Elcometer Protovale 331 Concrete Covermeter

English
331.book Page 1 Thursday, March 12, 2009 9:46 PM
Elcometer 331
Concrete Covermeter
Model SH • Model TH
Operating Instructions
331.book Page 2 Thursday, March 12, 2009 9:46 PM
English
R
The Elcometer 331 Concrete Covermeter has been tested in accordance with EU
regulations governing Electro-magnetic compliance and it meets the required directives.
Note: Readings may be affected if the unit is operated within a radio frequency electromagnetic
strength of greater than 3 V/m.
, CoverMaster® and
Elcometer Limited.
R
are registered trademarks of
All other trademarks acknowledged.
© Copyright Elcometer Limited. 2006-2009.
All rights reserved. No part of this Document may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored
(in a retrieval system or otherwise) or translated into any language, in any form or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, manual or otherwise) without the prior written permission
of Elcometer Limited.
A copy of this Instruction Manual is available for download on our Website via www.elcometer.com/
downloads.
Doc.No. TMA-0384 Issue 04
Text with Cover No: 19754
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CONTENTS
Section
Page
1
About your Covermeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2
Quick-start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
Getting started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The power supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Fitting search heads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Identifying search heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Fitting half-cell probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
The controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Switching the Covermeter on and off. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
The display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Selecting a language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Computer interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Using the earphone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Zeroing the Covermeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4
The menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Locating reinforcement bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before you start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To locate a single layer of reinforcement bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To locate two layers of reinforcement bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To determine the orientation of a reinforcement bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
18
18
19
20
20
21
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Measuring depth of cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before you start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What happens when you press Enter [] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
22
22
23
24
7
Selecting bar size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8
AutoSizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
Measuring size of reinforcement bars (orthogonal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before you start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reducing errors when orthogonal sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
27
27
29
30
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
Measuring half-cell potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before you start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What happens when you press Enter [] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring cell-to-cell rather than cell-to-bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
31
31
32
33
11
11.1
11.2
Sound mode/Detection mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Locate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Maxpip™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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11.3
Under Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
12
Setting limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
13
Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12
14.13
14.14
14.15
14.16
14.17
Batching/Data logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Linear batches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grid batches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What does a batch contain? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving your readings in memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exit batching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open new batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open existing batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clone batch/Copy batch information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Review batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plot batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plot options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit batch tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete all batches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Free memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The BATCH softkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to enter information into batch header fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
A typical survey (using grid batch memory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
16
16.1
16.2
Plotting batches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Plot batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Plot options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
17
Measuring welded mesh and joined bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
18
Transferring readings to a computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
19
Search heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
20
Half-cell probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
21
Error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
22
Personalised welcome screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
23
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
24
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
25
Upgrading your Covermeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
26
Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
27
Related equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
28
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
29
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
40
40
40
41
43
43
43
43
44
44
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
47
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ABOUT YOUR COVERMETER
Thank you for your purchase of this Elcometer 331 Concrete Covermeter. Welcome to Elcometer.
Elcometer are world leaders in the design, manufacture and supply of inspection equipment for
concrete and coatings.
Our concrete inspection products include a comprehensive range of concrete, and civil engineering
inspection equipment. Our coatings products cover all aspects of coating inspection, from
development through application to post application inspection.
The Elcometer 331 Concrete Covermeter is a world beating product. With the purchase of this
Covermeter you now have access to the worldwide service and support network of Elcometer. For
more information visit our website at www.elcometer.com
1 ABOUT YOUR COVERMETER
The Elcometer 331 Concrete Covermeter is a handheld Covermeter for fast and accurate location,
orientation and measurement of concrete reinforcement bars (high tensile steel or stainless steel).
Your Covermeter can also be used in half-cell mode to help assess the potential for corrosion of the
reinforcement bars.
Locate • Identify orientation
Measure depth of cover • Measure diameter • Measure half-cell potential
The Covermeter is available in five versions:
•
•
•
•
•
Model B (entry level)
Model BH (entry level with half-cell potential measurement)
Model SH (intermediate level with half-cell potential measurement)
Model TH (data logging with half-cell potential measurement)
Model THD (data logging with half-cell potential measurement and stainless steel
reinforcement bar detection)
This manual describes the operation of the Elcometer 331 Model SH and Model TH.
All versions of the Covermeter feature an easy-to-use menu-driven graphical interface which guides
the user during setup of the Covermeter and during measurement.
A range of fully interchangeable search heads and half-cell probes is available to suit your
requirements. Search heads include a keypad which allows remote operation of the Covermeter.
See “Search heads” on page 55 for full details.
Your Covermeter is packed in cardboard and plastic packaging. Please ensure that this packaging
is disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. Consult your Local Environmental Authority
for further guidance.
To maximise the benefits of your new Elcometer 331 Concrete Covermeter please take some
time to read these Operating Instructions. Do not hesitate to contact Elcometer or your
Elcometer supplier if you have any questions.
1
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ABOUT YOUR COVERMETER
Elcometer 331 Model
Feature
B
BH
SH
TH
THD
Page
1.1 Features
Menu-driven backlit graphical user interface
9
3 sizes of search head + borehole probe
55
Weather proof to IP65
International standard bar size database in memory
Multiple languages
11
Automatic bar size estimate
26
25
Additional orthogonal bar size calculation
27
Locate mode
34
Under Cover mode - alerts user when cover is below minimum
35
Maxpip™ mode - for fast identification of reinforcement bar layout
35
Memory - up to 10 linear batches, up to 1000 readings in each batch
40
Memory - multiple linear and grid batches, up to 240 000 readings
40
Text fields for input of user data in each batch
41
Date and time stamping
41
Statistical analysis of readings and batches
37
Alarm if reading is outside limits
36
Transfer readings and statistics to a computer
52
CoverMaster® software for batch setup, data transfer and reporting
53
Half-cell potential measurement
31
Plot mode
49
Stainless steel reinforcement bar detection and measurement
-
Upgradeable
62
Note: Features described in these instructions apply to all models unless otherwise indicated in the text.
1.2 What this box contains
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Elcometer 331 Model SH or Model TH Concrete Covermeter
Search heada connecting cable
Rechargeable battery pack and battery charger
Earphone
Shoulder strap
CD containing CoverMaster® software
Data transfer cable
Plastic carrying case
Operating instructions
a.
Search head (and half-cells) must be ordered separately. See “Accessories” on page 64 for full details of
search heads and half-cell kits.
2
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QUICK-START
Figure 1. Elcometer 331 Concrete Covermeter
1.3 Standards
The Elcometer 331 Concrete Covermeter can be used in accordance with the following National
and International Standards: BS1881:204, ASTM C876, DGZfP:B2, DGZfP:B3, TR60, UN110174
1.4 Conventions in these instructions
A simple menu structure helps you get the most from your Covermeter - see “The menus” on
page 13. There are many references to this menu structure in these instructions.
As an example, the LANGUAGE option which is in SETUP from the MAIN MENU would be shown
in these instructions as:
MENU / SETUP / LANGUAGE
These instructions include images of Elcometer 331 screens with units set to millimetres (mm).
Similar screens will be seen when the Covermeter is set to inches.
2 QUICK-START
To configure the Covermeter quickly and start taking readings:
1. Charge the batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 4
2. Fit search head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 6
or Fit half-cell probe and cables . . . . . . . . . . see page 7
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Switch on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 9
Select language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 11
Zero the Covermeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 12
To locate a bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 18
To measure depth of a bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 22
To measure size of a bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 27
To measure half-cell potential . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 31
To use memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 40
For an overview of your Covermeter menus and functions, see pages 13 to 17.
3
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GETTING STARTED
3 GETTING STARTED
This section of the instructions is intended for first-time users of the Covermeter. It contains
essential information about batteries, assembling the Covermeter, the controls and the display. At
the end of this section you will be ready to take readings.
3.1 The power supply
Your Covermeter is powered by a rechargeable Lithium-Ionb battery pack which can be charged
inside or outside the Covermeter.
One battery pack is supplied with the Covermeter. To increase productivity on site, Elcometer
recommends that you purchase a spare battery pack which can be charged while you are using
your Covermeter. To order an additional battery pack (see “Accessories” on page 64), contact
Elcometer or your local Elcometer supplier.
Charging the batteries
The rechargeable battery must be fully charged before using the Covermeter for the first time. Use
only the charger supplied with your Covermeter to charge the battery. Use of any other type of
charger is a potential hazard, may damage your Covermeter and will invalidate the warranty. Do not
attempt to charge any other batteries with the supplied charger.
Always charge the battery indoors. To prevent overheating, ensure that the charger is not covered.
1. Referring to Figure 2, unscrew the retaining screw (1) and open the interface access cover (2)
on the rear of the Covermeter.
3
1
3
2
Figure 2. Covermeter rear panel
2. Connect the lead from the charger into the socket marked ‘Charger Input’ behind the interface
access cover (Figure 3).
b.
4
The Covermeter is not designed to operate using dry cell batteries.
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GETTING STARTED
The Covermeter will automatically switch off when the lead from the charger is connected.
(battery in the Covermeter)
(battery removed)
Figure 3. Charging the batteries
3. Plug the charger supplied into the mains supply. The LED indicator on the charger will glow
orange.
4. Leave the gauge charging for at least 4 hours. The LED indicator changes colour from orange
to green when charging is complete.
5. When charging is complete, disconnect the charger from the mains supply before removing
the lead from the Covermeter.
To remove the battery pack for charging outside the Covermeter, unscrew the two battery pack
retaining screws (Figure 2, item 3) at the rear of the Covermeter and slide out the battery pack. To
charge the battery once it has been removed, connect the lead from the charger into the socket on
the battery pack (Figure 3).
Warning: Do not allow metallic objects to come into contact with the battery terminals; this
may cause a short circuit and result in permanent damage to the battery.
Warning: Do not attempt to connect the supply side of the battery charger to generators or
any other medium to high power source other than the single phase 50 Hz AC mains outlet
supplied from an approved and safe mains switchboard. Connection to other supply
sources such as generators or inverters may have the potential to damage the charger, the
battery and/or the gauge, invalidating warranty.
Battery condition indicator
The state of charge of the battery is shown by a symbol on the display:
Symbol
Battery charge/action required
70% to 100%
40% to 70%
20% to 40%
10% to 20%, charging recommended
<10%, Covermeter beeps every 10 seconds and symbol flashes - immediate
charging required
5 loud beeps, Covermeter switches off automatically
5
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GETTING STARTED
3.2 Fitting search heads
The Covermeter must be switched off when search heads are fitted or removed.
Connect the search head to the Covermeter using the supplied connecting cable. The connecting
cable is fitted with a metal screw-type connector at each end. To fit a connector, align the keyway,
push the connector into place and then tighten the metal collar.
A range of search heads is available for your Covermeter - see “Search heads” on page 55 for full
details. The search head icon on the reading screen indicates the type of search head connected
to the Covermeter:
Narrow pitch
Standard
Deep cover
Borehole probe - set to forward-looking operation
Borehole probe - set to sideways-looking operation
The Covermeter must be zeroed after a search head has been fitted and after changing between
high-tensile and stainless modes - the display will show PLEASE ZERO and the ZERO softkey will
flash to remind you.
The metal and plastic bracket on the outside of the main unit is a storage clip for standard and
narrow pitch search heads. The bracket provides a convenient place to store the search head while
the Covermeter is not in use.
Figure 4. Search head storage clip
3.3 Identifying search heads
The four search head types are one of two physical sizes. The Narrow Pitch and Standard heads
are in a small package which fits in the rails on the top of the instrument. The Deep Cover and THD
6
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GETTING STARTED
search heads are larger and do not fit in the rails. Each head is fitted with a label which identifies
its type for ease of recognition. The software also shows an indication of the search head type as
indicated in section 3.2.
3.4 Fitting half-cell probes
Connect the probe and cables as shown in Figure 5. The search head can be left connected to the
gauge at the same time as the half-cell probe, however for ease of use it is recommended that the
search head is removed and stored in the carry case.
Black
cable
Red
cable
Figure 5. Fitting half-cell probe and cables
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GETTING STARTED
3.5 The controls
All functions of the Covermeter can be controlled using the keypad on the main unit. There are two
types of keys on the keypad; fixed function keys and ‘soft’ keys (Figure 6)..
Scrolls up/down
through menus and
lists of values
Increases/
decreases
alphanumeric
values
Switches the
Covermeter
on or off
Increases/
decreases
sensitivity in locate
mode
Selects menu
items
Toggles tick boxes
on/off
Confirms values
entered on display
Accesses menus
Escapes from
menus
Discards values
entered on display
Adds reading to
statistical analysis
The function of these ‘soft’ keys
varies and is defined by symbols and
text on the screen
Adds reading to
batch (if batch is
open)
Figure 6. Covermeter main keypad
Search head keypad
The keys on the search head mimic the functions of some of the keys on the main unit.
The function of the [enter ] key and the [menu/esc] key is identical to the corresponding keys on
the main unit.
The function of the [scroll up s zero 0] and [scroll down t size] keys depends upon whether the
reading screen is displayed or not.
