BT-CMTS-3000 - Blonder Tongue Laboratories

Stock No.
2347
USER MANUAL
Cable Modem Termination System
BT-CMTS-3000
DOCSIS 3.0/2.0
Status
Date
Document No.
Issue No.
Author
Active
December 08, 2017
651241700B
2
JC
Obsolete
October 27, 2015
651241700A
1
WD
800-523-6049
www.blondertongue.com
Blonder Tongue is ISO 9001:2015 Certified
© 2017 Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. Specifications are subject to change without notice. Trademarks are the property of their respective owner.
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
We recommend that you write the following information in the spaces provided below.
Purchase Location Name:
Purchase Location Telephone Number:
BT-CMTS-3000 Serial Number:
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Revisions may be
issued to advise of such changes and/or additions.
Correspondence regarding this publication should be addressed directly to:
Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.
One Jake Brown Road
Old Bridge, NJ 08857
Document Number: 651241700B
Printed in the United States of America.
All product names, trade names, or corporate names mentioned in this document are
acknowledged to be the proprietary property of the registered owners.
This product incorporates copyright protection technology that is protected by U.S. patents and other
intellectual property rights. Reverse engineering or disassembly is prohibited.
Returning Product for Repair (or Credit)
A Return Material Authorization (RMA) Number is required on all products returned to Blonder Tongue, regardless if the
product is being returned for repair or credit. Before returning product, please contact the Blonder Tongue Service Department
at 1-800-523-6049, Ext. 4256 or visit our website: www.blondertongue.com for further information.
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
Product Summary
Revision History & Firmware Version
Some features described within this user manual require the latest firmware to be installed. See section 3.7 for more
information on how to upgrade the CMTS. This issue of the manual is based off of the following version information:
Firmware Version: 2.3.0.26
Cross-Reference & Hyperlinking Usage
This guide makes use of hyperlinks both in the Table of Contents as well as some cross-reference linking
between the sections. This has been done to assist the reader in finding the information they are seeking in
a much quicker way. In addition to hyperlinking, the Table of Contents also makes use of the bookmarking
feature present in the Adobe Reader application.
Product Application & Description
Application:
The BT-CMTS-3000 is a Cable Modem Termination System targeted for small- to medium-size deployments to
provide two-way data services on a coaxial network. The system is designed to support DOCSIS/EuroDOCIS cable
modems in amounts up to 200 for version 3.0 or 500 for version 2.0.
Features:
• DOCSIS/EuroDOCSIS 3.0 / 2.0 compatible
• High Bandwidth
• 16 downstream channels, up to QAM 256
• 4 upstream channels, up to QAM 64
• 500 Cable Modem access capacity (DOCSIS 2.0)
• 200 Cable Modem access capacity (DOCSIS 3.0)
• 1RU 19 inch chassis with dual redundant universal power supplies - hot-swappable
• End-to-end Quality of Service (QoS)
• Support Real-time CPE Info
• Load Balancing Function
• Dynamic balancing, restricted load balancing group
• Support load balancing strategy
• Subnet VLAN & L2VPN
• System Log
• Spectrum Monitoring
• Automatic Frequency Hopping
• Internal DHCP server
• Dual-Stacked IPv4/IPv6 capability
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
General & Safety Instructions
The STOP sign symbol is intended to alert you to the
presence of REQUIRED operating and maintenance
(servicing) instructions that if not followed, may result in
product failure or destruction.
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE COVER
FROM THIS UNIT.
NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED
SERVICE PERSONNEL.
The YIELD sign symbol is intended to alert you to the
presence of RECOMMENDED operating and maintenance
(servicing) instructions.
WARNING: TO PREVENT FIRE OR SHOCK HAZARD, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS
UNIT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE
The LIGHTNING flash symbol is intended to alert you
to the presence of uninsulated "dangerous voltage"
within the product's enclosure that may be of sufficient
magnitude to constitute a risk of electrical shock.
This reminder is provided to call the CATV System Installer’s attention to
Article 820-40 of the NEC that provides guidelines for proper grounding
and, in particular, specifies that the cable ground shall be connected to the
grounding system of the building, as close to the point of cable entry as
practical.
NOTE TO CATV SYSTEM INSTALLER
YOU SHOULD ALWAYS FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS TO HELP ENSURE AGAINST INJURY TO YOURSELF AND DAMAGE TO YOUR EQUIPMENT.
åå Elevated Operating Ambient - If installed in a closed or multi-unit rack assembly,
the operating ambient temperature of the rack environment may be greater
than room ambient. Therefore, consideration should be given to installing the
equipment in an environment compatible with the maximum ambient temperature per Section 2.3.
åå Reduced Air Flow - Installation of the equipment in a rack should be such that
the amount of air flow required for safe operation of the equipment is not
compromised.
åå Mechanical Loading - Mounting of the equipment in the rack should be such
that a hazardous condition is not achieved due to uneven mechanical loading.
åå Circuit Overloading - Consideration should be given to the connection of
the equipment to the supply circuit and the effect that overloading of the
circuits might have on overcurrent protection and supply wiring. Appropriate
consideration of equipment nameplate ratings should be used when addressing
this concern.
åå Reliable Earthing - Reliable earthing of rack-mounted equipment should be
maintained. Particular attention should be given to supply connections other
than direct connections to the branch circuit (e.g. use of power strips).
åå Read all safety and operating instructions before you operate the unit.
åå Retain all safety and operating instructions for future reference.
åå Heed all warnings on the unit and in the safety and operating instructions.
åå Follow all installation, operating, and use instructions.
åå Unplug the unit from the AC power outlet before cleaning. Use only a damp
cloth for cleaning the exterior of the unit.
åå Do not use accessories or attachments not recommended by Blonder Tongue,
as they may cause hazards, and will void the warranty.
åå Do not operate the unit in high-humidity areas, or expose it to water or
moisture.
åå Do not place the unit on an unstable cart, stand, tripod, bracket, or table. The
unit may fall, causing serious personal injury and damage to the unit. Install the
unit only in a mounting rack designed for 19” rack-mounted equipment.
åå Do not block or cover slots and openings in the unit. These are provided for
ventilation and protection from overheating. Never place the unit near or over
a radiator or heat register. Do not place the unit in an enclosure such as a cabinet
without proper ventilation. Do not mount equipment in the rack space directly
above or below the unit.
åå Operate the unit using only the type of power source indicated on the marking
label. Unplug the unit power cord by gripping the plug, not the cord.
åå The unit is equipped with a three-wire ground-type plug. This plug will fit only
into a ground-type power outlet. If you are unable to insert the plug into the
outlet, contact an electrician to replace the outlet. Do not defeat the safety
purpose of the ground-type plug.
åå Route power supply cords so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched
by items placed upon or against them. Pay particular attention to cords at plugs,
convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the unit.
åå B
e sure that the outdoor components of the antenna system are grounded in
accordance with local, federal, and National Electrical Code (NEC) requirements.
Pay special attention to NEC Sections 810 and 820. See the example shown in
the following diagram:
åå We strongly recommend using an outlet that contains surge suppression or
ground fault protection. For added protection during a lightning storm, or when
the unit is left unattended and unused for long periods of time, unplug it from
the wall outlet and disconnect the lines between the unit and the antenna. This
will prevent damage caused by lightning or power line surges.
åå Do not locate the antenna near overhead power lines or other electric light
or power circuits, or where it can fall into such power lines or circuits. When
installing the antenna, take extreme care to avoid touching such power lines or
circuits, as contact with them can be fatal.
åå Do not overload wall outlets or extension cords, as this can result in a risk of fire
or electrical shock.
åå Never insert objects of any kind into the unit through openings, as the objects
may touch dangerous voltage points or short out parts. This could cause fire or
electrical shock.
åå Do not attempt to service the unit yourself, as opening or removing covers may
expose you to dangerous voltage and will void the warranty. Refer all servicing
to authorized service personnel.
åå Unplug the unit from the wall outlet and refer servicing to authorized service
personnel whenever the following occurs:
o The power supply cord or plug is damaged;
o Liquid has been spilled, or objects have fallen into the unit;
o The unit has been exposed to rain or water;
o The unit has been dropped or the chassis has been damaged;
o The unit exhibits a distinct change in performance.
åå When replacement parts are required, ensure that the service technician uses
replacement parts specified by Blonder Tongue. Unauthorized substitutions
may damage the unit or cause electrical shock or fire, and will void the warranty.
åå Upon completion of any service or repair to the unit, ask the service technician
to perform safety checks to ensure that the unit is in proper operating condition.
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
Table of Contents
1
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 9
2
Login.............................................................................................................................. 10
3
Basic Information Section .............................................................................................. 11
4
Network Management................................................................................................... 16
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5
RF information ............................................................................................................... 32
6
EQAM Management ...................................................................................................... 41
7
Terminal Device Management........................................................................................ 46
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Device Monitoring ......................................................................................................... 54
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Log Management ........................................................................................................... 56
10
System Management .................................................................................................. 58
11
Appendix A ................................................................................................................. 62
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BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
1. Introduction
BT-CMTS-3000 Network Management Software
This manual provides guidance on managing the Blonder Tongue BT-CMTS-3000 Cable Modem Termination System
(CMTS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) with a standard web browser on a personal computer. With this GUI you
can query the health and status of the BT-CMTS-3000, set device parameters and greatly improve management and
control of the system. The BT-CMTS-3000 NMS includes the following key modules:
Basic Information
Review the operational status of the BT-CMTS-3000, hardware version, current software
version, and uptime information. You can configure the basic chassis information, SNMP
parameters, and manage DOCSIS files that would be served to cable modems when the local
DHCP service is enabled.
Network Management Information
This area displays the networking parameters of the system, you can view configure and
manage the network interface, the VLAN’s used by the CMTS, IP subnet assignment and DHCP
Relay behavior.
There are also advanced networking features for managing IP traffic with firewall rules, access
control lists, static routes and IP multicast properties.
RF Information
This area contains the tools to view and configure the upstream and downstream channel
parameters including frequencies, US channel width and receive levels. You view the signal
quality (SNR) of the each active channel.
EQAM Management
This section manages QAM channels used to deliver digital video. This is not used for DOCSIS
channel configuration, but for digital video intended to be received by a QAM Tuner in a Set
Top Box or QAM capable television. You can manage many parameters of program streams
from here.
Terminal Device Management
Much of what you want to know about your DOCSIS cable modems and CPE devices is found
here. View CM/CPE lists; review data collected by the RemoteQuery command, and manage
load balancing behavior of the BT-CMTS-3000. Advanced DOCSIS 3.0 configuration is possible
for unique situations where the RF environment is challenged by external conditions.
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Device Monitoring
Here you can display channel utilization, upstream signal quality and errors, uplink traffic
statistics, and spectral noise of the upstream channels. You can also see the operating
characteristics of the RF chipsets.
Log Management
This is used to configure the log levels and frequency of log posting of device errors into the
system logs. You can also enable/disable remote logging to a remote syslog server and
configure a remote SNMP Trap server that will collect SNMP trap data.
2 Login
Web User Interface
The BT-CMTS-3000 Web interface has been tested with Microsoft Internet
Explorer 8 (IE8) or later. Using the default management IP address, enter
the device IP address of http://192.168.168.100 in the address bar of your
browser, and the login screen will appear.
Use the default username and password of admin / admin, and then click
the Login button to continue to the application dashboard page.
NOTE: Please consider modifying the default password after your first login
to ensure the security of the device. Password modification is achieved
through the System Management tab.
The Web Management System dashboard consists of three parts:
• A menu bar along the top of the page providing shortcuts for saving your configuration, rebooting and logging
out of the application
• A Navigation bar on the left to reach the service and device management tools
• A Viewport window to display the information for the navigation option you select.
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From the dashboard navigation menu there are links to the following service management tools:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Basic Information on the BT-CMTS-3000 system operating state
Network configuration for DOCSIS services
RF information and configuration for DOCSIS and digital video services
EQAM configuration for digital video services
Terminal device management (cable modem & CPE)
Logging configuration for local and remote data collection
System and User management
REMEMBER! After making any configuration changes, you must also click the Floppy Disk
icon in the upper right of the WEB application screen to save the running configuration of the
CMTS to the startup configuration in non-volatile memory or all your changes may be lost!
3 Basic Information Section
The Dashboard presents the Device Snapshot (or Device Snap) screen showing the basic system information when it first
launches. Device Snap is the first option under the Basic Information navigation menu so if you navigate away from this view
you can return by clicking on the Device Snap option under the Basic Information navigation menu heading. We will go over
the viewport display and then review the options for changing the Basic Information configuration.
Basic Information
CMTS basic information reveals information about the BT-CMTS-3000 that is configurable by a systems administrator
including the device name, device
location, and contact information.
You are also shown the software
and hardware version, memory
capacity and flash memory
capacity. The Reboot Counter and
Last Time reboot value shows
whether the BT-CMTS-3000 has
been rebooted for any reason and
when it occurred.
Performance Monitoring
Performance monitoring displays CPU utilization, memory utilization and Flash utilization of the BT-CMTS-3000.
Position the mouse over the performance monitoring interface to display the current utilization, total size and current
value in text form.
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Online Time
This function displays the online time of the device.
Running State
The Running State panel displays network
traffic information for the uplink port, the
DOCSIS downstream and upstream device
traffic and the EQAM traffic for digital video
streams, and is updated every 60 seconds.
The Uplink Port displays an icon showing the
uplink physical media type, the link speed and the communication mode of the uplink interface. The media type icon
shown is one of options shown in the Media Type legend.
The Speed & Duplex for the Uplink port is auto detected and valid configurations are:
•
•
•
•
100Mbps full duplex
100Mbps half-duplex
1Gbps full duplex
1Gbps half-duplex
EQAM Traffic represents the overall input program stream traffic for the IP Multicast you are joining for the Edge
QAM digital video program content.
