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Daily Diabetes Management Book
This book belongs to
Name
Address
Diabetes Health Care Team
Telephone Numbers
Primary Doctor
Diabetes Educator
Specialist
Dietitian/Nutritionist
Pharmacy
Insurance Provider
Medication List
Diabetes Medications
Cholesterol Medications
Blood Pressure Medications
Other Medications
01
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02
Questions to ask your health care providers
1.What should my ABC target numbers be?
A1C ___________ Blood pressure ___________ Cholesterol ___________
2. What are my ABC numbers?
Appointment 1
Appointment 2
Appointment 3
Appointment 4
Date of Test
A for A1C
B for blood pressure
C for cholesterol
3.
How often should I test my blood sugar? (If your blood sugar is above targeted goal, ask your health care provider what to do.)
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. What are the warning signs if my blood sugar is too high?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. What are the warning signs if my blood sugar is too low?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Should I attend a class taught by a diabetes educator?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Should I see a registered dietician to review what I eat and to develop an individual meal plan?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Which exercises are best for me?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. How often should I exercise and for how long?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
10. What is my weight goal short-term? ____________________________________ Long-term? _______________________
11. According to American Diabetes Association (ADA) Guidelines, which tests do I need to take (and how often) to check my
eyes: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
feet: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
kidneys: _________________________________________________________________________________________________
nerves: __________________________________________________________________________________________________
heart: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
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Managing Diabetes
03
Health Care Goals
A main goal of treating diabetes is to lower your blood
sugar to a normal level. Lowering and controlling blood sugar
may help prevent or delay problems caused by
diabetes. Diet, exercise, and certain medications can help
lower blood sugar. If you take an active role in managing your
diabetes, you will be on the road to better health.
To help prevent high and low blood sugar levels:
Blood Glucose Targets Before Meals
(Fasting Plasma Glucose [FPG]): ____________________
2 Hours After Meals
(Postprandial Glucose [PPG]): ______________________
Hemoglobin A1C: _______________________________
•S
tay as close as possible to your schedule of eating,
activity, and medication.
• Check your blood sugar as directed and share your
tracking records with your health care team.
• Set goals with your health care team for weight,
activity, blood sugar level, and A1C level.
Blood Pressure: _______________________________
For additional information and diabetes management tools
and resources, go to JourneyForControl.com or see
the list of additional Web sites on the last page.
Triglycerides: _________________________________
Work with your health care team to determine your individual
health care goals. Taking this important step is essential to
managing your diabetes.
Daily Calorie Goal: ______________________________
Cholesterol: __________________________________
LDL Cholesterol: _______________________________
HDL Cholesterol: _______________________________
Weight Goal: __________________________________
Activity/Exercise Goal: ___________________________
Relationships between A1C and average blood sugar levels
A1C
5%
6%
7%
8%
9%
10%
11%
12%
Average Blood
Sugar (mg/dL)
97
126
154
183
212
240
269
298
Your blood sugar levels vary throughout the day. Self-checking your blood sugar every day shows you how you are doing at a
moment in time. An A1C test shows your blood sugar average for the past 3 months. The American Diabetes Association
(ADA) recommends that many patients with diabetes aim for an A1C of less than 7%. Your health care provider may suggest
a different A1C goal. This figure shows how A1C and average blood sugar are related.
Blood Glucose Tracker
Enter
Your
Goals*
Date
Before
Breakfast
2 Hours After
Breakfast
Before
Lunch
10/01
133
69
90
185*
115
120
140
110
110
10/02
10/03
2 Hours After
Lunch
Before
Dinner
2 Hours
After Dinner
Before
Bed
124 115 155**
E†
L
P
M 165
110EXA115
130 120 140 130
*Work with your health care provider to determine your blood sugar goals.
Exercise
Notes
Vacuumed for 10 min.
Cut grass for 30 min.
Walked for
30 min.
*Ate pancakes and syrup.
**Celebrated Sam’s birthday.
†Forgot bedtime snack.
Good day. Ate at home.
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Blood Glucose Tracker
Enter
Your
Goals*
Date
Before
Breakfast
2 Hours After
Breakfast
Before
Lunch
2 Hours After
Lunch
*Work with your health care provider to determine your blood sugar goals.
Before
Dinner
2 Hours After
Dinner
Before
Bed
Exercise
Notes
04
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Blood Glucose Tracker
Enter
Your
Goals*
Date
Before
Breakfast
2 Hours After
Breakfast
Before
Lunch
2 Hours After
Lunch
*Work with your health care provider to determine your blood sugar goals.
Before
Dinner
2 Hours After
Dinner
Before
Bed
Exercise
Notes
05
JourneyForControl.com
Blood Glucose Tracker
Enter
Your
Goals*
Date
Before
Breakfast
2 Hours After
Breakfast
Before
Lunch
2 Hours After
Lunch
*Work with your health care provider to determine your blood sugar goals.
Before
Dinner
2 Hours After
Dinner
Before
Bed
Exercise
Notes
06
JourneyForControl.com
07
Understanding Food Nutrition Labels
Serving Size
Check to see if your serving is the same
size as the one on the label. If you eat
double the serving size listed, you need
to double the nutrient and caloric values.
If you eat one-half the serving size shown
here, the nutrient and caloric values
should be halved.
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 1/2 cup (114 g)
Servings Per Container 4
Percent (%) Daily Values
Indicates how much of a specific nutrient a
serving of food contains compared to a
2,000-calorie diet. A product is considered
a good source of a particular nutrient if
one serving provides 10% to 19% of the
Daily Value and is considered high in a
given nutrient if it contains 20% or more of
the Daily Value. If the Daily Value is 5% or
less, the food is low in that nutrient.
Calories
Look here to see what a serving of food
adds to your daily calorie total. A person’s
size and activity level help determine total
calories needed per day. For example, a
138-lb active woman needs about 2,000
calories each day, while a 160-lb active
woman needs about 2,300 calories. Talk to
your health care provider to determine the
calorie intake that is right for you.
Amount Per Serving
Calories 90
Total Fat 3 g
Saturated Fat 0 g
Cholesterol 0 mg
Sodium 300 mg
Total Carbohydrate 13 g
Dietary Fiber 3 g
Sugars 3 g
Total Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in foods like
bread, potatoes, fruits, and vegetables.
They are a key element in your diet, giving
you nutrients and energy. Talk to your
health care provider to determine the
carbohydrate intake that is right for you.