Selects menu items
Toggles tick boxes on/off
Zeros the Covermeter (only
when the display shows the
reading screen)
Scrolls up through menus
and lists of values
Increases numerical values
Bar size selection (only when
the display shows the
reading screen)
Scrolls down through menus
and lists of values
Confirms values entered on
display
Adds reading to statistical
analysis
Adds reading to batch (if
batch is open)
Accesses menus
Escapes from menus
Discards values entered on
display
Decreases numerical values
Figure 7. Search head keypad
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GETTING STARTED
3.6 Switching the Covermeter on and off
Note: Before switching the Covermeter on for the first time read “Selecting a language” on page 11.
To switch the Covermeter on, press [
].
To switch the Covermeter off, press and hold [ ] for two seconds. The Covermeter will beep, two
single tones followed by a double tone, and will then switch off.
The Covermeter includes an automatic switch off feature which will help to extend the battery life
(time between charges). The automatic switch off time can be set to OFF, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 minutes.
MENU / SETUP / AUTO SWITCH OFF
A countdown timer is displayed on the screen 60 seconds before the Covermeter automatically
switches off. The timer counts down from 60 to 0 to warn you that the Covermeter is about to switch
off. Press any key while the countdown timer is displayed to cancel automatic switch off.
3.7 The display
Take some time to familiarise yourself with the information shown on the display of your
Covermeter. The display shows:
•
•
•
•
Welcome information
Measurement information
Menus to configure the Covermeter and control functions
Help and miscellaneous information
When the Covermeter is switched on an opening (welcome) information screenc may be displayed
briefly before the main reading screen appears.
The information shown depends upon whether you are taking measurements, reviewing readings
or setting up the Covermeter.
The main screen displayed (while you are taking measurements) is the Reading Screen.
c.
The opening (welcome) screen can be disabled.
MENU / SETUP / OPENING SCREEN.
Customised welcome screens can be created on a PC and downloaded into the gauge - see “Personalised
welcome screen” on page 61.
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GETTING STARTED
Reading screen (when measuring depth of cover)
1. Statistics (37)
9. Zero softkey
2. Signal strength indicator bar (18)
10. Size softkey
3. Batch name/Cell coordinates (40)
11. Search head type (6)
4. Bar size/number - input by user (25)
12. Depth of cover - Autosize estimate (26)
5. Reading out of limits indicator (36)
13. Depth of cover (22
6. Bar size - Autosize estimate (26)
14. Sensitivity/Maxpip™/Under Cover (33)
7. Batch softkey (45)
15. Battery condition indicator (5)
8. Bar softkey
Refer to page numbers in brackets ( ) for more information.
Reading screen (when measuring half-cell potential)
1. Half-cell potential - bar graph (zero at centre)
3. Half-cell potential - numerical
2. Half-cell reading indicator
Symbols
A wide range of symbols is used on the display. The meaning of all these symbols is stored in the
Covermeter.
MENU / ABOUT / HELP
LCD contrast
Adjust the contrast of the display to suit lighting conditions.
MENU / SETUP / LCD CONTRAST
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GETTING STARTED
Backlight
The display includes a backlight which illuminates the display for 10 seconds after any key is
pressed and during measurements. Switch the backlight on or off as required. Switching the
backlight off will increase battery life.
MENU / BACKLIGHT
Time and date (Model TH only)
The time and date can be displayed on the top line of the reading screen.
MENU / SETUP / DISPLAY / SHOW TIME
3.8 Selecting a language
Your Covermeter has a number of built-in languages.
When the Covermeter is switched on for the first time after
dispatch from the Elcometer factory the display will show
the language selection screen (Figure 8).
At first switch on
1. Press [] or [] to locate language required.
2. Press [] to activate the selected language.
The Covermeter operates in the new language until
changed.
Figure 8. Language selection
screen
At any time
1. Switch Covermeter off.
2. Press and hold left hand softkey.
3. Press [ ] to switch on Covermeter.
The display will show the language selection screen with the current language highlighted by
the cursor.
4. Release left hand softkey.
5. Press [] or [] to locate language required.
6. Press [] to activate the selected language.
Alternatively, select a language at any time.
MENU / SETUP / LANGUAGE
3.9 Computer interface
Your Covermeter is fitted with an RS232 interface. The interface is located under the interface
access cover at the rear of the Covermeter - see Figure 2 and Figure 3 on page 4.
This 5-pin RS232 interface is used with the data transfer cable to connect the Covermeter to the
RS232 portd of a computer. When the Covermeter is connected to a computer you can:
•
•
d.
Download personalised screens to the Covermeter (see “Personalised welcome screen” on
page 61).
Transfer measurement data to a PC or printer (see “Transferring readings to a computer” on
page 52).
An RS232 to USB transfer cable is available which allows you to connect your Covermeter to a USB port on
your computer. For ordering information, see “Accessories” on page 64.
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GETTING STARTED
3.10 Using the earphone
To use the earphone, plug the connector into the 3.5 mm socket marked
on the front of the
Covermeter. Replacement earphones are available as an optional accessory - see “Accessories”
on page 64.
3.11 Zeroing the Covermeter
This action is requested by the Covermeter whenever it is switched on with a search head attached,
when a cover batch is opened, on entering orthogonal SIZE mode, and periodically thereafter (at
least once every 10 minutes). The user can choose to zero the instrument at any time.
If zeroing is required, the cover display is blanked, the user is prompted, and no further readings
can be entered until zeroing is completed.
To zero the Covermeter, hold the search head in the air well away from any metal and press the
ZERO softkey. Zeroing is complete when the ZERO softkey indicator stops flashing. Sometimes
more than one press of the ZERO softkey will be required; this is quite normal.
When a half-cell probe is attached to the instrument, zeroing is not required.
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THE MENUS
4 THE MENUS
To access the menus press the MENU softkey. To return to the reading screen quickly, press and
hold the MENU softkey.
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THE MENUS
4.1 MENU
DATA LOGGER . . . . . . . . . . .
BACKLIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STATISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTRUMENT MODE . . . . . .
PRINT/OUTPUT. . . . . . . . . . .
SETUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opens Data logger menu . . . . . . . . See 4.2 DATA LOGGER
Toggles the display backlight on or off
Opens Statistics menu . . . . . . . . . . See 4.3 STATISTICS
Opens Instrument mode menu . . . . See 4.4 INSTRUMENT MODE
Opens Print/output menu . . . . . . . . See 4.5 PRINT/OUTPUT
Opens Setup menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.6 SETUP
Opens About menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.7 ABOUT
Opens Reset menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.8 RESET
Note: When Backlight is on, the display is illuminated for approximately 30 seconds after any key
is pressed and during measurements.
4.2 DATA LOGGER
EXIT BATCHING . . . . . . . . . .
OPEN NEW BATCH . . . . . . .
OPEN EXISTING BATCH . . .
CLONE BATCH . . . . . . . . . . .
REVIEW BATCH . . . . . . . . . .
PLOT BATCHe . . . . . . . . . . . .
PLOT OPTIONSf . . . . . . . . . .
EDIT BATCH TAGS . . . . . . . .
DELETE BATCH . . . . . . . . . .
DELETE ALL BATCHES . . . .
FREE MEMORY . . . . . . . . . .
Switches off data logger
Opens a new memory batch and starts data logger
Opens existing memory batch and starts data logger
Creates a clone of an existing memory batch and starts data logger
Opens an existing memory batch for viewing of readings
Plots batch readings on the display
Sets plot options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.9 PLOT OPTIONS
Opens an existing memory batch for editing of tags
Deletes one memory batch
Deletes all memory batches
Displays amount of free memory (%)
See “Batching/Data logging” on page 40
4.3 STATISTICS
ENLARGE STATS . . . . . . . . . Displays statistics in a larger font size
CLEAR STATS. . . . . . . . . . . . Resets to zero all statistical values
SELECT STATS. . . . . . . . . . . Opens Select stats menu . . . . . . . . See 4.10 SELECT STATS
See “Statistics” on page 37
4.4 INSTRUMENT MODE
COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sets the instrument to measure depth of cover
HALFCELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sets the instrument to measure half-cell potential
4.5 PRINT/OUTPUT
SINGLE BATCH. . . . . . . . . . . Prints or outputs to PC a single memory batch
ALL BATCHES. . . . . . . . . . . . Prints or outputs to PC all memory batches
CURRENT STATISTICS . . . . Prints or outputs to PC the current statistics
See “Transferring readings to a computer” on page 52
e.
f.
14
‘Plot batch’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
‘Plot options’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
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THE MENUS
4.6 SETUP
SOUND MODE . . . . . . . . . . .
UNITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIMITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLOCKg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OUTPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DISPLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BEEP VOLUME. . . . . . . . . . .
LANGUAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTO SWITCH OFF . . . . . . .
OPENING SCREEN . . . . . . .
LCD CONTRAST. . . . . . . . . .
Opens Sound mode menu . . . . . . . See 4.11 SOUND MODE
Opens Units menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.12 UNITS
Opens Limits menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.13 LIMITS
Opens Clock menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.14 CLOCK
Opens Output menu . . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.15 OUTPUT
Opens Display menu . . . . . . . . . . . See 4.16 DISPLAY
Use Scroll keys to select beep volume 0 (off) to 5 (maximum)
and then press Enter
Use Scroll keys to select menu language and then press enter
Use Scroll keys to select auto switch off time, 5 to 10 minutes
or off and then press Enter
Press Enter to toggle the opening screen on or off
Use Scroll keys to select LCD contrast, 0 to 8 and then press Enter
4.7 ABOUT
GAUGE INFORMATION . . . . Press Enter to display technical information about the
Covermeter
PROBE INFORMATION . . . . Press Enter to display technical information about the search
head
CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to display Elcometer offices worldwide and
(if programmed) Supplier contact details
HELP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to display an explanation of all the symbols
used on the display
4.8 RESET
INTL GAUGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to Reset Covermeter to International settingsh
(DD/MM/YYYY date format, metric units, etc.)
USA GAUGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to Reset Covermeter to USA settingsi
(MM/DD/YYYY date format, imperial units, etc.)
Note: The Covermeter will display a Yes/No confirmation screen before reset is activated.
4.9 PLOT OPTIONSj
GREYSCALE MIN/MAX . . . . Sets plot greyscale between the minimum and maximum readings
in the batch
GREYSCALE LIMITS . . . . . . Sets plot greyscale between the minimum and maximum limits in
the batch
THRESHOLD VIEW . . . . . . . Sets plot to white, or black below an adjustable threshold
SET THRESHOLD . . . . . . . . Opens Set threshold menu . . . . . . . See 4.17 SET THRESHOLD
See “Plot options” on page 50
g.
h.
i.
j.
‘Clock’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
International settings can also be activated at switch on:
Press and hold third softkey
and switch on gauge.
USA settings can also be activated at switch on:
Press and hold fourth softkey
and switch on gauge.
‘Plot options’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
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THE MENUS
4.10 SELECT STATS
NO. OF READINGS . . . . . . . .
MEAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STD DEVIATION . . . . . . . . . .
COEF OF VARIAT’N . . . . . . .
LOWEST READING. . . . . . . .
HIGHEST READING . . . . . . .
UNDER RANGE. . . . . . . . . . .
BELOW LIMIT . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABOVE LIMIT. . . . . . . . . . . . .
OVER RANGE . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLANKk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Press Enter to toggle on or off
Note: Only two statistics from the above list can be toggled to ‘on’ at the same time.
4.11 SOUND MODE
LOCATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
MAXPIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
UNDER COVER. . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
Note: Locate cannot be toggled to ‘on’ at the same time as either Maxpip™ or Under Cover.
See “Sound mode/Detection mode” on page 33
4.12 UNITS
COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter, use Scroll keys to select units (mm/inch) and then
press Enter
TEMPERATURE . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter, use Scroll keys to select units (°C/°F) and then
press Enter
4.13 LIMITS
LOW LIMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opens Low limit menu. . . . . . . . . . . See 4.18 LOW LIMIT
HIGH LIMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opens High limit menu . . . . . . . . . . See 4.19 HIGH LIMIT
4.14 CLOCKl
TIME/DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use Scroll keys and Left/Right softkeys to set time and date
and then press Enter
SET DATE FORMAT . . . . . . . Opens Set date format menu . . . . . See 4.20 SET DATE FORMAT
4.15 OUTPUT
BAUD RATE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opens Baud rate menu . . . . . . . . . . See 4.21 BAUD RATE
RS232 BIT IMAGE . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
RS232 PLAIN TEXT. . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
Note: RS232 Bit Image and RS232 Plain Text cannot be toggled to ‘on’ at the same time.
See “Transferring readings to a computer” on page 52
k.
l.
16
‘Blank’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
‘Clock’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
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THE MENUS
4.16 DISPLAY
SHOW TIMEm . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
STATS ON LCD . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
SHOW AUTOSIZE INFO . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
Note: Time and Stats cannot both be toggled to ‘on’ at the same time.
