated for creating and managing users. Use the SA Client to create
and manage users. See Managing Users - SA Client on page 32.
This section describes how to manage users with the SA Web Client. To manage users, you
must log in to the SA Web Client as a super administrator (admin). For information on using
the SA Client, see Managing Users - SA Client on page 32.
Creating a New User
You can create SA users with the SA Client or the SA Web Client or you can import users from
an external LDAP directory. For more information see Creating a New User on page 32 and
Authenticating with an External LDAP Directory Service on page 69.
User and User Group Setup and Security
53
To create a user with the SA Web Client, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
The Users tab appears. (See Figure 17.)
Figure 17 Users Tab
2
Click New User.
3
On the Profile Editor page, fill in the required fields, which are labelled in bold font.
The Login User Name may be different than the first, last, and full names. The Login
User Name is not case sensitive and cannot be changed after the user is created.
4
(Optional) If both SA and HP Network Automation (NA) are installed, and you want the
user to authenticate with NA, then select NA for the Credential Store.
The Credential Store field can be either SA (the default), Network Automation (NA),
External, or RSA 2-factor. The value NA specifies that the user was configured on a
TACACS+/RADIUS server connected to NA, not a native NA user. The value External
indicates that the user was imported from an external LDAP directory. The value RSA
2-factor specifies that the user was configured on an RSA server connected to SA. You can
change the user password in the SA Web Client only if the Credential Store is SA.
5
(Optional) Assign the user to one or more of the groups listed at the bottom of the page.
You can also assign the user to a group at a later time. If a user does not belong to a group,
the user cannot view servers or perform tasks with the SA Client.
6
Click Save to create the user.
Editing User Profile Information
Each SA user can edit the profile information for his or her own login user. If you log in as a
super administrator (admin), you may view or edit the information of any SA user. To do so,
perform the following steps:
54
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Users tab, select an entry in the User Name column.
3
In the Profile Editor, modify the information as appropriate.
4
Click Save.
Chapter 1
Viewing a User’s Permissions
You do not assign permissions directly to a user. Instead, you set the permissions on a user
group and then assign a user to a group. To view the permissions of a user, perform the
following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Users tab, select an entry in the User Name column.
3
If the user belongs to more than one group, on the Edit User page, select a user group in
the “View as” field. The permissions displayed depend on the user group you select.
4
View the permissions on the Resource Privileges and Action Privileges tabs.
Deleting a User
When you delete a user, the user’s login and logout history is permanently stored, and the
user is unassigned from user groups. After a user is deleted, you can create another user with
the same name.
To delete an SA user, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Users tab, select the check box next to the user to be deleted.
3
Click Delete.
Suspending a User
A suspended user cannot log in to SA, but the user login has not been deleted. A suspended
user is indicated by the lock icon on the Users tab of the SA Web Client. A user can be
suspended in the following ways:
•
Login Failure: If you set the Login Failure check box on the Security Settings tab, and
someone tries to log in with the wrong password a specified number of times, the user
account is suspended. For instructions on accessing the Security Settings tab, see the first
two steps of Resetting Initial Passwords on page 63.
•
Account Inactivity: If you set the Account Inactivity check box on the Security Settings
tab, and the user has not logged on for the specified number of days, the user account is
suspended.
•
Expired Password: A user can be suspended if the password has expired and the
expiration count is full.
•
Suspend: To suspend the user’s account immediately, go to the Users tab, select the
user’s check box, and click Suspend.
To activate a suspended user, go to the Users tab, select the user’s check box, and click
Activate.
User and User Group Setup and Security
55
Managing User Groups - SA Web Client
The SA Web Client is deprecated for creating and managing user groups. Use the SA Client to
create and manage user groups. See Managing User Groups - SA Client on page 39.
Creating a User Group
To create an SA user group, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Groups tab, click New Group.
3
On the New Group page, enter a role in the Group name field.
4
At this point, you can select the check boxes under the Feature column to assign
permissions to the group. The New Group page, however, does not display all available
permissions.
5
Click Save.
Figure 18 User Group Page
Copying a User Group
To copy an existing user group to create a new group with the same configuration, perform the
following tasks:
1
Select the check box next to the user group you want to copy.
2
Click the Copy button.
3
The Copy User Group page appears. Specify a name for the new user group and,
optionally, a description.
4
Press the Copy button. When the copy completes, the new group appears in the User
Groups list.
Deleting a User Group
To delete an existing user group, perform the following tasks:
1
56
Select the check box next to the user groups you want to delete.
Chapter 1
2
Click the Delete button.
Assigning a User to a User Group
Assign each SA user to a group reflecting the user’s role in your organization. To assign an SA
user to a user group, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Group tab, select a user group from the Name column.
3
On the Users tab, in the Unassigned Members box, select the user name.
4
Click the right arrow.
5
To unassign a user, click the name in the Assigned Members box and click the left arrow.
6
Click Save.
Setting Private User Group Permissions
The SA Administrator can set the feature, resource, or folder permissions on a private user
group. Perform the following steps to set permissions on a private user group:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups. The Users &
Groups: View Users window appears.
2
Select the user from the User Name column. The Users & Groups: Edit User window
appears.
3
From the View As drop-down menu, select the user name and then click Edit.
4
In the Users & Groups: Edit Group - <user name> window select Features, Customers, or
Client features tab to assign the permissions.
5
Refer to the following sections to assign the permissions:
— Setting the Customer Permissions on page 58
— Setting the Facility Permissions on page 58
— Setting the Device Group Permissions on page 58
— Setting the General Feature Permissions on page 60
— Setting the Client Features Permissions on page 60
— Setting Folder Permissions on page 61
Setting Permissions on User Groups - SA Web Client
The SA Web Client is deprecated for setting permissions. Use the SA Client to set
permissions. See Setting Permissions on User Groups - SA Client on page 42.
To perform the tasks in this section, you must log in to the SA Web Client as a super
administrator. (The default super administrator is admin.)
User and User Group Setup and Security
57
If you change permissions while a user is logged on to the SA Web Client or the SA Client, the
user must log out and log in again for the changes to take effect.
Setting the Customer Permissions
In SA, you can associate a customer with a number of resources, including servers, folders,
application configurations, and OS installation profiles. By setting the customer permission,
you control the access that the users of a group have to the resources associated with the
customer. For example, if you want the users of a group to be able to view (but not modify) the
servers associated with the Widget Inc. customer, set the permission to Read.
The customer permissions also control access to the customer object itself. For example, to add
a custom attribute to a customer, a user must belong to a group that has Read & Write
permission to the specific customer, as well as permission for the Customers feature.
To control the access to the resources associated with a customer, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Groups tab, select an entry in the Name column. Another set of tabs appears,
including the Customers tab.
3
On the Customers tab, for each customer listed, select Read, Read & Write, or None.
4
Click Save.
Setting the Facility Permissions
In SA, a facility can be associated with resources such as servers and IP ranges. To modify a
server of a particular facility, a user must belong to a group that has Read & Write permission
for the facility.
The facility permissions also control access to the facility object itself. For example, to modify
a property of a facility, a user must belong to a group that has Read & Write permission to the
facility, as well as permission for the Facilities feature.
To control the access to the resources associated with a facility, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Groups tab, select an entry in the Name column. Another set of tabs appears,
including the Facilities tab.
3
On the Facilities tab, select Read, Read & Write, or None.
4
Click Save.
Setting the Device Group Permissions
To control access to the servers in a public device group, select a permission on the Device
Groups tab. (You cannot control access to a private device group, which is visible only to the
user who created it.)
If the Device Groups tab lists no device groups, then access to servers is not controlled by
membership in device groups; however, access to servers is still controlled by their association
with customers and facilities. If the Device Groups tab lists at least one device group, then
access is denied to unlisted device groups (the equivalent of a None permission).
58
Chapter 1
Access control based on device groups is optional. By default, membership in a device group
does not restrict access. In contrast, for servers associated with customers or facilities, the
default permission is None, which prohibits access.
You can combine customer, facility, and device group permissions to implement security
policies. For example, you can restrict access to servers that are associated with the Acme
Corp. customer, reside in the Fresno facility, and belong to a device group that contains only
Windows servers.
A device group can contain other device groups. However, permissions are not inherited by the
contained device groups.
The permissions on the Device Groups tab control access to servers that belong to device
groups. However, these permissions do not control the management of the device groups. To
create, modify, or delete device groups, a user must belong to a user group that has the
Manage Public Device Groups and the Model Public Device Groups check boxes selected on
the Other tab. Also, the Managed Servers and Groups check box must be selected on the
Features tab. To add devices to a device group being used as an Access Control Group, the
user must be a member of the Super Administrators group.
To control access to servers that belong to a device group, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Groups tab, select an entry in the Name column. Another set of tabs appears,
including the Device Groups tab.
3
On the Device Groups tab, note the check box below Assign. If this check box is selected,
then access to managed servers is not based on device groups.
4
Deselect the check box below Assign.
5
Click Assign.
The Select Groups page appears. (See Figure 19.)
Figure 19 Select Groups Page
6
On the Select Groups page, use the Browse or Search tab to locate the device groups.
7
On the Browser or Search tab, click on the device group name and then click Select.
User and User Group Setup and Security
59
8
On the Device Groups tab, for each device group listed, select the check box and click the
button for the appropriate access.
To allow viewing (but not modification) of the servers in a device group, select the Read
permission. To allow both viewing and modification, select the Read & Write permission.
9
Click Save.
Setting the General Feature Permissions
The Features tab of the SA Web Client includes many tasks, including managing the servers
and running the wizards. If the check box for a feature is unselected, then the SA Web Client
does not display the related links in the navigation panel.
To allow the users in a group the ability to view and execute a task on the Features tab,
perform the following:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Group tab, select a user group from the Name column.
3
Another set of tabs appears, including the Features tab. (See Figure 20.)
Figure 20 Features Tab
4
On the Features tab, select the check box for each feature that should be enabled for the
user group. To prevent (and hide) a feature, clear the check box.
5
Click Save.
Setting the Client Features Permissions
The Client Features tab of the SA Web Client lists permissions for the actions performed with
the SA Client. These actions are for features such as Application Configuration and Software
Policy Management.
To set these permissions for the SA Client perform the following steps:
1
60
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
Chapter 1
2
On the Group tab, select a user group from the Name column. Another set of tabs appears,
including the Client Features tab.
3
On the Client Features tab, select the appropriate permission buttons.
4
Click Save.
Setting the Other Features Permissions
The Other tab of the SA Web Client contains the following permissions:
•
General Permissions: Allows users in a user group to edit shared scripts or run “my
scripts” as root. The Features tab also has script-related permissions: Scripts, and Wizard:
Run Scripts.
•
Server and Device Group Permissions: Enables users in a user group to perform
particular tasks on managed servers. The Allow Run Refresh Jobs permission lets users
specify a job to update the servers list. The Manage Public Servers Group permission
enables users to create device groups, modify the group properties, and change the group
membership (through rule changes, or adding and deleting servers). All users can view all
public device groups.
The Model Public Servers Group permission lets users add custom attributes. (These
permissions apply to public, not private device groups. Only the user who creates a
private device group can view or modify it.) The Features tab also has a permission
related to managing servers: Managed Servers and Group.
•
Job Permissions: Allows users in a user group to view and schedule jobs, which include
operations such as Audit Servers, Snapshots, Push Configurations, and Audit
Configurations. The View All Jobs permission lets users view the details and schedules of
jobs created by all users. The Edit or Cancel Any Job permission enables users to view or
modify the schedules of jobs created by any user and to view the job details of any user. It
also allows users to cancel schedule jobs of any user. Without these permissions, users can
view and schedule only their own jobs.
To set the permissions on the Other tab, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Group tab, select a user group from the Name column. Another set of tabs appears,
including the Other tab.
3
On the Other tab, select the check boxes to assign permissions to this user group.
4
Click Save.
Setting Folder Permissions
To perform this task, your user or user group must have the Edit Folder Permission on the
target folder. When you create a folder, it has the same permissions and customer as its
parent folder. If you are changing the permissions of a folder that has subfolders, you are
prompted to apply the changes to the subfolders.
To set the permissions of a folder, perform the following steps:
1
In the SA Client, navigate to the folder.
2
From the Actions menu, select Folder Properties.
3
In the Folder Properties window, select the Permissions tab.
User and User Group Setup and Security
61
4
On the Permissions tab, click Add to allow certain user groups to access the folder.
5
For each user group and user displayed on the Permissions tab, select a check box such as
Write Objects Within Folder. To delegate the setting of permissions for this folder, select
Edit Folder Permissions.
Managing Passwords and Login Settings - SA Web Client
The SA Web Client is deprecated for managing passwords and login settings. Use the SA
Client to manage passwords and login settings. See Managing Users - SA Client on page 32
and Setting Password, Account and Session Security Policies - SA Client on page 48.
An SA user can change his or her own password on the Profile page of the SA Web Client. A
super administrator can change the password of other users, as well as perform other
password management tasks described in the following sections.
Changing Passwords
Only a super administrator (admin) can change the passwords of other SA users. If the user
name has been imported from an external LDAP directory, then the password cannot be
changed with the SA Web Client.
To change the password of an SA user in the SA Web Client, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the User tab, select a user name.
3
On the User Identification tab, click Change Password.
4
Enter the new password, confirm it, and click Save.
Specifying Password Character Requirements
To specify character requirements for SA users, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ System Configuration. The
Select a Product page appears.
2
Under Select a Product, click SA Web Client. The Modify Configuration Parameters page
appears.
3
On the Modify Configuration Parameters page, set the
owm.features.MiniPasswordPolicy.allow parameter to true.
This parameter must be true for the other password parameters on this page to take
effect. To disable the other password parameters, set
owm.features.MiniPasswordPolicy.allow to false.
62
4
Set the values for the password parameters listed inTable 9.
5
Click Save.
Chapter 1
6
To apply these parameter changes to other cores in a multimaster mesh, you must restart
the other cores.
Table 9
Password Requirements on the Modify Configuration Parameters Page
Password
Requirement
Parameter
Allowed Values
Default
Value
Maximum number of
repeating, consecutive
characters
owm.pwpolicy.maxRepeats
Must be greater than 0
2
Minimum number of
characters
owm.pwpolicy.minChars
Positive integer
6
Minimum number of
non-alphabetic
characters
owm.pwpolicy.
minNonAlphaChars
Must be less than the
value of
owm.pwpolicy.minChars
0
Resetting Initial Passwords
To require users to reset their passwords the first time they log in to SA, perform the
following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
Select the Security Settings tab.
3
Select Reset.
Setting Password Expiration
To require SA users to change passwords after a certain number of days, perform the
following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
Select the Security Settings tab.
3
In the check boxes next to the Expiration label, select the number of days for the password
expiration and the number of graceful logins.
A grace login allows the user to log in with the old password. Typically, the grace login is
set to 1, enabling the user to log in to the SA Web Client, access the My Profile page, and
change the password.
4
To specify the number of previous passwords allowed by users, select Retention and enter
a value.
This setting prohibits users from re-using the same set of passwords. For example, if the
value is 10, the users are not be allowed to re-use their previous 10 passwords.
For information on Login Failure and Account Inactivity, see Suspending a User on page 55.
Specifying Session Timeout
You can specify the timeout interval of inactive SA Client sessions. When a session times out,
the user must re-enter the password or log out.
User and User Group Setup and Security
63
To specify the timeout for SA Client sessions, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel of the SA Web Client, select Administration ➤ Users &
Groups.
2
Select the Security Settings tab.
3
Select Session Inactivity and specify the number of minutes.
The Session Inactivity parameter does not affect SA Web Client sessions. The default session
timeout for the SA Web Client is 60 minutes. To change the default, you edit a configuration
file and restart the OCC core component. For instructions on editing the configuration file,
contact your HP Server Automation Support representative.
Setting the User Agreement
If you enable the user agreement, when users log in with the SA Client or the SA Web Client,
a dialog appears with a specified message. To continue the log in procedure, the users must
click Agree. (In some products, a user agreement dialog is called a login approval screen.)
To set the user agreement, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
Select the Security Settings tab.
3
In the User Agreement section, select Display and enter text in the Message field.
Setting the Banner
If you enable the banner, after the users log in, the specified text appears in a banner at the
top of the SA Client and the SA Web Client. To set the banner, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
Select the Security Settings tab.
3
In the Banner Settings section, select Display
4
In the Message field, enter the text to be displayed in the banner.
5
To set the background color of the banner, select an item from Color Code or enter a hex
value in the adjacent field.
Managing Super Administrators and Customer Administrators SA Web Client
The SA Web Client is deprecated for managing super administrators. Use the SA Client to
manage super administrators. See Managing Super Administrators - SA Client on page 52.
These users are the security administrators who assign permissions to user groups and assign
users to user groups. To manage super and customer administrators, you must log in to the
SA Web Client as a super administrator. When SA is first installed, the default super
administrator is the admin user.
64
Chapter 1
About Customer Administrators
The super administrator delegates the management of specific user groups to a customer
administrator. Like a super administrator, a customer administrator can assign users and
permissions to user groups. However, a customer administrator cannot create users. The user
groups that a customer administrator can manage depend on the relationships between
several objects, including customer permissions and customer groups.
For example, suppose that the user Joe Smith is a customer administrator who can manage
the user group named Sunnyvale Admins. The users who belong to the Sunnyvale Admins
group are responsible for managing servers owned by the Widget, Inc. customer. Figure 21
shows the relationships required between various objects. In order for Joe Smith to manage
the Sunnyvale Admins user group, the following relationships must exist:
•
The R & W customer permission Widget, Inc. is assigned to the Sunnyvale Admins.
•
The Widget, Inc. customer belongs to the customer group named Widget Admins.
•
The user Joe Smith is assigned to the Widget Admins customer group.
For instructions on setting up the relationships shown in Figure 21, see Delegating User
Group Management to a Customer Administrator on page 66.
Figure 21 Relationships Required for a Customer Administrator
User:
Joe Smith
can manage
is assigned to
User Group:
Sunnyvale Admins
Customer Group:
Widgets, Inc. Admins
is assigned to
belongs to
Customer:
Widget, Inc.
is a resource
permission of
Customer
Permission:
R&W
Viewing Super and Customer Administrators
To see which users are super or customer administrators, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
Select the Administrators tab. See Figure 22.
User and User Group Setup and Security
65
Figure 22 Administrators Tab
3
On the Administrators tab, note the Type field, which identifies the user as either a super
or customer administrator. The name of the customer group is in parentheses.
Creating a Super Administrator
To create a super administrator, perform the following steps:
1
Create a new user who will be the super administrator. For instructions, see Creating a
New User on page 53.
2
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
3
Select the Administrators tab.
4
Click New Super Administrator.
5
On the Add Super Administrators page, select one or more user names.
6
Click Save.
Deleting a Super Administrator
To delete a super administrator, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
Select the Administrators tab.
3
Select the check box for the user.
4
Click Revoke. This action revokes super administrator privileges from the user, but does
not delete the user from SA.
5
To delete the user from SA, follow the instructions in Deleting a User on page 55.
Delegating User Group Management to a Customer Administrator
A customer administrator is a user who can manage a subset of user groups. The subset is
determined by customer permissions and customer groups. For a full explanation of the
relationships between these objects, see About Customer Administrators on page 65.
To delegate the management of a user group, perform the following steps:
1
66
Identify the user who will be responsible for user group management.
Chapter 1
This user will be a customer administrator. If the user does not exist, follow the
instructions in Creating a New User on page 53.
2
Decide which user group will be managed by the user identified in the preceding step.
For instructions on viewing the user group, see Creating a User Group on page 56.
3
Note the customer permissions of the user group.
For instructions on viewing these permissions, see Setting the Customer Permissions on
page 58.
4
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
5
Select the Customer Groups tab.
6
Click New Group.
7
Enter the customer group name. (See Figure 23.)
Figure 23 New Customer Group Window
8
Click Save.
9
Add the customers you noted in step 3 to the customer group.
10 Add the user you identified in step 1 to the customer group.
The user of step 1 is now the customer administrator who can manage the user group of
step 2.
11
(Optional) Verify that the user is listed as a customer administrator by following the
instructions in Viewing Super and Customer Administrators on page 65.
Setting OGFS Permissions - SA Web Client
The SA Web Client is deprecated for managing OGFS permissions. Use the SA Client to
manage OGFS permissions. See Setting OGFS Permissions on page 45.
You can also set OGFS permissions with the aaa command-line utility. For syntax and
examples of the aaa utility, see the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
User and User Group Setup and Security
67
To add an OGFS permission in the SA Web Client, perform the following steps:
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups.
2
On the Group tab, select a user group from the Name column. Another set of tabs appears,
including the OGFS Permissions tab.
3
On the OGFS Permissions tab click Add Permission. The Add OGFS Permissions
window appears. (See Figure 24.)
Figure 24 Add OGFS Permissions Window
4
In the Add OGFS Permissions window, select a feature.
For descriptions of these features, see Table 8 on page 30.
5
If you selected a feature other than Launch Global Shell, select the managed servers this
permission applies to.
You can select servers associated with a customer, facility, or device group. If you want to
select servers associated with multiple resources (for example, two device groups) then
you must add a separate OGFS permission for each resource.
6
For Login Name, select the user account (login) on the managed servers.
The operation indicated by the Feature field will run on the managed server as the user
indicated by Login Name.
7
68
Click Grant.
Chapter 1
Authenticating with an External LDAP Directory Service
You can configure SA to use an external LDAP directory service for user authentication. With
external authentication, you do not have to maintain separate user names and passwords for
SA. When users log in to the SA Client or SA Web Client, they enter their LDAP user names
and passwords.
Imported Users
With the SA Web Client, you search for users in the external LDAP and then you import
selected users into SA. You can limit the search results by specifying a filter. The import
process fetches the following user attributes from the LDAP:
firstName
lastName
fullName
emailAddress
phoneNumber
street
city
state
country
After the import process, you may edit the preceding list of attributes within the SA Web
Client. However, you cannot change the user login name or password. Importing a user is a
one-time, one-way process. Changes to the user attributes you make using the SA Web Client
are not propagated back to the external LDAP directory server, and vice versa.
Imported users are managed in the same way as users created by the SA Web Client. For
example, you use the SA Web Client to assign imported users to user groups and to delete
imported users from SA. If you delete an imported user with the SA Web Client, the user is
not deleted from the external LDAP directory.
If you use external authentication, you can still create separate users with the SA Web Client.
However, this practice is not recommended.
To see which users have been imported, view the Users tab of the SA Web Client and note the
users with External in the Credential Store column.
SSL and External Authentication
Although SSL is not required for external authentication, it is strongly recommended. The
certificate files needed for LDAP over SSL must be in Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) format.
Depending on the LDAP server, you may need to convert the server's CA certificate to PEM
format.
Supported External LDAP Directory Servers
You can use the following directory server products with SA:
•
Microsoft Active Directory (Windows Server 2000, 2003 or 2008)
•
Novell eDirectory 8.7
•
SunDS 5.2
User and User Group Setup and Security
69
Modify the nsswitch.conf File (Linux)
In order to use LDAP authentication on Linux, the nsswitch.conf file must be modified as
follows:
passwd: files ldap
group: files ldap
The typical value for these entries is compat. However, this value can cause the SA gateway to
fail and/or interfere with OGFS functionality/access.
Alternatively, these values may also work:
passwd:
compat
group:
compat
passwd: files ldap
group: files ldap
passwd_compat:
group_compat:
ldap
ldap
You must specify files as the first source for relevant lookups in the nsswitch.conf file
entries. These include the following databases: hosts, passwd, shadow, group, and services.
Using an LDAP Directory Server with SA
To use an LDAP directory server with SA, perform the following basic steps:
1
Add the aaa.ldap entries to the twistOverrides.conf file with a text editor. See
“Modifying the Web Services Data Access Engine Configuration File” on page 70.
2
Get the SSL server certificate from the LDAP directory server. See “Importing a Server
Certificate from the LDAP into SA” on page 73. (Use of SSL is not required, but strongly
recommended.)
3
Edit the loginModule.conf file with a text editor. See “Configuring the JAAS Login Module
(loginModule.conf)” on page 74.
4
Restart the Web Services Data Access Engine using the following command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas restart twist
5
Use the SA Web Client to import users from the LDAP directory server into SA. See
“Importing External LDAP Users and User Groups” on page 75.
In a mulitmaster mesh, you must perform steps 1 - 4 on each Web Services Data Access
Engine.
Modifying the Web Services Data Access Engine Configuration File
To modify twistOverrides.conf, perform the following steps:
1
Log in as root to the system running the Web Services Data Access Engine, an SA Core
Component.
2
In a text editor, open this file:
/etc/opt/opsware/twist/twistOverrides.conf
70
Chapter 1
3
In the text editor, add the necessary properties (listed in Table 10) to the
twistOverrides.conf file. Although not required, the SSL properties are recommended.
For examples of the lines required for the twistOverrides.conf file see, the sections
that follow Table 10.
4
Save the twistOverrides.conf file and exit the text editor.
5
Make sure that the Unix twist user has write access to the twistOverrides.conf file.
Table 10
Properties in twistOverrides.conf for an External LDAP
Property
description
aaa.ldap.hostname
The host name of the system running the LDAP
directory server.
aaa.ldap.port
The port number of the LDAP directory server.
aaa.ldap.search.binddn
The BIND DN (Distinguished Name) for LDAP
is required by the search of the import user
operation. A blank value denotes an anonymous
BIND.
aaa.ldap.search.pw
The BIND password for LDAP is required by
the search for the import user operation. This
value is encrypted when the Web Services Data
Access Engine is restarted. A blank value
denotes an anonymous BIND.
aaa.ldap.search.filter.template
The search filter template is used, with optional
filter substitution, as the filter in the LDAP
search for the user import. Any dollar sign ($)
character in the template will be replaced by the
filter string specified in the Import Users page
of the SA Web Client. (The default value is an
asterisk (*) which matches all entries.)
aaa.ldap.search.base.template
The configurable template allows support for a
range of DIT configurations and schema in the
LDAP service. The search base template string
is used for the “search base” in the LDAP search
operations for the user import.
aaa.ldap.search.naming.attribute
The naming attribute allows support for a range
of schema in the LDAP services. Some use uid,
others use cn, and so on. The value of this
attribute is used for the internal user ID in SA.
aaa.ldap.search.naming.display.
name
The naming attribute allows support for a range
of schema in the LDAP services. Some use cn,
others use displayName, and so on. The value of
this attribute is used for the Full Name of SA
user.
aaa.ldap.ssl
SSL: A value of true enables SSL.
aaa.ldap.secureport
SSL: The secure port of the LDAP directory
server.
aaa.ldap.usestarttls
SSL: A value of true enables Start TLS.
User and User Group Setup and Security
71
Table 10
Properties in twistOverrides.conf for an External LDAP (cont’d)
Property
description
aaa.ldap.servercert.ca.fname
SSL: The fully qualified file name of the server
CA certificate.
aaa.ldap.clientcert
SSL: A value of true enables client certificate
use.
aaa.ldap.clientcert.fname
SSL: The fully qualified file name of the client
certificate.
aaa.ldap.clientcert.ca.fname
SSL: The fully qualified file name of the client
CA certificate.
Example: twistOverrides.conf for Microsoft Active Directory Without SSL
aaa.ldap.search.binddn=cn=Administrator,cn=users,dc=example,dc=com
aaa.ldap.search.pw=secret
aaa.ldap.hostname=myservername.internal.example.com
aaa.ldap.port=389
aaa.ldap.search.filter.template=(&(objectclass=user)(cn=$))
aaa.ldap.search.base.template=cn=users,dc=example,dc=com
aaa.ldap.search.naming.attribute=samaccountname
aaa.ldap.search.naming.display.name=cn
Example: twistOverrides.conf for Microsoft Active Directory With SSL
aaa.ldap.search.binddn=cn=Administrator,cn=users,dc=example,dc=com
aaa.ldap.search.pw=secret
aaa.ldap.hostname=myservername.internal.example.com
aaa.ldap.secureport=636
aaa.ldap.ssl=true
aaa.ldap.servercert.ca.fname=/var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist/cert.pem
aaa.ldap.search.filter.template=(&(objectclass=user)(cn=$))
aaa.ldap.search.base.template=cn=users,dc=example,dc=com
aaa.ldap.search.naming.attribute=samaccountname
aaa.ldap.search.naming.display.name=cn
Example: twistOverrides.conf for Novell eDirectory Without SSL
aaa.ldap.search.binddn=cn=admin,o=example
aaa.ldap.search.pw=secret
aaa.ldap.hostname=myservername.internal.example.com
aaa.ldap.port=389
aaa.ldap.search.filter.template=(&(objectclass=inetorgperson)(uid=$))
aaa.ldap.search.base.template=o=example
aaa.ldap.search.naming.attribute=uid
aaa.ldap.search.naming.display.name=cn
Example: twistOverrides.conf for Novell eDirectory With SSL
aaa.ldap.search.binddn=cn=admin,o=example
aaa.ldap.search.pw=secret
72
Chapter 1
aaa.ldap.hostname=myservername.internal.example.com
aaa.ldap.secureport=636
aaa.ldap.ssl=true
aaa.ldap.servercert.ca.fname=/var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist/ldapcert.pem
aaa.ldap.search.filter.template=(&(objectclass=inetorgperson)(uid=$))
aaa.ldap.search.base.template=o=example
aaa.ldap.search.naming.attribute=uid
aaa.ldap.search.naming.display.name=cn
Example: twistOverrides.conf for SunDS Without SSL
aaa.ldap.search.binddn=cn=Directory Manager
aaa.ldap.search.pw=secret
aaa.ldap.hostname=myservername.internal.example.com
aaa.ldap.port=389
aaa.ldap.search.filter.template=(&(objectclass=inetorgperson)(uid=$))
aaa.ldap.search.base.template=ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
aaa.ldap.search.naming.attribute=uid
aaa.ldap.search.naming.display.name=cn
Example: twistOverrides.conf for SunDS With SSL
aaa.ldap.search.binddn=cn=Directory Manager
aaa.ldap.search.pw=secret
aaa.ldap.hostname=myservername.internal.example.com
aaa.ldap.secureport=636
aaa.ldap.ssl=true
aaa.ldap.servercert.ca.fname=/var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist/ldapcert.pem
aaa.ldap.search.filter.template=(&(objectclass=inetorgperson)(uid=$))
aaa.ldap.search.base.template=ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
aaa.ldap.search.naming.attribute=uid
aaa.ldap.search.naming.display.name=cn
Importing a Server Certificate from the LDAP into SA
For SSL, the necessary certificates must be extracted from the LDAP and copied over
to SA.
To import a server certificate from the LDAP into SA, perform the following steps:
1
Extract the server certificate from the external LDAP. For instructions, see the following
sections.
2
Convert the extracted certificate to PEM format.
Certificates created on Windows systems are in Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)
format. The following example converts a certificate from DER to PEM format with the
openssl utility:
OpenSSL> x509 -inform DER -outform PEM -in mycert.der \
-out mycert.pem
3
Copy the server certificate to the location specified by the Web Services Data Access
Engine configuration file (twistOverrides.conf). For example, the
twistOverrides.conf file could have the following line:
aaa.ldap.servercert.ca.fname=/var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist/ldapcert.pem
User and User Group Setup and Security
73
Extracting the Server Certificate from Microsoft Active Directory
To extract the server certificate, perform the following steps:
1
Run either the Certificates MMC snap-in console or the Certificate Services web interface.
2
Export the Root CA certificate from the Windows CA into DER format.
Extracting the Server Certificate from Novell eDirectory
To extract the server certificate, perform the following steps:
1
Find out the name of the local CA entry. (Example: CN=CORP-TREE CA.CN=Security)
2
Open the eDirectory Administration utility and click Modify Object.
3
Enter the entry name (CN=CORP-TREE CA.CN=Security).
4
Select the Certificates tab.
5
Click Self Signed Certificate.
6
Click Export.
7
In the dialog, click No for exporting the private key and then click Next.
8
Select the appropriate format (usually DER).
9
Click Save the exported certificate to a file.
Extracting the Server Certificate from SunDS
Typically, instead of exporting a server CA certificate from SunDS, you obtain the certificate
that was imported into SunDS.
Configuring the JAAS Login Module (loginModule.conf)
To configure the JAAS login module, perform the following steps:
1
Log in as root to the system running the Web Services Data Access Engine, an SA Core
Component.
2
In a text editor, open this file:
/etc/opt/opsware/twist/loginModule.conf
3
In the text editor, modify the loginModule.conf file so that it contains the following
lines:
/** Login configuration for JAAS modules **/
TruthLoginModule {
com.opsware.login.TruthLoginModule required debug=false;
};
LdapLoginModule {
com.opsware.login.LdapLoginModule required debug=false;
};
4
74
Save the loginModule.conf file and exit the text editor.
Chapter 1
Importing External LDAP Users and User Groups
Before importing external LDAP users, you must configure SA for use with your LDAP server.
For instructions, see Using an LDAP Directory Server with SA on page 70.
Importing LDAP Users - SA Client
After you complete the tasks in this section, your users will be able to log in to the SA Client
and the SA Web Client with their LDAP user names and passwords.
This method does not import LDAP user groups. If you want to import users and user groups,
see Importing LDAP Users and Groups Using the LDAP Authentication Configuration Tool
on page 76.
To import external users with the SA Client, perform the following steps:
1
In the SA Client navigation pane, select the Administration tab. This displays the Users
and Groups node in the navigation pane.
2
Open the Users and Groups node in the navigation pane. This displays the Users node.
3
Select the Users node. This displays all your SA users.
4
Select the Actions ➤ Import Users menu. This displays information from your LDAP
directory.
5
Select the Import Users tab. This displays all the users in your LDAP directory.
6
Select one or more users.
7
You can optionally assign the users to one or more users groups. Select the Assign Groups
tab and select one or more user groups.
8
Select the Import Users button. This imports the users into SA.
Importing LDAP Users - SA Web Client
After you complete the tasks in this section, your users will be able to log in to the SA Client
and the SA Web Client with their LDAP user names and passwords.
This method does not import LDAP user groups. If you want to import users and user groups,
see Importing LDAP Users and Groups Using the LDAP Authentication Configuration Tool
on page 76.
To import external users with the SA Web Client, perform the following steps:
1
In the SA Web Client, from the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users &
Groups.
2
Select the Users tab. The page lists the existing SA users.
3
On the Users tab, click Import External Users.
The page displays the users in the LDAP that match the search filter. The default filter is
an asterisk (*), indicating that all users are selected. If a check box does not appear to the
left of the user name, then the user already exists in SA and cannot be imported.
If SA cannot connect to the LDAP, check for error messages in the following file:
/var/log/opsware/twist/stdout.log
User and User Group Setup and Security
75
4
To change the search filter, enter a value in the field to the left of Change Filter. For
example, to fetch only those user names beginning with the letter A, you enter A* in the
field.
In order to avoid retrieving large lists of user names, you should be very strict in your use of
the search filter so that you can retrieve a manageable list of users.
5
If you modified the search filter in the preceding step, click Change Filter. The page
displays the users in the LDAP that match the search filter.
6
You can assign users to the user groups listed at the bottom of the page or you can assign
them later.
7
Select the check boxes for the users you want to import. To import all users displayed,
select the top check box.
8
On the Import Users page, click Import.
Importing LDAP Users and Groups Using the LDAP Authentication Configuration Tool
The LDAP Authentication Configuration tool allows you to import both LDAP users and user
groups into SA. It is, however, a more complex process that requires some preparation. This
tool can be run from the command line or by selecting and running the LDAP Authentication
Configuration tool APX from the SA Library.
Prerequisites
The LDAP Authentication Configuration tool is a script that must be run on an SA Core’s
Slice Component bundle host. Before running the script, you must have the following
information available:
Table 11
76
LDAP Authentication Configuration Tool Prerequisites
Prerequisite
Description
Hostname
The fully-qualified host name (FQHN) or IP address of the
LDAP directory server that SA is to use.
LDAP Server Port
The LDAP directory server port. The default SSL port is 636
and the default non-SSL port is 389. SA does not support
StartTLS.
SSL
Is SSL authentication required by your LDAP directory server?
If SSL is enabled, you must supply the trusted Certification
Authority (CA) certificates used to validate the server’s SSL
certificate.
Trusted CA Certificates
To Validate Server SSL
Certificate
The complete path to the file on the LDAP directory server
containing the trusted Certification Authority (CA) certificates,
in Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) format, used to verify the
LDAP directory server’s SSL certificate.
SSL with mutual (or
two-way) authentication
You must supply the following information:
1
Trusted CA certificates to validate server SSL certificate
2
Trusted CA certificates to validate client SSL certificate
3
Client certificate and (unencrypted) private key.
Chapter 1
Table 11
LDAP Authentication Configuration Tool Prerequisites
Prerequisite
Description
SSL with client
authentication enabled
1
The complete path to the file containing the trusted
Certification Authority (CA) certificates, in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format, used to verify the SSL client
certificate.
2
The complete path to the file containing the client SSL
certificate and its corresponding private key, in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. The client private key must
not be encrypted.
Anonymous Search To
Does the LDAP directory allow anonymous searches to the
The Directory Information Directory Information Tree (DIT) where user information is
Tree (DIT)
stored? Note that this implies that anonymous bind is allowed.
For example, does an anonymous user (a user who did not
supply a bind Distinguished Name (DN) and password) have
read access to the DIT? For most enterprises, anonymous search
is not allowed. If anonymous search is disabled, you must
supply the bind DN and password of a user who has read access
to the DIT.
Bind Distinguished Name
(DN)
Required only if anonymous search is disabled. The bind DN for
the user who has read access to the DIT.
Bind Password
Required only if anonymous search is disabled. The bind
password for the user who has read access to the DIT.
Attribute For Unique
Username
The attribute for the unique username.
For Active Directory the default is SAMAccountName.
For Novell eDirectory the default is cn.
For all other vendors, the default is uid.
Attribute For User
Display Name
The attribute for the user display name.
For Active Directory the default is displayName.
For Novell eDirectory the default is fullName.
For all other vendors, the default is cn.
Base DN
User and User Group Setup and Security
The base distinguished name (DN), or the portion of the DIT to
be considered when searching for users during the user import
operation. The LDAP Authentication Configuration tool uses a
sub tree search, therefore, the search filter is only applicable to
users at or below the base DN.
77
Table 11
LDAP Authentication Configuration Tool Prerequisites
Prerequisite
Description
Search Filter Template
The Search Filter Template is used, with optional filter
substitution, as the filter in the LDAP search for the user
import.
Any dollar sign ($) character in the template is replaced by the
filter string specified in the Import Users page of the SA Web
Client. (The default value is an asterisk (*) which matches all
entries.)
For Active Directory the default is (&(sAMAccountName=$)
(objectCategory=person)
(objectClass=user)
(sAMAccountType=805306368)).
For Novell eDirectory the default is
(&(cn=$)(objectClass=person)).
For all other vendors, the default is uid=$.
The LDAP Authentication Configuration Tool Process
When you run the LDAP Authentication Configuration tool, you will be prompted depending
on whether your LDAP Directory server requires SSL authentication or not and/or whether
anonymous search is allowed or not.
Anonymous Search: No
SSL: No
1
Log in to a server hosting a Slice Component bundle for your SA Core.
2
Log in as the twist user:
su twist
3
Issue the following command:
cd /opt/opsware/twist
4
Invoke the LDAP Authentication Configuration tool:
./ldap_config.sh
5
Enter the necessary information. Enter N when asked if anonymous search is allowed.
Enter N when asked if SSL setup is required.
6
After the tool completes, ensure that LDAP authentication configuration is successfully
validated and stored.
7
Log on to the Command Center and ensure that external user import works.
8
Ensure that you can log on to the Command Center as an LDAP user.
Anonymous Search: Yes
SSL: No
1
Log in to a server hosting a Slice Component bundle for your SA Core.
2
Log in as the twist user:
su twist
78
Chapter 1
3
Issue the following command:
cd /opt/opsware/twist
4
Invoke the LDAP Authentication Configuration tool:
./ldap_config.sh
5
Enter the necessary information. Enter N when asked if anonymous search is allowed.
Enter N when asked if SSL setup is required.
6
After the tool completes, ensure that LDAP authentication configuration is successfully
validated and stored.
7
Log on to the Command Center and ensure that external user import works.
8
Ensure that you can log on to the Command Center as an LDAP user.
Anonymous Search: No
SSL: Yes (SSL server authentication only)
1
Log in to a server hosting a Slice Component bundle for your SA Core.
2
Log in as the twist user:
su twist
3
Issue the following command:
cd /opt/opsware/twist
4
Invoke the LDAP Authentication Configuration tool:
./ldap_config.sh
5
Enter N when asked if anonymous search is allowed. Enter Y when asked if SSL setup is
required. Answer N when asked whether to use SSL client authentication.
6
After the tool completes, ensure that LDAP authentication configuration is successfully
validated and stored.
7
Log on to the Command Center and ensure that external user import works.
8
Ensure that you can log on to the Command Center as an LDAP user.
Anonymous Search: No
SSL: Yes (SSL mutual authentication required)
1
Log in to a server hosting a Slice Component bundle for your SA Core.
2
Log in as the twist user:
su twist
3
Issue the following command:
cd /opt/opsware/twist
4
Invoke the LDAP Authentication Configuration tool:
./ldap_config.sh
5
Enter N when asked if anonymous search is allowed. Enter Y when asked if SSL setup is
required. Enter Y when asked whether to use SSL client authentication.
6
After the tool completes, ensure that LDAP authentication configuration is successfully
validated and stored.
7
Log on to the Command Center and ensure that external user import works.
User and User Group Setup and Security
79
8
Ensure that you can log on to the Command Center as an LDAP user.
Anonymous Search: Yes
SSL: Yes (SSL server authentication only)
1
Log in to a server hosting a Slice Component bundle for your SA Core.
2
Log in as the twist user:
su twist
3
Issue the following command:
cd /opt/opsware/twist
4
Invoke the LDAP Authentication Configuration tool:
./ldap_config.sh
5
Enter Y when asked if anonymous search is allowed. Enter Y when asked if SSL setup is
required. Enter N when asked whether to use SSL client authentication.
Anonymous Search: Yes
SSL: Yes (SSL mutual authentication required)
1
Log in to a server hosting a Slice Component bundle for your SA Core.
2
Log in as the twist user:
su twist
3
Issue the following command:
cd /opt/opsware/twist
4
Invoke the LDAP Authentication Configuration tool:
./ldap_config.sh
5
Enter Y when asked if anonymous search is allowed. Enter Y when asked if SSL setup is
required. Enter Y when asked whether to use SSL client authentication.
The values shown as defaults are the values saved during the last LDAP Authentication
Configuration Tool session.
Example LDAP Authentication Configuration Tool Session
>./ldap_config.sh
Retrieving LDAP configuration ...
LDAP Connectivity Configuration
Enter the fully-qualified host name or IP for the LDAP directory server
[sample-centos.example.com] :
Does the LDAP directory server require SSL? [N] :
Enter the port number for the LDAP directory server [8389] :
Does the LDAP directory server support anonymous bind and anonymous read
access to the directory information tree? [N] :
Enter the bind distinguished name (DN) of the user who has read access to the
directory information tree (DIT)
[cn=Administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local] :
Do you want to change the bind password for
cn=Administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local [N] :
80
Chapter 1
You have entered the following information:
LDAP Directory Server FQHN/IP
LDAP Directory Server Port
SSL Enabled?
Bind DN
cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Bind Password Provided?
:
:
:
:
sample-centos.example.com
8389
false
cn=Administrator,
: true
Is this correct? [Y] :
Verifying LDAP directory server connectivity ...
found naming context : DC=hyrule,DC=local
found naming context : CN=Configuration,DC=hyrule,DC=local
found naming context : CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=hyrule,DC=local
found naming context : DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=hyrule,DC=local
found naming context : DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=hyrule,DC=local
LDAP directory server connectivity successfully verified.
LDAP Search Configuration
Is the LDAP directory server an Active Directory (AD) directory server? [Y] :
Enter the LDAP attribute for the unique username [SamAccountName] :
Enter the LDAP attribute for the user's display name [cn] :
Enter the LDAP search filter template
[(&(sAMAccountName=$)(objectCategory=person)(objectClass=user)
(sAMAccountType=805306368))] :
Enter the LDAP search base distinguished name (DN). Usually this is the root
naming context. [cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local] :
You have entered the following information:
LDAP Unique Username Attribute
: SamAccountName
LDAP User Display Name Attribute
: cn
LDAP Search Filter Template
:
(&(sAMAccountName=$)(objectCategory=person)(objectClass=user)
(sAMAccountType=805306368))
LDAP Search Base Distinguished Name (DN)
:
cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Is this correct? [Y] :
Verifying LDAP search configuration ...
To test LDAP search configuration, you must provide a username of a LDAP
directory user to search.
LDAP search configuration is successfully verified only if the given user is
successfully returned by the LDAP
directory server.
Enter a username to search : *
You have entered the following information:
Username To Search : *
Is this correct? [Y] :
Resulting LDAP Search Filter :
(&(sAMAccountName=*)(objectCategory=person)(objectClass=user)(sAMAcco
untType=805306368))
User and User Group Setup and Security
81
Searching LDAP directory server for user * ...
Found 4 users
DN : CN=Administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
cn : Administrator
SamAccountName : Administrator
DN : CN=Guest,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
cn : Guest
SamAccountName : Guest
DN : CN=krbtgt,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
cn : krbtgt
SamAccountName : krbtgt
DN : CN=link,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
cn : link
SamAccountName : link
Is this correct? [Y] :
LDAP search configuration successfully verified.