Protein 3 g
Vitamin A
80%
• Vitamin C
60%
Calcium
4%
• Iron
4%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000-calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs:
Calories2,000 2,500
Total Fat
Try to limit your calories from fat. Choose
foods with less than 25-35% of calories
derived from fat. Foods with more than
30% fat are considered high-fat. Intake of
trans-fatty acids should be as low as
possible.
Total Fat
Less than
65 g 80 g
Sat. Fat
Less than
20 g 25 g
Cholesterol
Less than
300 mg 300 mg
Sodium
Less than
2,400 mg 2,400 mg
Total Carbohydrate
300 g 375 g
Dietary Fiber
25 g 30 g
Calories per gram:
Fat 9
•
Carbohydrate 4 • Protein 4
Saturated Fat
The ADA recommends consuming than 7%
of calories from saturated fatty acids by
replacing them with monosaturated and
polysaturated fatty acids.
Dietary Fiber
It is important to consume fiber in your
diet. Fiber (also called “roughage”) can be
soluble or insoluble (unabsorbed) dietary
fiber. Fruits, vegetables, whole-grain foods,
beans, and legumes are all good sources
of fiber.
Protein
Most adults get more protein than they
need. Protein from animal sources
contains both fat and cholesterol, so eat
small servings of lean meat, fish, and
poultry. Use skim or low-fat milk, yogurt,
and cheese. You also can get your protein
from beans, grains, and cereals.
Vitamins & Minerals
Make it your goal to get 100% of the daily
allowance of vitamins and minerals every
day from the foods you eat.
Calories from Fat 30
% Daily Value*
5%
0%
0%
13%
4%
12%
Additional nutrients may be listed on some food labels:
g = grams (about 28 g = 1 ounce).
mg = milligrams (1,000 mg = 1 g).
Other Terms You May See on Packages:
Reduced—This means that the product has been nutritionally
altered so that it now contains 25% less of a specific nutrient,
such as fat, calories, sugar, or sodium.
Free—This means that the product contains none or almost
none of the specified nutrient. For example, sugar-free foods
have less than 0.5 gram of sugar per serving. However, sugarfree does not mean carbohydrate-free. Compare the total carbohydrate content of a sugar-free food with that of the standard
product. If there is a big difference in carbohydrate content
between the 2 foods, buy the sugar-free food.
Daily Value Table
This table lists the U.S. recommended daily
values of specific nutrients for 2,000- or
2,500-calorie diets. Recommended daily
intake for some nutrients (cholesterol and
sodium) are lower for people with diabetes.
Talk to your health care provider to
determine the daily value that is right for
you.
Cholesterol
Challenge yourself to keep your cholesterol
to less than 300 mg of cholesterol each
day. Consuming less than 200 mg per day
can further help individuals at high risk of
heart disease.
Sodium
Too much sodium (salt) can add up to
high blood pressure in some people. The
USDA recommends reducing daily sodium
intake to less than 1,500 mg among
persons who are 51 and older and those of
any age who are African American or have
hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney
disease.
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08
Diabetes Organizations and Resources
American Association of
Diabetes Educators
diabeteseducator.org
1-800-338-3633
American Diabetes Association
diabetes.org
1-800-DIABETES (1-800-342-2383)
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
eatright.org
1-800-877-1600
American Heart Association
americanheart.org
1-800-AHA-USA1 (1-800-242-8721)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
cdc.gov/diabetes
1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636)
Merck MedicusTM
merckmedicus.com
1-800-489-5119
National Diabetes Education Program
ndep.nih.gov
1-888-693-6337
National Diabetes
Information Clearinghouse
diabetes.niddk.nih.gov
1-800-860-8747
Copyright © 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
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Carb Counting Quick Reference
The “Nutrition Facts” label on packaged food tells you how many carbohydrates are in the food. But some foods, such as fresh vegetables,
don’t have labels. Or you may be eating away from home, where food is already removed from its packaging. If you are counting carbs, learn
the serving sizes of carbohydrate-containing foods that you eat often. Use this chart to look up the serving sizes of many common foods.
Remember: 1 serving of these foods = 1 carbohydrate serving = about 15 grams of carbohydrate = 1 carb.
Breads, Grains, Snacks
Fruits
Bagel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¼ (1 oz)
Bread (white, whole-wheat, pumpernickel, rye) . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 slice (1 oz)
Crackers (white flour) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 crackers
Roll (plain, small) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (1 oz)
Graham crackers (2½ inches sq) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 crackers
English muffin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ muffin
Oats (cooked) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Pasta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/3 cup
Pita bread (6-inch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ pita
Popcorn (low-fat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 cups
Pretzels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¾ oz
Rice (white or brown) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/3 cup
Tortilla (6-inch, corn or flour) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 tortilla
Tortilla chips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–13 chips (¾ oz)
Apple (small, unpeeled) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 apple (4 oz)
Applesauce (unsweetened) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Apple juice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Banana (small) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 banana (4 oz)
Blueberries or blackberries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¾ cup
Cantaloupe (small) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/3 melon (11 oz)
Fruit cocktail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Grapes (small) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 (3 oz)
Orange (small) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 orange (6½ oz)
Orange juice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Peach (fresh, medium) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (6 oz)
Peaches (canned in syrup or juice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Pear (fresh, large) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ pear (4 oz)
Pineapple (canned) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Raisins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 tbsp
Raspberries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 cup
Strawberries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1¼ cup whole berries
Starchy Vegetables and Beans
Beans (garbanzo, pinto, kidney,
white) and peas (split, black-eyed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Baked beans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/3 cup
Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Lentils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Peas (green) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Potato (baked or boiled) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup or 1 medium (3 oz)
Potato (mashed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Winter squash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 cup
Dairy Products
Ice cream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Milk (skim, 1%, 2%, whole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 cup
Pudding (fat-free or whole) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ cup
Soy milk (fat-free or low-fat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 cup
Yogurt (fat-free, plain, or fruit-flavored) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 oz
Yogurt (frozen, fat-free) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/3 cup
Source: Choose Your Foods: Exchange Lists for Diabetes. American Diabetes Association, Inc., 2008.
Adapted from the Diabetes Go-To Guide created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional health care.
Always follow your health care provider’s instructions.
©2013 The StayWell Company www.krames.com 800-333-3032 All rights reserved.
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01
Diabetes and Men’s Sexual Health
In people with type 2 diabetes, sexual dysfunction can be the result of damage to the nerves that regulate sexual response. This
nerve damage is called neuropathy. For men, this can mean problems achieving an erection or difficulty with ejaculation.