4.17 SET THRESHOLDn
COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter, use Scroll keys to adjust value and then press Enter
HALFCELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter, use Scroll keys to adjust value and then press Enter
See “Plot options” on page 50
4.18 LOW LIMIT
LOW LIMIT ON . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
LOW LIMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use Scroll keys to adjust low limit and press Enter
See “Setting limits” on page 36
4.19 HIGH LIMIT
HIGH LIMIT ON . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
HIGH LIMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use Scroll keys to adjust high limit and press Enter
See “Setting limits” on page 36
4.20 SET DATE FORMATo
DD/MM/YYYY . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
MM/DD/YYYY . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to toggle on or off
4.21 BAUD RATE
1200. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2400. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4800. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9600. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14400. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19200. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select using Scroll keys and press Enter to select
Select using Scroll keys and press Enter to select
Select using Scroll keys and press Enter to select
Select using Scroll keys and press Enter to select
Select using Scroll keys and press Enter to select
Select using Scroll keys and press Enter to select
m. ‘Show time’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
n. ‘Set threshold’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
o. ‘Set date format’ - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
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LOCATING REINFORCEMENT BARS
5 LOCATING REINFORCEMENT BARS
This section describes how to set up and use your Covermeter to locate reinforcement bars.
5.1 Before you start
•
Are you using the correct search head?
See “Search heads” on page 55.
5.2 To locate a single layer of reinforcement bars
1. Connect the search head to the Covermeter.
2. Switch on the Covermeter.
3. Ensure the instrument is set to Cover mode.
MENU / INSTRUMENT MODE / COVER
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Zero the Covermeter.
Set sound mode to ‘locate’ MENU / SETUP / SOUND MODE / LOCATEp.
Adjust sensitivity - see “Adjusting sensitivity” on page 34.
Align the search head parallel to the reinforcement bars being sought.
Maintain the alignment of the search head and move the search head across the search area
(Figure 9).
Figure 9. Align search head and scan across bars
When the search head is approaching a reinforcement bar:
• The Covermeter will start to emit a sound which will increase in pitch as the search head
moves closer to the bar.
p.
18
Although Locate Mode is specified here, other Sound/Detection modes are available - see “Sound mode/
Detection mode” on page 33 for further details.
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LOCATING REINFORCEMENT BARS
• The signal strength indicator bar on the display will increase in length.
• The depth of cover on the display will show a number.
• The LED on the search head will start to glow.
The search head is aligned directly over a reinforcement bar when:
• The pitch of the sound is at its highest.
• The signal strength indicator bar is at its maximum.
• The depth of cover is at its minimum.
• The LED is glowing at its most intense.
9. Record the position of the reinforcement bar (using chalk or similar).
5.3 To locate two layers of reinforcement bars
Layers of reinforcement bars are typically orientated at right angles to each other. To locate
individual layers of reinforcement bars, carry out the procedure in section 5.2 for each layer.
If the bars in the two layers are of similar size (Figure 10):
Search for the nearer layer first; it gives a stronger signal, and is least influenced by the other bars.
Then search for the second layer, this time scanning the head in lanes between the previously
located positions of the first layer of bars.
•
•
The first scan locates the nearer (top) layer.
The second scan locates the second (bottom) layer.
Second scan
First scan
Figure 10. Scanning layers of bars of equal size
If the bars in the nearer layer are thin compared with those in the deeper layer (Figure 11):
Search for the deeper layer first; it gives a stronger signal, and is least influenced by the other bars.
Then search for the nearer layer, this time scanning the head in lanes between the now-known
positions of the deeper layer of bars.
•
The first scan locates the second (bottom) layer.
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LOCATING REINFORCEMENT BARS
•
The second scan locates the nearer (top) layer.
First scan
Second scan
Figure 11. Scanning layers of bars of different size
(This situation is typical of a nearer layer consisting of relatively thin tie-wires or stirrups, and the
deeper layer consisting of much larger main structural bars.)
5.4 To determine the orientation of a reinforcement bar
1. Locate the position of the reinforcement bar - see “To locate a single layer of reinforcement
bars” on page 18.
2. Hold the search head over the bar. Move the search head side-to-side and rotate the head
clockwise/anti-clockwise until the signal is at a maximum (Figure 12).
When the signal is at its maximum, the search head is aligned parallel with the reinforcement
bar.
Figure 12. Determining orientation of a reinforcement bar
5.5 Practice
Because your Covermeter is unaffected by the nature of the material covering the reinforcing bars,
the easiest way to practice location and orientation technique is to use uncovered bars which you
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LOCATING REINFORCEMENT BARS
can see. A block of wood or plastic 20 mm to 45 mm thick can be held between the search head
and the bars to simulate the depth of concrete cover.
Start from the simplest situation, a single straight bar, and progress through parallel bars, lapped
bars, and crossing bars. As you develop skill and confidence with uncovered bars, move on to
locating bars in more realistic situations.
5.6 Surface mapping
When you are locating layers of reinforcement bars it is good practice to ‘map’ the concrete surface
in a systematic manner. The following steps describe a mapping technique which can be used to
locate two layers of reinforcement bars at right angles to each other.
1. Hold search head horizontally.
Scan up and down to locate (predominantly) horizontal bars.
2. Hold search head vertically.
Scan from side to side between horizontal bars to locate vertical bars.
Note: In some situations, it will be more appropriate to scan first for the vertical bars and then the
horizontal bars.
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MEASURING DEPTH OF COVER
6 MEASURING DEPTH OF COVER
This section describes how to set up and use your Covermeter to measure the depth of cover over
reinforcement bars.
6.1 Before you start
•
Are you using the correct search head?
See “Search heads” on page 55.
•
Do you require statistics?
See “Statistics” on page 37.
•
Do you want to save readings in memory?
See “Batching/Data logging” on page 40.
•
What units of measurement do you want to use?
See “SETUP” on page 15.
6.2 Procedure
1. Connect the search head to the Covermeter.
2. Switch on the Covermeter.
3. Ensure the instrument is set to Cover mode.
MENU / INSTRUMENT MODE / COVER
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Select bar diameter - see “Selecting bar size” on page 25.
Zero the Covermeter.
Set sound mode to ‘locate’ MENU / SETUP / SOUND MODE / LOCATEq.
Adjust sensitivity - see “Adjusting sensitivity” on page 34.
Locate the reinforcement bar using the sound, the LED and the display as indicators.
The reading of cover is continuously updated on the display in large digits. If AutoSize is
switched on (
MENU / SETUP / DISPLAY / SHOW AUTOSIZE INFO), smaller bracketed
readings show the estimate of the bar size (autosize) and the corresponding depth of cover. If
the autosize calculation cannot be performed because the signal is too small (cover too great),
the autosize and autosize depth of cover readings are blanked (the display shows ‘--’).
9. Compare the bar diameter with the autosize bar diameter. If the two numbers are significantly
different, stop depth of cover measurement and measure the bar size using the Orthogonal
method - see “Measuring size of reinforcement bars (orthogonal)” on page 27.
q.
22
Although Locate Mode is specified here, other Sound/Detection modes are available - see “Sound mode/
Detection mode” on page 33 for further details.
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MEASURING DEPTH OF COVER
10. If the bar diameter and the autosize bar diameter correspond and you are satisfied that the
search head is directly over the reinforcement bar, either move on to the next bar or press [].
6.3 What happens when you press Enter []
1. The cover reading is entered into the current statistical analysis.
2. If a batch is open, the reading is saved into a memory location.
The Covermeter will then advance (scroll) to the next memory location. When the last memory
location of a row in a gridr is reached, the Covermeter will advance to the first memory location
of the next row (Figure 13). When the final memory location in a grid or linear batch is filled,
the Covermeter closes the batch and exits batching.
Refer to “The BATCH softkey” on page 45 for information on how to navigate around a batch
and review, delete, overwrite and skip memory locations while you are taking readings.
3. The Covermeter will beep:
Model SH:
• Single beep - reading taken.
• Triple beep - reading taken in last memory location of the batch.
• Triple beeps (higher pitch) - reading taken is outside limits if limits have been set
(
MENU / SETUP / LIMITS).
Model TH:
•
•
•
•
Single beep - reading taken.
Double beep - reading taken in last memory location of a row in a grid.
Triple beep - reading taken in last memory location of the grid.
Triple beept (higher pitch) - reading taken is outside limits if limits have been set
(
MENU / SETUP / LIMITS).
Figure 13. Beeps (*) and scrolling on a 6x3 grid batch
r.
s.
t.
Grid batches - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
The LED in the search head will also flash to indicate an ‘out of limits’ reading.
The LED in the search head will also flash to indicate an ‘out of limits’ reading.
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MEASURING DEPTH OF COVER
6.4 Accuracy
The reading of cover will only be accurate if all the following conditions are satisfied:
•
•
•
•
•
The instrument has been zeroed.
The search head is over the centre-line of the bar.
The search head is parallel to the bar.
The search head is not over, or near, any other bars which might affect the readingu.
The manually entered bar size has been confirmed as being accurate by comparing with the
autosize estimate.
If the reinforcement bar is too deep to measure successfully (over-range), the depth of cover will be
displayed as infinite (Figure 14).
Figure 14. Depth of cover over-range (infinite)
u.
24
If reinforcement bars are too close together to measure with the standard search head, try using the narrow
pitch search head. See “Accessories” on page 64 for ordering details.
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SELECTING BAR SIZE
7 SELECTING BAR SIZE
The dimensions of reinforcement bars are stored within the Covermeter. The dimensions are
grouped into four standard series; Metric, Imperial, ASTM/Canadian and Japanese.
To select bar size, display the reading screen and press the BAR softkey to access Bar Size
selection:
•
To select bar size, press the SERIES softkey. Use [] or [] to select the appropriate series
(Metric, Imperial, ASTM/Canadian or Japanese). Press [] to accept the bar series and then
use [] or [] to adjust the bar size. Press [] to accept the bar size and return to the Reading
Screen.
Metric
Imperial
ASTM/Canadian
Japanese
Diam.
(mm)
Bar
size
Diam.
(inch)
Bar
size
Area
(mm2)
Bar
size
Diam
(mm)
5
5
#2
0.250
10M
100
6
6
5.5
5.5
#3
0.375
15M
200
10
10
6
6
#4
0.500
20M
300
13
13
7
7
#5
0.625
25M
500
16
16
8
8
#6
0.750
30M
700
19
19
9
9
#7
0.875
35M
1000
22
22
10
10
#8
1.000
45M
1500
25
25
11
11
#9
1.125
55M
2500
29
29
12
12
#10
1.250
32
32
14
14
#11
1.375
35
35
16
16
#12
1.500
38
38
18
18
#13
1.625
41
41
20
20
#14
1.750
44
44
22
22
#15
1.875
48
48
25
25
#16
2.000
51
51
28
28
#18
2.250
57
57
32
32
36
36
40
40
44
44
50
50
Bar
size
The bar sizing functions of the Covermeter will display any measured bar size to the nearest size
in the selected series.
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AUTOSIZING
8 AUTOSIZING
Your Covermeter includes AutoSize - a feature which automatically calculates an estimate of the
size of a reinforcement bar and the depth of cover. The autosize estimated values are displayed on
the reading screen in a small font size alongside standard readings.
Bar size
Depth of cover
Figure 15. Autosize bar size estimate and depth of cover
You do not need to configure anything to use autosize; just switch it on and off as required.
MENU / SETUP / DISPLAY / SHOW AUTOSIZE INFO
The values of bar size and depth of cover provided by autosize are estimates only and are
independent of the value of bar size you have entered.
The autosize bar size estimate is typically used as a check that the value of bar size entered
manually is accurate. If the two values are significantly different, you should use the orthogonal
SIZE feature to determine accurately the bar size - see “Measuring size of reinforcement bars
(orthogonal)” on page 27.
When the search head is not directly over a reinforcement bar, the autosizing values are
meaningless and should be ignored.
If the signal is too small the autosize and autosize cover readings are blanked (-- displayed).
In congested situations, autosizing will tend to over-estimate bar diameter, correctly reflecting the
fact that there is a greater mass of metal present than a single bar. Nevertheless, autosizing will
continue to give an essentially correct value for the cover.
In the case of lapped bars, autosizing will typically show double the true diameter of a single bar,
but the correct cover, which is generally the desired result.
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MEASURING SIZE OF REINFORCEMENT BARS (ORTHOGONAL)
9 MEASURING SIZE OF REINFORCEMENT BARS (ORTHOGONAL)
Although the Covermeter includes the AutoSize feature (see page 26), a separate ‘orthogonal’ SIZE
function is included for accurate measurement of bar size.
The orthogonal SIZE function is intended to be used to determine the diameter of a (single)
reinforcement bar. Although the associated cover will also be displayed, this function is not intended
to be used for scanning areas.
Orthogonal sizing can be performed at greater depths than the AutoSize function.
The following sections describe how to use the SIZE function.
9.1 Before you start
•
Are you using the correct search head?
See “Search heads” on page 55.
•
What units of measurement do you want to use?
See “SETUP” on page 15.
9.2 Procedure
1. Connect the search head to the Covermeter.
2. Switch on the Covermeter.
3. Ensure the instrument is set to Cover mode.
MENU / INSTRUMENT MODE / COVER
4. Zero the Covermeter.
5. Set sound mode to ‘locate’ MENU / SETUP / SOUND MODE / LOCATE.
6. Press the SIZE softkey. The display will show:
7. Adjust sensitivity - see “Adjusting sensitivity” on page 34.
8. Locate the exact position and orientation of the reinforcement bar using the sound, the LED
and the display as indicators - see “Locating reinforcement bars” on page 18.
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MEASURING SIZE OF REINFORCEMENT BARS (ORTHOGONAL)
9. Position the search head parallel and in line with the reinforcement bar (Figure 16). The sound/
signal will be at a maximum.