LDAP Users & Groups Synchronization Configuration
Do you want to configure users & groups synchronization? [Y] :
LDAP User Group Synchronization Configuration
Enter the LDAP search base distinguished name (DN) for the user groups
[cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local]
:
Enter the LDAP search filter template to search user groups
[(&(cn=$)(objectCategory=group))] :
Enter the LDAP attribute for the unique user group name [SamAccountName] :
Enter the LDAP attribute in the user group LDAP object class which contains
the DNs of its members [
member] :
You have entered the following information:
LDAP Search User Group Base DN
cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
LDAP Search User Group Search Filter Template
(&(cn=$)(objectCategory=group))
LDAP Unique User Group Name Attribute
LDAP Search User Group Membership Attribute
:
:
: SamAccountName
: member
Is this correct? [Y] :
Verifying LDAP user group synchronization configuration ...
Searching LDAP directory server for all users and user groups ...
Searching LDAP directory server for all LDAP users ...
Resulting LDAP Search Filter For All LDAP Users :
(&(sAMAccountName=*)(objectCategory=person)(object
Class=user)(sAMAccountType=805306368))
Found 4 LDAP users
Parsing search results ...
82
Chapter 1
Searching LDAP directory server for all LDAP user gruops ...
Resulting LDAP Search Filter For All LDAP User Groups :
(&(cn=*)(objectCategory=group))
Found 16 LDAP user groups
Parsing search results ...
Do you wish to display detail search result? [N] : y
Parsing search results ...
Denied RODC Password Replication Group: 2 members
Administrator
: cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
krbtgt
: cn=krbtgt,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Allowed RODC Password Replication Group: 0 members
Enterprise Read-only Domain Controllers: 0 members
Group Policy Creator Owners: 1 members
Administrator
: cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Domain Controllers: 0 members
Cert Publishers: 0 members
Domain Users: 0 members
Enterprise Admins: 1 members
Administrator
: cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Schema Admins: 1 members
Administrator
: cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
DnsAdmins: 0 members
Read-only Domain Controllers: 0 members
RAS and IAS Servers: 0 members
Domain Guests: 0 members
Domain Admins: 1 members
Administrator
: cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Domain Computers: 0 members
DnsUpdateProxy: 0 members
Is this correct? [Y] :
LDAP user group synchronization configuration successfully verified.
The following properties will be stored into global configuration.
aaa.ldap.hostname=gyee-centos.cup.hp.com
aaa.ldap.port=8389
aaa.ldap.ssl=false
aaa.ldap.search.binddn=cn=Administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
aaa.ldap.search.pw=true
aaa.ldap.search.naming.attribute=SamAccountName
aaa.ldap.search.display.name.attribute=cn
aaa.ldap.search.filter.template=(&(sAMAccountName=$)(objectCategory=person)
(objectClass=user)(sAMAccountType=805306368))
aaa.ldap.search.base.template=cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
aaa.ldap.enable.users.groups.sync=true
aaa.ldap.search.usergroup.naming.attribute=SamAccountName
aaa.ldap.search.usergroup.membership.naming.attribute=member
aaa.ldap.search.usergroup.base.template=cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
aaa.ldap.search.usergroup.filter.template=(&(cn=$)(objectCategory=group))
Are you sure? [Y] :
Saving LDAP configuration ...
LDAP configuration successfully saved.
User and User Group Setup and Security
83
Do you want to schedule a recurring job for LDAP users & user groups
synchronization? [Y] :
Select one of the following recurring schedule for LDAP users & user groups
synchronization job:
1) Daily
2) Weekly
3) Monthly
Enter 1, 2, or 3 [3] : 1
Scheduling users & user groups synchronization job ...
LDAP users & user groups synchronization job has been successfully schedule.
Job ID=110001
Viewing Imported LDAP User Groups in the SA Web Client
After you have imported LDAP users and user groups using the LDAP Authentication
Configuration tool, you can view the user groups in the SA Web Client. Log in to the SA Web
Client and select Users and Groups in the navigation panel, then the Groups tab. Figure 25
shows a screen similar to what you will see:
Figure 25 LDAP User Groups in the SA Web Client
You should not edit user groups being maintained by LDAP synchronization. These files are
indicated by the description, __DO_NOT_EDIT__MAINTAINED_BY_LDAP_SYNC_.
Synchronizing LDAP Users
After you have imported users from the LDAP directory server, you can use the LDAP
Authentication Configuration tool to synchronize LDAP users.
1
Log in to a server hosting a Slice Component bundle for your SA Core.
2
Log in as the twist user:
su twist
3
Issue the following command:
cd /opt/opsware/twist
84
4
Invoke the LDAP Authentication Configuration tool:
5
./ldap_config.sh
6
You will see output similar to the following:
Chapter 1
Retrieving LDAP configuration ...
Verifying LDAP server connectivity ...
User Synchronization Phase
Searching LDAP directory server for all LDAP users ...
Found 4 LDAP users
Parsing search results ...
4 LDAP users do not exist in SA
Creating them now ...
Creating user cn=link,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Creating user cn=krbtgt,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Creating user cn=guest,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
Creating user cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=hyrule,dc=local
User Group Synchronization Phase
Searching LDAP directory server for all LDAP user groups ...
Found 16 LDAP user groups
Parsing search results ...
creating user group Denied RODC Password Replication Group
creating user group Allowed RODC Password Replication Group
creating user group Enterprise Read-only Domain Controllers
creating user group Group Policy Creator Owners
creating user group Domain Controllers
creating user group Cert Publishers
creating user group Domain Users
creating user group Enterprise Admins
creating user group Schema Admins
creating user group DnsAdmins
creating user group Read-only Domain Controllers
creating user group RAS and IAS Servers
creating user group Domain Guests
creating user group Domain Admins
creating user group Domain Computers
creating user group DnsUpdateProxy
Updating user groups no longer found in LDAP ...
LDAP Users & User Groups Sync Results
==================================================================
Number of LDAP Users Found
: 4
Number of LDAP Users Does Not Exist In SA
: 4
Number of LDAP Users Successfully Created in SA
: 4
Number of LDAP Users Failed To Create In SA
: 0
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number
of
of
of
of
of
of
LDAP User Groups Found
: 16
LDAP User Groups Successfully Updated in SA : 0
LDAP User Groups Successfully Created in SA : 16
SA User Groups No Longer in LDAP
: 0
SA User Groups Failed To Update
: 0
LDAP User Groups Failed To Process
: 0
Elapsed Time
: 00:00:27
==================================================================
LDAP users removed from the LDAP directory will not be removed from SA, however, these
user will not be able to log in to SA since their corresponding authentication information has
been removed from the LDAP directory.
User and User Group Setup and Security
85
LDAP user with the same user ID as an existing SA user will be skipped regardless of the
user’s credential store type. SA will neither create nor update duplicated users.
RSA SecurID®/SA Integration
RSA SecurID® is a two-factor authentication system from RSA Security, Inc. (a division of
EMC). Two-factor authentication is based on the concept of something you know (a password
or PIN) and something you have (an authenticator) and provides stronger user authentication
than passwords. This document describes how to take advantage of SecurID authentication in
your SA system, it does not attempt to explain how to install, configure, or maintain RSA
SecurID.
For detailed information about RSA SecurID, see http://www.rsa.com.
This section describes how SA authentication integrates with RSA SecurID. It assumes that
you are already using RSA SecurID or will install it. An RSA SecurID server (RSA
Authentication Manager or ACE Server) must be installed and fully configured before you can
begin using SecurID authentication with SA.
RSA SecurID/SA Integration Overview
SA users are required to authenticate to SA to perform any operations. SecurID integration
allows them to use their existing RSA SecurID tokens for authentication. SA authentication
can be seamlessly assimilated into your existing SecurID environment. As far as the RSA
authentication server is concerned, the Web Services Data Access Engine (twist) server is just
another SecurID agent.
SecurID support is automatic with the installation of an SA Core. Only a few configuration
steps are required to take advantage of the feature:
The first two tasks must be performed on every Web Services Data Access Engine host in your
Multimaster Mesh or in installations that have multiple installed Web Services Data Access
Engines.
•
Copying an RSA SecurID configuration file named sdconf.rec into a directory on any
SA Core servers that host the Web Services Data Access Engine (twist). sdconf.rec is
located on the RSA Authentication Manager/ACE Server host and contains required
information about the RSA Authentication Manager that must be available to the SA
Core.
•
Shutting down the Web Services Data Access Engine and restarting after editing the
loginModule.conf file to enable SecurID authentication in SA.
•
Creating/modifying users in the SA Java Client or SA Web Client to use SecurID
authentication.
SA Support for SecurID Authentication Methods
RSA SecurID is based on two-factor authentication, with the SecurID token as the first factor
and the Personal Identification Number (PIN) as the second factor.
The SecurID token is the something you have and the PIN is the something you know. These
two factors offer much stronger authentication than a user password.
86
Chapter 1
SecurID tokens can be either hardware-based (hardware token or hard token) or
software-based (software token or soft token). The tokens provide a token code which, when
combined with a pre-assigned (provisioned) PIN is known as a passcode.
Table 12 shows the most typical authentication methods and which are supported by SA/
SecurID integration.
Table 12
SecurID Authentication Methods
Authentication method
description
Normal Authentication
The most used method. The user's PIN is
assigned (provisioned). The passcode is either
accepted or rejected.
Next Tokencode Mode (Not supported)
This method is used when a user does not enter
the passcode correctly. In Next Tokencode Mode,
the user must wait for the tokencode to change
and then submit the new tokencode. By default,
a user will be put into the Next Tokencode Mode
if the incorrect passcode for that user has been
submitted three times consecutively.
New PIN Mode (Not supported)
This scenario occurs when the user must create
a new PIN or modify an existing PIN.
Restrictions
RSA SecurID authentication is not an appropriate method for non-interactive scripts due to
the fact the token code changes every 60 seconds and therefore will cause
non-interactive scripts to fail. Your options are to rewrite the scripts to be interactive, or avoid
using SecurID where such scripts would be affected.
SecurID/SA Integration Platform Requirements
— Solaris
— Linux x86 and x86_64
— RSA ACE Server 6.1 or above.
Configuring SA/SecurID Integration
Support for RSA SecurID authentication is integrated into the SA Core and is installed when
the SA Core is installed.
However, there are several configuration steps that you must complete to begin using RSA
SecurID/SA authentication.
The SA Core must also know the IP address of the SecurID authentication server and be able
to communicate with it in a secure manner.
If you have multiple slices installed in an SA core, the following steps must be performed for
each Slice Component bundle host.
User and User Group Setup and Security
87
Phase 1: The RSA SecurID Authentication Configuration File
1
You must contact your RSA SecurID administrator and obtain the file:
sdconf.rec
2
Copy this file to the following location on all servers in the core that host a Web Services
Data Access Engine (twist):
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist
3
Set the file permissions on each server to give the twist user ownership of this file and
read privileges:
chmod 400 /var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist/sdconf.rec
chown twist /var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist/sdconf.rec
4
Ensure that there is no securid or sdstatus.12 file in the
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist directory. If either or both of these files exist, remove
them.
Phase 2: Enable RSA SecurID Authentication in SA
1
By default, RSA SecurID authentication is not enabled. To enable it, on every server in
the core that hosts a Web Services Data Access Engine (twist), shut down this component
with the following command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas stop twist
2
Locate the file:
/etc/opt/opsware/twist/loginModule.conf
Edit the file and add the line marked in bold in the example below:
TruthLoginModule {
com.opsware.login.SecurIDLoginModule sufficient debug=false
next_tokencode_mode=false new_pin_mode=false;
com.opsware.login.TruthLoginModule sufficient debug=false;
};
3
Restart the Web Services Data Access Engine on all servers with the following command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas start twist
4
If you have multiple Slice Component bundles installed, stop the Command Center (OCC)
server and HTTPs proxy on all other Slice Component bundle hosts.
5
At this point only the Command Center for the Slice Component bundle host that is being
configured as the RSA server is running. Log into that host’s OCC. This will generate the
node secret (securid file) and the sdstatus.12 file in the
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist subdirectory as well as register the Slice Component
bundle server with ACE.
6
You can now start the OCC and HTTPs proxies on all the other Slice Component bundle
hosts in the Core.
Phase 3: Create/Modify SA Users to Use SecurID Authentication
Each user that is to use SecurID Authentication must first exist as an authenticated user in
the RSA SecurID authentication server (ACE server) and then must either be created or
modified in the SA Client to use SecurID authentication.
88
Chapter 1
In either the SA Client or the SA Web Client, on the user’s Profile page, specify that the user’s
Credential Store should be RSA 2-factor.
For detailed information about creating or modifying users, see See “Managing Users - SA
Web Client” on page 53.
Troubleshooting
If you receive multiple Authentication Failed error messages, first check with your RSA
SecurID administrator to insure that the user and passcode is still valid. If you are unable to
solve the problem, contact your technical support representative.
Code Deployment Permissions
Permissions to perform CDR operations are based on user membership in user groups
predefined specifically for CDR. Users must also have the necessary permissions for the
customer associated with the servers. Except for the Super User group, CDR operations are
customer specific. A member of the Super User group can perform CDR operations on the
servers of any customer.
The SA Web Client might still show the legacy term CDS. However, all documentation
references use SA Code Deployment & Rollback term CDR.
The SA Web Client includes predefined user groups that have specific permissions to perform
CDR operations. SA administrators create and add users to these user groups to grant them
permissions to perform specific CDR operations, based on their role in an organization. When
logged on to the SA Web Client, users see only the services, synchronizations, and sequences
that they have authorization to perform because of their user group membership. Users are
assigned to these groups as part of the Create User process.
See “Code Deployment User Groups” on page 311 in Appendix for more information.
See the SA User Guide: Server Automation for information about the process to deploy code
and content to managed servers.
When a user requests a service operation, synchronization, or sequence, an e-mail notification
is sent to the individuals assigned to actually perform the requested service operation or
synchronization.
Adding Members to a Code Deployment User Group
Permissions to perform specific Code Deployment operations are granted based on a user's
membership in specific Code Deployment user groups.
1
From the navigation panel, select Administration ➤ Users & Groups. The Manage
Users: View Users page appears.
2
Select the Code Deployment tab.
User and User Group Setup and Security
89
3
Select the code deployment user group that you want to modify by clicking the
hyperlinked user group name. The Users and Groups: Edit Code Deployment Group [group name] page appears.
4
From the drop-down list, choose the customer whose group membership to modify.
Code Deployment permission is assigned based on the associated SA customer. You cannot
select Customer Independent, Not assigned, and SA customers and modify their group
membership.
5
To add a user to the group, select the name in the left box, and then click the right arrow.
6
Click Save when you finish moving the user names to the box on the right.
A confirmation page appears.
7
Click Continue.
The Users & Groups: View Code Deployment Group page appears. You can continue
modifying Code Deployment Groups, or you can select another function.
User and Security Reports
SA allows you to generate reports that provide a summary of the Client and Feature
permissions across servers. These reports are only available when you login to the SA Client
as an Administrator. For more information, see the SA Reports Guide.
SA provides following User and Security Reports:
90
•
Client and Feature Permissions
•
Customer/Facility Permissions and Device Group Permission Overrides
•
User Group Membership
•
User Login
•
Administrator Actions
•
User and Authorizations, By User Group
•
User and Authorizations, By Individual User Group
•
Administrator Customer Groups
•
Server Permissions, by User
•
Server Permissions, by Server
•
OGFS Permissions, by User
•
OGFS Permissions, by Server
Chapter 1
2 SA Core and Component Security
Introduction to SA Core and Component Security Architecture
SA can dramatically help improve the security of the typical data center. In particular, SA
enables:
•
Provisioning security-hardened server operating systems and application software
consistently throughout all data centers.
•
The introduction of stronger control and accountability across the data center
environment; for example, by reducing the number of people who require
administrator-level passwords on servers, the creation of digitally-signed audit trails of
tasks performed on a particular server.
•
Automation of the ongoing configuration management challenges of maintaining strong
security: identifying servers with missing patches, applying patches consistently, backing
up configuration files when they change to enable easy rollback, and so on.
While the benefits of automating the data center are compelling, organizations need
assurance that the automation system itself does not create the potential for new security
vulnerabilities. In other words, the cure must not be worse than the disease. With the ever
increasing sophistication of threats, both from within and external to organizations, it is
absolutely mandatory to ensure that your automation software architecture has been
designed with security as a primary consideration. SA has been designed with security as a
primary consideration.
This section describes how SA uses the most up-to-date security best practices, intended for
use in organizations with the most stringent security requirements and with the following
design goals:
•
Strict control and accountability: you can be confident that only authorized
administrators can perform management actions because SA enforces granular role-based
access control and generates a digitally-signed audit trail of account activity that stores
comprehensive logs of who did what on which server when in a central, secure repository.
•
Secure communication channels throughout the system: SA is a distributed
computing environment in which individual components communicate with each other
securely over an IP network. To accomplish this, SA uses SSL/TLS and X.509 certificates
to secure the communication between these components.
•
Automated delivery of compliance policies based on industry standards: SA
provides users with an ongoing stream of immediately actionable compliance policies
based on industry standards. The compliance policies leverage SA's extensive audit and
remediation capabilities around granular attributes such as installed patches, installed
software, minimum password length, registry key settings, and even individual
configuration settings within a file.
91
Enforcing Strict Control and Accountability
SA provides strong security and accountability as described in the following sections.
Stronger Controls and Accountability
SA improves security throughout a data center using strong controls and accountability.
Using SA, security architects or IT management can strictly control who can perform a
particular task on a server. Task control is fine-grained; for example, an administrator can
grant comprehensive read-only access with change privileges restricted to patch installation
and a specific list of SA Global Shell commands.
In addition, SA automatically creates a tamper-proof audit trail that captures details such as
which SA user performed a particular management task on a server at a given time. SA’s
granular role-based access control system is designed around the interaction between users,
groups of servers, management tasks, and the SA data model that describes the environment.
One immediate security benefit of this powerful access control model is that fewer people need
administrator accounts on servers. Instead, they can be given SA user accounts to perform
only the management tasks they must perform, a security best practice.
Everyone who logs into SA must have a unique SA user name and password. Administrators
can create user names within SA or import them from an external Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol (LDAP) system. For example, if a company has an existing Microsoft Active
Directory implementation, they can synchronize with the directory server to re-use the user
accounts that already exist.
When creating user accounts, SA users are assigned to SA groups. Groups are a convenient
way of describing what servers users can operate on and what management tasks they can
perform on those servers.
Several pre-defined groups are provided by default in SA. The permissions for these groups
can be customized as necessary and you can create new groups with customized permission
levels to satisfy the requirements of any organization. The permissions that you specify for a
user group determine what the group's member can do with SA. Feature permissions specify
what actions users can perform; resource permissions specify which objects (typically servers)
users can perform these actions on. The SA graphical user interface, called the SA Client, as
well as the Global Shell interface, are both bound by these task rules so that users will be able
to see and perform only the tasks they are authorized by security administrators to perform.
Another dimension that security administrators can control in SA is the policy-based software
installation environment, which automates the process of installing software and configuring
applications on a server. Designated users can model an organization's application software
structure in a folder-like hierarchy, and setup fine-grained permissions for creation, viewing,
modification, and execution. This model provides for a clear delineation of specialization,
where subject matter experts can implement and adjust policies, and system administrators
can manage the servers in their environment by applying software policies to servers.
See User and User Group Setup and Security on page 13 in Chapter 1 for information about
user groups and permissions.
92
Chapter 2
Read-only, Digitally Signed Audit Trails
In addition to careful controls of which actions SA users can perform on managed servers, SA
automatically maintains a detailed audit trail of events performed by SA users. The audit
trail logs details including the user, the event, the servers acted on, the time the task was
performed, the total elapsed time, and any error conditions associated with the task.
The audit trail itself is stored as read-only, digitally signed data in an Oracle database to
prevent users from tampering with the data. This audit trail data helps organizations
establish strict accountability in their environment -- an increasingly urgent topic in the age
of Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLB Act), and the Health Information
Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Users can select how long the audit trail is stored
(the default period is 6 months), and they can easily create a data warehouse that stores the
audit trail (and other SA data) for longer periods of time.
Signed MD5 Checksums for Packages in the Software Repository
When SA users upload software to the Software Repository, SA automatically computes an
MD5 checksum for the package. SA uses a combination of the software package contents and
a secret key that only the Software Repository knows to generate the MD5 checksum. This
prevents users from tampering with the software in the Software Repository. Before SA
installs software on a managed server, it re-computes the MD5 checksum for the software
before permitting the download. This helps ensure that the software installed by SA is the
exact same software uploaded into the Software Repository.
Role-based Authorization
SA enforces a very granular system of role-based access controls. Security administrators can
set up authorization on the following parameters:
•
A facility: A facility is a collection of servers that reside in a single physical location. A
facility can be all or part of a data center, server room, or computer lab. A facility is the
highest level of abstraction in the granular role-based permissioning model.
•
A group of servers (by customer): Servers are grouped by customers, which can
represent any arbitrary group of servers in a single data center. The group might
represent an actual paying customer, a cost center, or simply servers running a particular
business application such as Siebel or the Expense Report application. The software
packages managed by SA each belong to a particular customer, though they may also
belong to a special account called Customer Independent, which means the software is
available to provision on any customer's server (for example, patches belong to the
customer account Customer Independent). This allows security administrators to control
the exact set of software packages that may be applied on a particular group of servers.
•
A dynamic group of servers (rules-based): Security administrators can also create
server groups based on dynamic rules evaluation (from simple to complex), and grant
permissions to all servers belonging to the group. For example, a security administrator
can group managed servers which are running the Linux operating system and reside in a
particular IP address space, and then assign which SA user groups are authorized to
perform management tasks on this server group.
SA Core and Component Security
93
•
Software policy modeling and distribution: The software policy modeling feature in
SA provides a powerful mechanism to model software using a folder model. Folders
provide the ability to define security permissions to control access to their contents across
user groups. You can set folder permissions to determine which user groups can view, use,
and modify items within a folder.
Audit Logging of User Activities
SA stores audit trails centrally in the Model Repository, where each entry is digitally signed.
SA is designed from the ground up with strong cryptographic controls preventing any
undetectable modification to audit logs. Since audit logs are stored centrally, they cannot be
deleted from managed servers. In fact, the entire security design of SA is defensive, based on
the assumption that an individual managed server being compromised must not endanger the
security of the whole system.
Securing SA Internal Communications
SA includes several Core Components that communicate with each other over secured
communication channels, typically the industry-standard protocols such as HTTPS. These
components include:
•
The SA user running a secure browser on their local desktop or server. The SA browser
communicates securely using HTTPS to the SA Command Center. Users provide a user
name and password to log in to SA; the credentials are authenticated either within SA, or
optionally by an external integrated LDAP server.
•
SA Server Agents running on the managed servers. The SA Server Agents act both as
clients and servers when communicating with SA Core Components. All communication is
encrypted, integrity checked, and authenticated using client certificates using SSL/TLS. A
small number of Core Components can issue commands to the SA Agent over a specific
TCP/IP port; the SA Agent can also call back to Core Components, each with its own
specified port.
•
SA Core Components, which are backend processes running on a small number of servers.
SA Core Components communicate with each other and with the SA Agent, also using
strongly authenticated SSL/TLS.
For customers running SA across multiple data centers, communication also occurs between
SA cores over a secure channel provided using integrated certified messaging included in SA
(SA Bus).
By protecting the communication channel between distributed components, SA prevents
intruders from sniffing the network traffic or causing SA to perform unauthorized tasks on
SA-managed servers.
94
Chapter 2
Communication Between Components in an SA Core
When an SA component must communicate with another component, it opens a secure
(typically SSL/TLS) communication channel using a well-known port. Each SA component has
a public-key certificate which is generated when SA is installed. The component uses its
public-key certificate when authenticating itself to another component. In this fashion, most
inter-process communication is strongly authenticated, encrypted using the strongest ciphers
available, and integrity checked.
Figure 26 Component Communication.
SA Core and Component Security
95
Communication Between Agents and SA Core Components
The SA Server Agent also participates in the strongly authenticated and encrypted SSL/TLS
traffic described above. In addition, when Agents are directed to perform management tasks
on a server, the typical flow of control messages (described below) helps to ensure that only
authorized users are performing those actions. It would be extremely difficult for an intruder
to generate a valid command sequence directing the agent to perform an unauthorized task.
The following sequence describes a typical SA management task, namely provisioning
software on a managed server. Other operations on managed servers follow the same general
protocol:
1
The Data Access Engine opens a communication channel via HTTPS with the SA Server
Agent, directing it to perform a management task.
2
The SA Agent calls back to the Data Access Engine to retrieve specifics about the task to
perform. To successfully open a communication channel, the Agent must present its
public-key certificate, which the SA Core verifies against an internal database mapping
the certificate itself to the machine's IP and a unique machine identifier that SA
generates when the agent is installed. This safeguard prevents users from simply copying
the digital certificate and corresponding key to another machine in hopes of
masquerading as the original managed server.
After successfully opening the communication channel, the SA Agent receives the exact
list of software to be installed and removed (as well as any scripts to execute, the order of
software installation, and when to reboot during the provisioning process).
3
The SA Agent opens a communication channel to the Software Repository (also via
HTTPS) and requests a download of the software it needs to install. Before the Software
Repository initiates the download, it re-computes an MD5 checksum for the package along
with a secret key it knows. Only if the MD5 checksum matches the checksum generated
when the package was uploaded does the SA Agent receive the software it requested, yet
another security safeguard.
Asynchronous, agent-initiated calls to the SA Core provide scalable support for progress
reporting and long-running operations, since the SA Core need not manage thousands of
synchronous agent operations directly. SA supports these asynchronous calls from the Agent
to the Core even in network environments where firewalls prevent Agents from initiating
TCP connections, since the SA Gateway infrastructure provides bidirectional tunneling over
unidirectional connections.
Other technical details of agent/core communications include:
96
•
Connections are SSL v3, mutually authenticated with X.509 certificates (the server
checks the client's certificate and vice versa).
•
Private keys for Core and Agent certificates are stored in files that are readable by root
only.
•
All certificates are generated at installation, are owned by the customer, and are not
known to HP.
•
Certificates expire 10 years after installation. SA provides a Recertification tool for
recertifying Cores and Agents prior to certificate expiry.
•
Certificates are signed by SA internal self-signed certificate authorities. To avoid HTTPS
security warnings in web browsers, customers may install an externally-signed certificate
in the SA instance of Apache.
Chapter 2
Communication Between SA Cores
If you are running SA across multiple data centers SA automatically synchronize relevant
data across all SA-managed data centers. Broadly speaking, SA synchronizes two types of
data: the SA model of servers (including all hardware, software, and configuration attribute
information) and the software packages themselves.
•
Replicating the SA model: SA uses integrated certified messaging to synchronize the
SA model data. SA implements SSL to safeguard the messages flowing across the
message bus. The actual messages themselves describe SQL changes that need to be made
to the SA database at the receiving end of the communication.
•
Replicating software packages: SA replicates software packages on-demand. That is,
they are only copied when they are needed. When the an administrator managing a server
in the New Jersey data center directs SA to install a software package that doesn't exist in
New Jersey's Software Repository, SA requests it from another data center. The actual file
transfer uses the open source utility rsync, and the communication channel is secured
using SSH.
SA Satellite Architecture and Security
A Satellite, rather than a full SA core, installed at secondary locations to enable management
of remote servers is as seamless as management of data center servers. The Satellite consists
of an SA Gateway and a Software Repository Cache. A Satellite Gateway provides network
connection and bandwidth management to the Satellite. A Satellite can contain multiple
Gateways. The Software Repository Cache contains local copies of software packages to be
installed on managed servers from the Satellite. Optionally, a Satellite can contain the OS
Provisioning Boot Server and Media Server components. A Satellite must be linked to at least
one Core, which may be either Single Core or part of a Multimaster Mesh. Multiple Satellites
can be linked to a single core.
The Satellite has the following key capabilities:
•
Automate Regardless of Network Complexity: Satellites are optimized to work
across low-bandwidth connections, through complex, overlapping IP address spaces, and
across firewall boundaries.
•
Respond to Network Failures: SA Satellites implement sophisticated link state
routing algorithms that enable dynamic routing around failed network links for
redundancy.
•
Ensure Remote Server Security: Enables IT organizations to proactively ensure
remote server security through policy-based patch management, digitally signed and
encrypted package installation, and comprehensive audit trails that track complete server
change history.
The SA Network: Enabling Risk Mitigation
New vulnerabilities are constantly being reported. The SA Network is a unique service that
makes actionable, multi-vendor, prioritized, security alerts available to your SA installation.
With The SA Network you can quickly and easily identify vulnerabilities as soon as you learn
about them, and deploy the appropriate fixes without consuming extra resources.
SA Core and Component Security
97
Recognizing that no single standards covers all needs, the SA Network provides a broad
collection of compliance policies that are easily customizable and extensible to meet each
customer's specific needs.
The SA Network currently focuses on the following three compliance standards:
1
Center for Internet Security (CIS) standards: A set of standards that detail how to
secure a server based on operating system. (http://www.cisecurity.org/)
2
Microsoft (MS) Security Guide: A standard established by Microsoft that details the
configuration settings to harden Windows servers. (http://www.microsoft.com/)
3
National Security Agency (NSA) Security Configuration Guide (SCG): A standard
established by the United States National Security Agency that details the configuration
settings to harden different OSs and applications. (http://www.nsa.gov/)
SA Compatibility with other Security Tools
SA complements many existing security tools such as intrusion detection systems,
vulnerability assessment suites, anti-virus scanners, and integrity assurance products. SA
can be used to drive change management practices that make these tools an effective
safeguard for today's servers. In particular, SA can be used to install and configure Agents
required by these systems consistently, keep configurations (such as the latest anti-virus
definition files) up to date, and act on some of the vulnerabilities reported by these systems
(such as missing patches or bad configurations).
SA Core Recertification
SA provides a Core Recertification Tool that allows you to recertify SA Cores and Agents. The
Core Recertification Tool automates and speeds up the process of issuing new security
certificates as compared to previous releases. This tool is separate from and compatible with
the existing Agent Recertification, also known as Server Recert Custom Extension utility.
Major advantages of the Core Recertification Tool are:
•
The ability to regenerate all of SA certificates before their expiration, which effectively
shorten their life span
•
The ability to mitigate certificate compromises.
SA is a closed Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) system which utilizes X.509 v3 certificates to
facilitate authentication, authorization, and secure network communications. An X.509
certificate is a form of identification which binds a specified principal with a public key.
A certificate, along with its corresponding private key, constitutes a digital identity. Like
many other forms of identification, a certificate is valid for a finite period of time. X.509
certificate validity period is specified by the Not Before and Not After date. A given X.509
certificate is considered valid only if the current date is within its validity period. Conversely,
a given X.509 certificate is considered invalid if the current date is outside of its validity
period. SA does not accept invalid certificates.
SA certification authorities (CAs) are automatically generated during bootstrap and
subsequently used to issue the rest of the Core Component certificates. SA Agent certificates
are issued by the Agent CA during initial Agent registration.
98
Chapter 2
All SA certificates are valid for 10 years by default. There is no way to change the life span of
the SA certificates through configuration. The only way to make change to the SA certificate
policies is through customization.
SA uses class certificates where all the Core components of a class share one certificate. For
example, all the Command Engines share one Command Engine certificate. Compromising
one Command Engine certificate means all the Command Engine certificates are
compromised. Furthermore, SA does not support certificate revocation. The only way to
invalidate a compromised Core Component certificate is to recertify the entire Core.
This release of Core Recertification Tool does not support customized Core installations. Any
customization that has been done outside the realm of the SA Installer, which requires certain
SA certificates and keys to be in a different hosts or under a different directories, will not be
supported by this tool.
Agent vs. Core Recertification
There is an important distinction between Agent and Core Recertification. SA provides a
Custom Extension, Recert_Server, to handle Agent Recertification, however, Recert_Server
cannot regenerate an Agent CA's identity.
Core Recertification regenerates all of SA's certification authorities' identities and their
respective hierarchies. Therefore, Core Recertification implies Agent Recertification. This
document focuses on Core Recertification.
Upgrading after Core Recertification
Core recertification does not update the crypto database (CADB) on all cores. Only the First
Core has the latest CADB. You can determine the First Core by running the command:
./corerecert --status
in /opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/ of the core in which you
performed the recertification.
Before upgrading to a newer SA release or patch, you must do the following:
1
Copy the CADB (/var/opt/opsware/crypto/cadb/realm/*) from the First Core to the
same directory on the core server being upgraded.
2
On the core server being upgraded, issue the following commands:
rm
rm
rm
rm
-rf
-rf
-rf
-rf
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/oi
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/gateway
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/dhcp
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/word_upload
Core Recertification Phases
Core Recertification has several phases. Which phases are required depends on your
Multimaster configuration.
Table 13 describes the Core Recertification phases:
SA Core and Component Security
99
Table 13
Core Recertification Phases
Phase
Description
1-3
Backup existing crypto material, generates new crypto material, and
distributes the new CAs to all the Core Components. These three phases
occur sequentially during the first run of the Core Recertification utility. All
the existing crypto materials are backup into the crypto.<session number>
directories. Each Core component has its own backup directory.
4
Distribute the new Agent CAs to all the Agents so that Agents will trust both
the new and old Agent CA at the same time. This is to ensure uninterrupted
Agent-to-Agent communication.
6
a
Mesh Restart: Restart the Mesh so that it trusts both the new and old CA
hierarchies.
b.
Start Scheduled Mesh Restart: Using the configuration file parameter,
you can schedule a delayed start for the Multimaster Mesh Core restart that
is appropriate for your maintenance window(s).
7
Recertify the Gateways.
8
Recertify the Agents.
9
a.
Recertify the Core components; issue the command touch /var/opt/
opsware/crypto/twist/upgradeInProgress on First Core; Mesh restart;
Regenerate Signatures.
b.
Check Mesh Restart status. If the Mesh has successfully restarted, all the
Core components are now using the new crypto material while still trust the
old crypto material.
12
13
100
[Optional] Remove old Agent CAs. Required only when Agent CAs have been
compromised or you no longer trust the old CAs.
a.
[Optional] Remove the old Agent CA hierarchies. Required only when Agent
CAs have been compromised or you no longer trust the old CA hierarchies.
b.
[Optional] Mesh restart. Required only when 13a is also required.
Chapter 2
Figure 27 shows the flow and phases of the recertification process:
Figure 27 Core Recertification Phases and Flow
Agent Recertification Phases
Three of the phases depicted in Figure 27 are Agent Recertification phases:
•
Phase 4: Distributing new Agent CA. The purpose of this phase is to ensure continuous
Agent-to-Agent communication (recertified Agents communicating with Agents that have
yet to be recertified).
SA Core and Component Security
101
•
Phase 8: Recertify the Agents. This is a required phase. The purpose of this phase is to
issue new crypto material to the Agents.
•
Phase 12: Cleanup the old Agent CAs. This phase is optional. If you do not wish to trust
both the old and new CA hierarchies, you must use this phase to remove the old CAs.
Otherwise, you can skip this phase.
Agent Recertification Jobs
Each Agent Recertification phase is accomplished by a recurring job. This job is dictated by
the following properties, which you must specify in the Core Recertification configuration file:
Table 14
Core Recertification Configuration File: Agent Recertification
Properties
Property Name
agent_recert.all.
facilities.
start_time=<HH:mm>
Req
?
Description
Yes
Example
agent_recert.all.
The start time for the
facilities.start_
Agent Recertification
time=18:30
phase. Users may
overwrite this value for
a given facility by
specifying the
agent_recert.
facility.<facility
name>.start property.
Start time must be in
the following format,
HH:mm, where 00 <= HH
< 24 and 00 <= mm <
60.
Only the hour and
minute components are
needed. If the specified
time has already passed,
the Agent
Recertification job will
start at the specified
time the next day.
agent_recert.
facility.<facility_
name>.start_time=
<HH:mm>
102
No
If present, the start time
of the given facility will
be used instead of
agent_recert.all.
facilities.start_
time.
agent_recert.facility.
sacramento.start_time=
08:00
Chapter 2
Table 14
Core Recertification Configuration File: Agent Recertification
Properties (cont’d)
Property Name
agent_recert.all.
facilities.duration=
<hours>
Req
?
Description
Yes
Example
agent.recert.all.
The duration, in hours,
facilities.duration=8
for the Agent
Recertification job.
Duration dictates how
long the Agent
Recertification job runs
before stopping. Once
the duration has elapsed
and the success rate has
not been reached, the
Agent Recertification job
will continue at the next
start time. Users can
overwrite this value for
a given facility by
specifying the
agent_recert.
facility.
<facility_name>.
duration property.
Duration must be an
integer value between 1
and 24.
agent_recert.
facility.<facility_
name>.duration=
<hours>
SA Core and Component Security
No
If present, the duration
of the given facility will
be used instead of
agent_recert.all.
facilities.duration
agent_recert.facility.
sacramento.duration=10
103
Table 14
Core Recertification Configuration File: Agent Recertification
Properties (cont’d)
Property Name
agent_recert.all.
facilities.success_
rate=
<whole percentage>
Req
?
Description
Yes
Example
agent_recert.all.
The success rate (in
facilities.success_rate=
whole percentage) for
100
each facility for the
Agent Recertification
job. For example, if there
are 1000 managed
servers in
Facility X and the
success rate is 98%, the
Agent Recertification job
will stop if 980 managed
servers have been
successfully recertified.
You can overwrite this
value for a given facility
by specifying the
agent_recert.
facility.<facility_
name>.success_rate
property.
Success rate must be an
integer value between 1
and 100.
104
agent_recert.
facility.<facility_
name>.success_rate=<
whole percentage>
No
If present, the success
rate of the given facility
will be used instead of
agent_recert.all.
facilities.success_
rate.
agent_recert.facility.
sacramento.success_rate=99
agent_recert.all.
facilities.job_
notification=<email
addresses>
No
The job notification for
the Agent
Recertification job. You
can overwrite this value
for a given facility by
specifying the
agent_recert.
facility.<facility_
name>.job_
notification property.
agent_recert.all.
facilities.job_
notification=
admin@example.com
agent_recert.
facility.<facility_
name>.job_
notification=
<email addresses>
No
If present, the job
notification for the given
facility will be used
instead of
agent_recert.all.
facilities.job_
notification.
agent_recert.facility.
sacramento.job_
notification=
admin3@example.com
Chapter 2
Agent Recertification Job Flow
Figure 28 shows the Agent Recertification job flow:
Figure 28 Agent Recertification Job Flow
There can be only one Agent Recertification job, scheduled or active, per facility at any given
time. An Agent Recertification job will terminate only if:
•
The success rate has been achieved
•
You explicitly cancel the job
•
A fatal error occurs
SA Core Recertification Tool Usage
To run the Core recertification Tool, enter the following:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert [--phase
<phase number>] [--config <complete path to the config file>] [--doit]]
[-h, --help] [-v, --version] [-s, --status] [-d, --debug] [--summary]
[--cancel_all_agent_recert_jobs] [--cancel_agent_recert_jobs_for_facility
<facility name>] [--cancel_all_jobs] [--reason <reason for job cancellation>]
SA Core and Component Security
105
Arguments
Table 15 describes the valid arguments for the Core Recertification utility:
Table 15
Core Recertification Utility Arguments
Argument
Description
-h, --help
Displays help.
--phase
Starts a specified Core Recertification phase.
The valid phase numbers are 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
12, and 13.
--config <config file>
The fully qualified path to the Core
Recertification configuration file. The default
configuration file is
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/
recert_utils/corerecert.conf.
--doit
Reruns or forces a rerun of a given Core
Recertification phase. This is useful when
certain newly added components has missed
by the recertification process. It is also used
to skip specified phases, such as new Agent
CA push or old Agent CA removal.
-v, --version
Prints out the version number of the
corerecert executable.
-s, --status
Displays the current status of the
recertification process.
-d, --debug
Sets Core Recertification to debug mode,
debug logs are available in /tmp/
recerttool.log.
--summary
Prints out the current status summary,
shorter version of --status.
--cancel_all_agent_recert_jobs
Cancels all currently scheduled Agent
recertification jobs.
--cancel_agent_recert_jobs_for_
facility <facility name>
Cancels the Agent recertification jobs
scheduled for a given facility.
--cancel_all_jobs
Cancels all Core and Agent Recertification
jobs.
--reason <reason for job
cancellation>
Specifies an optional reason for the job
cancellation.
Adding new Core Components during Core Recertification is not recommended. Although
adding new Core Components, such as the Slice Component bundle, a Satellite, etc. during
Core Recertification is possible under certain circumstances, HP does not recommend doing so
unless absolutely necessary. You must first contact HP Professional Services before adding
new Core components while a Core Recertification is in progress.
106
Chapter 2
Replacing SA certificates with third-party certificates (not issued by an SA CA) is not
supported. During Core Recertification, third-party certificates could be overwritten if they
have the same filename as an SA certificate. If you have replaced any SA certificates with
certificates issued by a third party CA, you should contact HP Server Automation Support
before performing Core Recertification.
Security Considerations
The following security issues should be considered:
Crypto Database Files
The SA Core Recertification Tool requires access to the SA crypto database files during
recertification.
The SA crypto database consists of the file:
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/cadb/realm/opsware-crypto.db.e
This files is protected by the crypto material password (decrypt_passwd), which was specified
during the mesh’s First Core installation. During subsequent Core installations this file is
also copied to the new Secondary Core hosts. You must protect this password as compromising
the crypto database files means compromising your entire Multimaster Mesh.
The crypto database file is required only during SA installation or upgrade, but it is
regenerated during Core Recertification. Therefore, HP strongly recommends that you create
procedures that protect the crypto database file. Therefore, before Core Recertification, you
must back up this file to a secure location.
During Core Recertification, SA regenerates the crypto database only on the host on which
you invoke the Core Recertification Tool. Core Recertification does not copy the newly
generated crypto database file to any other hosts in the mesh during recertification. You
should also backup this file to a secure location as soon as Core Recertification is complete.
Equally important is to strictly control root access to the Core hosts. Crypto materials
(certificates and their corresponding private keys) on the Core hosts are not encrypted. They
are protected by the root user account. In other words, these files are protected by the
read-only access for the root user. Therefore, having root access to the Core hosts means a
user has access to both the crypto material password and the crypto database files. Therefore,
Core Recertification should only be performed by SA System Administrators, or someone who
has legitimate root access to the Core hosts.
Core Recertification Users
There are typically three types of users who will use the SA Core Recertification tool:
•
Core Recertification User: This user has all the necessary permissions to run the Core
Recertification Tool. For all practical purposes, this is the same user as SA System
Administrator/Operator.
•
SA Administrator: Grants or revokes the SA Core Recertification role to the Core
Recertification User.
•
SA System Administrator/Operator: This user is responsible for restarting a given
Core. This use has root access to the Core host.
SA Core and Component Security
107
Creating the Core Recertification User
In order to use the Core Recertification utility, you must create a Core Recertification group
and user(s) and grant the necessary permissions:
1
As SA Administrator, log on to the SA Command Center.
2
Create a Core Recertification user group with the following permissions:
3
–
Read & Write access to all Facilities
–
Read * Write access to all Customers
–
Read * Write access to all Device Groups
–
Manage Customer
–
Manage Facility
–
Manage Servers and Groups
–
Core Recertification (Client ➤ Core Recert)
–
Agent Recert (Client ➤ Agent Recert)
Add the Core Recertification user to the SA System Administrators user group.
Removing a Core Recertification User
To remove a Core Recertification user, perform the following tasks:
1
As SA Administrator, log on to the SA Command Center.
2
Remove the user from the Core Recertification user group.
Core Recert Prerequisites
Before starting Core Recert, you must perform the following tasks:
•
Select a new password to protect the crypto materials and decide on how that password is
to be provided
•
Configure Core Recertification configuration file with the correct values
•
Ensure that all your Cores are up and running
•
Ensure that the Core Recertification tool correctly recognizes your Mesh setup
Select a New Password to Protect the Crypto Materials
The crypto database password is required during Core Recertification to protect the newly
generated crypto database, the PKCS #12 files, and CA private keys. Core Recertification is
comprised of multiple phases and most of them require the crypto database password. It is
very crucial to protect the crypto database password.
Some of the Core Recertification tasks are accomplished by Automation Platform Extension
(APX) jobs. Therefore, the crypto database password, though obfuscated, may briefly appear
in the job parameters or in the job audit logs.
108
Chapter 2
To avoid having the crypto database password appearing in job parameters or audit logs, you
may convey the crypto database password using a file by following this procedure:
1
Before invoking the Core Recertification Tool on the Core host, determine the Core host’s
Server ID. You can obtain the Server ID from either the SA Web Client or by looking in
/etc/opt/opsware/agent/mid. You must specify the Server ID value for
base_core_server_ref in the Core Recertification configuration file.
2
Create a file, /var/opt/opsware/crypto/cadb/__recert_overwrite__, which contains
the new crypto database password. for example cadb_password=<new crypto database
password>. Ensure that this file is read-only to the root user.
3
Remove the /var/opt/opsware/crypto/cadb/__recert_overwrite__ file after Core
Recertification has successfully completed.
Since the crypto database password is required in the Core Recertification configuration file,
you can specify an invalid password in that file as a security measure.
Core Recertification allows only one password to protect all crypto materials. This includes
the crypto database, PKCS #12 files, and all the CA private keys. If you are running a
customized version of OpswareCertTool, where the crypto materials are protected by
multiple passwords and want to continue doing so, you must contact HP Professional Services
before running the Core Recertification Tool.