Erectile dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the frequent to total inability to maintain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. Men who
have type 2 diabetes often experience ED earlier in life than men without the condition. Other factors that can cause ED are:
• High blood pressure
• Kidney disease
• Alcoholism
• Blood vessel disease
• Some medications
• Psychological distress
• Smoking
• Hormone deficiency
For ED that is caused by nerve damage, treatments include:
• Oral medicine
• A vacuum pump
• Urethral implants
• Injections
• Surgery
Talk with your doctor about recommendations for treating ED and how to manage type 2 diabetes to maintain good
sexual health.
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02
Diabetes and Men’s Sexual Health
Retrograde ejaculation
In retrograde ejaculation, all or part of the semen is ejaculated backward into the bladder rather than out of the penis. This
happens when certain muscles that open and close to allow passage of fluids inside the body don’t work correctly. The semen
ejaculated into the bladder does no harm and is eliminated during urination.
Symptoms of retrograde ejaculation include:
• A small amount of discharge during sex
• Cloudy urine
• Infertility issues
Retrograde ejaculation caused by nerve damage due to poor blood sugar control can be treated with medicine.
What you can do to maintain your sexual health
To have a healthy and fulfilling life with type 2 diabetes and avoid potential sexual complications, it is important to eat right,
exercise daily, track your blood sugar, and take medication if needed.
For more information about diabetes, please visit JourneyForControl.com.
Copyright © 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
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Diabetes and Women’s Sexual Health
In people with type 2 diabetes, sexual dysfunction can be the result of damage to the nerves that regulate sexual response. This
nerve damage is called neuropathy. Women may experience problems with vaginal lubrication or sexual stimulation.
Reduced vaginal lubrication
Women with type 2 diabetes can be affected by nerve damage to the cells that line the vagina, resulting in:
• Dryness within the vagina
• Discomfort during sexual intercourse
• Decrease in sexual desire or response
Decreased or absent sexual response
Up to 35% of women who have diabetes may also experience low or no sexual response or desire. Symptoms may include:
• Little interest in sexual intercourse
• Reduced sensation in the genital area
• Occasional, frequent, or total inability to reach orgasm
• Vaginal dryness with accompanying pain or discomfort during sex
In addition to type 2 diabetes, other causes of a woman’s lack of sexual desire include:
• Blood pressure medicine
• Various prescription and over-the-counter medicines
• Alcohol abuse
• Smoking
• Psychological issues
• Gynecologic infections
• Conditions relating to pregnancy or menopause
Talk with your health care team, including your gynecologist, about how to manage type 2 diabetes and what to do to help
female sexual dysfunction. Some methods used to treat the condition are:
• Kegel exercises
• Vaginal lubricants
• Psychological counseling
• Changes in sexual approach or position
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02
Diabetes and Women’s Sexual Health
What you can do to maintain your sexual health
To have a healthy and fulfilling life with type 2 diabetes and avoid potential sexual complications, it is important to eat right,
exercise daily, track your blood sugar, and take medication if needed.
For more information about diabetes, please visit JourneyForControl.com.
Copyright © 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
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Talking to Your Doctor: A Conversation Starter
You can learn more about managing your blood sugar—your doctor’s office can be a good place to start. Also, make the most of your doctor
visits by taking the following information with you:
• Questions or concerns you may have about your lifestyle adjustments and how you’re coping with diabetes
• Your glucose meter with your stored results
• Medicines that you’re taking, including prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, vitamins, and herbal
supplements (You can put all your medicines into a plastic bag and take them with you.)
• Notes about any health problems you’ve experienced
If you’re not sure what to ask your doctor, you can use these questions to help get the conversation started:
1. What are my ABC numbers?
• A for A1C • B for blood pressure • C for cholesterol
2. What should my ABC target numbers be?
3. How often should I test my blood sugar?
4. Will I notice any warning signs if my blood sugar is too high or too low?
5. Should I speak to a registered dietitian to review what I eat?
6. Do I need to lose weight?
7. Which exercises are best for me?
8. Do I need additional tests to check the health of my eyes, feet, kidneys, nerves, and heart?
9. Should I attend a class taught by a diabetes nurse educator? If so, where can I find such a class in my area?
10. What are the side effects of my current medication(s)?
Make copies of this conversation starter for future use or go to JourneyForControl.com.
Copyright © 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
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Eating Out When You Have Diabetes
Eating right is an important part of keeping your blood
glucose in your target range. You just need to make
healthy choices. When you eat away from home:
Try These Tips
• Ask how foods are prepared before you order.
• Instead of fried, sautéed, or breaded foods, choose
ones that are broiled, steamed, grilled, or baked.
• Ask for sauces and dressings on the side.
• Only eat an amount that fits your meal plan.
Remember: You can take home the leftovers.
• Reserve dessert for special occasions. Then,
choose a small dessert or share one with
someone else.
Make Healthy Choices
You can make healthy choices and ask for
substitutions when you eat out — even at
fast-food restaurants
Fast Food
• Garden salad with light dressing on the side • Baked potato with vegetables or herbs
• Broiled, roasted, or grilled chicken sandwich
• Sliced turkey or lean roast beef sandwich
Mexican
• Chicken enchilada, no cheese or sour cream
• Small burrito with whole beans and chicken
• Whole beans (not refried) and rice
• Chicken or fish fajitas
Steak House
• Grilled or broiled lean cuts of beef
• Baked potato with vegetables or herbs
• Broiled or baked chicken (don’t eat the skin)
• Steamed vegetables
Asian
• Steamed dumplings or potstickers • Broiled, boiled, or steamed meats or fish
• Sushi or sashimi
• Steamed rice or boiled noodles (one
serving is equal to 1/3 cup)
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association
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Exercise Journal
Exercise: Choosing Your Activity
Regular exercise is important for everyone. It helps burn excess calories and fat to help you achieve your optimal weight.
However, exercise doesn’t necessarily mean spending hours at the gym or running for miles. It can mean many kinds of physical
activity. Choose an activity that you enjoy, or try a new activity!
Activities may include:
• Walking around the block
• Dancing
• Taking the stairs instead of the elevator
• Bowling
• Mowing the lawn
• Biking to work
• Gardening and pulling weeds
• Vacuuming
• P arking the car farther away
from your destination and walking
• Swimming a few laps
• Washing your car
Do some physical activity each day. If you haven’t been very active lately, talk to your health care provider before beginning, and
begin slowly. Start with 5 to 10 minutes and then add more time, or exercise for 10 minutes 3 times a day.
It is important to work with your health care provider to create an exercise program that is right for you.
