User Guide
1
IMPORTANT
Please read this manual carefully before using
your mixer for the first time.
© Harman International Industries Ltd. 2006
All rights reserved
Parts of the design of this product may be protected by worldwide patents.
Part No. ZM0338-01
Soundcraft is a trading division of Harman International Industries Ltd. Information in this manual
is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of the
vendor. Soundcraft shall not be liable for any loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use of
information or any error contained in this manual.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any
form or by any means, electronic, electrical, mechanical, optical, chemical, including photocopying
and recording, for any purpose without the express written permission of Soundcraft.
Harman International Industries Limited
Cranborne House
Cranborne Road
POTTERS BAR
Hertfordshire
EN6 3JN
UK
Tel:
+44 (0)1707 665000
Fax: +44 (0)1707 660742
http://www.soundcraft.com
2
Contents
User Guide
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
SAFETY SYMBOL GUIDE
OVERVIEW
THE 60-SECOND GUIDE
INTRODUCTION
WIRING UP
BLOCK DIAGRAM
MONO INPUT CHANNEL
STEREO INPUT CHANNELS
MASTER SECTION
USING YOUR EPM CONSOLE
FITTING OPTIONAL RACKMOUNT EARS
APPLICATIONS
GLOSSARY
TYPICAL CONNECTING LEADS
MARK-UP SHEETS
TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS
WARRANTY
1
4
6
7
7
9
10
14
15
18
20
22
24
25
28
30
32
34
35
3
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Read these instructions.
Keep these instructions.
Heed all warnings.
Follow all instructions.
Do not use this apparatus near water.
Clean only with a dry cloth.
Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus (including
amplifiers) that produce heat.
Do not defeat the safety purpose of a polarised or grounding type plug. A polarised plug has two blades
with one wider than the other. A grounding type plug has two blades and a third grounding prong. The
wide blade or the third prong are provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your outlet,
consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet
Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles
and the point where they exit from the apparatus.
Only use attachments/accessories specified by the manufacturer.
Use only with the cart, stand, tripod, bracket or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the
apparatus. When a cart is used, use caution when moving the cart/apparatus combination to avoid injury
from tip-over.
Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time.
Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has been
damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects
fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally,
or has been dropped.
4
Note: It is recommended that all maintenance and service on the product should be carried out by Soundcraft
or its authorised agents. Soundcraft cannot accept any liability whatsoever for any loss or damage caused
by service, maintenance or repair by unauthorised personnel.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do not expose this apparatus to rain or moisture.
Do not expose the apparatus to dripping or splashing and do not place objects filled with liquids, such as
vases, on the apparatus.
No naked flame sources, such as lighted candles, should be placed on the apparatus.
Ventilation should not be impeded by covering the ventilation openings with items such as newspapers, table
cloths, curtains etc.
THIS APPARATUS MUST BE EARTHED. Under no circumstances should the safety earth be disconnected
from the mains lead.
The mains supply disconnect device is the mains plug. It must remain accessible so as to be readily operable
when the apparatus is in use.
If any part of the mains cord set is damaged, the complete cord set should be replaced. The following
information is for reference only.
The wires in the mains lead are coloured in accordance with the following code:
Earth (Ground):
Green and Yellow (US - Green/Yellow)
Neutral:
Blue (US - White)
Live (Hot):
Brown (US - Black)
As the colours of the wires in the mains lead may not correspond with the coloured markings identifying the
terminals in your plug, proceed as follows:
The wire which is coloured Green and Yellow must be connected to the terminal in the plug which
is marked with the letter E or by the earth symbol.
The wire which is coloured Blue must be connected to the terminal in the plug which is marked
with the letter N
The wire which is coloured Brown must be connected to the terminal in the plug which is marked
with the letter L
Ensure that these colour codes are followed carefully in the event of the plug being changed
This unit is capable of operating over a range of mains voltages as marked on the rear panel.
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates,
uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction
manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential
area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference
at his own expense.
This Class A digital apparatus meets the requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment
Regulations.
Cet appareil numérique de la Classe A respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel brouilleur
du Canada.
5
For your own safety and to avoid invalidation of the
warranty please read this section carefully.
SAFETY SYMBOL GUIDE
For your own safety and to avoid invalidation of the warranty all text marked with these symbols
should be read carefully.
WARNINGS
The lightning flash with arr
owhead symbol, is
arrowhead
intended to aler
t
the
user
to
the pr
esence of unalert
presence
insulated “danger
ous voltage” within the pr
oduct’s
“dangerous
product’s
enclosur
e that may be of suf
ficient magnitude to
sufficient
enclosure
constitute a risk of electric shock to persons.
CAUTIONS
The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle
is intended to aler
esence of
alertt the user to the pr
presence
impor
tant operating and maintenance (servicing)
important
instructions in the literatur
e accompanying the
literature
appliance.
NOTES
tant infor
mation and useful tips on the
Contain impor
important
information
operation of your equipment.
HEADPHONES SAFETY WARNING
Contain impor
tant infor
mation and useful tips on
important
information
headphone outputs and monitoring levels.
Recommended Headphone Impedance >= 200 Ohms.
6
OVERVIEW
THE 60-SECOND GUIDE
To get you working as fast as possible, this manual begins with a 60-second guide. Here you can find quick information on any
feature of the console.
1 MIC INPUT (XLR)
Connect Microphones here. If you are using a condenser mic, ensure phantom power is
supplied by pressing the switch at the top of the master section.