Client Type Statistics
This panel displays the number of DOCSIS and CPE devices connected to the CMTS, including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Total number of cable modems seen (cm count)
Number of offline cable modems (offline cm)
Total number of CPE hosts (host count)
Total number of Set Top Boxes seen (stb count)
Number of registered cable modems (online cm)
Number of cable modems attempting to register (on-lining cm)
Total number of eMTA voice adapters registered (mta count)
Number of expanded devices (ex-device count)
You can review more detailed information from the Terminal Device Management section discussed later in this
document.
Management Tools
The Management Tools section reveals shortcuts to perform
software upgrades, import and export configurations, restoring
to the factory configuration, rebooting the BT-CMTS-3000 and
resetting the BT-CMTS-3000 reboot counter.
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Upgrade
Software upgrading requires the CMTS be in the online state, i.e., connected to the upstream network, otherwise the
upgrade will be unsuccessful. View the RF Status shown in the Device Snap view to ensure the CMTS is online.
Follow these steps to perform a BT-CMTS-3000 software upgrade:
•
•
•
•
Visit the blonder tongue website at https://bt1.blondertongue.com/?u=ukCr&p=Hwux
Locate the BT-CMTS-3000 folder in the list.
Click on the checkbox to the left of the name.
From the menu bar click on the click on the Download option and save to file to your local system.
After the download is complete:
• Browse to the CMTS, and click on the Basic Information tab in the leftside menu.
• Scroll down to the bottom of the display to the Management Tools area
and click the upgrade button.
• Browse to the location of the CMTS binary file you downloaded, select
the file and click Upgrade.
• The system will install the new firmware and display progress in the
Upgrade window.
Once successful, the system will inform you that a reboot is needed, and ask
you to confirm that you want to reboot the system. Confirming will reboot
the CMTS, and your web interface will have to be refreshed after a few
minutes.
Login to the CMTS and confirm that it is running on the new version by
checking the Software Version displayed in the Device Snapshot.
Reboot
Clicking this button will reboot the BT-CMTS-3000. You will have an opportunity to
confirm this and cancel if you do not want to reboot the CMTS.
Restore
If you need to return the BT-CMTS-3000 to a factory default condition, use the Restore button to begin the process.
It will clear all your configuration parameters and return the device to a default factory configuration. If you have
performed a firmware update the system will retain its firmware version.
Clear Reboot Counter
The Basic Information panel of the Device Snap window displays the current reboot counter value. Click “Clear
Reboot Counter” to reset the reboot count to zero. You should do this after any maintenance window so that any
incrementing of the reboot counter is an accurate representation that a reboot occurred since the last maintenance
action.
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Download Config
Clicking on this button initiates a download of the current configuration to a
compressed file to your browsers download folder. The file is stored as
startup.tar.gz which is a compressed archive file. This file that cannot be
opened directly with a text editor, you will need WinZip or 7-Zip to open the
archive and view the files. The file called “config” is the exported information.
An example of the exported file can be viewed in Appendix A.
Load Config
This button starts the import process of a local configuration file on your computer to the BT-CMTS-3000 CMTS. The
file you import must be in the text format similar to the one from an export operation.
Basic Information Configuration
Under the expanded view for Basic Information there are a few tools for making changes to these items; Base Config,
SNMP Config, Zero Config and File Management.
Base Configuration
The Base Configuration is used to modify and configure the BTCMTS-3000 system name, system location, system contact, system
time, time zone and your NTP server. These are all SNMP agents
that are available in an SNMP query, as well as being displayed in
this application.
Once you have made a change in the text boxes, click Submit to
have your changes take effect. A response prompt indicates success
or failure of the change. Click Clear to discard your changes which
hasn’t been submitted. Click Refresh to obtain the configuration information from the device again.
While manual modification of device time is supported, using an NTP server will keep the system time accurate
without manual intervention. The NTP field supports the use of both URL and IP addresses for the location of the
NTP server. The time zone can be modified, with values ranging from GMT-12 to GMT+12.
SNMP Configuration
This tab exposes the SNMP read-only and write community strings, and the SNMP version type. You should probably
leave the type field as V2C for SNMP version 2-c. If you use another SNMP-based network management application
you will want to set these values to match your network management platform.
Zero Config Management
This tab exposes a toggle for changing whether the zero configuration management is enabled. With Zero
configuration enabled the BT-CMTS-3000 will attempt to get a management IP address from a DHCP server and
download a configuration file from a TFTP server. Your DHCP server will need a Host Declaration using the MAC
address of the BT-CMTS-3000 as the host identifier, and you will need a next-server option and filename option in
the declaration that points the TFTP server and the configuration file respectively. Without this DHCP host
declaration in place the BT-CMTS-3000 will not reach a working state.
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File Management
When the BT-CMTS-3000 is configured to provision cable modems, the TFTP server will service the cable modem
file requests. You will have to upload the DOCSIS configuration files to the BT-CMTS-3000.
The CM Config File window shows the number of files and the space used with the File
Count and File Size information at the top of the viewport window.
Uploading DOCSIS Config Files
Click the Load File button and a dialog window will open. Browse to the file on your computer, select
the file and click Load. The file will appear in the viewport window.
Check the box to the left of the filename and click the Upload File
button. Confirm your upload by clicking the Yes button or click the
No button if you change your mind.
There is an Upload All Cm Config button that simply uploads all files at once if
you have a lot of files to upload.
Deleting DOCSIS Config Files
To remove any unneeded DOCSIS configuration files, select the files from the list by clicking the
checkbox, then click on the Delete File button. It will present a confirmation window, where you
would confirm by clicking Yes and a Delete Confirmation message is displayed. When you close that dialog box,
the screen will refresh and you should see the file is now gone.
Uploading Cable Modem Firmware Images
The DOCSIS standard provides for loading new cable modem firmware using a DOCSIS configuration file. By adding
special parameters to a DOCSIS file that identify the location and name of the binary image file, and adding the
manufacturer security key information, your cable modems can confirm whether their firmware version matches
the version called out in the DOCSIS configuration file when they are booting up, and request the new image if it
is different. You will have to upload the DOCSIS configuration file using the steps above, and then upload the
image files.
Uploading the New Image Files
Click the Load File button and a dialog window will open. Browse to the file on your computer and be
sure it has a “.bin” extension in the filename and that the file is smaller than 20MB. Select the file
and click Load. The file will appear in the viewport window.
Check the box to the left of the filename and click the Upload File button. Confirm your upload by
clicking the Yes button or click the No button if you change your mind. Once it is uploaded you will
see the File Count increment and the File Size change.
To remove any unneeded cable modem image files, select the files from the list by clicking the
checkbox, then click on the Delete File button. It will present a confirmation window, where you
would confirm by clicking Yes and a Delete Confirmation message is displayed. When you close that dialog box,
the screen will refresh and you should see the file is now gone.
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4 Network Management
The Network Management section is where you will define now the BT-CMTS-3000 interoperates with the upstream
network devices and network services like external DHCP servers. You can establish rate limits for the uplink port and
the DOCSIS network segments to control the volume of Ping traffic, IGMP traffic, ARP traffic and network broadcasts.
You can manage access lists, manage firewall behavior and enable and configure the internal DHCP service.
The BT-CMTS-3000 can be configured to use VLAN tags and a Layer-2 Trunk connection between the CMTS and the
upstream switch, or it can be configured to use Native IP addressing no VLAN tags or trunk connection. Your topology
choice will depend on your specific use case and your deployment best practices. For example, many hospitality
providers prefer to use a Layer-2 Trunk and assign VLAN’s to each device type, e.g., VLAN 10 for CM’s, VLAN 20 for CPE,
etc.
Your network topology choice will have an impact on the DHCP Relay configuration (managed later in this section). You
can choose between “DHCP Snooping” which simply forwards the DHCP messages as a broadcast to the upstream
switch, Layer-2 DHCP Relay where the DHCP messages are forwarded as a broadcast with VLAN tags applied, and Layer3 DHCP Relay where the DHCP messages are relayed with a GIADDR based on the Relay Policy you specify.
Establish your VLAN or IP address plan for your deployment. The BT-CMTS-3000 Quick Start Guide can help with this
process. It discusses the two deployment options for Trunking and Native IP, and provides guidance on how to configure
the BT-CMTS-3000 in each case for a basic deployment.
Network Configuration
The Network Configuration tab appears when the Network Management item is selected from the Navigation panel.
It supports the modification of the Primary IP address, netmask and gateway information for the CMTS. This address
is used by the DOCSIS cable modems. You can choose to acquire an IP address via DHCP or configure it statically.
If you select “Auto” the CMTS will acquire IP information via an external DHCP server. You can
configure the Option60 string (the default value is docsis) and limit the timeouts for the DHCP
discover messages.
If you select “Static” you must enter the static IP address, subnet mask and gateway for the CMTS.
Although the IP address can be acquired automatically by selecting the “Auto” radio button, most deployments will
choose the “Static” option and manually enter this information.
NOTE: After modifying IP information of the CMTS successfully, the CMTS immediately uses the
new parameters acquired automatically or configured manually. The web management network
connection may require the new IP address of the CMTS for network management login.
If your deployment is using a Native IP address method, you will need to configure additional IP addresses on the BTCMTS-3000. This is done in the VLAN Management tab.
Port Rate Limiting
Establishing rate limits can be very important to your deployment. Limiting the amount of ARP and Broadcast traffic
will prevent the CMTS control plane from being overwhelmed with potentially harmful traffic, and can also improve
overall system performance and network throughput. A system must support a reasonable amount of ARP and
Broadcast behavior or basic Layer-2 packet forwarding and network services like DHCP may not work or may be
slower than desired.
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Five categories of rate limiting are manageable using packets-per-second (pps) as the factor:
•
•
•
•
•
Uplink ICMP (default 200pps) and IGMP(default 200pps) – inbound to CMTS
Cable Upstream (from modem) ARP (default 3pps), DHCP (default 3pps)
CPU Downstream ARP (default 100pps), DHCP (default 200pps) and Unicast (default 6000pps)
Uplink Storm-Control (default 200pps) for Broadcast and IP Multicast (default 65535pps)
Cable Downstream Storm-Control for Broadcast (default 200pps) and IP Multicast (default 65535pps)
The Uplink Rate-Limit supports ICMP and IGMP rate limiting for traffic inbound to the CMTS, with a range of 0-65535
pps. This does not limit the ICMP/IGMP packets from the CPU to uplink port headed to the upstream network. This
helps to prevent ping flooding and IGMP requests sent to devices behind cable modems (no IP Multicast delivery
from a cable modem to the upstream network).
The Cable Rate-Limit supports ARP and DHCP rate limiting of traffic from the cable modem to the CMTS in the
upstream channels. The limit applies to the rate of ARP packets and DHCP packets for each CM with a range of 0-511.
This helps prevent rogue modems from flooding the network with bogus traffic.
The CPU Rate-Limit supports ARP rate limiting, unicast rate limiting and DHCP rate limiting. Rate limits for ARP/DHCP
packets are exempt when the destination MAC is the CMTS CPU MAC, which allows the CPU to be able to build the
packet forwarding tables without delay. Unicast Rate-Limit only takes effect on packets whose destination MAC is
the CMTS CPU to prevent the flooding of traffic in a denial of service attack.
The Storm-Control functions include traffic from the uplink port to the CMTS and storm control of cable downstream
traffic. They are specifically preventing high packet volume on the network broadcast IP address to reduce the
likelihood of a broadcast storm that would result in service denial. The IP Multicast limit prevents the oversubscription
of the DOCSIS network. Operations and Maintenance (OAM) traffic is not limited by these two rate limiters.
DHCP Relay
Configuring DHCP Relay on the BT-CMTS-3000 requires selecting a DHCP forwarding method for each type of device
(i.e., cable modem, host, mta or stb) in the Base Configuration tab, then configuring a “bundle” for each device that
clarifies additional information necessary for the forwarding method you chose.
• Select the terminal device to use DHCP L3 Relay, DHCP Snooping or DHCP L2 Relay
• Then configure bundle for each device:
o In case of DHCP L3 Relay, select a Bundle policy, Option-60 (if needed), DHCP server IP address and the DHCP
Relay IP address (GIADDR value)
o In case of DHCP Snooping and DHCP L2 Relay, configure an IP address and VLAN Tag
DHCP Relay Base Config
When you click on the DHCP Relay heading under Network Management you will see the DHCP Relay Base Config
window. This is your first step in choosing your DHCP forwarding method.
Cable Source Verify switch
Cable Source Verify is a check made by the CMTS to determine if the IP address used by a device was obtained by
using a DHCP process. When this feature is set to ON, packets from devices that are configured with a static IP
address are not allowed to pass. When this feature is set to OFF, it is not necessary to have obtained the IP address
from the DHCP server, so packets from a device with a static IP address configuration are allowed to pass.
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Device Type Relay Choice
The BT-CMTS-3000 classifies devices in one of four device types; CM (cable modem), HOST (consumer CPE device),
MTA (eMTA voice adapter), and STB (for set top boxes). Each device type can be processed independently.
However it will be easier to troubleshoot your network if you use the same DHCP forwarding method for all device
types.
• DHCP “Snooping” simply forwards the DHCP messages as a broadcast (255.255.255.255 for the GIADDR) to
the upstream switch.
• DHCP “L2 Relay” forwards the DHCP messages as a broadcast (255.255.255.255 for the GIADDR) with VLAN
tags applied
• DHCP “L3 Relay” is a true relay action using UDP Port 67 where the DHCP messages are forwarded with a
distinct GIADDR based on the Relay Policy you specify.
