Altova SemanticWorks 2008

User and Reference Manual
Altova SemanticWorks 2008 User &
Reference Manual
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liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damage caused or alleged to have
been caused directly or indirectly by this document.
Published: 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Table of Contents
1
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
3
2
About this Documentation
6
3
Introduction
8
3.1
Product
...................................................................................................................................
Features
9
3.2
Interface
................................................................................................................................... 12
3.2.1
Main
.....................................................................................................................
Window
14
3.2.2
Details
.....................................................................................................................
Window
17
3.2.3
Overview
.....................................................................................................................
Window
19
3.2.4
Errors
.....................................................................................................................
Window
20
3.3
Overview
...................................................................................................................................
of Usage
22
4
Tutorial
4.1
OWL
...................................................................................................................................
Lite Ontology
28
4.1.1
Creating
.....................................................................................................................
a New Ontology
29
4.1.2
Declaring
.....................................................................................................................
Namespaces
32
4.1.3
Creating
.....................................................................................................................
Classes
34
4.1.4
Creating
.....................................................................................................................
the Class Hierarchy
36
4.1.5
Defining
.....................................................................................................................
Properties
39
4.1.6
Declaring
.....................................................................................................................
Instances
45
4.1.7
Declaring
.....................................................................................................................
AllDifferent Instances
50
4.2
OWL
...................................................................................................................................
DL Ontology
52
4.2.1
Setting
.....................................................................................................................
Up an OWL DL Ontology
53
4.2.2
Creating
.....................................................................................................................
the Classes
55
4.2.3
Instances
.....................................................................................................................
as Class Enumerations
57
4.2.4
Defining
.....................................................................................................................
the Properties
59
4.2.5
Describing
.....................................................................................................................
Classes and Their Instances
61
4.3
RDF
...................................................................................................................................
Documents
66
4.3.1
Instances
.....................................................................................................................
for an OWL DL Ontology
67
...........................................................................................................
67
Creating a New RDF Document
...........................................................................................................
67
Referencing
the Ontology
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26
1
4.3.2
...........................................................................................................
69
Making the
RDF statements
Creating
.....................................................................................................................
a Dublin Core (DC) Document
72
...........................................................................................................
72
Referencing the DC Ontology
75
Creating...........................................................................................................
the DC Metadata
5
User Reference
80
5.1
Toolbar
...................................................................................................................................
Icons
81
5.2
Icons
...................................................................................................................................
in Detail View
86
5.3
File...................................................................................................................................
Menu
89
5.4
Edit
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
91
5.5
View
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
92
5.6
RDF/OWL
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
94
5.7
Tools
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
96
5.7.1
Customize
..................................................................................................................... 97
5.7.2
Options
..................................................................................................................... 99
5.7.3
Namespace
.....................................................................................................................
Imports for RDF
101
5.7.4
Namespace
.....................................................................................................................
Color Assignments
103
5.7.5
URIref
.....................................................................................................................
Prefixes, Expand URIref Prefixes
105
5.7.6
Base
.....................................................................................................................
URI
106
5.8
Window
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
107
5.9
Help
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
108
5.10 Usage
...................................................................................................................................
Issues
110
6
Conformance
114
7
License Information
116
7.1
Electronic
...................................................................................................................................
Software Distribution
117
7.2
Software
...................................................................................................................................
Activation and License Metering
118
7.3
Intellectual
...................................................................................................................................
Property Rights
119
7.4
Altova
...................................................................................................................................
End User License Agreement
120
Index
2
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
Chapter 1
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
1
3
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
Altova® SemanticWorks® 2008 is an RDF document editor and ontology development IDE. It
enables you to:



Graphically create and edit RDF documents, RDF Schema documents, and OWL
ontologies.
Check the syntax and semantics of ontologies as you edit them, and the syntax of RDF
documents.
Convert graphically created ontologies into the RDF/XML and N-Triples formats.
With Altova® SemanticWorks® 2008, therefore, besides being able to edit RDF documents in
a GUI and check its syntax, you can design RDF Schema and OWL ontologies using a
graphical design view, check the syntax of any RDF Schema or OWL ontology and the
semantics of OWL Lite and OWL DL ontologies, and export ontologies in the RDF/XML and
N-Triples formats.
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
Chapter 2
About this Documentation
6
About this Documentation
2
About this Documentation
This documentation is the user manual delivered with SemanticWorks. It is available as the
built-in Help system of SemanticWorks, can be viewed online at the Altova website, and can
also be downloaded as a PDF, which you can print.
The user manual is organized into the following sections:




Introduction
Tutorial
User Reference
Conformance
We suggest you read the Introduction first in order to get an overview of SemanticWorks
features and general usage. You should then go through the tutorial to get hands-on experience
of creating OWL Lite and OWL DL ontologies, and of creating and editing RDF documents. For
subsequent reference, use the user reference section, which provides a description of all
toolbar icons and menu commands.
Should you have any question or problem related to SemanticWorks, the following support
options are available:
1. Check the Help file (this documentation). The Help file contains a full text-search
feature, besides being fully indexed.
2. Check the FAQs and Discussion Forum at the Altova Website.
3. Contact Altova's Support Center.
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Chapter 3
Introduction
8
Introduction
3
Introduction
This Introduction is organized into the following sections:




Product Features: Lists the main product features of SemanticWorks 2008. Read
through this section to get an overview of the capabilities of SemanticWorks.
Interface: Describes the SemanticWorks GUI. This description helps familiarize you
with the various views and windows of SemanticWorks, and shows you how they are
used.
Overview of Usage: Provides a methodological approach to using SemanticWorks.
Lists the steps you would typically take when creating or editing an ontology and an
RDF document in SemanticWorks.
Terminology: Lists key terms used in SemanticWorks and this documentation together
with their meanings. Reading through this section will also provide you with a quick
summary of key RDF and OWL concepts.
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Introduction
3.1
Product Features
9
Product Features
The main features of SemanticWorks 2008 are listed below.
Editing RDF documents
In SemanticWorks, RDF documents can be created and edited graphically in SemanticWorks's
RDF/OWL View. An RDF resource is defined by graphically associating it with a predicate, and
then associating the predicate with a resource object or literal value. Resources are made
available for selection in the GUI by referencing an ontology. A mechanism for declaring
namespaces and prefixes enables URIrefs for RDF resources to be assigned flexibly and
accurately. SemanticWorks also checks the syntax of RDF documents. Alternatively to editing
RDF documents in the graphical RDF/OWL View, RDF documents can be edited directly in
Text View, using either RDF/XML notation or N-Triples notation.
Editing ontologies
SemanticWorks offers ontology editing capability in a graphical user interface and in a text
interface.




The graphical RDF/OWL View enables you to easily create and edit RDF Schema and
OWL ontologies by allowing you to insert items into a graphical representation of the
ontology.
The ontology level can be changed at any time while editing, enabling you to change
levels according to editing needs.
Syntax checks can be carried out for RDF Schema, OWL Lite, OWL DL, and OWL Full
ontologies. Semantics checks can be carried out on OWL Lite and OWL DL
documents. These checks can be made while you edit, thus enabling you to easily
maintain the validity of the ontology as you build it.
The ontology document's classes, properties, instances (aka individuals), all-different
items, and ontologies can be viewed in separate tabs (screenshot below). These tabs
provide an overview of each of these categories. A subsidiary pane displays related
information (screenshot below). For example, selecting a class in the Classes Overview
causes the instances and properties of that class to be displayed in the subsidiary
pane.
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Introduction






Product Features
Clicking the Detail View button (see Main Window) of an ontology item in the Overview,
changes the view to a detailed view of that item's relationships (see screenshot).
In Detail View, relationships are indicated by a range of intuitive icons which are
inserted into the ontology via a context menu.
Relationships in Detail View can be expanded and collapsed at multiple levels to
provide easily customizable views of ontologies or specific parts of ontologies.
Prefixes of URIrefs used in an ontology can be conveniently set in a special table
accessed via the GUI.
The display of blank nodes (anonymous classes) can be toggled on and off.
Text View enables direct text editing of the ontology document.
Checking documents
An RDF, RDF Schema, OWL Lite, OWL DL, or OWL Full document can be checked for syntax
according to the rules of the relevant specification/s. Additionally, OWL Lite and OWL DL
documents can be checked for correct semantics (according to the rules of OWL Lite and OWL
DL, respectively). Errors are listed in the Errors Window, and each error has one or more links
to the incorrect item/s in the current view (Text View or RDF/OWL View) of that document.
System requirements
Altova SemanticWorks runs on Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003 Server, and
Windows Vista systems.
Other major features
SemanticWorks offers the following additional features.




Imports can be reloaded at the click of a button whenever required.
Ontologies can be saved as .rdf, .rdfs, or .owl files and can be exported in their
RDF/XML and N-Triples formats.
Multiple ontologies can be edited concurrently in multiple windows.
A large range of customization options enables the application interface to be flexibly
customized. Options range from GUI font selection to choosing document encoding.
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Introduction
Product Features

11
The graphical Detail View of ontology items can be printed as well as saved as an
image.
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
12
Introduction
3.2
Interface
Interface
The SemanticWorks application interface consists of: (i) a top part consisting of a Menu Bar
and Toolbars; (ii) the windows area; and (iii) a bottom part consisting of the Status Bar. See
screenshot below. The windows areas consist of three windows:



The Main Window,
The Overview Window, and
The Errors Window.
The Menu Bar contains the various menus, and each menu, with its menu items, are described
in separate sections in the User Reference. The toolbars are located below the Menu Bar, and
all toolbar icons are described in the Toolbar Icons section in the User Reference.
The Main Window, Details Window, Overview Window, and Errors Window are described in
more detail in the subsections of this section. The Details Window, Overview Window and
Errors Window can be docked within the application window or can float freely. For details about
how to change the position of the Details Window, Overview Window and Errors Window, see
under the next heading.
Note: Multiple documents can be open at a time, and any one can be made the active
document by clicking its tab label at the bottom of the Main Window. Text can be copied
between the Text Views of documents, but objects in RDF/OWL Views cannot be copied.
Moving, positioning, and hiding the Details Window, Overview Window and Errors
Window
The Details Window, Overview Window and Errors Window can each be docked within the
application window or they can each float freely as independent windows.
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Introduction
Interface
13
To make the Details Window, Overview Window or Errors Window float, do one of the following:


Drag the window's title bar out of its docked position, so that the window floats, or
Click the down-pointing arrowhead at the right-hand side of the window's title bar and
select Floating.
To reposition the Details Window, Overview Window or Errors Window relative to the Main
Window or other windows (that is, to dock it), do the following:

Drag the window's title bar into the application window till two sets of four blue arrows
appear (an inner set and an outer set). Drop the window on one of the four inner arrows
or one of the four outer arrows. If you drop it on an inner arrow, the window will dock
within the application window and relative to the window over which it was dragged. If
you drop it on an outer arrow, the window will be placed along one of the four inside
edges of the application window.
When the Details Window, Overview Window, or Errors Window is docked, clicking on the
down-pointing arrowhead (see screenshot above) also provides the option of hiding the window
(menu option Hide). Clicking the Close button (at right-hand side of the Details Window,
Overview Window, or Errors Window title bar), closes the window. To reopen the Details
Window, Overview Window, or Errors Window, select View | Detail View, View | Overview or
View | Errors Window, respectively.
© 2008 Altova GmbH
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Introduction
3.2.1
Main Window
Interface
SemanticWorks documents are opened in the Main Window, and are viewed and edited in the
Main Window. The Main Window has two views, Text View and RDF/OWL View (screenshots
below), between which you can switch by clicking the respective tabs.
RDF/OWL View window, showing Overview (main pane, with subsidiary pane below). To switch
from Overview to Detail View of an item, click the Detail View button to the left of that item.
RDF/OWL View
RDF/OWL View provides (i) an Overview of the document, and (ii) a Detail View of an item
listed in the Overview. To switch from Overview to the Detail View of an item, click the Detail
View icon
to the left of that item's Overview listing. Notice that the entire Overview (main
pane and subsidiary pane) is replaced by Detail View (screenshot below). To switch from the
Detail View of an item back to Overview, click the Overview icon
Detail View .
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
located at the top left of
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Introduction
Interface
15
The Overview of ontologies is structured into five categories of items (see first screenshot in
this section):





Classes, which lists all ontology classes. If the Show Blank Nodes option (View | Show
Blank Nodes) is selected, then anonymous classes are also listed. When a class is
selected in the main pane, then the subsidiary pane shows (i) the properties of the
class, and (ii) the instances of the class.
Properties, which lists all properties in the ontology. When a property is selected in the
main pane, then the domain of that property is displayed in the subsidiary pane.
Instances (aka individuals), which lists all the ontology's instances of classes.
All-Different items, which lists the owl:AllDifferent items in the ontology.
Ontologies, which lists all ontologies in the document, including imported and
prior-version ontologies.
Each category has a tab in the main pane of the Overview, with tab labels located at the top of
the main pane. To view the items in a particular category, click that category's tab label. When
either the Classes or Properties tab is selected, and an individual class or property, respectively,
in that tab is selected, additional information related to the selected class or property is
displayed in a subsidiary pane located below the main pane. When a class in the Classes tab is
selected, its individuals and properties can be viewed in the subsidiary pane. When a property
in the Properties tab is selected, its domain is displayed in the subsidiary pane.
The Overview of RDF documents lists items in a single category: Resources.
Note: If an ontology imports other ontologies, then the classes, properties, instances, and
all-different items of the imported ontologies are also displayed. If an RDF document correctly
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
16
Introduction
Interface
references an ontology, the items of the ontology are displayed as resources in the GUI.
In Detail View, you add or edit the details of an ontology item. Items are added by right-clicking
an item and selecting the new item to insert from a context menu. Items that can be inserted
are listed and described in the section, Icons in Detail View.
Text View
In Text View, you can display and edit a document in its RDF/XML notation (screenshot below)
as well as in N-Triples notation.
Text View supports syntax coloring, line numbering, source folding of elements, and standard
GUI editing features, such as cut-and-paste and drag-and-drop.
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Introduction
3.2.2
Interface
17
Details Window
The Details Window (screenshot below) provides a compact and editable description of the item
selected in the Main Window. In an ontology, the Details Window is especially useful for
creating and editing instances of a class. The Details Window can be toggled between display
and hidden modes by clicking the menu command View | Details.
The screenshot above shows the details of the instance doc:
XMLSpyEnterpriseUserManualENHTML in the Details Window. Compare it with the display in
the Main Window, which is shown below. While in the Main Window all the details are displayed
graphically, they are displayed in a compact table form in the Details Window and can be edited
there.
Labels and comments
The screenshot above shows the Details Window of the XMLSpyEnterpriseUserManualENHTML
instance of the EnglishWebPage class. You can add an rdfs:label or rdfs:comment element
to the instance by editing the value field of rdfs:label or rdfs:comment, respectively, and then
pressing Enter. The dropdown list for these two elements offers options for the value of the
xml:lang attribute that can be defined for them. When a label or comment is added, it appears
in a bold, dark gray font. If you wish to delete an rdfs:label or rdfs:comment element, go to
the Detail View of the instance, select the instance, right-click the label or comment, and select
Remove Label or Remove Comment, respectively.
© 2008 Altova GmbH
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Introduction
Interface
Creating and editing properties
The properties related to the instance's class are listed in the bottom half of the window, below
the black rule. You can edit the values of these properties as well as create new or additional
properties. The dropdown list for each property value offers the available options. In the case of
literal objects, such as dc:date in the screenshot above, you can toggle between a datatype
selection (by clicking DT in the bottom half of the
icon) or an xml:lang selection (by clicking
icon). When a property is added, it appears in a bold, dark gray
Lang in the top half of the
font. If you wish to delete a property, switch to Detail View, right-click the property, and select
Delete.
Note:
Double-clicking the diagonal reference arrow of a class or an instance
,
causes the graph of that class or instance to be displayed in Detail View; details are
also displayed in the Details Window.
Defining a new instance
To define a new instance using the Details Window, do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the Instances tab.
Click the Add New button in the top left of the Instances tab.
Name the newly created instance.
Since the instance is selected, its details are displayed in the Details Window. From the
dropdown list of the type field, select the class for this instance. All the classes in the
ontology will be listed in the dropdown list.
5. After the class is selected, the properties related to the class appear in the Property
pane of the window. Select the value of each property as required.
6. When you have completed the definition of the instance in the Details Window, save the
document.
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Introduction
3.2.3
Interface
19
Overview Window
The Overview Window is populated when the Main Window is in Detail View. It shows a
miniature of the graphic currently in Detail View and the Detail View viewport (that is, the area of
the Detail View graph that is currently visible in the Detail View window). See screenshot below.
The area of the Detail View graph currently displayed in the viewport is the area within the red
rectangle. You can move other parts of the graph into the viewport by placing the cursor inside
the red rectangle (the cursor becomes a pointing hand) and dragging the rectangle over to the
part of the graph you want displayed in the viewport; that part of the graph will now be displayed
in the Detail View window (the viewport).
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
20
Introduction
3.2.4
Errors Window
Interface
The Errors Window displays the results of the syntax and semantic checks.


The syntax check is executed when the menu command RDF/OWL | Syntax Check is
selected or when the toolbar icon
is clicked.
The semantics check (for OWL Lite and OWL DL ontologies) is executed when the
menu command RDF/OWL | Semantics Check is selected or when the toolbar icon
is clicked. The semantics check always includes a syntax check.
If the test returns a positive result, a message about the ontology being well-formed (syntax
check) or partially consistent (semantics check) is displayed in the Errors Window. The
semantics check (for OWL Lite and OWL DL ontologies) is a partial consistency check and
returns a positive result (partially consistent) if no error or inconsistency is found.
Below the title bar of the Errors Window is a bar containing buttons that allow you to: (i)
configure the display of messages in the Errors Window; (ii) navigate the messages in the
Errors Window; and save messages to the clipboard. See screenshot below.
These buttons are described below, and a tooltip for each is displayed when the cursor is
placed over it.
Filters and display
Clicking the Filter button (leftmost button), pops up a menu (screenshot below), in which you
can select what messages are displayed in the Errors Window.
In this menu, you can select whether errors, warnings, information, and/or inconsistency
warnings should be displayed in the Errors Window. To select a particular message type for
display, select it so that it is checked. The Check All option causes all message types to be
selected for display; the Uncheck All option deselects all message types.
The Clear button, clears all messages currently displayed.
Navigation
The Next and Previous buttons (second and third from left) enables you to navigate up and
down the list of messages, respectively, one message at a time. When a message is selected,
this is indicated by its being highlighted (see screenshot below).
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Introduction
Interface
21
You can also select a message by clicking it. Selecting a message is useful if you wish to save
a particular message to the clipboard.
Copying to clipboard
There are three ways in which messages can be copied to the clipboard: (i) copy the selected
line; (ii) copy the selected line and its children; and (iii) copy all messages. The corresponding
buttons are the fourth, fifth, and sixth from left. Placing the cursor over these buttons causes a
tooltip for that button to be displayed.
© 2008 Altova GmbH
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Introduction
3.3
Overview of Usage
Overview of Usage
This section broadly describes how SemanticWorks is to be used to:


Create and edit ontologies
Create and edit RDF documents
Creating and editing ontologies
When creating or editing ontologies with SemanticWorks, the broad usage procedure is as
follows:
1. Create a new ontology document or load an existing ontology document into
SemanticWorks.
2. Edit the document in RDF/OWL View.
3. Within SemanticWorks, check document syntax and/or semantics against RDF
Schema, OWL Lite, OWL DL, or OWL Full specifications.
4. Save the document as a .rdf, .rdfs, or .owl file.
5. If required, export the document as an N-Triples (.nt) or XML (.xml) file.
Steps 1, 4, and 5 in the above process are straightforward. In this section, we briefly discuss
how ontologies can be edited in RDF/OWL View (Step 2 above) and checked for correct syntax
and semantics (Step 3).
Editing ontologies in RDF/OWL View
Ontologies are best edited in RDF/OWL View. Text View should be used to check the
serialization, in XML format, of the ontology graph that was created or edited in RDF/OWL View.
Additionally, Text View can be used to make minor modifications to the XML serialization so that
this suits user preferences. However, most editing should be done in RDF/OWL View since this
provides a graphical, intuitive, and fast way to edit ontologies.
Editing an ontology in RDF/OWL View involves the following processes. There is no strict
sequence to be followed, and you will likely find yourself revisiting previous steps and revising
various ontology items.