WARNING: Do Not apply Phantom Power before connecting a microphone.
2 LINE INPUT (¼” Jack)
Connect Line level sources here, e.g. Synth, Drum Machine, DI etc.
3 INSERT POINT (¼” Jack)
Connect Signal processors here, e.g. Compressor, Gate etc.
4 GAIN CONTROL
Adjust this to increase or decrease the level of the incoming signal.
5 EQ STAGE
Adjust these controls to change the signal tone (the character of the signal).
6 AUX SENDS
Adjust these controls to change the level of the signal to an FX unit or an artist’s monitors
(headphones/in-ear/stage monitors). Aux 1&2 are switchable pre/post fade.
7 PAN CONTROL
Use this control to position the signal within the stereo field.
8 MUTE SWITCH
When this is pressed you will hear no signal from the channel (post-mute signals).
9 PFL
When pressed the signal will appear on the monitor and headphone outputs - use this to
monitor the post-EQ signal from the channel.
7
10 PEAK LED
This is used to indicate that the signal is close to distorting (clipping) on a specific
channel.
11 INPUT CHANNEL FADER
This is used to control the level fed to the Mix Bus and post-fade sends.
12 MIX OUTPUTS (XLR)
Connect these to your analogue recording device, or to your amplification system.
13 MIX INSERTS (¼” Jack)
This is a pre-fade break in the signal path which can be used to feed a dynamics or
mastering device. The signal is sent from the tip of the jack plug and the return path
comes back in on the ring of the jack plug.
14 MONITOR O/Ps (¼” Jack)
These are used to feed your monitoring system. This can be directly connected to
powered monitors, or indirectly via an amplifier to standard monitors.
15 MASTER FADERS
These faders control the overall level of the mix outputs.
16 MAIN METERS
These show the level of the mix outputs. When the PFL ACTIVE LED is lit, the meters
show the level of the selected PFL signal.
17 MONITOR CONTROL
This controls the level of the signal sent to your monitoring system.
18 PHONES CONTROL
This controls the level of the signal sent to the headphones jack socket.
19 AUX OUTPUTS (¼” Jack)
These two outputs can be used to send the channel signal to an FX unit or an artist’s
monitors (headphones/in-ear/stage monitors). Aux 1&2 are switchable pre/post fade.
20 AUX CONTROLS
These two switches globally switch the AUX1 and AUX2 feeds respectively, on all the
input modules to be either pre or post-fade.
21 STEREO INPUTS (¼” Jack)
These two inputs can be used to connect line level stereo inputs from keyboards, sound
modules, samplers, computer based audio cards etc. These inputs pass through a normal
channel strip, with EQ, Auxes and a Balance control.
22 2-TRACK INPUTS (RCA Phono)
Here you can connect the playback from your recording device.
23 2-TRACK CONTROLS
Use these to control the 2 Track signal. The MONITOR switch sends the signal to the
monitor outputs and phones, whilst the TO MIX switch sends it to the main mix.
24 RECORD OUTPUTS (RCA Phono) Here you can connect the input to your recording device.
25 PHANTOM POWER
Press this to switch the phantom power (48V) on for condenser microphones.
WARNING: Do Not apply Phantom Power before connecting a microphone.
26 HEADPHONES (¼” Jack)
8
Plug your headphones into this socket. Recommended headphones impedance is 200
ohms or greater.
INTRODUCTION
Thank you for purchasing a Soundcraft EPM mixer. The EPM range is our most cost-effective
mixing solution, bringing you all the features and performance that you expect from a Soundcraft
product, at an extraordinarily low price.
The packaging, which your EPM arrived in, forms part of the product and must be retained for
future use.
Owning a Soundcraft console brings you the expertise and support of one of the industry’s
leading manufacturers, and the results of nearly 3 decades of supporting some of the biggest
names in the business. Our knowledge has been attained through working in close contact with
leading professionals and institutes to bring you products designed to get the best possible
results from your mixing.
Built to the highest standards using quality components and surface mount technology, the EPM
is designed to be as easy to use as possible. We have spent years researching the most efficient
methods of control for two key reasons:
1) Engineers, musicians, writers and programmers all need to have very few interruptions to the
creative process; our products have been designed to be almost transparent, allowing this process
to breathe.
2) Whether performing or recording, time is a very expensive and rare commodity. Our products
have a user interface which is recognised by millions to be the industry standard because of its
efficiency.
The sonic qualities of our products are exemplary - some of the same circuits which are used on
our most expensive consoles are employed in the EPM, bringing you the great Soundcraft quality
in a small format console without compromise.
You will also be glad to know you have a one year warranty with your product from the date of
purchase. The EPM has been designed using the latest high-end software based engineering
packages. Every console from Soundcraft has been proven to stand up to all the stress and
rigours of modern day mixing environments.
The entire EPM is manufactured using some of the most advanced techniques in the world, from
high density surface mount PCB technology, to computer aided test equipment able to measure
signals well outside the range of normal hearing. As each console passes through to be quality
checked before packing, there is also a human listening station. Something we have learnt over
the years is that the human touch counts - and only by using people can you ensure the product
meets the high demands of the user.
ADVICE FOR THOSE WHO PUSH THE BOUNDARIES
Although your new console will not output any sound until you feed it signals, it has the capability
to produce sounds which when monitored through an amplifier or headphones can damage
hearing over time.