Circuit ID Prefix
You should always configure the Circuit-Id-Prefix when using Layer-3 DHCP Relay. This is the agent.circuit-id value
passed to the DHCP server, also known as Option-82. This will help the DHCP server differentiate traffic that is
received from many
CMTS systems that are
using the same DHCP
server for Layer-3 DHCP
Relay support. If your use
case does not require a
circuit-id for the DHCP
service, you can leave this
un-configured.
In the screen shown, we
are configured for using Layer-3 DHCP Relay (L3 Relay button is selected) and the Option-82 agent.circuit-id string
is set to BT-CMTS-3000 (Circuit-Id-Prefix is a string value).
DHCP L3 Relay Configuration
The BT-CMTS-3000 uses the term “Bundle” to describe a set of devices using the same GIADDR value as their DHCP
Relay Agent. A Bundle can apply to a group of device types on a network or it can apply to a single device type. But
in any case the group of devices that a Bundled together are considered to be on the same network. You can have
as few as one Bundle where all devices are on the same network, or as many as four (4) Bundles with four logical
networks depending on the Bundle Policy you select when adding a new Bundle to the CMTS.
The Bundle Policy determines what the CMTS will use for the GIADDR when a DHCP message is seen coming from
a cable modem, eMTA, CPE or STB. The BT-CMTS-3000 will check the device type against the bundle configuration
to determine which GIADDR value to insert for the relayed message.
Upon clicking the DHCP L3 Relay Tab the information screen is divided into a toolbar and a display list.
The Toolbar
The toolbar shows a number of tools for adding a Bundle, modifying a Bundle, deleting a Bundle.
The toolbar also shows additional parameters, some of which must be added to the bundle after creating it. The
Option60 values for a Bundle, DHCP server IP address, and GIADDR of the Bundle must be added for a Layer-3
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DHCP Relay configuration to work properly. There is also a tool for modifying these extended DHCP Relay
configuration parameters.
Once a Bundle has been created, selecting a
bundle in the display window and clicking the
Modifying Relay Config tool will open DHCP
Relay Information Management screen, allow
you to change that Bundles Option60 value,
DHCP server IP address and GIADDR value.
The Display list
The display list displays the active DHCP Relay configuration information of each bundle you create.
Adding a New Bundle
Clicking on the Add Bundle toolbar option will reveal
the Add DHCP Relay Config window where you
establish your new bundle parameters.
Bundle:
Give your bundle a unique name and set the policy and cable
source verify switch to add the new bundle.
Policy:
The Policy Type determines how the GIADDR is for the collection
of device types making a DHCP request. There are three DHCP Relay policies you can select from primary, policy
and strict.
The Primary option defines a single GIADDR to the DHCP Relay for all terminal types (CM, HOST, MTA, and STB).
The Policy option separates the cable modem from the other device types (HOST, MTA, and STB). One GIADDR
is applicable to the cable modem requests and one additional GIADDR is applicable to all other device types.
The Strict option allows for each type of device to have its own GIADDR value passed in the DHCP Relay.
If you select the Primary option, you are grouping all device types into a single bundle, and you cannot create
more than one bundle. If you select the Policy option, when you submit the change you will be able to add only
two bundles and their related DHCP parameters.
Cable source verify switch:
Enabling this option forces a check that the IP address the device is using was acquired via DHCP. This is intended
to prevent service theft. If source verify is enabled in the Bundle and the device is using a static IP address, the
traffic is dropped.
Modifying an Existing Bundle
This tool allows you to change the bundle parameters for the Bundle Policy and the cable source verify switch.
Deleting a Bundle
The Delete Bundle button simply allows you to remove a bundle from the list. If there are devices
using this bundle and its associated rules, those devices may stop working or begin to behave
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differently than before you deleted the bundle. If this configuration is deleted, the corresponding Option60, DHCP
server address and relay behavior of the Bundle will be also be deleted.
Assigning the Option 60 Value to a Bundle
In some cases you may wish to compare an Option 60 value provided by a device type in order to associate the
device to a specific bundle. This is automatically done for cable modems by the CMTS using the string “docsis”,
and for eMTA devices using the string “pktc”, and for set top boxes using the string “stb”. You can choose to add
Option 60 evaluation for host bundles.
4.3.2.4.1 Add Option60 to a Bundle
Click on the Add Option 60 button to
define the Option 60 value for the
highlighted Bundle. It is not a requirement to create
an Option 60 value for a Bundle, because the default
Option60 string of corresponding device will be
automatically applied.
The default value for cable modems is “docsis”, set top
boxes will be “stb”, the MTA voice adapter is “mta”,
and a HOST client type will have a null value which you
can change. Please note that you cannot alter the CM,
STB or MTA string values.
Click Submit to save the value, or Close to cancel.
Setting up Option60:
Option 60 is used to define VCI (Vendor class identifier) on the DHCP server and it is the same VCI which is
included in the initial DHCP discover message that a DHCP client broadcasts in search of an IP address. Option
60 is used by DHCP clients (LAPs in this case) in order to identify itself to the DHCP server.
CMTS is able to forward the DHCP packets to different VLAN per Option 60.
1. Add IP address 172.16.200.66 on interface, such as on VLAN 200. Add IP 172.16.100.66 and IP
172.16.151.66 on VLAN: untag
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2. Select DHCP relay for Layer 2, such as snooping or L2 relay
Snooping: No option 82
L2 relay: Include option 82
L3 Relay: Layer 3 routing algorithm.
3. Add EX-device with IP address 172.16.200.66,172.16.151.66 and 172.16.100.66 as following screen
shot; type in option60 string with vendor class identifier ; such as ‘ubnt’,’Ruckus’ ‘MSFT’
Unbt is the VCI for Ubiquiti
Ruckus is the VCI for Ruckus wireless equipment
MSFT is the VCI for computers running a Microsoft OS
VCI are embedded in the hardware of each device and cannot be changed by the user
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4. On ‘Snooping and L2 Relay Config’ page, modify VLAN tag as 200 for Device Type ‘UniFi’ (Wireless access
point) and priority as 4 (between 0 and 7); modify VLAN tag as 1000 for Device Type ‘pc’ and priority as 3
(between 0 and 7); modify VLAN tag as 850 for Device Type ‘Ruckus’ and priority as 5 (between 0 and 7).
5. The CPE with Device Type ‘UniFi’ will get IP address from DHCP server in VLAN 200; Device Type ‘Ruckus’
will get IP address from DHCP server in VLAN 850 and Device Type ‘pc’ will get IP address from DHCP server
in VLAN 1000.
4.3.2.4.2 Adding the DHCP Server to the Bundle
Each bundle MUST have a DHCP Server defined as the destination
for the DHCP Relay.
Highlight the device type Bundle and click the Add
and fill in the server IP address to add the DHCP Server to the
designated Bundle.
When finished, click Submit to save or Close to exit without saving.
4.3.2.4.3 Adding the DHCP GIADDR (Relay)
A DHCP Server examines the GIADDR value in the DHCP Relay
packet to determine which DHCP address pool a request should be
eligible for.
Enter the IP address of the DHCP Server in the Relay IP
Address field, then click Submit to save, or click Close to cancel your
task.
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DHCP Snooping and DHCP L2 Relay Configuration
There are two Layer-2 methods for DHCP Relay, DHCP Snooping and DHCP L2 Relay. The main difference between
the two is DHCP Snooping is not applying 802.1q VLAN tags to the packets according to the device type, where
Layer-2 Relay will apply specific 802.1q VLAN tags that you define for each device type. In either case, DHCP traffic
is forwarded as a broadcast message (255.255.255.255, or f.f.f.f) to the upstream network switch.
In the case of DHCP Snooping, the connection between the CMTS and the network switch is a Layer-2 connection,
meaning the switch port is configured as an “access port” that is assigned to a specific VLAN. DHCP Relay in this case
will be a simple broadcast message that the switch VLAN will forward to a local DHCP server on the same VLAN.
In the case of Layer-2 DHCP Relay, the connection between the CMTS and the network switch is a Layer-2 “Trunk”,
meaning the switch port is configured to allow traffic for multiple VLAN’s to pass over the connection. The CMTS
will apply VLAN tags to the all device traffic (including DHCP packets) before sending them to the switch. The switch
places the DHCP packets into the correct VLAN. It is up to the switch to pass the traffic to either local servers or to
perform a DHCP Relay of its own and send the traffic to a remote DHCP server via a Layer-3 router that is also
connected to each VLAN (likely with a Trunk connection).
When you are using DHCP Layer-2 Relaying or DHCP Snooping the device will use the IP address configured to match
the traffic to a Bundle according to the type of device. For DHCP L2 Relay you also assign a VLAN tag to the bundle
for that device type, and the 802.1q VLAN tag will added to the Ethernet Frame for the packet.
Configuring DHCP Snooping
When viewing the “Snooping and L2 Relay Config” tab the display is divided into two parts: DHCP Relay IP address
on the left and DHCP Relay VLAN on the right. The DHCP Relay IP side is used to assign an IP address to the Bundle,
while the DHCP Relay VLAN side is used to configure an 802.1q VLAN tag for the Bundle.
4.3.3.1.1 DHCP Relay IP Address
In the case of DHCP Snooping, the IP address and subnet mask
used depend on the Bundle’s DHCP Policy Type. If the DHCP Policy
mode for your bundle (which we talked about earlier in the Add
Bundle section) is set to “Primary” the IP Type selected is in the
Add IP window will be “Primary IP” as well. This simply means that
the DHCP Relay will associate the IP address you enter as the
value for all DHCP traffic (it is the Primary IP address for relaying
traffic). Enter the IP address for this Bundle that will be used as
the GIADDR, then click Submit to save.
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NOTE: When configuring the DHCP server for the subnet used by this Bundle, be sure to start
the DHCP pool range with an address higher than the GIADDR value. For example if your subnet
is 10.60.1.0/24, and the upstream gateway is 10.60.1.1 and you use 10.60.1.2 for the GIADDR,
start at 10.60.1.3 or higher for the starting value in your DHCP pool range.
If your Bundle Policy Mode is “Policy” then the IP Type will be “Primary IP” and this will represent the cable
modem device types.
If your Bundle Policy is set to “Strict” then the IP Type with be “Primary IP” for cable modems and it will be
“Secondary IP” for all other device type Bundles.
Here IP address and the relay in DHCP L3 Relay are of the corresponding relationship. When Bundle is of Primary
mode, the primary IP of IP address is the relay IP; when Bundle is of Policy mode, the primary IP of IP address
is the CM relay, and the second sub-IP is the CPE relay; when Bundle is of Strict mode, the primary IP of IP
address is the CM relay, and the 2nd-4th sub-IP are the relay of HOST, MTA and STB.
Configuring L2 Relay
If your network design requires the use of VLAN’s you will want to use L2 Relay and assign 802.1q VLAN tags to
the traffic of each device Bundle. This will ensure your traffic is forwarded to the correct VLAN in the upstream
switch.
The VLAN configuration of a Bundle includes the Bundle name, Client
Type, VLAN ID and priority. In most cases you only need to ensure that
the Client Type is correct and add a VLAN number for the tag value.
The VLAN Priority can be used to prioritize different classes of traffic
such as voice and video. The VLAN ID tag specifies the VLAN to which
the frame belongs. The priority bits define the priority with which the
frames are processed. If you are not prioritizing any traffic types leave
this as “0”. Otherwise you can choose a value from 1 to 7 that
corresponds with the Class of Service flag in the Ethernet Frame that
corresponds with the traffic priority you are using in your upstream network for this traffic type.
Click Submit to save your configuration.
VLAN Management
The VLAN Management section supports adding and deleting VLAN’s, adding or deleting VLAN virtual interface IP
addresses that you would assign to a VLAN, and adding or deleting Layer-3 VLAN’s, called Subnet VLAN’s in the BTCMTS-3000.
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You are able to create Layer-2 VLAN’s (in the VLAN Management tab) or Layer-3 VLAN’s with an IP address assigned
(in the Subnet VLAN tab). Switch vendor like Cisco would call a Layer-3 VLAN a Switched Virtual Interface”. A Layer-2
CMTS implementation using a Trunk connection to the upstream switch should not need an IP address assigned to a
VLAN unless you require a GIADDR defined for the VLAN subnet for the DHCP server to use.
Display VLAN
Clicking on the VLAN Management menu option displays the VLAN’s you have configured in the system organized
in numerical sequence.
Adding a VLAN
To add VLAN, click the “Add VLAN” button in the Toolbar and enter the VLAN number from 1 to 4096.
Try not to use the VLAN that your upstream switch uses for its control plane (usually VLAN 1) and if
your Trunk connection has a native VLAN you may wish to avoid using that as well. This will keep your user and
device traffic from affecting the performance of the network. A prompt showing success or failure will pop up.
Delete VLAN
First select the VLAN to be deleted in the Display list, and click “Delete VLAN” on the toolbar. A prompt
of success or failure will popup.
Untagged VLAN’s
This section also provides a way to create awareness of network subnets that are not associated to a specific VLAN
calling them “untagged networks”, which are listed under a “untag” heading. For Layer-3 “Native IP”
implementations you will require separate subnets for each device type. The WEB application allows you to edit
an untagged VLAN after it has been added via the Command Line Interface. Unfortunately at the time of this writing
you are only able to add untagged VLAN’s via the CLI.
To add an untagged VLAN follow these steps:
1) Connect to the BT-CMTS-3000 using an SSH application like Putty for Windows, Terminal on a MAC or use
SSH on a Linux system.
2) Log in using the username “admin” and password “admin” (or whatever you changed your credentials to.
3) Enter privileged mode by typing “enable” and press enter.
4) Enter configure mode by typing “configure t” and press enter.
5) Configure the primary IP address for the cable modem subnet as follows:
6) BT3000(config)# ip address 10.60.0.2 255.255.255.0 primary
7) Configure a secondary IP address for any other device type subnet as follows:
8) BT3000(config)# ip address 10.66.1.2 255.255.255.0 secondary
9) Repeat the above step to configure additional secondary IP addresses.