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Exercise Journal
Date
Exercise
Note (goals, moods, etc.):
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Duration
Heart Rate
or Intensity
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Exercise to Manage Your Blood Glucose
Being physically active every day can help you manage your blood glucose. That’s because an active
lifestyle can improve your body’s ability to use insulin. Daily activity can also help delay or prevent
complications of diabetes. It can help you maintain a healthy weight. And it’s a great way to relieve
stress. If you aren’t normally active, be sure to consult your healthcare provider before getting started.
How Much Activity Do You Need?
If daily activity is new to you, start slow and steady. Begin with 10 minutes of activity each day. Then
work up to at least 30 minutes a day. Do this by adding a few minutes each week. It doesn’t have to
be done all at once. Each active period throughout the day adds up.
Just Move!
You don’t have to join a gym or own pricey sports equipment. Just get out and walk. Walking is an
aerobic exercise that makes your heart and lungs work hard. It helps your heart and blood vessels.
Walking requires only a sturdy pair of sneakers and your own feet. The more you walk, the easier it
gets.
•Schedule time every day to move your feet.
•Make it part of your daily routine.
•Walk with a friend or a group to keep it interesting and fun.
•Try taking several short walks during the day to meet your daily activity goal.
A Pedometer Makes Every Step Count
A pedometer is a small device that keeps track of how many steps you take.
You can clip it to your belt (or a strap on your arm or leg) and go about your
daily routine. At the end of the day, the pedometer shows the total number of
steps you took. Use a pedometer to set daily goals for yourself. For instance, if
you walk 4,000 steps a day, try adding 200 more steps each day. Aim for a goal
of 7,500. With every step, you’re doing a little more to help your body
use insulin.
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Exercise to Manage Your Blood Glucose
Adding Resistance Exercise
Resistance exercise (also called strength training) makes muscles stronger. It also helps muscles
use insulin better. Ask your healthcare provider whether this type of exercise is right for you. If it is,
your healthcare provider can help you work it in to your activity plan.
Staying Safe
Being active may cause blood glucose to drop faster than usual. This is especially true if you take
medication to manage your blood glucose. But there are things you can do to help reduce the risk
of accidental lows. Keep these tips in mind:
•Always carry identification when you exercise outside your home. Carry a cell phone to use in
case of emergency.
•If you can, include friends and family in your activities.
•Wear a medical ID bracelet that says you have diabetes.
•Use the right safety equipment for the activity you do (such as a bicycle helmet when you ride a
bicycle outdoors). Wear closed-toed shoes that fit your feet well.
•Drink plenty of water before and during activity.
•Keep a fast-acting sugar (such as glucose tablets) on hand in case of low blood glucose.
•Dress properly for the weather. Wear a hat if it’s sunny, or wait until evening if it’s too hot.
•Avoid being active for long periods in very hot or very cold weather.
•Skip activity if you’re sick.
Notice How Activity Affects Blood Sugar
Physical activity is important when you have diabetes. But you need to keep an eye on your blood
glucose level. Check often if you have been active for longer than usual, or if the activity was
unplanned. Make it a habit to check your blood glucose before being active. And check again a
few hours later. Use your log book to write down how activity affects your numbers. If you take
insulin, you may be able to adjust your dose before a planned activity. This can help prevent lows.
Talk to your healthcare provider to learn more.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association.
DIAB-1037783-0130 12/12
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Healthy Meals for Diabetes
Ask your healthcare team to help you make a meal plan that fits your needs. Your meal plan tells you
when to eat your meals and snacks, what kinds of foods to eat, and how much of each food to eat.
You don’t have to give up all the foods you like. But you do need to follow some guidelines.
Eat Foods Rich in Fiber
Fiber is a carbohydrate that breaks down slowly. Fiber is also healthy for your heart. Fiber-rich foods include:
• Whole-wheat pasta
• Whole-grain breads and cereals
• Fruits and vegetables
• Bulgur wheat
• Dry beans, and peas
• Brown rice
Choose Healthy Protein Foods
Eating protein that is low in fat can help you control your weight. It also helps keep your heart healthy.
Low-fat protein foods include:
• Fish
• Plant proteins, such as dry beans and peas, nuts, and soy products like tofu and soymilk
• Lean meat with all visible fat removed
• Poultry with the skin removed
• Low-fat or nonfat milk, cheese, and yogurt
Limit Unhealthy Fats and Sugar
Saturated and trans fats are unhealthy for your heart. They raise LDL (bad) cholesterol. Fat is also high
in calories, so it can make you gain weight. To cut down on unhealthy fats, limit these types of foods:
• Ice cream
• Butter or margarine
• Sweet bakery goods such as pies, muffins,
• Palm and palm kernel oils and coconut oil
and donuts
• Cream
• Jams and jellies
• Cheese
• Candy bars
• Bacon
• Regular sodas
• Lunch meats
How Much to Eat
The amount of food you eat affects your blood glucose. It also affects your weight. Your healthcare
team will tell you how much of each type of food you should eat.
• Use measuring cups and spoons and a food scale to measure serving sizes.
• Learn what a correct serving size looks like on your plate. This will help when you are away from
home and can’t measure your servings.
• Eat only the number of servings given on your meal plan for each food. Don’t take seconds.
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Healthy Meals for Diabetes
When to Eat
Your meal plan will likely include breakfast, lunch, dinner, and some snacks.
• Try to eat your meals and snacks at about the same times each day.
• Eat your meals and snacks as recommended by your healthcare provider. Skipping a meal or
snack can make your blood glucose drop too low. It can also cause you to eat too much at the
next meal or snack. Then your blood glucose could get too high.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association.
DIAB-1037783-0126 10/12
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01
Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)
Too much glucose (sugar) in your blood is called
hyperglycemia or high blood glucose. High blood
glucose can lead to a dangerous condition called
ketoacidosis. In severe cases, it can lead to coma.
Possible Causes of Hyperglycemia
• Eating too much food, especially carbohydrates
• Being less active than usual
• Not taking enough medication
• Being sick
• Being under stress
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia may not cause symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they may include:
• Thirst
• Frequent need to urinate
• Feeling tired
• Nausea
• Itchy, dry skin
• Blurry vision
• Fast breathing
• Weakness
• Dizziness
• Wounds or skin infections that don’t heal
What You Should Do
• Check your blood glucose.
• Drink sugar-free, caffeine-free liquids such as water or diet soda. Don’t drink fruit juice.
• Check your blood or urine for ketones as directed.
• Talk to your healthcare provider about when to call if your blood glucose and ketones do not
return to your target range.
• When you are sick, check your blood glucose again every 4 hours. If you take insulin or diabetes
medications, follow your sick-day plan for taking medication. Call your healthcare provider if you
are not able to eat.