Please take care when working with your audio - if you are manipulating controls which you don’t
understand (which we all do when we are learning), make sure your monitors are turned down.
Remember that your ears are the most important tool of your trade, look after them, and they will
look after you.
Most importantly - don’t be afraid to experiment to find out how each parameter affects the
sound - this will extend your creativity and help you to get the best from your mixer and the most
respect from your artists and audience.
9
WIRING UP
Please refer to pages 30/31 for additional wiring details.
Mic Input
The MIC input accepts XLR-type connectors and is designed to suit a wide range of
BALANCED or UNBALANCED low-level signals, whether from delicate vocals requiring
the best low-noise performance, or drum kits needing maximum headroom. Professional
dynamic, condenser or ribbon mics are best because these will be LOW IMPEDANCE.
While you can use low-cost HIGH IMPEDANCE mics, you do not get the same degree of
immunity to interference on the microphone cable and as a result the level of background
noise may be higher. If you turn the PHANTOM POWER on, the socket provides a
suitable powering voltage for professional condenser mics.
DO NOT use UNBALANCED sources with the
phantom power switched on. The voltage on pins
2 & 3 of the XLR connector may cause serious
damage. BALANCED dynamic mics may normally
be used with phantom power switched on
(contact your microphone manufacturer for
guidance)
The input level is set using the input GAIN knob.
The LINE input offers the same gain range as the MIC input, but at a higher input
impedance, and is 20dB less sensitive. This is suitable for most line level sources.
WARNING !
Start with the input GAIN knob turned fully
anticlockwise when plugging high level sources
into the LINE input to avoid overloading the input
channel or giving you a very load surprise!
Line Input
Accepts 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jacks, or 2-pole mono jacks which will automatically ground the
‘cold’ input. Use this input for sources other than mics, such as keyboards, drum machines,
synths, tape machines or DI boxes. The input is BALANCED for low noise and immunity
from interference, but you can use UNBALANCED sources by wiring up the jacks as
shown, although you should then keep cable lengths as short as possible to minimise
interference pick-up on the cable. Note that the ring must be grounded if the source is
unbalanced. Set the input level using the GAIN knob, starting with the knob turned fully
anticlockwise. Unplug any MIC connection when using the LINE input.
Insert Point
The unbalanced, pre-EQ insert point is a break in the channel signal path, allowing
limiters, compressors, special EQ or other signal processing units to be added in the
signal path. The Insert is a 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jack socket which is normally bypassed.
When a jack is inserted, the signal path is broken, just before the EQ section.
The signal from the channel appears on the TIP of the plug and is returned on the RING,
with the sleeve as a common ground.
The Send may be tapped off as an alternative pre-fade, pre-EQ direct output if required,
using a lead with tip and ring shorted together so that the signal path is not interrupted.
10
Stereo Inputs STEREO 1/2
These accept 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jacks, or 2-pole mono jacks which will automatically ground
the ‘cold’ input. Use these inputs for sources such as keyboards, drum machines, synths,
tape machines or as returns from processing units. The input is BALANCED for low
noise and immunity from interference, but you can use
UNBALANCED sources by
wiring up the jacks as shown, although you should then keep cable lengths as short as
possible to minimise interference pick-up on the cable. Note that the ring must be
grounded if the source is unbalanced.
Mono sources can be fed to both paths by plugging into the Left jack only.
Mix Inserts
The unbalanced, pre-fade Mix insert point is a break in the output signal path to allow the
connection of, for example, a compressor/limiter or graphic equaliser. The Insert is a 3pole ‘A’ gauge jack socket which is normally bypassed. When a jack is inserted, the
signal path is broken, just before the mix fader.
The mix signal appears on the TIP of the plug and is returned on the RING. A ‘Y’ lead
may be required to connect to equipment with separate send and return jacks as shown
below:
Mix Outputs
The MIX outputs are on XLR’s, wired as shown, and incorporate impedance balancing,
allowing long cable runs to balanced amplifiers and other equipment.
Aux Outputs
The Aux outputs are on 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jack sockets, wired as shown on the left, and
are balanced, allowing long cable runs to balanced amplifiers and other equipment.
Headphones
The PHONES output is a 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jack, wired as a stereo output as shown,
ideally for headphones of 200Ω or greater. 8Ω headphones are not recommended.
11
Polarity (Phase)
You will probably be familiar with the concept of polarity in electrical signals and this is of
particular importance to balanced audio signals. Just as a balanced signal is highly
effective at cancelling out unwanted interference, so two microphones picking up the
same signal can cancel out, or cause serious degradation of the signal if one of the
cables has the +ve and -ve wires reversed. This phase reversal can be a real problem
when microphones are close together and you should therefore always take care to
connect pins correctly when wiring audio cables.
Grounding and Shielding
For optimum performance use balanced connections where possible and ensure that all
signals are referenced to a solid, noise-free earthing point and that all signal cables have
their screens connected to ground. In some unusual circumstances, to avoid earth or
ground ‘loops’ ensure that all cable screens and other signal earths are connected to
ground only at their source and not at both ends.
If the use of unbalanced connections is unavoidable, you can minimise noise by following
these wiring guidelines:
•
On INPUTS, unbalance at the source and use a twin screened cable as though
it were balanced.
•
On OUTPUTS, connect the signal to the +ve output pin, and the ground of the
output device to -ve. If a twin screened cable is used, connect the screen only at
the mixer end.