10) Type “end” to exit the configuration tool.
11) Type “show run” and check that your changes were applied to the running configuration:
12) Enter “copy running-config startup-config” at the enable modem CLI prompt to save your newly changed
running configuration to the starting configuration, so the changes will survive a reboot.
You can close your CLI session at this point, and go back to the VLAN Management section of the WEB app. When
you refresh the display you should see your newly added subnet in the “untag” area. You are able to modify the IP
address and subnet mask and you can also delete the VLAN using the WEB application. If you wish to remove the
secondary IP address using the CLI (and hence remove an untagged VLAN) you can follow the above steps through
step 4, and then enter:
BT3000(config)# no ip address 10.66.1.2 255.255.255.0 secondary
Be sure to also run the “copy running-config startup-config” command to save your changes.
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Adding a VLAN Virtual Interface
A VLAN virtual interface IP can be applied manually or automatically via
DHCP. To configure a VLAN virtual interface IP manually:
Select VLAN to select any IP address of VLAN.
1) Click “Add virtual interface IP” on the toolbar to pop up the screen
shown.
2) Fill in the virtual interface IP, address mask and select the IP type.
3) Click “OK”, and the prompt of success or failure pops up.
If you want your DHCP server to assign the VLAN virtual interface IP automatically:
1) Click the EDIT icon at the end of the row for the VLAN.
2) Select DHCP client ON and fill in the “OPTION 60” field. The DHCP server will use this to identify the VLAN in a
DHCP Host Declaration record on the DHCP server and provide an IP address from an address pool or a reserved
address (depending on your DHCP server configuration).
3) Click “OK”, and the prompt of success or failure pops up. In case of successful acquisition, DHCP server will assign IP
address.
Modifying a VLAN Virtual Interface
Selecting the “Edit” icon at the end of the action row for a VLAN reveals
the editing window.
From here you can edit the VLAN virtual interface parameters. If the
device type for this VLAN is a HOST type, you can edit the Option 60 string
and DHCP timeout values; otherwise they are displayed by not editable.
Adding a Subnet VLAN (or Layer 3 VLAN)
A Subnet VLAN or Layer-3 VLAN would be used when your upstream
network needs a destination IP address for the VLAN network. This is usually
not a common practice, but if you require Layer-3 addressability or
reachability from the upstream network you can establish that here.
Add Subnet VLAN
Click the Add button in the Toolbar and enter the IP address,
subnet mask, VLAN ID and priority (if needed). The range of
VLAN ID values is 1-4094. The priority value ranges are from 1 to 7, or
0 if not used.
Modifying Subnet VLAN Configurations
The WEB application provides a tool modify the TPID and CFI values of your VLAN. TPID stands for “Tag Protocol
Identifier” which identifies the Ethernet frame as an IEEE 802.1Q-tagged frame. Canonical Format Indicator is a
single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet switches.
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The only time you should modify the TPID is if you require 802.1ad support, which is called “double-tagging” or
“Q-in-Q” tagging. This would allow a packet with a VLAN tag already applied to have a second VLAN added to the
Ethernet Frame. Your upstream switch must be able to support 802.1ad and have the trunk configured to use it.
A practical application could be a remote teleworker situation where a the CPE device requires that the traffic be
forwarded to their Corporate Network with a VLAN assignment, and you must also use a VLAN tag to forward the
traffic to the corporate office over a Layer-2 connection. The CPE VLAN tag is the “inner tag” and your VLAN tag
becomes an “outer” tag. In this case you must set the TPID to a hex value of 0x88a8 so the upstream switch knows
this is double-tagged traffic.
In a typical residential or hospitality deployment you should never have to modify these values for a normal 802.1q
compliant network implementation.
ACL Management
ACL (Access Control List) is used mainly to filter data packets according to a set of matching rules. Packets that match
certain rules are to be filtered, which usually means they will be dropped and not forwarded to the intended
destination. After matching a rule the corresponding data packets will be allowed to pass or not according to the ACL
definition.
An ACL can match according to source IP address, destination IP address and port number of the data packet. You can
add, modify or delete an ACL, delete specific ACL rules, or change the binding of a rule (install or uninstall) so that the
rules apply to the uplink side or cable side, in either or both directions.
Creating an ACL can be done via the WEB application which involves four steps to create and apply an ACL:
•
•
•
•
Basic Config of the ACL ID and Priority
Creating a matching Rule
Establish the Action, which is the behavior for that rule
Apply the ACL to a Location, which is the Network of DOCSIS interface
ACL’s are shown in the Display window with the ACL ID, description, priority, matching rules, processing actions and
the binding location and direction.
Adding an ACL
Click “Add” in the Toolbar to pop up the screen for
ACL addition. You will see the four steps is a menu row of
the Add window. A device can create at most 192 ACL’s.
Basic Config
Fill in ACL basic attributes including the ACL ID, a
description and select the priority.
The ACL ID value ranges from 1 to 192.
The descriptions support 64 characters.
The larger the Priority number, the higher the priority is.
Click Next to continue.
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Configure ACL Rule
This window exposes all the potential values in the
Ethernet frame or IP packet that a rule can use for the filter
criteria.
You do not have to fill out every field in this form, only
those conditions that are relevant to the traffic. For
example, if you wanted to block incoming ICMP, or ping
traffic, you can enter a value of “1” in the IP Protocol field.
Note: Valid values for the IP Protocol field are 1: ICMP, 2:
IGMP, 4: IP-in-IP, 6: TCP, 17: UDP.
If you choose to filter based on a MAC address or IP
address also include the subnet mask to define the range
of the subnet. For example if you want to identify traffic from 9.9.9.9 only you can use the netmask of
255.255.255.255. If you want to identify the entire /24 of 9.9.9.0 you use the netmask of 255.255.255.0.
Click Next to go to the next step.
Establish the Processing Action
The default action is no action. You may set the action as
either “permit” or “deny”.
In the case of “permit”, you can also set detailed
conditions to modify the contents of packet for class of
service or to modify the VLAN tagging parameters. This
could be helpful if you want to prioritize IP Multicast
video for a Set Top box.
To do this you could change the TOS value to 4 or set the
Differentiated Service Code Point (DCSP) to 41. This is
assuming the rule you are creating will match IGMP on
the IP Protocol field in the previous step.
Click Next to continue.
Configure the Location to apply the ACL
After setting the matching rules and actions, if the action
is set as “Permit” or “Deny”, the Location of the can be set.
Any of the four options can be selected provided they are
not disabled (grayed out).
After selecting one or more of the Locations where this
ACL will be applied you cannot go back to change
something in the ACL basic information, matching rules
and actions areas. You must uncheck the Location box
first, and then you can return to a previous step to make a
change. Be sure to re-check the Location before
submitting the form.
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Click the Submit button. If the ACL was able to be saved you will see a success prompt. If there is an error you
should be prompted for something, like a missing value or something that is out-of-range that needs correction.
Modifying an existing ACL
In order to modify an ACL you must first click the install/uninstall icon to release the binding of the
ACL to the Location where it is currently applied.
Next, click the Modify icon in the Toolbar and the ACL form will be revealed. You can move among the
four configuration areas and make changes as you see fit to the ACL.
Delete ACL
Before you can delete an ACL you must first click the install/uninstall button on the Toolbar to unbind the ACL from
the currently applied Location.
You can then select one or more ACL’s that are not bound to a Location and click “Delete ACL”, and you
will see a success or failure message displayed.
Delete ACL Rule
It is possible to delete the rules of an ACL without deleting the ACL itself. As with any other change
action, you must first unbind the Location from the ACL. You can select more than one ACL and click
“Delete Rule”. A success or failure prompt will be displayed.
Install / Uninstall
The install / uninstall tool allows you to bind an ACL to a Location so as to make the ACL take effect
one or more Locations. Simply select the ACL, click the Install/Uninstall icon and choose the
Locations to apply the ACL rules. Then click Submit to save apply the ACL.
Static Route
This section allows you to manage the static routes that have been automatically configured by adding primary
and secondary interfaces or VLAN IP addresses when using the WEB application or the command line CLI. If you
make changes to those interfaces using the WEB or CLI interface, the static route values are automatically updated.
One practical use case for adding a static route is to support devices that have been given Static IP addresses.
When those static IP address assignments are not within the range of primary or secondary IP subnets already
established you will need to add a static route so their traffic will reach the upstream switch.
Adding a Static Route
With the Static Route menu tab selected, click “Add” on the toolbar and enter the IP subnet to be routed, the
subnet mask and the next hop IP address (the upstream router) and click “OK”. A success or failure prompt will
be displayed.
Modifying a Static Route
A directly-connected static route that is associated with a network subnet cannot be modified. If you need to
change a static route, you will have to delete and re-add it or change the networking configuration related to the
static route.
The exception is the Default Route of 0.0.0.0. The default Route can be modified so you can change the IP address
of the upstream router where all traffic sent by the CMTS users will be directed. This is also changed when you
modify the Primary Interface in other areas of the WEB application.
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Delete Static Routing
With the Static Route tab selected, highlight one or more static routes and click “Delete” on the toolbar. The prompt
of successful or unsuccessful deletion of static routing will pop up.
Source Address Verify (SAV) Configuration
The SAV Config areas allows you to identify a specific device by its IP address and network mask that is not subject
to the source address verification rules, if SAV is activated on your BT-CMTS-3000. If you have customers that
require setting a static IP address for CPE devices, and your provisioning system does not support creating hot
declarations with a reserved IP address, excluding them from the SAV scrutiny will allow the traffic to pass over
the CMTS network from those specific hosts with a static IP address.
You can add an exception by clicking the Add button in the Toolbar and editing the form with the IP address and
netmask of the device in question. This can be an IPv4 or an IPv6 network address and mask.
You can also delete an existing SAV Exception by highlighting the row for that exception and clicking the “Delete”
button. You will get a confirmation upon success.
Firewall
The firewall section lets you quickly configure your BT-CMTS-3000 to allow remote access and clarify what IP
addresses are allowed to access the CMTS remotely. This way you can lock down the remote access to a trusted
network or device.
Along the Toolbar you will see check boxes for Telnet enable, SSH enable, SNMP enable and Web enable. By default
these are unchecked, meaning the Firewall is not actively preventing remote access to the CMTS. By checking these
boxes you will activate the firewall to manage these remote access privileges.
Warning! If you are accessing the system remotely using the WEB application and you enable the firewall for Web
access without first creating a rule allowing your workstations IP address to access the CMTS, you will lose your
connectivity to the CMTS!
Adding a Firewall Rule
Click on the Add button in the Toolbar and the Add Rule window will open up.
• Choose the remote access method from the drop down
list
• Choose the Access Control method of permit or deny
• Select the address type and enter the address and
netmask of the network you are enabling (or disabling
as the case may be).
Click Submit to save the rule.
You can create multiple rules for each protocol type to
allow or deny remote access to the CMTS. You cannot use
a 0.0.0.0 value for an IP address.
Local Provisioning
The CMTS can perform as the DHCP server for cable modems and CPE devices. When you view the Local
Provisioning menu option the IPv4 Global Configuration window is displayed, split into upper and lower areas. This
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allows you to browse any excluded IP addresses from the range of DHCP pool addresses you configure in the
system.
You must first enable the Global DHCP option for the
cable modems and the CPE Switch for CPE devices by
changing the status from Off to On and clicking the
Submit button. There is also an IPv6 Local-Provision Switch that you can enable if you need to support DHCPv6.
DOCSIS File Upload
In this window there is a button to help you upload DOCSIS configuration files that will be served to cable modems
when they make their TFTP download request. Use this to select a DOCSIS configuration file on your desktop and
upload it to the CMTS. This can also be done from the Basic Information section as previously discussed.
Configuring the IPv4 DHCP Pool
Clicking on the Local-Provision IPv4 Address Pool Config option in the Toolbar reveals the form to configure the IP
address ranges and necessary parameters for your CMTS. The default parameter already filled in; however you can
change the following values to something you prefer for your deployment:
• Local-Provision Switch – this enables support for DOCSIS 3.0 configuration files.
• DHCP Time Configuration – this determines the lease duration
• DNS Server Address Configuration – this sets the primary and secondary DNS servers. You can use 8.8.8.8 and
8.8.4.4 which are Google DNS, or you can establish your own DNS servers.
• DHCP Address Pool configuration – this determines the subnet used for DHCP provisioning. Later we will
identify the range within that subnet to service.
• Device Configuration – this defines the MAC address of the CMTS , the IP address of the CMTS that is listening
to the DHCP requests (the primary interface IP address) and the IP address of the TFTP server, which can be
the same primary IP address of the CMTS if the CMTS will be the TFTP server for cable modems.
You also have to configure the range of IP addresses to be served by the DHCP server. In the IP Pool List in the lower
half of the Pool Config screen there is an Add button, which when clicked reveals a small form to set the Start and
End IP addresses that correspond to the IP address Pool above. Set these two values and click Submit to save the
configuration.
REMEMBER! You must also click the Floppy Disk icon in the upper right of the WEB
application screen to save the configuration to the CMTS startup configuration or all your
changes may be lost!
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5 RF information
This section provides the tools to set the RF channels to an optimal configuration based on the condition of your
cable plant in your deployment. As you will see there are many parameters shown that affect the operation of the
CMTS including the bandwidth and the packet transmission performance. Some of these parameters should be
configured after an evaluation of the RF signal performance of the cable plant, such as the upstream channel width,
channel center frequency, Upstream Rx Level and so on.
Many of these parameters are preset to work with most cable systems, however if your system exhibits poor signal
to noise characteristics that you cannot change through general maintenance, then some adjustment may be
required. You should contact Blonder-Tongue Technical Support for assistance on this.
Let’s review the typical parameters you should consider changing and when.