Figure 16. Search head parallel and in line with bar
10. Press []. The display will show:
11. Rotate the search head until it is at 90° (orthogonal) to the bar. Use the notches in the sides of
the search head and the line across the top of the search head to aid alignment (Figure 17).
The sound/signal will be at a minimum when the search head is aligned at 90° to the bar and
the notches/line are in line with the bar.
Figure 17. Search head aligned at 90°
12. When the search head is aligned correctly with the reinforcement bar, press [].
The Covermeter will display a depth of cover and a bar size.
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MEASURING SIZE OF REINFORCEMENT BARS (ORTHOGONAL)
13. If you are satisfied with the bar size, press [] to set the Covermeter to use this size. If you are
not satisfied with the bar size, press [menu/esc] to return to the reading screen without making
any changes.
If the orthogonal size calculation fails (e.g. because of incorrect search head positioning or because
the bar is too deep), an error is reported with the option to retry the procedure.
9.3 Accuracy
In common with all bar-sizing methods, the orthogonal SIZE function is sensitive to errors in search
head positioning and also to the proximity of neighbouring bars (the pitch of the bars).
The net result of the error-generating influences listed below is that the estimated bar size (and
cover) will be too high. Hence the displayed result should be taken as an upper limit, never as a
lower limit.
Head-positioning
When taking the parallel reading (Figure 16), the search head should be getting the maximum
possible signal from the bar; any misalignment of the search head in either angle or position can
only reduce this signal.
When taking the orthogonal reading (Figure 17), the search head should be getting the minimum
possible signal from the bar; any misalignment of the search head in either angle or position can
only increase this signal.
Therefore, either form of positioning error will always result in the diameter being over-estimated
(and so too will be the cover).
Neighbouring bars
Any other metal within range of the search head will increase both the (orthogonal and parallel)
readings by an unknown amount, but not necessarily the same for both readings. In practice, since
the orthogonal signal is the weaker of the two, it is more susceptible to ‘interference’, and so the
estimated diameter will probably again be too high.
Although, in normal use, transverse bars have comparatively little effect on the cover obtained,
these same transverse bars will have a serious effect on this bar-sizing method: when the search
head is rotated to take the orthogonal reading, the signal from the bar under investigation
decreases, but the signal from any nearby transverse bars increases. Again, the result is a (possibly
significant) over-estimation of bar diameter. In particular, orthogonal sizing should never be
attempted over the crossing-point of transverse bars.
Neighbouring parallel bars, whilst not causing such drastic effects as transverse ones, should
nevertheless be taken into consideration. When the search head is rotated to the orthogonal
position, such bars will become nearer to the ends of the search head than they were to its sides.
Welded mesh
Orthogonal sizing should not be attempted on welded mesh fabric; the orthogonal reading will
receive an additional signal from the rectangular loop of bars. This will result in a gross overestimate of bar-size (or even the ‘SIZE MODE ERROR’ message).
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MEASURING SIZE OF REINFORCEMENT BARS (ORTHOGONAL)
9.4 Reducing errors when orthogonal sizing
This technique improves the accuracy of orthogonal sizing of bars where the nearest parallel bars
appear to be adequately distant, but the transverse bars are closer togetherv. This situation is
illustrated in Figure 18 where position X is the measurement position.
Transverse bars are close
together
Figure 18. Measurement position
The technique involves zeroing the Covermeter with the search head held close to the concrete:
1. Hold the search head in contact with the concrete surface. The centre of the search head
should be in the centre of the space between the bars as shown in Figure 19.
Figure 19. Zeroing
2. Press the ZERO softkey to zero the Covermeter.
3. Move the search head to the measurement position and then carry out orthogonal sizing as
previously described in section 9.2 on page 27.
The aim of this technique is to subtract the ‘background metal’ signal; but it only provides an
estimate of that background. As a result, it tends to over-compensate for the errors and therefore
may result in an under-estimate of bar size (and cover).
Nevertheless, comparison with results from orthogonal sizing conducted with a standard zeroing
technique can be used to get a slightly pessimistic estimate of the probable error (or degree of
confidence) in the result.
v.
30
In this situation, accuracy may also be improved by using a Narrow Pitch search head.
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MEASURING HALF-CELL POTENTIAL
10 MEASURING HALF-CELL POTENTIAL
Your Covermeter is capable of measuring half-cell potential - an electrochemical technique
commonly used to assess the severity of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. When set to
half-cell mode, your Covermeter acts as a voltmeter which measures the potential difference
between the steel reinforcement in the concrete structure and a reference electrode (the half-cell)
placed on the surface of the concrete.
Half-cell readings can be stored in memory in batches in the same way as readings of cover.
10.1 Before you start
•
Are you using the correct half-cell probe?
See “Half-cell probes” on page 59.
•
Do you require statistics?
See “Statistics” on page 37.
•
Do you want to save readings in memory?
See “Batching/Data logging” on page 40.
10.2 Procedure
1. Use the Covermeter to locate a reinforcing bar.
2. Expose the bar, e.g. by drilling through the cover using a large drill.
3. Drill a small diameter hole into the bar suitable for attachment of the positive (red) cable using
a screw or lead plug.
4. Mark out a grid on the concrete. Measurements will be taken at the intersection points of the
grid. Typical grid spacing is 1 m x 1 m, however this may be reduced if localised corrosion is
suspected. If the measured half-cell potential between two adjacent positions differs by more
than 100 mV, it is recommended that the grid spacing is reduced.
5. If necessary, use tap water to wet the whole of the test area, or just the measurement
positions.
6. Connect the red cable and extension reel between the exposed reinforcing bar and the red
terminal on the Covermeter (Figure 20). Connect the black cable between the probe and the
black terminal on the Covermeter.
7. Switch on the Covermeter.
8. Ensure the instrument is set to Half-cell mode
MENU / INSTRUMENT MODE / HALFCELL
9.
10.
11.
12.
Remove the end cap from the probe and store the cap safely.
Press the electrode against the concrete surface.
View the reading of half-cell potential on the display.
If you are satisfied with the reading, either move on to the next measurement location or press
Enter [].
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MEASURING HALF-CELL POTENTIAL
Figure 20. Typical instrument configuration for half-cell measurements
10.3 What happens when you press Enter []
1. The half-cell potential reading is entered into the current statistical analysis.
2. If a batch is open, the reading is saved into a memory location.
The Covermeter will then advance (scroll) to the next memory location. When the last memory
location of a row in a gridw is reached, the Covermeter will advance to the first memory
location of the next row (Figure 13). When the final memory location in a grid or linear batch is
filled, the Covermeter closes the batch and exits batching.
Refer to “The BATCH softkey” on page 45 for information on how to navigate around a batch
and review, delete, overwrite and skip memory locations while you are taking readings.
3. The Covermeter will beep:
Model SH:
• Single beep - reading taken.
• Triple beep - reading taken in last memory location of the batch.
• Triple beep (higher pitch) - reading taken is outside limitsx if limits have been set
(
MENU / SETUP / LIMITS).
Model TH:
w.
x.
32
Grid batches - available on Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
Typically, a low limit will be applied at the threshold that would indicate corrosion e.g. -350 mV. Any readings
lower (more negative) than this would then cause an alarm and be tagged as below limit in the statistics and/
or the batch.
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SOUND MODE/DETECTION MODE
•
•
•
•
Single beep - reading taken.
Double beep - reading taken in last memory location of a row in a grid.
Triple beep - reading taken in last memory location of the grid.
Triple beep (higher pitch) - reading taken is outside limitsy if limits have been set
(
MENU / SETUP / LIMITS).
Figure 21. Beeps (*) and scrolling on a 6x3 grid batch
10.4 Measuring cell-to-cell rather than cell-to-bar
In some instances it will not be possible to make a direct connection to a reinforcing bar. In this
situation it is common practice to use two half-cell probes connected to the inputs of the
Covermeter. One probe is fixed in position on the concrete surface and the other probe is moved
over the surface. In this way the surface can be ‘mapped’.
Using this method, the absolute value of the reinforcing bar to concrete half-cell will not be
measurable, however changes from one point on the surface to the next can be measured and
interpreted.
11 SOUND MODE/DETECTION MODE
Note: The settings in Sound Mode are applicable to measurement of concrete cover only - they
have no affect when measuring half-cell potential.
Your Covermeter indicates the presence of a reinforcement bar visually and audibly:
•
•
•
y.
The DISPLAY indicates the presence of a reinforcement bar in the form of a signal strength
indicator bar and a depth of cover reading.
The LED on the search head starts to glow as the search head is brought near a reinforcement
bar. The intensity of the LED increases as the search head gets closer to the bar.
Although the display and the LED indications are important, it is likely that you will also rely
upon the SOUND emitted by the internal speaker. This is the main indication of the presence
of a reinforcement bar.
Typically, a low limit will be applied at the threshold that would indicate corrosion e.g. -350 mV. Any readings
lower (more negative) than this would then cause an alarm and be tagged as below limit in the statistics and/
or the batch.
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SOUND MODE/DETECTION MODE
Your Covermeter has three sound/detection modes; Locate, Maxpip™ and Under Cover.
MENU / SETUP / SOUND MODE
SOUND MODE
LOCATE
MAXPIP
UNDER COVER
11.1 Locate
In this mode, the pitch of the sound from the Covermeter increases as the search head gets closer
to a bar.
Sound volume can be adjusted -
MENU / SETUP / BEEP VOLUME
The apparent volume of the sound can also be adjusted by changing the sensitivity setting.
Adjusting sensitivity
The sensitivity setting is indicated by the variable wedge-shaped symbol on
the display. To increase the sensitivity, press []. To decrease the
sensitivity, press [].
Typically, set the sensitivity to produce a slow ‘clicking’ sound in the absence
of metal. With the sensitivity set at this level you will be able to differentiate quickly between bars of
the same size located at different depths.
If the sensitivity is optimised, the pitch of the sound will consistently give a good guide to the extent
of cover; shallower-than-average bars will produce a clearly noticeable, more intense sound, which
will draw your attention to such bars. However, if the sensitivity has been adjusted to an arbitrary
level, the necessary degree of consistency may not be achieved.
To improve audible resolution when locating closely spaced reinforcement bars it may be beneficial
to reduce the sensitivity below the optimum level described in the previous paragraphs.
It is also possible to reduce sensitivity deliberately so that bars of adequate cover are not indicated,
but bars of shallower cover are. You may find this technique to be a simpler and quicker method
(albeit somewhat less precise) than the Under Cover mode described later; but please note that
both methods share the same disadvantage that they only indicate bars with shallow cover, but do
not confirm the presence of bars with adequate or deeper cover.
During a search the sound from the speaker and the brightness of the LED may reach their
maximum level before the signal has reached its maximum. If this occurs, reduce the sensitivity until
the sound and LED are again responding readily to changes.
Note: Reducing the sensitivity does not reduce the overall sensitivity of the instrument, but will
reduce the sound and LED indications to zero when the search head is removed from the region of
high signal strength. This may cause deeply covered bars to be missed.
If the sensitivity is reduced to the minimum setting, the locate sound is muted
(indicated by a crossed-out loudspeaker symbol on the screen).
The sensitivity setting only affects the locate sound and the brightness of the
LED on the search head; it does not affect the cover measurement or the
size measurement.
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SOUND MODE/DETECTION MODE
11.2 Maxpip™
This is an alternative method of locating the centre of each reinforcement bar. In this mode, an audio
'pip' is given each time the middle of a reinforcement bar is detected as the surface is scanned.
An icon on the main measurement display indicates that Maxpip™ mode is
active. When Maxpip™ mode is active, the normal locate sound is
suppressed.
In practice, since it is not possible to be sure that you have reached
maximum signal until the signal has started to decrease again, the pip
always occurs just after you have passed the actual position of the bar, and this inevitable lag varies
with scanning speed. Therefore the Locate mode is far superior for audible location.
11.3 Under Cover
Under Cover mode enables you to set a minimum depth of cover. In this mode, the Covermeter will
signal a continuous alarm sound if the depth of cover of the reinforcement bar is less than the
minimum.
An icon on the main measurement display indicates that Under Cover mode
is active. When Under Cover mode is active, the normal locate sound is
suppressed.
The Lower Limit (from the LIMITS menu) is used as the Under Cover
threshold.
When Under Cover mode is active, the Low Limit is displayed and activated and may be adjusted.
If Low Limit is switched off (
MENU / SETUP / LIMITS / LOW LIMIT), Under Cover mode will
be switched off also.
Under Cover mode cannot be selected at the same time as Locate mode.
Maxpip™ and Under Cover modes can both be used simultaneously. When Locate mode is
selected, Maxpip™ and Under Cover mode will both be switched off.
A bar of larger size than expected (rather than a bar at shallower cover) may trigger the Under
Cover alarm; however, having drawn your attention, you will be able to see from the autosize
information on the display just what is under the search head.
Note that although the Under Cover mode is a useful feature, it has some limitations which should
not be ignored. Probably the most important, is that it will not distinguish between;
•
•
a bar which is correctly present at more than minimum cover, and
a bar which is completely missing!
Similarly, a bar (or tie-wire) at just less than minimum cover, but of smaller diameter than that set,
may also fail to signal.