Declaring namespaces and their prefixes. This is done at the document level (in the
URIref Prefixes dialog (Tools | URIref Prefixes)). Declaring namespaces is important
because they are used to identify ontology constructs, items from various vocabularies,
and user-defined resources. The RDF, RDFS, and OWL namespaces are declared by
default when a new ontology is created.
Select the ontology level. You do this using the menu command RDF/OWL | RDF/OWL
Level. Selecting the required level is important because: (i) the choice of constructs
made available in the GUI, and (ii) the syntax and semantics checks done by
SemanticWorks are based on this selection.
Setting up the ontology header. The ontology header is created at the ontology level
and is optional. It is useful when you wish to import one or more ontologies into the
current ontology, or when you wish to record a prior version of the ontology. You create
a new ontology in the Ontologies tab of Overview, then switch to Detail View and define
the ontology using Detail View editing mechanisms.
Creating new ontology items. Ontology items are classes, properties, instances,
AllDifferent items, and ontologies. Each such item must first be created in the
appropriate Overview tab. Only after the relevant items have been created, should you
go to the Detail View of an item to either define attributes of the item (e.g. create
restrictions for properties), or define relationships with other items (e.g. define an
intersection of classes).
Defining and editing items in Detail View. Definitions for ontology items are created and
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Introduction
Overview of Usage
23
edited in Detail View by selecting the required properties or relationships from a context
menu. SemanticWorks will make only those constructs available that are allowed
according to the ontology level you have selected.
Checking the syntax and semantics of ontologies
When you edit an ontology in RDF/OWL View, what is created is a graph of the ontology. This
graph is serialized in RDF/XML format—which is what is displayed in Text View. The syntax of
this document serialization can be checked for conformance. Additionally, OWL Lite and OWL
DL documents can be checked for correct semantics against the OWL Lite and OWL DL
specifications. Note, however, that the semantics check in SemanticWorks is a partial
consistency check. The significance of this is explained in the descriptions of the commands
Show Possible Inconsistencies and Semantics Check.
To check the syntax of ontology documents and the semantics of OWL Lite and OWL DL
documents, you do the following:


Select the required specification against which the ontology is to be checked (
RDF/OWL | RDF/OWL Level).
Click the Syntax Check or Semantics Check command (RDF/OWL menu) or button (in
the Toolbar).
If errors are detected, these are reported in the Errors Window, with each error including a link
(or links) to the relevant ontology item (screenshot below).
Creating and editing RDF documents
In RDF/OWL View, when the RDF/OWL level has been set to RDF, resources are listed in the
Overview pane of RDF/OWL View. The resources listed here are of two types: (i) those that are
made available from an ontology, and (ii) those that you create (or that are present in the RDF
document you are editing).
In order to make resources from an ontology available in the Resources Overview, you do the
following:
1. Import the namespaces used in the ontology.
2. Declare the namespaces required in the RDF document.
In the Resources Overview, you create resources as required, and name them. Next, in the
Detail View of each resource, you insert predicates, either by entering them or by selecting them
from a dropdown list of available resources (which include resources made available from an
ontology). The objects of RDF statements can also be inserted either by entering the name of
an RDF resource or selecting one from a list of available resources, or by entering a literal value
for the object. You can check the syntax of the RDF document at any time.
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Introduction
Overview of Usage
See the RDF Document tutorial for a detailed description of the steps listed above.
Alternatively, you can create and edit RDF documents directly in Text View, using RDF/XML or
N-Triples notation.
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Tutorial
4
Tutorial
In this tutorial, you will do the following:




Create an OWL Lite ontology from scratch;
Create an OWL DL ontology from scratch;
Create a set of RDF resources based on the OWL DL ontology;
Create an RDF document that uses Dublin Core vocabulary to describe metadata
associated with document-type resources.
The OWL Lite and OWL DL ontologies you create are small ontologies that take you through
the various features of SemanticWorks. After you have finished creating the ontologies, you will
have learned how to use all the features of SemanticWorks you need to quickly construct any
type of ontology. The RDF-document-creation part of the tutorial shows you how you can use
the resources of an ontology to create and define RDF resources, and includes a tutorial that
shows how to create an RDF document that uses the Dublin Core vocabulary.
Doing the tutorial
The OWL Lite and OWL DL parts of the tutorial start from scratch, so you do not need any file
to start with and can start on these parts of the tutorial as soon as you have successfully
installed SemanticWorks. The files created in these two parts of the tutorial are delivered in the
folder: C:/Documents and Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial.
The OWL DL ontology used to create an OWL DL-based RDF document is the OWL DL
ontology you will create in the OWL DL part of the tutorial. It is therefore better if you go through
the OWL DL part of the tutorial before you do the part in which you create an RDF document
based on this ontology. However, since the required ontology is available in the folder
C:/Documents and Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial, you can start
with the RDF document creation part if you like. The tutorial part for creating an RDF document
based on the Dublin Core starts from scratch, so, again, you can start with this part right away.
It is best to do the tutorial in sequence, that is, starting with the creation of an OWL Lite ontology
and ending with the creation of an RDF document that uses the Dublin Core vocabulary. The
reason for this is that basic usage mechanisms and concepts are explained in detail and
incrementally as you proceed in sequence. Before starting this tutorial, we also suggest that you
read through the Interface section in the Introduction so as to familiarize yourself with the GUI
and the terms used to describe it. Also, note that the screenshots in this tutorial draw the graphs
in Detail View horizontally, from left to right; this is a setting made in the Options dialog.
About the ontologies and naming conventions
The OWL Lite ontology you will create is used to describe Altova products, while the OWL DL
ontology describes Altova documents. These ontologies have deliberately been kept simple and
small, so that you can concentrate on the usage mechanisms and become familiar with
SemanticWorks, instead of being overwhelmed by the complexity of the ontologies.
In this tutorial we use the following naming conventions:


Class names and instance names are capitalized (for example, Documents). If a class
name consists of more than one word, the words are run together with each word
capitalized (for example, ProductManual).
Property names start with a lowercase alphabet (for example, source). If a property
name consists of more than one word, the words are run together with words
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subsequent to the first capitalized (responsibilityOf).
Note about namespaces
The namespaces used for the AltovaProduct and AltovaDocument ontologies are fictitious;
there are no ontologies or any other resource at the locations specified by the URIs in these
namespaces.
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OWL Lite Ontology
4.1
OWL Lite Ontology
The OWL Lite ontology you will create describes Altova products. It consists of the following
sections:







Creating a New Ontology: Shows how to create a new ontology document, select an
ontology level, and save the ontology document.
Declaring Namespaces: Explores the Text View and explains what namespaces are
required in your ontology document. You will declare namespaces for the
AltovaProducts vocabulary and for XML Schema datatypes.
Creating Classes: Describes how classes are created in RDF/OWL View, and explores
RDF/OWL View and Text View. Explains how to delete and re-create classes, and
shows how the syntax and semantics of the ontology can be checked in
SemanticWorks.
Creating the Class Hierarchy: Explains how classes are created as subclasses of
another class, and thus how a hierarchy of classes can be built. Describes how the
Detail View of RDF/OWL View works.
Defining Properties: Shows how to create OWL properties—both object and datatype—
and how to define the domain, range, and cardinality of properties. Also shows how
relationships between classes and properties can be viewed in SemanticWorks.
Declaring Instances: Describes how to create instances, how to define these as
instances of a particular class, and how to assign a literal value to an instance.
Concludes by showing how created instances can be viewed in the Classes Overview.
Declaring AllDifferent Instances: Explains how to collect instances in a group and define
each of them as being pairwise different from all other members of the group.
The OWL Lite ontology that is the end result of this tutorial part is delivered in the
SemanticWorks package as the file AltovaProducts.rdf; it is located in the application
folder: C:/Documents and Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial.
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Creating a New Ontology
In this section, you will learn how to create a new ontology document in SemanticWorks. You
will open a blank document in SemanticWorks, select an ontology compliance level (OWL Lite),
and save the document, while briefly exploring the SemanticWorks interface.
Creating a new ontology document in SemanticWorks
To create a new ontology document in SemanticWorks, do the following:
1. Start SemanticWorks by clicking the SemanticWorks shortcut
in the Quick Launch
tray or via the Start | All Programs menu item. SemanticWorks starts. The application
window looks something like this.
Notice that there are three windows: (i) the Main Window; (ii) the Overview Window;
and (iii) the Errors Window.
2. If the windows are not arranged as shown in the screenshot above, try arranging it in
this way. Do this by dragging the title bar of the Overview Window and dropping it on
the left-pointing arrow that appears in the Errors Window. The Errors Window itself
should be located at the bottom of the application window (down-pointing arrow of outer
circle arrows).
3. Click the New icon in the toolbar (or File | New or Ctrl+N) to open a blank document in
SemanticWorks. The Main Window will now look like this.
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Notice that there are five tabs at the top of the window and that the Classes tab is
selected. These five tabs organize the ontology information in five categories, thus
providing an overview of ontology information. We refer to this view as the Ontology
Overview (also called Overview for short; it should not be confused with the Overview
Window). Further, notice that a pane containing subsidiary categories for the selected
Overview category (currently, the Classes category) is displayed below the main
category. With the Classes tab selected, the subsidiary pane displays the instances and
properties of the selected class.
Selecting the language level of the ontology
The ontology you will create in this part of the tutorial will use features of the OWL Lite
sublanguage. SemanticWorks checks ontologies according to the language level selected by
the user, and also makes available constructors specific to the selected ontology language. It is
therefore best to select the required language at the outset. To select the OWL Lite
sublanguage, do the following:
1. In the RDF/OWL Level combo box in the toolbar, click the arrowhead to display the
dropdown list of options (screenshot below). (Alternatively, select RDF/OWL |
RDF/OWL Level to display a submenu of language levels.)
2. Select OWL Lite from the dropdown list.
Notice that as soon as the specification level is selected, a syntax check is run on the
document, and the message This ontology is well-formed is displayed in the Errors
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Window.
Note: You can change the RDF/OWL level at any time. The selected level is retained through
changes of views (Text View and RDF/OWL View). When you reopen an ontology document,
you should check that the desired language level is selected.
Saving the ontology
It is a good idea to save the ontology before continuing. Save the file using any name you like
and with either the .rdf or .owl file extension. (The .rdf extension is allowed because OWL
ontologies are themselves RDF documents; it is, in fact, more usual than the .owl extension.)
We'll assume that the file you create in this part of the tutorial is called AltovaProducts.rdf.
Having done all of the above, you are now ready to declare namespaces for your ontology.
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4.1.2
Declaring Namespaces
OWL Lite Ontology
In this part of the tutorial, you are creating an OWL Lite ontology for Altova products using a
custom-made vocabulary which belongs to a unique namespace. Before starting to use this
vocabulary in the ontology, you must, in the interests of good practice, declare the namespace
for the vocabulary, as well as any other namespaces you require. Declaring the required
namespaces is what you will do in this section. In the course of carrying out these steps, you will
also see the RDF/XML format of your ontology in Text View.
Text View of SemanticWorks
To see how the RDF/XML representation of the newly created ontology looks, click the Text
View button at the bottom of the Main Window. The Text View will look something like this.
Notice that there is a single element rdf:RDF, which is the root element of every OWL
ontology. It has three namespace declarations (for the RDF, RDFS, and OWL namespaces).
SemanticWorks inserts the RDF, RDFS, and OWL namespaces by default; they are required so
as to be able to use RDF, RDFS, and OWL elements and attributes in the ontology document.
Note: You can configure Text View fonts in the Options dialog (Tools | Options).
Declaring namespaces for the ontology document
Your Altova product vocabulary will use the namespace
http://www.altova.com/ontologies/product#, and this needs to be declared. You will
also need to declare the XML Schema namespace so you can use the XML Schema datatypes
for OWL datatype properties. Declare namespaces as follows:
1. Select RDF/OWL View.
2. Select the command Tools | URIref Prefixes. This pops up the URIref Prefixes dialog.
3. In this dialog, click the Add button to add a line for a new namespace declaration.
4. In the Prefix column, enter prod. In the URI column, enter
http://www.altova.com/ontologies/product#.
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5. Next, add the XML Schema namespace http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#,
giving it a prefix of xsd. The URIref Prefixes dialog will look something like this:
5.
Switch to Text View to check that the newly declared namespaces have been correctly
added.
You have now declared all the namespaces for your ontology, and you can now start creating
ontology items.
Note:



It is important to declare namespaces at the very outset. This ensures that URIref
prefixes used in the names of ontology items are correctly expanded to the relevant
namespaces when a new ontology item is created. If a namespace has not been
declared, then the URIref prefix associated with that namespace, when used in the
name of an item, will not be expanded to that namespace.
The expansion of a URIref prefix to a namespace will not take place even if: (i) the
relevant namespace is declared subsequent to the creation of an item; or (ii) if the
ontology item is renamed after the namespace is declared but was created before the
namespace was declared.
Ontology items with unexpanded prefixes might not be correctly recognized.
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4.1.3
Creating Classes
In this tutorial, we will build the ontology using a generally top-down approach. Whatever
approach one chooses, it is usual to start by defining classes. In this section you will learn how
to create three classes in RDF/OWL View: Product, XMLSpy, and Edition, and check the
ontology for correct syntax and semantics.
Creating new classes
SemanticWorks enables you to name classes so that they are represented in the RDF/XML
serialization using either (i) namespace prefixes to stand for the namespace URI, or (ii) the full
URIref (that is, with the prefix expanded). You will create the classes Product and XMLSpy
using a different serialization method for each. Do this as follows:
1. In the Classes tab of RDF/OWL View, click the Add New button and select owl:Class
.
This creates a line for the class in the Classes Overview.
2. With urn:Unnamed-1 in the newly created class entry line highlighted, type in
prod:Product, and press Enter.
This creates a class with a URIref of
http://www.altova.com/ontologies/product#Product. Switch to Text View
to see how the class has been serialized in RDF/XML. You will see something like this:
<rdf:Description rdf:about="
http://www.altova.com/ontologies/product#Product">
<rdf:type>
<rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#Class
"/>
</rdf:type>
</rdf:Description>
Notice that the class name has been serialized as an expanded URIref. This is because
the Expand URIref Prefixes option (Tools | Expand URIref Prefixes in RDF/OWL View
) has been toggled on. Notice also that, although the URIref has been expanded in its
serialized form, it is shown in RDF/OWL View as prod:Product, that is, with a prefix
for the namespace part of the URIref. In RDF/OWL View, URIrefs are shown in the
form in which they are entered.
3. In RDF/OWL View, create two new classes and name them prod:XMLSpy and
prod:Edition. In Text View, you will see that the two new classes have been
serialized as expanded URIrefs. In RDF/OWL View, the URIrefs are shown in the form
in which they were entered (that is, prod:XMLSpy and prod:Edition).
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URIrefs with Prefixes, and How to Delete a Class
If you wish to serialize the RDF/XML using URIref prefixes instead of expanded URIrefs,
click the Expand URIref Prefixes toolbar icon
so as to deselect it. Identifiers created
from now onwards (and till this option is toggled on again) will be serialized with names in
the form prefix:localname.
From now on, every input is solely understood as a URI (absolute or relative) and is not
understood as prefix-and-local-name. That is, prefixes that would have been expanded to a
URI part when the option is activated are now simply used as the scheme part of the URI
that is entered. Note that all relative URIs will be resolved against the document's global
base URI. Furthermore, note that choices offered by dropdown boxes are also affected by
this option; so if the setting is that URIref prefixes are not expanded, dropdown boxes
always show full URIs instead of abbreviated URIrefs.
To see how unexpanded URIrefs are serialized, do the following:
1. Delete the class XMLSpy (by selecting it and clicking Edit | Delete).
2. Deselect Expand URIref Prefixes so it is toggled off.
3. Re-create the class XMLSpy, naming it prod:XMLSpy.
The Text View will show the class serialized as prod:XMLSpy with the prefix unexpanded.
If you do try this out, be sure to once again delete the XMLSpy class and re-create it as it
was originally created, that is with URIref prefixes expanded.
Checking the ontology
You now have a simple ontology that declares three URIrefs to be three unrelated OWL
classes. To check the syntax of the ontology, click the Syntax Check icon
in the toolbar (
RDF/OWL menu). The message This ontology is well-formed appears in the Errors
Window. Now check the semantics of the ontology by clicking the Semantics Check icon
the toolbar. The message This ontology is at least partially consistent
appears in the Errors Window. This is a valid ontology (has correct syntax and is partially
consistent), but does not provide much information about the three classes. (For more
information on consistency evaluation, see Semantics Check.)
in
In the next sections of the tutorial, you will create the class hierarchy, which will link classes
semantically with each other.
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4.1.4
Creating the Class Hierarchy
In this section, you will learn how the three classes (Product, XMLSpy, and Edition) created
in the previous section can be linked in a simple hierarchy. What we wish to do is:


Define XMLSpy as a subclass of Product, which essentially states that any instance of
the XMLSpy class must also be an instance of the Product class.
Use the Edition class to (i) define it as the range of a property called
prod:hasEdition, and (ii) create instances of Edition.
Creating a class as a subclass of another
To create the class XMLSpy as a subclass of the class Product, do the following:
1. In the Classes tab of RDF/OWL View, click the Detail View button of the prod:XMLSpy
class (screenshot below).
This switches the view to the Detail View of the XMLSpy class (screenshot below).
Notice the shape of the classes box. All classes in Detail View are indicated by this
arbitrary-hexagon-shaped box.
2. In Detail View, right-click the prod:XMLSpy classes box. This pops up a context menu
(screenshot below).
3.
Select Add subClassOf from the context menu. This adds a subClassOf connector
to the prod:XMLSpy box (screenshot below).
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4. Right-click the subClassOf connector, and, in the context menu that appears, select
Add Class (screenshot below).
A class box is added that is linked to the subClassOf connector (screenshot below),
indicating that the class represented by this class box is a subclass of the XMLSpy
class.
5. To select which class this class box represents, click the downward-pointing arrow at
the right-hand side of the class box. This drops down a list of available classes (
screenshot below).
Notice that the set of available classes consists of the classes you have declared in this
ontology plus the two general OWL classes Thing and Nothing.
6. Select prod:Product from the dropdown list to complete the definition (screenshot
below).
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The diagonal arrow at bottom left of the Product class box indicates that the box is a
reference to the class Product.
Having carried out the steps above, you have defined that the class XMLSpy is a subclass of the
class Product. Now do the following:


Check the Text View to see the RDF/XML serialization of your new definition.
Check the syntax and semantics of the modified ontology. Both syntax and semantics
checks should return positive results.
Relating a class to its properties and instances
In the steps above, you have learned how to define relationships between two classes. In
SemanticWorks, relationships between classes are defined in the Detail View of the appropriate
class. To define a relationship between a class and its property (for example, the domain and
range of a property), the definition is made on the property. Similarly, the definition that an
instance is an instance of a particular class is made on the instance.
In this tutorial, we wish to do the following:


Define the class XMLSpy to be the domain of the property hasEdition, and the class
Edition to be the range of the property hasEdition. This would mean that the
property hasEdition applies to the class XMLSpy and takes values that are instance
of the class Edition.
Declare instances of the class Edition.
These property definitions and instance declarations are made in the following sections.
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Defining Properties
Properties are created at a global level and then related to different classes. In our ontology, we
require two properties:


hasEdition to carry information about the edition of a product. The edition can be
Enterprise, Professional, or Home. We will create this property as an object property.
Doing this enables us to relate one resource to another. In this case we wish to relate
instances of the XMLSpy class to instances of the Edition class via the hasEdition
property. The class (or classes) that the property applies to is called the property's
domain, while the set of values the property can take is called the property's range.
version, which is a literal value indicating the year in which a product is released. We
will create this property as a datatype property. It relates instances of the XMLSpy class
to a positive integer (which is the year of release and gives the version of the product).
Creating properties
Properties are created in the same way that classes are created, by clicking the Add New
button and then specifying the name of the property to be created. To create a property, do the
following:
1. In the Properties tab of RDF/OWL View, click the Add New button, and select
owl:ObjectProperty.
2. This creates a line for the newly created object property. In this line, enter
prod:hasEdition as the name of the new object property.
3. Now add a datatype property by: (i) clicking the Add New button and selecting
owl:DatatypeProperty, and (ii) entering prod:version as the name of the
datatype property.
You have now created two properties: (i) an object property called hasEdition, and (ii) a
datatype property called version. The Properties tab should now look like this:
You are now ready to define the properties in Detail View.
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Defining properties
The first thing you should note when working with OWL properties in SemanticWorks is that
object properties and datatype properties are indicated with slightly different symbols in Detail
View. Double-click the Detail View icon
to see the Detail View symbol for each property:
Object properties are indicated with an O icon in the top-left corner, datatype properties are
indicated with a DT icon. The icons to the right of these two icons are actually toggle switches
for specifying the cardinality constraints and characteristics of properties. They are toggles for,
from left to right, setting the property to be a functional property; an inverse-functional property;
a transitive property; and a symmetric property. Note that a datatype property is only allowed the
functional property relationship.
Defining an object property
You will now define the relationships and characteristics of the two properties you have created.
Do this as follows:
1. Double-click the Detail View icon
of the hasEdition property. This brings up the
Detail View of the property.
2. Right-click the prod:hasEdition box, and, from the context menu that appears,
select Add Domain (screenshot below).
3.
The Domain connector box is inserted.
Right-click the Domain connector box, and select Add Class (screenshot below).
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A Class box is inserted.
4. Click the down arrow in the Class box, to drop down a list of available classes, and
select prod:XMLSpy (screenshot below).
The class prod:XMLSpy is set as the domain of the property prod:hasEdition.
This relationship states that the hasEdition property is applicable to the class
XMLSpy.
5. In the same way that you set the domain of the property, now set the range of the
property: (i) right-click the hasEdition property box; (ii) select Add Range; (iii)
right-click the Range connector box; (iv) select Add Class; (v) from the dropdown list in
the Class box, select the class prod:Edition. The Detail View of the hasEdition
property should look like this:
The range of the property is now set to be instances of the class Edition.
Defining the cardinality constraint of a property
We wish to specify that the property hasEdition can take only one instance of the Edition
class as its value. This is done by specifying that the hasEdition property is functional. To
make the property functional, click the f icon (functional property icon) in the hasEdition
property box. The Detail View of the hasEdition property should look like this:
Notice that the f icon in the hasEdition property box is highlighted, indicating it is toggled on.
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Defining a datatype property
For the datatype property prod:version, you will define a domain similarly as defined above
for the object property has:Edition. Set the domain to the class XMLSpy. For the range, we
wish to define the XML Schema datatype xsd:positiveInteger. Do this as follows:
1. Add the Range connector box, by right-clicking the version property box and selecting
Add Range.
2. Right-click the Range connector box, and select Add XML Schema Datatype. A
Datatype box is added.
3. From the dropdown list in the Datatype box, select xsd:positiveInteger (
screenshot below).
4. Set the cardinality of the version property by toggling on the functional property
specification.
The version property is now a functional property. It is applicable to instance of the class
XMLSpy (its domain) and can take values that are of the XML Schema datatype
xsd:positiveInteger (its range). The Detail View of the version property should look like
this:
Domain listing in Properties Overview
When you switch to the Properties Overview (that is, the Properties tab in the Ontology
Overview), notice that the domains of the selected property are displayed in the subsidiary
window (screenshot below).
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Click the Detail View button of a domain class to go directly to the Detail View of that class.
Class properties in Classes Overview
You can see the properties of a selected class in the subsidiary Class Properties window of the
Classes Overview (Classes tab in the Ontology Overview). See screenshot below.
Click the Detail View button of a property to go directly to the Detail View of that property.
Checking the syntax and semantics of the ontology
At this stage, check the syntax (RDF/OWL | Syntax Check) and the semantics (RDF/OWL |
Semantics Check) of your ontology, making sure that the OWL Lite level is selected. Your
OWL Lite ontology till this point should be both well-formed and at least partially consistent.
Checking the relationships between properties and classes
Both properties (hasEdition and version) were set to have the class XMLSpy as its domain,
meaning that both properties are applicable to the XMLSpy class. Now check the effect of these
definitions on the XMLSpy class. Do this as follows:
1. Go to the Document Overview (by clicking the Overview icon
located at the top left
of Detail View).
2. Select the Classes tab.
3. Go to the Detail View of the class XMLSpy (by clicking the Detail View icon next to the
class entry). The Detail View of the XMLSpy class should look something like this:
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Here we see that the class XMLSpy is a subclass of the class Product, and has two
properties: the object property hasEdition and the datatype property version.
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Declaring Instances
So far you have created three classes, Product, XMLSpy, and Edition, and two properties,
the object property hasEdition and the datatype property version. You have defined both
properties to apply to the XMLSpy class (by making this class the domain of the properties).
Further, you have defined (i) the range of the hasEdition property (that is the values this
property can take) to be instances of the Edition class, and (ii) the range of the version
property to be a literal value of the XML Schema datatype positiveInteger.
In this section, you will first create three instances of the Edition class, which will be simple
instances, and then three more complex instances of the XMLSpy class.
Creating simple instances
To create an instance of the Edition class, do the following:
1. In the Instances tab of RDF/OWL View, click the Add New button and select Instance.
This creates an entry for an instance.
2. Enter prod:Enterprise as the name of the instance (screenshot below).
3. Click the Detail View button of the prod:Enterprise entry to switch to Detail View,
which will look something like this:
4. Expand the rdf:type connector by clicking the plus symbol on its right-hand side.
Detail View will now look something like this:
5. Double-click the owl:Thing box, click the down arrow to drop down the list of
available classes of which prod:Enterprise can be made an instance, and select
prod:Edition (screenshot below).
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You have created prod:Enterprise as an instance of prod:Edition.
6. Check the syntax and semantics of your ontology. You should get messages saying the
ontology is both well-formed and partially consistent.
7. Create two more instances of the Edition class, as described above, and call them
prod:Professional and prod:Home, respectively.
8. Check that your ontology is well-formed and partially consistent, which it should be if
you have done everything as described above.
You now have three instances of the Edition class: Enterprise, Professional, and
Home.
Note:
An alternative way of creating instances of a class is to go to the Detail View of that
class, then right-click the class and select Add New Instance. The new instance is
created and displayed in the Instances tab of Detail View. Name the instance as
required.
Creating instances that have predicates (properties)
You will now create three instances of the XMLSpy class. These instances will each additionally
be defined with the two properties, hasEdition and version, that apply to the XMLSpy class.
Create these instances as follows:
1. In the Instances tab of RDF/OWL View, click the Add New button and select Instance.
Name the instance prod:XMLSpyEnterprise.
2. Click the Detail View button of the prod:XMLSpyEnterprise entry to switch to Detail
View.
3. Expand the rdf:type connector and select prod:XMLSpy. This defines
XMLSpyEnterprise as an instance of the class XMLSpy. The Detail View will now
look something like this:
4. Right-click the XMLSpyEnterprise instance box, and select Add Predicate (
screenshot below).
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5. In the property box, click the down arrow to drop down a list of properties defined for
this class, and select prod:hasEdition (screenshot below).
6. Right-click the prod:hasEdition property box and select Add Resource Object (
screenshot below).
7. Click the down arrow of the Resource Object box and click prod:Enterprise from
the dropdown list of available instances (screenshot below).
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8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
OWL Lite Ontology
This defines that the object property hasEdition has the instance Enterprise (of
the class Edition) as its object. Recall that you have set the range of the
hasEdition property to be instances of the class Edition. If you check the
semantics of the ontology, you will see that the ontology is valid (well-formed and
partially consistent).
Double-click the Enterprise Resource Object box, select XMLSpyEnterprise, and
do a semantic check. You will receive an error message saying that the resource
object XMLSpyEnterprise is not within the range defined for the property
hasEdition. Double-click the Enterprise Resource Object box, and select
Enterprise again, which is what we want.
Right-click the XMLSpyEnterprise instance box, and select Add Predicate to add a
second property.
Select the property prod:version from the dropdown list to add this property as a
predicate.
Right-click and select Add Literal Object. (Recall that the version property has a literal
value of the XML Schema datatype positiveInteger defined as its range.
SemanticWorks automatically provides the correct entry helper.)
Enter 2006 at the blinking cursor in the Literal Object box, and click Enter. The Detail
View should look something like this:
The instance XMLSpyEnterprise has therefore been defined to:



Be an instance of the class XMLSpy,
Have an object property hasEdition that takes the instance Enterprise as its
object, and
Have a datatype property version that takes the positiveInteger value 2006 as its
literal value.
If you check the semantics of the ontology, you will see a message saying that the ontology is
both well-formed and partially consistent. Now complete the ontology by creating two more
instances of the XMLSpy class. Call them XMLSpyProfessional and XMLSpyHome,
respectively. Define them just as you defined the XMLSpyEnterprise instance, with the only
difference being that they should have the Professional and Home instances, respectively,
as the objects of the hasEdition property.
Class instances in Classes Overview
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You can see the instances of a selected class in the subsidiary Instances for Class window of
the Classes Overview (Classes tab in the Ontology Overview). In the screenshot below, the
class XMLSpy is selected. The Instances for Class subsidiary window shows the instances for
the XMLSpy class.
Click the Detail View button of an instance to go directly to the Detail View of that instance.
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4.1.7
Declaring AllDifferent Instances
In the previous section, you created three instances of the XMLSpy class: XMLSpyEnterprise
, XMLSpyProfessional, and XMLSpyHome. These are the three editions of the XMLSpy
product. You specified the difference in the editions by using the property hasEdition and
assigning it three different object values, namely the instances Enterprise, Professional,
and Home, respectively. This, however, does not ensure that the three URIrefs
prod:XMLSpyEnterprise, prod:XMLSpyProfessional, and prod:XMLSpyHome are
indeed different, since two of them, or even all three, could actually be referring to a single
individual (or resource). That these are three different URIrefs must be explicitly stated, and the
AllDifferent construct is used to state the pairwise difference of instances in a collection.
In this section of the tutorial, you create an AllDifferent collection object and collect within it all
the instances that must be pairwise different. Do this as follows:
1. In the allDifferent tab of RDF/OWL View, click the Add New button and select
allDifferent. Name the newly created allDifferent item prod:XMLSpyEditions.
2. Click the Detail View button of the prod:XMLSpyEditions entry to switch to Detail
View (screenshot below).
3. Right-click the owl:DistinctMembers box, and select Add Instance.
4. Click the down arrow in the newly created instance box, and select
prod:XMLSpyEnterprise (screenshot below).
The XMLSpyEnterprise instance is selected as a distinct member of the
XMLSpyEditions AllDifferent collection.
5. Add the XMLSpyProfessional and XMLSpyHome instances to the collection (by
right-clicking the owl:DistinctMembers box and selecting Add Instance, then
selecting the respective instances). When you're done, the Detail View will look
something like this:
6.
Run a semantic check to confirm the validity (correct syntax and partial consistency) of
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the ontology, and then save the file.
Note:
Alternatively, you can specify that a set of instances are mutually different by selecting
those instances in the Overview of RDF/OWL View, right-clicking, and selecting the
Make Mutually Different command.
That's it!
You have successfully completed the OWL Lite tutorial. In the course of this tutorial you have
learned how to build an OWL Lite ontology using SemanticWorks and have become familiar
with the interface, features, and mechanisms of SemanticWorks.
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OWL DL Ontology
4.2
OWL DL Ontology
The OWL DL ontology you will create describes Altova documents. It shows you how to use
SemanticWorks features that are not available when editing OWL Lite ontologies. It consists of
the following sections:






Setting up an OWL DL Ontology: Shows how to create a new ontology document,
select the ontology level, declare namespaces, and save the ontology document.
Creating Classes and Hierarchies of Classes: Shows how to create the ontology
classes and create a hierarchy of classes using the subclass connector.
Instances as Class Enumerations: Explains how instances can be created as class
enumerations, and why class enumerations are needed.
Defining Properties: Shows how to create OWL object and datatype properties, and
how to define their domain and range.
Describing Classes and Their Instances: The focus is on describing complex OWL DL
relationships between classes. You will learn how to describe a class as a union of two
classes and to further restrict that union. You conclude by creating instances of the
newly created restricted class and checking the syntax and semantics of the ontology.
Defining Complementary Classes and Their Instances: Explains how to state that one
class is a complement of another class. Class instaces are then created and defined,
and the ontology is checked for correct syntax and semantics.
The OWL DL ontology that is the end result of this tutorial part is delivered in the
SemanticWorks package as the file AltovaDocuments.rdf, and it is located in the
application folder: C:/Documents and Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial. Note that the
AltovaDocuments.rdf ontology is required for the RDF tutorial part, which uses its
resources.
Note: In this part of the tutorial we assume that you have already completed the earlier OWL
Lite part of the tutorial. Therefore, certain steps that were explained in detail in the earlier part
are not described in detail in this part. If you find that you are having difficulty with any step,
refer back to the corresponding section in the first (OWL Lite) part of the tutorial.
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Setting Up an OWL DL Ontology
Setting up an OWL DL ontology in SemanticWorks involves the same steps as with an OWL
Lite ontology. These are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Creating a new ontology document.
Setting the language level (OWL DL in this case).
Declaring namespaces.
Saving the file with a .rdf or .owl extension.
In this section, you will go through these steps in sequence.
Creating a new ontology document
To create a new ontology document, click the New toolbar icon
| New.
or select the command File
Setting the ontology language level
In the RDF/OWL Level combo box in the toolbar, select OWL DL. Alternatively, in the
RDF/OWL menu, select RDF/OWL Level, and then OWL DL.
Declaring namespaces
For the OWL DL ontology you are creating you need to declare three namespaces:



XML Schema namespace: http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#, to be declared
with a prefix of xsd.
A namespace for the Altova document vocabulary:
http://www.altova.com/ontologies/document#, with a prefix of doc.
The Dublin Core namespace for defining document metadata:
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/, with a prefix of dc.
Namespaces are declared in the URIref Prefixes dialog (menu item Tools | URIref Prefixes)
shown below. Add a line for each required namespace using the Add button. Then enter the
namespace and its prefix.
Note:

It is important to declare namespaces at the very outset. This ensures that URIref
prefixes used in the names of ontology items are correctly expanded to the relevant
namespaces when a new ontology item is created. If a namespace has not been
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

OWL DL Ontology
declared, then the URIref prefix associated with that namespace, when used in the
name of an item, will not be expanded to that namespace.
The expansion of a URIref prefix to a namespace will not take place if: (i) the
namespace is declared subsequent to the creation of an item using that URIref prefix;
or (ii) if the ontology item is renamed after the namespace is declared but was created
before the namespace was declared.
Ontology items with unexpanded prefixes might not be correctly recognized.
Saving the file
You can save the file with a .rdf or .owl extension using the File | Save (Ctrl+S) command.
Save the file with the name AltovaDocuments.rdf.
In the next section you will create the classes and define the class hierarchy.
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Creating the Classes
In the document ontology, which makes use of the Altova Document vocabulary, we wish to
create the following basic class hierarchy:
Document
|
|___PrintManual
|
|___WebPage
|
|___EnglishWebPage
|
|___GermanWebPage
Languages
OutputFormats
Creating the classes
To start with you will create the seven classes shown in the hierarchy above in the Classes
Overview. The procedure for creating each class is as follows:
1. Click the Add New button in the Classes Overview to create an entry for the new class (
screenshot below).
2. Type in the name of each class, using the doc: prefix for each. For example,
doc:Document.
After you have finished creating these seven classes, the Classes Overview should look
something like this:
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Check the validity of the document (correct syntax and partial consistency) by clicking the
icon (RDF/OWL | Semantics Check). You should get messages saying the document is both
well-formed and partially consistent.
Defining the class hierarchy for documents
Start by defining the class PrintManual as a subclass of the class Document. Do this as
follows:
1. In the Classes Overview, click the Detail View button of the PrintManual class.
2. In the Detail View of PrintManual, right-click the PrintManual box, and select Add
subClassOf.
3. Right-click the subClassOf connector box and select Add Class.
4. In the newly added class box, click the down arrow, and, from the dropdown list, select
doc:Document.
When you are done, the Detail View of the PrintManual class will look like this:
Now create the following classes as subclasses using the method described above:



WebPage as a subclass of Document.
EnglishWebPage as a subclass of WebPage.
GermanWebPage as a subclass of WebPage.
You have created a hierarchy for documents involving five of the seven classes you created.
The other two classes (Languages and OutputFormats) are not directly involved in this
hierarchy, and their definition will be described in the next section.
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Instances as Class Enumerations
For the two classes, Languages and OutputFormats, we wish to enumerate their instances,
specifically English (EN) and German (DE) for Languages, and HTML and PDF for
OutputFormats. The way to do this is to first create instances for the classes (for example, EN
and DE for Languages), and then specifying, for each class, that one of a list of enumerated
instances is allowed as the instance of that class.
Creating instances
Start by creating instances for the Languages class. As follows:
1. In the Instances Overview, click the Add New button to create an entry for the new
instance. Name the instance doc:EN.
2. Repeat this step twice to create two more instances: doc:DE and doc:FR. The
Instances Overview should now look like this:
3. Click the Detail View button of the EN instance.
4. In the Detail View of the EN instance, expand the rdf:type predicate box, and
double-click in the Resource Object box to pop up a down arrow on the right of the
Resource Object box (screenshot below).
5.
Click the down arrow to pop up a list containing available classes (screenshot below).
6.
Select doc:Languages. This creates EN as an instance of the class Languages.
7.
Define DE and FR as instances of the class Languages in exactly the same way you
made EN an instance of Languages.
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When you are done, you will have defined EN, DE, and FR as three instances of the class
Languages.
Note:
An alternative way of creating instances of a class is to go to the Detail View of that
class, then right-click the class and select Add New Instance. The new instance is
created and displayed in the Instances tab of Detail View. Name the instance as
required.
Making instances the enumerations of a class
Now we wish to specify that the class Languages may have either the instance EN or DE as its
value, but not FR. Do this as follows:
1. Click the Classes tab to go to Classes Overview, and there click the Detail View button
of the Languages entry.
2. In the Detail View of Languages, right-click the Languages box, and select Add oneOf
(which is not an OWL Lite feature but is an OWL DL feature).
3. Right-click the oneOf connector box and select Add Instance.
4. In the newly added instance box, click the down arrow, and, from the dropdown list,
select doc:EN.
5. Right-click the oneOf connector box again, add another instance, and select doc:DE.
The Detail View of Languages should now look like this:
This indicates that the class Languages may be instantiated by one of the instances EN or DE.
Since doc:FR may not be an instance of of the Languages class, change its type to the
general owl:Thing class (by double-clicking the Languages Resource Object box of doc:FR,
and then clicking the down arrow and selecting owl:Thing from the dropdown list that
appears).
Creating more enumerated classes
Now, using the same method as described above, create the instances HTML and PDF as
enumerations of the class OutputFormats. Do this as follows:
1. Create two new instances and name them doc:HTML and doc:PDF (in Instances
Overview).
2. Define doc:HTML and doc:PDF as being instances of the OutputFormats class (in
the Detail View of each instance separately).
3. Define the OutputFormats class to have HTML and PDF as its enumerated instances
(in the Detail View of the OutputFormats class, and by using the oneOf connector).
Check the semantics of the ontology to ensure partial consistency.
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Defining the Properties
In this section you will define three properties to hold metadata information about documents.
These properties are taken from the Dublin Core vocabulary for defining document metadata.
They are the dc:date, dc:language, and dc:format properties. In this section, you will
create the dc:date property as a datatype property with a range of the XML Schema datatype
date, and the dc:language and dc:format datatypes as object datatypes with ranges,
respectively of the Languages and OutputFormats classes. Create these three properties as
follows:
1. In the Properties Overview, click the Add New button to create an entry for a new
datatype property. Name the property dc:date.
2. Repeat this step twice to create two more properties, but create both as object
properties: dc:language and dc:format. The Properties Overview should now look
like this:
3. Click the Detail View button of the dc:date property.
4. In the Detail View of the dc:date property, right-click the property box, select Domain,
and set the Domain to the doc:Document class. Right-click the property box, select
Range, then right-click the Range connector and select Add XML Schema Datatype (
screenshot below). (The Add Data Range option creates an enumeration of data values
(literals).)
Set the range to xsd:date. (If required, double-click in the Datatype box to get a list of
available datatypes.) The Detail View should now look like this:
5. Set the domain and range for the dc:language and dc:format similarly. Set the
domains of both to the doc:Document class, the range of dc:language to the
doc:Languages class, and the range of dc:format to the doc:OutputFormats
class.
Note:
When the domain of a property is set to the Document class, all subclasses of the
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Document class are also implicitly in the domain of that property. Consequently, the
PrintManual, WebPage, EnglishWebPage, and GermanWebPage classes are also
in the domain of properties that have their domain set to the Document class.
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Describing Classes and Their Instances
In this section you will make class descriptions that specify restrictions and define detailed
relationships between classes. Specifically, we wish to define that:




The WebPage class is a union of the EnglishWebPage and GermanWebPage classes.
The WebPage class has a restriction specifying that all its instances must have a
dc:format property with an object that is the HTML instance.
An instance of the EnglishWebPage class must be an instance of the WebPage class,
with the restriction that its dc:language property have an object that is the EN
instance.
An instance of the GermanWebPage class must be an instance of the WebPage class,
with the restriction that its dc:language property have an object that is the DE
instance.
After creating these descriptions, you will create instances of these classes to test the validity of
the axioms you have defined.
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Defining a class as a restricted union of classes
To define the WebPage class as a union of the EnglishWebPage and GermanWebPage
classes, with a restriction that instances of the class have a dc:format property having a
value that is the HTML instance, do the following:
1. In the Classes Overview, click the Detail View button of WebPage.
2. In the Detail View of WebPage, right-click the WebPage class box and select Add
unionOf.
3. Right-click the unionOf connector, click Add Class from the context menu, and select
doc:EnglishWebPage.
4. Right-click the unionOf connector, click Add Class from the context menu, and select
doc:GermanWebPage.
5. Right-click the unionOf connector, click Add Restriction from the context menu, and
select dc:format.
6. Right-click the Restriction box and select Add hasValue.
7. Right-click the hasValue box, click Add Resource Object, and select doc:HTML.
The Detail View should look like this:
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Defining a class as a restriction of another class
To define the EnglishWebPage class as an intersection of the WebPage class and the
property dc:language having the EN instance as its object, do the following:
1. In the Classes Overview, click the Detail View button of EnglishWebPage.
2. In the Detail View of EnglishWebPage, right-click the subclassOf connector, click Add
Restriction from the context menu, and select dc:language.
3. Right-click the Restriction box and select Add hasValue.
4. Right-click the hasValue box, click Add Resource Object, and select doc:EN.
5. Right-click the EnglishWebPage box, and select Add disjointWith.
6. Right-click the disjointWith box, click Add Class, and select doc:GermanWebPage.
The Detail View should look like this:
Define the GermanWebPage class similarly, with the difference that the dc:language
restriction should be set to doc:DE and the class should be disjoint with the EnglishWebPage
class.
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Creating instances of restricted classes
Let us create an instance to denote the index page of the HTML version of the English user
manual of the XMLSpy Enterprise edition. Create and define this instance as follows:
1. In the Instances Overview, click the Add New button to create an entry for a new
instance. Name the instance doc:XMLSpyEnterpriseUserManualENHTML.
2. In the Detail View of the doc:XMLSpyEnterpriseUserManualENHTML instance,
expand the rdf:type predicate box, double-click in the Resource Object box to pop up a
down arrow on the right of the Resource Object box, and select
doc:EnglishWebPage.
Run a semantics check. You will get a message saying that the ontology appears to be
inconsistent. This is because an instance of the EnglishWebPage class must have the
dc:format and dc:language properties set, to HTML and EN, respectively. Make these
settings, together with that for the dc:date property, as follows:
1. Right-click the Instance box, click Add Predicate from the context menu, and select
dc:format.
2. Right-click the predicate box, click Add Resource Object from the context menu, and
select doc:HTML.
3. Right-click the Instance box, click Add Predicate from the context menu, and select
dc:language.
4. Right-click the predicate box, click Add Resource Object from the context menu, and
select doc:EN.
5. Run a semantics check to confirm adequate consistency.
6. Right-click the Instance box, click Add Predicate from the context menu, and select
dc:date.
7. Right-click the predicate box, click Add Literal Object from the context menu, and type
2006-10-03 in the newly created Literal Object box. Select the datatype toggle (by
clicking DT in the bottom half of the
icon). Then click the down arrow of the combo
box to display a dropdown list of available XML Schema datatypes, and select
xsd:date.
8. Run a semantics check to confirm adequate consistency.
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The Detail View should look like this:
Create and define an instance called doc:XMLSpyEnterpriseUserManualDEHTML similarly,
with the difference that (i) this will be an instance of the GermanWebPage class, and (ii) the
dc:language predicate should take doc:DE as its object.
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RDF Documents
4.3
RDF Documents
In SemanticWorks, you can create RDF statements using the resources of ontologies
referenced through the SemanticWorks interface. In the graphical RDF/OWL View, you create a
new resource and then add predicate–object pairs for that resource. Predicates and objects can
be selected in the SemanticWorks GUI from a list of resources made available via the
referenced ontologies. The ontology resources are available in the SemanticWorks GUI as
entry helpers, and are entered in the RDF document as URIrefs based on namespaces you
declare for the RDF document.
In this part of the tutorial, you will create two RDF documents:


Instances for an OWL DL Ontology, which provides a detailed description of the
mechanism for creating, in a separate document, RDF resources based on resources
from an ontology. This enables you to use an ontology on the Internet or a local
network, as the basis of a separate RDF document.
Creating a Dublin Core (DC) Document, which shows how you can create Dublin Core
metadata for a resource such as a Web page or a book.
Note: If the resources of an ontology are not available, you can always directly type in URIrefs
as required (in either Text View or RDF/OWL View).
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Instances for an OWL DL Ontology
This RDF document is based on the OWL DL ontology (AltovaDocuments.rdf) you created
in the previous part of this tutorial. The objective is to create instances of this OWL DL ontology
in a separate RDF file. In order to be able to create such instances using ontology properties as
predicates and ontology instances as objects, ontology resources must be availabe to the user
via the GUI.
This part of the tutorial describes (i) how to set up the RDF document in SemanticWorks so that
ontology resources are available via the GUI; and (ii) how to actually make RDF statements
using these resources. This part of the tutorial is organized into three sections:



Creating a New RDF Document;
Referencing the Ontology;
Making RDF statements
Note: You will need to know the location of the file AltovaDocuments.rdf, which you
created in the previous section, OWL DL Ontology. If you did not do that part of the tutorial, you
will find the file AltovaDocuments.rdf in the application folder: C:/Documents and
Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial.
Creating a New RDF Document
Create a new RDF document as follows:
1. Click the New toolbar icon
or select the command File | New.
2. In the RDF/OWL Level combo box in the toolbar, select RDF. Alternatively, in the
RDF/OWL menu, select RDF/OWL Level, and then RDF.
3. Save the document as AltovaDocumentInstances.rdf.
In the next section you will set up your document to reference the AltovaDocuments.rdf
ontology and to use resources from this ontology in your RDF document.
Referencing the Ontology
The AltovaDocuments.rdf ontology needs to be referenced by the RDF document so that
its resources (classes, properties, and instances) become available for use in the RDF
document. The ontology referencing mechanism in SemanticWorks is implemented via a
two-step procedure:


Import namespaces from the ontology. In this step, each ontology namespace to be
imported is listed, together with the location of the file. This is done in the Namespace
Imports dialog (Tools | Namespace Imports for RDF).
Declare the namespaces that will be used in the RDF document. All namespaces that
will be used in the RDF document, including the imported namespaces, are declared,
and prefixes are assigned for namespaces. This enables you to use the prefixes as
shorthand for the namespace part of URIrefs. Namespaces are declared in the URIref
Prefixes dialog (Tools | URIref Prefixes).
For your RDF document, you should carry out these two steps as described below.
Importing namespaces from the ontology
The ontology you will be referencing is the OWL DL ontology AltovaDocuments.rdf, which
you created in the previous part of this tutorial. This ontology uses three namespaces that you
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need to import into the RDF document:



http://www.w3.org/XMLSchema#
http://www.altova.com/ontologies/document#
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
To import these namespaces, do the following:
1. Click Tools | Namespace Imports for RDF. This pops up the Namespace Imports
dialog (screenshot below).
2.
3.
4.
Add a line for a new entry by clicking the Add button, then enter the first namespace in
the Namespace column and the location of the AltovaDocuments.rdf ontology in
the Import File column. Note that you should give the absolute path for the ontology
document.
Repeat Step 2 twice to add the next two namespaces and the ontology location. (The
ontology location is the same for all three namespaces.)
When you are done, click OK.
Declaring namespaces for the RDF document
The RDF document you are creating uses three namespaces in addition to the RDF
namespace:



XML Schema namespace: http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#, to be declared
with a prefix of xsd.
A namespace for the Altova document vocabulary:
http://www.altova.com/ontologies/document#, with a prefix of doc.
The Dublin Core namespace for defining document metadata:
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/, with a prefix of dc.
Namespaces are declared in the URIref Prefixes dialog (Tools | URIref Prefixes) shown below.
Add a line for each required namespace using the Add button. Then enter the namespace and
its prefix.
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You are now ready to start making RDF statements using resources from the
AltovaDocuments.rdf ontology.
Troubleshooting
If the resources from the ontology do not appear in the Resources Overview, check the
following:




That RDF level is selected.
That the namespaces are correctly entered. You should also check that they tally with
the namespaces in the ontology document.
That the location of the ontology file is an absolute path and is correctly entered.
That namespaces have been correctly declared for the RDF document.
Making the RDF statements
The mechanism for creating RDF statements in SemanticWorks consists of:


Creating and naming the RDF resource (the subject) in the Overview of RDF/OWL
View.
In the Detail View of the resource, defining the predicates and objects of the resource.
You will now create resources for the various formats of the user manual of XMLSpy
Professional Edition.
Creating and naming the RDF resource
To create a new RDF resource, do the following:
1. In the Overview of RDF/OWL View, click the Add New button, and select Add Resource
(screenshot below).
An entry for the new resource is added to the list of resources.
2. Name the resource doc:XMLSpyProfessionalUserManualENHTML and press
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Enter. The resource is placed in the list according to its alphabetical order.
Defining the predicates and objects of the resource
The predicate and object of the newly created resource must be defined in the Detail View of
the resource. Do this as follows:
1. Click the Detail View button of doc:XMLSpyProfessionalUserManualENHTML to
go to its Detail View.
2. In Detail View, right-click the resource box and select Add Predicate.
3. Click the down arrow of the predicate box to display a list of all available resources (
screenshot below). Select dc:language.
4. Right-click the dc:language box, and select Add Resource Object.
5. From the dropdown list of the Resource Object box, select doc:EN. (If the down arrow
is not displayed at the right hand-side of the Resource Object box, double-click inside
the box to display it.) The representation of the RDF statement should look like this:
You have now defined one property of your resource and its value.
6. To define the dc:format property, right-click the resource box, click Add Predicate,
and select dc:format as the name of the predicate. Add a resource object to this
property, and select doc:HTML (from the dropdown list) to be the resource object.
7. Create a dc:date property for the resource. Add a literal object—not a resource object
—to the dc:date property, enter 2006-10-03 and select xsd:date as the datatype
of the literal object.
8. Add another predicate to the resource and select rdf:type as its name. Add a
resource object to the predicate and enter doc:EnglishWebPage as its name (
screenshot below).
The Detail View of the XMLSpyProfessionalUserManualENHTML resource will finally look
something like this:
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To complete the RDF document, create the following resources:

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
XMLSpyProfessionalUserManualDEHTML (language=DE, format=HTML,
rdf:type=GermanWebPage).
XMLSpyProfessionalUserManualENPDF (language=EN, format=PDF,
rdf:type=PrintManual).
XMLSpyProfessionalUserManualDEPDF (language=DE, format=PDF,
rdf:type=PrintManual).
Save the file and check the Text View of the document. Notice that only the newly created
resources are defined in Text View. The list of resources in the Overview of RDF/OWL View,
however, also includes the resources from the referenced ontology. This helps you to enter
ontology resources quickly in RDF statements. Further, clicking the Detail View of an ontology
resource causes the relationships of the resource to be displayed.
That's it!
You have learned how to quickly create RDF documents using the graphical interface of
SemanticWorks.
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4.3.2
Creating a Dublin Core (DC) Document
To create a Dublin Core (DC) document in SemanticWorks, you will need an ontology of the DC
vocabulary. The application folder C:/Documents and Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial contains an
OWL Lite ontology of the DC vocabulary, called DCOntology.rdf.
Creating a DC document involves the following two steps, both of which are described in detail
in the respective subsections:


Referencing the DC Ontology;
Creating the DC Metadata.
Note on the Dublin Core ontology delivered with SemanticWorks
The following points should be noted:




The ontology is an OWL Lite ontology
The DC vocabulary covered is the DC Simple set of 15 basic elements.
The DC elements have been created as properties in the ontology.
No datatypes have been defined for DC elements. If you wish to assign datatypes, then
select the required datatype in the GUI when entering the object definition. (Note that
defining the datatype in the ontology is not sufficient to create the metadata in the RDF
document as that datatype.)
Note on the Dublin Core template delivered with SemanticWorks
The following points should be noted:

The DC template is called DCTemplate.rdf and is located in the application folder:
C:/Documents and Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial.


The template is intended to be used as a starting point for building RDF documents
providing metadata while using the DC vocabulary.
The template references the DC ontology (DCOntology.rdf) using an absolute path.
You will need to change this absolute path so that it correctly points to the file
DCOntology.rdf in the folder: C:/Documents and Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial.
Referencing the DC Ontology
After opening a new document, select the RDF level (RDF/Owl | RDF/OWL Level) and save
the document as DCMetadataSample.rdf.
Referencing the DC ontology
To reference the Dublin Core (DC) ontology, do the following:
1. Check that you are in RDF level.
2. Click Tools | Namespace Imports for RDF. This pops up the Namespace Imports
dialog (screenshot below).
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In the Namespace column enter http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/, which is
the DC namespace declared in the ontology file DCOntology.rdf.
In the Import File column, enter the location of the ontology file DCOntology.rdf.
This file will have been delivered in the C:/Documents and Settings/<username>/My
Documents/Altova/SemanticWorks2008/SemanticWorksExamples/Tutorial folder of
the SemanticWorks application folder. Note that you should give the absolute path for
the ontology document.
If you have edited the ontology file to define XML Schema datatypes, you will need to
import the XML Schema namespace (http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#),
too. Enter the namespace to be imported in the Namespace column and the location of
the ontology file DCOntology.rdf in the Import File column.
Click OK to complete.
Note: Defining a DC element in the ontology as having a certain datatype does not
automatically insert that datatype annotation when that DC element is inserted in the RDF
document. The datatype information in the RDF document must be explicitly entered when
entering the object definition for that metadata.
Declaring namespaces for the RDF document
Your RDF document will require the DC (http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/) and XML
Schema (http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#) namespaces to be declared. Declare
these namespaces, with prefixes, in the URIref Prefixes dialog (Tools | URIref Prefixes) shown
below. Add a line for each namespace using the Add button. Then enter the namespace and its
prefix. Click OK to complete.
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Note:
The following points about namespaces in the RDF document should be noted.