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Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)
Preventing High Blood Glucose
To help keep your blood glucose from getting too high:
• Follow your meal plan. Eat only the amount of food on your meal plan.
• Follow your exercise plan.
• Take your insulin or diabetes medications as directed by your healthcare team. Also test your
blood glucose as directed.
• Control stress.
• When you’re ill, follow your sick-day plan.
Other Things to Do
• Carry a medical ID card or wear a medical alert bracelet. It should say that you have diabetes. It
should also say what to do in case you pass out or go into a coma.
• Make sure family, friends, and coworkers know the signs of high blood glucose. Tell them what
to do if your blood glucose gets very high and you can’t help yourself.
• Talk to your healthcare team about other things you can do to prevent high blood glucose.
Special note: Drink plenty of sugar-free and caffeine-free liquids when you feel symptoms of
hyperglycemia. Call your doctor if you keep having episodes of hyperglycemia.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association
DIAB-1037783-0131 11/12
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Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
Too little glucose (sugar) in your blood is called
hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. Diabetes
itself doesn’t cause low blood sugar. But some
of the treatments for diabetes may increase your
risk for it. Very low blood sugar may cause you to
lose consciousness or have a seizure. So always
treat low blood sugar right away.
Special note: Always carry a source of fastacting sugar and a snack in case of hypoglycemia.
What You May Notice
If you have low blood sugar, you may have these
symptoms:
• Shakiness or dizziness
• Cold, clammy skin or sweating
• Feelings of hunger
• Headache
• Nervousness
• A fast heartbeat
• Weakness
• Confusion or irritability
• Blurred vision
What You Should Do
• First, check your blood sugar. If it is too low
(out of your target range), eat or drink 15 grams of fast-acting sugar. This may be 3 or 4 sugar
tablets, 4 oz (half a cup) fruit juice or regular (nondiet) soda, 8 oz (1 cup) milk, or 1 tablespoon of
sugar. Don’t take more than this, or your blood sugar may go too high.
• Wait 15 minutes. Then recheck your blood sugar if you can.
• If your blood sugar is still too low, repeat the steps above and check your blood sugar again. If
your blood sugar still has not returned to your target range, contact your health care provider or
seek emergency care.
• Once your blood sugar returns to target range, eat. If your next meal is less than 1 hour away,
eat that meal now. If it’s more than 1 hour, eat a snack, such as half a sandwich, or crackers and
cheese.
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Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
What You Should Do
• Eat your meals and snacks at the same times each day. Don’t skip meals!
• Ask your health care provider if it is safe for you to drink alcohol. Never drink on an empty stomach.
• Take your medication at the prescribed times.
• Always carry a source of fast-acting sugar and a snack when you’re away from home.
Other Things to Do
• Carry a medical ID card or wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace. It should say that you have
diabetes. It should also say what to do if you pass out or have a seizure.
• Make sure your family, friends, and coworkers know the signs of low blood sugar. Tell them what
to do if your blood sugar falls very low and you can’t treat yourself.
• Keep a glucagon emergency kit handy. Be sure your family, friends, and coworkers know how
and when to use it. Check it regularly and replace the glucagon before it expires.
• Talk to your health care team about other things you can do to prevent low blood sugar.
If you experience hypoglycemia several times, call your health care provider.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical
care. Always follow your health care professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your health care provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association
DIAB-1037783-0132 12/12
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01
Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
What You Should Know, What You Should Do.
Hypoglycemia can happen even during those times when you’re doing all you can to manage your diabetes. So, although
many times you can’t prevent it from happening, hypoglycemia can be treated before it gets worse.
3
oCheck any of the following symptoms of hypoglycemia that you experience and
bring this sheet to the next visit with your health care provider.
o Sweatiness
o Shakiness
o Hunger
o Nervousness
o Anxiety
o Weakness
o Grouchiness
o Light-headedness
o Confusion
o Sleepiness
o Dizziness
o Headache
Take action if you have low blood sugar
1. If your blood sugar is below 70 mg/dL or if you feel any of the
above signs, take ONE of the following quick-fix foods:
• 3 or 4 glucose tablets
• 1 serving of glucose gel (equal to 15 grams of carbohydrate)
• 1 cup of milk
• 1/2 cup of fruit juice
• 1/2 can of regular soda pop (not diet)
• 5 or 6 pieces of hard candy
• 1 tablespoon of corn syrup or honey
2. Wait 15 minutes. Check your blood sugar again.
3. If your blood sugar is still below 70 mg/dL or if you do
not feel better, repeat steps 1 and 2 every 15 minutes
until your blood sugar is 70 mg/dL or above.
4. After you feel better, be sure to eat your regular meals
and snacks as planned to keep your blood sugar level
up.
5. Call your doctor if you do not feel better or if your blood
sugar stays low (below 70 mg/dL).
6. Call your doctor if you experience low blood sugar
several times in a week.
Copyright © 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
DIAB-1055861-0012 10/12
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01
Long-term Complications of Diabetes
People with diabetes can develop complications
over time. Problems are more likely to occur if
your blood glucose is often out of your target
range. Over time, high blood glucose levels can
damage blood vessels. This can lead to health
problems (complications). Keeping your blood
glucose in your target ranges can help prevent or
delay complications.
Why Manage Diabetes?
You can take an active role in your health by
managing diabetes. You can manage diabetes by
monitoring your blood glucose, eating healthy,
exercising, and taking medication if directed.
Long-term Complications
Managing diabetes can help you reduce your risk
or avoid these and other complications:
• Eye problems, including damage to the
blood vessels in the eyes (retinopathy),
pressure in the eye (glaucoma), and clouding of the eye’s lens (a cataract)
• Tooth and gum problems (periodontal disease), causing loss of teeth and bone
• Blood vessel (vascular) disease leading to
circulation problems, heart attack, or stroke
• Problems with sexual function
• Kidney disease (nephropathy)
• Nerve problems (neuropathy), causing pain
or loss of feeling in your feet and other parts
of your body
• High blood pressure (hypertension), putting
strain on your heart and blood vessels
• Serious foot infections, possibly leading to
loss of toes, feet, or lower limbs
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association
DIAB-1037783-0124 11/12
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01
Managing Diabetes: The A1C Test
What Is the A1C Test?
Using your glucose meter helps you track your blood glucose
every day. But you also need to know if your treatment plan is
keeping you at your A1C goal level over time. An A1C
(glycated hemoglobin) test can help. This test measures your
average blood glucose level over the prior 2 or 3 months. A
higher A1C result means that you have a higher risk of
developing complications of diabetes.