Upstream Channel View
Click the Upstream Channel option in the left navigation bar to enter the CMTS Upstream Channel screen. In the
Upstream Channel view, you can examine the basic channel status information and the upstream signal quality. From
the Toolbar you can choose Basic Info or Signal Quality to change between these two views.
Basic Info
The Basic Info screen reveals the Upstream Channel display and Upstream
Channel Management tools. Upstream channel management supports
changing parameters of a single channel or modifying the parameters of multiple channels, turning channels ON
or OFF as a group, changing the center frequency offset (spacing) of channel as a group and modification of
universal parameters.
Basic Information Display Window
The Basic Information display reveals the current configuration of each channel organized by channel ID. You will
see the center frequency, RF bandwidth selected, receiving signal level desired, modulation configuration
template applied, DOCSIS version supported, DOCSIS collision avoidance parameters (back-off start, back-off end,
data back-off start, data back-off end), current channel mode, upstream SNR and channel status.
Most of these parameters default values are acceptable for any deployment, however you should consider
changing some attributes based the conditions observed after “sweeping” the cable plant with RF signal analysis
equipment.
The most popularly changed values are the center frequency and channel width as they dictate the upstream IP
packet performance potential. The receive level is used to determine how powerful the upstream RF signal must
be when it reaches the CMTS. The CMTS will command the modem to increase or decrease its transmit power to
achieve this signal level at the CMTS. The ideal setting is 0dBmV but occasionally it may be set higher to force
modems to transmit at a higher level to overcome noisy conditions in the cable system.
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Basic Information Configuration
The channel parameters can be configured in two ways. You can enable and disable channels, and change the
upstream common channel parameters from “Basic Information Display” screen using the Toolbar options. You
can also double-click directly on certain fields
for a specific channel to edit the values for
that upstream channel.
You can also view US channel parameters as
a group by clicking on the channel number
and revealing the “Basic Information Settings
of Upstream Channel” screen. You can
change multiple values at once, and the
following parameters can be changed in this
view:
The Modulate Template offers five (5)
ATDMA options - QPSK, QAM-16, QAM-32,
QAM-64 and QAM-256. Each one has a
minimum SNR requirement for consistent
operation.
Modulation Type
Bad
QPSK
QAM-16
QAM-64
<12
<18
<24
Acceptable
Range
12 – 15
18 – 21
24 – 27
Better
>15
>21
>28
The RF channel width (Freq. Width) can be set
to 1.6MHz, 3.2MHz and 6.4MHz. Each successively higher value allows for nearly double the amount of
information to be transmitted, increasing your overall available IP network bandwidth.
The center frequency (Central Freq) can be set as value between 5.0MHz and 65.0MHz, however most
implementations will operate within a range of 12 MHz and 42Mhz. Lower frequencies are generally too noisy
and some Satellite TV systems use lower frequencies for their control signaling. In the U.S market most existing
cable plant amplifiers are “low-split” models that cut off the frequencies above 42Mhz. Starting at 16.8 MHz and
using an offset according to your channel width selected is a good starting point.
The Status allows setting channel ON (open, or actively modulating a RF carrier) or OFF (closed, or not modulating
a RF carrier).
The desired receive power level can be set as value between -13.0dBmV and +23.0dBmV. As noted above 0dBmV
is the DOCSIS recommended ideal specification for a properly balanced and noise-immune cable plant. Changing
this to something different may be an acceptable short term resolution, but you should sort out what is causing
the noise problems to establish a stable environment.
Channel mode is allowed to set the channel as DOCSIS 2.0 mode or DOCSIS 3.0 mode. Channels set to 2.0 can also
be used as 3.0 channels. This setting enables 2.0 modems to operate gracefully in a DOCSIS 3.0 deployment by
identifying them as a “primary eligible” channel. Setting them to DOCSIS 3.0 mode excludes them from use by
DOCSIS 2.0 modems.
Other parameters are adjustable; however they are usually left to the default value unless you are attempting to
overcome difficult implementation situations.
Modifying Channel Parameters in-place
You can double-click some cells to modify that parameter. Parameters that can be set include management status,
center frequency, bandwidth, modulation configuration template, channel mode, channel type and RF receive
level. If the value uses a black font it means the field can be modified, while a grey font means the field cannot be
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modified. After finishing the modifications, click Submit on the toolbar to save your work. To cancel the
modification, click the Clear icon
on the toolbar.
Additional Parameter Change Methods
There are two modification modes simple and advanced. In Simple mode, you
can set the number of channels to be modified simultaneously. If the
parameters of a channel are modified, the corresponding channels in the display window will be modified
simultaneously with the same information. In Advanced mode, when the parameters of a single channel are
modified, only that channel changes, while other channels remain unchanged.
You can enable or disable the RF modulation for one or more channels by clicking the checkbox to the left of each
row to select multiple channels. Then click the Close Channel or Open Channel button on the toolbar to change
the condition of multiple upstream channels at once.
You can change the center frequency of one or more selected channels using a “+ or - offset” value. This means
that the channels you select will have their center frequency changed as a group to new values, essentially shifting
the channels to a new location in the upstream RF spectrum.
The steps to do this are as follows:
• Select the channels to be shifted
• Enter the +/- value in the Channel Offset box on the Toolbar. The modified channel center frequency will
be displayed in red font in the line checked
• Click the Submit button to make the offset center frequency take effect
Signal Quality
By selecting the Signal Quality option in the Toolbar dropdown list, the display screen shows the communication
quality of channel, including channel ID, contention mini-slots, corrected codeword count/percentage of total,
correctable codeword count/percentage of total, uncorrectable codeword number/percentage of total and
average SNR.
Codewords are what DOCSIS calls the data packets that are RF modulated (or encoded) for transmission over the
cable system. If the codewords cannot be deciphered (or decoded) at the CMTS after they are demodulated, they
are considered uncorrectable. This must be a very small percentage of overall total codewords received (.01%) to
prevent congestion, retransmission and ultimately IP packet latency.
The Uncorrectable should be less than 0.1% of your total traffic. Your Corrected Code Percentage should be under
2.5%. If you are experiencing worse results, you should sweep the plant and look for physical conditions that are
creating noise or allowing ingress noise to corrupt your signals.
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Downstream Channel View
When clicking on DS Channel on the left navigation bar you will enter the CMTS Downstream Channel Configuration
screen. In this screen, you can view and set the basic information of a downstream channel on the CMTS. The screen
is divided into two parts; the upper part enables DOCSIS channels while the lower part enables EQAM channels for
digital video services.
Downstream Channel Information
The upper section for DOCSIS DS Channel Basic Info lists the DS channel ID, management status, current center
frequency, channel bandwidth (based on Annex Type), modulation mode (QAM 256 preferred), RF output power
level, Annex Type (mode), interleaving depth and symbol rate parameters.
The EQAM channel displays the same parameters as those of a DOCSIS channel as well as those relevant for
digital video - Transport Stream ID, QAM Group Name, QAM Manager, Original Network ID, Attenuation and Dts
Adjust.
Downstream Channel Management
Downstream channel management supports changing parameters of a single channel or modifying the parameters
of multiple channels.
As a group, you can turn channels
ON/OFF, change the center
frequency or modify the modulation
/ QAM function. Downstream
channel management is similar to
upstream channel management for
channel ON/OFF and center
frequency offset of channel using
Batch Modify.
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Changing Basic Information Settings
To edit an individual Downstream DOCSIS Channel click on the Channel ID number and the DS Channel Basic Info
window will be displayed. From here you can:
•
•
•
•
•
Set the channel Status to DOCSIS | OFF | EQAM
Set the channel center frequency
Set the modulation type and mode
Set the Transmit Power level
Set interleaving depth and symbol rate
You can change the channel management status between
DOCSIS and EQAM. Currently at most 8 channels of can be
supported for the EQAM function.
Modulation Mode Annex B is typically used for 6 MHz channel width/spacing in North America, and Annex A for
8 MHz channel width/spacing EuroDOCSIS operations. However, as long as your RF channel frequency plan is
properly configured for the capabilities of your cable modems you can use either Annex A or B on any deployment
regardless of the region. The advantage for Annex A using 8 MHz spacing is the IP bandwidth capacity jumps from
640Mbps to 960Mbps.
Changing the Modulation (QAM256, etc.) will automatically change the Symbol Rate and Interleaver depth to
values that are ideal for that modulation type. The symbol rate of CMTS downstream DOCSIS channel is fixed,
and varies correspondingly by system (Annex A or Annex B) and modulation mode (QAM64 or QAM256). The
symbol rate of EQAM channel is fixed in case of Annex B, however EQAM Annex A supports configuration of 6.952
MBaud/s, 6.900 MBaud/s, 6.875MBaud/s. The relationship among the channel mode, symbol rate, modulation
mode and system is shown as follows:
System/Modulation mode
QAM64
QAM256
DOCSIS Annex A
6.952MBaud/s
6.952MBaud/s
DOCSIS Annex B
5.056941MBaud/s
5.360537MBaud/s
EQAM Annex A
6.952, 6.900, 6.875MBaud/s
6.952, 6.900, 6.875MBaud/s
EQAM Annex B
5.056941MBaus/s
5.360537MBaud/s
The Center Frequency can be set as value between 55.0MHz and 999.0MHz you must ensure that all downstream
channels are operating with a 192 MHz frequency range or not all channels will be capable of being used.
Downstream power can be adjusted if needed to establish a balance of RF power with other RF signals being
combined at the headend. For example, if there are other RF video sources and your CMTS signals must be
combined together before feeding the input of a RF amplifier (i.e., a launch amp) you must equalize the power
output of all the devices feeding the RF amplifier. You can use physical attenuators, or you can reduce the output
power at the CMTS with this setting.
Dts Adjust: there are two modes for choice: enable and disable. The option can be used to adjust the program
stream Program Clock Reference (PCR).
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If the program stream PCR has excessive
jitter, you may experience a frozen screen,
macro blocking (pixilation), or intermittent
audio when watching programs.
Setting the DTS Adjust to enabled mode
will attempt PCR correction in an effort to
reduce program stream PCR deviation.
The QAM Manager option shows options
for program stream table types of Video
on Demand (VOD), Broadcast, Comcast
Next Generation On Demand (NGOD) and
Subscription VOD (S_VOD). Currently only
VOD and NGOD tables are supported.
The Transp(ort) Stream ID field allows you to establish a transport stream identity for the stream on the EQAM
channel.
Atten and other parameters are reserved for future support of EQAM management protocol.
Advanced E Q A M Functions
EQAM channel supports an advanced function to
configure the Program Specific Information (PSI)
table release interval for each table type. Click
the “Advanced” button to reveal the PSI table
interval configuration screen.
These values should be configured according to
your implementation requirements and they
represent the time interval of the insertion of
program stream tables for the EQAM channel.
For example the PAT table would be inserted
every 100ms based on the setting shown in the
picture. Please consult with your video services
engineering team to determine the correct table
intervals to be used for your environment.
Spectrum Group
A Spectrum Group is a collection of Upstream RF channels whose signal quality is being monitored for the purpose
of automating configuration changes to improve the reliability of the data transmission. A set of threshold values are
established for a group of upstream channels (i.e., the spectrum group) that represent the intervals in time that
specific signal quality conditions are examined. When an evaluation event occurs and it is determined that a threshold
has been exceeded, the CMTS will initiate a configuration change to maintain stable communications. This is valuable
in situations where a cable plant is experiencing transient, intermittent impairment that is difficult to isolate.
Conditions that can be evaluated include:
• SNR falls below a specific value in dBmV
• Corrected codewords (corrected) exceeds a certain threshold
• Uncorrectable codewords (uncorrectables) exceeds a certain threshold
Four tabs for Global Config, Spectrum Group, Channel Config, and History Records are shown in the toolbar.
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Global Config
To enable spectrum management, click the On switch. Then set the time interval (in seconds) when the evaluation
of the signal condition will occur. The default is 180 seconds with a range of 5 to 84600 (one day).
You can also set the maximum number of history records to be kept for later review. The default value is 16 with
a range of 1 to 64.
Spectrum Group
This tab reveals the tools for creating, modifying and deleting spectrum groups. More than one group can be
established, each with its own specific behavior and thresholds. One spectrum group can be used to apply common
rules for the adaptation of the CMTS to dynamic cable plant signal quality conditions.
Spectrum Group List
This Tab displays any configured spectrum groups. There are no spectrum groups created by default in the CMTS.
Each row reveals the spectrum group ID, management status, and the following specific thresholds for the group.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
min spectrum adjustment interval
spectrum adjustment mode
threshold of SNR
threshold of corrected
threshold of uncorrecteds
threshold of PLR
policy of priority
spectrum adjustment policy
max times of spectrum adjustment
number of center frequency
number of channels that apply to spectrum group
Add a Spectrum Group
When you create a spectrum group you assign a Spectrum Group ID a numerical value (between 1 and 32). The
remaining parameters are used by the CMTS to evaluate the signal conditions and apply them to any and all channels
assigned to the spectrum group.
• The current Management Status (open = on, closed = off) is shown.
• The Min spectrum adjustment interval is a value between 25 to 604800 seconds (7 Days) that represents the
distance in time between adjustments that are allowed.
• The Max times of spectrum adjustment can be between 0 and 65535 where 0 is unlimited (default).
• The Spectrum adjustment Mode is based on SNR only at this time
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There are two values each for the thresholds of SNR, Correcteds, and Uncorrectables, to allow for two increments of
change for the relative backup modulation types that are configured for each upstream channel. This means you can
establish three operating conditions based on the quality of the SNR in the upstream. You can choose to implement all
of these threshold types or only use SNR as the trigger for changing the configuration of the upstream channels in the
spectrum group.