If you do not wish to use datatyping in an RDF document, there is no need to declare
the XML Schema namespace. If, in this case, the ontology contains datatype
definitions, then these will appear in the GUI as expanded URIrefs. To collapse the
namespace part of the URIref, you should then declare the XML Schema namespace
with a prefix.
If you wish to create resources in a specific namespace, you must declare this
namespace.
After you have imported the DC ontology namespaces and declared namespaces for the RDF
document, the RDF/OWL View Overview should look like this:
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The 15 Simple DC elements are now available as resources and can be used as predicates of
RDF statements. You are now ready to start creating the DC metadata.
Troubleshooting
If the DC resources do not appear in the Resources Overview, check the following:




That RDF level is selected.
That the namespaces are correctly entered. You should also check that they tally with
the namespaces in the ontology document.
That the location of the ontology file is an absolute path and is correctly entered.
That namespaces have been correctly declared for the RDF document.
Creating the DC Metadata
In this section, you will create Dublin Core (DC) metadata for a single resource. Specifically, you
will create a resource called A Sample Page, and define dc:title, dc:description, and
dc:date elements for it.
Creating a new resource
To create a new resource, create the Add New button (screenshot below), and name the newly
created resource urn:SamplePage.
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Adding DC metadata for a resource
Click the Detail View button of urn:SamplePage to go to the Detail View of urn:SamplePage
(screenshot below).
Now do the following:
1. Right-click the urn:SamplePage box, click Add Predicate, and from the dropdown list
select dc:title. Right-click the dc:title box, click Add Literal Object, and type A
Sample Page in the newly created Literal Object box. The dc:title metadata is
created.
2. Right-click the urn:SamplePage box, click Add Predicate, and from the dropdown list
select dc:description. Right-click the dc:description box, click Add Literal
Object, and type A Sample Page for the DC metadata tutorial in the newly
created Literal Object box. The dc:description metadata is created.
3. Right-click the urn:SamplePage box, click Add Predicate, and from the dropdown list
select dc:date. Right-click the dc:date box, click Add Literal Object, and type
2006-10-03 in the newly created Literal Object box. Select the datatype toggle (by
clicking DT in the bottom half of the
icon). Then click the down arrow of the combo
box to display a dropdown list of available XML Schema datatypes, and select
xsd:date. The dc:date metadata is created and has the XML Schema datatype
xsd:date.
The Detail View of urn:SamplePage should look something like this:
Switch to Text View to see the RDF/XML serialization, which should look something like this:
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Notice that the dc:date element has an rdf:datatype attribute with a value of
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date, which indicates the date datatype of XML
Schema.
You can create as many DC elements that you want as predicates of this resource. To create
more resources, go back to RDF/OWL View Overview. Save the file to complete this part of the
tutorial.
That's it!
You have learned how to create a Dublin Core RDF document using the graphical interface of
SemanticWorks. In the Examples folder of the SemanticWorks application folder, you will find
a DC ontology (DCOntology.rdf) and a DC template (DCTemplate.rdf) to help you create
DC RDF documents.
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5
User Reference
This User Reference section describes all the icons that appear in the toolbars and Detail View
and the commands in SemanticWorks menus. It ends with a section on usage issues. The User
Reference is organized into the following subsections:










Toolbar Icons
Icons in Detail View
File menu commands
Edit menu commands
View menu commands
RDF/OWL menu commands
Tools menu commands
Window menu commands
Help menu commands
Usage Issues
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Toolbar Icons
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Toolbar Icons
Icons in the toolbar are shortcuts for various commands, all of which are also available as menu
commands. In this section, the icons are listed together with brief descriptions of the commands
for which they are shortcuts. The commands are described in more detail in the corresponding
menu section in the User Reference.
The toolbar icons are arranged in the following groups:





Main
View Options
Classes
Properties
Miscellaneous
Main
The Main group of icons are shortcuts to basic file and editing commands.
New (File menu, Ctrl+N)
Creates a new RDF document with a name of UntitledX, where X is an integer.
Open (File menu, Ctrl+O)
Pops up the Open dialog, in which you can browse for the file to be opened.
Save (File menu, Ctrl+S)
Saves the active document to file. Enabled only if the active document has been
modified.
Print (File menu)
Displays the Print dialog (for printing the Detail View of the selected item).
Undo (Edit menu, Ctrl+Z, Alt+Backspace)
Undoes an editing change.
Redo (Edit menu, Ctrl+Y)
Redoes an undo.
Cut (Edit menu, Ctrl+X, Shift+Delete)
Cuts the selected text (in Text View) from the document and saves it to the clipboard.
Copy (Edit menu, Ctrl+C)
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Toolbar Icons
Copies the selected text (in Text View) to the clipboard.
Paste (Edit menu, Ctrl+V)
Pastes the clipboard text into the active document at the cursor position.
Find (Edit menu, Ctrl+F)
Finds the submitted text string (in Text View).
Find Next (Edit menu)
Finds the next occurrence of the submitted text string (in Text View).
View Options
The View Options group of icons are shortcuts to commands that affect the view and the
semantics of the active document in the GUI.
Show Blank Nodes (View menu)
A toggle command that shows/hides blank nodes in the Overview categories.
Show Comments (View menu)
A toggle command that shows/hides comments in Detail View.
Show Possible Inconsistencies (View menu)
A toggle command to show/hide possible semantic inconsistencies in the ontology.
Applies to the semantics check on OWL Lite and OWL DL ontologies.
RDF/OWL Level (RDF/OWL menu)
Selects the RDF/OWL level for the active document: RDF, RDF Schema, OWL Lite,
OWL DL, or OWL Full. The selected level will apply till changed or till the document is
closed.
Syntax Check (RDF/OWL menu)
Checks the syntax of the active document.
Semantics check (RDF/OWL menu)
Checks the semantics of the active OWL Lite or OWL DL ontology document.
Reload All Imports (RDF/OWL menu)
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Reloads all ontologies that the active document imports.
Expand URIref Prefixes (Tools menu)
A toggle command to expand/use URIref prefixes in the serialized RDF/XML.
Classes
The Classes group of icons enables you to add a relationship to a class. These commands are
also available in the context menu that appears when the box of an eligible class is right-clicked
in Detail View.
Adds subClassOf
Adds a subClassOf relationship to a class.
Adds intersectionOf
Adds an intersectionOf relationship to a class.
Adds unionOf
Adds a unionOf relationship to a class.
Adds complementOf
Adds a complementOf relationship to a class.
Adds oneOf
Adds a oneOf relationship to a class.
Adds disjointWith
Adds a disjointWith relationship to a class.
Add equivalentClass
Adds an equivalentClass relationship to a class.
Properties
The Properties group of icons enables you to define certain attributes of properties. These
commands are also available in the context menu that appears when a property box is
right-clicked in Detail View.
Adds subPropertyOf
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Toolbar Icons
Adds a subPropertyOf relationship to a property.
Adds domain
Adds a domain for a property.
Adds range
Adds a range specifier for a property.
Add equivalentProperty
Adds an equivalentProperty relationship to a property.
Add inverseOf
Adds an inverseOf relationship to a property.
Miscellaneous
The Classes group of icons enables you to add a relationship to a class. These commands are
also available in the context menu that appears when the box of an eligible class is right-clicked
in Detail View.
Adds resource object
Adds a resource object to a predicate.
Adds literal object
Adds a literal object to a predicate.
Adds predicate
Adds a predicate to an RDF resource.
Adds restriction
Adds a restriction to a class or property relationship.
Adds allValuesFrom
Adds the allValuesFrom relationship to link a restriction to a class or data range.
Adds someValuesFrom
Adds the someValuesFrom relationship to link a restriction to a class or data range.
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Adds hasValue
Adds the someValuesFrom relationship to link a restriction to a class instance or a
data value.
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Icons in Detail View
5.2
Icons in Detail View
The various icons used to display relationships between ontology items in Detail View are listed
below, with a brief description. Icons are organized into the following groups:






Ontology items
RDF containers and collections
Class descriptions
Class axioms
Property descriptions
OWL individuals (instances)
Ontology items
Ontology items are classes, instances, properties, and literals. In the case of some items,
variants are distinguished.
The Class icon is used for both RDFS and OWL classes.
Contrast the bevelled edges on the left of the Class icon with
the rounded edges of the Instances icon.
Instances of RDFS and OWL classes, and subjects of RDF
Triples. (Instances are also known as Individuals in OWL
terminology.)
RDFS property. Distinguished from OWL properties by the lack
of symbols in the top left-hand corner.
OWL object property. Distinguished from OWL datatype
properties by the O symbol at extreme top left. The other
symbols, from left to right, are: functional property, inverse
functional property, transitive property, and symmetric property.
Clicking a symbol sets the property to that type.
OWL datatype property. Distinguished from OWL object
properties by the DT symbol at extreme top left. The property
type can be set to functional by clicking the f symbol.
OWL ontology. The ontology header is optional. It is useful for
importing other ontologies and for declaring prior versions.
../contd.
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RDF containers and collections
The following icons indicate class relationships, and can be inserted when a class is selected.
rdf:Bag
rdf:Seq
rdf:Alt
rdf:List
Class descriptions
The following icons indicate class relationships, and can be inserted when a class is selected.
owl:allValuesFrom. Specifies that all values allowed on a
restriction must come from the specified class or data range.
owl:someValuesFrom. Specifies that at least one value allowed on a
restriction must come from the specified class or data range.
owl:hasValue. Specifies the value that a restriction must take.
owl:unionOf. A class that is a union of two or more classes is equal
to that union.
owl:intersectionOf. When a class ABC containing A's, B's, and C's
intersects with a class CDE containing C's, D's, and E's, the resulting
class contains C's.
owl:complementOf. When a class A is a complement of class B,
then no instance of A can be an instance of B.
owl:oneOf. Describes a class by enumerating its instances.
../contd.
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Icons in Detail View
Class axioms
The following icons indicate OWL class relationships, and can be inserted when a class is
selected.
rdfs:subClassOf. The selected class is a subclass of another class.
owl:equivalentClass. Declares the equality of the selected class
with another class.
owl:disjointWith. Declares the inequality of the selected class with
other classes.
Property descriptions
The following icons indicate OWL class relationships, and can be inserted when a class is
selected.
rdfs:subPropertyOf. Declares the selected property as a
subproperty of another property. For example, the property
#hasMother could be a subproperty of the property #hasParent.
rdfs:domain. Specifies the domain of a property P, i.e. the class of
resources that may be the subject in a triple with the predicate P.
rdfs:range. Specifies the range of a property P, i.e. the class of
resources (or datatypes) that may be the value, in a triple, of the
predicate P.
owl:DataRange. Defines an enumeration of data values.
owl:equivalentProperty. Declares equivalence between
properties. Equivalent properties have the same property extensions.
owl:inverseOf. Declares one property to be the inverse of another.
For example, the property #hasChild could be the inverse of the
property #hasParent.
OWL individuals (instances)
The following icons indicate OWL class relationships, and can be inserted when a class is
selected.
owl:sameAs. Declares two individuals to be identical.
owl:differentFrom. Declares the inequality of two individuals.
owl:AllDifferent. Declares the pairwise inequality of all individuals
in a group.
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5.3
File Menu
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File Menu
The commands in the File menu enable you to create, open, save, export, and print
SemanticWorks files. (SemanticWorks files are files with the .nt, .rdf, .rdfs, and .owl file
extensions.)
New (Ctrl+N)
Opens a new blank document in the GUI with a name of UntitledX (where X is an integer).
This document can subsequently be saved as an RDF (.rdf), RDF Schema (.rdfs), or OWL
(.owl) file, or in the XML (.xml) or text (.txt) formats. To save to the N-Triples (.nt) format,
use the File | Export to .nt command. Note that since all OWL files are valid RDF files, they
are typically saved as .rdf files. The new document is created with the following rudimentary
content:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"
xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"/>
Notice that the RDF, RDF Schema, and OWL namespaces are automatically declared on the
rdf:RDF element.
Open (Ctrl+O)
Opens .rdf, .rdfs, .owl , .nt, and .xml files in the RDF/OWL view.
Save (Ctrl+S), Save As
Saves the active document as an RDF (.rdf), RDF Schema (.rdfs), OWL (.owl) file, or in
the XML (.xml) or text (.txt) formats. To save to the N-Triples (.nt) format, use the File |
Export to .nt command. Note that once a file is saved in a particular format, it is available only
in that format and can, therefore, only be viewed in that format in other editors. For example, a
.nt file can be viewed in a standard text editor in N-Triples format only; the graphical view of
this .nt file are features special to SemanticWorks.
Save Diagram as Image
This command is active in the Detail View of RDF/OWL View and saves the active Detail View
document as an image in PNG or EMF format.
Export to .nt and .xml
Exports the active SemanticWorks document as an N-Triples or XML file to the desired
location. The file is exported with the .nt or .xml file extension, respectively.
Close, Close All
Closes, respectively, the active document and all open documents.
Encoding
Pops up the Encoding dialog, in which you can set the encoding of the RDF/XML, RDF
Schema, or OWL document. The encoding you select is entered as the value of the encoding
attribute of the XML declaration of the document, as in <?xml version="1.0"
encoding="UTF-8"?>. Note that default encoding is set in the Encoding tab of the Options
dialog (Tools | Options).
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File Menu
Print, Print Preview, Print Setup
The Print and Print Preview commands are available for Text View and Detail View, and enable
these two views to be printed. The Print Setup command enables you to configure a printer for
the print job.
Recently Used Files
Displays the four most recently opened documents.
Exit
Closes all open documents and exits the application. If a document has unsaved changes, you
are prompted about whether you wish to save the changes.
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Edit Menu
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Edit Menu
The commands in the Edit menu enable you to navigate and edit documents in the
SemanticWorks interface quickly and efficiently.
Undo (Ctrl+Z), Redo (Ctrl+Y)
Respectively, undoes and redoes the previous command. Both commands can be used a
multiple number of times in sequence in order to undo or redo multiple steps. The command is
available in both Text View and RDF/OWL View.
Find (Ctrl+F), Find Next
In Text View or Detail View, finds the input text string if that string is present in the current view.
You can select options to match the input string as a whole word and/or whether the search
should be case-sensitive. In Text View (for which, screenshot of the Find dialog is shown below
), you can additionally search using regular expressions. Also, in Text View, when you click the
Advanced button, you can select what parts of the XML document are searched.
The Find Next command finds the next instance of the search string.
Replace
In Text View, pops up the Find and Replace dialog in which you can specify a text string A to
find and a text string B with which to replace the text string A. The options for specifying the text
string to find are as described for the Find command.
Delete (Delete)
In RDF/OWL View, deletes the selected object.
Cut (Shift+Delete), Copy (Ctrl+C), Paste (Ctrl+V)
In Text View, respectively, cuts or copies the selected text to the clipboard, and pastes from the
clipboard to the cursor position in Text View.
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5.5
View Menu
View Menu
The commands in the View menu enable you to configure the display of toolbars and the
Status Bar, and enable you to toggle on or off the display of blank nodes (anonymous classes).
Toolbars
The Toolbars menu item pops out a submenu in which you can choose whether to display a
toolbar or not. When one of these submenu items is checked, it is displayed in the GUI;
otherwise, it is hidden.
Details Window, Status Bar, Overview Window, Errors Window
The Status Bar menu item toggles on and off the display of the Details Window, Status Bar,
Overview Window, and Errors Window. The Status Bar is located at the bottom of the
SemanticWorks application window. The Status Bar displays a short description of menu items
and toolbar icons when the mouse is placed over such an item.
Show Blank Nodes
Toggles the display of blank nodes (anonymous classes) on and off. When selected, the toggle
is on (blank nodes are displayed); when unselected, the toggle is off (blank nodes are not
displayed).
Show Comments
Toggles the display of comments in Detail View on and off. When selected, the toggle is on
(comments are displayed in Detail View); when unselected, the toggle is off (comments are not
displayed). Note that comments in large ontologies are hidden in order to provide a better
graphical overview of the document. Note that comments are to be edited on the original
declaration; where they are displayed as references, they cannot be edited.
Show Possible Inconsistencies
A toggle command to show possible semantic inconsistencies within OWL Lite and OWL DL
ontologies. The semantic check in SemanticWorks is a partial semantic check. It is based on
knowledge explicitly stated in the ontology; implied knowledge is not deduced. This means that
implied knowledge, such as that derived through entailment or inference, will not be evaluated
when the ontology is checked for its semantics. The semantics check, therefore, checks for
inconsistencies in the explicit knowledge. The relationship between inconsistencies and the
semantics check of SemanticWorks is shown in the illustration below. (Also see the section
Semantics Check in the User Reference.)
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When the Show Possible Inconsistencies toggle is switched on, inconsistencies that arise
because implied knowledge is not used are displayed in the Errors Window (screenshot below).
When the toggle is switched off, possible inconsistencies are not displayed (screenshot below).
Note: The display of inconsistencies can also be switched on and off via the Inconsistency
Warnings filter in the Filter Menu of the Errors Window.
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RDF/OWL Menu
RDF/OWL Menu
The RDF/OWL menu contains commands that enable you to make settings for RDF/OWL
document editing and checking and commands to carry out these checks.
RDF/OWL Level
Pops out a submenu from which you can select the RDF or ontology specification (RDF
Schema, OWL Lite, OWL DL, or OWL Full) according to which the active document should be
edited. The RDF/OWL Level can also be selected in the corresponding combo box in the View
Options toolbar (screenshot below).
This step is important because it sets up the GUI for appropriate editing interaction. For
example, when RDF is selected, the Main Window contains only a Resources Overview as
opposed to the Overview of five categories when one of the ontology levels is selected. Further,
the insertion of items appropriate for the selected RDF/OWL level depends on the selection you
make.
When an existing document is opened, or when a new document is created, the OWL Full level
is selected by default. After you change the level to the required level, this level is maintained as
long as the document is open or till the level is changed. You can change levels as many times
as you wish. The display of the document will change accordingly.
Note: When the OWL Lite or OWL DL level is selected, you can additionally run syntax and
semantics checks on the document for that level (i.e. against the specification corresponding to
the selected level).
Reload All Imports
Reloads all imported ontologies in the active document. This command is useful if you have
modified an imported ontology after opening the active document.
Syntax Check
The Syntax Check command checks the syntax of the active document according to syntax
rules specified in the corresponding specification. The result of the check (positive =
well-formed) is displayed in the Errors Window pane. Additionally, if errors are detected, these
are listed in the Errors Window pane and include links to the Detail View of the offending items.
Semantics Check
The Semantics Check command is enabled when the active document has an RDF/OWL level
that is OWL Lite or OWL DL. It checks the semantics of the active document according to
semantics rules specified in the corresponding specification. The result of the check (positive =
at least partially consistent) is displayed in the Errors Window pane. Additionally, if errors are
detected, these are listed in the Errors Window pane and include links to the Detail View of the
items that lead to the inconsistencies.
Note that the semantics check is a partial semantics check, which means that only knowledge
stated explicitly in the ontology is evaluated, while knowledge implicit in certain ways (such as
from entailment) is not evaluated. Inconsistencies arising from the non-consideration of possibly
existent implicit information are displayed when the Show Possible Inconsistencies toggle
command is switched on. If an inconsistency possibly exists and if the Show Possible
Inconsistencies toggle is switched off, then the semantics check returns a result indicating the
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existence of apparent inconsistency. The possible inconsistencies can be viewed by switching
on the Show Possible Inconsistencies toggle. Only if no possible inconsistency is detected does
the semantics check return a positive result.
Also see Errors Window.
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5.7
Tools Menu
Tools Menu
The commands in the Tools menu enable you to customize the application (Options menu
item) and set up the active document's namespaces, URIref prefixes, URIref serialization, and
base URI. These commands are described in detail in the subsections of this section:
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Customize: describes the various ways you can customize your application.
Options: describes the options that can be set in the various tabs of the Options dialog.
Namespace Imports for RDF: describes how the Namespace Imports dialog can be
used to import namespaces and thereby make available resources described in an
ontology for insertion in an RDF document.
URIref Prefixes, Expand URIref Prefixes: describes the URIref Prefixes dialog and the
Expand URIref Prefixes feature.
Base URI: describes how to define a base URI for a document using the Base URI
dialog.
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Customize
The Customize command enables you to customize your SemanticWorks interface. Clicking
the command pops up the Customize dialog (screenshot below), in which customization options
are grouped in tabs.
Commands tab
The Commands tab displays all SemanticWorks commands, grouped by menu. Select a
command to display a description (in the Description pane) of what the command does. You
can also drag a selected command into a menu or toolbar in the GUI. When you do this, the
selected command is not removed from the menu in the Customize dialog in which it was
originally listed; neither does the command appear in the menu or toolbar list (in the Customize
dialog) into which it was dropped. A command that is dropped into a menu or toolbar appears
only in the GUI.
Toolbars tab
The Toolbars tab lists all SemanticWorks toolbars. Each toolbar contains icons that serve as
shortcuts for menu commands.Toolbars can be activated (that is, displayed in the
SemanticWorks GUI) by checking their corresponding check boxes. They are deactivated by
unchecking the corresponding check box. The Menu Bar toolbar cannot be deactivated. Note
that text labels can be enabled for individual toolbars. These text labels are the descriptive
labels you see for each command in the Commands tab of the Customize dialog (see above).
The Reset button resets toolbars to the original settings. The Reset All button resets all toolbars
and menus to their original settings. The New button enables you to define a new toolbar.
Note: You can also move individual toolbars to any location on the screen by dragging a toolbar
by its handle and dropping it at the desired location.
Keyboard tab
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Tools Menu
The Keyboard tab enables you to customize shortcuts for various commands. To define a new
shortcut key combination for a command (for which a key combination may or may not exist),
do the following:
1. Select the command for which you wish to assign a shortcut key combination from the
Commands pane.
2. Place the cursor in the Press New Shortcut Key text box, and press the shortcut key
combination you wish to use for this command.
3. If the key combination has already been assigned to a command, an "Assigned"
message appears below the text box. Otherwise, an "Unassigned" message appears.
Click the Assign button to assign an unassigned key combination to the selected
command.
You can remove a key-combination assignment by selecting the key combination in the Current
Keys pane and clicking the Remove button. Clicking the Reset All button resets the set of
shortcut key combinations to the original settings.
Menu tab
The Menu tab enables you to select context menus and set appearance options such as menu
shadows.
Options tab
The Options tab enables you to set the following Toolbar options: (i) whether Tool Tips are
displayed when the cursor is placed over a toolbar icon; (ii) whether shortcut keys are displayed
in Tool Tips; and (iii) whether toolbar icons are displayed as small or large icons.
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Options
Clicking the Options menu item pops up the Options dialog (screenshot below), in which you
can set options for the application.
The Detail View Settings tab enables you to make the following settings for Detail View.
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In the Draw Direction pane, set the direction in which the Detail View of an item is
drawn: from left to right (Horizontal), or from top to bottom (Vertical).
In the Widths pane, set the minimum and maximum width of object boxes.
In the Distances pane, set the distance between parent and child objects, and between
child objects.
In the Show in Diagram pane, set (i) whether comments are shown, and set their
widths; (ii) whether labels are shown instead of URIs.
In the Show References pane, set whether references to classes, properties, and
individuals are displayed.
To revert to the original Altova-defined settings click the Predefined button.
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Tools Menu
Further tabs in the Options dialog enable you to customize SemanticWorks as follows:
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The Color tab allows you to design a background color for the Detail View. You can set
the background to be a solid color or a gradient.
In the RDF/OWL View Fonts and Text View Fonts tabs you can set the font face, font
size, font style, and font color for various items in RDF/OWL View and for text in Text
View.
In the Encoding tab, you can select the default encoding for XML and non-XML files.
In the Application tab, you can select whether the SemanticWorks application logo
should be displayed when the program starts and whether it should be printed when a
document is printed from within SemanticWorks. You can also select whether imports
should be resolved and, optionally, validated when a document is opened, or not.
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Namespace Imports for RDF
When creating an RDF or RDFS document, it is convenient to be able to insert resources in
RDF statements by selecting the required resources from a list. This is especially useful if a
single resource is to be inserted multiple times in a document.
As an example of such use consider the creation of an RDF document that contains metadata
for a large number of web pages. Each web page resource is described by the same set of
property resources. If the property resources are described in an ontology, then SemanticWorks
can access these resources so that they can be displayed in the SemanticWorks interface and
be inserted in RDF statements. SemanticWorks does this using the Namespace Imports
mechanism.
The Namespace Imports mechanism works by importing, into the RDF or RDFS document, the
namespace URIs of the resources to be referenced. The imported namespace URIs must be
the same as those used to define the required resources in an ontology. Once a namespace
URI is imported, ontology resources associated with this URI are made available to
SemanticWorks for insertion in the active document. The Namespace Imports for RDF
command is the SemanticWorks feature that enables you to import the required namespaces.
The feature is to be used as follows:
1. Select the Namespace Imports for RDF command in order to display the Namespace
Imports dialog (screenshot below).
2.
In the Namespace column enter the first namespace to be imported, say,
http//purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/, which is the DC namespace declared, say,
in an ontology document DCOntology.rdf.
3. In the Import File column, enter the location of the ontology document
DCOntology.rdf. Note that you should give the absolute path for the ontology
document.
4. If the ontology file defines XML Schema datatypes, you will need to import the XML
Schema namespace (http//www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#), too. Enter the XML
Schema namespace (http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#) in the Namespace
column and the location of the ontology file in the Import File column.
5. Click OK to complete.
In the procedure outlined above, you have imported two namespace URIs. After declaring these
namespaces in your RDF document (see URIref Prefixes and Namespaces for a description of
how to do this), resources from the ontology file from which the namespaces have been
imported are listed as resources (in RDF documents) or instances (in RDFS documents); and
(ii) are available in the Detail View of resources (or instances) , for insertion in the RDF or RDFS
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document.
For a detailed description of usage in practice, see the tutorial section RDF Documents.
Note: Resources that are displayed in the Resources or Instances Overview as a result of the
namespace imports (and not as a result of being physically entered in the document) are
available only for insertion. They should be regarded as abstract resources (available for
instantiation) and distinct from the resources actually contained in the document.
Namespace imports and owl:imports
The Namespace Import feature can also be used to locate ontology resources indicated in the
owl:imports statement of an ontology. The URI used in the owl:imports statement is entered
as a Namespace in the Namespace Imports dialog (screenshot above). The actual (absolute
path) location of the ontology to be imported is entered as the corresponding Import File. In
order for the namespace import to work, the base URI of the ontology to be imported, which is
specified using the xml:base attribute of its rdf:RDF document element, must be the same as
the URI used in the owl:imports statement of the importing ontology. Note that it is the
mapping in the Namespace Imports dialog of the importing ontology that provides the actual
location of the ontology to be imported. See Usage Issues for an overview of how the
owl:imports mechanism works.
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Namespace Color Assignments
Resources from different ontologies can be assigned different colors. These color assignments
will be active in both the Overview and Detail View of RDF/OWL View. The assignments are
done on the basis of namespaces. So each namespace can be assigned a different color, and
the RDF/OWL View will display resources from these namespaces in their respective colors. W
hen a box in the diagram is selected, it becomes a darker shade of the assigned color.
To assign colors to namespaces, do the following:
1. Click Tools | Namespace Color Assignments. This pops up the Namespaces Color
Assignments dialog (screenshot below).
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click the Add button to add a color assignment line.
In the new color assignment line, enter the required namespace in the URI column.
In the Color column, click the color picker to select the color for that namespace.
Add more color assignment lines or delete lines as required by using the Add and
Delete buttons, respectively.
6. When you are done, click OK.
The colors are assigned to the various resources as background colors, each resource
according to the namespace in which it is. The screenshot below shows the Detail View of
resources with color assignments.
Note:
The RDF, RDFS, OWL, and XML Schema namespaces can also be assigned colors.
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URIref Prefixes, Expand URIref Prefixes
This section describes the menu items: URIref Prefixes and Expand URIref Prefixes. Also see
the related topic, Namespace Imports for RDF.
URIref Prefixes
Clicking the URIref Prefixes menu item pops up the URIref Prefixes dialog (screenshot below),
in which all the namespaces declared for the active ontology are displayed. (The RDF, RDF
Schema, and OWL namespaces are declared by default for new documents.) Via the dialog,
you can (i) add namespaces to the ontology and bind these namespaces to customized
prefixes, (ii) edit existing namespaces and prefixes, and (iii) delete a selected namespace.
To add a namespace or delete the selected namespace, use the Add and Delete buttons
respectively. To edit a namespace or prefix, place the cursor in the appropriate field and edit
using the keyboard.
Expand URIref Prefixes
After prefixes for namespaces have been assigned (see URIref Prefixes above), a resource can
be defined or referenced in the RDF/XML serialization using either: (i) the prefix and local name,
or (ii) the expanded URIref. To use the expanded URIref in the serialization, toggle the Expand
URIref Prefixes command on. All URIrefs entered in RDF/OWL View after this, that have a
prefix, will be serialized in the RDF/XML notation to the expanded URIref form if that prefix has
been declared. If the prefix does not exist, then the URIref is serialized exactly as entered, that
is, the prefix is read as the scheme part of a URI. The RDF/OWL View itself always displays the
URIref as entered; URIrefs are not expanded in RDF/OWL View.
In actuality, what happens when this command is toggled on, is that every input is solely
understood as a URI (absolute or relative) and is not understood as prefix-and-local-name.
That is, prefixes that would have been expanded to a URI part when the option is activated are
now simply used as the scheme part of the URI that is entered. Note that all relative URIs will
be resolved against the document's global base URI.
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5.7.6
Base URI
Tools Menu
The Base URI command pops up the Base URI dialog (screenshot below), in which you enter
the base URI you wish the active document to have. The base URI is useful for resolving
relative paths.
The base URI you submit is entered as the value of the xml:base attribute of the rdf:RDF
element of the document. For example:
<rdf:RDF xml:base="http://www.altova.com/ontologies/Documents.rdf"/>
Note: By default, SemanticWorks considers the base URI as the URL of the document. This
default URI is not explicitly serialized in the form of a value for the xml:base attribute. Even
when the URI of the document is entered in the base URI dialog, it is not serialized in the
RDF/XML if it corresponds to the URL of the document. Only a URI that is not the URL of the
document is serialized.
For using the base URI with the Namespace Imports feature in order to import ontologies, see
Usage Issues and Namespace Imports for RDF.
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Window Menu
The Window menu has commands to specify how SemanticWorks windows should be
displayed in the GUI (cascaded, tiled, or maximized). To maximize a window, click the
maximize button of that window.
Additionally, all currently open document windows are listed in this menu by document name,
with the active window being checked. To make another window active, click the name of the
window you wish to make active.
Windows dialog
At the bottom of the list of open windows is an entry for the Windows dialog. Clicking this entry
opens the Windows dialog, which displays a list of all open windows and provides commands
that can be applied to the selected window/s. (A window is selected by clicking on its name.)
The Cascade and Tile options are available only when more than one window is selected. The
Activate option is enabled only when a single window is selected.
Warning: To exit the Windows dialog, click OK; do not click the Close Window(s) button. The
Close Window(s) button closes the window/s currently selected in the Windows dialog.
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5.9
Help Menu
Help Menu
The Help menu contains an onscreen version of this documentation, registration information,
relevant Internet hyperlinks, and information about your version of SemanticWorks.
Software Activation
After you download your Altova product software, you can activate it using either a free
evaluation key or a purchased permanent license key.