The A1C Test
The A1C is a blood test done by your health care provider. You
will likely have an A1C test every 3 to 6 months.
Healthy red blood cells have some
glucose stuck to them.
Your Blood Glucose Goal
A1C has been shown as a percentage. But it can also be
shown as a number representing the estimated Average
Glucose (eAG). Unlike the A1C percentage, eAG is a number
similar to the numbers listed on your daily glucose monitor.
Your health care provider will help you figure out what your
ideal A1C or eAG should be. Your target number will depend
on your age, general health, and other factors. If your current
number is too high, your treatment plan may need changes,
such as different medications.
Sample Results
A high A1C means that unhealthy amounts
Most people aim for an A1C lower than 7%. That’s an eAG less of glucose are stuck to the cells.
than 154 mg/dL. Or, your health care provider may want you to
aim for an A1C of 6%. That’s an eAG of 126 mg/dL.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical
care. Always follow your health care professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your health care provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association.
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Managing Your Blood Sugar Levels
When you have type 2 diabetes, you need to manage your blood sugar carefully to keep it within the target range. Doing so can
help prevent or delay the onset of complications associated with type 2 diabetes, such as damage to the nerves, eyes, kidneys,
and blood vessels.
Managing your blood sugar involves balancing the food you eat with exercise and any medications you might be taking. Two
tests can help you monitor how well you are managing your blood sugar: a blood sugar check and a urine ketone check.
Blood sugar checks
Blood sugar checks tell you your blood sugar level at any given time and are the main tool to see how you are doing in managing
your blood sugar. Using a blood glucose meter is the most accurate way to check your blood sugar. It’s important to keep a log
of your blood sugar levels so that you can review them with your health care provider. This log will show your body’s response
to the foods you are eating and the medications you may be taking. The log will allow your health care provider to modify your
treatment plan as necessary to maintain proper blood sugar control.
Here is a chart that includes the ADA’s target blood sugar ranges for many adults with diabetes:
Glycemic control
A1C
Fasting blood glucose (before a meal)
Postprandial blood glucose (after a meal)
Less than 7%*
70–130 mg/dL (5.0–7.2 mmol/L)
Less than 180 mg/dL (less than 10.0 mmol/L)
ADA=American Diabetes Association.
*The general goal of less than 7% appears reasonable for many adults with diabetes. Less stringent A1C goals may be appropriate for other people,
especially those with a history of low blood sugar.
Who should be checked?
The ADA recommends blood sugar checks if you have diabetes. You may need to check your blood sugar more often if you are
• Taking insulin or other diabetes medications
• Undergoing intensive insulin therapy
• Pregnant
• Having a hard time controlling your blood sugar levels
• Having severely low blood sugar levels or ketones from high blood sugar levels
• Having low blood sugar levels without the usual warning signs
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Managing Your Blood Sugar Levels
Urine ketone checks
Urine ketone tests are important when your blood sugar is high or when you are ill. Ketones show up in urine when your body is
burning fat instead of glucose for fuel because there is too little insulin available. Ketones in the urine is more common in type 1
diabetes.
This test is easy to do, but to get accurate results, you must follow the directions and be sure that the test strips have not expired.
If you have any questions, be sure to check with your health care provider.
Here’s how most urine tests are done:
• Get a sample of your urine in a clean container.
• Place the strip in the sample (you can also pass the strip through the urine stream).
• Gently shake excess urine off the strip.
• Wait for the strip pad to change color. The directions will tell you how long to wait.
• Compare the strip pad to the color chart on the strip bottle. This gives you a range of the amount of ketones in your urine.
• Record your results.
What do your results mean? A negative result indicates that there are no ketones present. Small amounts of ketones may mean
that ketone buildup is starting; therefore, you should test again in a few hours. Moderate or large amounts of ketones are a
danger sign because they can upset the chemical balance of your blood and ultimately poison the body. Moderate or large
amounts of ketones and high blood sugar are indications that your diabetes is out of control. Talk to your health care provider at
once if your urine results show moderate or large amounts of ketones, and never attempt to exercise if there are ketones in your
urine.
When to test
Ask your health care provider when to check for ketones, and learn to recognize the warning signs for elevated levels. You may be
advised to check for ketones when
• Your blood sugar is more than 300 mg/dL
• You feel nauseated, are vomiting, or have abdominal pain
• You are sick (for example, with a cold or flu)
• You feel tired all the time
• You are thirsty or have a very dry mouth
• Your skin is flushed
• You have a hard time breathing or your breath smells “fruity”
• You feel confused or “in a fog”
These can be signs of high ketone levels that may require your health care provider’s help.
For more information about diabetes, please visit JourneyForControl.com.
Copyright © 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
DIAB-1055861-0014 11/12
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My Blood Glucose Log
•Write down the time and blood glucose number before and 2 hours after every meal for every day of the week.
•Also write down the time and blood glucose number at nighttime if needed at bedtime and in the middle of the night.
• Be sure to also note if you were doing any specific thing, such as “Ate a big lunch” or “Went for a long walk before bed.”
Name BLOOD GLUCOSE LOG
Breakfast
Before
Day
Time
Number
Lunch
2 Hours After
Time
Number
Before
Time
Number
Dinner
2 Hours After
Time
Number
Before
Time
Number
Nighttime (if needed)
2 Hours After
Time
Number
At Bedtime
Time
Number
Middle of Night
Time
Number
What I Was Doing
Sun
Mon
Tues
Wed
Thurs
Fri
Sat
Adapted from the Diabetes Go-To Guide created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional health
care. Always follow your health care provider’s instructions.
©2012 The StayWell Company www.krames.com 800-333-3032 All rights reserved.
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Web site:
My Medication List
Use this chart to keep track of all your medications. Write down the name, dosage, and time of day to take each medication. This includes
any different types of insulin that you take. Make a copy to keep in a binder so you can carry it with you.
Name of medication
Dosage
When to take it
With or without Food
Adapted from the Diabetes Go-To Guide created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional health
care. Always follow your health care provider’s instructions.
©2012 The StayWell Company www.krames.com 800-333-3032 All rights reserved.
DIAB-1037783-0136 02/13
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My Goal Numbers
Track your target numbers for blood glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure, and weight.
Tests
American Diabetes Association Targets
Current Numbers
My Goal Numbers
Blood Glucose
A1C
<7.0%*
____________________
____________________
Premeal blood glucose
70-130 mg/dL
____________________
____________________
Postmeal blood glucose
<180 mg/dL
____________________
____________________
<140/80 mmHg†
____________________
____________________
<100 mg/dL
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
Blood Pressure
Cholesterol
LDL (“bad” cholesterol)
Weight
My next checkup date:
* The general goal of <7% appears reasonable for many adults with diabetes. Higher or lower A1C goals may be appropriate for other patients.