It is worth noting that this is not the only way of rapidly recognising reinforcement bars with less than
the usual amount of cover. “Locate” on page 34 describes how the ordinary sound signal will give
a noticeably more intense sound whenever the search head passes over a reinforcement bar which
is shallower than its neighbours. This is possibly a simpler way of drawing your attention to rogue
reinforcement bars without the need to use the Under Cover mode.
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SETTING LIMITS
12 SETTING LIMITS
Low and High limits can be set by the user to monitor whether depth of cover or half-cell potential
is within specifications.
MENU / SETUP / LIMITS
LOW LIMIT
LOW LIMIT ON
LOW LIMIT
HIGH LIMIT
mm/mV
HIGH LIMIT ON
HIGH LIMIT
mm/mV
Set the limit value and toggle the tick box to switch the limit on or off.
Limits for cover and for half-cell potential are stored in separate memory locations within your
Covermeter and are therefore retained as the mode is switched between cover and half-cell.
With limits switched on, when you take a reading which is within the limits, the Covermeter will beep
once. When you take a reading which is outside the limits, the Covermeter will beep three times to
warn you of an out-of-limit reading.
When limits are switched on, any readings taken which are outside a limit are indicated on the
reading screen by an arrow icon;
or
.
Reading is less than lower limit
Reading is greater than upper limit
When batching is switched on and limits are switched on, readings in a batch which are outside the
limits are marked as follows:
•
•
36
Down arrow icon
if the reading is below the low limit.
Up arrow icon
if the reading is above the high limit.
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STATISTICS
13 STATISTICS
Your Covermeter has a Statistics feature which calculates and displays a statistical analysis of
readings as they are taken.
Statistics values are also calculated for the readings within a batch and these values are stored in
the batch.
To enter a reading into the statistical analysis while you are taking measurements, press [].
Table 1: Calculated statistics values
Number of
Readings
The running value for the number of readings taken in a group.
Mean
The average of a group of readings; the sum of the individual
readings divided by the number of readings.
Standard
Deviation
A statistical measure of the spread of values in a group of
readings.
Coefficient of The standard deviation divided by the mean for a group of
Variation
readings, expressed as a percentage.
/
/
Lowest
Reading
The value of the lowest reading taken in a group.
Highest
Reading
The value of the highest reading taken in a group.
Under range
The number and percentage of readings under range.
Low limit
The number and percentage of readings below the low limit.
Within limits
The number and percentage of readings within limits.
High limit
The number and percentage of readings above the high limit.
Over range
The number and percentage of readings over range (or infinite).
Blank
readings
Number and percentage of blank readings (skipped/not recorded/
deleted).
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STATISTICS
Over range, under range and blankz readings are not included in the calculation of mean, standard
deviation, coefficient of variation, lowest reading and highest reading (neither are they counted in
number of readings taken).
To access statistics, open the Statistics menu.
MENU / STATISTICS
STATISTICS
ENLARGE STATS
CLEAR STATS
SELECT STATS
13.1 Viewing statistics
Statistics values can be viewed in a number of ways:
•
•
•
As you are taking measurements, any two of the statistics values in Table 1 on page 37 can be
displayed on the reading screen.
MENU / SETUP / DISPLAY / STATS ON LCD
At any point while taking measurements, any two or all of the statistics values can be displayed
in enlarged format.
MENU / STATISTICS / ENLARGE STATS
When a batch has been created, statistics values for the batch can be displayed on the
reading review screen.
MENU / DATA LOGGER / REVIEW BATCH
13.2 Enlarge stats
Displays the chosen statistical values as double-height characters (Figure 22). Press ALL and use
[] and [] to view all statistical values. Press [menu/esc] to return to the Reading Screen.
Figure 22. Enlarged statistics
13.3 Clear stats
Resets to zero all statistical values. Press YES to confirm or NO to cancel. Clear stats is not
available while a batch is openaa.
z. ‘Blank readings’ - Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
aa. Opening a new or existing batch will also cause all current statistical values to be reset to zero.
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STATISTICS
13.4 Select stats
Allows the user to choose which statistics values are
displayed on the reading screen during measurement.
Use [] and [] to move the cursor and press [] to select
or deselect the statistics values.
Only two statistics values can be selected and displayed
on the reading screen at the same time. To view all
statistics values choose:
MENU / STATISTICS / ENLARGE STATS / ALL
On Elcometer 331 Model TH, the selected statistics values
will only be displayed on the reading screen if the display
of time and date is not selected:
SELECT STATS
NO. OF READINGS
MEAN
STD DEVIATION
COEF OF VARIAT’N
LOWEST READING
HIGHEST READING
UNDER RANGE
BELOW LIMIT
ABOVE LIMIT
OVER RANGE
BLANK
MENU / SETUP / DISPLAY / SHOW TIME
Note: ‘Blank’ - Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
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BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
14 BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
Your Covermeter includes internal memory which can be used to save depth of cover and half-cell
readings. Use this memory to save your readings as you take them; this will help to increase your
productivity on site and reduce the need to rely on paper and pen to record your results.
All readings saved into the memory of your Covermeter are stored in ‘batches’. Typically, a single
batch is used to store readings from a particular area or location on a site.
There are two types of batch; ‘linear’ and ‘grid’. Which type of batch you can use depends upon the
model of Covermeter you have:
•
•
Elcometer 331 Model SH - linear batches only
Elcometer 331 Model TH - linear and grid batches
Users of Model SH Covermeters can create linear batches only. Users of Model TH Covermeters
must define whether a batch is to be in linear (
) or grid (
) format when the batch is first
opened (created).
14.1 Linear batches
A linear batch of memory locations is similar to a single row or column of cells on a spreadsheet:
30 33 29 28 35 30 30 27 28 31 33
Maximum number of readings in a linear batch:
1000
Maximum number of linear batches:
10 (Model SH Covermeters)
200 (Model TH Covermeters)
14.2 Grid batches
Note: The instructions given in this section (14.2) apply to Elcometer 331 Model TH only. Users of
Elcometer 331 Model SH can upgrade their instrument to model TH to gain this functionality contact Elcometer or your local supplier for details.
Grid batches are typically used when you are surveying large areas of concrete.
A grid batch of memory locations is similar to the grid of cells marked out by the rows and columns
of a spreadsheet:
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
1
30 33 30 27 28 31 33 35 32 30 30
2
29 27 28 31 33 35 32 30 30 27 28
3
30 27 28 31 33 35 32 28 30 27 28
4
35 27 28 31 33 35 32 30 29 27 28
L
5
Maximum size of a grid batch:
255 rows x 255 columns
Maximum number of grid batches:
1000
Maximum total number of readings:
240 000
Memory locations in a grid batch are referred to by their column letter and row number, for instance
A1, F4, etc.
Grid batches are typically used to save readings when surveying a large area of concrete:
•
40
On the concrete, mark out a pre-defined grid of squares, typically of 0.5 m pitch. This is an
arbitrary grid which does not necessarily align with the reinforcement bars.
331.book Page 41 Thursday, March 12, 2009 9:46 PM
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BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
•
Use the Covermeter to locate and measure the minimum area of cover within each grid cell, or
the cover to the reinforcement bar nearest to each grid-point, depending upon your survey
procedures.
Store the results in a grid batch corresponding to the grid of squares (press [] to enter a
reading while the batch is open).
If required, create a separate batch of the same name configured for half-cell and store
corresponding half-cell potential measurements for each location. This allows the batches to
be grouped for production of reports which combine cover and half-cell readings using
CoverMaster® software - see “CoverMaster software” on page 53.
•
•
14.3 What does a batch contain?
Each batch stores three types of information:
•
•
•
header fields
readings
statistics
(information entered by the user - see below)
(entered automatically by the 331 as you are taking measurements)
(entered automatically by the 331 as you are taking measurements)
Table 2: Batch contents
Symbol
Symbol meaning
Typical contents
Batch namea
001-1 or Survey-01
Entered by
User
Batch type (Cover or half-cell)
Batch format (
or
)
10 (only displayed
for
batches)
10 (only displayed
for
batches)
331
nx
Number of columns (nx)
ny
Number of rows (ny)
n
Number of readings taken (n)
96
Site
Humber Bridge
Location
North Pier
Area
AA/123/4-001
Grid spacing (size of each grid square)
500 mm
Bar size/diameter
18 mm
Batch creation date/time
09:30 17/01/06
Batch update date/time
14:15 19/01/06
Low limit
20 mm
High limit
35 mm
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BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
Table 2: Batch contents
Symbol
Entered by
Symbol meaning
Typical contents
Half-cell type
CU/CUSO4
AG/AGCL
Temperature
20°C
Engineer
M. Smith
Customer
Highways
Department
User
331
Lowest reading
Highest reading
Mean
Standard deviation
Number and percentage of readings below the
lower limit, together with the limit value (if any).
Number and percentage of readings within
x (y%)
limits.
Number and percentage of readings above the
x (y%) > z mm upper limit, together with the limit value (if
any).
Number and percentage of blank readings (if
x (y%)
any).
Number and percentage of under-range
readings (if any), together with the lowest
x (y%) <<
measurable cover for the current bar size and
search head.
Number and percentage of over-range
(infinite) readings (if any), together with the
x (y%)
highest measurable cover for the current bar
size and search head.
x (y%) < z mm
Notes
Survey top only
The following additional symbols may be seen on the reading review screen:
-
42
The reading is under range (not measurable)
The reading is less than the low limit
The reading is greater than the high limit
The reading is over range (not measurable)
Blank reading (memory location is empty) Model TH only
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BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
a.
Two batches are permitted to have the same name provided they are of different types. This feature can be
used to associate cover and half-cell surveys of the same area on the PC during analysis using Covermaster software. If a new batch is created with a name and type matching an existing batch, the instrument
beeps and returns to the name editing screen.
Note: Column, rows and grid spacing - Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
14.4 Saving your readings in memory
To use the memory you will need to understand how to use
the Data Logger.
MENU / DATA LOGGER
To use a batch of memory it is first necessary to open
(create) a batch - see 14.6 below. Once the batch has
been opened you can then save your readings into that
batch as you take them.
To save a reading when a batch is open, press [].
You may exit batching at any time; once you exit batching
(and hence the Covermeter is not data logging), readings
will no longer be saved.
MENU / DATA LOGGER / EXIT BATCHING
The following sections describe how to configure and use
the Data Logger.
DATA LOGGER
EXIT BATCHING
OPEN NEW BATCH
OPEN EXISTING BATCH
CLONE BATCH
REVIEW BATCH
PLOT BATCH
PLOT OPTIONS
EDIT BATCH TAGS
DELETE BATCH
DELETE ALL BATCHES
FREE MEMORY
14.5 Exit batching
Switches off batching (the data logger). No further readings are saved, the display reverts to the
reading screen and the BATCH softkey disappears.
14.6 Open new batch
Opens (creates) a new memory batch.
The Covermeter uses the most recently created batch as a template for the new batch. The batch
name is based upon the alphanumeric value of the last batch created, but all other header fields are
left blank - see “What does a batch contain?” on page 41.
1. Enter information in the header fields (including the batch name) as requiredab - see “How to
enter information into batch header fields” on page 47.
2. When you are happy with the details you have added or changed, press
to create the
batch. The display switches to the reading screen and then starts batching (the BATCH
softkey appears on the reading screen).
3. Zero the Covermeter if requested.
14.7 Open existing batch
Opens an existing memory batch.
1. Use Left/Right softkeys [] to scroll to the required batch.
ab. If a new batch is created with a name matching an existing batch, the instrument beeps and returns to the
name editing screen.
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BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
2. Press [] to select the batch. When the batch has been opened, the display switches to the
reading screen and then starts batching (the BATCH softkey appears on the reading screen).
Readings in the existing batch can then be amended, deleted and added.
3. Zero the Covermeter if requested.
14.8 Clone batch/Copy batch information
Creates a clone (a copy) of an existing memory batch.
Cloning a batch allows the contents of an existing batch to be copied (everything is copied except
for the readings). Cloning is typically used on site to create new batches without having to re-enter
batch header details such as the name of the site, the engineer, the customer, etc.
When the new batch has been created by pressing
, the display switches to the reading screen
and then starts batching (the BATCH softkey appears on the reading screen).
1. Use Left/Right softkeys [] to scroll to the batch you want to clone.
2. Press [] to select the batch.
3. Adjust information in the header fields as required (you must give the batch a nameab which
does not already exist) - see “How to enter information into batch header fields” on page 47.
4. Press
to create the clone.
5. Zero the Covermeter if requested.
14.9 Review batch
Opens any existing memory batch for viewing of batch header information, readings and statistics.
Also allows individual readings to be deleted.
1. Use Left/Right softkeys [] to scroll to the batch you want to review.
2. Press [] to select batch.
3. Review readings using the scroll keys to move around the contents of a batch.
Press and hold the Shift softkey [
to the start or end of line of readings.
] and then press any of the Scroll keys to jump quickly
Press [] to toggle between;
• REVIEW BATCH - shows header fields and statistics, and
• depth of cover readings.
To delete a readingac press the Delete softkey [
].
4. Press [menu/esc] once to select another batch (using []), press [menu/esc] again to return
to the Data Logger menu.
As you scroll between batches using the Left/Right softkeys [], the same page of information
is shown for each batch. This feature makes it particularly easy to identify, for example, batches
from a particular customer/location, or batches with readings outside limits.
A bracketed asterisk [*] next to the batch name indicates that this is the batch currently open (if any).