Note:
Free evaluation key. When you first start the software after downloading and installing
it, the Software Activation dialog will pop up. In it is a button to request a free evaluation
key-code. Enter your name, company, and e-mail address in the dialog that appears,
and click Request Now! The evaluation key is sent to the e-mail address you entered
and should reach you in a few minutes. Now enter the key in the key-code field of the
Software Activation dialog box and click OK to start working with your Altova product.
The software will be unlocked for a period of 30 days.
Permanent license key. The Software Activation dialog contains a button to purchase
a permanent license key. Clicking this button takes you to Altova's online shop, where
you can purchase a permanent license key for your product. There are two types of
permanent license: single-user and multi-user. Both will be sent to you by e-mail. A
single-user license contains your license-data and includes your name, company,
e-mail, and key-code.A multi-user license contains your license-data and includes your
company name and key-code. Note that your license agreement does not allow you to
install more than the licensed number of copies of your Altova software on the
computers in your organization (per-seat license). Please make sure that you enter the
data required in the registration dialog exactly as given in your license e-mail.
When you enter your license information in the Software Activation dialog, ensure that
you enter the data exactly as given in your license e-mail. For multi-user licenses, each
user should enter his or her own name in the Name field.
The Software Activation dialog can be accessed at any time by clicking the Help | Software
Activation command.
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Order Form
When you are ready to order a licensed version of the software product, you can use either the
Order license key button in the Software Activation dialog (see previous section) or the Help |
Order Form command to proceed to the secure Altova Online Shop.
Registration
The first time you start your Altova software after having activated it, a dialog appears asking
whether you would like to register your product. There are three buttons in this dialog:

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
OK: Takes you to the Registration Form
Remind Me Later: Pops up a dialog in which you can select when you wish to be next
reminded.
Cancel: Closes the dialog and suppresses it in future. If you wish to register at a later
time, you can use the Help | Registration command.
Check for Updates
Checks with the Altova server whether a newer version than yours is currently available and
displays a message accordingly.
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5.10
Usage Issues
Usage Issues
The following usage issue should be noted:
Cardinality of property restrictions
When entering property restrictions in intersectionOf statements of an ontology, the
mincardinality and maxcardinality cannot be entered on a single restriction; they must
be entered on two separate restrictions for that property.
Otherwise, cardinality is entered as follows:
1. Create a restriction on the subclass of a class, say, by right-clicking the subclass icon
.
2. Select Add Restriction from the context menu. This inserts a restriction box (screenshot
below).
3. Select or type in the name of the object property to be restricted (screenshot below).
4. Enter the mincardinality by double-clicking to the left of the two dots below the
restriction box (see screenshot above).
5. Enter the maxcardinality by double-clicking to the right of the two dots below the
restriction box (see screenshot above).
OWL imports
The owl:imports statement in an ontology header (see code fragment below) references a
resource on the web or on a local system.
<owl:Ontology rdf:about="">
<owl:versionInfo>v 1.17 2003/02/26 12:56:51 mdean</owl:versionInfo>
<rdfs:comment>An example ontology</rdfs:comment>
<owl:imports rdf:resource="http://www.altova.com/ontologies"/>
</owl:Ontology>
If you are connected to the Internet and there is an ontology at the location indicated by the URI,
then this ontology is imported. If you are not connected to the Internet or there is no ontology
resource at the location indicated by the URI, SemanticWorks uses the mechanism explained
below to locate and import ontology resources.
1. The URI in the owl:imports statement must be the same as the value of the xml:base
attribute of the rdf:RDF element of the ontology to be imported. For example, the
importing ontology could have the following statement: <owl:imports
rdf:resource="http://www.altova.com/ontologies/documents.rdf"/>. The URI
declared in the owl:imports statement must match the base URI of the ontology to be
imported. This means that there must either be an ontology at the location specified by
the URI, or the xml:base attribute of the ontology to be imported must be the same as
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the owl:imports URI. The document element of the ontology to be imported would
need to be: <rdf:RDF
xml:base="http://www.altova.com/ontologies/documents.rdf" ...>.
2. Additionally, the importing ontology must map, using the Namespace Imports for RDF
feature, the URI used in the owl:imports statement to the actual (absolute path)
location of the imported ontology.
Also see Base URI and Namespace Imports for RDF for related information.
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Conformance
6
Conformance
SemanticWorks 2008 conforms to the W3C specifications listed in the W3C's RDF Overview
and OWL Overview documents. The respective suites of specifications are as listed below.
RDF specifications
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RDF Primer
RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax
RDF/XML Syntax
RDF Semantics
RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0 (RDF Schema)
OWL specifications
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OWL Web Ontology Language Guide
OWL Semantics and Abstract Syntax
OWL Web Ontology Language Reference
Implementation-specific information
The following implementation-specific information should be noted:
The syntax check of the document
Checks if the document is well-formed RDF. The Syntax Check command of SemanticWorks
checks whether the document can be transformed into OWL Abstract Syntax following the rules
given in the OWL Web Ontology Language Semantics and Abstract Syntax document, Section
4: Mapping to RDF Graphs. The document is said to be well-formed if it satisfies the definitions
for an "OWL Lite ontology in RDF graph form" or an "OWL DL ontology in RDF graph form",
respectively for OWL Lite and OWL DL documents, as described at the end of Section 4.
The semantic check of the document
The Semantic Check command of SemanticWorks checks whether the document follows the
rules given in the OWL Web Ontology Language Semantics and Abstract Syntax document,
Section 5: RDF-Compatible Model-Theoretic Semantics. The semantic engine in
SemanticWorks executes the checks solely on the existing statements. It is a partial
consistency checker.
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License Information
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License Information
7
License Information
This section contains:



Information about the distribution of this software product
Information about the intellectual property rights related to this software product
The End User License Agreement governing the use of this software product
Please read this information carefully. It is binding upon you since you agreed to these terms
when you installed this software product.
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Electronic Software Distribution
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Electronic Software Distribution
This product is available through electronic software distribution, a distribution method that
provides the following unique benefits:
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