Configuring Core Recert
All Core Recertification properties must be specified in a configuration file. When invoking
the Core Recertification Tool, you can specify the location of the configuration file by using the
-config argument. If the -config argument is omitted, the Core Recertification Tool uses the
default configuration file located in /opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/
recert_utils/corerecert.conf.
You can either directly edit the default configuration file or create a new one. Since the
configuration file contains sensitive information, it is important that this file be protected
accordingly. For example, by ensuring that it is readable and writable only by the root user.:
Table 16
Core Recertification Configuration File: Properties
Property Name
Req
?
Description
Example
Global Properties
username=<username>
Yes
User name of the user
who has privilege to
perform Core
Recertification
operations
username=jdoe
password=<password>
Yes
Password of the user
who has privilege to
perform Core Recert
operations.
password=dontask
Agent Recertification Properties
SA Core and Component Security
109
Table 16
Core Recertification Configuration File: Properties (cont’d)
Property Name
agent_recert.
using_cdr=<0 | 1>
Req
?
Description
No
Example
agent_recert.using_cdr=0
Indicates Code
Deployment & Rollback
(CDR) feature is being
used or a Satellite is
installed in the mesh. If
CDR is not being used or
Satellite is not installed,
the Agent CA push will
be skipped. Also, the old
Agent CA cleanup phase
will be skipped unless
agent_recert.cleanup
_old_agent_ca
property is set to 0.
Valid values are 1 (true)
or 0 (false). Any other
value will result in an
invalid property error.
Default: 0.
agent_recert.cleanup
_old_agent_ca=
<0 | 1>
No
Indicates whether to
clean up the old Agent
CA after Core
Recertification. If CDR
is not used or Satellite is
not installed in the
Mesh, cleanup of old
Agent CA phase is not
necessary and can be
disabled.
agent_recert.cleanup_old_
agent_ca=0
The valid values are 1
(true) or 0 (false). Any
other value will result in
an invalid property
error.
This is an optional
property. Default: 0.
110
Chapter 2
Table 16
Core Recertification Configuration File: Properties (cont’d)
Property Name
agent_recert.all.
facilities.
start_time=
<YYYY:MM:DD:HH:mm>
Req
?
Description
Yes
The default start time
for the Agent
Recertification
operation for all
facilities.
Example
agent_recert.all.
facilities.start_time=
2009:02:15:23:00
You can override this
value for a specified
facility (by specifying a
default facility start
time using the
agent_recert.
facility.
<facilityname>.start
property)
The start time must be
in the following format:
YYYY:MM:DD:HH:mm,
where 2008 <= YYYY
<=9999, 0 < MM <=
12, 0 < DD <= 31, 0
<= mm < 12, and 0 <=
MM < 60.
agent_recert.
facility.<facility
name>.start_time
No
You can override the
default facility start
time for a given facility
by specifying this
property.
agent_recert.facility.
yellow.start_time=
2008:05:01:10:00
The start time must be
in the following format:
YYYY:MM:DD:HH:mm,
where 2008 <= YYYY
<=9999, 0 < MM <=
12, 0 < DD <= 31, 0
<= mm < 12, and 0 <=
MM < 60.
SA Core and Component Security
111
Table 16
Core Recertification Configuration File: Properties (cont’d)
Property Name
agent_recert.all.
facilities.duration=
<HH>
Req
?
Description
Yes
The default duration, in
hours, for the Agent
Recertification
operation in all
facilities.
Example
agent_recert.all.
facilities.duration=2
Duration must be an
integer value between 1
and 24.
You can override the
duration for a given
facility by specifying the
agent_recert.
facility.<facility
name>.duration
property
agent_recert.facility.
yellow.duration=10
agent_recert.
facility.<facility
name>.duration=<HH>
No
Overrides the default
duration for a specific
facility.
agent_recert.all.
facilities.success_
rate=<%>
Yes
The default success rate agent_recert.all.
(in whole percentage) for facilities.success_rate=50
the Agent
Recertification
operation in all
facilities.
You can override this
value for a specific
facility by specifying the
agent_recert.
facility.<facility
name>.success_rate
property
agent_recert.
facility.yellow.
success_rate=<%>
112
No
Overrides the default
success rate for a given
facility.
agent_recert.facility.
yellow.success_rate=98
Chapter 2
Table 16
Core Recertification Configuration File: Properties (cont’d)
Property Name
agent_recert.all.fac
ilities.job_notifica
tion=<email_address>
Req
?
Description
No
The default job email
notification for the
Agent Recertification
operation.
Example
agent_recert.all.
facilities.job_
notification=
admin@example.com
You can override the
default job email
notification for a specific
facility by specifying the
agent_recert.
facility.
<facility name>.
job_notification
property
agent_recert.
facility.
<facility name>.
job_notification=
<email_address>
No
Overrides the default
job email notification for
a specific facility.
agent_recert.yellow.
job_notification=
saadmin@example.com
Core Recertification Properties
cadb_password=<pswd>
Yes
The password to protect
the newly generated
crypto database.
cadb_password=crypto123
debug=<0 | 1>
No
Specifies whether to run
the Core Recertification
job in debug mode. It
can be either 1 (true) or
0 (false).
debug =1
Debug logs are found in
/tmp/core_recert.out
in the Global Shell.
Default: 0.
base_core_server_
ref=<n>
SA Core and Component Security
No
Server reference of the
host from which you
launch Core
Recertification.
base_core_server_ref=10010
113
Table 16
Core Recertification Configuration File: Properties (cont’d)
Property Name
job_schedule=
<YYYY:MM:DD:HH:mm>
Req
?
Description
No
Job schedule for the
current Core
Recertification phase
jobs. It must be in the
format:
YYYY:MM:DD:HH:mm,
where 2008 <= YYYY
<=9999, 0 < MM <=
12, 0 < DD <= 31, 0
<= HH < 12, and 0 <=
mm < 60.
Example
job_schedule=
2009:02:12:23:05
If this property is not
specified, the job starts
immediately.
job_schedule.gateway
_recert.
<facility name>=
<YYYY:MM:DD:HH:mm>
No
Job schedule for the
Gateway Recertification
phase for a given facility.
It must be in the format:
YYYY:MM:DD:HH:mm,
where 2008 <= YYYY
<=9999, 0 < MM <=
12, 0 < DD <= 31, 0
<= HH < 12, and 0 <=
mm < 60.
job_schedule.gateway_
recert.<facility name>=
2009:02:12:23:05
If this property is not
specified, the
job_schedule property
for the gateway
recertification phase is
used.
job_notification=
<email_address>
No
Job notification for all
Core Recertification
phase jobs.
job_notification=
admin@example.com>
You can override this
value for a given phase
by specifying the
job_notification.
<phase_number>
property
job_notification.
<phase_number>=
<email_address>
114
No
Job notification for a
specified Core
Recertification phase.
job_notification.7=
saadmin@example.com
Chapter 2
Table 16
Core Recertification Configuration File: Properties (cont’d)
Property Name
Req
?
Description
Example
job_notification.
gateway_recert.
<facility name>=
<email_address>
No
Job notification for the
Gateway Recert phase
for a given facility.
job_notification.
gateway_recert.yellow=
admin@acme.com
cleanup_old_opsware_
ca=<0 | 1>
No
Specifies whether to
clean old SA CA after
Core Recert.
cleanup_old_opsware_ca=1
SA CA cleanup is not
necessary unless the CA
has been compromised.
In most cases, old SA CA
cleanup is not necessary
and should be disabled.
The valid values are 1
(true) or 0 (false). Any
other value will result in
an invalid property
error.
Default: 0 (false)
Ensure that All Cores are Running/Resolve Conflicts
Before performing Core Recertification, HP strongly recommends that you run System
Diagnosis from the SA Command Center, on all Cores to be recertified to ensure that they
are running correctly. You should also use the SA Command Center Multimaster Tools to
detect and resolve any transaction conflicts.
Ensure That the Core Recertification Tool Correctly Recognizes the Mesh Setup
You must perform the following tasks to ensure that the Multimaster Mesh setup is correctly
recognized by the Core Recertification Tool:
1
From the command line, log on to an SA Core host as root user.
2
Run
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/discover_mesh -p
3
Check the output to make sure it reflects your current Mesh setup. If not, contact HP
Professional Services before proceeding with Core Recertification.
Recertifying SA Cores
To recertify SA Cores, perform the following tasks:
1
Ensure that you are classified as a Core Recertification User. If not, see your SA System
Administrator.
2
Log on to an SA Core host.
SA Core and Component Security
115
3
Edit:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert.conf
to ensure the information is correct.
4
Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
to ensure Core Recertification is not currently in progress.
5
Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/discover_mesh -p
to make sure the Core Recertification Tool can correctly detect your Mesh setup.
6
Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 1
from the command line to initialize Core Recertification.
7
Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until it has indicated Phase 4 is in progress.
8
Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 4
from the command line to start Phase 4, which appends a new Agent CA to all the Agents.
9
Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until all the Agents have successfully had a new agent CA appended.
This step could take days depending on your maintenance windows and the Agent
availability. There can be only one scheduled or active Agent Recertification job per facility at
any given time. If you encounter any errors during this stage, resolve the errors and go back
to step 8 on page 116. You only need to reschedule the facilities that had errors. You do not
need to reschedule the Agent Recert job for the successful facilities.
10 Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 6
--doit
from the command line to start Phase 6 of the core recertification.
11
Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until it has indicated mesh_restart_pending.
At this point, you must work with the SA System Administrator to restart the mesh.
This step could take days depending on your maintenance window. If you encounter any
errors during this stage, make sure you resolve the errors and go back to step 10 on page 116.
116
Chapter 2
12 After the mesh has successfully restarted, run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 6
from the command line to continue phase 6.
13 Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until Phase 7 should be started. If you encounter any errors during this stage, make sure
you resolve the errors and go back to step 12 on page 117.
14 Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 7
from the command line to start phase 7.
15 Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until Phase 8 should be started. If you encounter any errors during this stage, make sure
you resolve the errors and go back to step 14 on page 117.
16 Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 8
from the command line to start Phase 8, which recertifies all the Agents.
17 Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until all Agents have successfully been recertified.
This step could take days depending on customer's maintenance windows and the agent
availability. There can be only one scheduled or active Agent Recertification job per facility at
any given time. If you encounter any errors during this stage, resolve the errors and go back
to step 16 on page 117. You only need to reschedule the facilities that had errors. You do not
need to reschedule the Agent Recertification job for the successful facilities.
18 Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 9
from the command line to start phase 9. The Core Recertification Tool prompts you to
confirm that you want to begin phase 9. Press y to continue.
19 Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until it has indicated mesh_restart_pending. If you encounter any errors during this
stage, make sure you resolve the errors and go back to step 18 on page 117.
this point, you must work with your SA System Administrator to restart the mesh.
This step could take days depending on the customer's maintenance window. If you encounter
any errors during this stage, resolve the errors and go back to step 18 on page 117. You only
need to reschedule the facilities that had errors. You do not need to reschedule the Agent
Recertification job for the successful facilities.
SA Core and Component Security
117
20 On the base Slice core server
a
Issue the following commands:
touch /var/opt/opsware/crypto/twist/upgradeInProgress
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas restart
b
Wait till the restart successfully finishes, then
c
Restart the rest of the mesh
21 After the mesh has successfully restarted, the Recertification User must run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 9
from the command line to continue phase 9.
22 Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until Phase 12 should be started. If you encounter any errors during this stage, make sure
you resolve the errors and go back to step 21 on page 118.
23 If you do not intend to remove the Agent CA, skip to step 25 on page 118. Otherwise, run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 12
from the command line to start phase 12, which removes the old Agent CA from all the
Agents.
24 Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until the old Agent CA has removed from all the Agents.
This step could take days depending on customer's maintenance windows and the agent
availability. If you encounter any errors during this stage, resolve the errors and go back to
step 23 on page 118. You only need to reschedule the facilities that had errors. You do not need
to reschedule the Agent Recertification job for the successful facilities.
25 Run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 13
--doit
from the command line to start phase 13. If you do not want to remove the old CAs, a
Mesh restart is not required in this phase.
26 Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until it indicates mesh_restart_pend.
At this point, you must work with the SA System Administrator to restart the mesh.
This step could take days depending on the customer's maintenance window. If you encounter
any errors during this stage, resolve the errors and go back tostep 25 on page 118.
27 After the mesh has successfully restarted, run:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --phase 13
from the command line to continue phase 13.
118
Chapter 2
28 Monitor the progress on screen by running:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/OpswareCertTool/recert_utils/corerecert --status
until it indicates that Core Recertification has completed successfully.
SA Core and Component Security
119
120
Chapter 2
3 Multimaster Mesh Administration
This section explains how to administer and maintain an existing Multimaster Mesh, it does
not document how to configure SA for a Multimaster Mesh. For more information about
Multimaster architecture and planning for and installing a Multimaster Mesh, see the SA
Overview and Architecture Guide or consult HP Professional Services.
Facility Administration
The SA Web Client is deprecated for administering facilities. Use the SA Client to administer
facilities. See Modifying a Facility Name - SA Client on page 123 and Adding or Modifying
Custom Attributes for a Facility - SA Client. on page 122.
A Facility refers to the set of servers that a single SA core or satellite manages. You create a
new facility whenever you install an SA core or an SA satellite. A Multimaster Mesh is a
primary SA core, one or more secondary SA cores and zero or more satellites. Whenever you
install another SA core or another SA satellite, you create a new facility.
For more information about facilities and satellites and how they fit into the Multimaster
Mesh architecture, see the SA Overview and Architecture Guide and the SA Simple/Advanced
Installation Guide.
You can manage facilities using the SA Client or the SA Web Client. You can associate
customers with facilities and modify the facility name and custom attributes associated with
the facility.
Changing the Customers Associated with a Facility
Customers are a way to organize your servers based on the users of your servers. Customers
are simply groups of managed servers that provide access control boundaries. You can define
as many customers as you need and assign any servers to each customer group. However, you
must first associate a customer with one or more facilities before you can place servers from a
facility into a customer group.
For more information about customers, see the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
To change the customers associated with a facility, perform the following steps.
1
Log into the SA Client.
2
Select the Administration tab.
3
Select Facilities in the navigation pane. This displays all your facilities.
4
Select the facility you want to change.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the
facility in a separate window.
121
6
In the facility window, select the Properties view in the navigation pane. This displays
information about the facility including the customers that are associated with the
facility.
7
To add a new customer, select the “+” icon. This displays the list of existing customers.
8
Select one or more customers.
9
Select the Select button. This associates the selected customer with the facility.
10 To remove a customer, select the customer and select the “-” icon. This removes the
customer from the facility.
11
Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
12 Select File ➤ Save to save your changes.
13 Select File ➤ Close to close the facility window.
Adding or Modifying Custom Attributes for a Facility - SA Client.
You can create or modify custom attributes for a facility. Custom attributes provide a way for
you to store additional information about your servers quickly and easily. Custom attributes
are data elements you can create for facilities, servers and other objects in SA. For more
information about custom attributes, see the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
Be careful when you update or remove existing custom attribute settings as it can affect or
disrupt the operations that depend on custom attributes.
To add, modify or delete a custom attribute for a facility, perform the following steps.
1
Log into the SA Client.
2
Select the Administration tab.
3
Select Facilities in the navigation pane. This displays all your facilities.
4
Select the facility you want to change.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the
facility in a separate window.
6
In the facility window, select the Custom Attributes view in the navigation pane. This
displays all the custom attributes defined for the facility.
7
To add a new custom attribute, select the “+” icon or the Actions ➤ Add menu. Enter the
name of the new custom attribute and the value.
8
To modify a custom attribute, select the value field and enter the new value.
9
To delete a custom attribute, select the custom attribute and select the “-” icon or the
Actions ➤ Delete menu.
10 Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
11
Select File ➤ Save to save your changes.
12 Select File ➤ Close to close the facility window.
122
Chapter 3
Modifying a Facility Name - SA Client
To modify a facility name, you must log into the SA Client with the Manage Facilities
permission. The short name of the facility is the internal name that cannot be modified. The
display name can be modified.
Perform the following steps to modify a facility’s display name:
1
Log into the SA Client.
2
Select the Administration tab.
3
Select Facilities in the navigation pane. This displays all your facilities.
4
Select the facility you want to change.
5
Select the Actions menu or right click and select the Open menu. This displays the
facility in a separate window.
6
In the facility window, select the Properties view in the navigation pane.
7
Enter the new facility name in the Name field.
8
Select File ➤ Revert to discard your changes.
9
Select File ➤ Save to save your changes.
Modifying a Facility Name - SA Web Client
The SA Web Client is deprecated for administering facilities. Use the SA Client to administer
facilities. See Modifying a Facility Name - SA Client on page 123.
To modify a facility’s name perform the following steps:
1
Log in to the SA Web Client.
2
From the Navigation panel, click Environment ➤ Facilities. The Facilities page
appears and displays the names of the Facilities in your mesh.
3
Click the name of the Facility that you want to modify. The Facilities: Edit Facility page
appears with the Properties tab automatically selected, as Figure 29 shows.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
123
Figure 29 Properties Tab of the Edit Facility Page
4
You can change the SA Web Client display name of the Facility by editing the Name field
or click the Return to Facilities link to exit without making any changes.
5
To save the new Facility name, click Save. The SA Web Client displays a message that
confirms that the properties for that Facility were updated.
Adding or Modifying a Facility’s Custom Attributes - SA Web Client
The SA Web Client is deprecated for administering facilities. Use the SA Client to administer
facilities. See Adding or Modifying Custom Attributes for a Facility - SA Client. on page 122.
Perform the following steps to modify a Facility’s custom attributes:
1
Log in to the SA Web Client.
2
From the Navigation panel, click Environment ➤ Facilities. The Facilities page
appears and displays the names of the Facilities in your mesh.
3
Click the name of the Facility that you want to modify custom attributes for. The
Facilities: Edit Facility page appears with the Properties tab automatically selected,
as Figure 29 shows.
4
Select the Custom Attributes tab.
The Custom Attributes page appears and displays any name-value pairs associated
with the Facility.
5
124
Click the name of an attribute to display the Facilities: Edit Attribute for [facility
name] dialogue from which you can:
•
Make changes to the Facility’s custom attribute values
•
Click New to add a new custom attribute: specify a name and a value for the attribute
Chapter 3
Be careful when you update or remove existing custom attribute settings as it can affect or
disrupt operations that depend on custom attributes.
6
When you finish making updates to the Facility properties or custom attributes, click the
Return to Facilities link.
Contact your HP Server Automation Support Representative if you need to make other
changes not described in this section to the Facility properties.
Multimaster Mesh Conflict Administration
Multimaster Mesh administration tasks typically involve detecting, preventing, and resolving
the various types of conflicts that can occur when you have users in multiple Facilities
updating multiple, replicated Model Repositories. This section provides information on
Multimaster Mesh administration within SA and contains the following topics:
•
Types of Conflicts
•
Model Repository Multimaster Component Conflicts
•
Causes of Conflicts
•
User Overlap
•
User Duplication of Actions
•
Out of Order Transactions
Types of Conflicts
A Multimaster Mesh installation can experience two types of conflicts:
•
Transaction Conflicts
•
Model Repository Multimaster Component Conflicts
Transaction Conflicts
A transaction conflict can occur when updates are made to the same record in different Model
Repositories.
When transaction conflicts occur, the SA Multimaster components detect them and can be
configured to email alerts to responsible parties.
The SA Core Components themselves cannot resolve the conflicts. SA administrators must
use the Multimaster Tools in the SA Web Client to resolve the conflicts at the target
databases when they occur to ensure that the transaction updates are not lost. The
administrator can also use the Multimaster Status Monitor described in the SA Simple/
Advanced Installation Guide to detect where there are conflicts.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
125
Model Repository Multimaster Component Conflicts
Replication conflicts occur in an environment in which concurrent updates to the same data at
multiple sites occurs. For example, when two transactions originating from users accessing
different Model Repositories update the same row at nearly the same time, a conflict can
occur. If you need basic information about database conflicts, see your Oracle Database
documentation.
The probability of Multimaster conflicts occurring varies depending on the following factors:
•
The number of servers under management — the more servers, the more likely that
conflicts can occur
•
The number of Facilities in the mesh
•
The number of installed SA Web Clients — more users making updates
•
The propensity for users to make changes in more than one Facility by using different SA
Web Clients
SA Transaction Conflict Handling
When SA flags a conflict, the following occurs:
1
The transaction is canceled.
2
All database rows affected by the transaction are locked, thereby preventing further
changes to those rows.
3
The Outbound Model Repository Multimaster Component propagates the transaction lock
to all remote databases in the mesh, thereby locking the rows in all Facilities.
4
An alert message with the conflict information is emailed to a user-configured mailing
list.
5
The Inbound Model Repository Multimaster Component continues to the next
transaction.
If the Inbound or Outbound Model Repository Multimaster Component encounters an
exception that prevents it from going to the next transaction, it sends an email to the
user-configured mailing list describing the problem and shuts down.
An SA administrator must manually resolve conflicts using the SA Web Client. Resolving the
conflict unlocks the rows. See Best Practices for Resolving Database Conflicts on page 130 in
this chapter for more information.
Causes of Conflicts
Conflicts are typically caused by:
126
•
User Overlap
•
User Duplication of Actions
•
Out of Order Transactions
Chapter 3
User Overlap
Conflicts occur when a user concurrently makes a change using the SA Web Client in one
Facility at the same time another user makes a change to the same object in another Facility.
For example:
1
Alice removes Node A from a server in the Atlanta Facility.
2
Bob removes Node A from the same server in the Boston Facility.
3
SA propagates the change from the Atlanta Facility to the Boston Facility; however, Bob
has already removed Node A from the server in the Boston Facility. SA generates a Model
Repository Multimaster Component conflict alert because now it appears that Alice is
requesting that a node that does not exist be removed.
4
SA also propagates Bob’s update in Step 2 from the Boston Facility to the Atlanta Facility;
however, Alice has already removed Node A from the server in the Atlanta Facility. SA
generates a second Model Repository Multimaster Component conflict alert.
User Duplication of Actions
Conflicts can also occur when a user, for various reasons, attempts make an update to a Model
Repository, does not wait long enough for the update to propagate to the other Model
repositories in the Mesh, thinks the update failed, and so attempts to make the update again,
thus creating duplicate updates.
For example, this sequence of events could occur:
1
From a server in the Seattle Facility, Carol uses the SA Command Line Interface to
upload the package carol.conf.
2
Carol immediately logs in to the SA Web Client In the Phoenix Facility and searches for
the package. She does not see the package because that data has not yet propagated from
Seattle to Phoenix. Carol allowed enough time for data propagation between facilities.
3
Carol uploads the package carol.conf by using the SA Web Client in Phoenix.
4
When the data eventually propagates from Seattle, SA generates a conflict because the
data already exists in Phoenix.
Out of Order Transactions
Out of order transactions occur only in a Multimaster Mesh with three or more facilities.
Transactions between two Facilities should arrive in the order in which they were sent.
However, if a third Facility is involved in the transactions, the correct ordering is not
guaranteed.
For example,
1
A user changes or inserts data at Facility A (Model Repository A).
2
The transaction for that change propagates to Facility B (Model Repository B) and to
Facility C (Model Repository C).
3
However, the data is modified again or referenced at Facility B (Model Repository B) and
then propagated to Facilities A and C.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
127
4
If the transaction from Facility B (Step 3) reaches Facility C (Model Repository C) before
the transaction from Facility A (Step 1), a conflict occurs.
This conflict typically occurs when a user uploads a package using the SA command-line
interface (OCLI) in one Facility, and immediately uses the SA Client to add the package to a
Software Policy in different Facility.
The occurrence of out of order transactions can be aggravated by concurrent updates in
different Facilities and/or problems with inter-Facility network connections.
For example:
1
Henry uses the OCLI on a server in the Denver Facility to upload the package
henry.conf.
2
SA propagates data about the package to all Facilities in the mesh; however, it cannot
propagate the data to the Paris Facility because the network connection is down.
3
Henry logs on to a server in the Miami Facility and uses the SA Client to update the
description of the package henry.conf.
4
SA propagates data about the updated package description to all other Facilities in the
mesh; however, it cannot propagate the data to the Paris Facility because the network
connection is still down.
5
Network connectivity to the Paris Facility is restored and the delayed transactions from
Steps 2 and 4 are propagated to the Paris Facility.
6
The transaction for the updated package description arrives at the Paris Facility before
the transaction that uploaded henry.conf. Therefore, the Model Repository in the Paris
Facility does not contain data about henry.conf, so SA generates a conflict alert.
7
The transaction uploading henry.conf arrives at the Paris Facility and is processed
without error. The package data exists in the Paris Model Repository, but the package
description differs from all the other facilities in the mesh.
Best Practices for Preventing Multimaster Conflicts
There are measures you can take to keep the number of Multimaster conflicts to a minimum.
Users
Your users should be aware of the following:
128
•
Users in multiple Facilities are able to modify the same data at the same time, so when
possible coordinate updates to avoid conflicts.
•
Users should not change data in one Facility and immediately make the same change in
another Facility.
•
A slight time delay occurs before changes that a user makes can propagate to other SA
Facilities. The length of delay varies depending on a number of factors, including network
connectivity and bandwidth. If an update has not yet propagated to all the other Model
Repositories in the mesh, wait a reasonable period of time to insure that the transaction
hasn’t been delayed before attempting to redo the transaction or perform another update
that depends on other recent transactions.
Chapter 3
Administrators
Implement the following best practices to reduce the chance of data conflicts:
•
Ensure that your network connections are reliable and there is sufficient network
bandwidth between Facilities in the mesh. The risk of conflicts increases as bandwidth
decreases.
See Network Administration for Multimaster Mesh on page 140 in this chapter for more
information.
See the SA Simple/Advanced Installation Guide for information about network
connectivity when running SA in a Multimaster Mesh.
•
When possible, partition your data space so that only one user can change the same object
in different Facilities concurrently.
•
Have a user, or a small group of coordinated users, manage a given set of servers.
Partitioning the data space ensures accountability of server ownership and prevents users
from changing each other's data.
The SA Web Client facilitates this by allowing you to set permissions by Customer,
Facility, and User Group types.
See Permissions Reference on page 239 of this guide for more information about User
Groups and SA Permissions.
Examining the State of the Multimaster Mesh
You can examine the state of a Multimaster Mesh by launching the SA Web Client and
selecting the Multimaster Tools option
When you select the Multimaster Tools option, the Multimaster Tools: State View page
appears. In addition to a color-coded legend that shows possible transaction states:
Table 17
Multimaster Transaction State Color Code
Color
State
Red
Conflict
Orange
Not Sent
Yellow
Not Received
Gray
Unable to Connect
green
Good
The Multimaster Tools: State View page also provides:
•
An overview of the health of the Multimaster Mesh achieved by an automatic check of all
Facilities in the mesh.
•
A display of the state of the last five transactions in the mesh and a list of all conflicting
and unpublished transactions.
•
The time that the SA Web Client generated and cached the data. Click Refresh to refresh
the time.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
129
System Diagnosis Tools
Administrators can also use the System Diagnosis tools in the SA Web Client to view
information about the health of the multimaster components.
See SA Maintenance on page 165 in Chapter 5 for more information.
Multimaster State Monitoring Utility
If you prefer a command line utility, you can use the Multimaster State Monitoring Utility to
get information about conflicts in your mesh. For more information, see the SA Simple/
Advanced Installation Guide.
Best Practices for Resolving Database Conflicts
This section provides basic information about identifying the kind of conflicts you may have
and the steps you can take to resolve them. You should see your Oracle Database
Administration documentation for more detailed and up-to-date information about identifying
and resolving data and transaction conflicts.
This section contains the following topics:
•
Types of Conflicts
•
Guidelines for Resolving Each Type of Conflict
Types of Conflicts
The following are the most typically seen conflicts:
Table 18
130
Types of Conflicts
Conflict
description
Identical data conflict
The Multimaster Tools show a conflicting transaction but
the data is the same between facilities. The data is the
same because users made the same change in different
facilities.
Simple transaction conflict
The row exists in all facilities, but some columns have
different values or the row does not exist in some
facilities (missing objects).
Chapter 3
Table 18
Types of Conflicts (cont’d)
Conflict
description
Unique-key constraint
conflict
The object does not exist in a Facility and cannot be
inserted there because inserting it would violate a
unique-key constraint.
Foreign-key constraint
conflict
The row does not exist in some facilities and cannot be
inserted because the data contains a foreign key to
another object that also does not exist in that Facility.
Linked object conflict
A type of conflict encountered in rare cases. SA includes
business logic that links specific related objects in SA,
such as a custom attribute name and value, and a
customer created in the SA Web Client (appears in lists)
and the associated node for the customer in the node
hierarchy. SA ensures that links between related objects
are maintained. Resolving a linked object conflict can be
complex because you must attempt to preserve the intent
of the transaction that caused the conflict. Contact your
HP Server Automation Support Representative to help
you resolve linked object conflicts.
Guidelines for Resolving Each Type of Conflict
In general, when you resolve conflicts, apply updates so that the target always reflects the
most current data based on the time stamp of the originating changes.
When you cannot follow one of the preceding guidelines, attempt to preserve the intent of the
transaction. Contact the users who are generating the transactions and determine what types
of changes in the managed environment each user was trying to make.
Identical Data Conflict
All objects in a transaction contain exactly the same data across all facilities. This type of
conflict includes the case where the objects do not exist in all facilities.
To resolve an identical data conflict, simply mark the conflict resolved.
Identical Data Conflict (Locked)
All objects in a transaction contain exactly the same data across all facilities but the objects in
the transaction are still locked (marked conflicting).
To resolve this type of conflict, pick an arbitrary Facility and synchronize all objects from it.
Performing this action unlocks the objects. After synchronizing the data, mark the conflict
resolved.
Simple Transaction Conflict
The data is different between facilities or some objects are missing from some facilities. None
of the objects depend on the actions of other conflicting transactions. The results of
synchronizing the objects does not result in a database foreign-key or unique-key constraint
violation.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
131
To resolve a simple transaction conflict, choose the Facility that contains the correct data and
synchronize from it. How you determine which Facility contains the correct data varies
depending on the type of transaction:
•
If the conflict is the result of two users overriding each other’s work, talk to the users and
determine which user's change should be correct.
•
If the conflict is the result of automated processes overriding each other's data, the most
recent change is usually correct.
•
If the conflict is the result of out-of-order transactions, the most recent change is usually
correct.
After synchronizing the data, mark the conflict resolved.
Unique-Key Constraint Conflict
Resolving these conflicts results in a unique-key constraint violation.
For example, this sequence of events occurs:
1
From the SA Web Client in the London Facility, John creates Node A1 as a subordinate
node of Node A.
2
From the v in the San Francisco Facility, Ann performs the same action. She creates Node
A1 as a subordinate node of Node A.
3
Node names must be unique in each branch of the node hierarchy.
4
SA propagates the node changes from the London and San Francisco facilities to the other
facilities. Inserting the rows into the Model Repository databases at other facilities causes
a unique-key constraint violation and a conflict.
Resolving this conflict by inserting the updates from the London Facility in all facilities would
fail with the same unique-key constraint violation.
Perform the following steps to resolve a unique-key constraint conflict:
1
Locate all the involved transactions and synchronize one transaction from a Facility
where the object does not exist, thereby deleting it in all facilities.
2
Synchronize the other transaction from a Facility where the object exists, thereby
inserting the object in all facilities. One of the two uniquely conflicting objects will take
the place of the other.
Foreign-Key Constraint Conflict
Resolving these conflicts results in a foreign-key constraint violation.
For example, this sequence of events occurs:
1
Jerry creates Node B in Facility 1.
2
Before that transaction has time to propagate to other facilities, Jerry creates Node C as a
subordinate node of Node B.
3
When the first transaction arrives at Facility 2, it generates a conflict for unrelated
reasons.
4
When the second transaction arrives at Facility 2, inserting the row for Node C causes a
foreign-key constraint conflict because the parent Node (Node B) does not exist.
Resolving the second conflict first by inserting the update for Node C into all facilities would
fail with the same foreign-key constraint violation.
132
Chapter 3
Perform the following steps to resolve a foreign-key constraint conflict:
1
Resolve the conflicting transaction for Node B (the parent Node) by synchronizing the first
transaction from the Facility where the object exists.
2
Synchronize the second transaction (the Node C update) from the Facility where the
object exists.
Generally, resolving conflicts in the order in which they were created avoids generating
foreign-key constraint conflicts.
Model Repository Multimaster Component Conflicts
This section provides information on resolving model repository, multimaster component
conflicts and contains the following topics:
•
Overview of Resolving Model Repository Multimaster Component Conflicts
•
Resolving a Conflict by Object
•
Resolving a Conflict by Transaction
Overview of Resolving Model Repository Multimaster Component Conflicts
SA administrators can view and resolve multimaster conflicts in any SA Web Client by using
the Multimaster Tools. The Multimaster Tools are available in all SA Web Clients.
Before you resolve conflicts, notify the subscribers of the email alert alias. Notifying these
users helps to prevent other SA administrators from undoing or affecting each other’s conflict
resolution efforts. While resolving conflicts, you should resolve the conflict from the SA Web
Client of a single Facility. Do not attempt to resolve the same conflict multiple times from the
SA Web Client of different facilities.
If you see a large volume of conflicts that you cannot resolve by using the Multimaster Tools,
contact your HP Server Automation Support Representative for assistance synchronizing
databases.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
133
Resolving a Conflict by Object
Perform the following steps to resolve conflicting transactions individually:
1
Log on to the SA Web Client.
2
From the Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ Multimaster Tools. The
Multimaster Tools: State View page appears, showing a summary of all transactions
and, if they exist, all conflicts. See Figure 30.
Figure 30 Transaction Table Showing Conflicts
Different types of transaction statuses are indicated by color-coded boxes:
— Green: The last five transactions that were successfully sent.
— Orange: All transactions that have not been published (sent to other facilities).
— Red: All conflicts.
Each box is displayed in a color scheme to indicate the status and success of the
transaction. A key that explains the significance of the colors, like the one shown in
Figure 31, is listed at the top of the page.
Figure 31 Conflict Color Key
Red boxes indicate that one or more transactions between facilities are in conflict and
need to be resolved.
134
Chapter 3
3
To resolve a conflict, select the Conflict View tab. The Multimaster Tools: Conflict
View page appears, as shown in Figure 32.
Figure 32 Multimaster Tools: Conflict Page showing all Conflicts in a Multimaster
Mesh
The page lists each transaction by ID number (clickable link), the actions that caused the
conflict, the database objects affected by the conflict, the user responsible for the conflict
(listed by the IP address of the SA Web Client where the user made the change), when the
offending action occurred, the source Facility that originated the transaction, and the
facilities where the transaction conflicted.
The page might show a conflict where the data is the same in both facilities but a conflict
exists, because the same change was made in both facilities. Even though the data is correct,
the conflict still exists and must be resolved. See Best Practices for Resolving Database
Conflicts on page 130 in this chapter for more information.
4
To resolve a conflict, click the transaction ID number link. You see the Multimaster Tools:
Transaction Differences page, which shows a comparison of the objects between facilities,
with any differences shown in red, as illustrated in Figure 33.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
135
Figure 33 Transaction Differences Page Showing Conflicts Between Facilities
5
Click Synchronize From at the bottom of the conflict listing to resolve.
The Multimaster Tools insert or delete conflict objects in the transaction where necessary,
and then propagate the change to every Facility in the Multimaster Mesh.
The Multimaster Tools: Object Synchronization Results page appears, displaying the
results of the transaction synchronization, as shown in Figure 34.
Figure 34 Object Synchronization Results Page
136
Chapter 3
6
Click Return to Transaction Differences. The Multimaster Tools: Transaction
Difference page displays again. Notice that the conflict object you synchronized shows on
the page as being identical between the facilities, as shown in Figure 35.
Figure 35 Single Object Resolved
7
Continue synchronizing the objects in the transaction until all objects in the transaction
are synchronized. (Repeat steps 3 and 4.) When all objects in the transaction are
synchronized, Mark Resolved appears at the bottom of the page, as Figure 36 shows.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
137
Figure 36 When All Conflicts Are Resolved, the Mark Resolved Button Appears
8
Click Mark Resolved. The Multimaster Tools: Mark Conflict Resolved page
appears, as Figure 37 shows. The page displays the results of marking a transaction
resolved.
Figure 37 Multimaster Tools Mark Conflict Resolved Page
After it is marked resolved, the transaction disappears from the State and Conflicts views
after SA refreshes the data in the Multimaster Tools.
9
Click Conflict Resolution to return to the Conflict view.
Resolving a Conflict by Transaction
Perform the following steps If you know that synchronizing all objects from one Facility will
resolve the conflict:
138
1
Log on to the SA Web Client.
2
From the Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ Multimaster Tools. The
Multimaster Tools: State View page appears, showing a summary of all transactions
and, if they exist, all conflicts.
3
To resolve a conflict, select the Conflict View tab. The Multimaster Tools: Conflict View
page appears, as shown in Figure 38.
Chapter 3
Figure 38 Multimaster Tools: Conflict Page showing all Conflicts in a Multimaster
Mesh
The page lists each transaction by ID number (clickable link), the actions that caused the
conflict, the database objects affected by the conflict, the user responsible for the conflict
(listed by the IP of the SA Web Client where the user made the change), when the
offending action occurred, the source Facility that originated the transaction, and the
facilities where the transaction conflicted.
4
Click the link of the transaction you want to resolve. You now see the Multimaster Tools:
Transaction Differences page, as shown in Figure 39.
Figure 39 Transaction Differences Page Showing Conflicts Between Facilities
Multimaster Mesh Administration
139
5
From the Synchronize all objects from drop-down list at the top of the page, select the
Facility to use as the correct source of data, as Figure 40 shows.
Figure 40 By Transaction
See Best Practices for Resolving Database Conflicts on page 130 in this chapter for more
information
6
Click Update beside the drop-down list. The Multimaster Tools: Transaction
Synchronization Results page appears, as shown in Figure 41.
Figure 41 Transaction Synchronization Results for All Objects in Transaction
This page shows the results of the synchronization and prompts you to mark the conflicts
resolved.
7
Click Mark Resolved. The Multimaster Tools: Mark Conflict Resolved page
appears. The page displays the results of marking a transaction resolved.
8
Click the link to return to the Conflict view. After it is marked resolved, the transaction
disappears form the State and Conflicts views after SA refreshes the data in the
Multimaster Tools.
Network Administration for Multimaster Mesh
SA does not require that a Multimaster Mesh configuration meet specific guidelines on
network uptime. A Multimaster Mesh configuration can function acceptably in a production
environment that experiences temporary inter-Facility network outages.
However, as the duration of a network outage increases, the probability of conflicts increases.
Extended network outages between Facilities can cause the following problems:
140
•
Multimaster messages can fail to propagate between facilities
•
The Multimaster Tools can stop functioning
•
SA Web Clients cannot contact the multimaster central Data Access Engine
Chapter 3
Production experience for multimaster configurations supports the performance data that
Table 19 shows.
Table 19
Performance Data for Multimaster Configurations
# Facilities
Duration Network Outage
# multimaster conflicts
*
8 facilities
(SA core installed in each
Facility)
12 hour outage
(1 Facility looses network
connectivity to the other Facilities)
12 to 24 conflicts
(average number
generated)
* The propensity of users to manage servers in the disconnected Facility with SA Web
Clients in other Facilities increases the number of conflicts.
Network connectivity issues include SA Bus or multicast routing problems.
Multimaster Alert Emails
When Multimaster conflicts occur or Multimaster components experience problems, SA sends
an email to the user-configured Multimaster email alias.
You configure this email address when you install SA. If you must change this email address,
contact your HP Server Automation Support Representative or See SA Notification
Configuration on page 227 in Chapter 7 for more information.
The subject line of the alert email specifies:
•
The type of error that occurred when a transaction was being applied to a Model
Repository database
•
The type of error that caused problems with the Multimaster operation
Contact your HP Server Automation Support Representative for assistance troubleshooting
and resolving SA problems that affect the multimaster operation.
See Table 20 for error messages.
Table 20
Multimaster Error Messages
Subject Line
Type of Error
Details
vault.ApplyTransactionError
Multimaster
Transaction Conflict
The local database was not
successfully updated with the
changes from the other
database. Each update must
affect only one row and not
result in any database errors.
vault.configValueMissing
SA Problem
No value was specified for a
given configuration parameter.
Log into the SA Web Client and
provide the value for this
configuration parameter.
Contact your HP Server
Automation Support
Representative for assistance
setting SA configuration values.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
141
Table 20
Multimaster Error Messages (cont’d)
Subject Line
Type of Error
Details
vault.DatabaseError
Multimaster
Transaction Conflict
An error occurred while
querying the database for
updates to send to other
databases or while applying
updates from other databases.
Restart the Model Repository
Multimaster Component.
vault.InitializationError
SA Problem
An error occurred when the
Model Repository Multimaster
Component process started. The
application returned the
message specified. The thread
that encountered the error
stopped running. This error
occurs when running SA in
multimaster mode.
Resolve the error condition.
Restart the Model Repository
Multimaster Component.
vault.ParserError
Multimaster
Transaction Conflict
An error occurred when parsing
the XML representation of the
transaction. The application
returned the message specified.
This error occurs when running
SA in multimaster mode.
Run the SA Admin Multimaster
Tools and verify that the
transaction data does not
contain special characters that
the XML parser might be unable
to interpret.
vault.SOAPError
Multimaster
Transaction Conflict
An error occurred while using
SOAP libraries to marshal or
un-marshal transactions into
XML. The application returned
the message specified. This
error occurs when running SA in
multimaster mode.
Run the SA Admin Multimaster
Tools and verify that the
transaction data does not
contain special characters SOAP
might be unable to interpret.
142
Chapter 3
Table 20
Multimaster Error Messages (cont’d)
Subject Line
Type of Error
Details
vault.UnknownError
SA Problem
The Model Repository
Multimaster Component process
encountered an unknown error.
Contact technical support and
provide the database name and
SA component's log file.
Multimaster Mesh Administration
143
144
Chapter 3
4 Satellite Administration
This section describes basic SA Satellite topologies and concepts and the following
administrative tasks:
•
Viewing Satellite Facilities
•
Enabling the Display of Realm Information
•
Viewing the Realm of a Satellite Managed Server
•
Viewing and Managing Satellite Gateway Information
•
Satellite Software Repository Cache Management
•
Updating Software in the Satellite Software Repository Cache
•
Satellite Software Repository Cache Management
Overview of the SA Satellite
A Satellite installation can be a solution for remote sites that do not have a large enough
number of potentially Managed Servers to justify a full SA Core installation. A Satellite
installation allows you to install only the minimum necessary Core Components on the
Satellite host which then accesses the Primary (First) Core’s database and other services
through an SA Gateway connection.
A Satellite installation can also relieve bandwidth problems for remote sites that may be
connected to a primary Facility through a limited network connection. You can cap a
Satellite’s use of network bandwidth to a specified bit rate limit. This allows you to insure
that Satellite network traffic will not interfere with your other critical systems network
bandwidth requirements on the same pipe.
A Satellite installation typically consists of a Satellite Gateway and a Software Repository
Cache and allows you to fully manage servers at a remote Facility. The Software Repository
Cache contains local copies of software packages to be installed on Managed Servers from the
Satellite while the Satellite Gateway handles communication with the Primary (First) Core.
You can optionally install the OS Provisioning Boot Server and Media Server on the Satellite
host to support Satellite OS Provisioning.
Installing other SA Core Components on the Satellite host is not supported.
For information about how to install and configure a Satellite, see the SA Simple/Advanced
Installation Guide.
Satellites can be installed using various topologies. For detailed information about Satellite
topologies, see the SA Simple/Advanced Installation Guide.
Figure 42, shows a Satellite linked to a single SA Core communicating through the First
Core’s Management Gateway.
145
Figure 43, shows two Satellites linked to an SA Core each communication directly with the
First Core’s Management Gateway. Communication between the Satellites, when required,
travels from one Satellite to the First Core Management Gateway, then to the other Satellite.
Figure 42 Single SA Core with a Single Satellite
146
Chapter 4
Figure 43 Single SA Core with Multiple Satellites
Management Gateway
Satellite communication with an SA First Core is achieved, either directly or through a
network of Gateways, through a Management Gateway that resides on the First Core and in
the same IP address space as the servers that the First Core manages. The Management
Gateway communicates with the First Core through the Core Gateway.
Facilities and Realms
A Facility encompasses the Managed Servers that reside in a single physical location. A
Facility can be all or part of a data center, server room, or computer lab.
To deal with the potential problem of Facilities in the same SA Core with overlapping IP
address spaces, SA uses the concept of Realms. An SA Realm is a routable IP address space,
which is serviced by one or more Gateways. A Facility can contain multiple Realms. Each IP
address space requires a separate Realm. Typically, each physical building is modeled as a
Facility that has as many Realms as needed.
Satellite Administration
147
The Realm allows each Managed Server in a Facility to be identified by its Realm and IP
address combination. Since separate Facilities can contain duplicate IP addresses, this Realm/
IP address combination allows SA to differentiate between Managed Servers in different
Facilities but with the same IP address and route traffic accordingly.
For more information about Facilities and Realms, see the SA Simple/Advanced Installation
Guide.
Satellite Information and Access
This section discusses the following topics:
•
Permissions Required for Managing Satellites
•
Viewing Satellite Facilities
•
Enabling the Display of Realm Information
•
Viewing the Realm of a Satellite Managed Server
•
Viewing and Managing Satellite Gateway Information
Permissions Required for Managing Satellites
To access the Manage Gateway feature, you must have the Manage Gateway permission. By
default, this permission is included in the SA System Administrators group. To view Facility
information, you must have Read (or Read & Write) permission for the specific Facility. For
more information about user groups and SA permissions, see Chapter 1, User and User Group
Setup and Security, on page 13 of this guide.