A complete list of the information given on a review batch screen is given in “What does a batch
contain?” on page 41.
ac. When readings are removed (either over-written or deleted) from a very large batch, some statistics values
may be replaced by a ‘-’ until the batch is recalculated. To force a batch to be recalculated, exit batching
(MENU / DATA LOGGER / EXIT BATCHING) and then re-open the batch (MENU / DATA LOGGER / OPEN
EXISTING BATCH). Invalid statistics (PLEASE WAIT) will be shown on the display while the recalculation
takes place.
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BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
14.10 Plot batchad
See “Plotting batches” on page 49
14.11 Plot optionsae
See “Plotting batches” on page 49
14.12 Edit batch tags
Same as ‘Review batch’ but allows editing of some of the batch contents.
A moveable cursor is shown next to any entries which can be modified. Pressing Enter opens that
tag for editing.
14.13 Delete batch
Deletes one memory batch.
1. Use Left/Right softkeys [] to scroll to the batch you want to delete.
2. Press [] to delete batch.
The Covermeter displays a confirmation screen.
3. Press Yes to confirm deletion, No to cancel.
14.14 Delete all batches
Deletes all batches from the Covermeter and stops batching.
1. The Covermeter displays a confirmation screen.
2. Press Yes to confirm deletion, No to cancel.
14.15 Free memory
Displays the amount of free memory (%) and then returns to the reading screen after 2 seconds.
14.16 The BATCH softkey
The BATCH softkey provides rapid access to the readings in a batch
as you are taking them.
The BATCH softkey is only displayed on the reading screen when a
batch is open.
Once the BATCH softkey has been pressed, you can then;
•
•
•
•
scroll around the contents of a batch,
review, delete and overwrite readings,
skip memory locations (TH models only),
and then return to the reading screen ready to take more measurements in the same batch.
ad. ‘Plot batch’ - Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
ae. ‘Plot options’ - Elcometer 331 Model TH only.
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BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
Pressing BATCH displays the Reading Review Screen.
REVIEW readings using the scroll keys to move around the contents
of a batch.
Press and hold the Shift softkey [
] and then press any of the
Scroll keys to jump quickly to the start or end of line of readings.
When you have finished reviewing, press [] to return to the reading
screen at the current memory location or press [menu/esc] to return to
the reading screen at the original memory location.
DELETE readings by pressing the Delete softkey [
confirm deletion or No to cancel.
Figure 23. Grid reading
review screen
(TH models only)
]. Press Yes to
When you have finished deleting, press [] to return to the reading
screen at the current memory location or press [menu/esc] to return to
the reading screen at the original memory location.
You can OVERWRITE any of the readings.
1. Use the scroll keys to move to the reading you want to overwrite.
2. Press [].
Figure 24. Linear batch
reading review screen
The display switches to the reading screen.
3. Take a new measurement and press [] to enter reading.
4. Press Yes to confirm overwrite or No to cancel.
SKIP OVER memory locations in a grid batch (TH models only) using the scroll keys to move
around the contents of the batch. This facility is useful when surveying in a grid around obstructions.
The memory locations in the vicinity of the obstructions can be skipped over and left blank. When
you are ready to return to the reading screen, press [].
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BATCHING/DATA LOGGING
14.17 How to enter information into batch header fields
You can enter information into the header fields when you first open (create) a new batch or clone
a batch and when editing batch tags.
There are two methods of entering information into the header fields of a batch;
•
•
use the keypad on the Covermeter, or
use a computer and then transfer the information to the Covermeter using CoverMaster®
software - see “CoverMaster software” on page 53.
Which method you use depends upon your circumstances. Typically, on a large measuring project,
the best method is to design batches on your computer and then transfer the information to the
Covermeter. The keypad can be used on site for minor changes and the addition of notes, etc.
during cloning or editing of a batch.
Entering information using the keypad
Text and numbers can be entered into header fields using the Covermeter keypad. The function of
the keys is shown below:
1. Scrolls up through
alphanumeric
characters.
2. Scrolls down through
alphanumeric
characters.
3. Moves cursor left. Hold
down to delete a
character.
4. Select character setaf
(abc, ABC, 123, #$!,
etc.)
5. Moves cursor right.
Hold down to insert a
character.
6. Enters text into header field. Press Yes to confirm or No to continue editing.
To delete an alphanumeric character, press and hold key 3.
To insert an alphanumeric character, press and hold key 5.
The screen displays the number of spare characters remaining in the field and the maximum total
number of characters allowed.
The text fields can be entered/displayed using up to 256 different character codes. These include
European accented characters and a few additional accented vowels used in the Chinese phonetic
Pinyin system. When the Japanese language is selected, the European characters codes are
substituted to represent the phonetic Katakana symbols which are shown at double-height.
af. The following symbols are not permitted in the Batch Name field because they are illegal in Windows
filenames: \/:*?\"<>|. They may be used in the other alphanumeric fields.
47
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A TYPICAL SURVEY (USING GRID BATCH MEMORY)
15 A TYPICAL SURVEY (USING GRID BATCH MEMORY)
This section leads you step-by-step through taking measurements, saving cover and half-cell
readings in batches and producing a report. The instructions are for a model TH; users of a model
SH will be limited to linear batches only.
1. Mark out your survey area (in this example a 14 x 14 grid).
2. Fit the search head to your Covermeter, switch on and set
Instrument Mode to Cover.
3. Create a new 14 x 14 grid batch for cover and name it
‘001’.
4. Measure the depth of cover over the entire survey area
and record the cover measurements in the batch created
at step 3 (press Enter [] to store a reading in the batch).
5. Fit the half-cell probe and cables and then set Instrument
Mode to Halfcell.
6. Create another 14 x 14 grid batch, this time for half-cell.
Give the batch the same name as the cover batch (in this
example, ‘001’).
7. Measure the half-cell potential over the entire survey area and record the measurements in the
batch created at step 6 (again, press Enter [] to store a reading in the batch).
You now have two batches in your Covermeter, each of the same name (‘001’) - one containing
cover measurements, the other containing half-cell potential measurements.
8. Connect your Covermeter to a PC and download the two batches using CoverMaster software
- see “Transferring readings to a computer” on page 52.
9. You can now produce a ‘Topographic combined’ or ‘Topographic overlay’ report which shows
cover and half-cell potential on one easy-to-read report.
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PLOTTING BATCHES
16 PLOTTING BATCHES
Note: The instructions given in this section (16) apply to Elcometer 331 Model TH only. Users of
Elcometer 331 Model SH can upgrade their instrument to model TH to gain this functionality contact Elcometer or your local supplier for details.
Your Covermeter can plot on its display a ‘map’ of the readings in a batch. Use this feature to locate
potential trouble spots quickly and easily.
The map can be plotted in pseudo greyscale or in black and white:
Greyscale: The lowest (worst) readings are displayed as dark regions on the map; the highest
readings as light regions. 16 levels of greyscale indicate readings between these extremes.
Black and white: A threshold value is set by the user. All readings below the threshold are
displayed as black; all readings above the threshold are displayed as white.
In both instances, blank and over-range readings are shown as white and under-range readings are
shown as black. To select greyscale or black and white, see “Plot options” on page 50.
16.1 Plot batch
MENU / DATA LOGGER / PLOT BATCH
Figure 25. Typical greyscale plot (of concrete cover)
1. Dark area ( ) - potential trouble spot
2. Light area ( )
3. Cursor position
4. Cursor scrollag left
5. Shift scrollah
6. Zoomai (0.5x, 1x, 2x, 4x magnification)
7. Cursor scroll right
8. Zoom level
9. Upper limit
10. Lower limit/Threshold
11. Units
12. Concrete cover/Voltage
13. Batch memory location
ag. To scroll up or down, use the up [] and down [] keys.
ah. Press with cursor scroll keys to jump to end or start of row/column
ai. When a batch is first plotted, the initial zoom is set automatically to the highest level that allows the whole
batch to be seen (or to x0.5 if the batch does not fit on the display at minimum zoom).
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PLOTTING BATCHES
Use the arrows to scroll the cursor around the plot; as the cursor moves the current memory location
and reading are shown at the top right of the display. Large batches will scroll when the cursor
reaches the edge of the display.
Use the Zoom softkey to zoom in to areas of interest.
Press [] at any time to view a key of the greyscale levels.
16.2 Plot options
Use this menu to select how readings will be displayed on
the plot.
MENU / DATA LOGGER / PLOT OPTIONS
Greyscale min/max
•
•
•
PLOT OPTIONS
GREYSCALE MIN/MAX
GREYSCALE LIMITS
THRESHOLD VIEW
SET THRESHOLD
Black is set to the minimum reading in the batch.
White is set to the maximum reading in the batch.
Readings between the minimum and maximum are indicated by decreasing levels of grey.
Greyscale limits
•
•
•
Black is set to the batch low limit.
White is set to the batch high limit.
Readings between the low and high limits are indicated by decreasing levels of grey.
(To set limits, see “Setting limits” on page 36.)
If limits have not been set, the minimum and maximum readings in the batch will be used and this
option will show the same plot as ‘Greyscale min/max’.
Threshold view
A threshold value is set by the user. All readings below the threshold are displayed as black; all
readings above the threshold are displayed as white.
Set threshold
Set threshold values for cover (in mm or inches) and for half-cell (in mV), as required.
The thresholds are applied to all batches and are independent of any other limits which may be set.
Figure 26. Typical threshold plot (of half-cell potential)
1. Light area (
) - readings are above threshold value
) - readings are below threshold value
2. Black area (
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MEASURING WELDED MESH AND JOINED BARS
17 MEASURING WELDED MESH AND JOINED BARS
The procedures for locating and measuring depth of cover of welded mesh and joined bars are
similar to those for reinforcement bars as described in sections 5, 6 and 9 (pages 18 to 24 and 27
to 30). This section highlights the additional factors which must be considered when measuring
welded mesh or joined bars.
When searching for isolated reinforcing bars, the Covermeter induces eddy currents within the
individual bars. Welded mesh reinforcements however create current loops which produce
additional strong signals.
When searching for welded mesh reinforcements, it is common to encounter three levels of signal:
Very strong signals
Very strong signals are obtained when the search head is across the centre bar of a double or
‘figure-of-eight’ loop. These locations must not be used for cover measurements.
Figure 27. Strong signals at centre of ‘figure-of-eight’
Minimum strength signals
Minimum signals are obtained when the search head is over the centre of a single loop.
Figure 28. Minimum strength signals at centre of single loop
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TRANSFERRING READINGS TO A COMPUTER
Ordinary strength signals
Ordinary strength signals are obtained when the head is accurately aligned with the middle of a
side. Only this type of signal is suitable for measuring depth of cover.
Figure 29. Ordinary strength signals from middle of one side of a loop
Note: The Orthogonal Sizing function (page 27) must not be attempted on welded mesh fabric - the
bars are too close together for reliable measurement.
18 TRANSFERRING READINGS TO A COMPUTER
You can transfer statistics and readings data from the memory of your Covermeter to a computer.
The data can then be used in reports, analysed to produce graphs, etc.
Connect your Covermeter to a computer, using the cable supplied - see “Connecting the data
transfer cable” on page 55.
There are two methods of transferring statistics and readings:
•
•
Print/output
CoverMaster® software (to store, analyse and report)
18.1 Print/output
Use the PRINT/OUTPUT function of the Covermeter to output data over the RS232 interface direct
to a printer or to communications software such as Hyperterminal.
Choose between outputting a single batch, all batches or just the current statistics.
MENU / PRINT/OUTPUT / SINGLE BATCH
MENU / PRINT/OUTPUT / ALL BATCHES
MENU / PRINT/OUTPUT / CURRENT STATISTICS
Note: Before you use PRINT/OUTPUT, you must first select the correct output baud rate and output
format.
MENU / SETUP / OUTPUT
Baud Rate. This can be set at values from 1200 to 19200. The default value is 9600 baud.
RS232 Bit Image. Toggle tick box to activate/deactivate. All images and characters are output as
bit-maps. This allows printing on the Elcometer Miniprinter (see “Accessories” on page 64).
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TRANSFERRING READINGS TO A COMPUTER
RS232 Plain Text. Toggle tick box to activate/deactivate. The Covermeter sends standard ASCII
characters from the Courier New font setaj. This allows printing on RS232 printers and data transfer
to a PC using software such as HyperTerminal.
18.2 CoverMaster software
CoverMaster® software supplied on the CD enclosed with the gauge is designed specifically for
your Covermeter. CoverMaster® is powerful but easy-to-use software which simplifies setting up
and using your Covermeter:
•
•
•
•
•
Design batch templates on your PC and download these to your Elcometer 331 Covermeter,
ready for use on site.
Download cover and half-cell readings data from your Covermeter to the CoverMaster® data
management system.
Keep your survey notes, inspection reports, photographs and all your other inspection
information in one place - CoverMaster®.
Create accurate and professional reports configured to allow your data to be understood easily
at all levels.
Create PDF versions of your reports and e-mail direct from CoverMaster®.
For complete instructions on how to install and use CoverMaster® software, please refer to the
separate instructions supplied with the software.
aj. When RS232 Plain Text is selected the following languages will be output as English: Chinese, Japanese.