•
Avoid running audio cables or placing audio equipment close to thyristor
dimmer units or power cables.
•
Noise immunity is improved significantly by the use of low impedance sources,
such as good quality professional microphones or the outputs from most modern
audio equipment. Avoid cheaper high impedance microphones, which may suffer
from interference over long cable runs, even with well-made cables.
Grounding and shielding is still seen as a black art, and the suggestions above are only
guidelines. If your system still hums, an earth/ground loop is the most likely cause. Two
examples of how an earth loop can occur are shown below.
Warning!
Under NO circumstances must the AC power mains
earth be disconnected from the mains lead.
12
PROBLEM SOLVING
Basic problem solving is within the scope of any user if a few basic rules are followed.
•
Get to know the Block Diagram of your console (see page 14).
•
Get to know what all controls and/or connections in the system are supposed to do.
•
Learn where to look for common trouble spots.
The Block Diagram is a representative sketch of all the components of the console, showing how they
connect together and how the signal flows through the system. Once you have become familiar with the
various component blocks you will find the Block Diagram is quite easy to follow and you will have
gained a valuable understanding of the internal structure of the console.
Each component has a specific function and only by getting to know what each part is supposed to do
will you be able to tell if there is a genuine fault! Many “faults” are the result of incorrect connection or
control settings which may have been overlooked.
Basic Troubleshooting is a process of applying logical thought to the signal path through the console
and tracking down the problem by elimination.
•
Swap input connections to check that the source is really present. Check both Mic and Line
inputs.
•
Eliminate sections of the channel by using the insert point to re-route the signal to other inputs
that are known to be working.
•
Route channels to different outputs or to auxiliary sends to identify problems on the Master
section.
•
Compare a suspect channel with an adjacent channel which has been set up identically. Use
PFL to monitor the signal in each section.
•
Insert-point contact problems may be checked by using an insert bypass jack with tip and ring
shorted together as shown below. If the signal appears when the jack is inserted it shows that
there is a problem with the normalling contacts on the jack socket, caused by wear or damage,
or often just dirt or dust. Keep a few in your gig tool box.
If in doubt please contact Soundcraft customer support.
PRODUCTS UNDER WARRANTY
UK customers should contact their local dealer.
Customers outside the UK are requested to contact their territorial distributor who is able to offer support
in the local time zone and language. Please see the distributor listings on our website
(www.soundcraft.com) to locate your local distributor.
OUT-OF-WARRANTY PRODUCTS
For out-of-warranty consoles purchased in the United Kingdom, please contact the Customer Services
Department (e-mail: csd@soundcraft.com) at the factory in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire: Telephone +44
(0)1707 665000.
For all other out-of-warranty consoles, please contact the appropriate territorial distributor.
When mailing or faxing please remember to give as much information as possible. This should include
your name, address and a daytime telephone number. Should you experience any difficulty please
contact Customer Services Department (e-mail: csd@soundcraft.com)
13
BLOCK DIAGRAM
14
MONO INPUT CHANNEL
1 Mic Input
The MIC input accepts XLR-type connectors and is designed to suit a wide range of
BALANCED or UNBALANCED signals. Professional dynamic, condenser or ribbon mics
are best because these will be LOW IMPEDANCE. You can use low-cost HIGH
IMPEDANCE mics, but the level of background noise will be higher. If you turn the
PHANTOM POWER on (top right-hand side of the mixer) the socket provides a suitable
powering voltage for professional condenser mics.
ONLY connect condenser microphones with the
+48V powering OFF, and ONLY turn the +48V
powering on or off with all output faders DOWN, to
prevent damage to the mixer or external devices.
TAKE CARE when using unbalanced sources, which may be damaged by the phantom
power voltage on pins 2 & 3 of the XLR connector.
Unplug any mics if you want to use the LINE Input. The input level is set using the GAIN
knob.
2 Line Input
Accepts 3-pole ‘A’ gauge (TRS) jacks. Use this input for sources other than mics, such
as keyboards, drum machines, synths, tape machines or DI’d guitars. The input is
BALANCED for low noise and top quality from professional equipment, but you can use
UNBALANCED sources by wiring up the jacks as shown below, although you should
then keep cable lengths as short as possible. Unplug anything in the MIC input if you
want to use this socket. Set the input level using the GAIN knob.
3 Insert Point
The unbalanced, pre-EQ insert point is a break in the channel signal path, allowing
limiters, compressors, special EQ or other signal processing units to be added in the
signal path. The Insert is a 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jack socket which is normally bypassed.
When a jack is inserted, the signal path is broken, just before the EQ section.
The Send may also be tapped off as an alternative pre-fade, pre-EQ direct output if
required, using a lead with tip and ring shorted together so that the signal path is not
interrupted (see below).
4 Gain
This knob sets how much of the source signal is sent to the rest of the mixer. Too high,
and the signal will distort as it overloads the channel. Too low, and the level of any
15
background hiss will be more noticeable and you may not be able to get enough signal
level to the output of the mixer.
Note that some sound equipment, particularly that intended for domestic use, operates
at a lower level (-10dBV) than professional equipment and will therefore need a higher
gain setting to give the same output level.
See “Initial Setup” on page 22 to learn how to set GAIN correctly.
5 Equaliser
The Equaliser (EQ) allows fine manipulation of the sound, particularly to improve the
sound in live PA applications where the original signal is often far from ideal and where
slight boosting or cutting of particular voice frequencies can really make a difference to
clarity. There are three sections giving the sort of control usually only found on much
larger mixers. The EQ knobs can have a dramatic effect, so use them sparingly and
listen carefully as you change any settings so that you get to know how they affect the
sound.