Viewing Satellite Facilities
The Facilities page in the SA Web Client lists the Core and Satellite facilities. In particular,
the Facilities page displays Unreachable Facilities, as shown in Figure 44.
148
Chapter 4
Figure 44 Facilities Channel
Clicking the link for a Facility, and then selecting the Realms tab displays the configured
bandwidth of the connections between the Realms in that Facility, as shown in Figure 45.
Figure 45 Realms and Connection Bandwidth in Facilities
Additionally, you can view the Facilities that contain Realms by clicking Administration ➤
System Configuration as shown in Figure 46.
Satellite Administration
149
Figure 46 Satellite Configuration
Enabling the Display of Realm Information
By default, the SA Web Client does not display Realm information, which is needed by users
who manage Gateways and Software Repository Caches.
To enable access to the Realm information, perform the following tasks:
150
1
Log on to the SA Web Client as a user who is a member of the SA Administrators group
and to a group that has the Configure Opsware permission.
2
From the Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ System Configuration.
3
Select the SA System Web Client link.
4
On the System Configuration page, for the parameter owm.features.Realms.allow,
set the value to true.
5
Click Save.
Chapter 4
Viewing the Realm of a Satellite Managed Server
When installed in a Satellite configuration, SA can manage servers with overlapping IP
addresses. This situation can occur when servers are behind NAT devices or firewalls. Servers
with overlapping IP addresses must reside in different Realms.
When retrieving a list of servers resulting from a search, you might see multiple servers with
the same IP address but in different Realms. You might also see multiple servers with the
same IP address when you are planning to run a custom extension and you are prompted to
select the servers on which to run the extension.
The SA Web Client displays additional information that identifies the server corresponding to
the IP address, as shown in Figure 47.
Figure 47 Server Properties Page Showing the Realm of a Managed Server
Viewing and Managing Satellite Gateway Information
To access Satellite Gateway information, in the SA Web Client Navigation panel, click
Administration ➤ Gateway. The Manage Gateway page appears, as shown in Figure 48.
From the list of Gateways on the left, select the Gateway you want to view information for,
and then click the Page Selection link for the page you want to view.
Satellite Administration
151
Figure 48 Status Page of the Manage Gateway Feature
Page Selection
Gateway
Selection
Use the Manage Gateway page for the following tasks:
•
Obtain debugging and status information about Gateways and the tunnels between
Gateways.
•
Perform specific tasks on Gateways, such as changing the bandwidth limits or tunnel cost
between Gateway instances, restarting Gateway processes, or changing the logging levels
for Gateway processes.
Viewing Diagnostic and Debugging Information
1
From the SA Web Client Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ Gateway. The
Manage Gateway page appears.
2
From the list of Gateways on the left, select the Gateway that you want to view
information for. The Status page for that Gateway appears.
The Status page displays the following information for the Gateway:
•
A table of Active Tunnels. This table includes:
— Tunnel Cost
— Bandwidth Constraints
— Bandwidth Estimates
— Age of the tunnels
•
Information about the internal message queues. Each column in the table for a queue
displays data in this format:
— Number of messages in the queue
152
Chapter 4
— The message high-water mark for the queue
— Maximum value configured for the queue
— The last time the message high-water mark was attained for the queue
You can use the timestamp indicating when the message high-water mark was
last reached to troubleshoot Gateway issues. The timestamp is displayed in the
format DD:HH:mm:ss.
3
To view the details and statistics for a tunnel between Gateways, click the link for the
Gateway that terminates the tunnel, as Figure 49 shows.
Figure 49 Manage Gateway — Status Page
The page refreshes and displays the tunnel details and statistics.
4
To view the following pages containing diagnostic information, click the link for the page
in the menu bar.
•
Flows page: Displays information about all open connections for the selected
Gateway.
•
Routing page: Displays the inter-Gateway routing table. This table shows which
tunnel will be used to reach another Gateway in the mesh. The routing table is
computed from the data in the path database. The routing computation automatically
updates when the link cost for a connection is changed.
When a tunnel collapses, by default, routing information is retained in the routing table for
two minutes to provide continuity for the mesh.
•
Path database (PathDB) page: Displays the route with the lowest cost to all
reachable Gateways in the mesh. SA determines the lowest cost route to all reachable
Gateways from the data in the Link State database.
•
Link State database (LSDB) page: Contains information about the state of all
tunnels from the perspective of each Gateway instance. The LSDB contains the data
for all tunnels and the bandwidth constraint for each tunnel.
•
Configuration (Config) page: Displays the Gateway Properties file for the Gateway
you have selected. This page includes the path to the properties file on the server
running the Gateway component.
Below the properties values, the page contains crypto file information and the mesh
properties database.
Satellite Administration
153
Above the properties values, the Properties Cache field appears. When you change
the bandwidth or link cost for a connection between Gateways, the updated value
appears in this field if the update was successful.
•
History: Displays historical information about the inbound (ingress) and outbound
(egress) connections between hosts using the Gateway mesh. For example, when host
A in Realm A connected to host B in Realm B.
Identifying the Source IP Address and Realm for a Connection
The Ident page provides an interface to the real-time connection identification database. If
necessary, contact HP Server Automation Support for additional information about how to
run this tool.
1
From the SA Web Client Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ Gateway. The
Manage Gateway page appears.
2
From the Page Selector, click Ident. The page refreshes with an interface to the real-time
connection identification database.
3
In the text field, enter the protocol and source port for an active connection (for example,
TCP:25679).
4
Click Lookup.
The page refreshes with the client Realm and client IP address — where the connection
came from.
Changing the Bandwidth Usage or Link Cost Between Gateways
You must apply any bandwidth changes between gateways on Core Gateways only. Changes
made on other gateways will not take effect.
1
From the SA Web Client Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ Gateway. The
Manage Gateway page appears.
2
To specify a bandwidth limit for a connection:
3
154
a
From the Page Selector, click Bandwidth. The page refreshes with fields in which you
can specify the bandwidth for the connection between Gateway instances.
b
Specify two Gateway instance names that are connected by a tunnel.
c
Specify the bandwidth limit you want in kilobits per second (Kbps). Specify zero (0) to
remove bandwidth constraints for the connection.
d
Click Apply.
To set a link cost for a connection:
a
From the Page Selector, click Link Cost. The page refreshes with fields in which you
can specify the link cost for the connection between Gateway instances.
b
Specify two Gateway instance names that are connected by a tunnel.
c
Specify the cost you want in the Cost field.
d
Click Apply.
Chapter 4
Viewing the Gateway Log or Change the Log Level
Changing the logging level to LOG_DEBUG or LOG_TRACE greatly increases the log output of the
Gateway and can negatively impact the performance of the Gateway.
1
From the SA Web Client Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ Gateway. The
Manage Gateway page appears.
2
From the Page Selector, click Logging. The page refreshes with a tail of the Gateway log
file.
3
To change the logging level, select an option: LOG_INFO, LOG_DEBUG, or LOG_TRACE.
4
Click Submit.
Restarting or Stopping a Gateway Process
1
From the SA Web Client Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ Gateway. The
Manage Gateway page appears.
2
From the Page Selector, click Process Control. The page refreshes.
3
To restart the Gateway process, click Restart.
4
To stop the Gateway watchdog and the Gateway, click Shutdown.
Stopping a Gateway process can cause problems for an SA core. For example, if you stop a core
Gateway process, you will stop all multimaster traffic to that SA core. Additionally, the
Manage Gateway UI is unavailable after stopping the process.
To restart the Gateway after stopping it from the Manage Gateway page, you must log onto
the server running the Gateway component and manually restart the process.
Satellite Software Repository Cache Management
The largest amount of network traffic in an SA Core occurs between:
•
The Software Repository and the Server Agent on a Managed Server during application
software or OS patch installations.
•
A server being OS Provisioned and the OS Provisioning Media Server that provides the
OS media for the provisioning.
When a Satellite is connected by a low-bandwidth network link, performance will be poor
during these processes. You can minimize network traffic by creating a copy of the core’s
Software Repository contents in the Satellite’s Software Repository Cache or installing a local
Satellite OS Provisioning Media Server/Boot Server.
Since the Software Repository Cache stores copies of the files in the SA Core’s Software
Repository (or from another Satellite’s Software Repository Cache), SA can supply software
requests locally without having the requests pass across the network between the Satellite
and the SA Core. Similarly, the OS Provisioning Media Server can supply OS images locally.
SA Satellites also support multiple Software Repository Caches per Realm.
Satellite Administration
155
The following sections discuss configuring and updating your local Software Repository Cache
and, optionally, your OS Provisioning Media and Boot servers.
Availability of Satellite Software Repository Cache Content
Software Repository content is not automatically replicated to the Satellite Software
Repository cache, therefore, not all content is available locally for Satellites in a mesh. You
must manually update the Satellite’s Software Repository Cache with the software you want
to install locally. On-demand updates are available only when the caching policy for the Realm
of the Software Repository Cache is on-demand.
SA can only warn you that the requested software is not available locally and that you must
update content from the First Core Software Repository or another Satellite Software
Repository Cache. SA keeps track of whether a package is available locally.
Instead, when SA is attempting to remediate requested software that is not available locally
onto a managed server, the SA Web Client generates an error and displays a complete list of
missing packages to help you identify the packages that need to be copied to the cache. After
you have copied the software to the cache, it will continue to be available locally for future
installations
The SA Web Client does not provide a User Interface to push packages to Satellites. However,
you can push packages to a Satellite by using the command-line tool stage_pkg_in_realm.
This tool is found on the First Core’s Model Repository host in
/opt/opsware/mm_wordbot/util/stage_pkg_in_realm.
If you use the checkonly=1 argument in the URL request for the file, the utility requests a
file but the Software Repository will not send the file. If the file is not already cached, the
Software Repository Cache will obtain it from the parent Software Repository Cache if the
caching policy allows it.
Updating Software in the Satellite Software Repository Cache
To update files in a Satellite’s Software Repository Cache, you can configure the cache to
update cached copies of files as requests are received (On-demand Updates) or to update the
cached copy of a file manually (Manual Updates):
•
On-demand Update: The local Software Repository Cache obtains current files as
needed from the Software Repository in the SA core.
•
Manual Update: SA stages the software packages to a Satellite's Software Repository
Cache in advance of package installation so that performance is about the same as if the
Managed Server is in the same data center as the core.
When On-demand update is enabled, if the requested software is already present in the local
Software Repository Cache and is current, no action is taken. If the software is not present
locally or it is not current, the Software Repository Cache attempts to download the file in the
background from the closest upstream Software Repository Cache or from the Core’s Software
Repository.
If the caching policy is Manual Update and you request an on-demand software update, the
Software Repository Cache will raise a wordbot.unableToCacheFile exception.
156
Chapter 4
It is always possible to stage a file on a Software Repository Cache regardless of the caching
policy. See Staging Files to a Software Repository Cache on page 162 in this chapter for more
information.
The flowchart in Figure 50 illustrates the logic that the Software Repository Cache uses to
update packages in a Satellite.
Figure 50 Software Repository Cache Update Logic
$OWNLOAD
2EQUEST
2ECEIVED
)SFILE
LOCALLY
AVAILABLE
./
9%3
$ELETELOCAL
FILE
$ELETE
2EALM5NIT
IFITEXISTS
$OESA
2EALM5NIT
FORTHIS
REALM
EXIST
./
9%3
9%3
9%3
&ILENOTFOUND
0OLICYPREVENTS
ADOWNLOAD
./
#ALL
LOCATE0EER
#ALCULATE
CHECKSUM
)SIT
INTRUTH
)STHE
CACHEPOLICY
SNEAKERNET
ONLY
3ERVEFROM
SERVICENAME
hWORDCACHEv
LOCAL?ONLY
5PDATE2EALM5NIT
IFSUCCESSFUL
./
0EER
FOUND
./
9%3
3ERVEFILE
LOCALLY
5PDATE
2EALM5NITIFIT
DOESNTEXIST
3ERVEFROM
PEER
LOCAL?ONLY
Setting the Software Repository Cache Update Policy
You can specify the Software Repository Cache update policy for each Facility by performing
the following tasks:
1
From the SA Web Client Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ System
Configuration. The Select a Product page appears.
2
Click the link of the Realm for which you want to set the Software Repository Cache
update policy. The configuration values for that Facility appear.
3
For the parameter word.caching_policy, set the caching policy value by selecting the
Use default value option or the Use value option and enter JIT (On-Demand Update) or
SNEAKERNET (Manual Update), See Figure 51.
Satellite Administration
157
Figure 51 Software Repository Cache Configuration Parameters
4
Click Save to apply your configuration change. Since, by default, the Software Repository
Cache polls for configuration changes every five minutes, it make take up to five minutes
for your change to take affect.
On-demand Updates
Enabling On-Demand Updates allows software to be downloaded to the Satellite Software
Repository Cache when it is not yet locally available as soon as that software is requested. If
you have a low-bandwidth network connection, Manual Updates may be a better solution as it
allows you to pre-download the most commonly requested software into the Software
Repository Cache. See Manual Updates on page 159.
Each time a Server Agent on a managed server in a Satellite requests software, the local
Software Repository Cache checks whether its cached copy of the software is current. If the
cached file is not current or is missing, the Software Repository Cache obtains an updated or
new local copy of the file from the nearest upstream Software Repository Cache or from the
Core’s Software Repository and sends it to the requesting Server Agent.
When configured for On-demand Updates, when the Software Repository Cache receives a
request for software, it first requests the checksum of the software against the checksum of
the Core’s Software Repository to insure that it has the latest copy.
For security purposes, SA caches software checksums for a user-configurable period of time.
If the checksum is the same as the locally-stored file, the Software Repository Cache serves
the software to the requester. If the checksum does not match or the local file is not present,
the Software Repository Cache requests an updated copy of the software from the nearest
upstream Software Repository Cache or the Core’s Software Repository.
If network connectivity is lost while the Software Repository Cache is downloading software,
the next time a Server Agent requests the same software, the Software Repository Cache will
resume the file download from the point at which it stopped.
158
Chapter 4
Manual Updates
For Satellites with low-bandwidth network links, Manual Software Repository Cache updates
allow you to pre-populate the Software Repository Cache at installation time. You can also
configure refreshes for an existing cache. The Software Repository Cache is populated by an
out-of-band method, such as by cutting CDs of the required packages and shipping them to
the Satellite. To perform Manual Updates, you use the SA DCML Exchange Tool (DET) to
copy existing packages from an SA core or use the Staging Utility to perform the update. See
Creating Software Repository Cache Manual Updates on page 160 and Staging Files to a
Software Repository Cache on page 162.
When configured for Manual Updates, a Software Repository Cache does not communicate
with upstream Software Repository Caches or the Core’s Software Repository until you
initiate an update. The Satellite considers its own Software Repository Cache as
authoritative.
If the caching policy is Manual Update and you request an on-demand software update, the
Software Repository Cache will raise a wordbot.unableToCacheFile exception.
Even if you have configured a Software Repository as On-Demand Update, You can apply a
manual update regardless of its update policy.
When applying Manual Updates in a Satellite installation with multiple Software Repository
Caches, you must apply the update to each Software Repository Cache in the Satellite.
Otherwise, when performing operations that retrieve files from the Cache (for example, when
installing software on a server in the affected Satellite), you may get the
wordbot.unableToCache file error.
Emergency Software Repository Cache Updates
You can push Emergency updates manually over the network to Satellites even if the caching
policy is Manual Update. You do not need to reconfigure the Software Repository Cache's
caching policy to push emergency updates to a Software Repository Cache. For example, an
emergency patch can be staged to a Satellite and applied without waiting for a shipment of
CDs to arrive.
Software Repository Cache Size Management
When you apply a Manual Update to a Software Repository Cache, SA removes files that have
not been recently accessed when the cache size limit is exceeded.
The least-recently accessed packages are deleted first.
The Software Repository Cache removes the files the next time it cleans up its cache. By
default, the cache is cleaned up every 12 hours. Packages are deleted so that the available
disk space stays below the high-water mark.
You must have enough disk space to store all necessary packages for the Software Repository
Cache to ensure that the Software Repository Cache does not exceed the cache size limit.
Satellite Administration
159
Creating Software Repository Cache Manual Updates
To create a Manual Update, you can use the SA DCML Exchange Tool (DET) to copy existing
software from an SA core. You then save an export file you can copy over the network to the
Satellite’s Software Repository Cache or burn to CD or DVD to be applied later to the cache.
You can also use the Staging Utility to upload software. See Staging Files to a Software
Repository Cache on page 162.
This section discusses the following topics:
•
Creating a Manual Update Using the DCML Exchange Tool (DET)
•
Applying a Manual Update to a Software Repository Cache
•
Staging Files to a Software Repository Cache
•
Microsoft Utility Uploads and Manual Updates
Creating a Manual Update Using the DCML Exchange Tool (DET)
You perform this procedure by using the DCML Exchange Tool (DET). Using the DET, you
export the software for the Manual Update and export the packages associated with selected
software policies.
See the SA Content Utilities Guide for more information about using DET.
To create a Manual Update perform the following steps:
1
On the server where you installed the DET component, run the following command to
create the following directory:
# mkdir /var/tmp/sneakernet
2
From the server running the SA Web Client, copy the following files from the
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/occ directory:
opsware-ca.crt
spog.pkcs.8
to the following directory:
/usr/cbt/crypto
This is the directory where you installed DET.
3
Create the file, /usr/cbt/conf/cbt.conf, so that it contains this content:
twist.host=<twist's hostname>
twist.port=1032
twist.protocol=t3s
twist.username=buildmgr
twist.password=buildmgr
twist.certPaths=/usr/cbt/crypto/opsware-ca.crt
spike.username=<your username>
spike.password=<your password>
spike.host=<way's hostname>
way.host=<way's hostname>
spin.host=<spin's hostname>
word.host=<word's hostname>
ssl.keyPairs=/usr/cbt/crypto/spog.pkcs8
ssl.trustCerts=/usr/cbt/crypto/opsware-ca.crt
160
Chapter 4
4
Create the following DCML Exchange Tool filter file /usr/cbt/filters/myfilter.rdf
that contains this content:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE rdf:RDF [
<!ENTITY filter "http://www.opsware.com/ns/cbt/0.1/filter#">
]>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns="http://www.opsware.com/ns/cbt/0.1/filter#">
<ApplicationFilter rdf:ID="a1">
<path>/Other Applications</path>
<directive rdf:resource="&filter;Descendants" />
</ApplicationFilter>
</rdf:RDF>
In the <path> directive of the filter file, replace /Other Applications with the path to
the node you want to export (all node information about that node, its descendants, and
all associated packages will be exported).
This filter will export from the Applications area of the SA Web Client. If you want to
export packages from some other category of software in the SA Web Client, you need to
create a different filter. See the SA Content Utilities Guide for information.
5
On the server where you installed the DET component, run the DCML Exchange Tool by
entering the following command:
# /usr/cbt/bin/cbt -e /var/tmp/myexport --config /usr/cbt/conf/cbt.conf
--filter /usr/cbt/filters/myfilter.rdf
The DCML Exchange Tool places the packages associated with the exported nodes in the
following directory:
/var/tmp/myexport/blob
The packages are named unitid_nnnnnnn.pkg.
6
Copy all of the .pkg files to a directory on the server running the Software Repository
Cache, either over the network or by burning the files to a set of CDs or DVDs.
Applying a Manual Update to a Software Repository Cache
To apply a Manual Update to a Software Repository Cache, you run a utility
(import_sneakernet), which moves or copies the software you want to update into the right
location on the Software Repository Cache and registers it with the Model Repository in the
SA core.
To apply a Manual Update to a Software Repository Cache, perform the following steps:
1
Log in as root on the server running the Satellite’s Software Repository Cache.
2
Copy the export file to a directory on the Software Repository Cache server, mount the CD
containing the software export file, or copy the CD contents to a temporary directory.
3
Enter the following command to change directories:
# cd /opt/opsware/mm_wordbot/util
4
Enter the following command to import the contents of the export file to the Software
repository Cache:
# ./import_sneakernet -d dir
where dir is the CD mount point or the temporary directory containing the export file.
Satellite Administration
161
Staging Files to a Software Repository Cache
A Server Agent on a Managed Server can override the caching policy in effect for a Realm. The
ability to override the caching policy of a Software Repository Cache allows you to stage
software to a cache that is configured to be Manual Update only to resolve the following
situations:
•
You must circulate an emergency patch and you do not have time to create a Manual
update export file and physically visit a Facility to upload the software.
•
A necessary patch must be installed during a specified maintenance period and the period
is not long enough to download a patch and install it on all managed servers.
•
The utilization of a network link to the Satellite is known to be low at a particular time of
day making that time advantageous for upload.
To force package staging, the Staging Utility provides the argument
override_caching_policy=1 which is specified in the URL request for the software.
The Software Repository Cache allows a client to request that it obtain a file, but that it not
actually send the file to the client. If the file is not already cached, the Software Repository
Cache will obtain it from the parent Software Repository Cache if the caching policy allows it.
To use this feature, the client includes the argument checkonly=1 in the URL request for the
file.
Running the Staging Utility
To run the staging utility, perform the following steps:
1
On the server running the Software Repository component (part of the Slice Component
bundle), verify that the certificate token.srv is in your CRYPTO_PATH. During
installation token.srv is copied to
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/gateway/token.srv.
2
Log into the server running the Core’s Software Repository.
3
Enter the following command to change directories:
# cd /opt/opsware/mm_wordbot/util
4
To stage the files you want, run the utility stage_pkg_in_realm which has the following
syntax:
./stage_pkg_in_realm [-h | --help] [-d | --debug]
[--user <USER>] --pkgid <ID> --realm <REALM> [--gw <IP:PORT>] [--spinurl
<URL>] [--wayurl <URL>] [--word <IP:PORT>]
To force package staging, the Staging Utility provides the argument
override_caching_policy=1 which is specified in the URL request for the software.
Example
./stage_pkg_in_realm --user admin --pkgid 80002 --realm luna
--gw 192.168.164.131:3001
Password for admin: <password>
Package /packages/opsware/Linux/3ES/miniagent is now being staged in realm
luna
162
Chapter 4
Microsoft Utility Uploads and Manual Updates
When you upload new Microsoft patching utilities (described in the SA Simple/Advanced
Installation Guide System Requirements chapter), you should immediately stage those files to
all Realms where the Software Repository Cache is configured for Manual Updates only.
If you do not stage these files to the remote Realms, Server Agents running on Windows
servers in those Realms will be unable to download new versions of the utilities and will be
unable to register their software packages. It is not necessary to stage packages to Realms
where the Software Repository Cache is configured for On-Demand Updates.
The Software Repository Cache allows a client to request that it obtain a file, but that it not
actually send the file to the client. If the file is not already cached, the Software Repository
Cache will obtain it from the parent Software Repository Cache if the caching policy allows it.
To use this feature, the client includes the argument checkonly=1 in the URL request for the
file. See Running the Staging Utility on page 162 in this chapter for information about how to
stage files.
Satellite Administration
163
164
Chapter 4
5 SA Maintenance
While maintaining SA, you might encounter the following types of problems:
•
Operational problems: processes failing or becoming unresponsive (Data Access
Engine, Command Engine, Software Repository)
•
SA Core Component Failure: which causes other components to fail
The following examples describe the effects of some Core Component failures:
— If the Data Access Engine fails, the SA Web Client the Command Engine, and the
Software Repository components will fail.
— If the Software Repository fails to contact the Data Access Engine, downloads from the
Software Repository are impossible.
— If the Model Repository fails, the Data Access Engine fails.
— if the Software Repository has neither a functioning DNS, nor a properly-configured /
etc/hosts file, it fails to contact the Data Access Engine.
— If there are unreachable servers existing in the managed environment communication
is disrupted.
Many problems with the Code Deployment & Rollback (CDR) feature are caused by errors
with the CDR configuration and setup. See the SA User Guide: Server Automation for
information about CDR configuration.
When using the System Diagnosis function in an environment with multiple Facilities,
System Diagnosis can only be run on one Facility at a time.
165
SA Diagnosis
The System Diagnosis tool allows you to check the functionality of the SA Core Components
and the ability of servers running in the managed environment to interact with the SA Core.
You can troubleshoot most of the errors that occur within the SA Core with the SA Diagnosis
tool.
This section provides information about how to diagnose SA problems and contains the
following topics:
•
SA Component Troubleshooting
•
System Diagnosis Testing Process
•
Data Access Engine Tests
•
Software Repository Tests
•
Web Services Data Access Tests
•
Command Engine Tests
•
Model Repository Multimaster Component Tests
•
Running an SA Core Component System Diagnosis
SA Component Troubleshooting
The following mechanisms for troubleshooting SA are available:
•
Running the SA Diagnosis tool (a tool for debugging common problems with SA Core
Components). Running an SA Core Component System Diagnosis on page 170.
•
Reviewing error logs for components.See SA Components Logs on page 181.
System Diagnosis Testing Process
The System Diagnosis tool tests the SA Core Components first, and then, optionally, tests any
servers in the managed environment that you specify.
The System Diagnosis tool performs intensive testing of Core Components functionality:
•
Standalone Tests: Test as much of the functionality of a component as possible without
the use of other SA components. Standalone Tests verify base level functionality and a
component's ability to respond to XML-RPC calls.
•
Comprehensive Tests: Test the full functionality of all Core Component.
Upon completion of Comprehensive Tests, the System Diagnosis tool displays the success
or failure of each test, the test results, and error information for any tests that failed.
The Core Components are not tested in a specific order; however, the tests generally occur in
this order:
166
•
Server Agent Standalone Tests
•
Server Agent Comprehensive Tests
•
Component Standalone Tests
•
Component Comprehensive Tests
Chapter 5
Core Components Tested by the System Diagnosis Tool
The component tests simulate all the component functionality. In addition to errors, the tests
verify that each component is functioning within certain conditions (for example, whether
database connections are near maximum on the Data Access Engine).
The System Diagnosis tool tests the following components:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Data Access Engine
Software Repository (and Word Store)
Web Services Data Access Engine
Command Engine
Server Agents on SA Core servers
Model Repository Multimaster Component
OS Build Manager
Data Access Engine Tests
The following section describes the tests that occur during Data Access Engine diagnostic
tests.
Standalone Tests
•
Check for the current Data Access Engine version.
•
Check for the current Model Repository database version.
•
Verify that all Oracle objects are valid.
•
Obtain a Device object.
•
Obtain a MegaDevice object.
•
Verifies advanced query functioning.
•
Verify a Device object.
•
Obtain the list of facilities.
•
Obtain the names of the Data Access Engine cronbot jobs.
•
Check whether the usage of database connections is below the acceptable level.
•
Check whether any database connection has been open more than 600 seconds.
•
Check whether the Data Access Engine and Model Repository are in the same facility.
•
Verify that all Model Repository garbage-collectors are running when the Model
Repository is running in multimaster mode.
•
If the Data Access Engine is configured as the central multimaster Data Access Engine:
— Check whether multimaster transactions are being published.
— Check whether multimaster transactions are showing up at remote facilities.
— Check for multimaster transaction conflicts.
Comprehensive Tests
•
SA Maintenance
Test connectivity to the Model Repository on the configured port.
167
•
Test connectivity to the Command Engine on the configured port.
•
Test connectivity to the Software Repository on the configured port.
Errors Caused By Additional Database Privileges
If an additional privilege (permission) has been made manually to the Oracle database (Model
Repository), the following error message might appear:
Test Results: The following tables differ between the Data Access Engine
and the Model Repository: facilities.
To fix this problem, revoke the database grant. For instructions, see “Troubleshooting System
Diagnosis Errors” in the SA Simple/Advanced Installation Guide.
Software Repository Tests
The following section describes the tests that occur during Software Repository diagnostic
tests.
Standalone Tests
None.
Comprehensive Tests
•
•
•
•
•
•
Test whether a file that is not a package can be uploaded to the Software Repository
process that serves encrypted files. This test verifies whether the file is present in the
Software Repository file system and that the file size matches the source.
Verify that a file can be downloaded from the Software Repository.
Verify whether the Software Repository process that serves unencrypted files is running
and serving files.
Try to download a file without encryption.
Verify that a package can be uploaded to the Software Repository and that the package is
registered with the Model Repository.
Verify that a package can be deleted from the Software Repository and removed from the
Model Repository.
Web Services Data Access Tests
The following section describes the tests that occur during Web Services Data Access
diagnostic tests.
Standalone Tests
•
Connect to the Web Services Data Access Engine and retrieve its version information.
Comprehensive Tests
168
•
Connect to the Web Services Data Access Engine.
•
Read a server record from the Model Repository and thereby check connectivity to the
Model Repository.
Chapter 5
Command Engine Tests
The following section describes the tests that occur during Command Engine diagnostic tests.
Standalone Tests
•
Check the state machine.
•
Check session tables.
•
Check lock-down status.
•
Check for signature failures.
•
Check command and service tables.
•
Check the facility cache.
Comprehensive Tests
•
Check Data Access Engine connectivity.
•
Check security signatures.
•
Check lock operation.
•
Run an internal script.
•
Run an external script.
Model Repository Multimaster Component Tests
The following section describes the tests that occur during Model Repository Multimaster
Component diagnostic tests.
Standalone Tests
•
Check the ledger state by examining the ledger file.
•
Report the total number of messages sent, number of messages still in the ledger file (for
example, not confirmed by all listeners), and the sequence number of the last message
confirmed by each listener.
•
Check the sender health by examining the state of the Outbound Model Repository
Multimaster Component.
•
Check the receiver health by examining the state of the Inbound Model Repository
Multimaster Component.
Comprehensive Tests
None.
SA Maintenance
169
Running an SA Core Component System Diagnosis
To access the System Diagnosis tool, your user must belong to the Administrators group. The
SA Web Client has access to all the Server Agents running on the SA Core Component
servers.
Perform the following tasks to run a system diagnosis of the SA Core Components:
1
Log on to the SA Web Client.
2
From the Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ System Diagnosis. The System
Diagnosis: Begin Diagnosis page appears.
3
Select the components that you want to test. By default, all components are selected (the
Data Access Engine, the Software Repository, Command Engine, and Web Services Data
Access Engine; in multiple core environments, there is also a selection for the Model
Repository Multimaster Component). See Figure 52.
Figure 52 System Diagnosis Page Showing SA Components Selected for Testing
4
Click Run Diagnosis.
The System Diagnosis: Performing Diagnosis window appears, which displays a
progress bar while the tests are running, as Figure 53 shows.
Figure 53 System Diagnosis Progress Bar
When all the tests are complete, the window closes and the System Diagnosis: Failed
Tests page appears in the main SA Web Client window. If all tests passed, the System
Diagnosis: Successful Tests page appears.
170
Chapter 5
5
To review the results of a test, click the Test Name link in the Test column. The System
Diagnosis: Test Information page appears. If the test contained an error, error
information appears at the bottom of the page.
The SA Core Health Check Monitor (HCM)
The Health Check Monitor (HCM) includes a suite of tests to check the status of an SA Core.
HCM requires SA version 6.0.2 or later. The scripts that comprise the HCM are installed by
the SA Installer. There is some functional overlap between HCM and the System Diagnosis
Tool described in SA Diagnosis on page 166.
HCM provides two types of tests:
•
Local Tests: Validate the health of a core on a component-by-component basis.
•
Global Tests: Validate the health of a core on a holistic basis.
Overview of HCM Local Tests
The HCM local tests validate individual core components. The local tests reside on the same
server as the components they validate. You run local tests by running the SA Start script
(/etc/init.d/opsware-sas) and specifying a test mode argument and optional component
names.
The test mode specifies the set of tests to run (you cannot specify individual tests.) Each test is
run only once, even if you specify multiple components that require the same test. The test
results are displayed on stdout.
Syntax of the Script for HCM Local Tests
HCM local tests use the following syntax:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas <mode> [<component>[<component>...]]
[<name>=<value>[<name>=<value>]...]
Validating Core Components by Running HCM Local Tests
To run the local tests, perform the following steps:
1
Log on as root to the server running the SA Core Components that you want to test.
2
Run the SA start up script using the status argument or specify the mode (test category)
argument and one or more components. (See the next section for the command options.)
For example, the following verifies that the Web Services Data Access Engine is available.
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas status twist
SA Maintenance
171
Table 21 describes the HCM command-line arguments. For a description of the
opsware-sas options for starting and stopping a core, see Table 26.
Table 21
Options for the HCM Local Test Script
option
description
mode
The set of tests to run. The mode can be one of the following strings:
component
•
status: Runs tests that verify the availability of the specified
components. For example, the tests verify that the components are
listening on the correct ports and responding to basic queries.
•
verify_post: Same as status.
•
verify_pre: Runs tests that validate the conditions necessary for the
specified components to operate.
•
verify_functionality: Runs tests that are similar to the tests run
by the status mode; however, they might take longer to run.
Therefore, you might choose to skip these tests to save time.
•
health: Runs the tests of the status, verify_pre, and
verify_functionality modes and provides an overview of the
overall state of the specified components.
The internal name of the core component (see note below). If this option
is not specified, then all components are validated. To view the internal
names of the components installed on the local server, enter the following
command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas list
name=value
Options that control how the tests are run. Allowed values:
•
terse=[true|false]: If true, summarizes the results of all
successful tests for each component in a single SUCCESS message;
however, the results of failed tests are displayed individually. By
default, this option is set to false. (This option is passed to the
individual tests.)
•
parsable=[true|false]: If true, summarizes the results from all
tests for each component with a single SUCCESS or FAILURE
message. By default, this option is set to false. (This option is passed
to the individual tests.)
•
verify_filter=<regex>: Runs only the tests whose file names
match the regular expression you enter. For example, specifying
verify_filter="OPSW" runs only tests with file names that contain
the string OPSW, such as 100_OPSWcheck_host_spin.sh. By default,
this option is not defined. (This option is not passed to the individual
tests.)
If a given test is a symbolic link to another file, the filter will be
evaluated against the target of the symbolic link, not the name of the
symbolic link. If the test is a symbolic link, verify_filter uses the
file name of the file it is pointing to for comparisons.
You can find a list of the internal name used for certain Core Components and their standard
names in Internal and External Component Names on page 193.
172
Chapter 5
Overview of HCM Global Tests
A global HCM test checks an entire SA Core. You run these tests by executing the
run_all_probes.sh script on the following hosts:
•
Sliced configuration — the server hosting the core’s Management Gateway and/or
Infrastructure Component (in a Typical Install, the Management Gateway is installed on
the server that hosts the Infrastructure Component).
•
Non-sliced configuration — the server hosting the Primary Model repository
Multimaster Component for the core being validated.
Test results are displayed on stdout. The global tests cannot check the status of other cores in
a multimaster mesh.
In a multi-server core, the global tests connect to the other core servers using SSH. All
connections are made as root. Authentication is performed by specifying the root password
or the key file on the command line. If both are specified, then the root password is used. One
of these authentication methods must be specified unless the server is the local host.
Validating a Core By Running HCM Global Tests
To run the HCM global tests, perform the following steps:
1
Log in as root to the server that hosts the Model Repository Multimaster Component
and/or the Infrastructure Component.
2
Execute the run_all_probes.sh script with the run option. (See the following section for
details on the options.) For example, to check the table space usage in the Oracle database
of the Model Repository, enter the following command:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/bin/run_all_probes.sh run \
check_database_tables
Syntax of the Script for HCM Global Tests
The script that runs HCM global tests has the following syntax:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/bin/run_all_probes.sh run|list
[<test> [<test>...]
[hosts="<system>[:<password>] [<system>[:<password>]]..."
[keyfile=<keyfiletype>:<keyfile>[:<passphrase>]]
Table 22 describes the options for this syntax.
Table 22
SA Maintenance
Options for the HCM Global Test Script
option
description
list
Lists the available tests.
run
Runs the specified tests.
173
Table 22
Options for the HCM Global Test Script (cont’d)
option
description
test
The name of the test to run. If no tests are specified, all tests are
run. When shipped, the script includes the following tests:
•
check_opsware_services: Runs the local tests on all specified
servers by running the following command remotely on each core
server:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas health
•
check_MM_state: For a multimaster source core, checks the
multimaster state of the core.
•
check_time: In a multi-server core, verifies that the system
clocks are in sync across core servers.
•
check_opsware_version: Validates that the versions of all the
components in the core are the same version.
•
check_database_tables: Validates that the Model Repository
tablespace usage is within acceptable limits. For more
information on table spaces, see “Oracle Setup for Model
Repository” in the SA Simple/Advanced Installation Guide.
•
check_OS_resources: Validates whether the virtual memory
and disk space on SA partitions is within acceptable thresholds.
system:password
Specifies a remote core server (host name or IP address) and
optional root password for the server.
keyfiletype
Specifies the type of key file to use. Allowed values:
•
rsa_key_file
•
dsa_key_file.
keyfile
Specifies the file containing the current server's SSH private key.
passphrase
Specifies the passphrase that was used to encrypt the SSH private
key.
Setting up Passwordless SSH for Global Tests
The global tests access remote servers in a core through the SSH daemon. These tests require
you to supply root passwords or to use SSH public/private keys.
To set up authentication using public/private keys generated by ssh-keygen, perform the
following steps:
1
Run the following commands on the trusted server and accept the defaults. The
commands are different for Linux and Solaris.
Linux:
cd /root/.ssh
ssh-keygen -t dsa
Solaris:
cd /.ssh
ssh-keygen -t dsa
174
Chapter 5
2
Update the client server by copying the id_dsa.pub file to the client server's .ssh
directory and then renaming it to authorized_keys. Here are some example commands
for Linux and Solaris:
Linux:
scp id_dsa.pub <host>:/.ssh/authorized_keys
/root/.ssh/authorized_keys
Solaris:
scp id_dsa.pub <host>:/.ssh/authorized_keys
/.ssh/authorized_keys
3
Verify the trusted server. Run the following command to validate that the trusted server
can connect to the client server without a password:
ssh -l root <host>
Extensibility of the Health Check Monitor
This section is intended for advanced system administrators with experience in Unix shell
programming and SA administration.
The Health Check Monitor (HCM) is implemented as a series of Unix shell scripts that
perform local or global tests on the core servers. The scripts conform to specific naming
conventions and reside in pre-defined directories. You can extend the HCM by writing your
own scripts and copying them to the correct directories under /opt/opsware/oi_util.
Requirements for Extensions to HCM Local Tests
An HCM local test is a script that is run by the /etc/init.d/opsware-sas script. (See
Validating Core Components by Running HCM Local Tests on page 171.) A local test script
must meet the following requirements:
•
Unix Shell Script: It is a Unix shell script that runs as root.
•
Component Server: The script resides and runs on the server of the component
validated by the script. For example, if the script validates the Data Access Engine (spin),
it resides on the server that runs the Data Access Engine.
•
Executable: The script is an executable file (chmod u+x).
•
File Name: The file name of the script has the following syntax:
<int><test>.sh
In this syntax, int is an integer that specifies the test execution order and test is the
name of the test. Note that the HCM scripts provided with SA contain OPSW in the script
file name; for example, 100_OPSWportping.sh.
•
Directory: The script resides in the following directory:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/local_probes/<component>/[verify_pre | verify_post |
verify_functionality]/
SA Maintenance
175
In this path, component is the internal name of the core component, such as spin or
twist. The directories beneath the component directory match the category of the test.
For example, if the test performs a runtime validation on a core component, the script
resides in the verify_functionality subdirectory. For details, see Categories and Local
Test Directories on page 177.
The directories beneath the component directory map to the mode options of the
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas command. For example, if you save a script in the
verify_pre subdirectory, the script is executed when you run opsware-sas with the
verify_pre option. If you specify the health option of opsware-sas, the scripts in all
three directories are executed. The following table describes the mapping between the
directory names and the mode options.
Table 23
Modes of opsware-sas and the Subdirectories of Local Test Scripts
mode option of command line
subdirectory of scripts run for this option
health
verify_pre
verify_post
verify_functionality
status
verify_post
verify_functionality
verify_functionality
verify_post
verify_post
verify_pre
verify_pre
•
Exit Code: The script returns an exit code of zero to indicate success or non-zero for
failure. The /etc/init.d/opsware-sas command uses the exit code to determine the
status for the test.
•
Results Displayed: The script displays test results on stdout.
•
Local Preamble Script: The test script runs the local_probe_preamble.sh script, as
shown by HCM Local Test Example on page 178. The local_probe_preamble.sh script
contains a superset of the libraries and shell variables used by the /etc/init.d/
opsware-sas command.
The local_probe_preamble.sh script performs the following tasks:
— Sets shell variables used by the local tests. For example, it sets $PYTHON (which points
to the Python 1.5.2 interpreter) and $UTILS_DIR (which points to the directory of
utilities available to the tests).
— Parses the command line, evaluates all name=value pairs, and sets shell variables.
For example, if you specify timeout=60 on the command line when running /etc/
init.d/opsware-sas, the local_probe_preamble.sh script sets the variable
$timeout to the value 60.
— Provides access to useful functions such as retry, which executes a command multiple
times until it succeeds or exceeds the specified timeout.
•
176
Shell Variables: The test script takes into account the variables specified by the
name=value options on the command line. For a list of pre-defined names, see the
name=value option in Table 21.
Chapter 5
Categories and Local Test Directories
The /opt/opsware/oi_util directory has the following subdirectories.
local_probes/<component>/verify_pre
This directory includes prerequisite tests for each component. These tests validate that the
necessary conditions exist for the component to operate. For example, the directory twist/
verify_pre contains the test script 10check_localhost_spin.sh because the Data Access
Engine component must be available for the Web Services Data Access Engine component to
function.
local_probes/<component>/verify_post
This directory includes validation tests for each component. These tests verify that a given
component is available. For example, the directory spin/verify_post contains the test script
10check_primary_spin.sh to validate that the Data Access Engine component is listening
on port 1004 and responds to basic queries.
local_probes/<component>/verify_functionality
This directory includes runtime validation tests for each component. These tests verify that a
component is fully operational. They are similar to verify_post tests, however, they might
take longer to run; therefore, you might choose to skip these tests to save time.
Directory Layout for HCM Local Tests
The following directory layout shows where the local tests reside:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/
|
|_lib
| |_local_probe_preamble.sh
|
|_local_probes
|
|_COMMON
| |_<test>
| |_ ...
|
|_<component>
| |
| |_verify_pre
| | |_ <int><test> (can be symlink to ../../COMMON/<test>)
| | |_ ...
| |
| |_verify_post
| | |_ <int><test> (can be symlink to ../../COMMON/<test>)
| | |_ ...
| |
| |_verify_functionality
|
|_<int><test> (can be symlink to ../../COMMON/<test>)
|
|_...
SA Maintenance
177
|
|_<component>
...
HCM Local Test Example
The following script verifies that the cron utility is running on the local server.
#!/bin/sh
# Verify that cron is running
# Read in our libraries / standard variable settings and parse
# the command line.
/opt/opsware/oi_util/lib/local_probe_preamble.sh
printf "Verify \"cron\" is running:"
process_running=`ps -eo fname | egrep '^cron$' | head -1`
if [ -z "$process_running" ]; then
echo "FAILURE (cron does not exist in the process table)"
exit 1
else
echo "SUCCESS"
exit 0
fi
Requirements for Extensions to HCM Global Tests
An HCM global test is a script invoked by the run_global_probes.sh command. (See
Validating a Core By Running HCM Global Tests on page 173.) A global test script must meet
the following requirements:
•
Unix Shell Script: It is a Unix shell script that runs as root.
•
Model Repository Server: The script resides on the Model Repository Server but it can
run remotely on any core server.
•
Executable: The script is an executable file (chmod u+x).
•
File Name: The file name of the script has the following syntax:
<int><test>.sh[.remote]
In this syntax, int is an integer that specifies the test execution order and test is the
name of the test specified on the command line. Note that the HCM scripts provided with
SA contain OPSW in the script file name; for example,
300_OPSWcheck_time.sh.
•
Remote Execution: If the test script runs on a core server other than those described in
Overview of HCM Global Tests on page 173, then the file name must have the .remote
extension. When you execute run_all_probes.sh and specify such a test, the script is
automatically copied to all specified servers and executed remotely with the SSH protocol.
The .remote file name extension is not required for tests that run on the same server as
the Model Repository. Multimaster Component (in non-sliced installations) or the
Management Gateway/Infrastructure Component (in Sliced installations). Examples of
these tests are the checks for Model Repository integrity and mulitmaster conflicts. If the
script does not have the .remote extension and it needs to communicate with remote
servers, the script must use SSH. The global preamble script includes helper functions for
handing remote communications with SSH.
178
Chapter 5
•
Directory: The script resides in the following directory:
/opt/opsware/oi_util/global_probes/[verify_pre | verify_post ]/
For details, see HCM Global Test Directories on page 180.
•
Exit Code: The script returns an exit code of zero to indicate success or non-zero for
failure. The run_global_probes.sh command uses the exit code to determine the status
for the test.
•
Results Displayed: The script displays test results on stdout.
•
Global Preamble Script: The test script runs the global_probe_preamble.sh script,
as shown by HCM Global Test Example on page 179. The global_probe_preamble.sh
script contains a superset of the libraries and shell variables used by the HCM global
tests.
The global_probe_preamble.sh script performs the following tasks:
— Sets shell variables used by the tests.
— Parses the command line and evaluates all name=value pairs, setting them as shell
variables. For example, if you specify hosts="sys1:pw1 sys2:pw2" on the command
line with run_all_probes.sh, the global_probe_preamble.sh script sets the
variable $hosts to the value "sys1:pw1 sys2:pw2".
— Provides access to the following functions:
–
copy_and_run_on_multiple_hosts: Copies and executes a shell script on
multiple remote servers.