†
Based on patient characteristics and response to therapy, lower systolic blood pressure targets may be appropriate.
Adapted from the Diabetes Go-To Guide created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association.
This information is not intended as a substitute for professional healthcare. Always follow your healthcare provider’s instructions.
©2012 The StayWell Company www.krames.com 800-333-3032 All rights reserved.
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01
Put Your Best Feet Forward
Two complications of diabetes make it important to pay special attention to your feet.
1. Nerve damage. The nerves in your legs and feet are vulnerable to damage caused by high levels of blood sugar. This may
affect your ability to feel pain, heat, or cold in your legs and feet. You may also experience odd sensations or numbness.
This nerve damage, called peripheral diabetic neuropathy, can lead to a sore or an infection, which may get worse
because you don’t know it’s there.
2. Poor blood flow. When too little blood circulates to your legs and feet, it’s hard for a sore or infection to heal. This
problem is called peripheral vascular disease.
Start taking care of your feet today
Neglecting your feet can result in serious consequences, including amputation in the worst case. That’s why you’ll want to
prevent problems before they arise.
• Keep your feet clean and protected
- Wash them every day, and dry them carefully, especially between the toes.
- Don’t go barefoot. Wear clean socks and comfortable shoes that protect your feet.
- To keep the skin soft and smooth, rub a thin coat of lotion on your feet every day, but not between your toes.
- Ask your health care provider about insurance coverage for special protective shoes.
- Avoid exposing your feet to extreme heat or cold. Even hot bathwater isn’t good for them. Avoid heating pads,
hot water bottles, and electric blankets.
• Watch out for wounds and infections
- Check your feet every day for wounds or infections. Use a mirror if you have trouble seeing the soles of your feet.
- Keep your toenails properly trimmed, in a straight line. If you cannot trim them safely yourself, ask your health care
provider to trim them.
- Have your health care provider trim any corns or calluses on your feet.
- Have a health care provider examine your feet regularly—at least once a year or more often if you have
foot problems.
- Contact your health care provider early if you have cuts or breaks in the skin of your foot, a change in color or shape,
pain or numbness, or an ingrown toenail. Even athlete’s foot, blisters, and plantar warts can become infected.
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Put Your Best Feet Forward
• Keep the blood flowing to your legs and feet
- Don’t sit with one leg crossed over the other.
- When you’re able to, prop your feet up when you’re sitting.
- Wriggle your toes and flex your ankles by moving your feet for about 5 minutes 2 to 3 times every day.
- Don’t smoke—smoking can make circulation problems worse.
Reward your feet for their years of faithful service
Two very helpful things you can do for your feet are:
• Keep your blood sugar in your target range.
• Be more active by following your doctor-approved exercise program.
For more information about diabetes, please visit JourneyForControl.com.
Copyright © 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
DIAB-1055861-0016 11/12
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01
Diabetes: Sick-Day Plan
When you’re sick, even with just a cold, your blood
glucose level may rise. Ask your healthcare team
to help you develop a sick-day plan for controlling
blood glucose. Here are some guidelines.
Don’ts
• Don’t stop taking your diabetes medication
unless your healthcare provider tells you to.
• Don’t take other medications, such as cold
or flu remedies, without checking with your
healthcare provider first.
Do’s
• Stick to your meal plan. If you can’t eat, try fruit
juice, regular gelatin, or frozen juice bars as directed by your healthcare provider.
• Drink at least 1 glass of liquid every hour. If you’re eating, these liquids should be sugar-free.
• Check your blood glucose as often as directed by your healthcare provider.
• Look for sugar-free cough drops and syrups. Ask your healthcare provider if it’s okay for you to take these.
• Adjust your insulin according to your sick-day plan. Don’t skip insulin. You need insulin even if you
can’t eat your normal meals. If you take pills, take the normal dose unless your doctor tells you to stop.
• Ask someone to check on you several times a day.
Call Your Healthcare Provider If:
• You vomit or have diarrhea for more than 6 hours.
• Your blood glucose level is higher than 240 after you have taken extra insulin (if recommended in
your sick-day plan).
• You take oral medication for diabetes, your blood glucose is higher than 240 before a meal and
stays that high for more than 24 hours.
• You have moderate to large amounts of ketones in your urine.
• You aren’t better after 2 days.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association
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01
Taking Medication for Diabetes
Medications can’t cure diabetes. But they can delay or
prevent health complications by helping you manage
your blood glucose. Your healthcare provider may also
prescribe medications to help control blood pressure
and/or cholesterol, which are just as important. Taking
medications every day, especially shots, may seem
overwhelming. But they are powerful tools that can
help manage your diabetes.
Where the Medications Work
Diabetes medications for lowering blood glucose act
on different parts of the body. Some of them
increase insulin release from the pancreas. Others
improve the action of insulin in cells, or keep the
liver from releasing too much glucose. And some
slow the conversion of carbohydrate to blood sugar. Your diabetes educator will help you practice giving
yourself shots until you feel comfortable.
Getting Familiar with Shots
Some medications, including insulin, can’t be swallowed. They are usually injected through the skin to
reach the bloodstream. It’s not hard to learn how to give yourself shots. And there are new devices for
injecting medications that may be available to you. Ask your healthcare provider for more information.
Sticking to Your Medication Routine
Take your medications as instructed by your healthcare provider. Taking your medications at the right
times will give you the best control over your blood glucose. Like a meal routine, a medication routine can
help keep your blood glucose steady. Keep track of medications with a pill organizer and a daily schedule.
Ask your family to help you stick to a medication routine. And don’t get distracted. Make it a priority.
If You Take Other Medications
Some other medications can affect blood glucose. This includes over-the-counter medications and
those prescribed for other health problems. Make sure you tell your healthcare provider about all the
medications you take, including herbs and vitamins. And always remember to tell the pharmacist that
you have diabetes when buying other medications.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association.
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01
Diabetes: Understanding Carbohydrates
Just as a car needs the right type of fuel (gas) to run, you
need the right kind of fuel (food) to function. To sustain energy,
your body needs food that contains carbohydrates. But
carbohydrates raise blood glucose levels higher and faster
than other kinds of food. Your dietitian will probably recommend
that 50-60% of your calories come from carbohydrates.