HF EQ
Turn to the right to boost high (treble) frequencies above 12kHz by up to 15dB, adding
crispness to cymbals, vocals and electronic instruments. Turn to the left to cut by up to
15dB, reducing hiss or excessive sibilance which can occur with certain types of
microphone. Set the knob in the centre-detented position when not required.
MID EQ
There are two knobs which work together to form a SWEPT MID EQ. The lower knob
provides 15dB of boost and cut, just like the HF EQ knob, but the frequency at which this
occurs can be set by the upper knob over a range of 140Hz to 3kHz. This allows some
truly creative improvement of the signal in live situations, because this mid band covers
the range of most vocals. Listen carefully as you use these controls together to find how
particular characteristics of a vocal signal can be enhanced or reduced. Set the lower
knob to the centre-detented position when not required.
LF EQ
Turn to the right to boost low (bass) frequencies below 60Hz by up to 15dB, adding
warmth to vocals or extra punch to synths, guitars and drums. Turn to the left to cut low
frequencies by up to 15dB for reducing hum, stage rumble or to improve a mushy sound.
Set the knob to the centre-detented position when not required.
6 Aux Sends
These are used to set up separate mixes for FOLDBACK, EFFECTS or recording, and
the combination of each Aux Send is mixed to the respective Aux Output. For Effects it
is useful for the signal to fade up and down with the fader (this is called POST-FADE),
but for Foldback or Monitor feeds it is important for the send to be independent of the
fader (this is called PRE-FADE).
AUX SENDS 1 and 2 are both globally switchable between pre and post-fade (see master
section on page 20/21).
7 PAN
This control sets the amount of the channel signal feeding the Left and Right MIX buses,
allowing you to move the source smoothly across the stereo image. When the control is
turned fully left or right you are able to route the signal at unity gain to either left or right
outputs individually.
16
8 MUTE
All outputs from the channel except inserts are on when the MUTE switch is released
and muted when the switch is down, allowing levels to be pre-set before the signal is
required.
9 INPUT CHANNEL FADER
The 60mm FADER, with a custom-designed law to give even smoother control of the
overall signal level in the channel strip, allows precise balancing of the various source
signals being mixed to the Master Section. You get most control when the input GAIN is
set up correctly, giving full travel on the fader. See the “Initial Setup” section on page 22
for help in setting a suitable signal level.
10 PFL
When the latching PFL switch is pressed, the pre-fade pre-mute signal is fed to the
headphones, control room output and meters, where it replaces the MIX. The PFL
ACTIVE LED on the Master section illuminates to warn that a PFL is active. This is a
useful way of listening to any required input signal without interrupting the main mix, for
making adjustments or tracing problems. When PFL is pressed anywhere on the console,
the Control Room outputs automatically switch from monitoring the Mix Outputs.
11 PEAK LED
This LED will light when the signal level approaches clipping at any of the three monitored
points:
a) PRE-EQ
b) POST-EQ
c) POST-FADE
17
STEREO INPUT CHANNELS
1 INPUTS STEREO 1/2
These inputs accept 3-pole ‘A’ gauge (TRS) jacks. Use these inputs for sources such as
keyboards, drum machines, synths, tape machines or processing units. The inputs are
BALANCED for low noise and top quality from professional equipment, but you can use
UNBALANCED sources by wiring up the jacks as shown in the “Wiring it Up” section
earlier in this manual, although you should then keep cable lengths as short as possible.
Mono sources may be used by plugging into the left jack only.
2 GAIN
The GAIN control sets the level of the channel signal.
3
EQUALISER
HF EQ
Turn to the right to boost high (treble) frequencies, adding crispness to percussion from
drum machines, synths and electronic instruments. Turn to the left to cut these
frequencies, reducing hiss or excessive brilliance. Set the knob in the centre-detented
position when not required. The control has a shelving response giving 15dB of boost or
cut at 12kHz.
LF EQ
Turn to the right to boost low (bass) frequencies, adding extra punch to synths, guitars
and drums. Turn to the left to reduce hum, boominess or improve a mushy sound. Set
the knob to the centre-detented position when not required. The control has a shelving
response giving 15dB of boost or cut at 60Hz.
4 AUX SENDS
These are used to set up a separate mixes for FOLDBACK, EFFECTS or recording, and
the combination of each Aux Send is mixed to the respective Aux Output at the rear of
the mixer. For Effects it is useful for the signal to fade up and down with the fader (this
is called POST-FADE), but for Foldback or Monitor feeds it is important for the send to
be independent of the fader (this is called PRE-FADE).
AUX SENDS 1 and 2 are both globally switchable between pre and post-fade (see master
section on page 20/21). The send pots are fed with a mono sum of the L & R signals.
5 BALANCE
This control sets the amount of the channel signal feeding the Left and Right MIX buses,
allowing you to balance the source in the stereo image. When the control is turned fully
right or left you feed only that side of the signal to the mix. Unity gain is provided by the
control in the centre-detented position.
6 MUTE
All outputs from the channel are enabled when the MUTE switch is released and muted
when the switch is down.
18
7 FADER
The 60mm FADER gives you smooth control of the overall signal level in the channel
strip, allowing precise balancing of the various source signals being mixed to the Master
Section. It is important that the input level is set correctly to give maximum travel on the
fader which should normally be used at around the “0” mark. See the “Initial Setup”
section on page 22 for help in setting the right level.