–
copy_from_remote: Copies a file from a remote server.
–
copy_to_remote: Copies a file to a remote server.
–
run_on_multiple_hosts: Runs an existing command on multiple servers.
–
run_on_single_host: Runs an existing command on a single server.
•
Shell Variables: The test script takes into account the shell variables specified by the
name=value options on the command line.
•
Authentication: The script sets up authentication or public/private key generation. See
Setting up Passwordless SSH for Global Tests on page 174.
HCM Global Test Example
The following script checks the free disk space of the file systems used by SA. This script runs
on the core servers specified by the hosts option of the run_all_probes.sh command.
# Check for freespace percentage on Opsware SA filesystems
# Read in our libraries, standard variable settings, and parse
# the command line.
/opt/opsware/oi_util/lib/global_probe_preamble.sh
MAX_PERCENTAGE=80
for filesystem in /opt/opsware /var/opt/opsware \
/var/log/opsware; do
# The leading and trailing spaces in the following printf
# are to improve readability.
printf " Checking $filesystem: "
percent_free=`df -k $filesystem 2> /dev/null | \
grep -v Filesystem | \
awk '{print $5}' | \
SA Maintenance
179
sed 's/%//'`
if [ $percent_free -ge $MAX_PERCENTAGE ] ; then
echo "FAILURE (percent freespace > $MAX_PERCENTAGE)"
exit_code=1
else
echo "SUCCESS"
exit_code=0
fi
done
exit $exit_code
Directory Layout for HCM Global Tests:
The following directory layout shows where the global tests reside.
/opt/opsware/oi_util/
|_bin
| |_run_all_probes.sh
| |_remote_host.py
| |_<support_utility>
| |_...
| |_lib
| |_global_probe_preamble
|
|_global_probes
|
|_verify_pre
| |_<int><probe>.remote
|
|_verify_post
|_int<probe>[.remote]
|_ ...
HCM Global Test Directories
The /opt/opsware/oi_util directory has the following subdirectories.
global_probes/verify_pre
This directory includes tests that determine whether the specified servers are core servers.
When a global test in this category determines that a server is not running an SA component
or the server is unreachable, no further tests are run against that server.
Only tests with a .remote extension are allowed under the verify_pre directory.
global_probes/verify_post
This directory includes tests to determine the state of a specific aspect of the entire core. For
example, the directory includes the 600_OPSWcheck_OS_resources
.sh.remote script, which checks resources such as virtual memory and disk space.
180
Chapter 5
SA Components Logs
SA components record events in log files that are useful for troubleshooting. To view a log file,
in a terminal window log into the server running the component and use a command-line
utility such as more, grep, or vi.
The log file for a component resides on the server where the component is installed.
By default, the logging debug levels are configured for the highest value (indicating higher
priority). The default for the maximum log file size is 10 MB. When the specified maximum
file size is reached, additional logs are created. To change the log levels or file sizes, contact
your support representative for assistance.
Boot Server Logs
The Boot Server does not generate its own logs. The Boot Server uses these services: TFTP
with INETD, NFS server, and ISC DHCPD. All of these services log with syslog. Consult
your vendor documentation for more information. See also the syslog.conf file that was used
to configure the Boot Server to determine how the logging has been configured for this
component.
Build Manager Logs
These logs are in the following file:
/var/log/opsware/buildmgr/buildmgr.log
Command Engine Logs
These logs are in the following files:
/var/log/opsware/waybot/waybot.err*
/var/log/opsware/waybot/waybot.log*
Data Access Engine Logs
These logs are in the following files:
/var/log/opsware/spin/spin.err*
/var/log/opsware/spin/spin.log*
In a core with multiple Data Access Engines, each server running an engine has a set of these
log files.
SA Maintenance
181
HP Live Network (HPLN) Logs
These logs are in the following location:
/var/log/opsware/hpln
Media Server Logs
These logs are in the following files:
/var/log/opsware/samba/log.smbd
/var/log/opsware/samba/log.nmbd
Solaris and Linux OS provisioning use of vendor-provided services such as NFSD. These
services typically log through syslog. Consult your vendor documentation for more
information on these log files.
Model Repository Logs
The Model Repository is an Oracle database. The location logs the database is specific to your
installation. For more information, see the Monitoring Oracle Log Files section in the SA
Simple/Advanced Installation Guide.
Model Repository Multimaster Component Logs
These logs are in the following files:
/var/log/opsware/vault/err*
/var/log/opsware/vault/vault.n.log
/var/log/opsware/rvrd/rvrdlog*
To configure the log file name, log file size, or logging level, in the SA Web Client, go to
Administration ➤ System Configuration ➤ Model Repository Multimaster Component.
Agents Logs
The Agents create the following log files on managed servers.
Unix:
/var/log/opsware/agent/agent.log*
/var/log/opsware/agent/agent.err*
Windows:
%ProgramFiles%Common Files\opsware\log\agent\agent.log*
%ProgramFiles%Common Files\opsware\log\agent\agent.err*
SA Web Client Logs
The SA Web Client does not generate its own logs. The SA Web Client uses JBoss server,
which writes to the following log files:
/var/log/opsware/occ/server.log*
182
Chapter 5
/var/log/opsware/httpsProxy/*log*
Software Repository Logs
These logs are in the following files:
/var/log/opsware/mm_wordbot/wordbot.err*
/var/log/opsware/mm_wordbot/wordbot.log*
/var/log/opsware/mm_wordbot-clear/wordbot-clear.err*
/var/log/opsware/mm_wordbot-clear/wordbot-clear.log*
Web Services Data Access Engine Logs
The Web Services Data Access Engine contains the following log files:
/var/log/opsware/twist/stdout.log*
/var/log/opsware/twist/twist.log
/var/log/opsware/twist/access.log
/var/log/opsware/twist/server.log*
/var/log/opsware/twist/boot.log
/var/log/opsware/twist/watchdog.log
The stdout.log file contains debug output and logging of every exception that the server
generates. The file does not conform to a specific format. * indicates the files are 1og.1, log.2,
log.3, and so forth. The number of files and the size of each file can both be configured via
twist.conf. Additional logs are created when the specified maximum file size is reached. The
stdout.log is the most recent, and stdout.log.1 through 5 are progressively older files. The file
is also rotated on startup. This file also contains the output of any System.out.println(),
System.err.println() and e.printStackTrace() statements.
The twist.log file contains JBoss-specific error or informational messages and Weblogic
specific messages. These files are rotated on startup.
The access.log file contains access information in common log format. These files are
rotated when the file reaches 5MB in size.
The server.log file contains debug messages generated from the Web Services Data Access
Engine. The debug messages are controlled by the log level set at the package or class level in
the twist.conf file. * indicates the files are 1og.1, log.2, log.3, and so forth. The number of files
and the size of each file can both be configured via twist.conf. The server.log.0 is always the
current file, while server.log.9 is the oldest.
The boot.log file contains information on the initial stdout and stderr messages generated
when the Web Services Data Access engine starts In addition, the boot.log file contains the
output from Kill –QUIT commands.
The watchdog.log file records the status of the Web Services Data Access Engine once every
minute.
Gateway Logs
These logs are in the following files:
/var/log/opsware/gateway-name/opswgw.log*
SA Maintenance
183
Global File System Logs
These logs are in the following files:
/var/log/opsware/hub/OPSWhub.log*
/var/log/opsware/ogfs/ogsh.err*
/var/log/opsware/adapter/adapter.err*
/var/log/opsware/agentcache/agentcache.log
/var/log/opsware/spoke/spoke-*.log
/var/log/opsware/spoke/stdout.log
HTTPS Server Proxy Logs
These logs are found in:
/cust/apache/servers/https-Proxy/logs
The log file ssl_request_log can grow quite large and should be inspected if you are
concerned about disk space availability.
Global Shell Audit Logs
When a user accesses or modifies a managed server with the Global Shell feature, SA records
the event in an audit log. The Global Shell audit logs contain information about the following
events:
•
Logins and logouts with Global Shell and Remote Terminal sessions
•
The commands entered in Global Shell and Remote Terminal sessions
•
File system operations (such as create and remove) on managed servers
•
Commands and scripts that run on managed servers through the Remote Shell (rosh)
The Global Shell audit logs are on the server where the Global File System (OGFS) is
installed.
To view a log file, open a terminal window, log into the server running the OGFS, and use a
command-line utility such as more, grep, or tail. For an example that uses the tail
command, see Example of Monitoring Global Shell Audit Logs on page 186.
The Global Shell audit logs are made up of three sets of logs files:
184
•
Shell event logs
•
Shell stream logs
•
Shell script logs
Chapter 5
Shell Event Logs
The shell event logs contain information about operations that users have performed on
managed servers with the Global Shell. These logs are in the following directory (where
ogfs-host is the name of the server running the OGFS):
/var/opt/opsware/ogfs/mnt/audit/event/ogfs-host
The log file name has the following syntax (where n is the log rotation number):
audit.log.n
For each event, SA writes a single line to an event log file. Each line in the log file contains the
following information about the event:
•
Unique ID of the event
•
Unique ID of the parent event
•
Date of the operation
•
ID of the SA user who performed the operation
•
Name of the SA user who performed the operation
•
Name of the component that generated the audit event
•
Version of the SA component that generated the audit event
•
Name of the SA feature which generated the audit event
•
Name of the operation (action)
•
Verbosity level
•
Exit status of the event
•
ID of the managed server
•
Name of the managed server
•
Details of the event
The following example shows a single line in an audit event log file:
jdoe@m185:051202182224813:13 jdoe@m185:051202182224790:12
2006/01/28-12:40:19.622 User.Id=2610003 User.Name=jdoe
Hub:1.1 GlobalShell
AgentRunTrustedScript
1
OK
Device.Id=10003 Device.Name=m192.dev.opsware.com
ConnectMethod=PUSH
RemotePath=
RemoteUser=root
ScriptName=__global__.sc_snapshot.sh
ScriptVersion=30b.2.1572
ChangeTime=1128971572
RemoteErrorName=
In this example, the first field is the ID of the event:
jdoe@m185:051202182224813:13
This ID field has the following syntax:
opsware-user@ogfs-host:YYMMDDHHmmssSSS:n
The n at the end of the ID field is a sequence number of the audit event generated in a session.
The ID field matches the name of a shell stream log file.
SA Maintenance
185
Shell Stream Logs
The shell stream logs contain the stdout of scripts that are run from the Global Shell. These
logs are in the following directory (where ogfs-host is the name of the server running the
OGFS):
/var/opt/opsware/ogfs/mnt/audit/streams/ogfs-host
The log file name has the following syntax:
opsware-user@ogfs-host:YYMMDDHHmmssSSS:n
The log file name matches the ID field in the shell event log. A header line in the log file
contains the file name, character set, version, and SA user name. If the stdout of the script
contains control characters, the shell stream log will contain the same control characters.
Shell Script Logs
The shell script logs contain the contents of scripts that are run from the Global Shell. These
logs are in the following directory (where ogfs-host is the name of the server running the
OGFS):
/var/opt/opsware/ogfs/mnt/audit/scripts/ogfs-host
The log file name is a hash string based on the script contents, for example:
23f1d546cc657137fa012f78d0adfdd56095c3b5
A header line in the log file contains the file name, character set, version, and SA user name.
Example of Monitoring Global Shell Audit Logs
The following example monitors the commands entered by an end-user who logs into a
managed server with a Remote Terminal session.
1
In a terminal window, as root, log into the core server running the OGFS. The steps that
follow refer to this window as the “auditing window.”
2
In the auditing window, go to the audit/event directory:
cd /var/opt/opsware/ogfs/mnt/audit/event/ogfs-host
3
In the SA Client, open a Remote Terminal to a Unix managed server.
4
In the auditing window, examine the last line in the audit.log file:
tail -1 audit.log.n
For example, the following entry from the audit.log file indicates that the SA user jdoe
opened a Remote Terminal to the host (Device.Name) toro.example.com. The event ID is
jdoe@m235:060413184452579:59.
jdoe@m235:060413184452595:60 jdoe@m235:060413184452579:59 2006/04/
13-18:44:52.728 User.Id=6220044 User.Name=jdoe Hub:1.1
GlobalShellAgentLogin 1 OK Device.Id=840044 Device.Name=toro.example.com
ConnectMethod=JUMP RemotePath= RemoteUser=root
5
In the auditing window, go to the audit/streams directory:
cd /var/opt/opsware/ogfs/mnt/audit/streams/ogfs-host
186
Chapter 5
6
In the auditing window, use the tail -f command to monitor the file that corresponds to
the Remote Terminal session. The file name is the same as the event ID. For example, if
the event ID is jdoe@m235:060413184452579:59, then you would enter the following
command:
tail -f jdoe*59
7
In the Remote Terminal window, enter some Unix commands such as pwd and ls.
8
Watch the auditing window. The commands (and their output) from the Remote Terminal
session are written to the file in the audit/streams directory.
Digital Signatures in the Global Shell Audit Logs
The shell stream and script log files contain digital signatures and fingerprints, which are
generated with the RSA-SHA1 algorithm. To verify the signature and fingerprint of a log file,
open a terminal window, log into the OGFS, and enter the following command:
/opt/opsware/agentproxy/bin/auditverify stream_file_name
rsa_key_path
\
This is an example in bash:
STREAMDIR=/var/opt/opsware/ogfs/mnt/audit/streams/acct.opsw.com
STREAMFILE=jdoe@somehost:051210003000111:61
RSAKEYPATH=/var/opt/opsware/crypto/waybot/waybot.srv
/opt/opsware/agentproxy/bin/auditverify $STREAMDIR/$STREAMFILE \ $RSAKEYPATH
If the log file has not been tampered with, auditverify displays the following message:
[AuditVerify]:
Verification Result: Valid Signature
By default, the logs are signed with the private key in the following file:
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/agent/agent.srv
To change the key file used for signing, modify the audit.signature.key_path parameter in the
System Configuration page of the SA Web Client. For instructions on accessing the System
Configuration page, see Configuring the Global Shell Audit Logs on page 189.
Storage Management for the Global Shell Audit Logs
By periodically removing the shell stream and script log files, SA prevents these files from
filling up the available disk space. The System Configuration page of the SA Web Client
contains parameters that determine when the log files are removed. These parameters enable
you to specify the removal of the log files based on the age (archive_days) of the files or the
amount of disk space (archive_size) used by the files.
The following parameters specify the age of the files to remove:
audit.stream.archive_days
audit.script.archive_days
The following parameters specify the amount of disk space that the files can occupy before
they are removed:
audit.stream.archive_size
audit.script.archive_size
SA Maintenance
187
For details on these parameters, see Table 24. For instructions on accessing the System
Configuration page of the SA Web Client, see Configuring the Global Shell Audit Logs on page
189.
Table 24
188
Parameters for Global Shell Audit Log Configuration
Parameter
description
default value
audit.root.dir
The root directory for
audit streams and
scripts.
/var/opt/opsware/ogfs/mnt/
audit/
audit.script.archive_days
Audit script files older
than this value (in days)
are deleted. 0 means files
are never deleted.
100
audit.script.archive_size
Maximum amount of disk
space (in MB) used by all
audit script files. Older
files are removed first. 0
means no maximum.
100
audit.signature.algorithm
Signature algorithm to
use when signing audit
streams.
RSA-SHA1
audit.signature.key_path
Location of the private
key used when signing
audit streams.
/var/opt/opsware/crypto/
waybot/waybot.srv
audit.stream.archive_days
Audit stream files older
than this value (in days)
are deleted. 0 means files
are never deleted.
10
audit.stream.archive_size
Maximum amount of disk
space (in MB) used by all
audit stream files. Older
files are removed first. 0
means no maximum.
1000
audit.stream.file_keep
Maximum number of
rotated audit stream
files.
50
audit.stream.file_size
Maximum file size for
audit streams. Specified
in MB. The largest
allowed value is 50MB.
10
Chapter 5
Configuring the Global Shell Audit Logs
You can change parameters such as the maximum log file size. For a list of the parameters,
see Table 24 on page 188. To configure the parameters, perform the following steps:
1
In the SA Web Client, under Administration click the System Configuration link.
2
On the “System Configuration: Select Product” page, click the hub link.
3
On the “System Configuration: Set Configuration Parameters” page, you can change
parameters such as audit.root.dir.
4
Click Save.
Start Script for SA
SA provides a multipurpose Start script.
/etc/init.d/opsware-oracle
You can use the Start script to display all SA components installed on a server, to start, stop,
or restart all Core Components, or to start, stop, or restart specific SA components.
When running the script on a Core Server, the Start script performs the necessary
prerequisite checks for each component installed on the local system.
The Start script runs in the background when a server running a component reboots; thus,
ensuring that the multiuser boot process will not hang until SA has fully started
When an SA core’s components are distributed across multiple servers, the Start script cannot
interact directly with remote servers to start or stop the remote components. However, the
Start script can connect to the remote servers to determine whether prerequisites are met
before starting dependent components locally.
When checking prerequisites for components running on remote servers, the Start script uses
timeout values to allow for different boot times and speed differences among servers. If any of
the prerequisite checks fail, the Start script terminates with an error.
Dependency Checking by the Start Script
The Start script has knowledge of SA component dependencies and starts SA components in
the correct order. The prerequisite checks verify that dependencies are met before the Start
script starts a given component; thus, ensuring that the SA components installed across
multiple servers start in the correct order.
For example, if the component you are attempting to start requires that another component
be running, the Start script can verify whether:
SA Maintenance
•
The required component’s hostname is resolvable
•
The host on which the required component is running is listening on a given port
189
Starting the Oracle Database (Model Repository)
The SA Start script cannot start the Oracle database (required for the Model Repository),
which must be up and running before the SA components can be started. Before you start the
SA components, be sure to start the Oracle listener and database by entering the following
command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-oracle start
Logging by the Start Script
The Start script writes to the following logs:
Table 25
Start Script Logging
log
notes
/var/log/opsware/startup
When the server boots, the Start script logs the full text
(all text sent to stdout) of the start process for all SA
components installed on the local system.
stdout
When invoked from the command line, the Start script
displays the full text of the start process for the
components.
syslog
When the server boots, the Start script runs as a
background process and sends status messages to the
system event logger.
Syntax of the Start Script
The SA Start Script has the following syntax:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas [options] [component1] [component2]...
When you specify specific components to start, stop, or restart, those components must be
installed on the local system and you must enter the names exactly as they are displayed by
the list option. Table 26 lists the options for the SA Start script. To see the options of the
Health Check Monitor (HCM) also invoked with opsware-sas, see Table 21.
Table 26
190
Options for the SA Start Script
option
description
list
Displays all components that are installed on the local system and
managed by the Start script. The Start script displays the components in
the order that they are started.
Chapter 5
Table 26
Options for the SA Start Script (cont’d)
option
description
start
Starts all components installed on the local system in the correct order.
When you use the start option to start a specific component, the Start
script performs the necessary prerequisitite checks, then starts the
component.
The start option does not start the Oracle database (Model Repository),
which must be up and running before the SA components can be started.
Some SA components, such as the Web Services Data Access Engine
(twist), can take longer to start. For these components, you can run the
Start script with the start option so that the Start script runs on the local
system as a background process and logs errors and failed checks to the
component’s log file.
NOTE: When you use the start option to start multiple components
installed on a server, the Start script will always run the /etc/init.d/
opsware-sas command with the startsync option.
startsync
The startsync option starts all components installed on the local system
in a synchronous mode.
When you use the startsync option, the Start script runs in the
foreground and displays summary messages of its progress to stdout.
restart
Stops and starts all components installed on the local system in a
synchronous mode. First, the Start script stops all local components in
reverse older; then, executes the startsync option to restart the
components in the correct order.
stop
Stops all components installed on the local system in the correct order.
This option does not stop the Oracle database.
Starting an SA Core
To start a core that has been installed on a single server, perform the following steps:
1
Log in as root to the core server.
2
Start the Oracle listener and database for the Model Repository:
/etc/init.d/opsware-oracle start
3
Start all core components:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas start
SA Maintenance
191
Starting a Multiple-Server SA Core
To start a core that has been installed on multiple servers, perform the following steps:
1
Find out which servers contain which SA core components. To list the components
installed on a particular server, log in to the server as root and enter the following
command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas list
2
Log in as root to the server with the Model Repository and start the Oracle listener and
database:
/etc/init.d/opsware-oracle start
3
In the order listed in Details: Start Order for SA Components on page 192, log in as root
to each core server and enter the following command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas start
Starting an SA Core Component
You can specify one or more components to start as long as those components are running on
the local system. You must enter the component names exactly as they are displayed by the
list option of the opsware-sas command.
To start individual components of an SA core, perform the following steps:
1
Log in as root to the server that has the component you want to start.
2
(Optional) To list the SA components installed on a server, enter the following command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas list
3
Enter the following command, wherecomponent is the name as displayed by the list
option:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas start component
For example, if the list option displayed buildmgr, you would enter the following
command to start the OS Provisioning Build Manager:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas start buildmgr
Alternatively, you can enter the startsync option when starting a component on a server. See
Table 26 on page 190 in this chapter for a description of the startsync option.
Details: Start Order for SA Components
The Start script starts SA components in the following order. When stopping an SA core, the
components are stopped in the reverse order.
192
1
opswgw-mgw: The SA Primary Core Master Gateway
2
opswgw-cgws0-<facility>: The core-side Gateway for the facility in which the core is
running
3
opswgw-cgws: Other Gateways in the mesh
4
vaultdaemon: The Model Repository Multimaster Component
5
dhcpd: A component of the OS Provisioning feature
Chapter 5
6
pxe: The PXE boot environment
7
spin: The Data Access Engine
8
mm_wordbot: A component of the Software Repository
9
waybot: The Command Engine
10 smb: A component of the OS Provisioning feature
11
twist: The Web Services Data Access Engine
12 da: The Deployment Automation component
13 buildmgr: The OS Provisioning Build Manager
14 opswgw-agw0-<facility>: The agent-side Gateway for the facility in which the core is
running
15 opswgw-agws: The Agent Gateway
16 opswgw-lb: A Gatway component
17 hub: A component of the Global File System
18 sshd: A component of the Global File System
19 apxproxy: The Automation Platform Extension (APX) proxy
20 spoke: A component of the Global File System
21 agentcache: A component of the Global File System
22 occ.server: A component of the SA Web Client
23 httpsProxy: A component of the SA Web Client
24 opsware-agent: The Server Agent
SA Core Component Internal Names
For legacy reasons, certain SA Core Components are referred to in this documentation using
internal naming. Table 27 shows the internal and external names of SA components.
Table 27
SA Maintenance
Internal and External Component Names
Internal Name
External Name
agentcache
A component of the Global File System
buildmgr
OS Provisioning Build Manager
hub
A component of the Global File System
mm_wordbot
A component of the Software Repository
occ
SA Command Center (SA Web Client)
opswgw-agw0
Agent Gateway
opswgw-mgws0
Master Gateway
spin
Data Access Engine
spoke
A component of the Global File System
193
Table 27
Internal and External Component Names (cont’d)
Internal Name
External Name
truth
Model Repository
twist
Web Services Data Access Engine
vault/vaultdaemon
Model Repository Multimaster Component
way/waybot
Command Engine
word
Software Repository
Mass Deletion of Backup Files
SA includes a script that you can run as a cron job for performing mass deletions of backup
files. Backup files are created by configuration tracking. They can accumulate quickly and
take up disk space. Consequently, performance when viewing backup history in the SA Web
Client can be sluggish, and the information that displays might be cluttered with out-of-date
configuration tracking data.
When the backup deletion script is run, it deletes all backed up files with the exception that it
always keeps one copy of the latest version of every file ever backed up. If you want to delete
those files, use the process for deleting backups individually or a few at a time that is covered
in the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
The script is called backup_delete.pyc. It is located on any server hosting a Data Access
Engine, in the following directory:
/opt/opsware/spin/util
The script is run using a configuration file that contains the script arguments such as host
name, port number, whether you want full or incremental backups, the backup retention
period, the name of the log file to use, email addresses for notifications, and the email server
to use. See Table 28, Configuration File Options, for the arguments, their values, and their
descriptions.
Syntax of Backup Deletion Script
backup_delete.pyc [options]
Usage: backup_delete.py [-c <conf_filename>]
Deleting Backup Files with the Mass Deletion Script
Perform the following steps to use the mass deletion script to delete backup files:
194
1
Log in as root to the server where the Data Access Engine is installed.
2
Make sure that /opt/opsware/pylibs is in your PYTHONPATH environment variable.
3
Create a file that contains the arguments and values that you want SA to use with the
mass deletion script. See Table 28 on page 195, Configuration File Options, for the
available arguments.
Chapter 5
For example, the following file specifies that a host called spin.yourcore.example.com,
on port 1004 will have incremental backups that are three months old deleted. In
addition, a log file called run.log, located in /tmp will be used to capture events, and
email will be sent to user@example.com from user1@example.com reporting that the
mass deletion was performed successfully.
host: spin.yourcore.example.com
port: 1004
inc: 1
time: 3m
logfile: /tmp/run.log
emailto: user@example.com
emailserver: smtp.example.com
emailfrom: user1@example.com
emailsuccess: 1
Table 28
Configuration File Options
arguments
values
description
host
host: [hostname], for example
host:
spin.yourcore.example.com
Host name of the Data Access
Engine
port
port: [port number], for
example
port: 1004
Port of the Data Access Engine
(defaults to 1004)
full
Set value to 1 to enable, for
example full:1
Delete full backups. You must
specify Either full or inc.
inc
Set value to 1 to enable, for
example inc:1
Delete incremental backups.
You must specify either full or
inc.
time
time: [digits][dmy], for
example, 6d equals six days. 3m
equals three months. 1y equals
one year.
Retention period beyond which
backups should be deleted.
hostsfile
hostsfile: [filename]
The script deletes backups on
every managed server in your
system, unless you provide a
hostsfile that contains a specific
list of servers on which to
perform the mass backup
deletion.
The hostsfile should contain the
name of each host on a line by
itself, for example
<hostname>
<hostname>
SA Maintenance
logfile
logfile: [filename], for
example
logfile: /tmp/run.log
File to use for log events.
emailto
emailto: [email address],
for example
emailto: user@example.com
Optional email notification
recipient.
195
Table 28
Configuration File Options (cont’d)
arguments
values
description
emailserver
emailserver: [server name],
for example
emailserver:
smtp.example.com
The SMTP server to send email
through. Optional if emailto
not specified, otherwise
required.
emailfrom
emailfrom: [email address],
for example
emailfrom:
user1@example.com
Email address to appear in the
From: line. Optional if emailto
not specified, otherwise
required.
emailsuccess
Set value to 1 to enable, for
example
emailsuccess: 1
Send email even if no errors
occurred deleting backups and
more than one backup was
deleted.
4
Optionally, if you want to run the script as a cron job, create a crontab entry.
For example, to run the job at 3:00 AM daily, create the following entry:
0 3 * * * env PYTHONPATH=/opt/opsware/spin/util/
backup_delete.pyc -c <path>/<your_backup_filename.conf>
The crontab entry must be all on one line.
5
If you do not plan to run the script as a cron job, enter the following command at the
prompt:
# python /opt/opsware/spin/util/backup_delete.pyc\-c /[conf_filename]
Multiple Data Access Engines
This section discusses the following topics:
•
Overview of Multiple Data Access Engines
•
Reassigning the Data Access Engine to a Secondary Role
•
Designating the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine
Overview of Multiple Data Access Engines
In a core with multiple instances of the Data Access Engine, each instance may be designated
in one of the following ways:
•
196
Primary Data Access Engine: Each Facility has only one primary Data Access Engine.
This Data Access Engine periodically checks the Managed Servers to determine if SA can
communicate with them. If a facility has more than one primary Data Access Engine, the
competing reachability checks can interfere with each other.
Chapter 5
•
Secondary Data Access Engine: When a Facility has multiple Data Access Engines
installed (for scalability), the non-primary ones are designated as secondary data access
engines. The first Data Access Engine installed is designated the Primary or Multimaster
Central Data Access Engine. A secondary Data Access Engine does not check managed
servers to determine if they are reachable. It only communicates with the Model
Repository to write or read data.
•
Multimaster Central Data Access Engine: An SA Multimaster Mesh has multiple
cores and, therefore, multiple data access engines. One core’s primary data access engine
should be designated the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine. Although any of the
cores may have multiple Data Access Engines, only one mesh can be the central data
access engine.
Reassigning the Data Access Engine to a Secondary Role
If you installed an additional Data Access Engine, you must perform the following steps to
reassign the new Data Access Engine to a secondary role:
1
Log into the SA Web Client as a user that belongs to SA Administrators group. The SA
Web Client home page appears.
2
From the Navigation panel, click Administration ➤ Opsware Software. The
Software page appears.
3
Click the spin link. The Opsware Software | spin page appears.
4
Select the Members tab. The list of Managed Servers that are hosting a Data Access
Engine appears.
5
Select the check box for the additional Data Access Engine server.
6
From the Tasks menu, select Re-Assign Node.
7
Select the option for the Service Levels | Opsware | spin node.
8
Click Select.
9
Navigate the node hierarchy by clicking the following nodes:
•
Opsware
•
spin
•
Secondary
10 Click Re-Assign.
11
In a terminal window, log in as root to the server running the additional Data Access
Engine and enter the following command to restart the Data Access Engine:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas restart spin
Designating the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine
The HP BSA Installer automatically assigns the multimaster central Data Access Engine.
In most case, you should not change the multimaster central Data Access Engine after the
installation. Doing so can cause problems when upgrading the SA core to a new version.
Before following the steps in this section, contact HP Professional Services.
SA Maintenance
197
Perform the following steps to designate the multimaster central data access engine:
1
Log into the SA Web Client as a user that belongs to the SA System Administrators group.
2
From the Navigation panel, click Opsware Software under Administration. The
Opsware Software page appears.
3
Click the spin link.
4
Select the Servers tab.
5
Select the check box for the Data Access Engine server for the new core.
6
From the Server menu, select Re-Assign Node.
7
Select the option for the Service Levels | Opsware | spin | node.
8
Click Select.
9
Navigate the node hierarchy by clicking each node: Opsware | Spin | Multimaster
Central.
10 Click Re-Assign.
11
Restart the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine.
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas restart spin
Scheduling Audit Result and Snapshot Removal
Because Audit Results (results of an audit) and snapshots (results of a snapshot specification)
can accumulate over time, especially those that run on a recurring schedule, you can configure
your SA Core so that after a specified number of days Audit Results and snapshots will be
deleted from the core.
Note that this setting only applies to those audit results and snapshots that have not been
archived. Archived results can only be deleted from the SA Client manually.
Additionally, there are two other conditions where an Audit Result or a snapshot will not be
deleted by these settings:
•
If the snapshot is being used as the target of an audit
•
If the Audit Result or snapshot is the only result of either an audit or snapshot
specification
To configure audit results and snapshot removal:
1
Log in to the SA Web Client as a user that belongs to the SA System Administrators
group. Log in by opening a browser and entering the IP address or hostname of a slice
server running the SA Web Client.
The SA Web Client should be installed and listening. The SA Web Client home page
appears.
198
2
In the navigation pane, select Administration ➤System Configuration. The Select a
Product page appears.
3
Under Select a Product, click the Data Access Engine link. The configuration page for the
Data Access Engine appears.
4
To set the number of days to elapse before an audit results or snapshot are deleted, modify
the following parameters:
Chapter 5
5
•
Scroll down to the spin.cronbot.delete_snapshots.cleanup_day parameter, and in the
Use value field enter the number of days that must elapse before all non-archived
snapshots will be deleted. If you select the Use default value setting, no snapshots will
deleted.
•
Scroll down to the spin.cronbot.delete_audits.cleanup_days, and in the Use value field
enter the number of days that must elapse before all non-archived Audit Results will
be deleted. If you select the Use default value setting, no snapshots will deleted.
When you are finished, at the bottom of the page, click Save.
Web Services Data Access Engine Configuration Parameters
This section discusses how to change Web Services Data Access Engine configuration
parameters using the SA Web Client or by editing the configuration file.
The Web Services Data Access Engine must be restarted for any parameter modifications you
have made to take affect.
Changing a Configuration Parameter
This section describes how to change the parameters displayed by the SA Web Client.
However, the SA Web Client does not list all of the Web Services Data Access Engine
parameters. If you want to change an unlisted parameter, follow the instructions in the next
section.
To change a parameter in the SA Web Client, perform the following steps:
1
Log into the SA Web Client as a member of the Administrators group (admin) and from
the navigation panel, click System Configuration under Administration. The Select a
Product page appears.
2
Under Select a Product, click Web Services Data Access Engine.
3
Update the parameters you want to change.
4
Click Save.
5
Restart the Web Services Data Access Engine with the following command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas restart twist
Web Services Data Access Engine Configuration File
The Web Services Data Access Engine configuration file includes properties that affect the
server side of the SA Web Services API 2.2. (These properties are not displayed in the SA Web
Client.) The fully-qualified name of the configuration file follows:
/etc/opt/opsware/twist/twist.conf
SA Maintenance
199
During an upgrade of SA, the twist.conf file is replaced, but the twistOverrides.conf file
is preserved. When you upgrade to a new version of SA, to retain the configuration settings,
you must edit the twistOverrides.conf file. The properties in twistOverrides.conf
override those specified in twist.conf. T Unix twist user must have write access to the
twistOverrides.conf file.
To change a property defined in the configuration file:
1
Edit the twist.conf file with a text editor.
2
Save the changed file.
3
Restart the Web Services Data Access Engine on the server.
You must belong to the Administrators group (admin) in order to modify the twist.conf file.
Once the file is changed, the Web Services Data Access Engine must be restarted to apply the
changes.
The following table lists the properties of the configuration file that affect the SA Web
Services API 2.2. Several of these properties are related to the cache (sliding window) of
server events. SA maintains a sliding window (with a default size of two hours) of events
describing changes to SA objects. This window makes enables software developers to update a
client-side cache of objects without having to retrieve all of the objects. For more information,
see the API documentation for EventCacheService.
Table 29
Configuration File for SA Web Services API 2.2
Property
Default
Description
twist.webservices.debug.l
evel
1
An integer value that sets the debug level for
the SA Web Services API on the server side.
Allowed values:
0 - basic info
1 - more detailed information
2 - stack trace
3 - for printing the server event cache entries
whenever there is an item added to the cache.
200
twist.webservices.locale.
country
US
The country Internationalization parameter
for the Localizer utility. Currently only the US
code is supported.
twist.webservices.locale.
language
en
Sets the language Internationalization
parameter for the Localizer utility. Currently
only the en code is supported.
twist.webservices.caching
.windowsize
120
In minutes, the size of the sliding window
maintaining the server event cache.
twist.webservices.caching
.windowslide
15
In minutes, the sliding scope for the window
maintaining the server event cache.
twist.webservices.caching
.safetybuffer
5
In minutes, the safety buffer for the sliding
window maintaining the server event cache.
twist.webservices.caching
.minwindowsize
30
In minutes, the minimum size of the sliding
window that maintains the server event cache.
Chapter 5
Table 29
Configuration File for SA Web Services API 2.2 (cont’d)
Property
Default
Description
twist.webservices.caching
.maxwindowsize
240
In minutes, the maximum size of the sliding
window that maintains the server event cache.
Increasing the Web Services Data Access Engine Maximum Heap Memory
Allocation
As data size in a Multimaster Mesh grows, you may find that you must increase the
maximum heap memory allocation for the Web Services Data Access Engine (twist). The
default value is 1280Mb. To do so, perform the following tasks:
1
Using a text editor, open the file:
/etc/opt/opsware/twist/twistOverrides.conf
2
Modify the following entry to the required allocation:
twist.mxMem=<memory size>
where memory size corresponds to -Xmx<memory size>.
For example,
twist.mxMem=2048m
would give the Web Services Data Access Engine a maximum of 2048 megabytes of heap
memory. This change is preserved even after an upgrade. If you leave this
twistOverrides.conf parameter blank, the default value (1280m) specified in twist.sh
is used.
Changing Software Repository Mirroring Parameters
This section discusses how to change Word Mirroring configuration parameters using the
SA Web Client.
Changing a Configuration Parameter
This section describes how to change the configuration parameters displayed by the SA Web
Client.
To change a parameter in the SA Web Client, perform the following steps:
SA Maintenance
1
Log into the SA Web Client as a member of the Administrators group (admin). From the
navigation panel, click System Configuration under Administration. The Select a Product
page appears.
2
Under Select a Product, click Software Repository.
3
Update the parameters you want to change.
4
Click Save.
201
5
Restart the all instances of the Software Repository for the SA Core. If the change is
global, restart all instances of the Software Repository for all cores in the Multimaster
Mesh.
Software Repository Mirroring Configuration Parameters
You can modify the following configuration parameters:
Table 30
202
Software Repository Mirroring Parameters
Parameter
Type
Allowed
Values
Default Description
word.enable_content_mirroring
Flag
1, 0
word.mirror_job_period
Minutes A
positive
integer
0
Enables (1)/
Disables (0) Software
Repository mirroring.
60
The frequency (in
minutes) between.
Software Repository
mirroring job runs.
Chapter 5
6 Monitoring SA
Overview of SA Monitoring
SA has a built-in system diagnosis function in the SA Web Client, which allows you to
diagnosis the functionality of the following SA components:
•
Data Access Engine
•
Software Repository
•
Command Engine
•
Web Services Data Access Engine
•
Multimaster Infrastructure Components (referred to as the Model Repository
Multimaster Component in the SA documentation)
This chapter provides information for performing basic monitoring of the components listed
above and for the following additional SA components:
•
Server Agent
•
Agent Cache
•
SA Web Client
•
Model Repository
•
Spoke
•
Gateways
•
OS Build Manager
•
OS Boot Server
•
OS Media Server
The commands and other information shown in this document are identical to those in the SA
Web Client.
The information contained in this document should be used when the System Diagnosis
feature cannot be used because the SA Web Client cannot be reached or when your managed
environment is already set up for automated monitoring. In that case, you can use these
commands to automate your system diagnosis and to monitor SA.
The type of monitoring information described in this document includes:
•
Commands to confirm specific component processes are running as well as examples of
the expected output
•
Commands provided by component and by operating system
•
Component specific ports, logs, and administrative URLs
203
The commands shown in this document must be entered all on one line. However, to make
sure that the commands and the resulting output are readable, they might have been
modified with spaces, blank lines, and line breaks, or backslashes (\) to indicate where a
command has been continued on the following line. Also, the output shown is intended as an
example only. The output on your servers will be different.
For a description of each of the SA components mentioned in this document, see the SA
Overview and Architecture Guide.
Agent Monitoring
A Server Agent is an intelligent agent running on each server managed by SA. Whenever a
change needs to be made to a managed server, the Server Agent brokers the requests.
For more information about the Server Agent, see the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
To use the SA Web Client to test an SA Core’s communication with a Server Agent running on
a managed server, see the following sections in the SA User Guide: Server Automation:
•
Agent Reachability Communication Tests
•
Communication Test Troubleshooting
Agent Port
The Server Agent uses port 1002.
Monitoring Processes for Agents
On Windows, from the Start menu, choose Run. In the Run dialog, enter taskmgr. In the
Windows Task Manager dialog, click the Process tab and look for the processes called
watchdog.exe and python.exe.
On Unix (Solaris, Linux, AIX, and HP-UX), the Server Agent has two running processes.
On Solaris, execute the command:
# ps -flg `awk -F= '($1=="pgrp") {print $2}' /var/opt/opsware/agent/
daemonbot.pid`
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
F S
UID
PID
PPID
C
PRI NI
ADDR
SZ
WCHAN
STIME
8 S root 9541 9539
08 ?
1:23 /opt
8 S
root
9539
1
0
TTY
41
TIME
20
?
CMD
1768 ?
Aug
/opsware/agent/bin/python /opt/opsware/agent/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/agent/agent.args
0 99 20 ?
398 ?
Aug 08 ?
0:00 /opt
/opsware/agent/bin/python /opt/opsware/agent/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/agent/agent.args
On Linux, execute the command:
# ps -flg `awk -F= '($1=="pgrp") {print $2}' /var/opt/opsware/agent/
daemonbot.pid`
204
Chapter 6
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
F S
1 S
UID PID PPID
root 2538 1
5 S
root 2539 2538
C PRI NI ADDR SZ WCHAN STIME TTY TIME CMD
0 85 0
3184 wait4 Sep11 ?
00:00:00
/opt/opsware/agent/bin/python /opt/opsware/agent/pylibs/shadowbot/
daemonbot.pyc --conf /etc/opt/opsware/agent/agent.args
0 75 0
30890 schedu Sep11 ?
00:02:56
/opt/opsware/agent/bin/python /opt/opsware/agent/pylibs/shadowbot/
daemonbot.pyc --conf /etc/opt/opsware/agent/agent.args
The daemon monitor is the process with a PPID of 1. The others are server or monitor
threads.
On AIX, execute the command:
# ps -flg `awk -F= '($1=="pgrp") {print $2}' /var/opt/opsware/agent/
daemonbot.pid`
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
F
S UID PID PPID C PRI NI ADDR SZ WCHAN STIME TTY TIME CMD
40001 A root 110600 168026 0 60 20 2000d018 16208 * Sep 05 7:15 /opt/
opsware/agent/bin/python /opt/opsware/agent/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/agent/agent.args
40001 A root 168026 1 0 60 20 2000f25c 1352
Sep 05 0:02 /opt/
opsware/agent/bin/python /opt/opsware/agent/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/agent/agent.args
On HP-UX, execute the command:
# ps -flg `awk -F= '($1=="pgrp") {print $2}' /var/opt/opsware/agent/
daemonbot.pid`
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
F
1
1
S UID PID PPID
R root 10009 1
C PRI NI
ADDR SZ WCHAN STIME TTY TIME COMD
0 152 20 437eb1c0 266
- Sep 22 ? 0:00 /opt/
opsware/agent/bin/python /opt/opsware/agent/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/agent/agent.args
R root 10010 10009 0 152 20 434fb440 2190
- Sep 22 ? 3:29 /opt/
opsware/agent/bin/python /opt/opsware/agent/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/agent/agent.args
Agent URL
https://<hostname>:1002
Agent Logs
The Server Agents create the following log files on managed servers.
Windows:
•
%ProgramFiles%Common Files\opsware\log\agent\agent.log*
•
%ProgramFiles%Common Files\opsware\log\agent\agent.err*
Unix:
•
Monitoring SA
/var/log/opsware/agent/agent.log*
205
•
/var/log/opsware/agent/agent.err*
Conditions to monitor in the Unix logs:
•
Strings containing “Traceback”
•
Strings containing “OpswareError”
Agent Cache Monitoring
The Agent Cache is a component that serves Server Agent installation files during the Agent
deployment process. The Agent Cache component caches the most recent version of the Agent
that is available. The Discovery and Agent Deployment (ODAD) feature obtains the agent
installation binaries from the Agent Cache component during agent deployment.
Agent Cache Ports
The Agent Cache uses port 8081.
Monitoring Processes for the Agent Cache
In all configurations, the Agent Cache component has a single running process.
On Solaris or Linux, execute the command on the server running the Gateway (in an SA
core and an Satellite):
# ps auxwww | grep -v grep | grep agentcache
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
22288
0.5
0.1
15920 4464 ? S 19:55 0:08 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/agentcache/AgentCache.pyc -d /var/opt/opsware/
agent_installers -p 8081 -b
Agent Cache Logs
The Agent Cache logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/agentcache/agentcache.log
•
/var/log/opsware/agentcache/agentcache.err
Conditions to monitor in the logs:
206
•
Strings containing “Error downloading agent”
•
Strings containing “Another process is listening on port”
Chapter 6
Command Center Monitoring
The Command Center is a web-based user interface to SA. You use the SA Web Client to
access the Command Center.
SA users connect to the Command Center component through an Apache HTTPS Proxy
(installed by the HP BSA Installer with the Command Center component).
Command Center Ports
The HTTPS Proxy uses port 443 (HTTPS) and port 80 and directs connections to the
Command Center component, which uses port 1031 (the Web Services port).
Monitoring Processes for the Command Center
On Solaris or Linux, execute the command on the server running the Command Center
component:
# ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep java | grep occ
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
occ
17373
1
6
19:46 ? 00:02:35 /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/
java -server -Xms256m -Xmx384m -XX:NewRatio=3 -Docc.home=/opt/opsware/occ
-Docc.cfg.dir=/etc/opt/opsware/occ -Dopsware.deploy.urls=,/opt/opsware/occ/
deploy/ -Djboss.server.name=occ -Djboss.server.home.dir=/opt/opsware/occ/occ
-Djboss.server.
To monitor the Command Center component, you can also set up an automatic monitoring
process to send a URL query (using tools such as Wget) to the Command Center URL. If the
Command Center component returns its login page, it indicates that both the Apache HTTPS
Proxy and Command Center processes are functioning normally.
Command Center URL
https://occ.<data_center>
Command Center Logs
The Command Center does not generate its own logs. The Command Center uses the JBoss
server, which writes to the following log files:
•
/var/log/opsware/occ/server.log*
•
/var/log/opsware/httpsProxy/*log*
Conditions to monitor in the logs:
Monitoring SA
•
java.net.ConnectionException
•
java.net.SocketException
•
java.lang.NullPointerException
207
Load Balancing Gateway Monitoring
The Load Balancing Gateway provides High Availability and horizontal scaling in an SA core.
When you run the HP BSA Installer, it installs a Load Balancing Gateway with the Command
Center component.
Load Balancing Gateway Ports
By default, the Load Balancing Gateway uses the port 8080.
Monitoring Processes for the Load Balancing Gateway
In all configurations, the Load Balancing Gateway component has two running process — the
Gateway process itself and its watchdog process.