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TRANSFERRING READINGS TO A COMPUTER
Batch templates
Batch readings
CoverMaster® interface showing reading data
(measurements)
CoverMaster® interface showing
topographical representation of the same
reading data
Figure 30. Use CoverMaster® to link your Covermeter to a computer
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SEARCH HEADS
Batch Name:
Comments:
Jnt 15 NE 1
Surface cracking apparent
Inspection Date:
Customer Name:
11/11/2004 11:10:27
Highways Department
Measured Cover in mm
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
1
0.20
2
0.40
3
0.60
4
0.80
5
Batch Name:
Comments:
6
Jnt 15 NE 1
Surface cracking apparent
Inspection Date: 1.0011/11/2004 11:10:27
Customer Name: Highways Department
1.20
7
Measured Cover in mm
1.40
8
1.60
105
9
100
1.80
95
10
4.80
4.60
4.40
4.20
4.00
3.80
3.60
3.40
3.20
3.00
2.00
2.80
80
2.60
85
2.40
2.20
2.00
1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
90
69
75
70
81
87
94
50
10
24
C
236
1
11/11/2004
11:10:27
11/11/2004
11:10:27
2
Grid
35
41
47
53
85 mm
3
mm
25 mm
4
200
mm
High Limit
10
1
Printed on 29/03/2005
Elcometer CoverMaster Software
www.elcometer.com
2
3
4
16
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
1
0.20
59
65
71
77
83
89
0.40
95
0.60
Low Limit
23
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
29
36
42
49
Mean Average:
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
Standard
Deviation:
30Max:
42 12 33 26 18 24 33 38
Min:
41Range:
42 33 19 18 16 26 24 37
Page 1
Readings Below Low Limit:
42 43 19 18 17 20 27 14 33
Readings Above High Limit:
43Percent
38 19 Below
16 15 Low
5 Limit:
15 13 19
Percent Above High Limit:
55
1.60
1.80
61
J
K
L
44
50
47
41
49
45
33
48
50
15
48
45
14
47
47
56
45
51
10
11
13
44
46
46
16
12
13
14
38
55
15
12
11
24
22
44
24
11
18
12
23
29
27
23
27
22
33
29
5
38
34
18
14
19
12
16
19
12
6
32
33
18
19
16
11
14
9
7
38
23
31
19
23
15
16
8
33
34
26
12
24
18
9
26
26
23
10
29
27
28
74
81
87
94
4.80
4.60
4.40
4.20
4.00
2.00
68
35 mm
M
N
O
14
mm
56
46 mm
47 48
5 mm
45 mm
45 49
51
68
52 50 52
0
28.81%
55 45 52
0.00%
3.80
10
24
236
11/11/2004 11:10:27
11/11/2004 11:10:27
Grid
85 mm
25 mm
200 mm
3.60
Page
E
35 mm
14 mm
56 mm
5 mm
51 mm
68
Rows:
0
Columns:
28.81%
Readings:
0.00% Date:
Creation
Update Date:
Batch Format:
High Limit:
Low Limit:
Grid Spacing:
0.20
Use the
Designer...
Mean Average:
Standard Deviation:
6
Max:
7
Min:
Range:
8
Site: Readings Below Low Limit:
M25 Expressway
Area: Readings Above High Limit:
NE Section91
Percent Below Low Limit: John Smith
Engineer:
10
Percent Above High
Limit: Department
Highways
Customer:
Surface cracking apparent
Note:
Exit 15
Location:
Metric
Bar Series:
5.5 mm
Bar Size:
D
3.40
29
B
3.20
23
5
CoverMaster®
11/11/2004 11:10:27
Highways Department
Measured Cover in mm
3.00
21
A
17
Inspection Date:
Customer Name:
34
31
23
22
Rows:
Columns:
Readings:
Creation
Date:
1
Update Date:
Batch Format:
-1
5
11
High
Limit:
Low Limit:
Grid Spacing:
2.80
30
Jnt 15 NE 1
Surface cracking apparent
36
40
35
2.60
45
M25 Expressway
25
NE Section 201
John Smith
15
Highways Department
10
Surface cracking apparent5
Exit 150
Metric
5.5 mm
106
Batch Name:
42
Comments:
55
Site:
Area:
Engineer:
Customer:
Note:
Location:
Bar Series:
Bar Size:
100
2.40
74
2.20
68
2.00
61
1.80
65
55
60
1.60
49
1.40
42
1.20
36
1.00
29
0.80
23
0.60
16
0.40
10
100
106
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
50
46
55
47
42
43
44
43
43
55
48
50
50
42
44
46
36
41
47
47
51
50
47
42
43
40
45
55
46
51
51
43
48
46
40
47
55
50
52
47
44
47
43
27
33
50
53
51
50
41
45
38
39
28
23
45
47
52
52
47
45
42
38
37
25
25
44
48
55
46
52
47
44
38
34
32
24
26
37
55
49
49
48
49
39
46
37
35
38
19
18
46
55
50
49
44
47
39
49
35
36
29
19
11
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
Site:
Area:
Engineer:
Customer:
Note:
Location:
Bar Series:
Bar Size:
M25 Expressway
NE Section 1
John Smith
Highways Department
Surface cracking apparent
Exit 15
Metric
5.5 mm
Rows:
Columns:
Readings:
Creation Date:
Update Date:
Batch Format:
High Limit:
Low Limit:
Grid Spacing:
10
24
236
11/11/2004 11:10:27
11/11/2004 11:10:27
Grid
85 mm
25 mm
200 mm
Printed on 29/03/2005
Elcometer CoverMaster Software
www.elcometer.com
Mean Average:
Standard Deviation:
Max:
Min:
Range:
Readings Below Low Limit:
Readings Above High Limit:
Percent Below Low Limit:
Percent Above High Limit:
4.60
4.40
4.20
4.00
3.80
3.60
3.40
3.20
Page 1
3.00
2.80
2.60
2.40
2.20
2.00
1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
2.00
0.20
...to create your own reports
Printed on 29/03/2005
Elcometer CoverMaster Software
www.elcometer.com
35 mm
14 mm
56 mm
5 mm
51 mm
68
0
28.81%
0.00%
Page 1
Figure 31. Produce professional reportsak direct from CoverMaster®
18.3 Connecting the data transfer cable
1. Plug the 9-pin female D-type connector on one end of the data transfer cable into the COM
port on the PC (an RS232 to USB transfer cable is available which allows you to connect your
Covermeter to a USB port on your computer - see “Accessories” on page 70 for ordering
details).
2. Plug the 5-pin connector on the other end of the data transfer cable into the RS232 connector
at the rear of the Covermeter located under the access cover - see “Computer interface” on
page 11.
3. Switch on the Covermeter and ensure that the Reading Screen is displayed.
19 SEARCH HEADS
Four types of search head are available for your Covermeter; Standard, Narrow Pitch, Deep Cover
and Borehole Probe. To order any of these search heads see “Accessories” on page 64.
ak. The illustrations in Figure 30 and Figure 31 show a grid batch. Grid batches are only available on Model ‘T’
Covermeters. Model ‘SH’ Covermeters can save up to 10 linear batches.
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SEARCH HEADS
All search heads are fully interchangeable. Changing from one type of search head to another is
quick and easy; simply switch off the Covermeter, swap search heads, switch on again and zero
the Covermeter.
Narrow Pitch
Standard
Deep Cover
Borehole Probe
Figure 32. Search head search fields
Use the Narrow Pitch search head when the reinforcement bars are close together, i.e. when the
pitch of the reinforcement bars is narrow.
Use the Deep Cover head to measure depth of cover over reinforcement bars deep within the
structure. Because the Deep Cover search head only resolves bars if they are adequately spaced
(centre-to-centre pitch more than about 1½ times their cover), for covers shallower than 70 mm, the
Standard search head should be used in preference.
Note: Orthogonal sizing is not possible when the Covermeter is set to detect stainless steel and the
SIZE function is therefore removed from the reading screen when this bar grade is selected.
Borehole Probe
The Borehole Probe is used to locate reinforcement bars, tendon ducts and other metallic objects
in the vicinity of holes drilled into concrete. The probe will also measure depth of cover over a limited
range, making it ideal when attempting to drill through a structure without making contact with
reinforcement bars or tendon ducts. The Borehole Probe is available in two lengths; 400 mm (16")
and 1000 mm (40").
The Borehole Probe has two search fields; forwards looking and sideways looking. Readings can
be taken looking forward from the end of the probe or looking sideways (at right angles to the axis
of the probe) - Figure 33. A switchal on the handle controls which search field is active.
al. Whenever the position of the switch is changed, the Covermeter must be zeroed.
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SEARCH HEADS
Figure 33. Borehole probe search fields
The body of the probe has a scale marked every 10 mm (0.5") along its length. Use this scale to
measure the depth of reinforcement bars located to one side of the hole. The scale indicates
distance from the centre of the sideways looking sensor in the probe. To measure the depth of the
borehole, add 15 mm (0.6") to the reading taken from the scale.
The sideways looking search field is located on the side of the Borehole Probe marked with the
scale.
Note: Orthogonal sizing is not possible with the Borehole Probe and the SIZE function is therefore
removed from the reading screen when this type of probe is connected to the Covermeter.
To scan for reinforcement bars to the side of the borehole: Set the switch to the sideways
looking position and move the Borehole Probe into the drilled hole, slowly rotating the probe through
360° (Figure 34 overleaf).
To scan for reinforcement bars or ducts in line with (in front of) the end of the borehole: Set
the switch to the forward looking position and push the Borehole Probe into the drilled hole slowly.
Figure 34. Scanning a borehole
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SEARCH HEADS
19.1 Search head extension arm
This optional accessory allows the operator simple access to areas
normally requiring ladders or scaffolding. The search head extension arm
reduces the need to kneel down and allows the user to scan bridge decks
and floor areas from a standing postion.
The extension arm is only suitable for use with the standard and narrow
pitch search heads. See “Accessories” on page 64 for ordering
information.
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HALF-CELL PROBES
20 HALF-CELL PROBES
Two types of half-cell probe are available for your Covermeter. The probes can be easily identified
by colour:
•
•
Copper-Copper Sulphate (Cu-CuSO4): Yellow
Silver-Silver Chloride (Ag-AgCl):
Blue
20.1 Wetting your probe
For your probe to function properly the ceramic sensing end (the electrode) must be wet. To get a
good wet electrode, just place the electrode in tap water for two to three minutes; this will usually
be sufficient to keep the sensor going all day. Keeping the plastic end cap on the sensor when it is
not being used will also help to keep the electrode wet. During periods of extended storage, place
a small amount of water in the end cap before pushing the cap onto the probe.
20.2 Care of your probe and cables
The probes do not require any maintenance; they do not need recharging and are sealed for life.
Any mud or grit should be removed from the electrode by swirling the electrode back and forth in a
container of warm, soapy water and then brushing with a wet rag. The soapy water will not harm or
contaminate the electrode.
Always check that the connecting cables are free of damage such as cuts and tears in the sheathing
before use.
The Copper-Copper Sulphate half-cell probe is intentionally
filled with a reserve of saturated Cupric Sulfate solution
combined with solid Cupric Sulfate crystals to ensure a
minimum 10-year design life.
Under certain circumstances a very small percentage of this
reserve can leach out from the ceramic sensing tip of the
half-cell producing crystals as shown in the photograph.
This does not affect the performance of the cell. The crystals
should be removed by washing in distilled water.
20.3 Temperature
Do not allow the probe to freeze. Although freezing will not damage your probe, it will be impossible
to obtain reliable measurements while in this state. All measurements are affected by temperature;
if you take two readings in identical conditions, one in the summer at 29°C (85°F) and the other in
the winter at 1°C (34°F), the half-cell potential readings will be different.
Each probe is tested at 25°C to be within ±10 mV of a standard Calomel reference cell. The
following values relative to a standard Calomel cell are used as the test limits during manufacture:
Reference value for Calomel
Upper limit
Copper-Copper Sulphate (Cu-CuSO4) +50 mV
Lower limit
+60 mV
+70 mV
Silver-Silver Chloride (Ag-AgCl)
-40 mV
-30 mV
-50 mV
20.4 Shelf life
Your probe does not degrade when stored.
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ERROR MESSAGES
21 ERROR MESSAGES
Under certain conditions the Covermeter will display error messages (Figure 35). These messages
are normally cleared by pressing any one of the softkeys. The cause of the error will be indicated
by the message and should be corrected before proceeding.
Table 3: Error messages
Error message
Causes
Action to take
#1 - PROBE
Search head-to-gauge
communication failure.
Remove search head and refit.
If error persists, return to Elcometer*.
#2 - PROBE
Corrupt data output from
probe.
Try new search head.
If error persists, return to Elcometer*.
#3 - PROBE
Internal error.
Return to Elcometer*.
#4 - PROBE
Search head power supply
fault.
Remove probe. If error persists, the
Covermeter is faulty. If error clears, the
probe is faulty.
Return faulty part to Elcometer*.
#5 - PROBE
Internal error.
Remove search head and refit.
If error persists, return to Elcometer*.
PROBE
UNSUPPORTED
Old Covermeter software does Return to Elcometer* for software
not support new search head. upgrade.
Probe has been changed and
PROBE CHANGED is not compatible with current
batch.
Change to probe used when batch was
created.
VALUE TOO
LARGE
Numerical error.
Switch Covermeter off then on again.
If error persists contact Elcometer.
CLOCK
Internal error.
Return to Elcometer*.
LANGUAGE
MEMORY
Software error.