You can evaluate the software free-of-charge before making a purchasing decision.
Once you decide to buy the software, you can place your order online at the Altova
website and immediately get a fully licensed product within minutes.
When you place an online order, you always get the latest version of our software.
The product package includes a comprehensive integrated onscreen help system. The
latest version of the user manual is available at www.altova.com (i) in HTML format for
online browsing, and (ii) in PDF format for download (and to print if you prefer to have
the documentation on paper).
30-day evaluation period
After downloading this product, you can evaluate it for a period of up to 30 days free of charge.
About 20 days into this evaluation period, the software will start to remind you that it has not yet
been licensed. The reminder message will be displayed once each time you start the
application. If you would like to continue using the program after the 30-day evaluation period,
you have to purchase an Altova Software License Agreement, which is delivered in the form of
a key-code that you enter into the Software Activation dialog to unlock the product. You can
purchase your license at the online shop at the Altova website.
Helping Others within Your Organization to Evaluate the Software
If you wish to distribute the evaluation version within your company network, or if you plan to
use it on a PC that is not connected to the Internet, you may only distribute the Setup programs,
provided that they are not modified in any way. Any person that accesses the software installer
that you have provided, must request their own 30-day evaluation license key code and after
expiration of their evaluation period, must also purchase a license in order to be able to
continue using the product.
For further details, please refer to the Altova Software License Agreement at the end of this
section.
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Software Activation and License Metering
7.2
Software Activation and License Metering
As part of Altova’s Software Activation, the software may use your internal network and Internet
connection for the purpose of transmitting license-related data at the time of installation,
registration, use, or update to an Altova-operated license server and validating the authenticity
of the license-related data in order to protect Altova against unlicensed or illegal use of the
software and to improve customer service. Activation is based on the exchange of license
related data such as operating system, IP address, date/time, software version, and computer
name, along with other information between your computer and an Altova license server.
Your Altova product has a built-in license metering module that further helps you avoid any
unintentional violation of the End User License Agreement. Your product is licensed either as a
single-user or multi-user installation, and the license-metering module makes sure that no more
than the licensed number of users use the application concurrently.
This license-metering technology uses your local area network (LAN) to communicate between
instances of the application running on different computers.
Single license
When the application starts up, as part of the license metering process, the software sends a
short broadcast datagram to find any other instance of the product running on another computer
in the same network segment. If it doesn't get any response, it will open a port for listening to
other instances of the application.
Multi license
If more than one instance of the application is used within the same LAN, these instances will
briefly communicate with each other on startup. These instances exchange key-codes in order
to help you to better determine that the number of concurrent licenses purchased is not
accidentally violated. This is the same kind of license metering technology that is common in
the Unix world and with a number of database development tools. It allows Altova customers to
purchase reasonably-priced concurrent-use multi-user licenses.
We have also designed the applications so that they send few and small network packets so as
to not put a burden on your network. The TCP/IP ports (2799) used by your Altova product are
officially registered with the IANA (see
http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/port-numbers for details) and our license-metering
module is tested and proven technology.
If you are using a firewall, you may notice communications on port 2799 between the computers
that are running Altova products. You are, of course, free to block such traffic between different
groups in your organization, as long as you can ensure by other means, that your license
agreement is not violated.
You will also notice that, if you are online, your Altova product contains many useful functions;
these are unrelated to the license-metering technology.
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7.3
Intellectual Property Rights
119
Intellectual Property Rights
The Altova Software and any copies that you are authorized by Altova to make are the
intellectual property of and are owned by Altova and its suppliers. The structure, organization
and code of the Software are the valuable trade secrets and confidential information of Altova
and its suppliers. The Software is protected by copyright, including without limitation by United
States Copyright Law, international treaty provisions and applicable laws in the country in which
it is being used. Altova retains the ownership of all patents, copyrights, trade secrets,
trademarks and other intellectual property rights pertaining to the Software, and that Altova’s
ownership rights extend to any images, photographs, animations, videos, audio, music, text and
"applets" incorporated into the Software and all accompanying printed materials. Notifications of
claimed copyright infringement should be sent to Altova’s copyright agent as further provided on
the Altova Web Site.
Altova software contains certain Third Party Software that is also protected by intellectual
property laws, including without limitation applicable copyright laws as described in detail at
http://www.altova.com/legal_3rdparty.html.
All other names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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7.4
Altova End User License Agreement
THIS IS A LEGAL DOCUMENT -- RETAIN FOR YOUR RECORDS
ALTOVA® END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT
Licensor:
Altova GmbH
Rudolfsplatz 13a/9
A-1010 Wien
Austria
Important - Read Carefully. Notice to User:
This End User License Agreement (“Software License Agreement”) is a legal document
between you and Altova GmbH (“Altova”). It is important that you read this document before
using the Altova-provided software (“Software”) and any accompanying documentation, including,
without limitation printed materials, ‘online’ files, or electronic documentation (“Documentation”).
By clicking the “I accept” and “Next” buttons below, or by installing, or otherwise using the
Software, you agree to be bound by the terms of this Software License Agreement as well as the
Altova Privacy Policy (“Privacy Policy”) including, without limitation, the warranty disclaimers,
limitation of liability, data use and termination provisions below, whether or not you decide to
purchase the Software. You agree that this agreement is enforceable like any written agreement
negotiated and signed by you. If you do not agree, you are not licensed to use the Software, and you
must destroy any downloaded copies of the Software in your possession or control. Please go to our Web
site at http://www.altova.com/eula to download and print a copy of this Software License Agreement for
your files and http://www.altova.com/privacy to review the privacy policy.
1.
SOFTWARE LICENSE
License Grant. Upon your acceptance of this Software License Agreement Altova
(a)
grants you a non-exclusive, non-transferable (except as provided below), limited license to
install and use a copy of the Software on your compatible computer, up to the Permitted Number
of computers. The Permitted Number of computers shall be delineated at such time as you elect
to purchase the Software. During the evaluation period, hereinafter defined, only a single user
may install and use the software on one computer. If you have licensed the Software as part of a
suite of Altova software products (collectively, the “Suite”) and have not installed each product
individually, then the Software License Agreement governs your use of all of the software
included in the Suite. If you have licensed SchemaAgent, then the terms and conditions of this
Software License Agreement apply to your use of the SchemaAgent server software
(“SchemaAgent Server”) included therein, as applicable and you are licensed to use
SchemaAgent Server solely in connection with your use of Altova Software and solely for the
purposes described in the accompanying documentation. In addition, if you have licensed
XMLSpy Enterprise Edition or MapForce Enterprise Edition, or UModel, your license to
install and use a copy of the Software as provided herein permits you to generate source code
based on (i) Altova Library modules that are included in the Software (such generated code
hereinafter referred to as the “Restricted Source Code”) and (ii) schemas or mappings that you
create or provide (such code as may be generated from your schema or mapping source
materials hereinafter referred to as the “Unrestricted Source Code”). In addition to the rights
granted herein, Altova grants you a non-exclusive, non-transferable, limited license to compile
into executable form the complete generated code comprised of the combination of the
Restricted Source Code and the Unrestricted Source Code, and to use, copy, distribute or license
that executable. You may not distribute or redistribute, sublicense, sell, or transfer to a third
party the Restricted Source Code, unless said third party already has a license to the Restricted
Source Code through their separate license agreement with Altova or other agreement with
Altova. Altova reserves all other rights in and to the Software. With respect to the feature(s) of
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Altova End User License Agreement
121
UModel that permit reverse-engineering of your own source code or other source code that you
have lawfully obtained, such use by you does not constitute a violation of this Agreement.
Except as otherwise permitted in Section 1(h) reverse engineering of the Software is strictly
prohibited as further detailed therein.
Server Use. You may install one copy of the Software on your computer file server for
(b)
the purpose of downloading and installing the Software onto other computers within your
internal network up to the Permitted Number of computers. If you have licensed SchemaAgent,
then you may install SchemaAgent Server on any server computer or workstation and use it in
connection with your Software. No other network use is permitted, including without limitation
using the Software either directly or through commands, data or instructions from or to a
computer not part of your internal network, for Internet or Web-hosting services or by any user
not licensed to use this copy of the Software through a valid license from Altova. If you have
purchased Concurrent User Licenses as defined in Section 1(c) you may install a copy of the
Software on a terminal server within your internal network for the sole and exclusive purpose of
permitting individual users within your organization to access and use the Software through a
terminal server session from another computer on the network provided that the total number of
user that access or use the Software on such network or terminal server does not exceed the
Permitted Number. Altova makes no warranties or representations about the performance of
Altova software in a terminal server environment and the foregoing are expressly excluded from
the limited warranty in Section 5 hereof and technical support is not available with respect to
issues arising from use in such an environment.
Concurrent Use. If you have licensed a “Concurrent-User” version of the Software,
(c)
you may install the Software on any compatible computers, up to ten (10) times the Permitted
Number of users, provided that only the Permitted Number of users actually use the Software at
the same time. The Permitted Number of concurrent users shall be delineated at such time as you
elect to purchase the Software licenses.
Backup and Archival Copies. You may make one backup and one archival copy of
(d)
the Software, provided your backup and archival copies are not installed or used on any
computer and further provided that all such copies shall bear the original and unmodified
copyright, patent and other intellectual property markings that appear on or in the Software. You
may not transfer the rights to a backup or archival copy unless you transfer all rights in the
Software as provided under Section 3.
Home Use. You, as the primary user of the computer on which the Software is
(e)
installed, may also install the Software on one of your home computers for your use. However,
the Software may not be used on your home computer at the same time as the Software is being
used on the primary computer.
Key Codes, Upgrades and Updates. Prior to your purchase and as part of the
(f)
registration for the thirty (30) -day evaluation period, as applicable, you will receive an
evaluation key code. You will receive a purchase key code when you elect to purchase the
Software from either Altova GMBH or an authorized reseller. The purchase key code will
enable you to activate the Software beyond the initial evaluation period. You may not re-license,
reproduce or distribute any key code except with the express written permission of Altova. If the
Software that you have licensed is an upgrade or an update, then the update replaces all or part
of the Software previously licensed. The update or upgrade and the associated license keys does
not constitute the granting of a second license to the Software in that you may not use the
upgrade or update in addition to the Software that it is replacing. You agree that use of the
upgrade of update terminates your license to use the Software or portion thereof replaced.
Title. Title to the Software is not transferred to you. Ownership of all copies of the
(g)
Software and of copies made by you is vested in Altova, subject to the rights of use granted to
you in this Software License Agreement. As between you and Altova, documents, files,
stylesheets, generated program code (including the Unrestricted Source Code) and schemas
that are authored or created by you via your utilization of the Software, in accordance with its
Documentation and the terms of this Software License Agreement, are your property.
Reverse Engineering. Except and to the limited extent as may be otherwise
(h)
specifically provided by applicable law in the European Union, you may not reverse engineer,
decompile, disassemble or otherwise attempt to discover the source code, underlying ideas,
© 2008 Altova GmbH
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Altova End User License Agreement
underlying user interface techniques or algorithms of the Software by any means whatsoever,
directly or indirectly, or disclose any of the foregoing, except to the extent you may be expressly
permitted to decompile under applicable law in the European Union, if it is essential to do so in
order to achieve operability of the Software with another software program, and you have first
requested Altova to provide the information necessary to achieve such operability and Altova
has not made such information available. Altova has the right to impose reasonable conditions
and to request a reasonable fee before providing such information. Any information supplied by
Altova or obtained by you, as permitted hereunder, may only be used by you for the purpose
described herein and may not be disclosed to any third party or used to create any software
which is substantially similar to the expression of the Software. Requests for information from
users in the European Union with respect to the above should be directed to the Altova
Customer Support Department.
Other Restrictions. You may not loan, rent, lease, sublicense, distribute or otherwise
(i)
transfer all or any portion of the Software to third parties except to the limited extent set forth in
Section 3 or otherwise expressly provided. You may not copy the Software except as expressly
set forth above, and any copies that you are permitted to make pursuant to this Software License
Agreement must contain the same copyright, patent and other intellectual property markings that
appear on or in the Software. You may not modify, adapt or translate the Software. You may
not, directly or indirectly, encumber or suffer to exist any lien or security interest on the
Software; knowingly take any action that would cause the Software to be placed in the public
domain; or use the Software in any computer environment not specified in this Software License
Agreement. You will comply with applicable law and Altova’s instructions regarding the use of
the Software. You agree to notify your employees and agents who may have access to the
Software of the restrictions contained in this Software License Agreement and to ensure their
compliance with these restrictions. YOU AGREE THAT YOU ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE
FOR THE ACCURACY AND ADEQUACY OF THE SOFTWARE FOR YOUR INTENDED
USE AND YOU WILL INDEMNIFY AND HOLD HARMLESS ALTOVA FROM ANY 3RD
PARTY SUIT TO THE EXTENT BASED UPON THE ACCURACY AND ADEQUACY OF
THE SOFTWARE IN YOUR USE. WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE SOFTWARE IS NOT
INTENDED FOR USE IN THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES, AIRCRAFT
NAVIGATION, COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS OR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL EQUIPMENT,
WHERE THE FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE COULD LEAD TO DEATH, PERSONAL
INJURY OR SEVERE PHYSICAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE.
2.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
Acknowledgement of Altova's Rights. You acknowledge that the Software and any copies that
you are authorized by Altova to make are the intellectual property of and are owned by Altova
and its suppliers. The structure, organization and code of the Software are the valuable trade
secrets and confidential information of Altova and its suppliers. The Software is protected by
copyright, including without limitation by United States Copyright Law, international treaty
provisions and applicable laws in the country in which it is being used. You acknowledge that
Altova retains the ownership of all patents, copyrights, trade secrets, trademarks and other
intellectual property rights pertaining to the Software, and that Altova’s ownership rights extend
to any images, photographs, animations, videos, audio, music, text and “applets” incorporated
into the Software and all accompanying printed materials. You will take no actions which
adversely affect Altova’s intellectual property rights in the Software. Trademarks shall be used
in accordance with accepted trademark practice, including identification of trademark owners’
names. Trademarks may only be used to identify printed output produced by the Software, and
such use of any trademark does not give you any right of ownership in that trademark. XMLSpy,
Authentic, StyleVision, MapForce, Markup Your Mind, Axad, Nanonull, and Altova are
trademarks of Altova GmbH (registered in numerous countries). Unicode and the Unicode Logo
are trademarks of Unicode, Inc. Windows, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows
2000 and Windows XP are trademarks of Microsoft. W3C, CSS, DOM, MathML, RDF,
XHTML, XML and XSL are trademarks (registered in numerous countries) of the World Wide
Web Consortium (W3C); marks of the W3C are registered and held by its host institutions, MIT,
INRIA and Keio. Except as expressly stated above, this Software License Agreement does not
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© 2008 Altova GmbH
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123
grant you any intellectual property rights in the Software. Notifications of claimed copyright
infringement should be sent to Altova’s copyright agent as further provided on the Altova Web
Site.
3.
LIMITED TRANSFER RIGHTS
Notwithstanding the foregoing, you may transfer all your rights to use the Software to another
person or legal entity provided that: (a) you also transfer each of this Software License
Agreement, the Software and all other software or hardware bundled or pre-installed with the
Software, including all copies, updates and prior versions, and all copies of font software
converted into other formats, to such person or entity; (b) you retain no copies, including
backups and copies stored on a computer; (c) the receiving party secures a personalized key
code from Altova; and (d) the receiving party accepts the terms and conditions of this Software
License Agreement and any other terms and conditions upon which you legally purchased a
license to the Software. Notwithstanding the foregoing, you may not transfer education,
pre-release, or not-for-resale copies of the Software.
4.
PRE-RELEASE AND EVALUATION PRODUCT ADDITIONAL TERMS
If the product you have received with this license is pre-commercial release or beta Software
(“Pre-release Software”), then this Section applies. In addition, this section applies to all
evaluation and/or demonstration copies of Altova software (“Evaluation Software”) and
continues in effect until you purchase a license. To the extent that any provision in this section is
in conflict with any other term or condition in this Software License Agreement, this section
shall supersede such other term(s) and condition(s) with respect to the Pre-release and/or
Evaluation Software, but only to the extent necessary to resolve the conflict. You acknowledge
that the Pre-release Software is a pre-release version, does not represent final product from
Altova, and may contain bugs, errors and other problems that could cause system or other
failures and data loss. CONSEQUENTLY, THE PRE-RELEASE AND/OR EVALUATION
SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED TO YOU “AS-IS” WITH NO WARRANTIES FOR USE OR
PERFORMANCE, AND ALTOVA DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTY OR LIABILITY
OBLIGATIONS TO YOU OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. WHERE
LEGALLY LIABILITY CANNOT BE EXCLUDED FOR PRE-RELEASE AND/OR
EVALUATION SOFTWARE, BUT IT MAY BE LIMITED, ALTOVA’S LIABILITY AND
THAT OF ITS SUPPLIERS SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE SUM OF FIFTY DOLLARS
(USD $50) IN TOTAL. If the Evaluation Software has a time-out feature, then the software will
cease operation after the conclusion of the designated evaluation period. Upon such expiration
date, your license will expire unless otherwise extended. Access to any files created with the
Evaluation Software is entirely at your risk. You acknowledge that Altova has not promised or
guaranteed to you that Pre-release Software will be announced or made available to anyone in
the future, that Altova has no express or implied obligation to you to announce or introduce the
Pre-release Software, and that Altova may not introduce a product similar to or compatible with
the Pre-release Software. Accordingly, you acknowledge that any research or development that
you perform regarding the Pre-release Software or any product associated with the Pre-release
Software is done entirely at your own risk. During the term of this Software License Agreement,
if requested by Altova, you will provide feedback to Altova regarding testing and use of the
Pre-release Software, including error or bug reports. If you have been provided the Pre-release
Software pursuant to a separate written agreement, your use of the Software is governed by such
agreement. You may not sublicense, lease, loan, rent, distribute or otherwise transfer the
Pre-release Software. Upon receipt of a later unreleased version of the Pre-release Software or
release by Altova of a publicly released commercial version of the Software, whether as a
stand-alone product or as part of a larger product, you agree to return or destroy all earlier
Pre-release Software received from Altova and to abide by the terms of the license agreement
for any such later versions of the Pre-release Software.
5.
LIMITED WARRANTY AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
Limited Warranty and Customer Remedies. Altova warrants to the person or entity
(a)
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License Information
Altova End User License Agreement
that first purchases a license for use of the Software pursuant to the terms of this Software
License Agreement that (i) the Software will perform substantially in accordance with any
accompanying Documentation for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of receipt, and (ii)
any support services provided by Altova shall be substantially as described in Section 6 of this
agreement. Some states and jurisdictions do not allow limitations on duration of an implied
warranty, so the above limitation may not apply to you. To the extent allowed by applicable law,
implied warranties on the Software, if any, are limited to ninety (90) days. Altova’s and its
suppliers’ entire liability and your exclusive remedy shall be, at Altova’s option, either (i) return
of the price paid, if any, or (ii) repair or replacement of the Software that does not meet Altova’s
Limited Warranty and which is returned to Altova with a copy of your receipt. This Limited
Warranty is void if failure of the Software has resulted from accident, abuse, misapplication,
abnormal use, Trojan horse, virus, or any other malicious external code. Any replacement
Software will be warranted for the remainder of the original warranty period or thirty (30) days,
whichever is longer. This limited warranty does not apply to Evaluation and/or Pre-release
Software.
No Other Warranties and Disclaimer. THE FOREGOING LIMITED WARRANTY
(b)
AND REMEDIES STATE THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES FOR ALTOVA OR
ITS SUPPLIER’S BREACH OF WARRANTY. ALTOVA AND ITS SUPPLIERS DO NOT
AND CANNOT WARRANT THE PERFORMANCE OR RESULTS YOU MAY OBTAIN BY
USING THE SOFTWARE. EXCEPT FOR THE FOREGOING LIMITED WARRANTY, AND