On Solaris or Linux, execute the commands on the server running the Command Center
component:
# ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep opswgw | grep lb
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
32149
root
32156
1
0
Sep27 ? 00:00:00 [opswgw-watchdog-2.1.1: lb]
--PropertiesFile /etc/opt/opsware/opswgw-lb/opswgw.properties --BinPath /opt/
opsware/opswgw/bin/opswgw
32149 0 Sep27 ? 00:24:31 [opswgw-gateway-2.1.1: lb]
--PropertiesFile /etc/opt/opsware/opswgw-lb/opswgw.properties --BinPath /opt/
opsware/opswgw/bin/opswgw --Child true
Load Balancing Gateway Logs
The Load Balancing Gateway logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/gateway-name/opswgw.log*
Conditions to monitor in the logs:
•
Strings containing “ERROR”
•
Strings containing “FATAL” (indicates that the process will terminate)
Data Access Engine Monitoring
The Data Access Engine simplifies interaction with various clients in SA, such as the
Command Center, system data collection, and monitoring agents on servers.
Data Access Engine Port
The Data Access Engine uses port 1004 (HTTPS) externally and 1007 (the loopback interface)
for SA components installed on the same server.
208
Chapter 6
Multimaster Central Data Access Engine Port Forwarding
SQLnet traffic between the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine in a mesh and the Model
Repositories in other SA Cores in the mesh is routed over the SA Gateway mesh.
The tnsnames.ora file on the server running the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine
points to a specified port on each core-side Gateway in the other SA cores. The core-side
Gateway in the core running the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine forwards the
connection to the core-side Gateway in each other core, which in turn forwards it to the Model
Repositories in the other cores.
The port number on the core-side Gateway is calculated as 20000 + data_center_id. For
example, if the Multimaster Mesh has two facilities, Facility A (facility ID 1) and Facility B
(facility ID 2), the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine in Facility A connects to port
20002 on the server running the Gateway to reach the Model Repository in Facility B.
For information about the Multimaster Central Data Access Engine, see Multiple Data Access
Engines on page 196.
For information about the Gateway mesh topology, see the SA Overview and Architecture
Guide.
Monitoring Processes for the Data Access Engine
On Solaris, execute the command on the server running the Data Access Engine component:
# /usr/ucb/ps auxwww | grep -v grep | grep spin | grep -v java
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
8010
root
8008
root
8026
0.5
0.84541631552 ? S 19:36:42 4:56 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf /etc/opt/opsware/
spin/spin.args
0.0 0.1 4040 2080 ? S 19:36:42 0:00 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf /etc/opt/opsware/
spin/spin.args
0.0 0.53224018224 ? S 19:36:57 0:01 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/spin/certgenmain.pyc --start --conf
/etc/opt/opsware/spin/spin.args
On Solaris, you see multiple process that look like the first line of the output above; however,
there should be only one process that contains certgenmain in the output.
On Linux, execute the command on the server running the Data Access Engine component:
# ps auxwww | grep -v grep | grep spin | grep -v java
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
30202
0.0
root
30204
1.3
root
30256
0.1
Monitoring SA
0.0
13592 1500 ? S Sep11 0:01 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf /etc/opt/opsware/
spin/spin.args
0.6 154928 25316 ? S Sep11 411:15 /opt/opsware/
bin/python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/spin/spin.args
0.3 28500 13024 ? S Sep11 50:35 /opt/opsware/
bin/python /opt/opsware/spin/certgenmain.pyc --start
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/spin/spin.args
209
Data Access Engine URLs
•
https://spin.<data_center>:1004
To access the Data Access Engine (spin) UI, you need the browser certificate
browser.p12.
•
https://spin.<data_center>:1004/ObjectBrowser.py?cls=Account&id=0
Accessing the second URL fails when the Model Repository component is not running.
•
https://spin.<data_center>:1004/sys/dbstatus.py
Accessing this URL shows the database connection status in the HTML page. Your
automatic monitoring system can use a regular expression to extract the number of active
database connections.
Data Access Engine Logs
The Data Access Engine logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/spin/spin.err* (The main Data Access Engine error file)
•
/var/log/opsware/spin/spin.log* (The main Data Access Engine log file)
•
/var/log/opsware/spin/spin_db.log
•
/var/log/opsware/spin/daemonbot.out (Output from the application server)
In a core with multiple Data Access Engines, each server running a Data Access Engines has
a set of these log files.
Web Services Data Access Engine Monitoring
The Web Services Data Access Engine provides increased performance to other SA
components.
The Web Services Data Access Engine component is installed as part of the Slice Component
bundle.
Web Services Data Access Engine Port
The Web Services Data Access Engine uses port 1032.
The Command Center component communicate with the Web Services Data Access Engine on
port 1026 (a private loopback port).
Monitoring Processes for the Web Services Data Access Engine
On Solaris, execute the command on the server running the Command Center component
and on the server running the Slice Component bundle:
# /usr/ucb/ps auxwww | grep -v grep | grep \/opt\/opsware\/twist
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
210
Chapter 6
twist
9274
0.0
twist
9238
0.0
1.416748054040 ? S Aug 08 410:33 /opt/opsware/
j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java -server -Xms16m -Xmx128m -Dtwist.port=1026 ......
-classpath opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/jre ......
0.1 1088 744 ? S Aug 08 0:00 /bin/sh /opt/
opsware/twist/watchdog.sh start 60
On Linux, execute the command on the server running the Command Center component and
on the server running the Slice Component bundle:
# ps auxwww | grep -v grep | grep \/opt\/opsware\/twist
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
twist
4039
0.2
twist
4704
0.0
twist
4743
0.0
11.3 2058528 458816 ? S Sep11 80:51 /opt/opsware/
j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java -server -Xms256m -Xmx1280m -XX:MaxPermSize=192m
-Dorg.apache.commons.logging.Log=org.apache.commons.logging.impl.Jdk14Logger
......
0.0 4236 1124 ? S Sep11 1:28 /bin/sh /opt/
opsware/twist/watchdog.sh start 60'
0.6 376224 27160 ? S Sep11 18:31 /opt/opsware/
j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java -server -Xms16m -Xmx128m -Dtwist.port=1026 ......
-classpath /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/jre/......
Web Services Data Access Engine URL
https://occ.<data_center>:1032
Web Services Data Access Engine Logs
The Web Services Data Access Engine logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/twist/stdout.log*
•
/var/log/opsware/twist/twist.log
•
/var/log/opsware/twist/access.log
•
/var/log/opsware/twist/server.log* (Application level logging)
•
/var/log/opsware/twist/boot.log
•
/var/log/opsware/twist/watchdog.log
The stdout.log files contain stdout and stderr and logs the output of any
System.out.println(), System.err.println() and e.printStackTrace() messages;
however, only some of the exceptions will show up in these logs. The number of files and the
size of each file can be configured via twist.conf. Additional logs are created when the
specified maximum file size is reached. The stdout.log is the most recent, and
stdout.log.1 through stdout.log.5 are progressively older files. The file is also rotated on
startup.
The twist.log file contains WebLogic-specific messages and WebLogic level exceptions.
These files are rotated on startup. Monitor the twist.log files for exceptions that indicate
when the Web Services Data Access Engine (Twist) component failed to start correctly. If
errors are encountered during Model Repository (Truth) connection setup, errors are logged in
the twist.log files; for example, you might see the following error message:
####<Oct 14, 2006 1:37:43 AM UTC> <Error> <JDBC> <localhost.localdomain> <twist> <main> <<WLS
Kernel>> <> <BEA-001150> <Connection Pool "TruthPool" deployment failed with the following error:
<Specific message, such as Oracle error codes and tracebacks>
Monitoring SA
211
The access.log file contains access information in common log format. These files are
rotated when the file reaches 5MB in size.
The server.log files contain application level exceptions and debug messages generated
from the Web Services Data Access Engine. The server.log files will also contain errors
resulting from Model Repository (Truth) connection setup problems. The debug messages are
controlled by the log level set at the package or class level in the twist.conf file. The number
of files and the size of each file can both be configured via twist.conf. The server.log.0 is
always the current file, while server.log.9 is the oldest.
The boot.log file contains information on the initial stdout and stderr messages generated
when the Web Services Data Access Engine starts. In addition, the boot.log file contains the
output from Kill –QUIT commands.
The watchdog.log file records the status of the Web Services Data Access Engine once every
minute.
Command Engine Monitoring
The Command Engine is the means by which distributed programs such as Server Agents run
across many servers. Command Engine scripts are written in Python and run on the
Command Engine server. Command Engine scripts can issue commands to Server Agents.
These calls are delivered in a secure manner and are auditable by using data stored in the
Model Repository.
Command Engine Port
The Command Engine uses port 1018.
Monitoring Processes for the Command Engine
On Solaris, execute the command on the server running the Command Engine component:
# /usr/ucb/ps auxwww | egrep '(COMMAND$|waybot)' | grep -v grep
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
USER PID
root 1246
%CPU
0.0
root 1248
0.0
%MEM SZ RSS TT
S START TIME COMMAND
0.1 4040 2064 ?
S Sep 24 0:00 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf /etc/opt/opsware/
waybot/waybot.args
0.41596814592 ?
S Sep 24 2:19 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf /etc/opt/opsware/
waybot/waybot.args
On Solaris, the Command Engine has two processes — one process for the daemon monitor
and one process for the server.
On Linux, execute the command on the server running the Command Engine component:
# ps auxwww | egrep '(COMMAND$|waybot)' | grep -v grep
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
USER
root
212
PID
412
%CPU
0.0
%MEM VSZ RSS
0.0 13600 1472
TTY
?
STAT START
S
Sep11
TIME
0:00
COMMAND
/opt/opsware/
Chapter 6
bin/python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/waybot/waybot.args
On Linux servers running kernel 2.4 or later, the Command Engine has one process.
Command Engine URL
https://way.<data_center>:1018
Command Engine Logs
The Command Engine logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/waybot/waybot.err*
•
/var/log/opsware/waybot/waybot.log*
•
/var/log/opsware/waybot/daemonbot.out*
Software Repository Monitoring
The Software Repository is where all software managed by SA is stored.
Software Repository Ports
The Software Repository uses the following ports:
•
1003 (Encrypted)
•
1006 (Cleartext)
•
1005 (Replicator administrative user interface)
•
5679 (Multimaster Software Repository)
Monitoring Processes for the Software Repository
On Solaris, execute the command on the server running the Software Repository component:
# /usr/ucb/ps auxwwww | grep -v grep | grep mm_wordbot
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
root
root
root
8625
8627
8675
8677
Monitoring SA
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1 4048 1912 ? S Aug 08 0:00 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
mm_wordbot/mm_wordbot.args
0.52034418600 ? S Aug 08 7:38 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
mm_wordbot/mm_wordbot.args
0.1 4032 1904 ? S Aug 08 0:00 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
mm_wordbot/mm_wordbot-clear.args
0.210104 8096 ? S Aug 08 0:01 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc
mm_wordbot/mm_wordbot-clear.args
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/
--conf /etc/opt/opsware/
213
On Solaris, the Software Repository has four running processes — two processes for the
encrypted Software Repository and two for the cleartext Software Repository.
On Linux, execute the command on the server running the Software Repository component:
# ps auxwwww | grep -v grep | grep mm_wordbot
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
root
root
root
31006
31007
31092
31093
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
13612 1492 ? S Sep11 0:00 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf
mm_wordbot/mm_wordbot.args
0.1 103548 7688 ? S Sep11 7:33 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf
mm_wordbot/mm_wordbot.args
0.0 13608 1480 ? S Sep11 0:00 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf
mm_wordbot/mm_wordbot-clear.args
0.1 70172 6424 ? S Sep11 2:11 /opt/opsware/bin/
python /opt/opsware/pylibs/shadowbot/daemonbot.pyc --conf
mm_wordbot/mm_wordbot-clear.args
/etc/opt/opsware/
/etc/opt/opsware/
/etc/opt/opsware/
/etc/opt/opsware/
On Linux, the Software Repository has multiple running processes (most are threads), which
are for the encrypted Software Repository and for the cleartext Software Repository.
Software Repository Logs
The logs for the Software Repository are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/mm_wordbot/wordbot.err*
•
/var/log/opsware/mm_wordbot/wordbot.log*
•
/var/log/opsware/mm_wordbot-clear/wordbot-clear.err*
•
/var/log/opsware/mm_wordbot-clear/wordbot-clear.log*
Software Repository Mirroring
If you have Software Repository mirroring enabled, you can montor the status by:
214
1
Logging in to the SA Web Client as a member of the SA Administrator group or with
Multimaster Tools permissions.
2
Select Administration ➤ Software Repository Mirroring from the navigation panel.
3
You will see a screen similar to that shown in Figure 54:
Chapter 6
Figure 54 Software Repository Mirroring Status Scteen
The status screen displays the Software Repository hosts in your Multimaster Mesh by
facility name. Data displayed includes:
•
Files: the number of files in the host’s Software Repository
•
Size: the approximate total disk space used by the Software Repository files
•
Missing: the number of files that should be mirrored by the Facility's Software Repository
but that have not yet been replicated. This state is also indicated by the color coded boxes
in the Files column:
— Green: Contains all packages from the Mesh
— Yellow: Does not contains all packages from the Mesh
— Grey: Mirroring Disabled
Model Repository Monitoring
The Model Repository is an Oracle database that contains essential information necessary to
build, operate, and maintain a list of all managed servers, their hardware, their configuration,
the operating system and all other applications.
For more information about the Model Repository, including detailed information about
monitoring the Model Repository, see “Appendix A: Oracle Setup for the Model Repository” in
the SA Simple/Advanced Installation Guide.
Model Repository Port
The default port for the Model Repository is 1521, however, this might have been modified by
the database administrator who installed it.
Monitoring Processes for the Model Repository
Monitor the Oracle Database process. If the process is not found, the database has failed or
was not started.
Monitoring SA
215
On Solaris or Linux, execute the command on the server running Oracle:
# ps -fu oracle | grep pmon
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
oracle
2112
1
0 21:22 ?
00:00:00 ora_pmon_truth
(The process name might include the database SID, truth, as shown in this example.)
If the process is not found, the listener has failed or was not started.
On Solaris or Linux, use this command to monitor the Oracle Listener process:
# ps -fu oracle | grep tnslsnr
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
oracle
2021
1 0 21:22 ?
00:00:01 /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/
db_1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
Model Repository Logs
Log files for the Model Repository are produced by the Oracle database and their location is
specific to your installation.
By default, SA uses a directory for each SID (in this case truth) for the Model Repository logs.
(This could be different based on how Oracle was installed.)
/u01/app/oracle/admin/truth/bdump/alter_truth.log
Conditions to monitor:
Not all errors indicate a problem with the database. Some errors might be caused by an
application.
In these examples, there is a problem if the command has output.
grep ORA- /u01/app/oracle/admin/truth/bdump/alter_truth.log
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [729], [480], [space leak], [],
[], [], [], []
ORA-07445: exception encountered: core dump [lxmcpen()+0] [SIGSEGV]
[Address not mapped to object] ...
Table Space Usage
Tablespace usage should be monitored against a threshold, usually increasing in severity (for
example., over 80% is a warning, over 90% is an error, over 95% is a critical error).
There are several ways to monitor tablespace usage. For a SQL query that you can run to
check for sufficient free disk space in the tablespaces, see “Appendix A: Oracle Setup for the
Model Repository” in the SA Simple/Advanced Installation Guide. The SQL query provided
in the installation guide must be executed as a privileged database user.
Multimaster Conflicts
The number of conflicting transactions in any Model Repository can be found by running the
following SQL query as any SA database user.
216
Chapter 6
select count(*) from transaction_conflicts where resolved = 'N';
Multimaster conflicts should be monitored in stages, with increasing numbers of conflicts
resulting in increasing levels of escalation. The values used for the stages depend on patterns
of use.
The SA administrator should record the number of conflicts for some period of time (perhaps a
week) and use that information to determine the level of alert raised by the monitoring
system.
Model Repository Multimaster Component Monitoring
The Model Repository Multimaster Component is a Java program responsible for keeping
multiple Model Repositories synchronized and propagating changes for the originating Model
Repository to all other Model Repository databases.
Model Repository Multimaster Component Port
The Model Repository Multimaster Component uses port 5678.
Monitoring Processes for the Model Repository Multimaster Component
On Solaris, execute the command on the server where you installed the Infrastructure
Component bundle:
# /usr/ucb/ps auxwww | grep -v grep | grep vault | grep -v twist
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
3884
0.0
root
3885
0.0
root
3887
0.0
0.1
2792 1568 ? S Jul 26 0:00 /opt/opsware//bin/
python /opt/opsware//pylibs/shadowbot/etc/daemonizer.pyc
--runpath /var/log/opsware/vault --cmd /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java
-classpath /opt/opsware/vault ...... -ms120m -mx1024m -DCONF=/etc/opt/opsware/
vault/
-DHOSTNAME= com.Opsware.vault.Vault
0.1 1096 848 ? S Jul 26 0:00 /bin/sh -c /opt/
opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java -classpath /opt/opsware/vault/cl
3.9194192155784 ? S Jul 26 2:34 /opt/opsware/
j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java -classpath /opt/opsware/vault ...... -ms120m -mx1024m
-DCONF=/etc/opt/opsware/vault/
-DHOSTNAME= com.loudcloud.vault.Vault
On Linux, execute the command on the server where you installed the Infrastructure
Component bundle:
# ps auxwww | grep -v grep | grep vault | grep -v twist
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
28662
Monitoring SA
0.0
0.0
2284 532 ? S Sep27 0:00 /opt/opsware//bin/
python /opt/opsware//pylibs/shadowbot/etc/daemonizer.pyc
--runpath /var/opt/opsware/vault --cmd /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java
-classpath /opt/opsware/vault/classes:/opt/opsware/vault ...... -ms120m
-mx1024m
-DCONF=/etc/opt/opsware/vault/
-DHOSTNAME=m234.dev.opsware.com com.loudcloud.vault.Vault
217
root
28663
0.0
6.3
1285800 130896 ? S Sep27 5:32 /opt/opsware/
j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java -classpath /opt/opsware/vault/classes:/opt/opsware/
vault ...... -ms120m -mx1024m
-DCONF=/etc/opt/opsware/vault/
-DHOSTNAME=m234.dev.opsware.com com.loudcloud.vault.Vault
Model Repository Multimaster Component Logs
The Model Repository Multimaster Component logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/vault/vault.n.log
Condition to monitor in the logs: The string “Traceback”
To configure the log file name, log file size, or logging level, in the SA Web Client, go to
Administration ➤ System Configuration ➤ Model Repository Multimaster Component.
Global File System Monitoring
The Global Shell feature is installed as part of any Slice Component bundle, and dynamically
constructs a virtual file system — the Global File System (OGFS).
The Global Shell can connect to an Server Agent to open a Unix shell or a Windows Remote
Desktop connection on a managed server.
For information about using the Global Shell, see the Global Shell chapter and appendices in
the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
The Global File System component consists of the following programs:
•
Hub: A Java program that interacts with other Core Components and Agents on
Managed Servers (though the Agent Proxy) to compose the file system view.
•
Adapter: On Linux, a C program that transports file system requests and replies
between the FUSE (a module in the kernel) and the Hub and uses the FUSE userspace
library to communicate with the FUSE kernel module. On Solaris, a Python program that
communicates with a custom kernel module.
•
Agent Proxy: A Python program that provides the Hub with SSL connectivity to Agents
running on managed servers.
•
FUSE (Linux Only): A file system in Userspace (FUSE) (software governed by the GNU
GPL license) that provides in-kernel dispatch of file system requests into the Adapter.
The process group ID file for the Hub is located in the following directory:
•
/var/opt/opsware/hub/hub.pgrp
All Global File System programs (Hub, Adapter, Agent Proxy, and their log rotators) run in
this process group.
Monitoring Process for the Global File System
On Solaris, execute the command on the server(s) running the Slice Component bundle:
# ptree $(ps -g $(cat /var/opt/opsware/hub/hub.pgrp) -o pid=)
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
218
Chapter 6
7594 /opt/opsware/bin/python /opt/opsware/hub/bin/rotator.py /opt/
opsware/j2sdk1.4.2......
7598 /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java -server -Xms64m -Xmx1024m
-Dhub.kernel=SunO......
7613 /opt/opsware/bin/python /opt/opsware/adapter/SunOS/bin/rotator.py
/opt/opsware/......
7617 /opt/opsware/ogfsutils/bin/python2.4 /opt/opsware/adapter/
SunOS/lib/adapter.py......
7618 /opt/opsware/adapter/SunOS/bin/mount -o hostpath=
/hostpath,nosuid /dev/ogdrv /v......
7619 /opt/opsware/bin/python /opt/opsware/agentproxy/bin/rotator.pyc
/opt/opsware/bi......
7625 /opt/opsware/bin/python /opt/opsware/agentproxy/lib/
main.pyc......
On Solaris, the OGFS (specifically, the programs Hub, Adapter, and Agent Proxy) has seven
running processes.
On Linux, execute the following command on the server running the Slice Component bundle.
# ps u -g $(cat /var/opt/opsware/hub/hub.pgrp)
Running this command should produce output similar to the following:
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
root 8862 0.0 0.0 2436 1356 ? S Sep29 0:00 /opt/opsware/bin/python /opt/
opsware/hub/bin/rotator.py /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/b......
root 8868 0.1 1.8 1256536 76672 ? S Sep29 35:51 /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_
10/bin/java -server -Xms64m -Xmx1024m -Dhub.kernel=Linux -Dh......
root 8906 0.0 0.0 2412 1304 ? S Sep29 0:28 /opt/opsware/bin/python /opt/
opsware/adapter/bin/adapter......
root 8908 0.0 0.0 13088 684 ? S Sep29 0:10 /opt/opsware/adapter/Linux/
bin/adapter.bin /var/opt/opsware/ogfs/mnt/ogfs -f -o none......
root 8913 0.0 0.0 2308 1132 ? S Sep29 0:00 /opt/opsware/bin/python /opt/
opsware/agentproxy/bin/rotator.pyc /opt/opsware/bin/pyt......
root 8923 0.0 0.1 153120 6544 ? S Sep29 5:56 /opt/opsware/bin/python
/opt/opsware/agentproxy/lib/main.pyc......
On Linux, OGFS (specifically, the programs Hub, Adapter, and Agent Proxy) has six running
processes.
The Global File System also supports a status option to the init script for both Linux and
Solaris.
On Linux or Solaris, execute the following command on the server running the Slice
Component bundle to run this status option:
# /etc/opt/opsware/startup/hub status
Running this command should produce output similar to the following:
Testing for presence of Hub process group file (/var/opt/opsware/hub/hub.pgrp) ... OK
Testing
Testing
Testing
OGFS is
that processes are running in Hub process group (8862) ... OK
that OGFS is mounted ... OK
that the OGFS authenticate file is present ... OK
running
Global File System Logs
The Hub logs are in the following files:
Monitoring SA
•
/var/log/opsware/hub/hub.log*
•
/var/log/opsware/hub/hub.out*
219
Conditions to monitor in the Hub logs:
— Strings containing ““Can’t establish twist connection”
The Adapter logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/adapter/adapter.err*
The Agent Proxy logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/agentproxy/agentproxy.err*
Monitoring Processes for FUSE (Linux Only)
On Linux, execute the command on the server running the Slice Component bundle:
# lsmod | grep -v grep | grep fuse
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
fuse
31196
2
FUSE logs messages in the following file:
•
/var/log/messages
Monitoring Processes for the SunOS Kernel Module
On Solaris, the OGFS functionality relies on the SunOS kernel module.
Execute the command on the server running the Slice Component bundle:
# modinfo | grep -i opsware
Running this command should produce output similar to the following:
137 1322cd8 43a9 272 1 ogdrv (Opsware GFS driver v1.13)
138 13ac227 338df 18 1 ogfs (Opsware Global Filesystem v1.14)
The Global File System logs messages related to SunOS kernel module in the following file:
•
/var/adm/messages
Spoke Monitoring
The Spoke is the back-end component of the SA Client. The Spoke, a Java RMI server,
provides access to the files in the Global File System (OGFS) and provides access to run
commands inside an OGFS session.
Spoke Ports
The Spoke uses port 8020.
Monitoring Processes for the Spoke
On Solaris, execute the command on the server running the Slice Component bundle:
# /usr/ucb/ps auxwww | grep -v grep | grep Spoke
220
Chapter 6
Running this command should produce output similar to the following:
root
4831
0.1
1.316426451168 pts/1 S Jul 26 167:58 /opt/opsware/
j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/java -server -Xms32m -Xmx256m
-Dbea.home=/opt/opsware/spoke/etc -Dspoke.home=/opt/opsware/spoke
-Dspoke.cryptodir=/var/opt/opsware/crypto/spoke -Dspoke.logdir=/var/log/
opsware/spoke
-Djava.util.logging.config.file=/opt/opsware/spoke/
etc/logging.bootstrap
-Dweblogic.security.SSL.ignoreHostnameVerification=true ...... -classpath /
opt/opsware/spoke/lib/HTTPClient-hacked.jar: ...... com.opsware.spoke.Spoke
On Linux, execute the command on the server running the Slice Component bundle:
# ps -ef | grep -v grep | grep spoke
Running this command should produce output similar to the following:
root
29191
1
0
Aug28 ? 01:12:11 /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/
java -server -Xms32m -Xmx256m -Dbea.home=/opt/opsware/spoke/etc -Dspoke.home=/
opt/opsware/spoke
-Dspoke.cryptodir=/var/opt/opsware/crypto/spoke
-Dspoke.logdir=/var/log/opsware/spoke
-Djava.util.logging.config.file=/opt/opsware/spoke/etc/logg
On Linux, the Spoke component has a single, running Java process.
Spoke Logs
The Spoke logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/spoke/spoke-*.log
•
/var/log/opsware/spoke/stdout.log
Gateway Monitoring
SA Management and Core Gateways allow an SA Core to manage servers that are behind one
or more NAT devices or firewalls. Connectivity between gateways is maintained by routing
messages over persistent TCP tunnels between the gateway instances.
For information about configuring the Gateways, the SA Overview and Architecture Guide.
For information about maintaining Satellite Gateways, see Satellite Administration on page
145.
Gateway Ports
By default, the Gateway uses the following ports:
Monitoring SA
•
2001 — Management Gateway Listener Port
•
2001 — Slice Component Core Gateway Listener Port)
•
3001 — Agent Gateway Port
•
3001 — Satellite Gateway Port
221
Monitoring Processes for the Gateway
In all configurations, the Gateway component has two running process — the Gateway
process itself and its watchdog process.
On Solaris or Linux, execute the commands on the server running the Gateway component:
# ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep opswgw | grep cgw
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
17092
root
17094
1
0
Sep21 ? 00:00:00 [opswgw-watchdog-2.1.1: cgw0-C43]
--PropertiesFile /etc/opt/opsware/opswgw-cgw0-C43/opswgw.properties --BinPath
/opt/opsware/opswgw/bin/opswgw
17092 0 Sep21 ? 02:23:21 [opswgw-gateway-2.1.1: cgw0C43] --PropertiesFile /etc/opt/opsware/opswgw-cgw0-C43/opswgw.properties
--BinPath /opt/opsware/opswgw/bin/opswgw --Child true
# ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep opswgw | grep agw
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
17207
root
17208
1
0
Sep21 ? 00:00:00 [opswgw-watchdog-2.1.1: agw0-C43]
--PropertiesFile /etc/opt/opsware/opswgw-agw0-C43/opswgw.properties --BinPath
/opt/opsware/opswgw/bin/opswgw
17207 0 Sep21 ? 01:18:54 [opswgw-gateway-2.1.1: agw0C43] --PropertiesFile /etc/opt/opsware/opswgw-agw0-C43/opswgw.properties
--BinPath /opt/opsware/opswgw/bin/opswgw --Child true
In a Satellite facility on Solaris or Linux, execute the command on the server running the
Satellite Gateway component:
# ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep opswgw | grep <gateway-name>
Where <gateway-name> in this example is Sat1.
Running this command should produce output similar to the following output:
root
17092
root
17094
Sep21 ? 00:00:00 [opswgw-watchdog-2.1.1: Sat1]
--PropertiesFile /etc/opt/opsware/opswgw-Sat1/opswgw.properties --BinPath /
opt/opsware/opswgw/bin/opswgw
17092 0 Sep21 ? 02:23:21 [opswgw-gateway-2.1.1: Sat1]
--PropertiesFile /etc/opt/opsware/opswgw-Sat1/opswgw.properties --BinPath /
opt/opsware/opswgw/bin/opswgw --Child true
1
0
Gateway URL
Log into the SA Web Client UI and select Gateway under Administration in the navigation
panel.
https://occ.<data_center>/com.opsware.occ.gwadmin/index.jsp
Gateway Logs
The Gateway logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/gateway-name/opswgw.log*
Conditions to monitor in the logs:
222
•
Strings containing “ERROR”
•
Strings containing “FATAL” (indicates that the process will end soon)
Chapter 6
OS Build Manager Monitoring
The OS Build Manager component facilitates communications between OS Build Agents and
the Command Engine. It accepts OS provisioning commands from the Command Engine, and
it provides a runtime environment for the platform-specific build scripts to perform the OS
provisioning procedures.
OS Build Manager Ports
The OS Build Manager uses the following ports:
•
1012 (HTTPS)
•
1017 (SA Build Agent)
Monitoring Processes for the OS Build Manager
In all configurations, the OS Build Manager component has a single running process.
On Solaris or Linux, execute the command on the server running the OS Build Manager
component:
# ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep buildmgr
Running this command should produce output similar to the following:
root
2174
1
0
Sep27 ? 00:13:54 /opt/opsware/j2sdk1.4.2_10/bin/
java -Xmx256m -Dbuildmgr -Djava.security.properties=/opt/opsware/buildmgr/etc/
java.security -DDEBUG -DDEBUG_VERBOSE=1 -DLOG_OPTIONS=tTN
-DLOG_FILE_THRESHOLD=10485760 -DLOG_FILE_RETAIN_COUNT=7
-DLOG_CLASSES=com.opsware.buildmgr.OutputStreamLo
OS Build Manager URL
https://buildmgr.<data_center>:1012
The OS Build Manager UI is read-only and port 1012 for the UI is configurable.
OS Build Manager Logs
The OS Build Manager logs are in the following files:
•
/var/log/opsware/buildmgr/buildmgr.log (Build Agent activities, OS provisioning
activities)
•
/var/log/opsware/buildmgr/*.request.log (Web Server log; one file per day; 90 logs
maximum)
•
/var/log/opsware/buildmgr/console.log
•
/var/log/opsware/buildmgr/servers/<IP_address or machine_ID or
MAC_address> (A per connection log)
Conditions to monitor in the logs: the string “Traceback”
Monitoring SA
223
OS Boot Server Monitoring
The OS Boot Server, part of the OS Provisioning feature, supports network booting of Sun and
x86 systems with inetboot and PXE respectively. The processes used to provide this support
include the Internet Software Consortium DHCP server, and Sun Solaris TFTP and NFS.
These applications are installed by the HP BSA Installer but are not specific to SA. Monitor
them by using standard system administration best practices for these applications.
OS Boot Server Ports
The OS Boot Server uses the following ports:
•
67 (UDP) (DHCP service)
•
69 (UDP) (TFTP service)
OS Boot Server Logs
The OS Boot Server does not generate its own logs. The OS Boot Server uses these services:
TFTP with INETD, NFS server, and ISC DHCPD. All of these services log with syslog.
Consult your vendor documentation for more information. See also the syslog.conf file that
was used to configure the OS Boot Server to determine how the logging has been configured
for this component.
OS Media Server Monitoring
The OS Media Server, part of the OS Provisioning feature, is responsible for providing
network access to the vendor-supplied media used during OS provisioning. The processes used
to provide this support include the Samba SMB server and Sun Solaris NFS.
These applications are installed by the HP BSA Installer but are not specific to SA.
Specifically, SA provides a Samba package for Linux and Solaris that customers can use to
install the OS Media Server. NFS services are provided by the operating system. Using the
HP BSA Installer to install the OS Media Server configures NFS on Linux and Solaris.
Monitor the Samba SMB server and Sun Solaris NFS applications by using standard system
administration best practices for these applications.
OS Media Server Ports
The OS Media Server uses the following ports:
•
The portmapper used by NFS is port 111.
•
Samba SMB uses ports 137, 138, 139, and 445.
OS Media Server Logs
The OS Media Server logs are in the following files:
224
Chapter 6
•
/var/log/opsware/samba/log.smbd
•
/var/log/opsware/samba/log.nmbd
Solaris and Linux OS provisioning use of vendor-provided services such as NFSD. These
services typically log through syslog. Consult your vendor documentation for more
information on these log files.
Monitoring SA
225
226
Chapter 6
7 SA Notification Configuration
This section describes user-definable configuration parameters that allow you to modify
contact information in the SA Web Client help, configuring a core mail server, setting core
email alert addresses, and so on.
Configuration parameters are typically specified during the SA Core installation interview
process. For more information, see the SA Simple/Advanced Installation Guide.
There are many default values for the various system configuration parameters that should
not be changed unless expressly directed to do so by your technical support representative or
consultant.
Server Agents read system configuration values at installation time only. If you change any
configuration values, all Agents’ configurations must be updated manually. Contact HP
Server Automation Support Representative for help making these changes, or in making any
other changes in SA System Configuration.
Configuring SA Administrator Contact Information in SA Help
To configure SA administrator contact information that appears on the HP Server
Automation Help page, perform the following tasks:
1
Log on as root to the server running the Core’s Command Center (OCC).
2
Change to the following directory:
/etc/opt/opsware/occ
3
Open the psrvr.properties file in a text editor.
4
Change the values in the following fields to specify contact information in the SA Web
Client Help:
pref.occ.support.href
pref.occ.support.text
5
Save the file and exit the editor.
6
Restart the Command Center by entering the following command:
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas restart occ.server
227
Configuring the Mail Server for a Facility
SA Core Components use the parameter opsware.mailserver to determine the address of
the mail server to use for email notification. By default, the value of opsware.mailserver is
smtp which is used if no value is specified. Most systems can use this value successfully.
However, if you need to specify a different value for opsware.mailserver, perform the
following tasks:
1
Log in to the SA Web Client as a user that belongs to the SA System Administrators
group. Log in by opening a browser and entering the IP address or hostname of a slice
server running the SA Web Client.
The SA Web Client should be installed and listening. The SA Web Client home page
appears.
2
In the navigation pane, select Administration ➤System Configuration. The Select a
Product page appears.
3
Under Select a Product, click the link for the Facility name. The Configuration page
for the Facility appears.
4
In the value field for opsware.mailserver, enter the host name of your mail server.
5
Click Save to apply the changes. The configuration page refreshes and a message should
appear indicating that the update was successful.
Configuring the Command Engine Notification Email
1
In the Navigation pane, select Administration ➤System Configuration. The Select a
Product page appears.
2
Under Select a Product, click Command Engine.
3
In the value field for way.notification.email.fromAddr, enter the From: email address
for the emails that will be sent by the Command Engine to notify users about scheduled
jobs.
4
Click Save to apply the changes.
5
Exit the SA Web Client and restart the Command Engine.
/etc/init.d/opsware-sas restart occ.server
6
If HP Server Automation is running in Multimaster mode, restart the Model Repository
Multimaster Component.
When restarting multiple SA components, you must restart them in the correct order. See
Starting an SA Core on page 191.
228
Chapter 7
Setting Email Alert Addresses for an SA Core
Server Agents read system configuration values at installation time only. If you change any
configuration values, all Agents’ configurations must be updated manually. Contact HP
Server Automation Support Representative for help making these changes, or in making any
other changes in SA System Configuration.
Perform the following tasks to configure email alert addresses. SA Core installation uses the
default value (EMAIL_ADDR) for these parameters.
1
Log in to the SA Web Client as a user that belongs to the SA System Administrators
group. Log in by opening a browser and entering the IP address or hostname of a slice
server running the SA Web Client.
The SA Web Client should be installed and listening. The SA Web Client home page
appears.
2
In the Navigation pane, select Administration ➤System Configuration. The Select a
Product page appears.
3
Under Select a Product, click the Server Agent link. The configuration page for the
Agent appears.
4
Configure the following required email alert addresses:
5
•
In the field, acsbar.ErrorEmailAddr, enter the address that HP Server Automation
should use to send email warnings when configuration tracking limit is exceeded (for
example, when the configuration tracking feature stopped backing up configuration
files and databases).
•
In the field, acsbar.emailFromAddr, enter the address that the Agent should use as
the email From: address when sending emails. For example, agent@yourdomain.com.
•
In the field, CronbotAlertAddress, enter the email address that the Server Agent
should use to alert the recipient about failed scheduled jobs.
•
In the field, CronbotAlertFrom, enter the email address that the Agent should use as
the email From: address in the emails about failed scheduled jobs. For example,
agent@yourdomain.com.
Click Save to apply the changes. The configuration page refreshes and a message should
appear indicating that the update was successful.
Configuring Email Alert Addresses for a Multimaster Mesh
Perform the following tasks to configure email alert addresses for Multimaster alerts. SA Core
installation uses the default value EMAIL_ADDR for these parameters.
1
Log in to the SA Web Client as a user that belongs to the SA System Administrators
group. Log in by opening a browser and entering the IP address or hostname of a slice
server running the SA Web Client.
The SA Web Client should be installed and listening. The SA Web Client home page
appears.
2
In the navigation pane, select Administration ➤System Configuration. The Select a
Product page appears.
SA Notification Configuration
229
3
Click the Model Repository, Multimaster Component link. The Configuration page
for the Model Repository Multimaster Component appears.
4
Configure the following email parameters:
•
In the field, sendMMErrorsTo, enter the email address to which multimaster conflicts
will be sent.
•
In the field, sendMMErrorsFrom, enter the address that HP Server Automation will
use as the email From: address for Multimaster conflicts alert emails.
5
Click Save to apply the changes. The configuration page refreshes and a message should
appear indicating that the update was successful.
6
Restart the Model Repository Multimaster Component in all SA Cores in the Multimaster
Mesh. See Starting an SA Core Component on page 192.
Configuring Email Notification Addresses for Code Deployment
and Rollback (CDR)
Code Deployment and Rollback (CDR) is deprecated but still supported in SA. It will not be
supported in a future release.
You can configure email notification addresses for SA Code Deployment & Rollback (CDR).
When users request that a service operation or synchronization be performed on their behalf,
an email notification is sent to the individuals assigned to perform the requested service
operation or synchronization.
Perform the following tasks to configure email notification addresses for CDR. SA Core
installation uses the default value EMAIL_ADDR for these parameters.
1
Log in to the SA Web Client as a user that belongs to the SA System Administrators
group. Log in by opening a browser and entering the IP address or hostname of a slice
server running the SA Web Client.
The SA Web Client should be installed and listening. The SA Web Client home page
appears.
230
2
In the navigation pane, select Administration ➤System Configuration. The Select a
Product page appears.
3
Click the link for the SA Web Client. The Configuration page appears, as Figure 55
shows.
Chapter 7
Figure 55 CDR Email Notification Configuration Parameters
4
Customize the following parameters to include the following email notification
information:
•
In the field, cds.requesttoaddress, enter the email address to use in the To: field of
a request notification email.
•
In the field, cds.requestfromaddress, enter the email address to use in the From:
field of a request notification email.
•
In the field, cds.wayfrom, enter the email address to use in the From: field of emails
sent following completion of a sequence.
•
In the field, cds.supportaddress, enter the email address to use for a Facility’s'
support organization or contact person.
•
In the field, cds.supportorg, enter the display name (how it appears in the SA Web
Client) of a Facility’s support organization.
5
Click Save to apply the changes. The configuration page refreshes and a message should
appear indicating that the update was successful.
6
Restart the Command Engine and the Model Repository Multimaster Component. See
Starting an SA Core Component on page 192.
SA Notification Configuration
231
232
Chapter 7
8 Global Shell: Windows Subauthentication
Package
It is a well-known attribute of Microsoft® Windows that a program (service or application)
cannot obtain a handle to a login session for a user account without supplying the password
for that user account. Without both the user name and password, a running program cannot
impersonate or act as a user other than the user in whose identity the program is currently
running.
This rationale applies to the SA Agent, as it does to all other services. The SA Agent is
installed to run in the LocalSystem security context. The LocalSystem logon session is a
special, trusted, and privileged security context that is created at boot time on every Windows
server that is running Windows NT4, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003
and Windows Server 2008 operating systems. However, if the SA Agent needs to run a child
process in the security context of another user (such as <DOMAIN>\<username>), it requires
the password for that user account. The user name, password, and child program name are all
passed to the Win32 API LogonUser().
The SA Agent performs actions on a managed server on behalf of the SA Global Shell feature.
An SA user can perform registry read operations, file creation, and browsing operations on a
managed server by using the Global Shell feature and the SA Agent. If an SA user wants to
perform the operation as a LocalSystem user, the SA Agent only needs to create a subprocess
running in the same security context of the Agent itself. If an SA user wants to perform a
Global Shell operation as a non-LocalSystem user, the Agent cannot use the Win32 API
LogonUser() because it requires the user account password. See the SA User Guide: Server
Automation for more information about Global Shell operations.
Microsoft Windows Authentication Process
Microsoft Windows authentication is a process that verifies whether a user is authorized to
access a system. During this verification process, the user provides a password that is
cryptographically hashed. This hashed value is then compared with a stored value.
Windows provides a subsystem that supports different forms of authentication. This
subsystem is called the Microsoft® Windows Local Security Authority Subsystem (LSASS)
and takes the form of a process running the lsass.exe application on a Windows server.
The design of LSASS allows Windows to support multiple authentication packages. These
authentication packages verify a password, a Kerberos token, a thumbprint, a retina pattern,
and so on.
In a standard Windows NT4 installation, LSASS has a single authentication package that is
called MSV1_0. MSV1_0 is the authentication package that implements NT4 domain
authentication. Any time you log in to a Windows NT4 server, providing a user name,
password, and domain name, or any time you mount a share on a Windows NT4 server, you
are interacting with the MSV1_0 authentication package. On a Windows 2000 server, the set
of standard authentication packages consists of MSV1_0 and Kerberos. Depending on the
233
domain configuration, any login attempt will have the user interacting with one of these
authentication packages. MSV1_0 and Kerberos are also available as authentication packages
on Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008.
Microsoft Windows Subauthentication Package
All of the main Microsoft Windows authentication packages support delegation of the
credential check to code that is known as a subauthentication package. A subauthentication
package is a DLL that supplements or replaces part of the authentication and validation
criteria used by the main authentication package.
The MSV1_0 authentication package can (on the request of a client) defer the verification of
user name and password to a previously registered subauthentication package. By default,
MSV1_0 use its own internal user name and password checking software. It is only when a
Windows client (such as the SA Agent) requests a specific subauthentication module that
MSV1_0 delegates to the identified module.
SA Subauthentication Package
SA provides an MSV1_0 subauthentication package that is requested by the SA Agent when
the Agent is authenticating a user on whose behalf a Global Shell operation (such as a child
process) must be run. This subauthentication package is a DLL known as ogshcap.dll (where
ogshcap represents the Global Shell Custom Authentication and Subauthentication Package).
The ogshcap.dll file is passed the credentials that are supplied to Windows by the client
application. This DLL is used on all supported Windows operating systems (Windows NT4,
Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2008) and is used in an identical
way on each operating system.
All Windows NT4 operating systems must have the Microsoft patch Q828035 installed to
support the ogshcap.dll.
Figure 56 illustrates the subauthentication process in SA.
Figure 56 SA Subauthentication Process Flow
!GENT0ROXY
3!
/PSWARE
!GENT
!GENT
,OCAL3ECURITY
!UTHORITY3UBSYSTEM
,3!33
-36?
234
OGSHCAPDLL
Chapter 8
In the case of the SA Agent, the Agent passes a NULL password along with the user name
when it calls a special Windows API to request subauthentication by the SA
subauthentication package (ogshcap.dll). The Windows API then calls the MSV1_0
authentication package which, in turn, passes the credentials, including the NULL password
to the requested subauthentication package.
The SA subauthentication package performs checks to verify that the user account is not
locked out or disabled, and that the calling client is the SA Agent. The DLL ignores the
password field, which is empty (NULL). After its verification steps are passed, the DLL
returns a success status to MSV1_0, which creates a login session that is then passed to
LSASS. In turn, LSASS passes a handle to this login session to the SA Agent. This handle to a
login session is then passed by the SA Agent to a call to the Win32 API
CreateProcessAsUser() to run the child process in the identity of the non-LocalSystem user.
After Windows has been requested to perform a single subauthentication operation using the
ogshcap.dll file, Windows opens this file and keeps it open until the server next reboots. This
means that the ogshcap.dll cannot be deleted before the next reboot, nor can it be overwritten
during an Agent installation or upgrade without a reboot.
For all Windows operating systems, the user name of the security principal being
authenticated must be a member of the Administrators group on the local server or of the
Domain Admins group of the Primary Domain of which the server is a member.
SA Agent Installation Changes
During an SA Agent installation on all Windows operating systems, a new Windows registry
value is created (if it does not already exist) as the following registry key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\MSV1_0
The new registry value is of type REG_SZ and contains:
— Name: Auth155
— Value: ogshcap
The SA Agent Installer contains a new file (ogshcap.dll) in the SA 7.80 release. During an
Agent installation, the ogshcap.dll file is copied to the following source location:
%SystemDrive%:\Program Files\Opsware\bin\ogshcap.dll
After this DLL file is created at this location, the Agent Installer tries to copy it to the
following destination location:
%SystemRoot%\system32\ogshcap.dll
If no such file currently exists at the destination location, the copy succeeds. If the copy fails
because the file is open and is in use, the Agent Installer calculates a cryptographic hash of
both source and destination files. If the source and destination files are different by hash, the
Agent Installer calls the Win32 API MoveFileEx() which creates a Windows-internal
registry key. This registry key informs Windows that it must replace the destination file with
the source file at the next reboot.