8 PFL
When the latching PFL switch is pressed, the pre-fade pre-mute signal is fed in mono to
the headphones, control room output and meters, where it replaces the MIX. The PFL
ACTIVE LED on the Master section illuminates to warn that a PFL is active. The Left
and Right meters display the PFL signal in mono. This is a useful way of listening to any
required input signal without interrupting the main mix, for making adjustments or tracing
problems.
9 CHANNEL PEAK LED
This LED will light when the signal level approaches clipping at any of the three monitored
points:
a) PRE-EQ
b) POST-EQ
c) POST-FADE
19
MASTER SECTION
1 PHANTOM POWER
Many professional condenser mics need PHANTOM POWER, which is a
method of sending a powering voltage down the same wires as the mic
signal. Press the switch to enable the +48V power to all of the MIC inputs.
The adjacent LED illuminates when the power is active.
WARNING: TAKE CARE when using unbalanced mics which
may be damaged by the phantom power voltage. Balanced
dynamic mics can normally be used with phantom power switched
on (contact your microphone manufacturer for guidance).
Mics should always be plugged in, and all output faders set to minimum
before switching the Phantom Power ON to avoid damage to external
equipment
2 POWER INDICATOR
This LED lights to show when power is connected to the console.
3 MASTER FADERS
The MASTER FADERS set the final level of the MIX outputs, and separate
faders are provided for each output. These should normally be set close to
the ‘0’ mark if the input GAIN settings have been correctly set, to give maximum
travel on the faders for smoothest control.
4 MIX OUTPUTS & INSERTS
The Mix LEFT and RIGHT outputs are sent from the XLR sockets as balanced
signals. The Mix INSERT points are on 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jacks and are
unbalanced.
5 BARGRAPH METERS
The three-colour peak reading BARGRAPH METERS normally show the level
of the MIX RIGHT and MIX LEFT outputs, giving you a constant warning of
excessive peaks in the signal which might cause overloading. Aim to keep
the signal within the amber segments at peak levels for best performance.
Similarly, if the output level is too low and hardly registering at all on the
meters, the level of background noise may become significant. Take care to
set up the input levels for best performance.
When any PFL switch is pressed, the meters switch to show the selected PFL
signal on both meters, in mono; the PFL ACTIVE LED also lights.
20
6 RECORD OUTPUTS
These two RCA outputs carry a copy of the MIX L and MIX R signals. They allow the use
of a recording device, e.g. DAT player, Minidisc, Cassette tape recorder etc.
7 2 TRACK
These two RCA phono sockets are unbalanced Left and Right line-level inputs, used for
connecting a playback device.
8 2 TRACK TO MIX
Press this switch to route the 2 Track in signals, connected to the Left and Right RCA
sockets 7, to the MIX Left/Right signal at the MIX outputs.
9 MONITOR 2 TRACK
Press this switch to route the 2 Track signal to the monitor and phones, over-riding the
default Monitor/Phones signal.
10 MONITOR LEVEL
This control sets the level to the MONITOR LEFT & RIGHT outputs. If headphones are
plugged into the PHONES jack, the headphone level will track the Monitor Level.
11 MONITOR OUTPUTS
The Monitor Outputs are on 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jacks and are balanced connections
12 PHONES LEVEL
This control sets the output level to the Headphone outputs. If headphones are plugged
into the PHONES jack, then the knob sets a comfortable headphone listening level without
affecting the Monitor output levels.
13 HEADPHONES JACK
The PHONES output is a 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jack, wired as a stereo output as shown,
ideally for headphones of 200Ω or greater. 8Ω headphones are not recommended.
14 AUX OUTPUTS (1 & 2)
These outputs are on 3-pole ‘A’ gauge jacks and are balanced outputs.
15 AUX PRE/POST SWITCHES
These two switches globally switch the AUX 1 and AUX 2 feeds, respectively, on all the
input modules to be either pre-fade or post-fade.
21
USING YOUR EPM CONSOLE
The final output from your sound system can only ever be as good as the weakest link in
the chain, and especially important is the quality of the source signal because this is the
starting point of the chain. Just as you need to become familiar with the control functions
of your mixer, so you must recognise the importance of correct choice of inputs,
microphone placement and input channel settings. However, no amount of careful setting
up can take account of the spontaneity and unpredictability of live performance. The
mixer must be set up to provide “spare” control range to compensate for changing
microphone position and the absorption effect of a large audience (different acoustic
characteristics from soundcheck to show).
MICROPHONE PLACEMENT
Careful microphone placement and the choice of a suitable type of microphone for the
job is one of the essentials of successful sound reinforcement. The diagrams on the left
show the different pick-up patterns for the most common types of microphone. Cardioid
microphones are most sensitive to sound coming from in front, and hypercardioid
microphones offer even greater directivity, with a small amount of pickup behind the
microphone. These types are ideal for recording vocalists or instruments, where rejection
of unwanted sounds and elimination of feedback is important. The aim should be to
place the microphone as close as physically possible to the source, to cut out unwanted
surrounding sounds, allow a lower gain setting on the mixer and avoid feedback. Also a
well chosen and well placed microphone should not need any appreciable equalisation.
There are no exact rules - let your ears be the judge. In the end, the position that gives
the desired effect is the correct position!