Starches
Starches are found in grains, some vegetables, and beans. Grain products include bread, pasta, cereal, and
tortillas. Starchy vegetables include potatoes, peas, corn, lima beans, yams, and winter squash (such as
acorn or butternut). Kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, garbanzo beans, and lentils also contain starches.
Sugars
Sugars are found naturally in many foods. Or sugar can be added. Foods that contain natural sugar
include fruits and fruit juices, dairy products, honey, and molasses. Added sugars are found in most
desserts, processed foods, candy, regular soda, and fruit drinks.
Fiber
Fiber comes from plant foods. Most fiber isn’t digested by the body. Instead of raising blood glucose
levels like other carbohydrates, it actually keeps blood glucose from rising too fast. Fiber is found in
fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, peas, and many nuts.
Carb Counting
You can learn to figure out how many carbohydrates you are eating every day. Ask your dietitian to
teach you a technique called “carb counting.” This system helps you keep track of the carbohydrates
you eat at each meal. There are different ways to do carb counting. Basic carb counting is described
below. This method is a good way to get started with carb counting.
• When you count carbohydrate servings, one serving of a starch, fruit, or dairy product counts as
one “carb.”
• Each carb is about 15 grams of carbohydrate. For example:
1 slice of bread = 1 starch serving = 15 grams of carbohydrate
1 apple = 1 fruit serving = 15 grams of carbohydrate
1 cup milk = 1 dairy serving = 15 grams of carbohydrate
• Your dietitian will help you determine how many carbohydrate servings to have at each meal and snack.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association
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Diabetes: Understanding Carbohydrates, Fats, and Protein
Food is a source of fuel and nourishment for your
body. It’s also a source of pleasure. Having
diabetes doesn’t mean you have to eat special
foods or give up desserts. Instead, you can learn
how to plan meals to suit your body. To start, learn
how different foods affect blood glucose.
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the main source of fuel for the
body. Carbohydrates raise blood glucose. Many people think carbohydrates are only found in pasta or
bread. But carbohydrates are actually in many kinds of foods.
• Sugars occur naturally in foods such as fruit, milk, honey, and molasses. Sugars can also be
added to many foods, from cereals and yogurt to candy and desserts. Sugars raise blood glucose.
• Starches are found in bread, cereals, pasta, and dried beans. They’re also found in corn, peas,
potatoes, yams, acorn squash, and butternut squash. Starches also raise blood glucose.
• Fiber is found in foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Unlike other carbs, fiber isn’t
digested or absorbed. So it doesn’t raise blood glucose. In fact, fiber can help keep blood glucose
from rising too fast. It also helps keep blood cholesterol at a healthy level.
Did You Know?
Even though carbohydrates raise blood glucose, it’s best to have some in every meal. They are an
important part of a healthy diet.
Fat
Fat is an energy source that can be stored until needed. Fat does not raise blood glucose. However, it
can raise blood cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease. Fat is also high in calories, which can
cause weight gain. Not all types of fat are the same.
More Healthy
• Monounsaturated fats are mostly found in vegetable oils such as olive, canola, and peanut
oils. They are also found in avocados and some nuts. Monounsaturated fats are healthy for your
heart. That’s because they lower LDL (unhealthy) cholesterol.
• Polyunsaturated fats are mostly found in vegetable oils such as corn, safflower, and soybean oils. They are also found in some seeds, nuts, and fish. Polyunsaturated fats lower LDL
(unhealthy) cholesterol. So, choosing them instead of saturated fats is healthy for your heart.
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Diabetes: Understanding Carbohydrates, Fats, and Protein
Fat (continued)
Less Healthy
• Saturated fats are found in animal products such as meat, poultry, whole milk, lard, and butter.
Saturated fats raise LDL cholesterol and are not healthy for your heart.
• Hydrogenated oils and trans fats are formed when vegetable oils are processed into solid fats.
They are found in many processed foods. Hydrogenated oils and trans fats raise LDL cholesterol
and lower HDL (healthy) cholesterol. They are not healthy for your heart.
Protein
Protein helps the body build and repair muscle and other tissue. Protein has little or no effect on blood
glucose. However, many foods that contain protein also contain saturated fat. By choosing low-fat
protein sources, you can get the benefits of protein without the extra fat.
• Plant protein is found in dry beans and peas, nuts, and soy products such as tofu and soymilk.
These sources tend to be cholesterol-free and low in saturated fat.
• Animal protein is found in fish, poultry, meat, cheese, milk, and eggs. These contain cholesterol
and can be high in saturated fat. Aim for lean, lower-fat choices.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association.
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01
Understanding Type 2 Diabetes
When your body is working normally, the food you
eat is digested and used as fuel. This fuel supplies
energy to the body’s cells. When you have
diabetes, the fuel can’t enter the cells. Without
treatment, diabetes may cause serious long-term
health problems.
How the Body Gets Energy
After you eat, digestion breaks down part of the
food into a fuel called glucose (a type of sugar).
Some of this glucose is stored in the liver. But
most of it enters the bloodstream and travels to the
cells to be used as fuel. Glucose needs the help of
a hormone called insulin to enter the cells. Insulin
is made in the pancreas. It is released into the
bloodstream in response to the presence of
glucose in the blood. Think of insulin as a key.
When insulin reaches a cell, it attaches to the cell
wall. This signals the cell to create an opening that
allows glucose to enter the cell.
When You Have Type 2 Diabetes
Early in type 2 diabetes, your cells don’t respond
properly to insulin. Because of this, less glucose
than normal moves into cells. This is called insulin
resistance. In response, the pancreas makes
more insulin. But eventually, the pancreas can’t
produce enough insulin to overcome insulin
resistance. As less and less glucose enters cells, it
builds up to a harmful level in the bloodstream.
This is known as high blood glucose (also known
as high blood sugar) or hyperglycemia. The result
is type 2 diabetes. The cells become starved for
energy, which can leave you feeling tired and
rundown.
Your body breaks down the food you eat into glucose.
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Understanding Type 2 Diabetes
Why High Blood Glucose Is a Problem
If high blood glucose is not controlled, blood
vessels throughout the body may become
damaged. Prolonged high blood glucose affects
organs and nerves. As a result, the risks of
damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes, and limbs
increase. Diabetes also makes other problems,
such as high blood pressure and high
cholesterol, more dangerous. Over time, people
with uncontrolled high blood glucose have a high
chance of dying of, or being disabled by, heart
attack or stroke.
© 2000-2012 The StayWell Company, 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional
medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions. This information has been modified by your healthcare provider with permission from the publisher.
Adapted from Krames On-Demand HealthSheets created by Krames in collaboration with the American Diabetes Association.
DIAB-1037783-0120 12/12