If the hash for one or both DLL files cannot be successfully calculated, the Agent Installer
assumes that the replacement of the DLL is warranted. For example, if the Microsoft
cryptographic modules cannot be loaded by the Agent Installer, the hash cannot be calculated.
The Agent Installer then assumes that the DLL must be replaced.
Global Shell: Windows Subauthentication Package
235
A post-install reboot can be initiated after the Agent installation by specifying the installer
option (--reboot) on the Agent Installer command line.
When a post-install reboot is required to get the latest version of the DLL, the reboot performs
a move operation where the DLL in the source location is moved to the destination location.
Therefore, the source DLL file overwrites the destination DLL.
If the existing ogshcap.dll on the operating system must be replaced and a reboot is required
to accomplish this, the Agent Installer will not (by default) initiate the reboot. A reboot occurs
only if the person performing the installation specifies --reboot as a command-line option.
The --reboot option is accepted by the Agent Installer on all operating systems; however, it
is performed only on Windows operating systems. For example, if the
--reboot option is specified during an Agent installation on a Linux 7.2 operating system, a
reboot will not be performed by the Agent Installer. In comparison, if the
--reboot option is specified during an Agent installation on a Windows 2000 operating
system, a reboot will be performed by the Agent Installer.
If the hashes have been calculated, and the source and destination files are verified as
identical, no attempt to overwrite the opened ogshcap.dll is made.
The Agent always performs the first-time installation of the ogshcap.dll or the analysis of
whether an existing DLL should be overwritten with the version of the DLL that is in the
Agent Installer payload. In this case, there is no way to prevent installation of this DLL by the
Agent Installer.
If the Agent Installer indicates that a reboot is required and the reboot does not occur after
the Agent installation, the SA Agent will be using the out-of-date version of the DLL until the
reboot occurs. This means that any bug fixes or modified functionality that are in the new
DLL will not be used by the SA Agent until the reboot. However, Windows authentication, on
behalf of the SA Agent by the old DLL, will still successfully occur, even while the DLL is
marked for replacement by the newer DLL.
The following sample Agent Installer log is from an installation of the ogshcap.dll. In this
case, the existing DLL on the operating system does not need to be replaced.
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] Install CAP file if differing checksum between
new and existing file.
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] NeedToReplaceOGSHCAPDLL()
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] Testing CAP file existence:
C:\WINDOWS\system32\ogshcap.dll
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] C:\WINDOWS\system32\ogshcap.dll CAP file exists
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] GenerateKeyToFile()
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Successfully called CreateFile(C:\Program
Files\Common Files\Opsware\cogbot\hmac.key)
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Key file already exists
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] C:\Program Files\Common
Files\Opsware\cogbot\hmac.key size: 36 bytes
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Successfully called CloseHandle(C:\Program
Files\Common Files\Opsware\cogbot\hmac.key)
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] GenerateKeyToFile() = 1
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] Calculate MAC for File:
C:\WINDOWS\system32\ogshcap.dll
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] C:\WINDOWS\system32\ogshcap.dll size: 40960
bytes
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] C:\Program Files\Common
Files\Opsware\cogbot\hmac.key size: 36 bytes
236
Chapter 8
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Successfully called CreateFileMapping() for
C:\WINDOWS\system32\ogshcap.dll
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Successfully called CreateFileMapping() for
C:\Program Files\Common Files\Opsware\cogbot\hmac.key
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] CalculateMAC()
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] PrintHexBytes()
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] HMAC for C:\WINDOWS\system32\ogshcap.dll: 0x02
0x95 0x2B 0x03 0x51 0x02 0x9F 0x6D 0x58 0xF6 0xF1 0x5E 0x1C 0xFC 0x2A 0x72
0x5D
0x7E 0x5F 0xDA
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] CalculateMACFromFile() = 1
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] Calculate MAC for File: C:\Program
Files\Opsware\bin\ogshcap.dll
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] C:\Program Files\Opsware\agent\bin\ogshcap.dll
size:
40960 bytes
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] C:\Program Files\Common
Files\Opsware\cogbot\hmac.key size: 36 bytes
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Successfully called CreateFileMapping() for
C:\Program Files\Opsware\agent\bin\ogshcap.dll
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Successfully called CreateFileMapping() for
C:\Program Files\Common Files\Opsware\cogbot\hmac.key
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] CalculateMAC()
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] PrintHexBytes()
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] HMAC for C:\Program
Files\Opsware\agent\bin\ogshcap.dll: 0x02 0x95 0x2B 0x03 0x51 0x02 0x9F 0x6D
0x58
0xF6 0xF1 0x5E 0x1C 0xFC 0x2A 0x72 0x5D 0x7E 0x5F 0xDA
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] CalculateMACFromFile() = 1
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] C:\WINDOWS\system32\ogshcap.dll CAP file does
not
need to be replaced
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] NeedToReplaceOGSHCAPDLL() = 0
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] UpdateCAPRegistrySetting()
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] Update SubAuthentication Package Registry key
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Successfully opened registry key
SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\MSV1_0.
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Successfully found registry value: 'Auth255'
at
this key, retrieved value 'ogshcap' (8) bytes.
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Existing registry value matches expected
value:
'ogshcap'
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] UpdateCAPRegistrySetting() = 1
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] UpdateCapRegistrySetting() was successful
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [TRACE] Win32InstallN() = 1
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] Installation completed successfully.
[08/Jun/2005 20:59:18] [INFO] An Agent install time reboot is NOT needed.
Global Shell: Windows Subauthentication Package
237
SA Agent Uninstallation Changes
During an SA Agent uninstallation, the Windows uninstaller tries to remove the following
file:
%SystemRoot%\system32\ogshcap.dll
If the removal fails (because the file is open and is in use by Windows), the uninstaller calls
MoveFileEx() instructing Windows to remove the file during the next reboot. The uninstaller
will prompt the user whether it should initiate a reboot immediately, if the attempt to remove
the file fails.
The uninstaller also removes the special subauthentication registry key value created at
Agent install time. See SA Agent Uninstallation Changes on page 238 for more information.
238
Chapter 8
A Permissions Reference
Permissions Required for the SA Web Client
The following table lists the action/feature permissions according to tasks that can be
performed with the SA Web Client.
Table 31
Permissions Required for SA Web Client Tasks
Task
Action/Feature Permission
OS PROVISIONING
Prepare OS
Wizard: Prepare OS
Edit OS nodes
Operating Systems
View servers in the server pool
Server Pool
CONFIGURATION TRACKING
Create or edit tracking policy
Configuration Tracking
Managed Servers and Groups
Reconcile tracking policy
Configuration Tracking
Managed Servers and Groups
Perform configuration backup
Configuration Tracking
Managed Servers and Groups
View backup history, restore queue
Configuration Tracking
Managed Servers and Groups
Enable or disable tracking
Configuration Tracking
Managed Servers and Groups
SERVER MANAGEMENT
Edit server properties
Managed Servers and Groups
Edit server network properties
Managed Servers and Groups
Edit server custom attributes
Managed Servers and Groups
Deactivate server
Deactivate
Delete server
Managed Servers and Groups
Re-assign customer
Managed Servers and Groups
View servers (read-only access)
Managed Servers and Groups
Run server communications test
Managed Servers and Groups
239
Table 31
Permissions Required for SA Web Client Tasks (cont’d)
Task
Action/Feature Permission
Lock servers
Managed Servers and Groups
Set scheduled job to refresh server list
Allow Run Refresh Jobs
REPORTS
Create or view reports
Data Center Intelligence Reports
MANAGE ENVIRONMENT
Create or edit customer
Customers
Create or edit facility
Facilities
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
Manage users and groups
(Administrators group only)
Define server attributes
Server Attributes
Run system diagnosis tools
System Diagnosis
Manage SA System configuration
Configure SA
Run SA multimaster tools
Multimaster
Gateway management
Manage Gateway
OTHER TASKS
Run custom extension
Wizard: Custom Extension
Deploy code
See “Code Deployment User Groups” on
page 311.
Administer flows
Administer Flow Integrations
Run flows
Run Flow
Storage Visibility and Automation Permissions
You must have certain permissions to perform actions in the Storage Visibility and
Automation feature. See the Storage Visibility and Automation Installation & Administration
Guide for a description of these permissions.
240
Chapter
Permissions Required for the SA Client
The following tables in this section summarize the permissions required to perform tasks with
the SA Client.
•
Application Configuration Management Permissions
•
Device Group Permissions
•
Server Agent Deployment Permissions
•
Flow Permissions
•
Job Permissions
•
Patch Management for Windows - Permissions
•
Patch Management for Solaris - Permissions
•
Solaris Patch Policy Management - Permissions
•
Patch Management for Other Unix - Permissions
•
Software Management Permissions
•
Script Execution Permissions
•
Audit and Remediation Permissions
•
Service Automation Visualizer Permissions
•
Virtual Server Permissions
•
OS Provisioning Permissions
•
Compliance View Permissions
•
Server Property and Reboot Permissions
•
Server Objects Permission
More Information for Security Administrators
In some organizations, security administrators work with many applications and do not
specialize in SA. To learn about SA quickly, security administrators can refer to Process
Overview for Security Administrators on page 29 - This short section lists the overall tasks for
setting up security in SA.
Application Configuration Management Permissions
Table 32 specifies the permissions required by users to perform specific actions with
application configurations in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers
this question: To perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
In addition to the action/feature permissions listed in Table 32, every user action also requires
the Managed Servers and Groups permission.
241
In Table 32, the Server Permission column is for the servers referenced by the application
configuration or configuration template. Server permissions are specified by the Customer,
Facility, and Device Groups permissions in the SA Web Client. In Table 32, the Folder
Permission column is for the folders in the SA Library that contain the application
configurations and configuration templates.
To perform an action, the user requires several permissions. For example, to attach an application configuration to a server, the user must have the following permissions:
•
Manage Application Configurations: Read
•
Manage Configuration Templates: Read
•
Manage Installed Configuration and Backups on Servers: Read & Write
•
Managed Servers and Groups
•
Read & Write permissions to the facility, device group, and customer of the server
•
Read permission for the folder in the SA library that contains the application
configuration or template
Table 32
Application Configuration Management Permissions Required for User
Actions
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
(App
Config, App
Config
Template)
Application Configuration
242
Create Application
Configuration
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read & Write
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
None
Read & Write
View Application Configuration
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read & Write
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
None
Read
Edit Application Configuration
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read & Write
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
None
Read & Write
Chapter
Table 32
Application Configuration Management Permissions Required for User
Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
(App
Config, App
Config
Template)
Delete Application
Configuration
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read & Write
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
None
Read & Write
Specify Template Order
Manage Application Configurations:
Read & Write
and Manage Configuration Templates:
Read
None
Read & Write
Attach Application
Configuration to Server
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and
Backups on Servers:
Read & Write
Read & Write Read
Attach Application
Configuration to Device Group
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and
Backups on Servers:
Read & Write
and Manage Public
Device Group: Yes
and Model Public Device
Group: Yes
Read & Write Read
243
Table 32
Application Configuration Management Permissions Required for User
Actions (cont’d)
User Action
244
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
(App
Config, App
Config
Template)
Set Application Configuration
Values on Server
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and
Backups on Servers:
Read & Write
Read & Write Read
Push Application Configuration
to Server
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and
Backups on Servers:
Read & Write
Read & Write Read
Schedule Application
Configuration Push
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and
Backups on Servers:
Read & Write
Read & Write Read
Scan Configuration Compliance
Allow Configuration
Compliance Scan: Yes
and Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
Read
Read
Chapter
Table 32
Application Configuration Management Permissions Required for User
Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
(App
Config, App
Config
Template)
Read
Schedule Application
Configuration Audit
Allow Configuration
Compliance Scan: Yes
and Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
Read
Roll Back (Revert) Application
Configuration Push
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and
Backups on Servers:
Read & Write
Read & Write Read
Application Configuration Templates
Create Application
Configuration Template
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read & Write
None
Read & Write
View Application Configuration
Template
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read & Write
None
Read
Edit Application Configuration
Template
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read & Write
None
Read & Write
Delete Application
Configuration Template
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read & Write
None
Read & Write
Load (Import) Application
Configuration Template
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read & Write
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read & Write
None
Read & Write
Set Application Configuration
Template to Run as Script
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read & Write
None
Read & Write
245
Table 32
Application Configuration Management Permissions Required for User
Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
(App
Config, App
Config
Template)
Compare Two Application
Configuration Templates
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read
None
Read
Compare Application
Configuration Template Against
Actual Configuration File
(Preview)
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage
Configuration Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and
Backups on Servers:
Read
Read
Read
Table 33 lists the actions that users can perform with application configurations for each
permission. Table 33 has the same data as Table 32, but is sorted by permission. Although not
indicated in Table 33, the Managed Servers and Groups permission is required for all OS
provisioning actions.
For security administrators, Table 33 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular
permission, what actions can the user perform?
Table 33
246
User Actions Allowed by Application Configuration Management
Permissions
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
(App
Config, App
Config
Template)
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Allow Configuration Compliance
Scan: Yes
and Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read
Scan Configuration
Compliance
Read
Read
Schedule Application
Configuration Audit
Read
Read
Chapter
Table 33
User Actions Allowed by Application Configuration Management
Permissions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
(App
Config, App
Config
Template)
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read & Write
and Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read
Create Application
Configuration
None
Read & Write
Delete Application
Configuration
None
Read & Write
Edit Application
Configuration
None
Read & Write
Specify Template Order
None
Read & Write
View Application
Configuration
None
Read
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read & Write
and Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read & Write
Load (Import) Application
Configuration Template
None
Read & Write
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and Backups on
Servers:
Read
Compare Application
Configuration Template
Against Actual
Configuration File
(Preview)
Read
Read
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and Backups on
Servers:
Read & Write
Attach Application
Configuration to Server
Read & Write Read
Push Application
Configuration to Server
Read & Write Read
Roll Back (Revert)
Application Configuration
Push
Read & Write Read
Schedule Application
Configuration Push
Read & Write Read
Set Application
Configuration Values on
Server
Read & Write Read
247
Table 33
User Actions Allowed by Application Configuration Management
Permissions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
(App
Config, App
Config
Template)
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Manage Application
Configurations:
Read
and Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read
and Manage Installed
Configuration and Backups on
Servers:
Read & Write
and Manage Public Device
Group: Yes
and Model Public Device Group:
Yes
Attach Application
Configuration to Device
Group
Read & Write Read
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read
Compare Two Application
Configuration Templates
None
Read
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read & Write
Create Application
Configuration Template
None
Read & Write
Delete Application
Configuration Template
None
Read & Write
Edit Application
Configuration Template
None
Read & Write
Set Application
Configuration Template
to Run as Script
None
Read & Write
View Application
Configuration Template
None
Read
Manage Configuration
Templates:
Read & Write (cont.)
Device Group Permissions
To use device groups in the SA Client, you must have the permissions described in the
Table 34. For a list of tasks that require the Model Public Device Group permission, see
Table 45.
Table 34
248
Device Groups Action/Feature Permissions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Creating a public static device group
Manage Public Device Group
Chapter
Table 34
Device Groups Action/Feature Permissions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Creating a public dynamic device group
Manage Public Device Group
Adding a server to a public static device group
Manage Public Device Group
Adding a server to a public dynamic device Group
Manage Public Device Group
Removing a server from a public static device group
Manage Public Device Group
Removing servers from a public dynamic device group
Manage Public Device Group
Moving a public device group
Manage Public Device Group
Duplicating a public device group
Manage Public Device Group
Deleting a public device group
Manage Public Device Group
Adding devices to a device group being used as an
Access Control Group
Manage Public Device Group and
Super Administrator
Server Agent Deployment Permissions
To install a server agent on servers using the SA Client, you must have the permissions
described in the Table 35.
Table 35
Agent Feature Permissions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Deploy (Install) Agent
Allow Deploy Agent: Yes
Scan Network
Allow Scan Network: Yes
View Servers Running Agents
Managed Servers and Groups
Add servers to a facility
Facilities - Manage Facilities
In addition to the permissions listed in the preceding table, the following are also required:
•
Read access to facilities where you will scan for servers and manage servers
•
Features ➤ Managed Servers and Groups must be enabled
•
Client Features ➤ Unmanaged Servers ➤ Allow Manage Server set to Yes
•
Client Features ➤ Unmanaged Servers ➤ Allow Scan Network set to Yes
•
Read access must be set to customer Opsware
249
Flow Permissions
The following permissions are required to administer flows or to run flows in SA:
Table 36
Flow-Related Permissions
User Action
Permission
Configure SA-OO integration
Administer Flow Integrations
Run flows in the SA Client as an SA user
Run Flow
Job Permissions
To manage jobs in the SA Client, you must have the permissions described in the Table 37.
When you select the Edit or Cancel Any Job permission, the View All Jobs permission is
automatically selected.
To view any job in the SA Client, you must have permissions to run or execute the job. For
example, if you had the permissions for an action such as Manage Application Configurations
set to Read, but did not have Write permissions for this action, you would not be able to see
any Application Configuration Push jobs in the SA Client.
Table 37
Job Management Permissions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Enable Approval Integration
Manage Approval Integration
Set Job Types Requiring Approval
Manage Approval Integration
Invoke JobService API Methods to Manage Blocked
(Pending Approval) Jobs
(This action is performed by customized software on
the backend, not by end-users logged onto the SA
Client.)
Edit or Cancel Any Job
View All Jobs
End (Cancel) Job
Edit or Cancel Any Job
View All Jobs
Delete Schedule
Edit or Cancel Any Job
View All Jobs
Patch Management for Windows - Permissions
Table 38 specifies the Patch Management permissions required by users to perform specific
actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers this question: To
perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
250
Chapter
In addition to the permissions listed in Table 38, every user action also requires the Managed
Servers and Groups permission.
In Table 38, most of the entries in the User Action column correspond to menu items in the SA
Client. In addition to action/feature permissions, server permissions are required on the
managed servers affected by the patching operation.
If the Allow Install Patch permission is set to Yes, then the Manage Patch and the Manage
Windows Patch Policies permissions are automatically set to Read.
Table 38
Windows Patch Management Permissions Required for User Actions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Patches
Install Patch (Available)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Available)
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read
Read & Write
Install Patch (Limited Availability)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read & Write
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Limited Availability)
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read & Write
Read & Write
Open Patch (View Patch)
Manage Patch: Read
N/A
Change Patch Properties
Manage Patch: Read & Write
N/A
Import Patch
Manage Patch: Read & Write
and Package
N/A
Import Patch Database
Manage Patch: Read & Write
N/A
Export Patch
Manage Patch: Read
and Package
N/A
Export Patch
or Allow Install Patch: Yes
and Package: Yes
N/A
Export Patch
or Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Package
N/A
Export Patch
or Manage Policy: Read
and Package
N/A
Delete Patch
Manage Patch: Read & Write
N/A
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Read & Write
Patch Policies and Exceptions
Remediate Policy
251
Table 38
Windows Patch Management Permissions Required for User Actions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Open Patch Policy (View)
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
N/A
Add Patch to Patch Policy
Manage Patch: Read
and Manage Windows Patch Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Remove Patch from Patch Policy
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
& Write
N/A
Set Exception
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Read & Write
Set Exception
or Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
Read & Write
Copy Exception
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Read & Write
Copy Exception
or Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
Read & Write
Attach Patch Policy to Server (or
Device Group)
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
Read & Write
Detach Patch Policy from Server (or
Device Group)
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
Read & Write
Create Patch Policy
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
& Write
N/A
Delete Patch Policy
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
& Write
N/A
Change Patch Policy Properties
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
& Write
N/A
Edit Patch Products (Patch Configuration window)
Manage Patch Compliance Rules:
Yes
N/A
Scan Patch Compliance
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
N/A
Schedule a Patch Policy Scan
Manage Patch Compliance Rules:
Yes
N/A
Change Default Patch Availability
Manage Patch Compliance Rules:
Yes
N/A
Change Patch Policy Compliance
Rules
Manage Patch Compliance Rules:
Yes
N/A
View Patch Policy Compliance Rules
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Yes
N/A
Patch Compliance Rules
252
Chapter
Table 39 lists the actions that users can perform for each Patch Management permission.
Table 39 has the same data as Table 38, but is sorted by action/feature permission. Although
it is not indicated in Table 39, the Managed Servers and Groups permission is required for all
Patch Management actions.
For security administrators, Table 39 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular
feature permission, what actions can the user perform?
Table 39
User Actions Allowed by Windows Patch Management Permissions
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Copy Exception
Read & Write
Remediate Policy
Read & Write
Set Exception
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read
Install Patch (Available)
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Available)
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read & Write
Install Patch (Limited Availability)
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Limited
Availability)
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
and Package: Yes
Export Patch
N/A
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
Copy Exception
Read & Write
Set Exception
Read & Write
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Package
Export Patch
N/A
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read
Uninstall Patch
Read & Write
Manage Patch Compliance Rules:
Yes
Change Default Patch Availability
N/A
Change Patch Policy Compliance
Rules
N/A
Edit Patch Products (Patch
Configuration window)
N/A
Schedule a Patch Policy Scan
N/A
Attach Patch Policy to Server (or
Device Group)
Read & Write
Detach Patch Policy from Server (or
Device Group)
Read & Write
Open Patch Policy (View)
N/A
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
253
Table 39
User Actions Allowed by Windows Patch Management Permissions
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Read
& Write
Change Patch Policy Properties
N/A
Create Patch Policy
N/A
Delete Patch Policy
N/A
Remove Patch from Patch Policy
N/A
Manage Windows Patch Policy: Yes
View Patch Policy Compliance Rules
N/A
Manage Patch: Read
Open Patch (View Patch)
N/A
Scan Patch Compliance
Manage Patch: Read & Write
Change Patch Properties
N/A
Delete Patch
N/A
Import Patch Database
N/A
Manage Patch: Read & Write
and Package
Import Patch
N/A
Manage Patch: Read
and Manage Windows Patch Policy:
Read & Write
Add Patch to Patch Policy
N/A
Manage Patch: Read
and Package
Export Patch
N/A
Manage Policy: Read
and Package
Export Patch
N/A
Patch Management for Solaris - Permissions
This section describes permissions for managing patches on Solaris systems. For patch
information on other Unix systems, see Patch Management for Other Unix - Permissions on
page 259. For permissions on Solaris patch policies, see Solaris Patch Policy Management Permissions on page 256.
Table 40 specifies the Patch Management permissions required by users to perform specific
actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers this question: To
perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
In addition to the permissions listed in Table 40, every user action also requires the Managed
Servers and Groups permission.
In Table 40, most of the entries in the User Action column correspond to menu items in the SA
Client. In addition to action/feature permissions, server permissions are required on the
managed servers affected by the patching operation.
254
Chapter
If the Allow Install Patch permission is set to Yes, then the Manage Patch permission is
automatically set to Read. If you plan to use Solaris patch policies, you should also set
Manage Software Policy to Read or Read & Write. For more information, see Solaris Patch
Policy Management - Permissions on page 256.
Table 40
Solaris Patch Management Permissions Required for User Actions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Patches
Install Patch (Available)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Available)
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read
Read & Write
Install Patch (Limited Availability)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read & Write
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Limited Availability)
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read & Write
Read & Write
Open Patch (View Patch)
Manage Patch: Read
N/A
Change Patch Properties
Manage Patch: Read & Write
N/A
Import Patch
Manage Patch: Read & Write
N/A
Export Patch
N/A
Manage Patch: Read
Allow Install Patch: Yes (optional)
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes (optional)
Manage Software Policy: Read
(optional)
Delete Patch
Manage Patch: Read & Write
N/A
Table 41 lists the actions that users can perform for each Solaris Patch Management
permission. Table 41 has the same data as Table 40, but is sorted by action/feature
permission. Although it is not indicated in Table 41, the Managed Servers and Groups
permission is required for all Patch Management actions.
255
For security administrators, Table 41 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular
action/feature permission, what actions can the user perform?
Table 41
User Actions Allowed by Solaris Patch Management Permissions
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Remediate Policy
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read
Install Patch (Available)
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Available)
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read & Write
Install Patch (Limited Availability)
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Limited
Availability)
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
(Also sets Manage Patch: Read)
Export Patch
N/A
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
(Also sets Manage Patch: Read)
Export Patch
N/A
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
(Also sets Manage Patch: Read)
Uninstall Patch
Read & Write
Manage Patch: Read
Open Patch (View Patch)
N/A
Export Patch
N/A
Change Patch Properties
N/A
Delete Patch
N/A
Import Patch
N/A
Manage Patch: Read & Write
Solaris Patch Policy Management - Permissions
Table 42 specifies the Solaris Patch Policy Management permissions required by users to
perform specific actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers this
question: To perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
256
Chapter
If a customer is assigned to a folder, then customer constraints might limit the objects that
can be associated with a Solaris patch policy contained in the folder. For a list of tasks affected
by these constraints, see Folders, Customer Constraints and Software Policies on page 24.
Table 42
Solaris Patch Policy Management Permissions Required for User
Actions
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Solaris Patch Policy
Create Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Delete Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Open Solaris Patch
Policy (View)
Manage Software Policy:
Read
N/A
Read
Edit Solaris Patch
Policy Properties
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Add Patches
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Manage Patches: Read
Add Scripts
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
Manage Server Scripts: Read
Remove Patches
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Remove Scripts
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Attach Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read
Read & Write Read
Allow Attach/Detach
Software Policy: Yes
Model Public Device Groups:
Yes (This permission is
required if you are attaching
the Solaris patch policy to a
public device group.)
257
Table 42
Solaris Patch Policy Management Permissions Required for User Actions
(cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Detach Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Read & Write Read
Allow Attach/Detach
Software Policy: Yes
Model Public Device Groups:
Yes (This permission is
required if you are attaching
the Solaris patch policy to a
public device group.)
Remediate
Manage Software Policy:
Read
Read & Write Read
Allow Remediate Servers:
Yes
Model Public Device Groups:
Yes (Required if you
remediate a public device
group.)
Scan Solaris Patch
Compliance
N/A
Read
N/A
Rename Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Cut Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Copy Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read
N/A
Read
Paste Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Source Folder: Read
(for copy and paste)
Source Folder:
Write (for cut and
paste)
Destination Folder:
Write
Move Solaris Patch
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Source Folder:
Write
Destination Folder:
Write
258
Chapter
Patch Management for Other Unix - Permissions
This section describes permissions for managing patches on Unix systems other than Solaris.
For Solaris information, see Patch Management for Solaris - Permissions on page 254. You can
use software policies with Unix patches. For more information, see Software Management
Permissions on page 261.
Table 43 specifies the Patch Management permissions required by users to perform specific
actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers this question: To
perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
In addition to the permissions listed in Table 43, every user action also requires the Managed
Servers and Groups permission.
In Table 43, most of the entries in the User Action column correspond to menu items in the SA
Client. In addition to action/feature permissions, server permissions are required on the
managed servers affected by the patching operation.
If the Allow Install Patch permission is set to Yes, then the Manage Patch permission is
automatically set to Read. If you plan to use policies, you should also set Manage Software
Policy to Read or Read & Write.
Table 43
Unix Patch Management Permissions Required for User Actions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Patches
Install Patch (Available)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Available)
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read
Read & Write
Install Patch (Limited Availability)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Manage Patch: Read & Write
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Limited
Availability)
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read & Write
Read & Write
Open Patch (View Patch)
Manage Patch: Read
N/A
Change Patch Properties
Manage Patch: Read & Write
N/A
Export Patch
Manage Patch: Read
and Package
N/A
Export Patch
or Allow Install Patch: Yes
and Package: Yes
N/A
Export Patch
or Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Package
N/A
259
Table 43
Unix Patch Management Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Export Patch
or Manage Policy: Read
and Package
N/A
Delete Patch
Manage Patch: Read & Write
N/A
Table 44 lists the actions that users can perform for each Patch Management permission.
Table 44 has the same data as Table 43, but is sorted by action/feature permission. Although
it is not indicated in Table 44, the Managed Servers and Groups permission is required for all
Patch Management actions.
For security administrators, Table 44 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular
action/feature permission, what actions can the user perform?
Table 44
260
User Actions Allowed by Unix Patch Management Permissions
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Copy Exception
Read & Write
Remediate Policy
Read & Write
Set Exception
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read
Install Patch (Available)
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Available)
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
and Manage Patch: Read & Write
Install Patch (Limited Availability)
Read & Write
Uninstall Patch (Limited
Availability)
Read & Write
Allow Install Patch: Yes
and Package: Yes
Export Patch
N/A
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
Copy Exception
Read & Write
Set Exception
Read & Write
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
and Package
Export Patch
N/A
Manage Patch: Read
Open Patch (View Patch)
N/A
Chapter
Table 44
User Actions Allowed by Unix Patch Management Permissions (cont’d)
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Manage Patch: Read & Write
Change Patch Properties
N/A
Delete Patch
N/A
Import Patch Database
N/A
Manage Patch: Read & Write
and Package
Import Patch
N/A
Manage Patch: Read
and Manage Policy: Read & Write
Add Patch to Policy
N/A
Manage Patch: Read
and Package
Export Patch
N/A
Manage Policy: Read
and Package
Export Patch
N/A
Software Management Permissions
Table 45 specifies the Software Management permissions required by users to perform
specific actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers this question:
To perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
If a customer is assigned to a folder, then customer constraints might limit the objects that
can be associated with a software policy contained in the folder. For a list of tasks affected by
these constraints, see Folders, Customer Constraints and Software Policies on page 24.
To install software, you must belong to a user group that has the install software permissions.
This user group must also have folder permissions for the software you want to install.
Table 45
Software Management Permissions Required for User Actions
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Software Policy
Create Software Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Delete Software Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Open Software Policy
(View)
Manage Software Policy:
Read
N/A
Read
261
Table 45
Software Management Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Edit Software Policy
Properties
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Add Packages
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Manage Packages: Read
Add RPM Packages
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
Manage Packages: Read
Add Patches
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
Manage Patches: Read
Add Application
Configurations
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
Manage Application
Configuration: Read
Add Scripts
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
Manage Server Scripts: Read
Add Server Objects
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
Manage Packages: Read
262
Add Software Policies
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Remove Packages
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Remove RPM
Packages
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Remove Patches
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Remove Application
Configurations
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Remove Software
Policies
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Chapter
Table 45
Software Management Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Remove Server Objects Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Install/ Uninstall
Software
Read & Write Read
User Action
Remove Scripts
Action/Feature
Permission
Manage Software Policy:
Read
Allow Attach/Detach
Software Policy: Yes
Allow Install/Uninstall
Software: Yes
Model Public Device Groups:
Yes (Required if you
remediate a public device
group)
Attach Software Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read
Read & Write Read
Allow Attach/Detach
Software Policy: Yes
Model Public Device Groups:
Yes (This permission is
required if you are attaching
the software policy to a
public device group)
Detach Software Policy Manage Software Policy:
Read
Read & Write Read
Allow Attach/Detach
Software Policy: Yes
Model Public Device Groups:
Yes (This permission is
required if you are attaching
the software policy to a
public device group)
263
Table 45
Software Management Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Remediate
Action/Feature
Permission
Manage Software Policy:
Read
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Read & Write Read
Allow Remediate Servers:
Yes
Model Public Device Groups:
Yes (Required if you
remediate a public device
group)
Run ISM Control
Manage Software Policy:
Read
Read & Write Read
Allow Run ISM Control: Yes
Model Public Device Groups:
Yes (Required if you run ISM
Control on a public device
group)
Duplicate Zip Package
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Edit ZIP Installation
Directory
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Scan Software
Compliance
N/A
Read
N/A
Rename Software
Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Cut Software Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Write
Copy Software Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read
N/A
Read
Paste Software Policy
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
N/A
Source Folder: Read
(for copy and paste)
Source Folder:
Write (for cut and
paste)
Destination Folder:
Write
264
Chapter
Table 45
Software Management Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Move Software Policy
Action/Feature
Permission
Manage Software Policy:
Read & Write
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
N/A
Folder
Permissions
Source Folder:
Write
Destination Folder:
Write
Folder
Create Folder
N/A
N/A
Write
Delete Folder
N/A
N/A
Write
Open Folder
N/A
N/A
Read
View Folder Properties N/A
N/A
Read
Edit Folder Properties
N/A
N/A
Write
Manage Folder
Permissions
N/A
N/A
Edit Folder
Permissions
Cut Folder
N/A
N/A
Write
Copy Folder
N/A
N/A
Read
Paste Folder
N/A
N/A
Source Folder: Read
(for copy and paste)
Source Folder:
Write (for cut and
paste)
Destination Folder:
Write
Move Folder
N/A
N/A
Source Folder:
Write
Destination Folder:
Write
Rename Folder
N/A
N/A
Write
Import Package
Manage Package: Read &
Write
N/A
Write
Export Package
Manage Package: Read
N/A
Read
Open Package (View)
Manage Package: Read
N/A
Read
Edit Package
Properties
Manage Package: Read &
Write
N/A
Read
Package
265
Table 45
Software Management Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Delete Package
Manage Package: Read &
Write
N/A
Write
Rename Package
Manage Package: Read &
Write
N/A
Write
Cut Package
Manage Package: Read &
Write
N/A
Write
Paste Package
Manage Package: Read &
Write
N/A
Source Folder: Read
(for copy and paste)
Source Folder:
Write (for cut and
paste)
Destination Folder:
Write
Move Package
Manage Package: Read &
Write
N/A
Source Folder:
Write
Destination Folder:
Write
266
Chapter
Table 46 lists the actions that users can perform for each Software Management permission.
Table 46 has the same data as Table 45, but is sorted by action/feature permission. For
security administrators, Table 46 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular
action/feature permission, what actions can the user perform?
Table 46
User Actions Allowed by Software Management Permissions
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Create Software Policy
N/A
Write
Delete Software Policy
N/A
Write
Edit Software Policy
N/A
Write
Rename Software Policy
N/A
Write
Cut Software Policy
N/A
Write
Paste Software Policy
N/A
Write
Move Software Policy
N/A
Write
Remove Packages
N/A
Write
Remove Patches
N/A
Write
Remove Application
Configurations
N/A
Write
Remove Scripts
N/A
Write
Remove Server Objects
N/A
Write
Remove Software Policy
N/A
Write
Duplicate ZIP packages
N/A
Write
Manage Software
Policy: Read
Open Software Policy (View)
N/A
Read
Copy Software Policy
Properties
N/A
Read
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
Add Packages
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Action/Feature
Permission
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
Add RPM Packages
And
Folder containing
the package: Read
Manage Package: Read
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
And
Manage Patches: Read
Add Patches
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Folder containing
the patch: Read
267
Table 46
User Actions Allowed by Software Management Permissions (cont’d)
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
Add Application
Configurations
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
N/A
And
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Folder containing
the application
configuration: Read
Manage Application
Configuration: Read
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
Folder
Permissions
Add Software Policies
N/A
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Folder containing
the software policy
to be added to
another software
policy: Read
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
Add Scripts
N/A
And
Folder containing
the scripts: Read
Manage Server
Scripts: Read
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
Add Server Objects
N/A
And
268
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Folder containing
the server objects:
Read
Manage Packages:
Read
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
Folder containing
the software policy:
Write
Remove Packages
N/A
Write
Remove RPM Packages
N/A
Write
Remove Patches
N/A
Write
Remove Application
Configurations
N/A
Write
Remove Scripts
N/A
Write
Remove Server Objects
N/A
Write
Remove Software Policies
N/A
Write
Chapter
Table 46
User Actions Allowed by Software Management Permissions (cont’d)
Action/Feature
Permission
Manage Software
Policy: Read
And
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Attach Software Policy
Read & Write Read
Detach Software Policy
Read & Write Read
Remediate
Read & Write Read
Install/ Uninstall Software
Read & Write Read
Folder
Permissions
Allow Attach/Detach
Software Policy: Yes
And
Model Public Device
Groups: Yes (Required
if you are attaching the
software policy to a
public device group)
Manage Software
Policy: Read
And
Allow Remediate
Servers: Yes
And
Model Public Device
Groups: Yes (Required
if you remediate a
public device group)
Manage Software
Policy: Read
And
Allow Attach/Detach
Software Policy: Yes
And
Allow Install/Uninstall
Software: Yes
And
Model Public Device
Groups: Yes (Required
if you remediate a
public device group)
269
Table 46
User Actions Allowed by Software Management Permissions (cont’d)
Action/Feature
Permission
Manage Software
Policy: Read
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Run ISM Control
Read & Write Read
Import Package
N/A
Write
Delete Package
N/A
Write
Rename Package
N/A
Write
Cut Package
N/A
Write
Paste Package
N/A
Write
Move Package
N/A
Write
Edit Package Properties
N/A
Read
N/A
Read
N/A
Read
Folder
Permissions
And
Allow Run ISM
Control: Yes
And
Model Public Device
Groups: Yes (Required
if you run ISM Control
on a public device
group)
Manage Package: Read
& Write
Manage Package: Read
& Write
Manage Package: Read Export Package
Open Package (View)
Script Execution Permissions
Table 47 specifies the Script Execution permissions required by users to perform specific
actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers this question: To
perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
270
Chapter
If a customer is assigned to a folder, then customer constraints might limit the objects that
can be associated with a software policy contained in the folder. For a list of tasks affected by
these constraints, see Folders, Customer Constraints and Software Policies on page 24.
Table 47
Script Execution Permissions Required for User Actions
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Creating a Non Super
User Server Script
Manage Server Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Creating a Super User
Server Script
Manage Server Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Allow Control of Super User
Server Scripts: Yes
Creating an OGFS
Script
Manage OGFS Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Opening (Viewing all
script properties
except script contents)
a Non Super User
Server Script
Manage Server Script: Read
N/A
Execute
Opening (Viewing all
script properties
including script
contents) a Non Super
User Server Script
Manage Server Script: Read
N/A
Read
Opening (Viewing all
script properties
except script contents)
a Super User Server
Script
Manage Server Script: Read
N/A
Execute
Opening (Viewing all
script properties
including script
contents) a Super User
Server Script
Manage Server Script: Read
N/A
Read
Opening (Viewing all
script properties
except script contents)
an OGFS Script
Manage OGFS Script: Read
N/A
Execute
Opening (Viewing all
script properties
including script
contents) an OGFS
Script
Manage OGFS Script: Read
N/A
Read
Allow Control of Super User
Server Scripts: Yes
Allow Control of Super User
Server Scripts: Yes
271
Table 47
Script Execution Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Editing Non Super
User Server Script
Properties
Manage Server Script: Read
& Write
Editing a Super User
Server Script
Manage Server Script: Read
and Write
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
N/A
Write
N/A
Write
Note: The Allow Control of
Super User Server Scripts:
Yes permission is required to
edit the script property, “Can
Run as Super User”.
Allow Control of Super User
Server Scripts: Yes
Editing OGFS Script
Properties
Manage OGFSr Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Locating Server Script
in Folders
Manage Server Script: Read
N/A
Read
Locating OGFS Script
in Folders
Manage OGFS Script: Read
N/A
Read
Exporting a Server
Script
Manage Server Script: Read
N/A
Read
Exporting an OGFS
Script
Manage OGFS Script: Read
N/A
Read
Renaming a Server
Script
Manage Server Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Renaming a Super
User Server Script
Manage Server Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Allow Control of Super User
Server Scripts: Yes
Renaming an OGFS
Script
Manage OGFS Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Deleting a Server
Script
Manage Server Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Deleting a Super User
Server Script
Manage Server Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Allow Control of Super User
Server Scripts: Yes
272
Chapter
Table 47
Script Execution Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Deleting an OGFS
Script
Manage OGFS Script: Read
& Write
N/A
Write
Running Server Script
as Super User
Managed Servers and
Groups: Yes
Read and
Write
Execute
Running Server Script
as a Super User (by
copying the script
contents from another
script)
Manage Server Script: Read
Read and
Write
Read
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts and
Source Visible Server Scripts
as Super User: Yes
Managed Servers and
Groups: Yes
Running Server Script
as a specified user
Managed Servers and
Groups: Yes
Read and
Write
Execute
Running Server Script
as a specified user (by
copying the script
contents from another
script)
Manage Server Script: Read
Read and
Write
Read
Running Ad-Hoc
Scripts
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
Read and
Write
N/A
Running Ad-Hoc
Scripts
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
Read and
Write
N/A
N/A
Execute
as super user
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
Managed Servers and
Groups: Yes
Managed Servers and
Groups: Yes
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts and
Source Visible Server Scripts
as Super User: Yes
Managed Servers and
Groups: Yes
Running OGFS Scripts N/A
273
Table 48 lists the actions that users can perform for each Script Execution permission.
Table 48 has the same data as Table 47, but is sorted by action/feature permission. For
security administrators, Table 48 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular
action/feature permission, what actions can the user perform?
Table 48
User Actions Allowed by Script Execution Permissions
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
Manage Server Script:
Read & Write
Creating a Non Super User
Server Script
N/A
Write
Editing Non Super User
Server Script Properties
N/A
Write
Deleting a Non Super User
Server Script
N/A
Write
Renaming a Non Super User
Server Script
N/A
Write
Opening (Viewing all script
properties including script
contents) a Non Super User
Server Script
N/A
Read
Locating Server Script in
Folders
N/A
Read
Exporting Server Scripts
N/A
Read
Manage Server Script:
Read
Opening (Viewing all script
properties including script
contents) a Super User
Server Script
Manage Server Script:
Read
Execute
Opening (Viewing all script
properties excluding script
contents) a Non Super User
Server Script
Opening (Viewing all script
properties excluding script
contents) a Super User
Server Script
Manage Server Script:
Read & Write
Creating a Super User
Server Script
N/A
Write
And
Allow Control of Super
User Server Scripts:
Yes
274
Chapter
Table 48
User Actions Allowed by Script Execution Permissions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
N/A
Write
N/A
Write
N/A
Write
Creating an OGFS Script
N/A
Write
Editing OGFS Script
Properties
N/A
Write
Deleting an OGFS Script
N/A
Write
Renaming an OGFS Script
N/A
Write
Opening (Viewing all the
OGFS Script Properties,
including script contents) an
OGFS Script
N/A
Read
Locating OGFS in Folders
N/A
Read
Exporting OGFS Scripts
N/A
Read
Manage OGFS Script:
Read
Opening (Viewing all the
OGFS Script Properties,
excluding script contents) an
OGFS Script
N/A
Execute
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts
Running Ad-Hoc scripts
Read and
Write
N/A
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts
and Source Visible
Server Scripts as
Super User
Running Ad-Hoc scripts as
super User
Read and
Write
N/A
N/A
Running Non Super User
Server Script
Read and
Write
Execute
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
Editing Super User Server
Script Properties
Editing Non Super User
Server Script Properties
Renaming a Super User
Server Script
Renaming a Non Super User
Server Script
Deleting a Super User Server
Script
Deleting a Non Super User
Server Script
Manage OGFS: Read
& Write
Manage OGFS Script:
Read
275
Table 48
User Actions Allowed by Script Execution Permissions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
N/A
Running Private Scripts
Read and
Write
Execute (on Home
folder)
N/A
Running OGFS Scripts
N/A
Execute
The following table lists the script execution permissions required for running scripts using a
software policy.
Table 49
Script Execution Permissions Required for Software Management
User Action
Adding a Server Script
to a software policy
Action/Feature
Permission
Manage Server Scripts: Read N/A
Adding a Server Script N/A
to the Options step in
the Remediate window
276
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
N/A
Folder
Permissions
Read
Execute
Adding a Server Script
to the Options step in
the Remediate window
(Copying the script
contents)
Manage Server Scripts: Read N/A
Read
Adding a Super User
Server Script to the
Options step in the
Remediate window
Manage Server Scripts: Read N/A
Specifying an Ad-Hoc
Script to the Options
step in the Remediate
window
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
N/A
N/A
Specifying an Super
User Ad-Hoc Script to
the Options step in the
Remediate window
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
N/A
N/A
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
Read
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts and
Source Visible Server Scripts
as Super User: Yes
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts and
Source Visible Server Scripts
as Super User: Yes
Chapter
Table 49
Script Execution Permissions Required for Software Management
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permissions
Adding a Server Script
to the Options step in
the Install Software
window
N/A
N/A
Execute
Adding a Server Script
to the Options step in
the Install Software
window (Copying the
script contents)
Manage Server Scripts: Read N/A
Adding a Super User
Server Script to the
Options step in the
Install Software
window
Manage Server Scripts: Read N/A
Specifying an Ad-Hoc
Script to the Options
step in the Install
Software window
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
N/A
N/A
Specifying an Super
User Ad-Hoc Script to
the Options step in the
Install Software
window
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
N/A
N/A
User Action
Read
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
Read
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts: Yes
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts and
Source Visible Server Scripts
as Super User: Yes
Run Ad-Hoc Scripts and
Source Visible Server Scripts
as Super User: Yes
Audit and Remediation Permissions
Table 50 specifies the Audit and Remediation permissions required by users to perform
specific actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers this question:
To perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
In addition to the permissions listed in Table 50, every user action also requires the Managed
Servers and Groups permission.
Server Permissions for Audit and Remediation
Audit and Remediation actions require both action/feature and server permissions. For
example, the Create Audit action requires the action/feature permission “Manage Audit: Read
& Write” and the Managed Servers and Groups permission. This action also needs Read
permission on the server referenced by the Audit. In Table 50, the Server Permission column
277
is for the servers referenced by the Audit or Snapshot Specification —depending on the action.