Return to Elcometer*.
* Contact Elcometer or your Elcometer Supplier to arrange return.
Figure 35. Example error message - search head not connected
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PERSONALISED WELCOME SCREEN
22 PERSONALISED WELCOME SCREEN
A personalised welcome screen can be designed on a computer and then downloaded into the
Covermeter.
Screen dimensions are 128 pixels x 64 pixels. The welcome screen is typically used to personalise
the Covermeter with a logo, serial number, user name, etc. This is the first screen displayed when
the Covermeter is switched on.
22.1 Creating the screen
1. Download Elcometer ‘Welcome Screen Wizard’ software. This software is available free of
charge from the downloads section of the Elcometer website, www.elcometer.com
2. Connect Covermeter to PC using Data Transfer Cable.
3. Switch on the Covermeter.
4. Ensure that the reading screen is displayed.
5. Run ‘Welcome Screen Wizard’ software and follow the on-screen instructions.
22.2 Deleting the screen
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Run the ‘Welcome Screen Wizard’ software.
Click ‘Next’.
Select ‘Create a new screen setup’.
Click ‘Next’.
Select ‘Disabled’.
Click ‘Next’.
Follow the remaining on-screen instructions to delete the welcome screen.
23 STORAGE
This Covermeter incorporates a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). If the display is heated
above 50°C (120°F) it may be damaged. This can happen if the Covermeter is left in a
car parked in strong sunlight.
Always store the Covermeter in its case when it is not being used.
24 MAINTENANCE
You own one of the finest covermeters in the world. If looked after, it will last a lifetime.
Regular calibration checks over the life of the Covermeter are a requirement of quality management
procedures, e.g. ISO 9000, and other similar standards. For checks and certification contact
Elcometer or your Elcometer supplier.
The Covermeter does not contain any user-serviceable components. In the unlikely event of a fault,
the Covermeter should be returned to your Elcometer supplier or directly to Elcometer. The
warranty will be invalidated if the gauge has been opened.
Contact details can be found:
•
•
•
Stored in the Covermeter (MENU / ABOUT / CONTACT).
On the outside cover of these operating instructions.
At www.elcometer.com
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UPGRADING YOUR COVERMETER
25 UPGRADING YOUR COVERMETER
Users of the Elcometer 331 model SH can upgrade their instrument to a model TH.
Upgrading your Covermeter will provide you with the following additional features:
•
•
•
•
Memory of over 240 000 readings in multiple linear and grid batches
Grid batches as well as linear batches
Date and time stamping of measurements
Plot on the display of the Covermeter a ‘map’ of the readings in a batch for quick and easy
identification of potential trouble spots in a survey
Upgrading of your Covermeter must be carried out by Elcometer or your local Elcometer supplier.
For more information or to arrange to have your Covermeter upgraded, contact Elcometer, your
Elcometer supplier or visit www.elcometer.com
26 TECHNICAL DATA
26.1 Performanceam
Standard search head
Range:
40 mm (1.6") bar:
8 mm (0.3") bar:
17 mm to 100 mm (0.65" to 4")
9 mm to 75 mm (0.35" to 3")
Accuracy:
up to 65 mm (2.6") depth:
over 70 mm (2.8") depth:
±2 mm (0.1")
±3%
Pitch resolution:
16 mm (#5) diameter bar at 50 mm (2") depth of cover;
pitch ≥ 75 mm (3")
Narrow Pitch search head
Range:
40 mm (1.6") bar:
8 mm (0.3") bar:
9 mm to 75 mm (0.35" to 3")
5 mm to 55 mm (0.2" to 2.2")
Accuracy:
up to 45 mm (1.75") depth:
over 50 mm (2") depth:
±1 mm (0.05")
±2 mm (0.1")
Pitch resolution:
10 mm (#3) diameter bar at 30 mm (1.2") depth of cover;
pitch ≥ 55 mm (2.15")
Deep cover search head
Range:
40 mm (1.6") bar:
8 mm (0.3") bar:
50 mm to 200 mm (2" to 8")
25 mm to 150 mm (1" to 6")
Accuracyan:
up to 65 mm (2.6") depth:
over 70 mm (2.8") depth:
±2 mm (0.1")
±3%
Pitch resolution:
16 mm (#5) diameter bar at 100 mm (4") depth of cover;
pitch ≥ 125 mm (5")
am. All performance figures have been obtained when using Elcometer reference rebars of standard diameter at
room temperature.
an. Accuracy figures for the deep cover search head are obtained once the operating temperature has
stabilised (after 10 minutes continuous use of the search head).
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RELATED EQUIPMENT
Half-cell mode
Range:
-999 mV to +999 mV
Accuracy:
±5 mV
Half-cell probes
Stability:
10 mV with 3 µA load
26.2 Physical
Weight (including Deep head search head):
1.6 kg (3.5 lb)
Dimensions (including search head and lead):
230 mm x 130 mm x 125 mm
(9" x 5.1" x 4.9")
Operating temperatureao:
0°C to 50°C
(32°F to 120°F)
Case:
High impact ABS
26.3 Power supply
Internal rechargeable Lithium Ion batteryap.
Fuse rating of charger: 3 A
Battery life: Up to 32 hours continuous use without backlight. Up to 20 hours with backlight.
27 RELATED EQUIPMENT
Elcometer produces a wide range of concrete and coatings inspection equipment. Users of the
Elcometer 331 Concrete Covermeter may also benefit from the following Elcometer products:
•
•
•
•
Elcometer Adhesion and Bond Strength Testers
Elcometer Concrete Crack Microscopes
Elcometer Concrete Moisture Meters
Elcometer Concrete Test Hammers
For further information contact Elcometer, your Elcometer supplier or visit www.elcometer.com
ao. Operation outside these limits depends upon climatic conditions.
ap. Battery packs must be disposed of carefully to avoid environmental contamination. Please consult your local
environmental authority for information on disposal in your region. Do not dispose of the battery pack in a
fire.
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ACCESSORIES
28 ACCESSORIES
Your Covermeter is complete with all the items required to get started.
The following optional accessories are available from Elcometer, or your Elcometer supplier. To
place an order please quote the sales part number which follows the description of each accessory.
Rechargeable battery pack:
TW33119038
Search head - Standard:
TW33119124-1A
Search head - Narrow Pitch:
TW33119124-2A
Search head - Deep Cover:
TW33119171A
Search head - borehole probe, 400 mm (metric):
TW33119223-1A
Search head - borehole probe, 1000 mm (metric):
TW33119223-2A
Search head - borehole probe, 16" (imperial):
TW33119223-3A
Search head - borehole probe, 40" (imperial):
TW33119223-4A
Search head extension arm (for narrow pitch and standard search heads): TW33119222
Search head connecting cable (for extension arm):
TW33119201
Search head connecting cable (curly)
TW33119199
Earphone:
TW99912220
Calibration check block:
Data transfer cable
aq
(Covermeter to PC):
TW33119218
T99916217
RS232 to USB transfer cable:
T99916716
CoverMaster® Software
TW33119221
Elcometer 331 Model SH to TH upgrade
TW33119684
Half-cell probe kit, Copper-Copper Sulphate (Cu-CuSO4):
(probe, 2 x connecting cables, 1 x 25 m cable reel, carry case)
TW331CUKIT
Half-cell probe kit, Silver-Silver Chloride (Ag-AgCl):
(probe, 2 x connecting cables, 1 x 25 m cable reel, carry case)
TW331AGKIT
Half-cell probe cable reel, extendable to 100 m, with carry handle:
TW33119683
Calibration certificate
Certificates traceable to National Standards including UKAS and NIST are available on request.
Calibration Certificates are issued for a specific gauge/search head combination and are not
interchangeable. Calibration Certificates must be requested at the time of order, or alternatively, the
gauge and search head must be returned to Elcometer for certification.
Calibration Certificates cannot be issued retrospectively.
aq. A 9-pin to 25-pin adapter may be required for certain PC RS232 ports.
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INDEX
29 INDEX
A
Accessories
Accuracy
Bar size
Head-positioning
Neighbouring bars
Reducing errors
Welded mesh
Depth of cover
ASTM/Canadian bar size
AutoSize
B
Backlight
Bar size
Manual selection of
Measurement of
BATCH
Batch
Cloning
Copying
Deleting all
Deleting one
Opening existing
Opening new
Recalculation
Batches
For Cover and Half-cell
Grid
Linear
What they contain
Batching
Exiting
Batteries
Charging
Life of
Battery condition indicator
Battery pack
Baud rate
Beeping
Borehole Probe
C
Calibration
Calibration certificates
Charger
Charging the batteries
64
29
29
29
30
29
24
25
26
11
25
27
45
44
44
45
45
43
43
44
40
41
40
40
41
40
43
4
63
5
4
52
23, 32
56
61
64
4
4
Cloning a batch
Computer
Connection cable
Computer, transferring data to
Copying a batch
Cover
CoverMaster software
D
Data logging
Data transfer cable
Deep Cover search head
Delete batch
Deleting all batches
Depth of cover
Detection mode
Dimensions
44
64
52
44
22
53
40
55, 64
56
45
45
22
33
63
E
Earphone
Earphones
Elcometer 331
Features
Overview
Enter key
What it does
Entering information
Error messages
Exit batching
22
47
60
43
F
Features
Fitting a search head
Free memory
2
6
45
G
Grey Scale Levels
Grid batches
49
40
H
Half-cell
Reading screen
Taking a measurement
Half-cell probes
Care of
Fitting to gauge
Spares
10
31
59
59
7
64
12
12
2
1
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R
INDEX
Specifications
Storage and Shelf life
Wetting
Header fields
Entering information
63
59
59
47
I
Imperial bar size
Interface
Access cover
RS232
25
11
4
11
J
Japanese bar size
Joined bars
25
51
K
Keypad
Main unit
Search head
8
8
L
Language, selecting
LCD contrast
LED
Illuminated
Intensity varying
Limits
Batch icons
Linear batches
Liquid Crystal Display
Locate mode
Locating
Single layer of bars
Two layers of bars
M
Maintenance
Mapping
Maximum/Minimum limits
Maxpip™ mode
Memory
Capacity
Free
Memory location
Advancing
Menu items
ABOUT
ALL BATCHES
66
11
10
19
33
36
36
40
61
34
18
18
19
61
21
36
35
40
45
23, 32
15
52
AUTO SWITCH OFF
BACKLIGHT
BAR
BATCH
BAUD RATE
BEEP VOLUME
CLEAR STATS
CLOCK
CLONE BATCH
CONTACT
COVER
CURRENT STATISTICS
DATA LOGGER
DELETE ALL BATCHES
DELETE BATCH
DISPLAY
ENLARGE STATS
EXIT BATCHING
FREE MEMORY
HALFCELL
HELP
HIGH LIMIT
INSTRUMENT MODE
LCD CONTRAST
LIMITS
LOW LIMIT
MENU
OPEN EXISTING BATCH
OPEN NEW BATCH
OUTPUT
PLOT BATCH
PLOT OPTIONS
PRINT/OUTPUT
RESET
REVIEW BATCH
RS232 BIT IMAGE
RS232 PLAIN TEXT
SELECT STATS
SERIES
SET DATE FORMAT
SET THRESHOLD
SETUP
SHOW AUTOSIZE INFO
SHOW TIME
SINGLE BATCH
SIZE
SOUND MODE
STATISTICS
STATS ON LCD
9
11
25
45
17, 52
34
38
16
44
61
14
52
14, 43
45
45
17
38
43
45
14
10
17
14
10
16, 36
17, 35
13
43
43
16, 52
49
15, 50
14, 52
15
38, 44
52
53
16, 39
25
17
17
15
26
11, 39
52
27
16, 34
14, 38
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INDEX
UNITS
ZERO
Menus
Metric bar size
Muting the sound
16
12
13
25
34
N
Narrow Pitch search head
56
O
On/off
Open existing batch
Open new batch
Opening screen
Creating
Orientation
Orthogonal sizing
Over-range
9
43
43
61
20
27
24
P
PC
Data transfer cable
Plotting batches
Greyscale
Threshold
Power on/off
Power supply
Q
Quick-start
R
Reports
S
Saving your readings in memory
Screen
Welcome information
Screen symbols
Battery condition
Search head
Borehole Probe
Deep Cover
Specifications
Extension arm
Fitting
Narrow Pitch
Specifications
Notches in sides of
64
49
50
50
9
4, 63
3
53
43
9
10
5
56
56
62
58
6
56
62
28
Overview
Standard
Specifications
Storage clip
Sensitivity
Size
Measurement
Borehole Probe
Measuring
Automatic
Orthogonal
Welded mesh
Size (orthogonal)
Failure of
Software
CoverMaster
Sound
Muting
Sound mode
Standards
Statistics
Choice of
Clearing
Increasing size on display
Overview
Values calculated
Storage
Surface mapping
Surveying large areas of concrete
Switching on/off
T
Time and date
Transferring data to computer
U
Under Cover mode
Limitations
Upgrading
55
62
6
34
56, 57
26
27
52
29
53
23, 32
34
33
3
39
38
38
37
37
61
21
40
9
11
52, 53
35
35
62
W
Weight
Welcome screen
Creating
Welded mesh
Orthogonal sizing
61
51
29
Z
Zeroing the Covermeter
12
63
67
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R
INDEX
Zoom
68
49