INITIAL SETUP
Once you have connected up your system (see the sections on connection and wiring
earlier in this manual for guidance) you are ready to set initial positions for the controls
on your mixer.
Set up individual input channel as follows:
•
Connect your sources (microphone, keyboard etc.) to the required inputs.
WARNING: Phantom powered mics should be connected before the +48V is
switched on. Ensure the PA system is OFF when switching phantom power on
or off.
22
•
Set Master faders at 0, input faders at 0, and set power amplifier levels to about
70%.
•
Provide a typical performance level signal and press the PFL button on the first
channel, monitoring the level on the bargraph meters.
•
Adjust the input gain until the meter display is in the amber section, with occasional
peaks to the first red LED at a typical maximum source level. This allows sufficient
headroom to accommodate peaks and establishes the maximum level for normal
operation (but see note below).
•
Repeat this procedure on other channels as required. As more channels are
added to the mix, the meters may move into the red section. Adjust the overall
level using the Master Faders if necessary.
•
Listen carefully for the characteristic sound of “feedback”. If you cannot achieve
satisfactory input level setting without feedback, check microphone and speaker
placement and repeat the exercise. If feedback persists, it may be necessary to
use a Graphic Equaliser to reduce the system response at particular resonant
frequencies.
Note:
The initial settings should only be regarded as a starting point for your mix. It is important
to remember that many factors affect the sound during a live performance, for instance
the size of the audience!
You are now ready to start building the mix and this should be done progressively,
listening carefully for each component in the mix and watching the meters for any hint of
overload. If this occurs, back off the appropriate Channel Fader slightly until the level is
out of the red segments, or adjust the Master Faders.
Remember that the mixer is a mixer, not an amplifier. Increasing the overall level is the
job of the amplifier, and if it is impossible to provide adequate level, it is probable that the
amplifier is too small for the application. Choose your amplifier carefully, and do not try
to compensate for lack of power by using the mixer to increase output level.
Note:
The level of any source signal in the final output is affected by many factors, principally
the Input Gain control, Channel Fader and Mix Faders. You should try to use only as
much microphone gain as required to achieve a good balance between signals, with the
faders set as described above.
If the input gain is set too high, the channel fader will need to be pulled down too far in
compensation to leave enough travel for successful mixing and there is a greater risk of
feedback because small fader movements will have a very significant effect on output
level. Also there will be a chance of distortion as the signal overloads the channel and
causes clipping.
If the gain is set too low, you will not find enough gain on the faders to bring the signal up
to an adequate level, and backgound hiss will be more noticeable.
This is illustrated below:
23
FITTING OPTIONAL RACKMOUNT EARS
Note: a rack extender is included in the EPM6 and EPM8 rack mounting
kits to make the console fit into a 19” frame.
The part numbers for the kits are:
RW5744 RACK MOUNTING KIT - EPM6
RW5745 RACK MOUNTING KIT - EPM8
RW5746 RACK MOUNTING KIT- EPM12
24
APPLICATIONS
APPLICATION 1 - LIVE SOUND REINFORCEMENT
APPLICATION 2 - MULTISPEAKER APPLICATIONS
This configuration demonstrates how multiple speaker configurations can be driven by the EPM.
25
APPLICATION 3 - PLACES OF WORSHIP
This configuration uses the Aux 2 output to drive an induction loop for the hard of hearing. Aux 1 output is used to generate foldback
monitoring for the speaker/singer. The main outputs are used to drive the main speaker system. The record and playback connections
are used to pass audio to and from a DAT machine or CDR.
26
APPLICATION 4 - RECORDING
The insert points on channels 1-8 may be used to feed a multitrack recorder as shown (link the send and return signals). The Mix
outputs are used for a preliminary stereo mix on a DAT recorder.
APPLICATION 5 - LINKING TWO EPM CONSOLES
27
GLOSSARY
Auxiliary send
An output from the console comprising a mix of signals from channels derived independently of the
main stereo mix.
Balance
The relative levels of the left and right channels of a stereo signal.
Balanced
A method of audio connection which ‘balances’ the wanted signal between two wires, these wires
also have a screen which carries no signal. Any interference is picked up equally by the two wires,
which results in cancellation of the unwanted signal. In this guide, the term can refer to various circuit
architectures. Connection details are given in relevant sections.
Clipping
The onset of severe distortion in the signal path, usually caused by the peak signal voltage being
limited by the circuit’s power supply voltage.
DAT
Digital Audio Tape, a cassette-based digital recording format.
dB (decibel)
A ratio of two voltages or signal levels, expressed by the equation dB=20Log10 (V1/V2). Adding the
suffix ‘u’ denotes the ratio is relative to 0.775V RMS.
DI(direct injection)/DI Box The practice of connecting an electric musical instrument directly to the input of the mixing console,
rather than to an amplifier and loudspeaker which is covered by a microphone feeding the console.
Equaliser
A device that allows the boosting or cutting of selected bands of frequencies in the signal path.
Fader
A linear control providing level adjustment.
Feedback
The `howling’ sound caused by bringing a microphone too close to a loudspeaker driven from its
amplified signal.
Foldback
A feed sent back to the artistes via loudspeakers or headphones to enable them to monitor the
sounds they are producing.
Frequency response
The variation in gain of a device with frequency.
Gain
The amount of amplication in level of the signal.
Headroom
The available signal range above the nominal level before clipping occurs.