Server permissions are specified by the customer, facility, and device groups permissions in
the SA Web Client.
If an Audit and Remediation object (such as a snapshot specification) references multiple
servers, at a minimum, Read permission is required for all servers referenced. Otherwise, the
object cannot be viewed or modified.
Audit and Remediation objects are not directly associated with customers and facilities.
Customer and facility permissions do control access to servers that are referenced by Audit
and Remediation objects, such as snapshot specifications and audits.
“Allow Create Task Specific Policy Permission” for Audit and Remediation
As a best practice, do not enable this permission—do not set this permission to “Yes”. By
default, this permission is disabled—it is already set to “No”. It is recommended that you
create audit rules in an audit policy and then, subsequently, link audit tasks and snapshot
specifications to that audit policy.
OGFS Permissions for Audit and Remediation
For the actions that access a managed server’s file system, the OGFS Read Server File System
permission is required. For example, the Read Server File System permission is required to
create a snapshot specification with rules that include the files of a managed server. Such
rules include Application Configurations, Custom Scripts, COM+ objects, File System, IIS
Metabase entries, and Windows Registry.
Other types of selection criteria require the corresponding OGFS permissions:
•
Read Server Registry
•
Read COM+ Database
•
Read IIS Metabase
Audit and Remediation User Action Permissions
The following table lists typical Audit and Remediation user actions and the permissions
required to perform them.
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions
Action/Feature
Permission
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
View contents of Snapshot
Specification
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
N/A
Read
Schedule and run a
Snapshot Specification
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
N/A
Read
Create Snapshot
Specification
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
User Action
Snapshot Specification
278
Chapter
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
OGFS
Permission
Create Application
Configuration Rule
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create COM+ Rule
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Read COM+
Database
Read & Write
Create Custom Script Rule
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Allow Create Custom Script
Policy Rules: Yes.
Create Files
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create IIS Metabase Rule
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Create Registry Rule
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Read Server
Registry
Read & Write
Link Audit Policy into
Snapshot Specification
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
N/A
Read
Manage Audit Policy: Read
LIbrary Folder: Read
Import Audit Policy into
Snapshot Specification
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Manage Audit Policy: Read
Library Folder: Read
Save As Audit Policy
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Manage Audit Policy: Read
& Write
Library Folder: Read &
Write
Snapshots
View, list contents of a
Snapshot
Manage Snapshot: Read
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
279
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Create Audit from Snapshot Manage Snapshot: Read
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
N/A
Read
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Manage Audit: Read
View Archived Snapshot
Manage Snapshot: Read
N/A
Read
Create Audit from archived
Snapshot
Manage Snapshot: Read
N/A
Read
Delete Snapshot results
Manage Snapshot:
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
Detach Snapshot from a
server
Allow General Snapshot
Management: Yes
N/A
Read
N/A
Read & Write
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Read COM+
Database
Read & Write
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Snapshot: Read &
Write
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Remediate Snapshot results Manage Snapshot: Read
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Remediate Snapshot
Results: Application
Configuration
Manage Snapshot: Read
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Remediate Snapshot
Results: COM+
Manage Snapshot: Read
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
280
Chapter
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Remediate Snapshot
Results: Custom Scripts
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Action/Feature
Permission
OGFS
Permission
Manage Snapshot: Read
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Read Server
Registry
Read & Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Remediate Snapshot
Results: File System
Manage Snapshot: Read
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Remediate Snapshot
Results: Metabase
Manage Snapshot: Read
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Remediate Snapshot
Results: Registry
Manage Snapshot: Read
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Audits
View an Audit
Manage Audit: Read
N/A
Read
Run an Audit
Manage Audit Result: Read
N/A
Read
Schedule an Audit
Manage Audit Result: Read
& Write
N/A
Read
Create an Audit
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read
Create Application
Configuration Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create COM+ Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write Read COM+
Database
Read & Write
Create Custom Script Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write Write Server
File System
Allow Create Custom Script
Policy Rules: Yes
Read & Write
281
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Create Discovered Software
Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Create Files Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create Hardware Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Create IIS Metabase Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Create Internet Information
Server Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Create Registered Software
Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Create Software Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Create Storage Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Manage Server Modules:
Read
Manage Server Modules:
Read
Manage Server Modules:
Read
Create Weblogic Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Manage Server Modules:
Read
Create .NET Framework
Configurations Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Create Windows Registry
Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write Read Server
Registry
Read & Write
Create Windows Services
Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Create Windows/Unix Users
and Groups Rule
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Link an Audit Policy into an
Audit
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Manage Server Modules:
Read
Manage Server Modules:
Read
Read & Write
Manage Audit Policy: Read
SA Client Library Folder:
Read
282
Chapter
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Import an Audit Policy into
an Audit
Action/Feature
Permission
OGFS
Permission
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Read & Write
Manage Audit Policy: Read
Library Folder: Read
Save as Audit Policy
Manage Audit: Read & Write N/A
Read & Write
Manage Audit Policy: Read
& write
Library Folder: Read &
Write
Audit Results
View Audit Results
Manage Audit Results:
Read
N/A
Read
Manage Audit: Read
View Archived Audit
Results
Manage Audit: Read
N/A
Read
Delete Audit Results
Manage Audit Results:
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
Remediate Audit Results
Manage Audit: Read
N/A
Read & Write
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Read COM+
Database
Read & Write
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Application Configuration
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
COM+
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
283
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Remediate Audit Results:
Custom Script Rule
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Action/Feature
Permission
OGFS
Permission
Manage Audit: Read
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Discovered Software
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Server Module:
Read
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Files
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
IIS Metabase
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Remediate Internet
Information Server
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
284
Chapter
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Remediate Audit Results:
Remediate Discovered
Software
Action/Feature
Permission
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Manage Audit: Read
N/A
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Server Module:
Read
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Remediate Software
Manage Audit: Read
Remediate Audit Results:
Remediate Storage
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Server Module:
Read
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Remediate Weblogic
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Server Module:
Read
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
285
Table 50
Audit and Remediation Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Remediate Audit Results:
Remediate Windows .NET
Framework Configurations
Action/Feature
Permission
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Manage Audit: Read
N/A
Read & Write
Read Server
Registry
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Server Module:
Read
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Windows Registry
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Windows Services
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Remediate Audit Results:
Remediate Windows/Unix
Users and Groups
Manage Audit: Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
Manage Server Module:
Read
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
Table 51 lists the actions that users can perform for each Audit and Remediation permission.
Table 51 has the same data as Table 50, but is sorted by action/feature permission. Although
it is not indicated in Table 51, the Managed Servers and Groups permission is required for all
Audit and Remediation actions.
286
Chapter
For security administrators, Table 51 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular
action/feature Audit and Remediation permission, what actions can the user perform?
Table 51
User Actions Allowed by Audit and Remediation Permissions
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
View Custom Script Rule:
Audit
N/A
Read
Create Custom Script Rule:
Audit
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
View Custom Script Rule:
Snapshot
N/A
Read
Create Custom Script Rule:
Snapshot
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Allow General
Snapshot Management: Yes
Detach Snapshot from a
server
N/A
Read
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
View Audit or Snapshot, No
Remediation
N/A
Read
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
Allow Create Custom Script
Rule Policy: No
and
Manage Audit: Read
Allow Create Custom Script
Rule Policy: Yes
and
Manage Audit: Read & Write
Allow Create Custom Script
Rule Policy: No
and
Manage Snapshot: Read &
Write
Allow Create Custom Script
Rule Policy: Yes
and
Manage Snapshot: Read &
Write
and
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: No
and
Manage Audit or Manage
Snapshot: Read
287
Table 51
User Actions Allowed by Audit and Remediation Permissions (cont’d)
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Remediate Audit/Snapshot
Results
N/A
Read & Write
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
Remediate Application
Configuration Rule
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
and
Remediate COM+ Rule
Read COM+
Database
Read & Write
Remediate Custom Script
Rule Registry Rule
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Remediate File System Rule
Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Remediate IIS Metabase
Rule
Read Server
Registry
Read & Write
Remediate Windows Registry Write Server
Rule
File System
Read & Write
View, schedule, run Audit
N/A
Read
Manage Audit: Read & Write Create, edit, delete Audit
N/A
Read & Write
Save Audit as Audit Policy
N/A
Read & Write
Link Audit Policy into Audit
N/A
Read & Write
Create Application
Configuration Rule
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create COM+ Rule
Read COM+
Database
Read & Write
Create File System Rule
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create IIS Metabase Rule
Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Create Window Registry
Rule
Read Server
Registry
Read & Write
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read
and
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
and
Manage Audit or Manage
Snapshot: Read & Write
Allow Remediate Audit/
Snapshot Results: Yes
and
Manage Audit or Manage
Snapshot Results: Read &
Write
Manage Audit: Read
288
Chapter
Table 51
User Actions Allowed by Audit and Remediation Permissions (cont’d)
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
Manage Audit: Read & Write Create Custom Scripts Rule
and
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
N/A
Read & Write
Allow Create Custom Script
Policy Rules: Yes
Manage Audit: Read & Write Create the following Audit
Rules:
and
• Discovered Software
Manage Server Module: Read
• Registered Software
•
Storage
•
Weblogic
•
Windows .NET
Framework
Configurations
•
Windows Users and
Groups
Manage Audit Results: Read
View Audit Results
N/A
Read
Manage Audit Results: Read
& Write
Delete Audit Results
N/A
Read & Write
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
View, schedule, run Snapshot
Specification
N/A
Read
289
Table 51
User Actions Allowed by Audit and Remediation Permissions (cont’d)
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
OGFS
Permission
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Create, edit, and delete
Snapshot Specification
N/A
Save Snapshot Specification
as Audit Policy
N/A
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
(This action requires REad &
Write for the library folder
where policy lives.)
Link Audit Policy Into Audit
N/A
Read & Write
Create Application
Configuration Rule
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create COM+ Rule
Read COM+
Database
Read & Write
Create File System Rule
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create IIS Metabase Rule
Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Create Windows Registry
Rule
Read Server
Registry
Read & Write
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
Create the following
Snapshot Rules:
N/A
Read & Write
and
•
Discovered Software
Manage Server Module: Read •
Registered Software
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create Discovered Software
Manage Snapshot
Specification: Read & Write
•
Storage
•
Weblogic
•
Windows .NET
Framework
Configurations
•
Windows Users and
Groups
Create Custom Rule for
Snapshot Specification
and
Create Custom Script Policy
Rule
290
Chapter
Table 51
User Actions Allowed by Audit and Remediation Permissions (cont’d)
Action/Feature
Permission
User Action
OGFS
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Manage Snapshot: Read
View contents of Snapshot
N/A
Read
Manage Snapshot:
Read & Write
Delete Snapshot results
N/A
Read & Write
Manage Audit Policy: Read
View contents of Audits and
Snapshot Specifications
N/A
Read
Manage Audit Policy:
Read & Write
Create, edit Audit Policy.
N/A
Read & Write
Create Application
Configuration Rule
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create COM+ Rule
Read COM+
Database
Read & Write
Create File System Rule
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Create IIS Metabase Rule
Read IIS
Metabase
Read & Write
Create Windows Registry
Rule
Read Server
Registry
Read & Write
Create the following
Snapshot Rules:
N/A
Read & Write
Write Server
File System
Read & Write
Manage Audit Policy: Read &
Write
Manage Server Module: Read •
Discovered Software
•
Registered Software
•
Storage
•
Weblogic
•
Windows .NET
Framework
Configurations
•
Windows Users and
Groups
Manage Audit Policy:
Read & Write
Create Custom Script Rule
and
Allow Create Custom Script
Policy Rule
291
Service Automation Visualizer Permissions
Table 52 specifies the Service Automation Visualizer (SAV) permissions required to perform
specific actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the table answers this question:
To perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
In Table 52, most of the entries in the User Action column correspond to menu items in the SA
Client. In addition to action/feature permissions, server read permissions are required on the
managed servers affected by the analyze operation, such as permissions to open a Remote
Terminal or a Remote Desktop Client, open the Device Explorer, and open a Global Shell
session from the Service Automation Visualizer.
SAV permissions required to scan a server are the same for both physical servers and virtual
servers.
For complete information, see the SA User Guide: Service Automation Visualizer.
Table 52
SAV Permissions Required for User Actions
Action/Feature
Permission
Source Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility)
Folder
Permission
Launch the Service Automation
Visualizer
Allow Analyze: Yes
Read
N/A
Generate a scan or refresh
Snapshot— regular or virtual
servers
Allow Analyze: Yes
Read
N/A
Create a Snapshot or edit a
scheduled Snapshot
Allow Analyze: Yes
Read
N/A
Start, stop, pause, restart virtual
server inside of SAV (pause VM
for VMware only—cannot pause a
Solaris local zone)
Administer Virtual
Server: Yes
Read
N/A
Run script (as a non-Super User)
Run Ad-hoc Scripts:
Yes
Read and Write
N/A
Run script (as a Super User)
Run Ad Hoc &
Source Visible
Server Scripts As
Super User: Yes
Read and Write
N/A
Execute OGFS script
Manage OGFS
Scripts: Yes
Read and Write
N/A
User Action
SAV-Only Operations
Manage Business
Applications: Read
& Write
SA Client Operations
Storage Operations (SE-enabled core)
292
Chapter
Table 52
SAV Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
Source Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility)
Folder
Permission
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Viewing SAN arrays or NAS filer
data, including relationships.
View Storage
Systems: Yes
Read
N/A
Viewing any SAN switch data,
including relationships
View Storage
Systems: Yes
Read
N/A
Open a Business Application from
a folder
N/A
N/A
Read Objects
Within Folder
Create a Business Application and
save to a folder
Manage Business
Applications: Yes
N/A
Write Objects
Within Folder
Rename a Business Application
inside a folder
N/A
N/A
Write Objects
Within Folder
Delete a Business Application
from a folder
N/A
N/A
Write Objects
Within Folder
Cut, copy, or paste a Business
Application from a folder
N/A
N/A
Write Objects
Within Folder
SA Client Folder Operations
In order to save a Business Application to a user’s own home directory in the Library, for
example, /home/username, this user’s private user group will also need to have the Manage
Business Applications permission set to Yes. For more information, see the User Group and
Setup chapter in the SA Administration Guide.
Viewing Storage in SAV and SA Permissions.
Your user may be able to view some types of storage information in a SAV snapshot even if
your user belongs to any groups that do not have permission to see storage devices such as
SAN fabrics, arrays, and so on.
Specifically, If your user belongs to one or more groups that have the permission Manage
Business Applications: Read & Write, then your user will be able to view such devices in a SAV
snapshot and objects as fabrics (switches), storage arrays, network devices, and VM info in the
SAV snapshot, even if the group does not have individual permissions granted to see those
devices and objects.
If your user belongs to one or more groups that do not have Manage Business Applications:
Read & Write, your user will be able to view SAN fabrics (switches), storage arrays, network
devices, and VM info in a SAV snapshot only if the group has those individual permissions
granted.
For example, if your user belonged to one or more groups that have the following permission:
Manage Business Applications: Read & Write but had Manage Fabrics: None, your user would
still be able to see fabrics (and SAN switches) in the SAV snapshot.
293
Virtual Server Permissions
Table 53 specifies the virtual server permission required to perform specific actions in the SA
Client. For security administrators, the table answers this question: To perform a particular
action, what permissions does a user need?
In Table 53, most of the entries in the User Action column correspond to menu items in the SA
Client.
In addition to action/feature permissions, server read permissions are required on hypervisor
servers. After you create a new virtual server, its permissions are treated just like a physical
server, including OS Provisioning.
To clone a virtual machine, you must have read-write permission to at least one customer, so
the clone can be assigned to that customer. The following types of permissions are required for
cloning:
•
Read (or Read-Write) permissions to the source hypervisor customer
•
Read (or Read-Write) permissions to the source virtual machine customer
•
Read (or Read-Write) permissions to the target hypervisor customer
•
Read (or Read-Write) permissions to the source hypervisor and virtual machine, and
target hypervisor facility
For details, see the “Virtual Server Management” in the SA User Guide: Server Automation.
Table 53
Virtual Server Permissions Required for User Actions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
View Virtual Servers in the SA
Client navigation panel
View Virtual Servers: Yes
Read on the
hypervisor
server
View virtualization object in a
virtual server’s device explorer
(Note: If this permission is set to No,
you will still be able to see virtual
servers in the All Managed Servers
list.)
Refresh a hypervisor server
View Virtual Servers: Yes
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Create, modify, or remove a virtual
server
View Virtual Servers: Yes
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Clone a virtual server
View Virtual Servers: Yes
Manage Virtual Servers: Yes
Manage Virtual Servers: Yes
Customer: Yes
Manage Servers and Groups: Yes
294
Hypervisor
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Read on the
virtual server
Chapter
Table 53
Virtual Server Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Start and stop a Solaris zone
View Virtual Servers: Yes
Administer Virtual Servers: Yes
Hypervisor
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Power on, power off, suspend, or
reset a VMware virtual machine
View Virtual Servers: Yes
Use the ESX VM Creation wizard
Allow Configuration of Network
Booting Server
Read/Write to
the Facility
and
Customer
Folder
View the user login name to VMware
ESXi servers.
Manage Credentials: Read
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Modify the user credentials,
authenticate with the user
credentials and validate the
connection status on VMware ESXi
servers.
Manage Credentials: Read & Write
Read/Write
on the
hypervisor
server
Administer Virtual Servers: Yes
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Table 54 lists the actions that users can perform for each virtual server permission. Table 54
has the same data as Table 53, but is sorted by action/feature permission. For security
administrators, Table 54 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular action/
feature permission, what actions can the user perform?
Table 54
User Actions Allowed by Virtual Server Permissions
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
View Virtual Servers: Yes
View Virtual Servers in the SA
Client navigation panel and virtual
servers in the Contents pane.
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Manage Virtual Servers: No
View virtualization object in a
virtual server’s device explorer
Refresh a hypervisor server
295
Table 54
User Actions Allowed by Virtual Server Permissions (cont’d)
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
View Virtual Servers: Yes
Create, modify, or remove a virtual
server
Manage Virtual Servers: Yes
Clone a virtual server
Read on the
hypervisor
server
View Virtual Servers: Yes
Start and stop a Solaris zone
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Administer Virtual Servers: Yes
Power on, power off, suspend, or
reset a VMware virtual machine
Manage Credentials: Read
View the user login name to VMware
ESXi hypervisor servers.
Read on the
hypervisor
server
Manage Credentials: Read & Write
Modify the user credentials,
authenticate with the user
credentials and validate the
connection status on VMware ESXi
servers.
Read/Write
on the
hypervisor
server
OS Provisioning Permissions
The following section describes the permissions required for OS provisioning. For security
administrators, the following table answers this question: To perform a particular action,
what permissions does a user need?
In Table 55, the Server Permission column is for the servers referenced by the OS sequence or
installation profile. Server permissions are specified by the Customer, Facility, and Device
Groups permissions in the SA Web Client.
To create and save an OS sequence in a folder, so you will need write permissions to the folder.
Table 55
OS Provisioning Permissions Required for User Actions
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
OS Build Plan
296
Create OS Build Plan
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read &
Write
None
Write
View OS Build Plan
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read
None
Read
Chapter
Table 55
OS Provisioning Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
Edit OS Build Plan
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read &
Write
None
Write
Delete OS Build Plan
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read &
Write
None
Write
None
Folder containing
the OS Build
Plan: Write
None
Folder containing
the OGFS Script:
Read + Folder
containing the OS
Build Plan: Write
Add Device Group to OS Build Plan Any of the
permission
combinations
below is valid:
1) Manage
Servers and
Groups + Manage
OS Build Plan:
Read & Write, or
2) Manage Public
Device Group (in
Client Features
tab, Servers
section) + Manage
OS Build Plan:
Read & Write, or
3) Manage Public
Device Groups
(SA Web Client)
(from Others tab,
Servers and
Device Group
Permission
section) + Manage
OS Build Plan:
Read & Write
Add OGFS Script to OS Build Plan
Manage OGFS
Script: Read +
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read &
Write
297
Table 55
OS Provisioning Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
298
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
Add Server Script to OS Build Plan Manage Server
Script: Read +
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read &
Write
None
Folder containing
the Server Script:
Read + Folder
containing the OS
Build Plan: Write
Add ZIP Package to OS Build Plan
Manage Package:
Read + Manage
OS Build Plan:
Read & Write
None
Folder containing
the package: Read
+ Folder
containing the OS
Build Plan: Write
Attach Software Policy to OS Build
Plan
Manage Software
Policy: Read +
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read &
Write
None
Folder containing
the Software
Policy: Read +
Folder containing
the OS Build
Plan: Write
Attach Windows Patch Policy to OS
Build Plan
Manage Windows
Patch: Policy +
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read &
Write
None
Folder containing
the OS Build
Plan: Write
Run OS Build Plan (from server or
from OS Build Plan node)
Manage Servers
and Groups +
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read +
Allow Execute OS
Build Plan: Yes
Read & Write Folder
(/Opsware
/Tools/OS
Provisioning)
contains the Run
OS Build Plan
web extension:
Execute + Folder
containing the OS
Build Plan: Read
Chapter
Table 55
OS Provisioning Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Run OS Build Plan (for VMware
ESXi 4.1)
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
Manage Servers
and Groups +
Manage OS Build
Plan: Read +
Allow Execute OS
Build Plan: Yes +
Allow Manage
Server +
View Virtual
Servers +
Manage Virtual
Servers
Read & Write Folder
(/Opsware
/Tools/OS
Provisioning)
contains the Run
OS Build Plan
web extension:
Execute + Folder
containing the OS
Build Plan: Read
+ List and
Execute folder
permission on
/Opsware/Tools/
Virtualization
Programs/
Hypervisor
Scanner folder
Manage OS
Sequence: Read &
Write + Operating
Systems +
Wizard: Prepare
OS
Note: To
create an OS
Sequence
using an OS
Installation
Profile that is
assigned to a
customer, a
user must
have at least
Read
permission to
the customer
OS Sequence
Create OS Sequence
Write
Note: To
create an OS
Sequence
using a
Customer
Independent
OS
Installation
Profile, no
Customer
permission is
required.
299
Table 55
OS Provisioning Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature
Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Folder
Permission
View OS Sequence
Manage OS
Sequence:
Read
None
Read
Edit OS Sequence
Manage OS
Sequence:
Read & Write
None
Write
Delete OS Sequence
Manage OS
Sequence:
Read & Write
None
Write
Run OS Sequence
Manage OS
Sequence:
(From server or from OS sequences)
Read
Read & Write Read
and
Allow Execute OS
Sequence: Yes
View unprovisioned servers
SA Web Client
permission:
Server Pool
Read
N/A
Attach Software Policy
Manage Software
Policy: Read +
Manage OS
Sequence: Read &
Write
NA
Folder containing
the Software
Policy: Read +
Folder containing
the OS Sequence:
Write
Attach Windows Patch Policy
Manage Windows
Patch: Policy +
Manage OS
Sequence: Read &
Write
NA
Folder containing
the OS Sequence:
Write
Attach Solaris Patch Policy
Manage Software
Policy: Read +
Manage OS
Sequence: Read &
Write
NA
Folder containing
the Solaris Patch
Policy: Read +
Folder containing
the OS Sequence:
Write
OS Installation Profile
300
Chapter
Table 55
OS Provisioning Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Create, edit, delete OS installation
profile
Action/Feature
Permission
Operating System
+ Wizard: Prepare
OS
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Note: To
create an OS
Sequence
using an OS
Installation
Profile that is
assigned to a
customer, the
customer
must have
read & write
permission.
Folder
Permission
N/A
Note: To
create an OS
Sequence
using a
Customer
Independent
OS
Installation
Profile, no
Customer
permission is
required.
Unprovisioned Server List
View servers in the unprovisioned
server list
Server Pool
N/A
N/A
Allow
Configuration of
Network Booting
+ Managed Server
and Groups
+ Manage
Customers
+ Server Pool
Read/Write to
the Facility
and
Customer
+ Read/Write
to customer
Not Assigned
List and Execute
on the /Opsware
/Tools/OS
Provisioning/
Manage Boot
Clients folder
Manage Boot Clients
Execute Managed Boot Clients Web
Application
Table 56 lists the actions that users can perform for each OS Provisioning permission.
Table 56 has the same data as Table 55, but is sorted by action/feature permission.
For security administrators, Table 56 answers this question: If a user is granted a particular
action/feature permission, what actions can the user perform?
301
Table 56
302
User Actions Allowed in the SA Client by OS Provisioning Permissions
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Manage OS Sequence: Read
View OS sequence
Read
Read
Manage OS Sequence: Read &
Write + Operating System +
Wizard: Prepare OS
Create OS sequence
Read
Write
Allow Execute OS Sequence:
Yes
Run OS sequence
Write
Read
Manage OS Sequence: Read
Allow execute OS Sequence:
Yes
Run OS sequence
Write
Read
Manage OS Sequence: Read
Allow Execute OS Sequence:
No
View OS sequence
Read
Read
Manage OS Sequence: Write
Allow Execute OS Sequence:
Yes
Run OS sequence
Write
Write
Manage OS Sequence: Write
Allow Execute OS Sequence:
No
Edit OS sequence
Read
Write
Operating System+
Wizard: Prepare OS
Create, edit, delete OS
installation profile
Read &
Write,
N/A,
N/A
N/A
Server Pool
View servers in the
unprovisioned server list
Read
N/A
Folder
Edit OS sequence
Chapter
Manage Boot Clients Permissions
The following section describes the permissions required to use the Manage Boot Clients
(MBC) Utility for OS Provisioning.
Table 57
Manage Boot Client (MNC) Utility Permissions
Action/Feature Permission
User Action
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Allow Execute OS Sequence
Run OS sequence
Write
Read
Manage Server and Groups
Manage Server and Groups
Write
Read
Manage Customers
Create, edit Customers
Write
Read
Server Pool
Access Server Pool
Write
Read
Read & Write permission to
customer Not Assigned
Access to servers assigned to
customer Not Assigned
Write
Read
Allow Configuration of
Network Booting
Configuration of Network
Booting
Write
Read
Folder
Compliance View Permissions
The following section describes the Compliance View permissions required by users to
perform specific actions in the SA Client. For security administrators, the following table
answers this question: To perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
Table 58
Compliance View Permissions Required for User Actions
Action/Feature Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
View Details
Manage Audit Result: Read
Read
Run Audit
Manage Audit: Read
Read & Write
User Action
Audit
Manage Audit Result: Read & Write
Remediate
Allow Remediate Audit/Snapshot
Result: Yes
Read & Write
For other permissions needed to
remediate for specific audit rules, see
Audit and Remediation User Action
Permissions on page 278, Table 51.
303
Table 58
Compliance View Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Manage Software Policy: Read
Read & Write
Software
Remediate
Allow Remediate Servers: Yes
Scan Device
Manage Software Policy: Read
Read & Write
Or
Allow Attach/Detach Software Policy:
Yes
Or
Allow Install/Uninstall Software: Yes
Or
Allow Remediate Servers: Yes
Patch
Remediate
Manage Patch Policy: Read
Read & Write
Install Patch: Yes
Scan Device
Manage Patch: Read
Read & Write
Or
Manage Patch Policy: Read
Or
Allow Install Patch: Yes
Or
Allow Uninstall Patch: Yes
Or
Allow Install/Uninstall Software
Or
Allow Remediate Servers
App Config
304
Viewing Details
Manage Application Configurations:
Read
Read
Scan Device
Allow Configuration Compliance
Scan: Yes
Read
Chapter
Table 58
Compliance View Permissions Required for User Actions (cont’d)
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Specific App Config Remediation
See Application Configuration
Management Permissions on page
241 for permissions required for
remediating application
configurations.
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Read & Write
Server Property and Reboot Permissions
Table 59 specifies the permissions required by users to modify server properties, reboot
servers, and deactivate servers. For security administrators, the table answers this question:
To perform a particular action, what permissions does a user need?
Table 59
Server Property and Reboot Permissions Required for User Actions
User Action
Action/Feature Permission
Server
Permission
(Customer,
Facility,
Device
Group)
Deactivate Server
Deactivate
Read & Write
Modify Property: Server Name or
Description
N/A
Read & Write
Reboot Server
Reboot Server: Yes
Read & Write
Server Objects Permission
Table 60 specifies the permissions required for server objects such as Registered Software,
Internet Information Server, Local Security Settings, Runtime State, Users and Groups,
and.Net Framework Configuration.
Table 60
Server Object Permissions
User Action
Browse Server
Objects
Action/Feature
Permission
Manage Server
Modules: Read &
Write
Server Permission
(Customer, Facility,
Device Group)
Folder
Permissions
N/A
N/A
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
305
Table 60
Server Object Permissions (cont’d)
User Action
Add to Library (From
the Server Browser)
Server Permission
(Customer, Facility,
Device Group)
Action/Feature
Permission
Folder
Permissions
Write
Manage Server
Modules: Read &
Write
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
Manage Package:
Read and Write
Add to Software
Policy
N/A
Manage Server
Modules: Read and
Write
Write
Allow Execute Server
Modules: Yes
Manage Package:
Read and Write
Manage Software
Policy: Read & Write
Predefined User Group Permissions
The following table lists the permissions of the predefined user groups. An X in a table cell
indicates that the group has permission to use the action/feature. The headings in the table
columns abbreviate the names of the user groups as follows:
•
Basic: Basic Users
•
Inter: Intermediate Users
•
Adv: Advanced Users
•
SA: SA System Administrators
•
Admin: Administrators
Table 61
SA Web Client Permissions of the Predefined User Groups
Action/Feature Name
Basic
Inter
Adv
X
X
X
SA
Admin
Feature Tab
Configuration Tracking
Configure SA
Customers
X
X
X
DNS
X
X
X
Data Center Intelligence Reports
306
X
X
X
X
Chapter
Table 61
SA Web Client Permissions of the Predefined User Groups (cont’d)
Action/Feature Name
Basic
Inter
Adv
Facilities
X
X
X
IP Ranges and Range Groups
X
X
X
ISM Controls
X
X
X
Manage Gateway
X
X
X
Model: Hardware
X
X
X
Model: Opsware
X
X
X
X
X
X
Multimaster
X
Operating Systems
X
Server Attributes
X
X
Server Pool
X
X
X
System Diagnosis
X
X
Wizard: Custom Extension
X
X
Wizard: Prepare OS
Admin
X
Managed Servers and Groups
Model: Service Levels
SA
X
X
X
X
X
Other Tab
Deactivate
Allow Run Refresh Jobs
Manage Public Device Groups
X
Model Public Device Groups
View All Jobs
Edit or Cancel Any Job
Only the Administrator group also has permission to manage SA users and user groups,
which is not listed on the SA Web Client tabs. The following table lists the permissions of the
predefined user groups for the SA Client features. The table cells contain the following
abbreviations:
•
R: Read (only)
•
RW: Read & Write
•
Y: Yes
•
N: No or None
307
Table 62
SA Client Permissions of the Predefined User Groups
Feature Name
Basic
Inter
Adv
SA
Admin
Configuration
N
R
RW
N
N
Configuration Files
N
R
RW
N
N
Configuration on Servers
N
R
RW
N
N
Allow Check Consistency on
Servers
N
N
Y
N
N
Audit Templates
N
R
RW
N
N
Audit Results
N
R
RW
N
N
Snapshot Templates
N
R
RW
N
N
Snapshots (specific to servers)
N
R
RW
N
N
Selection Criteria
N
R
RW
N
N
Allow General Snapshot
Management
N
Y
Y
N
N
Allow Deploy Agent
N
N
Y
N
N
Allow Scan Network
N
N
Y
N
N
Manage Patch
N
N
RW
N
N
Manage Patch Policy
N
N
RW
N
N
Allow Install Patch
N
N
Y
N
N
Allow Uninstall Patch
N
N
Y
N
N
Manage Patch Compliance Rules
N
N
N
N
N
Manage Server Scripts
RW
RW
RW
RW
N
Allow Control of Super User
Server Scripts
N
N
Y
Y
N
Run Ad Hoc Scripts
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Run Ad Hoc & Source Visible
Server Scripts As Super User
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Manage OGFS Script
RW
RW
RW
RW
N
Application Configuration
Compliance
Agent Deployment
Patch Management
Script Management
(Fresh Install - 7.0/7.5)
308
Chapter
When HP Server Automation is first installed, default permissions are assigned to the
top-level folders of the SA Web Client. The following table lists these default permissions. The
table uses the following abbreviations for permissions:
•
L: List Contents of Folder
•
R: Read Objects Within Folder
•
W: Write Objects Within Folder
•
P: Edit Folder Permissions
Table 63
Default Top-Level Folder Permissions of the Predefined User Groups
Folder
Basic
Inter
Adv
SA
Admin
/
L
L
W
L
P
/Opsware
L
L
L
P
/Opsware/Tools
L
L
L
P
/Opsware/Tools/ISMTOOL
R
W
P
/Package Repository
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All AIX
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All AIX/AIX
<version>
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All HP-UX
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All HP-UX/
HP-UX <version>
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All Red Hat
Linux
R
W
P
Package Repository/All Red Hat
Linux/Red Hat Linux <version>
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All SunOS
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All SunOS/
SunOS <version>
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All SuSE
Linux
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All SuSE
Linux/SuSE Linux <version>
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All Windows
R
W
P
/Package Repository/All Windows/
Windows <version>
R
W
P
309
Private User Group Permissions
SA automatically creates a separate private user group for each SA user. The name of the
private user group is the same as the user name.
The following table lists the script management and folder permissions of the private user
groups who were a member of the following predefined groups before the core was upgraded
from a pre-SA 7.0 release to SA 7.80. The headings in the table columns abbreviate the names
of the user groups as follows:
•
Basic: Basic Users
•
Inter: Intermediate Users
•
Adv: Advanced Users
•
SA: SA System Administrators
•
Admin: Administrators
Table 64
Script Management and Folder Permissions of Private User Groups
Action/Feature Name
Basic
Inter
Adv
SA
Admin
Manage Server Scripts
RW
RW
RW
RW
N
Allow Control of Super User
Server Scripts
N
N
Y
Y
N
Run Ad-hoc Scripts
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Run Ad Hoc & Source Visible
Server Scripts As Super User
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Manage Server Scripts
RW
RW
RW
RW
N
Manage OGFS Script
N
N
N
N
N
Folder permission on
/Migrated/Scripts/Shared
Scripts folder
LRX
LRX
LRXW
LRXW
LE
Script Management
(Upgrade from pre-7.0 to 7.5)
310
Chapter
Code Deployment User Groups
The following tables describe the capabilities of the Code Deployment user groups. For more
information, see the Accessing Code Deployment & Rollback section of the SA User Guide:
Server Automation.
Table 65
Code Deployment User Groups and Permissions
Code Deployment
User Group
Description
Super User
Can define, request, or perform any code deployment operation on
hosts designated for either staging or production. Because a Super
User can perform operations on hosts associated with any customer,
only a few users should belong to this group.
History Viewer
Can view a log of operations (service operations, synchronizations and
sequences) that have been previously executed from Code
Deployment. Viewing this information can help you determine the
status of particular deployment operations, and whether they
completed successfully.
Service Editor
Can define a service, and modify or delete service definitions.
Production Service
Performer
Can directly perform or request performance of service operations on
hosts designated for use in production.
Staging Service
Performer
Can directly perform or request performance of service operations on
hosts designated for use in staging.
Production Service
Requester
Can request performance of service operations on hosts designated for
use in production.
Staging Service
Requester
Can request performance of service operations on hosts designated for
use in staging.
Synchronization
Editor
Can define a synchronization, and modify or delete the
synchronization definition.
Synchronization
Performer
Can directly perform or request performance of a synchronization
action.
Synchronization
Requester
Can request performance of a synchronization action.
Sequence Editor
Can define a sequence, and modify or delete the sequence definition.
Production
Sequence Performer
Can directly perform or request performance of a sequence of actions
on hosts designated for use in production.
Staging Sequence
Performer
Can directly perform or request performance of a sequence of actions
on hosts designated for use in staging.
Production
Sequence Requester
Can request performance of a sequence of actions on hosts designated
for use in production.
Staging Sequence
Requester
Can request performance of a sequence of actions on hosts designated
for use in staging.
311
312
Chapter
Index
A
monitoring, 224
Ports, 224
aaa utility, 67
access.log, 212
accessing, realm information, 150
activating users, 55
adding
users to a user group, 57
users to CDR user groups, 89
admin, 28, 32, 33, 39, 52, 53, 54, 57, 62, 64
admin. See also super administrator
Administrator. See also super administrator
Agent
Cache Logs, 206
Cache monitoring, 206
Cache Ports, 206
Logs, 205
logs, 182
monitoring processes, 204
AIX, 205
HP-UX, 205
Solaris, 204
Reachability Communication Tests, 204
URL, 205
Agent cache
monitoring processes, 206
Agent Monitoring, 204
Agent Port, 204
approval dialog, 64
auditverify tool, 187
authentication
Credential Store, 54
external LDAP, 69
HP Network Automation, 54
B
backup, deleting files, 194
banner message, 64
Boot Server
Logs, 224
logs, 181
Build Manager
Logs, 223
logs, 181
monitoring, 223
monitoring processes, 223
Ports, 223
URL, 223
C
code deployment
configuring, email alert addresses, 230
user groups, 311
code deployment user groups
adding users, 89
Command Center
Logs, 207
monitoring, 207
monitoring processes, 207
Ports, 207
URL, 207
Command Engine
Logs, 213
logs, 181
monitoring, 212
monitoring processes, 212
Port, 212
system diagnostic tests, 169
URL, 213
Command Engine Notification Email, 228
Components
system diagnosis, 203
configuration
SA configuration parameters, 227
configuring
contact information, 227
email alert addresses for SA core, 229
email notification addresses for CDR, 230
JAAS login module, 74
mail server, 228
conflicts
alert emails, 141
313
causes, 126
error messages, 141
overview, 126
prevention, 128
resolving, 134, 138
constraints
customer and folder, 24
Core Gateway, 147
monitoring, 221
creating
user groups, 56
users, 53
creating, Manual updates, 160
Credential Store, 54
customer administrator, 65, 66
customer group, 65, 66, 67
D
Data Access Engine
logs, 181
monitoring, 208
monitoring processes, 209
multiple, 196
Port, 208
reassigning, 197
See also Multimaster Central Data Access
Engine.
system diagnostic tests, 167
URLs, 210
Data Center Intelligence reporting
required permissions, 240
delegated security, 62, 66
deleting
users, 55
deleting, backup files, 194
F
Facilities
defined, 147
multiple, 121
viewing, information, 148
file system, 31
folder permissions, 23, 61
G
Gateway
Logs, 222
monitoring, 221
monitoring processes, 222
Ports, 221
URL, 222
Global File System
Adapter, 218
Agent Proxy, 218
Hub, 218
Logs, 219
monitoring, 218
monitoring processes, 218
Spoke
ports, 220
Global Shell, 30
grace login, 63
I
IIS, 31
importing, external LDAP users, 75
importing, server certificate from external LDAP, 73
inactive
account, 37, 55
session, 64
digital, 187
installations
multiple Data Access Engine, 196
Discovery and Agent Deployment
permissions required, 248
J
E
JBoss, 182
editing
user information, 54
L
email alert addresses
CDR, 230
SA core, 229
enabling, realm information, 148
314
LDAP directory
Credential Store field, 54
external authentication, 69
importing, external users, 75
importing, server certificate, 73
passwords, 33, 62
process for using external LDAP, 70
supported external directory servers, 69
Load Balancing Gateway
Logs, 208
monitoring, 208
monitoring processes, 208
Ports, 208
log
digital signatures, 187
login approval, 64
login failure, 37, 55
logs
about, 181
Agents, 182
Boot Server, 181
Build Manager, 181
Command Engine, 181
configuring, 182, 189
Data Access Engine, 181
Global Shell Audit, 184
JBoss, 182
managed servers
Global Shell logs, 184
Media Server, 182
Model Repository, 182
Model Repository Multimaster Component, 182
SA Web Client, 182
Software Repository, 183
Web Services Data Access Engine, 183
monitoring, 217
monitoring processes, 217
Port, 217
system diagnostic tests, 169
monitoring remote server access, 186
multimaster
alert emails during conflicts, 141
configuring, mail server, 228
conflicts, 126
designating the Central Data Access Engine, 197
error messages in multimaster conflicts, 141
mesh, 129
network administration, 140
preventing conflicts, 128
tools, 129
multimaster, tools, 129, 133
Multimaster Central Data Access Engine, 197
Multimaster Central Data Access Engine Port
Forwarding, 209
Multimaster Conflicts, 216
Multiple facilities, 121
N
network administration, 140
Network Automation (NA), 54
M
O
manage environment, required permissions, 240
OGFS
monitoring, 218
Management Gateway, 147
monitoring, 221
OGFS permissions, 30, 67
Manual updates
creating, 160
defined, 156
overview, 159
Software Repository Cache, applying to, 161
uploading, Microsoft utilities, 162
On-demand updates
defined, 156
overview, 158
Media Server
Logs, 224
logs, 182
monitoring, 224
Ports, 224
OS provisioning
required permissions, 239
metabase, 31
password
changing, 62
expiration, 49, 63
initial log on, 48, 63
min and max characters, 63
non-modifiable, 54
policy parameters, 62
resetting, 48, 63
retention and re-use, 63
Model Repository
Logs, 216
logs, 182
monitoring processes, 215
Port, 215
Model Repository Multimaster Component
logs, 182
Oracle
monitoring
model repository, 215
P
315
wrong, 37, 55
Permissions
manage environment, required for, 240
OS Provisioning, required for, 239
other tasks, required, 240
reports, required for, 240
SA Client permissions for user groups, 306
SA Web Client permissions for user groups, 306
script management and execution, required, 305
server management, required for, 239
system configuration, required for, 240
Virtualization Director, required, 292
virtualization director, required, 294
permissions
delegated, 23, 62, 66
folder, 23
folder and customer, 20, 58
ODAD, required, 248
OGFS, 30
scripts, 23
setting
customer permissions, 58
device group permissions, 58
facility permissions, 58
feature permissions, 60
folder permissions, 61
OGFS permissions, 67
other feature permissions, 61
SA Client feature permissions, 60
viewing, user’s permissions, 55
preventing, conflicts, 128
Primary Data Access Engine, 196
R
RDP, 31
Realms
enabling realm information, 148
viewing realm information, 151
realms
defined, 147
reassigning, Data Access Engine, 197
registry, 31
resolving
conflicts by object, 134
conflicts by transaction, 138
rosh, 31
running, system diagnosis, 170
S
SA
316
configuration, 227
configuration parameters, 227
configuring, contact information, 227
configuring, email alert addresses, 229
troubleshooting, 166
SA components
internal and external names, 193
running, system diagnosis, 170
Satellite
accessing, realm information, 150
gateways, 147
manual update, 156
on-demand updates, 156
overview, 145
permissions, required, 148
Software Repository Cache, overview, 155
Satellite. See Satellite.
SA Web Client
logs, 182
Scripts
Distributed Scripts
permissions required, 305
scripts, 23
deleting backup files, 194
Secondary Data Access Engine, 197
security administrator overview, 29
Server Agent
monitoring, 204
server certificate
extracting
Microsoft Active directory from, 74
Novell eDirectory from, 74
SunDS from, 74
importing, external LDAP from, 73
server management
required permissions, 239
session timeout, 63
setting
customer permissions, 58
device group permissions, 58
facility permissions, 58
feature permissions, 60
folder permissions, 61
OGFS permissions, 67
other feature permissions, 61
SA Client feature permissions, 60
Software Repository
Logs, 214
logs, 183
monitoring, 213
monitoring processes, 213
Ports, 213
system diagnostic tests, 168
Software Repository Cache
applying, Manual updates, 161
managing, 155
packages, availability of, 156
staging files, 162
Software Repository Multimaster Component
conflicts, 126
Spoke
Logs, 221
monitoring, 220
monitoring processes, 220
Ports, 220
ssh, 31
super administrator, 28, 32, 39, 52, 53, 54, 57, 62, 64,
65, 66
supported
external LDAP directory servers, 69
suspending users, 37, 55
system configuration
overview, 227
required permissions, 240
setting configuration parameters, 227
System diagnosis, 203
system diagnosis
Command Engine tests, 169
Data Access Engine tests, 167
Model Repository Multimaster Component tests,
169
running, system diagnosis, 170
Software Repository tests, 168
testing, 166
troubleshooting, problems, 166
Web Services Data Access tests, 168
U
user agreement, 64
User groups
code deployment, 311
user groups
adding a user, 57
adding users to CDR, 89
creating, 56
predefined, 27
SA Client permissions, 306
SA Web Client permissions, 306
setting
customer permissions, 58
device group permissions, 58
facility permissions, 58
feature permissions, 60
OGFS permissions, 67
other feature permissions, 61
SA Client feature permissions, 60, 61
users
activating, 55
creating, 53
deleting, 55
editing, user information, 54
importing, external LDAP users, 75
suspending, 37, 55
viewing permissions, 55
V
viewing
facilities information, 148
permissions, 55
realm information, 151
Virtualization Director
permissions required, 294
system diagnosis, tools, 166, 170
Visual Application Manager
permissions required, 292
T
W
Table Space Usage, 216
WebLogic
messages and exceptions, 211
timeout
session, 63
tnsnames.ora, 209
tools
multimaster tools, 129, 133
system diagnosis, 166, 170
troubleshooting, 166
twist.log, 211
twistOverrides.conf, 70
Web Services Data Access Engine
Logs, 211
logs, 183
monitoring, 210
monitoring processes, 210
Port, 210
system diagnostic tests, 168
URL, 211
Web Services Data Access Engine configuration file,
70
317
318
Download PDF