Modulation Type
Bad
QPSK
QAM-16
QAM-64
<12
<18
<24
Acceptable
Range
12 – 15
18 – 21
24 – 27
Better
>15
>21
>28
SNR values can be in the range of 1 – 100, and the corrected/uncorrecteds can be between 0 and 100 (0 means not
applied). The chart shows a “Bad” column that could be used as a guide for setting your SNR thresholds based on the
modulation type. This would be used to apply the spectrum adjustment policy.
The Spectrum adjustment policy establishes the behavior that is initiated when a threshold has been crossed. The drop
down box reveals a number of options and the Channel Modulation Profile is the correct option to select.
Modify Spectrum Group
The Modify option in the toolbar reveals a form identical to the one used to create a spectrum group. All parameters
are adjustable.
Delete Spectrum Group
The Delete option removes an existing spectrum group or when multiple groups are selected, it will remove the
plurality of those selected spectrum groups.
Enable Spectrum Group
Once a spectrum group is configured you must enable it to begin processing the rules. Enable an existing spectrum
group or a plurality of existing spectrum groups.
Disable Spectrum Group
Disable an existing spectrum group or a plurality of existing spectrum groups.
Clear Apply Of Spectrum Group
Clear Apply Of an existing spectrum group or a plurality of existing spectrum groups.
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Channel Config
When you view the Channel Configuration Tab, you will see “Config Spectrum Group” and “Config channel
modulation profile” options in the toolbar. The screen splits into two areas to show the configuration and the
current channel operating state.
Channel Parameter List
The upper section of the display changes to reveal the Channel ID, Spectrum Group ID, active Channel Modulation
Profile, Backup Channel Modulation Profile(s), current Center Frequency and Channel Width, Rx Power Level, and
SNR. The lower section exposes the DOCSIS codeword counters for Corrected, Uncorrected and Unerroreds
symbols and data on spectrum configuration changes for the number of cumulative adjustments made, the last
spectrum adjustment event, and Time of last Recovery.
You must configure the channel modulation profile settings before assigning a channel to a spectrum group. The
system won’t let you change the modulation profile settings after assignment to a spectrum group. You will have
to remove it from the group, make the change and reassign the channel to the group.
Config channel mode profile
Each upstream channel should be configured with
the alternate modulation profiles for the second
and third choice when the cable plant becomes
impaired. Your second choice should be a profile
that is more tolerant to noise than your initial
configuration and the third modulation profile even
more tolerant than the second choice. The picture
shows a possible choice for channels that are
originally configured as QAM64.
Spectrum Group Config
After you have set the modulation profile rules you can
click on “Config Spectrum Group” and select the
spectrum group for the upstream channel. In the
example we are selecting group #1 as the rules to be
applied to upstream channel #1.
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History Records
This screen shows a log of the events that occurred for a given spectrum group. Select a specific channel from the
drop down box in the toolbar and click the refresh icon. This will reveal any history that has been captured since
the last power cycle.
6 EQAM Management
Program Stream Map View
Clicking on EQAM Mgmt on the left navigation bar to reveal the Program Stream Map for Edge QAM (EQAM) channels
configured on the CMTS. The Program Stream Map screen shows the basic channel ID, center frequency and program
information including the number of UDP ports in use where each UDP port represents a single program transport
stream. The aggregate utilization of a channel is revealed through the Bandwidth columns for Bandwidth Being Used,
Bandwidth Capacity, and Bandwidth Utilization Percentage.
Program Stream Map List
The Program Stream Map List information displays additional details of a program stream, including channel ID
used by the program stream, source IP address, destination IP address, UDP port, stream type, status, input
program number, output program number, PMV, data transfer rate ON/OFF, data transfer rate and PID mapping.
From the toolbar of the Program Stream Map you can add a program, add programs in bulk (batch mode), delete
a program, and modify parameters.
Add a Program Stream to an RF Channel
Before you can add program streams you must have an RF Downstream Channel configured for EQAM Mode. To
do this you must click on the RF Information option in the left panel navigation window, and click on DS Channel.
Locate the downstream channel that you wish to use and click the checkbox to the left of the channel ID number,
then click the “Open EQAM Channel” button on the toolbar. After you confirm your action, the channel will be
assigned to the EQAM function in the BT-CMTS-3000, and it will be available to configure programs for
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transmission. An RF channel will not be used for DOCSIS while in this mode. You can multiple DS channels for
EQAM mode.
Select the channel to be used by the program stream in EQAM Information List. Click Add Program. The added
program will be displayed in Program Stream Mapping Information List. Now you can modify the parameters of
program stream by double clicking on each cell in the row and editing the information for that cell. If you have
multiple SPTS streams to use, add an additional program for each source you want to include in this RF Channel
output.
Parameters that can be modified include source IP address, destination IP address, UDP port, stream type, status,
input program number, output program number, PMV, data transfer rate ON/OFF, data transfer rate and PID
mapping.
• Source IP address - the source IP of program stream.
o A value of 0.0.0.0 indicates the BT-CMTS-3000 will not check the source IP address of the IP Multicast
program stream and you will be using IGMPv2 anycast to acquire the IP multicast stream.
o You can configure a source IP address for IGMPv3 source specific multicast inputs.
• Destination IP address - the destination IP of program stream.
o The IP Multicast Group Address is used to identify the video source to be used as input for the program
stream.
• UDP port - port number of program stream.
o Here the port number shall correspond to port number of each input IP Multicast SPTS stream.
o The table below shows an example of a best practice regarding the allocation of UDP Port numbers for
program streams with respect to each RF Channel you enable.
o It is recommended that the difference between starting port numbers for each RF channel is 256, and the
difference between the port numbers of different program stream on the same RF channel is 2.
RF Channel
Start Port
Number
End Port
Number
Example of available
port numbers
1
49412
49666
49412, 49414, 49416
2
49668
49920
49668, 49670, 48672
• Stream type - Support SPTS, MPTS, DataR and Data.
o The program stream associated to the RF channel can be a collection of SPTS inputs or a single MPTS input.
When using SPTS you can manually alter the program ID (PID) for the stream within the MPTS output of
the RF channel. When using an MPTS input you cannot alter the PID value. PSI tables will be reconstructed
when remapping is configured.
SPTS
MPTS
DataR
Data
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Transparent
transmission
/ filter
PMV
modifies
PID
Manual
configuration
of PID
PSI table
reconstruction
Rate limit
Filter
Allowed
N
Y
Y
Transparent
transmission
Transparent
transmission
Transparent
transmission
Not
Allowed
Y
Y
Y
Allowed
N
N
Y
Not
Allowed
Y
N
Y
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
• Status - Status of program stream.
o The status value can be set to On or Off. When On (or enabled) the mapped program stream will be
included in the output of the corresponding RF channel. When Off (or disabled) the mapped program
stream is not included.
• Output program number
o The output program number corresponds to the program number used for tuning to the program (e.g., a
set top box tuning to a TV Guide selection or making a channel change).
o The output program numbers must be unique for each program within the RF Channel.
• Input program number – The input program number of program stream
o When joining a single program stream (SPTS) the default value of “0” means to take the first program in
the transport stream. This way you do not need to know the exact value of the program ID for an SPTS
you can associating to your new program stream.
o When selecting a single program from an MPTS input for your program stream, enter the specific program
number that is associated to the single program within the MPTS. You may select any program from the
MPTS using its specific program number. You cannot use a value of “0” as you would for an SPTS transport
stream input.
• PMV - The value is related to video and audio PID of program stream.
o If the RF channel has more than one program stream, it is recommended to use an incremental value not
less than 2 for the gap between program numbers. PMV on a single channel is not allowed to be the same
for video and audio.
• Data transfer rate ON/OFF and data transfer rate
o If the data transfer rate is enabled, read data in the cache at the data transfer rate, for increasing the
transmission bandwidth and avoiding packet loss.
• PID mapping will change a PID into another one. Only PID of MPTS and Data are allowed to be modified.
Confirm the modification by clicking SUBMIT on the Program Stream Map List toolbar to save the modification.
After adding the program stream, the EQAM will receive the TS streams from the designated port and analyze it.
The analysis result will be displayed on the Program Stream Information screen.
Delete Program Stream Information
Before you submit any changes to a program stream you can click the Clear button on the toolbar to cancel all
modifications.
WARNING!! If you click the Del Program button in the toolbar YOU WILL DELETE ALL PROGRAM
STREAMS FROM THE RF CHANNEL!
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Add Multiple Program Streams Simultaneously
By clicking the Batch Add Program option in the
Program Stream Map List toolbar you will open the
Batch Add Program Stream window. Here you can
enter the parameters for a collection of input
programs. You are able to use a range of source IP and
destination IP addresses UDP Port numbers and
program numbers to use with the collection of inputs.
It is assumed that the content you are specifying
already exists in the address / port / program ranges
you describe in the fields. The step value for IP
addresses increments the last octet of the address by
the value you choose for the number you provide as
your Program Count.
• Program number is the number of program to be added. Entering parameters of start value and step is allowed.
Calculate the parameters with the start value as start and the step as increment.
• The start value of UDP port number ranges from 1 to 65535 and the step value ranges from 0 to 65534.
• The start value of input program number ranges from 0 to 65535 and the step value ranges from 0 to 65535.
• The start value of output program number ranges from 0 to 65535 and the step value ranges from 1 to 65535.
The start value of PMV ranges from 1 to 510 while the step value ranges from 1 to 510.
For example if your Program count is 4, and your Source IP Start Value is 10.10.10.10 with a Step of 2 and your
Destination IP start value is 239.1.1.10 and uses a step of 2 you should end up with:
Source IP
10.10.10.10
10.10.10.12
10.10.10.14
10.10.10.16
Destination IP
239.1.1.10
239.1.1.12
239.1.1.14
239.1.1.16
Enter the parameters and click “OK”. The corresponding number of program streams will be added based on the
number of the program streams, and start value of each field and its step.
NOTE: Entering channel ID is not allowed. Parameters allowed to modify includes program number, source IP
address, destination IP address, UDP port, status, input program number, output program number, PMV, data
transfer rate ON/OFF, data transfer rate and stream type.
Modify the program stream.
Modification steps for an existing program stream are the same as when adding them. Please refer to the Add a
Program Stream to an RF Channel section above. Any changes require clicking the Submit icon in the toolbar to
save them. You can make modifications to more than one program stream and save them in one step.
Delete the program stream
Select the program stream mapping information and click “Del Program” in the toolbar.
Filter
Select the channel, status, stream type, and data transfer rate ON/OFF to filter and leave corresponding program
stream mapping information.
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Program Stream Information
Click Program Stream Information on the left
navigation bar to reveal the program stream
information list. This screen is divided into
the input program stream information list
(upper) and the output program stream
information list (lower). The Program Stream
Information List displays the transport as
analyzed by the EQAM function in the BTCMTS-3000.
Input Program Stream Information
The Input Program Stream Information List displays the input program stream information analyzed by EQAM. The
parameters displayed include stream type, transmission type, destination IP address, UDP port, source IP address,
source UDP port, SYNC, Prog Type, program number, PMT PID, PCR PID, Total ES PIDs and input bitrate.
Output Program Stream Information
Output Program Stream Information List will display the output program stream according to the channel ID
classification used. The parameters displayed include stream type, QAM Manager, destination IP address, UDP port,
SYNC, output program number, PMT PID, PCR PID, output bit rate and Active.
Selecting to enter a piece of input program stream information will display corresponding output program stream
information. Only when SYNC status is completed, can the input stream be output via EQAM. If SYNC fails to enter
the completed status for a long time, it requires checking whether there’s any problem on the input stream.
EQAM Configuration
EQAM configuration supports the system configuration, table interval configuration at CC level and EQAM service
network configuration.
EQAM System Configuration
EQAM system configuration, including IGMA version, network jitter time and VLAN ID check mode are supported.
While VLAN ID check is enabled, if the program stream is satisfied with the requirement of program stream
mapping settings, only ones who tagged the same VLAN ID with EQAM business network can be mapped. The
following table represents that whether the program stream will be mapped.
Whether to be mapped EQAM business network VLAN ID
Program stream VLAN ID
UNTAG
X note 1
NULL note 2
UNTAG
YES
NO
NO
X
NO
YES
NO
Y
NO
NO
NO
Note 1: X means a vailed VLAN ID value. Y means another VLAN ID value. Note 2: Only while EQAM business
network IP address is set to 0.0.0.0.
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If the IP address and VLAN ID of EQAM business network is modified, VLAN ID check value will updated
automatically.
Table Interval Configuration
The table interval configuration of downstream channel supports the configuration at channel level. The table
interval configuration here is global. After the table interval is set, all channels use this configuration.
Table interval configuration supports PAT interval, PMT interval, NIT_C interval, NIT_O interval, SDT_C interval,
SDT_O interval, BAT interval and CAT interval.
EQAM Service Network Configuration
EQAM IP information only supports manual configuration. The IP here requires the existing IP address in the
system. If the previously-configured IP address doesn’t exist in the system, the status here will display “invalid”,
otherwise it displays “valid”. Before modifying IP address, it requires to configure corresponding VLAN and interface
IP address first according to the network situations.
After modifying IP information, ensure normal communication with the device promoting the program stream. In
case of direct connection, IP address can be modified as the IP in the same network segment of device promoting
the program stream.
ERM Configuration
The device supports NGOD D6/R6protocol.
• ERM switch is to enable or disable ERM function.
• Status: whether to establish connection with the server.
• IP Address: IP address of ERM server;
• RTSP Port: port number used by RTSP;
• ERM Keep Alive: cycle of sending heartbeat;
• Connection Retry Threshold: when the connection is not established, establish TCP connection with ERM server
at this time interval;
• Hold Time: ERM application resources are not used in the period of Hold Time. Recover the resources.