FOR ANY WARRANTY, CONDITION, REPRESENTATION OR TERM TO THE EXTENT
WHICH THE SAME CANNOT OR MAY NOT BE EXCLUDED OR LIMITED BY LAW
APPLICABLE TO YOU IN YOUR JURISDICTION, ALTOVA AND ITS SUPPLIERS
MAKE NO WARRANTIES, CONDITIONS, REPRESENTATIONS OR TERMS, EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, WHETHER BY STATUTE, COMMON LAW, CUSTOM, USAGE OR
OTHERWISE AS TO ANY OTHER MATTERS. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT
PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ALTOVA AND ITS SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL
OTHER WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING,
BUT
NOT
LIMITED
TO,
IMPLIED
WARRANTIES
OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, SATISFACTORY
QUALITY, INFORMATIONAL CONTENT OR ACCURACY, QUIET ENJOYMENT, TITLE
AND NON-INFRINGEMENT, WITH REGARD TO THE SOFTWARE, AND THE
PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SUPPORT SERVICES. THIS LIMITED
WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS. YOU MAY HAVE OTHERS,
WHICH VARY FROM STATE/JURISDICTION TO STATE/JURISDICTION.
Limitation Of Liability. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY
(c)
APPLICABLE LAW EVEN IF A REMEDY FAILS ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE, IN NO
EVENT SHALL ALTOVA OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL,
INCIDENTAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER
(INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS,
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION, OR ANY OTHER
PECUNIARY LOSS) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE
SOFTWARE OR THE PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SUPPORT SERVICES,
EVEN IF ALTOVA HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
IN ANY CASE, ALTOVA’S ENTIRE LIABILITY UNDER ANY PROVISION OF THIS
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE AMOUNT
ACTUALLY PAID BY YOU FOR THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT. Because some states and
jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability, the above limitation may not
apply to you. In such states and jurisdictions, Altova’s liability shall be limited to the greatest
extent permitted by law and the limitations or exclusions of warranties and liability contained
herein do not prejudice applicable statutory consumer rights of person acquiring goods otherwise
than in the course of business. The disclaimer and limited liability above are fundamental to this
Software License Agreement between Altova and you.
Infringement Claims. Altova will indemnify and hold you harmless and will defend or
(d)
settle any claim, suit or proceeding brought against you by a third party that is based upon a
claim that the content contained in the Software infringes a copyright or violates an intellectual
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Altova End User License Agreement
125
or proprietary right protected by United States or European Union law (“Claim”), but only to the
extent the Claim arises directly out of the use of the Software and subject to the limitations set
forth in Section 5 of this Agreement except as otherwise expressly provided. You must notify
Altova in writing of any Claim within ten (10) business days after you first receive notice of the
Claim, and you shall provide to Altova at no cost with such assistance and cooperation as Altova
may reasonably request from time to time in connection with the defense of the Claim. Altova
shall have sole control over any Claim (including, without limitation, the selection of counsel
and the right to settle on your behalf on any terms Altova deems desirable in the sole exercise of
its discretion). You may, at your sole cost, retain separate counsel and participate in the defense
or settlement negotiations. Altova shall pay actual damages, costs, and attorney fees awarded
against you (or payable by you pursuant to a settlement agreement) in connection with a Claim
to the extent such direct damages and costs are not reimbursed to you by insurance or a third
party, to an aggregate maximum equal to the purchase price of the Software. If the Software or
its use becomes the subject of a Claim or its use is enjoined, or if in the opinion of Altova’s legal
counsel the Software is likely to become the subject of a Claim, Altova shall attempt to resolve
the Claim by using commercially reasonable efforts to modify the Software or obtain a license to
continue using the Software. If in the opinion of Altova’s legal counsel the Claim, the injunction
or potential Claim cannot be resolved through reasonable modification or licensing, Altova, at its
own election, may terminate this Software License Agreement without penalty, and will refund
to you on a pro rata basis any fees paid in advance by you to Altova. THE FOREGOING
CONSTITUTES ALTOVA’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE LIABILITY FOR INTELLECTUAL
PROPERTY INFRINGEMENT. This indemnity does not apply to infringements that would not
be such, except for customer-supplied elements.
6.
SUPPORT AND MAINTENANCE
Altova offers multiple optional “Support & Maintenance Package(s)” (“SMP”) for the version of
Software product edition that you have licensed, which you may elect to purchase in addition to
your Software license. The Support Period, hereinafter defined, covered by such SMP shall be
delineated at such time as you elect to purchase a SMP. Your rights with respect to support and
maintenance as well as your upgrade eligibility depend on your decision to purchase SMP and
the level of SMP that you have purchased:
(a)
If you have not purchased SMP, you will receive the Software AS IS and will not
receive any maintenance releases or updates. However, Altova, at its option and in its sole
discretion on a case by case basis, may decide to offer maintenance releases to you as a courtesy,
but these maintenance releases will not include any new features in excess of the feature set at
the time of your purchase of the Software. In addition, Altova will provide free technical support
to you for thirty (30) days after the date of your purchase (the “Support Period” for the purposes
of this paragraph a), and Altova, in its sole discretion on a case by case basis, may also provide
free courtesy technical support during your thirty (30)-day evaluation period. Technical support
is provided via a Web-based support form only, and there is no guaranteed response time.
(b)
If you have purchased SMP, then solely for the duration of its delineated Support
Period, you are eligible to receive the version of the Software edition that you have licensed
and all maintenance releases and updates for that edition that are released during your Support
Period. For the duration of your SMP’s Support Period, you will also be eligible to receive
upgrades to the comparable edition of the next version of the Software that succeeds the
Software edition that you have licensed for applicable upgrades released during your Support
Period. The specific upgrade edition that you are eligible to receive based on your Support
Period is further detailed in the SMP that you have purchased. Software that is introduced as
separate product is not included in SMP. Maintenance releases, updates and upgrades may or
may not include additional features. In addition, Altova will provide Priority Technical Support
to you for the duration of the Support Period. Priority Technical Support is provided via a
Web-based support form only, and Altova will make commercially reasonable efforts to respond
via e-mail to all requests within forty-eight (48) hours during Altova’s business hours (MO-FR,
8am UTC – 10pm UTC, Austrian and US holidays excluded) and to make reasonable efforts to
provide work-arounds to errors reported in the Software.
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During the Support Period you may also report any Software problem or error to Altova. If
Altova determines that a reported reproducible material error in the Software exists and
significantly impairs the usability and utility of the Software, Altova agrees to use reasonable
commercial efforts to correct or provide a usable work-around solution in an upcoming
maintenance release or update, which is made available at certain times at Altova’s sole
discretion.
If Altova, in its discretion, requests written verification of an error or malfunction discovered by
you or requests supporting example files that exhibit the Software problem, you shall promptly
provide such verification or files, by email, telecopy, or overnight mail, setting forth in
reasonable detail the respects in which the Software fails to perform. You shall use reasonable
efforts to cooperate in diagnosis or study of errors. Altova may include error corrections in
maintenance releases, updates, or new major releases of the Software. Altova is not obligated to
fix errors that are immaterial. Immaterial errors are those that do not significantly impact use of
the Software. Whether or not you have purchased the Support & Maintenance Package,
technical support only covers issues or questions resulting directly out of the operation of the
Software and Altova will not provide you with generic consultation, assistance, or advice under
any circumstances.
Updating Software may require the updating of software not covered by this Software License
Agreement before installation. Updates of the operating system and application software not
specifically covered by this Software License Agreement are your responsibility and will not be
provided by Altova under this Software License Agreement. Altova’s obligations under this
Section 6 are contingent upon your proper use of the Software and your compliance with the
terms and conditions of this Software License Agreement at all times. Altova shall be under no
obligation to provide the above technical support if, in Altova’s opinion, the Software has failed
due to the following conditions: (i) damage caused by the relocation of the software to another
location or CPU; (ii) alterations, modifications or attempts to change the Software without
Altova’s written approval; (iii) causes external to the Software, such as natural disasters, the
failure or fluctuation of electrical power, or computer equipment failure; (iv) your failure to
maintain the Software at Altova’s specified release level; or (v) use of the Software with other
software without Altova’s prior written approval. It will be your sole responsibility to: (i)
comply with all Altova-specified operating and troubleshooting procedures and then notify
Altova immediately of Software malfunction and provide Altova with complete information
thereof; (ii) provide for the security of your confidential information; (iii) establish and maintain
backup systems and procedures necessary to reconstruct lost or altered files, data or programs.
7.
SOFTWARE ACTIVATION, UPDATES AND LICENSE METERING
License Metering. Altova has a built-in license metering module that helps you to
(a)
avoid any unintentional violation of this Software License Agreement. Altova may use your
internal network for license metering between installed versions of the Software.
Software Activation. Altova’s Software may use your internal network and
(b)
Internet connection for the purpose of transmitting license-related data at the time of
installation, registration, use, or update to an Altova-operated license server and
validating the authenticity of the license-related data in order to protect Altova against
unlicensed or illegal use of the Software and to improve customer service. Activation is
based on the exchange of license related data between your computer and the Altova
license server. You agree that Altova may use these measures and you agree to follow any
applicable requirements.
LiveUpdate. Altova provides a new LiveUpdate notification service to you, which is
(c)
free of charge. Altova may use your internal network and Internet connection for the purpose of
transmitting license-related data to an Altova-operated LiveUpdate server to validate your
license at appropriate intervals and determine if there is any update available for you.
Use of Data. The terms and conditions of the Privacy Policy are set out in full at
(d)
http://www.altova.com/privacy and are incorporated by reference into this Software License
Agreement. By your acceptance of the terms of this Software License Agreement or use of the
Software, you authorize the collection, use and disclosure of information collected by Altova for
the purposes provided for in this Software License Agreement and/or the Privacy Policy as
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revised from time to time. European users understand and consent to the processing of personal
information in the United States for the purposes described herein. Altova has the right in its
sole discretion to amend this provision of the Software License Agreement and/or Privacy
Policy at any time. You are encouraged to review the terms of the Privacy Policy as posted on
the Altova Web site from time to time.
8.
TERM AND TERMINATION
This Software License Agreement may be terminated (a) by your giving Altova written notice of
termination; or (b) by Altova, at its option, giving you written notice of termination if you
commit a breach of this Software License Agreement and fail to cure such breach within ten (10)
days after notice from Altova or (c) at the request of an authorized Altova reseller in the event
that you fail to make your license payment or other monies due and payable.. In addition the
Software License Agreement governing your use of a previous version that you have upgraded
or updated of the Software is terminated upon your acceptance of the terms and conditions of the
Software License Agreement accompanying such upgrade or update. Upon any termination of
the Software License Agreement, you must cease all use of the Software that it governs, destroy
all copies then in your possession or control and take such other actions as Altova may
reasonably request to ensure that no copies of the Software remain in your possession or control.
The terms and conditions set forth in Sections 1(g), (h), (i), 2, 5(b), (c), 9, 10 and 11 survive
termination as applicable.
9.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS NOTICE AND EXPORT RESTRICTIONS
The Software was developed entirely at private expense and is commercial computer software
provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS. Use, duplication or disclosure by the U.S.
Government or a U.S. Government contractor or subcontractor is subject to the restrictions set
forth in this Agreement and as provided in FAR 12.211 and 12.212 (48 C.F.R. §12.211 and
12.212) or DFARS 227. 7202 (48 C.F.R. §227-7202) as applicable. Consistent with the above
as applicable, Commercial Computer Software and Commercial Computer Documentation
licensed to U.S. government end users only as commercial items and only with those rights as
are granted to all other end users under the terms and conditions set forth in this Software
License Agreement. Manufacturer is Altova GmbH, Rudolfsplatz, 13a/9, A-1010 Vienna,
Austria/EU. You may not use or otherwise export or re-export the Software or Documentation
except as authorized by United States law and the laws of the jurisdiction in which the Software
was obtained. In particular, but without limitation, the Software or Documentation may not be
exported or re-exported (i) into (or to a national or resident of) any U.S. embargoed country or
(ii) to anyone on the U.S. Treasury Department's list of Specially Designated Nationals or the
U.S. Department of Commerce's Table of Denial Orders. By using the Software, you represent
and warrant that you are not located in, under control of, or a national or resident of any such
country or on any such list.
10.
THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE
The Software may contain third party software which requires notices and/or additional terms
and conditions. Such required third party software notices and/or additional terms and
conditions are located Our Website at http://www.altova.com/legal_3rdparty.html and are made
a part of and incorporated by reference into this Agreement. By accepting this Agreement, you
are also accepting the additional terms and conditions, if any, set forth therein.
11.
GENERAL PROVISIONS
If you are located in the European Union and are using the Software in the European Union and
not in the United States, then this Software License Agreement will be governed by and
construed in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Austria (excluding its conflict of laws
principles and the U.N. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods) and you
expressly agree that exclusive jurisdiction for any claim or dispute with Altova or relating in any
way to your use of the Software resides in the Handelsgericht, Wien (Commercial Court,
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
128
License Information
Altova End User License Agreement
Vienna) and you further agree and expressly consent to the exercise of personal jurisdiction in
the Handelsgericht, Wien (Commercial Court, Vienna) in connection with any such dispute or
claim.
If you are located in the United States or are using the Software in the United States then this
Software License Agreement will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA (excluding its conflict of laws principles and the
U.N. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods) and you expressly agree that
exclusive jurisdiction for any claim or dispute with Altova or relating in any way to your use of
the Software resides in the federal or state courts of Massachusetts and you further agree and
expressly consent to the exercise of personal jurisdiction in the federal or state courts of
Massachusetts in connection with any such dispute or claim.
If you are located outside of the European Union or the United States and are not using the
Software in the United States, then this Software License Agreement will be governed by and
construed in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Austria (excluding its conflict of laws
principles and the U.N. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods) and you
expressly agree that exclusive jurisdiction for any claim or dispute with Altova or relating in any
way to your use of the Software resides in the Handelsgericht, Wien (Commercial Court,
Vienna) and you further agree and expressly consent to the exercise of personal jurisdiction in
the Handelsgericht Wien (Commercial Court, Vienna) in connection with any such dispute or
claim. This Software License Agreement will not be governed by the conflict of law rules of any
jurisdiction or the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods,
the application of which is expressly excluded.
This Software License Agreement contains the entire agreement and understanding of the parties
with respect to the subject matter hereof, and supersedes all prior written and oral
understandings of the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof. Any notice or other
communication given under this Software License Agreement shall be in writing and shall have
been properly given by either of us to the other if sent by certified or registered mail, return
receipt requested, or by overnight courier to the address shown on Altova’s Web site for Altova
and the address shown in Altova’s records for you, or such other address as the parties may
designate by notice given in the manner set forth above. This Software License Agreement will
bind and inure to the benefit of the parties and our respective heirs, personal and legal
representatives, affiliates, successors and permitted assigns. The failure of either of us at any
time to require performance of any provision hereof shall in no manner affect such party’s right
at a later time to enforce the same or any other term of this Software License Agreement. This
Software License Agreement may be amended only by a document in writing signed by both of
us. In the event of a breach or threatened breach of this Software License Agreement by either
party, the other shall have all applicable equitable as well as legal remedies. Each party is duly
authorized and empowered to enter into and perform this Software License Agreement. If, for
any reason, any provision of this Software License Agreement is held invalid or otherwise
unenforceable, such invalidity or unenforceability shall not affect the remainder of this Software
License Agreement, and this Software License Agreement shall continue in full force and effect
to the fullest extent allowed by law. The parties knowingly and expressly consent to the
foregoing terms and conditions.
Last updated: 2006-09-05
Altova SemanticWorks 2008
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Index
Index
129
Consistency check,
of ontologies, 92, 94
Copy,
description of command, 91
Copyright information, 116
Creating ontology classes, 34, 55
Customizing SemanticWorks, 97
.
.nt files,
exporting to, 89
A
AllDifferent,
creating collections of, 50
Anonymous classes,
toggling display on and off, 92
B
Base URI, 101, 110
and owl:imports, 106
setting for document, 106
Blank nodes,
toggling display on and off, 92
Cut,
description of command, 91
D
Datatype properties,
defining, 39, 59
Datatypes,
declaring XML Schema namespace for, 32
Delete,
description of command, 91
Deleting,
classes and other ontology items, 34
Detail View,
displaying graph in viewport, 19
configuring appearance, 99
description of, 14
Details Window, 17
in interface, 12
Distinct members,
in allDifferent collections, 50
C
Cardinality,
entering min and max on restrictions, 110
Cardinality constraints,
of properties, 39, 59
Checking the ontology,
syntax and semantics, 34, 55
Classes,
creating and deleting, 34
defining hierarchy, 55
defining relationships for, 36
enumerating instances for, 57
intersectionOf, 61
restrictions of, 61
unionOf, 61
Comments, 92
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Distribution,
of Altova's software products, 116, 117, 119
Documentation,
overview, 6
Domain,
of properties, 39, 59
Dublin Core,
creating metadata with, 75
namespaces in RDF document, 72
using in RDF document, 72
Dublin Core vocabulary, 53
E
Edit menu,
description of commands in, 91, 92
130
Index
Encoding,
of SemanticWorks documents, 89
setting defaults, 99
End User License Agreement, 116, 120
Enumerations,
of classes, 57
Errors Window,
description of, 20
in interface, 12
Evaluation period,
of Altova's software products, 116, 117, 119
Exporting files,
to Triples and XML formats, 89
I
Images,
saving Detail View graph as, 89
Importing namespaces,
for RDF documents, 101
Imports,
reloading, 94
Instances,
creating, 45, 57
creating in Details Window, 17
defining predicates for, 45, 57
F
Features,
of SemanticWorks, 9
Interface,
broad description of, 12
IntersectionOf,
classes, 61
Introduction, 8
File extensions,
for saving and exporting, 89
File menu,
description of commands in, 89
Find,
description of command, 91
Fonts,
configuring for Text View and RDF/OWL View, 99
Functional properties,
defining, 39
L
Language level,
selecting, 29
Legal information, 116
Level of ontology language,
selecting, 29
License, 120
information about, 116
G
GUI,
broad description of, 12
H
Help menu,
description of, 108
License metering,
in Altova products, 118
M
Main Window,
in interface, 12, 14
Menu bar,
in interface, 12
N
Namespace imports,
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Index
Namespace imports,
and owl:imports, 101
for RDF documents, 101
Namespaces,
and color assignments, 103
how to declare, 32
importing from ontology into RDF document, 67, 72
O
Object properties,
defining, 39, 59
Objects,
in RDF statements, 69, 75
Onscreen help, 108
Ontologies,
for RDF document creation, 67
general creation and editing mechanism, 22
Ontology,
creating new, 29
language level, 29
Ontology level,
OWL DL tutorial, 53
Opening files in SemanticWorks, 89
Options dialog,
description, 99
Overview,
of categories in Main Window, 14
Overview Window,
description of, 19
in interface, 12
OWL DL,
checking syntax and semantics, 94
OWL DL ontology,
tutorial, 52
OWL Lite,
checking syntax and semantics, 94
OWL Lite ontology,
tutorial, 28
owl:imports, 101, 106, 110
131
description of command, 91
Predicates,
declaring in RDF statements, 69, 75
for instances, 45, 57
Prefixes,
declaring for namespaces, 32
Printing,
of documents, 89
Product features,
of SemanticWorks, 9
Properties,
cardinality constraints, 39, 59
declaring in RDF documents, 69, 75
defining, 39, 59
domain and range of, 39, 59
Property restrictions,
entering cardinality requirements, 110
R
Range,
of properties, 39, 59
RDF document,
and Dublin Core vocabulary, 72
RDF document creation,
from OWL DL ontology, 67
tutorial, 66
RDF documents,
creating new, 67
general creation and editing mechanism, 22
importing namespaces from ontologies, 101
referencing an ontology, 67, 72
RDF resources,
creating, 69, 75
RDF statements,
making, 69, 75
RDF/OWL level,
selecting, 94
RDF/OWL menu,
description of commands in, 94
RDF/OWL View,
description of, 14
P
Redo,
description of command, 91
Paste,
Replace,
description of command, 91
© 2008 Altova GmbH
132
Index
Resources,
for RDF document from ontology, 67, 72
from different namespaces, 103
Restrictions,
of classes, 61
on properties, 110
S
Saving files in SemanticWorks, 89
Semantics check,
and Errors Window, 20
of ontology, 34, 55
SemanticWorks,
product features, 9
product information, 108
user manual, 3
Software product license, 120
U
Undo,
description of command, 91
UnionOf,
classes, 61
URIref,
declaring prefixes of, 32
URIref prefixes,
declaring namespaces for, 105
expanding, 105
Usage,
overview, 22
Usage issues,
listing of, 110
User manual,
overview, 6
Status Bar,
display of, 92
Support resources, 108
Syntax check,
and Errors Window, 20
of ontology, 34, 55
T
Text View,
description of, 14, 32
Toolbars,
in interface, 12
setting display of, 92
setting options for, 92
Tools menu,
description of commands in, 96
Triples files,
exporting to, 89
Tutorial,
OWL DL ontology, 52
OWL Lite ontology, 28
RDF document creation, 66
V
Valid,
result of semantics check, 94
W
Well-formed,
result of syntax check, 94
Window menu,
description of commands in, 107
Windows,
moving in interface, 12
Windows in GUI,
configuring display of, 107
X
XML files,
exporting to, 89
XML Schema,
declaring namespace for datatypes, 32
© 2008 Altova GmbH
Index
xml:base,
use of, 32
© 2008 Altova GmbH
133
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