Impedance balancing
A technique used on unbalanced outputs to minimise the effect of hum and interference when
connecting to external balanced inputs.
Insert
A break point in the signal path to allow the connection of external devices, for instance signal
processors or other mixers at line level signals. Nominal levels can be anywhere between
-0dBu to +6dBu, usually coming from a low impedance source.
Pan (pot)
Abbreviation of ‘panorama’: controls the levels sent to left and right outputs.
Peaking
The point at which a signal rises to its maximum instantaneous level, before falling back down again.
It can also describe an equaliser response curve affecting only a band of frequencies, (like on a
graphic equaliser), “peaking” at the centre of that band.
Peak LED
A visual indication of the signal peaking just before the onset of clipping, which will distort the signal.
PFL
Pre-fade listen: a function that allows the operator to monitor the pre-fade signal in a channel
independently of the main mix.
Phase
A term used to describe the relationship of two audio signals. In-phase signals reinforce each other,
out-of-phase signals result in cancellation. Phase is a measurement of relative displacement between
two waves of identical frequency.
Polarity
A term used to describe the orientation of the positive and negative poles of an audio connection.
Normally connections are made with positive to positive, negative to negative. If this is reversed, the
result will be out-of-phase signals (see ‘phase’ above).
Post-fade
The point in the signal path after a fader and therefore affected by the fader position.
28
Pre-fade
The point in the signal path before a fader, and therefore unaffected by the fader position.
Rolloff
A fall in gain at the extremes of the frequency response.
Shelving
An equaliser response affecting all frequencies above or below the break frequency i.e. a highpass
or lowpass derived response.
Spill
Acoustic interference from other sources.
Transient
A momentary rise in the signal level.
Unbalanced
A method of audio connection which uses a single wire and the cable screen as the signal return.
This method does not provide the noise immunity of a balanced input (see above).
+48V
The phantom power supply, available at the channel mic inputs, for condenser microphones and
active DI boxes.
29
TYPICAL CONNECTING LEADS
30
31
MARK-UP SHEETS
32
You may freely copy these pages, and use them to record the settings used for particular
applications/gigs.
33
TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Noise (22Hz-22kHz measurement bandwidth)
Mic EIN @ max gain, 150 ohms source impedance
Mix @max, faders down
Crosstalk (typ. @ 1kHz)
Channel mute
Fader cut-off (rel +10 mark)
Aux send pot offness
Frequency response
Mic/Line input to any output
THD+Noise
Mic gain 30dB, -30dBu input
Mix out, fader max @ 1kHz
Input & output Impedances
Mic input
Line input
Stereo input
Outputs
Input & output levels
Mic input max level
Line input max level
Stereo input max level
Mix output max level
Headphones (@ 200Ω)
EQ
EQ Bands (Mono input) +/- 15dB
Lo
Mid (swept)
Hi
Q
EQ Bands (stereo input) +/- 15dB
Lo
Hi
AVERAGE POWER CONSUMPTION (QUIESCENT)
EPM6
EPM8
EPM12
MIN / MAX OPERATING TEMPERATURE
Centigrade / Farenheit
34
-128dBu
<-85dBu
>96dB
>96dB
>86dB
+/- 0.5dB 20Hz – 20kHz
<0.007 %
2.4kΩ
11kΩ
100kΩ
75Ω
+17dBu
+30dBu
+30dBu
+20dBu
300mW
80Hz
140Hz – 3kHz
12kHz
1.5
80Hz
12kHz
13 Watts
14.5 Watts
17 Watts
0°C - 50°C / 32°F - 122°F
WARRANTY
1
Soundcraft is a trading division of Harman International Industries Ltd .
End User means the person who first puts the equipment into regular operation.
Dealer means the person other than Soundcraft (if any) from whom the End User purchased the
Equipment, provided such a person is authorised for this purpose by Soundcraft or its accredited
Distributor.
Equipment means the equipment supplied with this manual.
2
If within the period of twelve months from the date of delivery of the Equipment to the End User it
shall prove defective by reason only of faulty materials and/or workmanship to such an extent that
the effectiveness and/or usability thereof is materially affected the Equipment or the defective component should be returned to the Dealer or to Soundcraft and subject to the following conditions the
Dealer or Soundcraft will repair or replace the defective components. Any components replaced will
become the property of Soundcraft.
3
Any Equipment or component returned will be at the risk of the End User whilst in transit (both to and
from the Dealer or Soundcraft) and postage must be prepaid.
4
This warranty shall only be valid if:
a)
the Equipment has been properly installed in accordance with instructions contained in
Soundcraft’s manual; and
b)
the End User has notified Soundcraft or the Dealer within 14 days of the defect appearing; and
c)
no persons other than authorised representatives of Soundcraft or the Dealer have effected
any replacement of parts maintenance adjustments or repairs to the Equipment; and
d)
the End User has used the Equipment only for such purposes as Soundcraft recommends,
with only such operating supplies as meet Soundcraft’s specifications and otherwise in all respects in
accordance with Soundcraft’s recommendations.
5
Defects arising as a result of the following are not covered by this Warranty: faulty or negligent
handling, chemical or electro-chemical or electrical influences, accidental damage, Acts of God,
neglect, deficiency in electrical power, air-conditioning or humidity control.
6
The benefit of this Warranty may not be assigned by the End User.
7
End Users who are consumers should note their rights under this Warranty are in addition to and do
not affect any other rights to which they may be entitled against the seller of the Equipment.
35
36