7 Terminal Device Management
Terminal Devices is a term that describes cable modems serviced by the BT-CMTS-3000, but also includes other devices
that are either connected to, or embedded within a cable modem such as an embedded MTA voice adapter. This section
reveals the operating state of cable modems and their respective embedded or physically attached CPE devices.
You may recall that the BT-CMTS-3000 organizes devices into one of four types, cable modem, eMTA voice adapter
(mta), customer premise equipment or CPE (host) and Set Top Boxes (stb). Any devices that are not explicitly defined
are considered a CPE host device type, such as an external wireless access point that is connected to a cable modem
consumer-side network interface. This is important as it may change your network address and traffic routing plans or
your DHCP services plans.
Certain DOCSIS behavior can be managed in this section for the Remote Query of cable modem operating parameters,
DOCSIS 3.0 control plane tuning, load balancing of modems and establishing a shared secret for enhanced security.
There are also options for examining the current active cable modems, active CPE, modems having stability issues with
their connection and how cable modems are currently distributed on the active RF channels.
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CM/CPE Management
Clicking on the Terminal Device Management heading or the CM/CPE List sub-option on the left navigation bar reveals
the CM/CPE list of the CMTS. The CM/CPE List screen includes a separate CM list in the upper area and a CPE list just
below. This consolidated view is a helpful single point of reference for examining the status of both cable modems
and CPE devices.
CM Statistics
The top row above the CM list reveals the number of cable modems
that either are registered or have been registered on the CMTS.
The CM List section offers two option menu bars at the top of the display window. The top most row offers the
following service tools:
• A button that will remove (clean) offline modems from view when clicked
• A button to reboot seleted cable modems that have their checkbox selected
• A peek into the DOCSIS classifier, assigned service flow number, static IP address and L2VPN tag (if applicable)
and registration information for a selected modem
• A DOCSIS Ping tool to test reachability to a cable modem
• A submit button for making changes to values in certain form fields
• A refresh button to refresh the data in the display window
There is also a tool to force a cable modem to move to a difference downstream and a timeout value for the move
attempt. It is not a very common requirement to force modems to relocate on the RF spectrum, so you may not
use this unless you are testing modem capability or must balance modem distribution manually. It will require that
you know of a working RF channel to move the modem to for the force-change to be a success.
CM Display List
The CM Display List window reveals information for all cable modems on the CMTS device, including MAC address,
downstream and upstream channels, uptime (online duration), upstream modulation (channel type), DOCSIS
version as registered, round-trip time offset, online/offline times and last online time. These will help you
determine the stability of a cable modem and compare that to other registered modems. The CPE list display will
reveal CPE devices that are attached to modems that are selected in the CM List above. If no modems are selected,
or all modems are offline, no CPE devices will be displayed.
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CPE List displays the total number of CPE and CPE basic information.
CPE statistics
CPE statistics displays the total number of CPE.
CPE Display List displays CM of CPE, CPE number, MAC address of CPE, IP address of CPE, CPE type and CPE lease
time.
CPE information is displayed according to CM classification. Select more than one CM in the CM list. CPE
information of the selected CM will be displayed in CPE list.
Click CM list or
symbol at the right of CPE list header to shrink the CM information or CPE information. Click
symbol to expand CM information or CPE information. Clicking these two symbols can display only CM information,
or only CPE information or both CM information and CPE information.
CM List
The CM List displays only cable modems attached to the CMTS, but not CPE devices. You can clear offline modems
and reboot modems in this view, and you have different tools in this view. You can choose to filter your view of
modems in the following ways;
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
according to their registration status (Status)
according to their primary DOCSIS channel assignment (Primary Channel)
according to a minimum micro-reflection value
by a minimum forward attenuation value
a minimum upstream Power level
a minimum upstream SNR level
a minimum downstream power level
and a minimum downstream SNR
You can also refresh the view to get the current status values including registration status and US SNR which is helpful
in understanding the relative health of the connection and your cable plant conditions overall. Looking for wide
variances in SNR and power will indicate that some areas of the plant are under stress, and large deviations in signals
tend to stress most CMTS systems demodulation processes and can cause errors.
For 2.0 cable modems, only when the Remote Query feature is enabled can the upstream transmit power level,
downstream receive power level, SNR and micro-reflection values be seen.
For 3.0 cable modems, you can still see upstream transmit power level if Remote Query is disabled. Bonding
information is displayed for 3.0 cable modems along with upstream transmit power level, upstream SNR; downstream
receive power level, downstream SNR and micro-reflections.
CM Flap List
The CM Flap List records the number of times a modem transitions from an active registered state to a non-registered
state, otherwise known as a “flap”. The display shows the cable modem that is experiencing the flapping condition,
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successful and unsuccessful ranging attempts, and the number of times an upstream power adjustment has been
made or attempted.
During normal network operation, when a cable modem experiences state transition from online to offline, this
diagnostic information is collected for monitoring, showing the user the overall trend of the cable modem state.
Modems that are flapping are usually having trouble maintaining stability due to RF noise or excessive RF attenuation,
or the provisioning process is failing to provide an IP address or DOCSIS configuration file so that the modem can
remain continuously registered.
Parameters in CM Flap list include:
• Hits: Number of times for successful ranging.
• Miss: Number of times of unsuccessful ranging.
• PowerAdjLower: Times a downward adjustment of power level is made.
• PowerAdjHigher: Times an upward adjustment of power level is made.
• Ins: Number of times a registration was successful (insertion).
Flap Time Setting
The default Flap time interval is 180 seconds. You can change the interval by entering the number of seconds
between checks, and click “Submit” to set a new Flap time interval.
Clear CM Flap
Select one or more CM to clear Flap statistics by checking the box to the left of the modem MAC address, and then
click the “Clear Flap” menu bar option.
Threshold Configuration
For additional visibility you can configure the CMTS to change the color in the display for modems that are continuously
having problems staying registered. You can configure a threshold for the number of times a modem is unsuccessful
in ranging. You can also configure a threshold for the number of times a modem adjusts it’s transmit power
upward. Any CM exceeding either of these thresholds will be identified with a special color make it stand out in the
display for easy identification.
CM Offline Alarm
This is a tool that lets you track the condition of specific modems. Or you can create alarms for all modems. You can
add or delete modems to the list by entering a MAC address and a description of the modem (location, purpose, etc.).
You can copy a MAC address from the CM List and paste it into the “Add” form. Enable the alarm feature by clicking
the On radio button and clicking Submit in the menu bar. When you no longer need the alarm, select the modem
from the list and click on the “Delete CM in Monitor” button. If you no longer need to monitor alarms, click the Off
radio button in the menu bar and click the Submit button on the menu bar.
Remote Query Configuration
DOCSIS Remote query can be used to collect the operating state from cable modems by the CMTS, to be used for
daily maintenance and discovery of abnormalities. The CMTS must be configured with the SNMP community string
that cable modems are using in order to access the cable modem data through periodic polling and caching of the
data responses.
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Remote Query configuration includes enabling the feature with the ON/OFF radio button selector, configuring the readonly SNMP community string name, the query interval, and the source IP address of the subnet used by the cable
modem device types – this is your primary IP address under the network configuration tab.
DOCSIS 3.0 Configuration
In most cases the default values for DOCSIS command and control overhead used by the CMTS are sufficient for most
implementations. In the event you need to adjust this overhead, the DOCSIS 3.0 configuration supports the
configuration of Media Access Layer Domain Descriptor (MDD), Multiple Transmit Channel (MTC), Multiple Receive
Channel (MRC) and Multicast DSID Forwarding (MDF).
MDD
The MDD option is used to configure the interval between MAC Domain Descriptor messages. If the MDD is set as
0, and no MDD messages will be sent. DOCSIS 3.0 will go offline and can only register in DOCSIS 2.0 mode.
MTC
When the Multiple Transmit Channel function is enabled, 3.0 cable modems can use upstream channel bonding
to achieve greater bandwidth. Turning this off prevents modems from using multiple upstream channels. It is
recommended to leave this ON at all times.
MRC
When the Multiple Receive Channel function is enabled, 3.0 cable modems can use downstream channel bonding
to achieve greater bandwidth. It is recommended to leave this ON at all times.
MDF
Configure MDF function of CMTS. If it is disabled, 3.0 CM will use the multicast forwarding behavior of 2.0, i.e.,
IGMP Snooping.
Load Balancing Management
The BT-CMTS-3000 has the ability to periodically perform redistribution of cable modems across the available DOCSIS
DS channels based on the utilization of the active channels in the system. This process is often referred to as “dynamic
load balancing” as the RF channel utilization conditions are ever changing and the cable modems (the load) can be
distributed dynamically to reduce the utilization of overloaded channels.
Global Configuration is the essentially the On/OFF switch, where Open Load-Balance enables dynamic load balancing
(ON) and “Closed Load-Balance” disables load balancing (OFF).
There are additional configuration parameters that allow for establishing channel groups for group management, an
effective time policy configuration and MAC address segment-exceptions for modems that should not be balanced. You
can view the current state of active cable modems in a load balancing group and active cable modems with load
balancing excluded.
Global Configuration
Dynamic load balancing is based on the data collected from real-time statistics. Static load balancing is simply a
means to distribute the modems across channels based on the raw number of modems on the CMTS. The Global
Config radio buttons enable or disable load balancing.
The following are the statistical parameters that change the thresholds and the frequency of balancing attempts,
and the information that may be communicated or queried for relative to this feature.
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RNG-RSP Message ON/OFF
Enable the channel reloading function of RNG-RSP message to allow RNG-RSP message to include the information
of adjusting the channel previously used by CM. When DOCSIS stipulates CM to be online, CMTS can adjust the
channel used by CM. When the switch is ON, the CMTS is allowed to be adjusted when CM is online; if it is OFF,
it is not allowed to be adjusted when CM is online.
CM Move Intv
This is the distance in time between that “move events” are considered for execution. The default value is 240
seconds, or 4 minutes. If you wish to rebalance more or less often change this to a value between 0 and 3600
seconds. This correlates to the Cycle and Cycle weighting values of 60 seconds and 4 events respectively. Be sure
this value is a product of the Cycle and Cycle weighting (see section 7.7.1.5)
Low Flow and High Flow Thresholds
These values can be changed if you wish to fine tune the thresholds for load balancing based on the number of
active service flows on the channel. The default is 0, meaning not used. This would require sophisticate knowledge
of the service flow behavior and it is not recommended to be changed.
Protocol for Communication
For each upstream channel type, this is the message type that the cable model is instructed to use for
communicating back to the CMTS that is indicated in the DCC and DBC messages. This does not need to be
changed except in unusual circumstance where the messages might interfere with a high-volume of cable modem
initialization activity.
Cycle of Load Balancing
Cycle: The amount of time in seconds that real-time statistics are collected.
Cycle weighting: number of the cycles of real-time statistics collection that are considered during a rebalancing
decision. This is not applicable to static load balancing and only targets at channel utilization-based (dynamic)
load balancing.
Threshold of Load Balancing
The Threshold is the channel overload threshold represented by channel utilization when a rebalancing decision
is being considered. If the threshold is not exceeded then rebalancing is not considered.
The Difference Threshold is the acceptable difference in cable modem load between RF downstream channels.
Moved CM Number
The maximum number of CM that can be moved by the load balancing action.
Minimum
This is the minimum number of modems that can be moved. If this value is greater than zero (0) it effectively
nullifies a move event unless there are at least this number of modems to relocate.
Effective Time Strategy
The effective time strategy of load balancing is divided into Always Effective, Always Ineffective and Periodically
Ineffective.
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Load-Balance Group Config
This is necessary to configure when you are provisioning modems into discrete bonding groups and you wish for load
balancing to be constrained to a set of specific RF channels associated to a bonding group. You will have to configure
extra channels to allow movement within the group. For example a 4-channel modem assigned to a group or 6 RF
channels will use the 4 channels determined by the load balancing algorithm that are appropriate for the load in that
group.
Display of Load Balancing Group
Display the load balancing group ID, upstream channel and downstream channel used.
Add Load Balancing Group
When adding the load balancing group, you need to select the group ID, and configure at least one upstream
channel and one downstream channel.
Modify Load Balancing Group
Use this to modify the upstream/downstream channel assignments of load balancing group.
Delete Load Balancing Group
Delete one or more existing load balancing groups.
Add CM of Load Balancing Group
You can add a range of MAC addresses to the load balancing group to force certain devices to use a group. At
most 16 address segments can be added to each group. This is not a typical configuration behavior and is not
recommended.
Delete CM of Load Balancing Group
Delete the existing CM of one or more load balancing groups.
Effective-Time Policy Configuration
This is the rule you apply for effective load balancing. You can configure the rule as being Always Effective, Always
Ineffective or Periodically Ineffective.
The strategy includes a strategy ID, strategy mode, and ineffective strategy time in case of the periodically ineffective
strategy. Click “Add strategy” to add a strategy, or delete the strategy by selecting one or more strategies in the list.
For Always Effective or Always Ineffective only one rule can be applied. However, multiple rules can be applied
when using Periodically Ineffective.
Excluded CM Address List
Display CM segments excluded by the load balancing. Click “Add CM segment to be excluded” to add a CM address
segment; or delete the CM address segment by selecting the CM address segment to be excluded in the list.
Load-Balance Active CMs
View the active (i.e., online) CM in the load balancing group.
Load-Balance Excluded Active CMs
View the active CM excluded in the load balancing group.
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Piggyback Configuration
Piggyback function is used to control whether CM has the ability to request the next data transfer in the process of
data transfer. It supports enabling and disabling this function. For normal DOCSIS operation you will leave this
enabled as it improves the upstream transmission performance, especially for VoIP traffic.
Shared Secret
When configuring the DOCSIS Message Integrity Check (MIC) function, the CMTS will calculate the MIC value
according to reported fields in REG-REQ/REG-REQ-MP messages sent by the cable modem plus the configured MIC
authentication string. According to certain algorithms the values is compared with CMTS MIC in REG-REQ/REG-REQMP. If they are the same, the CM is considered legitimate, and allowed to be online. Otherwise the CM is not allowed
to be online.
Shared Secret Configuration
Shared Secret configuration includes ON/OFF, plaintext or ciphertext, and the MIC authentication string.
If plaintext is selected, the MIC authentication string length ranges from 1 to 16; if ciphertext is selected, the length
must be 32, in hexadecimal, not case sensitive.
Shared Secret Tool
If ciphertext is selected, user is required to enter the ciphertext. You can use the Shared Secret tool to calculate a
ciphertext value relative to a plaintext value. Enter the plaintext value, and click Submit. The ciphertext value
shown can be copied and pasted into the Shared Secret box in the Shared Secret section above, and then that
shared Secret Submit button will save the MIC configuration.
UDC Configuration
Not used at this time.
CM Dispersion
Upstream transmit power level, upstream SNR, downstream receiving power level and downstream SNR are divided
into seven intervals. This feature shows the distribution of the cable modem population with respect to their power
and SNR levels. Intervals with different colors indicate different quality indicators. The number of modems operating
on the fringe of the normal operating range is revealed.
Click the refresh button on the top of the page, to get real-time distribution of cable modems in each parameter
range. Click the number in the range and you will be taken to the CM List area to see a list of these cable modems!
This page also displays the number of CMs in different registration states. Click on the number of cable modems in
different states and you will be taken to the CM List area to see a list of these cable modems.
CM Access List
This section allows you to identify modems that are either allowed (white list) or disallowed (black list) on the CMTS.
You can use this to quickly disable rogue modems. Both the White List tab and the Black List tab reveal an option to
add a modem MAC address to the list of approved or disapproved devices.
When configuring the starting and ending value you can use the same MAC address in both fields to indicate a single
modem or you can enter two values representing a range of MAC addresses. The format for the data is
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To delete an entry, check the box on that row and click the delete menu bar option.
To enable the white or black lists, go to the Global Configuration tab and click the radio button for ON, and click the
Submit button.
To disable enable the white or black lists, go to the Global Configuration tab and click the radio button for OFF, and
click the Submit button.
8 Device Monitoring
Clicking on the Device Monitor option in the left side panel reveals the Channel Traffic Monitor, showing you the real time
load of the CMTS.
Channel Traffic Monitor
Displays the real-time utilization of upstream and downstream channels, and configure the calculating interval of
device utilization.
Channel Utilization
This is a histogram view showing individual channel utilization as a percentage of available capacity on any given
upstream or downstream channel.
Channel Rate
Displays the real-time data rate of upstream and downstream channels.
Upstream Signal Quality
Display the real-time information of upstream channel SNR of the device, number of available error code loss, number
of unavailable error code loss and number of no error code.
Upstream Channel Signal Quality History Monitoring
Monitor the signal quality parameters of upstream channel to facilitate timely discovery of abnormal signal quality
based on the usage in the channel. The left side vertical scale is the SNR in dB (green bar) and the right side of the
vertical scale is the error rate for decoding the packets (blue bar).
You can choose to enable historical data collection from the “History records…” tab. Click the “Open Monitor”
option (ON) and click Submit to begin collecting data. You can review the history for each individual channel using
the drop down box and selecting the channel to review.
Uplink Port Monitoring
Historical Traffic Statistics
Displays the frame information of the active uplink port with the most recent 15 minute and 24 hour periods.
Historical EQAM Traffic Statistics
Displays the traffic information of the active uplink port with the most recent 15 minute and 24 hour periods for
the Edge QAM services that are enabled on the CMTS.
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Real Time Performance Statistics
Displays the real-time information of the active uplink port for the most recent 30 second, 15 minute or 24 hour
periods for the DOCSIS traffic on the CMTS.
Historical Performance Statistics
This displays a comprehensive analysis of the traffic over time for various packet sizes in 15 minute or 24 hour time
intervals. You can select specific packet sizes to display in the event you are looking for small packets like ICMP
(ping) messages or IPTV packets that are usually 1500 bytes consistently. Once you select the packet types, click
the QUERY button to re-graph the display with your data.
Configuration of Monitored Uplink Port Parameters
This tab reveals the form for enabling/disabling the historical uplink port statistics function. Change to either ON
or OFF then click the Submit button for the change to go into effect.
Clicking the Clear button will reset and remove any previously collected historical uplink port statistics.
Spectrum
The tree topology of a coaxial network inherently aggregates noise (signal interference) in the upstream frequency
band at the network head end. This noise has an influence on the signal-to-noise ratio and ultimately the upstream
data transfer rate potential for all DOCSIS devices. The Spectrum tool helps users to discover the existence of noise
in the upstream channel.
Spikes will appear where there is a signal in the upstream band which can be a valid DOCSIS carrier or injected noise
carriers. This display will help you isolate “constant wave” (CW) noise so you can avoid choosing a center frequency
where the CW noise exists.
The horizontal line at the bottom of the display shows the noise floor. Your DOCSIS signals must be received at a
higher level than this floor, which is defined in the CableLabs DOCSIS specification. This carrier to noise specification
varies depending on the modulation type. This display will show you if the current RF signal condition of your cable
plant is acceptable for receiving and processing DOCSIS signals without errors.
While this is not a substitute for using a Spectrum Analyzer device and “sweeping” your cable plant for problems, it
is a great tool for awareness that a condition may exist that needs to be addressed.
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Temperature Monitoring
This displays the temperature of the internal hardware components of the CMTS. The specifications of the tolerances
can be found in the hardware guide.
Optical Module Monitoring
When the uplink is configured to use an optical network interface, this will display the information of the optical
module of the active uplink port, including temperature, voltage, bias current, output power, input power, production
date, serial number, product number, manufacturer, wavelength, bit rate and type.
Optical Management
This feature is not implemented on the BT-CMTS-3000.
9 Log Management
Syslog is used to record the system log to facilitate tracking the running status of the BT-CMTS-3000. This is essentially
management of the Linux operating system built-in logging capability, and you can alter the way logs are created
including by their severity. Clicking on the Log management heading opens the Log Configuration display.
Log Configuration
You enable logging by toggling the Log Switch ON/OFF radio buttons, then clicking on the Submit button to save your
choice. The following are the controls you have.
• Maximum number of logs: the maximum number of log entries recorded.
• Flow Control mode: There are several options for managing the log rate:
o Do not limit the sending rate of log entries to the server
o Maintain a lower transmission rate than the set value
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o Stop sending when the sending rate larger than the threshold
o Prohibit sending logs to the external server
• Cycle: This is the throttle interval.
• Threshold: This is the number of log events per cycle that establishes the threshold for traffic control.
• Level Configuration: This is the size of the bucket for various event types. Keep in mind that the more checkboxes
you select the more log messages that could be generated. Messages of a higher priority than the set level
(checked boxes) will be sent.
o The local memory records
o The local FLASH records
o The SYSLOG server records
o The TRAP server records
You can restore to the factory settings to start over fresh by clicking the Restore factory button.
Threshold Setting
This section provides the means to set your thresholds differently from the factory settings for Signal Quality, device
temperature, CPU utilization and Memory utilization. The various error thresholds are a cumulative quantity of errors
that are detected. The SNR trap and recover thresholds occur when the RF SNR upstream condition drops below the
value set.
Temperature, CPU and Memory thresholds are cumulative errors detected.
Log Viewing
View and delete the logs in memory and Flash. You can view log entries according to a range of date/time values,
before or after a specific date/time, according to the event level (severity), event ID, the most recent records (latest),
or all records. Once you make a selection click the View option to reveal the matching records.
You can delete the log entries being viewed by clicking the Delete button on the menu bar.
TRAP Server
This section allows you to Add and Delete TRAP server. All SNMP Trap events will be forwarded to the IP address of
the trap server at the default UDP port 162, or whichever port you choose to change the settings to. Be sure to set
the SNMP Community string that the Trap Server is listening to.
SYSLOG Server
This section allows you to Add or Delete a remote SYSLOG server. You can send to a server using either an IPv4 or
IPv6 IP address. The facility option refers to different logs that can be created by an application (in this case the Web
Management System). Local0 through Local7 are available for selection. Please contact Blonder Tongue support for
recommendations on the correct facility value to use.
Event ID
This option allows you to establish a formal Event ID for a given log severity. Creating an ID in this way provides
another data point when you are reviewing logs at a later time or with an external log analysis tool. It is not mandatory
to set an ID value for SNMP logging.
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10 System Management
The System Management tab provides tools to manage your users and their access privileges. Clicking on the System
Management heading takes you to the User Management section.
User Login Parameters
This section lets you set the number of tries (Try Number) that a user can attempt to log in before they are rejected.
When a user is rejected the Lock Time value prevents a login attempt from that username for the time indicated.
Continued failures will result in being blocked from login attempts for the Extend Lock Time value that is configured.
If you change these values be sure to click the Submit button to save the changes.
User Management
The User Management module is used by the admin user for unified management of system users. The administrator
can create users and reset user passwords. Each user can have his/her own login name and password.
Users can be given Normal User or Super User privileges and assigned to the administrator group or to other groups that
do not have administrative rights for managing users.
Add User
Click Add User on the toolbar and set the username, user group,
password and confirmation password in the pop-up ”Add User”
dialog box. When you omit the User group, the user will be placed in
the Default group, which has a Level 3 permission status.
Normal Users will be able to see the operational parameters of the
configuration but will not be allowed to change the configuration. If
you wish to add users with configuration privileges, be sure to add
them as a Super user.
Modify User
Click the
icon under the Operate column of the user entry in order to change the user information such as
password, permission level, user group and priority in the pop-up “Modify User” dialog box. Note it is necessary to
enter the current password when changing the password. If they do not know it you will have to delete and add
the user again.
Delete User
Click
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icon in corresponding user operation to delete the user. The “admin” user cannot be deleted.
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
User Group Management
The administrator can create additional user groups with the User Group management module. You can use this to
organize users into groups that have varying permission levels.
Add User Group
Click the toolbar Add user group option to set a user
group name and level in the pop-up dialog box.
Modify User Group
Click the
icon to set the level information in the pop-up “Modify User” dialog box.
Delete User Group
Click the
be deleted.
icon in corresponding user group operation to delete the group. The “administrators” user group cannot
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)
Enabling AAA operation instructs the BT-CMTS-3000 to coordinate all user login with a remote AAA Server, and
optionally provides accounting data that records user activity on the BT-CMTS-3000 for auditing purposes.
AAA Config
This section allows you to enable AAA authentication. The default is to use local authentication and authorization
if you do not enable the AAA feature. Click the On radio button and the click the Submit button to enable AAA
authentication. Disable AAA by clicking the Off radio button and clicking the Submit button, which returns the local
authentication.
You can enable AAA with forced local authentication. With forced local authentication, the client will use the local
authentication over any other configured authentication mode.
AAA Authentication & Authorization Config
Login Authentication
To configure the AAA default login authentication mode, you need to enable AAA authentication the
configuration first. Login authentication methods include TACACS+, radius, enable, local and none, can be
configured.
59 | P a g e
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More than one authentication “levels” or options can be configured (up to 6). If the configuration contains a
variety of login authentication modes, the order of invocation as configured will take precedence (from 1 through
6). When there is no authentication mode response for a given level, the next authentication level method will
be tried. A mode of None must be the last login authentication mode.
Login Authorization
When configuring the user login authorization mode, you can use TACACS+, local or none. Similar to
authentication, you can configure the BT-CMTS-3000 to try one or more authorization mode. When configuring
a variety of authorization modes, they are attempted in the invocation order configured (1 to 3). When there is
no response from an authorization mode, the next authorization method will be attempted. A mode of None
must be the last login authorization mode configured.
Enable Authorization
To configure the AAA default enable authentication mode you must enable AAA authentication in the main
configuration. The Enable authentication method includes TACACS+, local and none and can be configured with
one or more levels. When configuring a variety of enable authentication modes, the order of invocation will follow
the configuration (1 to 3). When there is no response from an authentication mode, the next authentication
method will be tried. If you wish to configure “none”, it must be the last authentication mode type.
AAA Command Authorization Config
This section allows you to map access to certain CLI commands to specific authorization types. Each authorization
type (including TACACS+, local and none) can be restricted to specific user levels, to provide another depth of
control over the capability of the user. By default there is no additional control for AAA authentication types.
As described in section 1.4.2, the AAA authentication modes will be processed first, and then this additional level
of restrictions would apply based on the authentication modem that was successful. This might be helpful if there
was a None mode of authentication, and you wanted to restrict them to level 0 to prevent any possible changes
to the device configuration, or even basic information about the configuration.
The range of user level is 0-15. Through this configuration the system can determine whether the user is allowed
to run the command.
Config Password of Enable Level
You can configure the password for a specific user level from 0 to 15. Click on the Add icon to reveal a form where
you can select the user level and provide the specific password for that level.
TACACS+ Server Config
Here is where you specify and configure the TACACS+ server and the TACACS+ backup server. You can configure the
primary server and backup server. When the primary server is unavailable, the system will switch to the backup
server.
• The UDP port number default value is 49 with a range of 1-65535.
• The Retry count default is 3 with a range of 0-5 retry attempts.
• The Timeout default is 5 seconds with a range of 3-10 seconds.
Config Radius Server
Here is where you specify and configure the RADIUS server and Backup RADUIS server. You can configure the
primary server and backup server, so when the primary server is unavailable, the system will switch to the backup
server.
60 | P a g e
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
• The UDP port number default value is 1812, with a range of 1-65535.
• The retry count default is 3, with a valid range of 0-5.
• The default Timeout value is 5 seconds with a range of 3-10 seconds.
Local Command Level Config
Use this section to configure a local command level to allow execution of CLI commands. The range of levels is 0
to 15. By comparing the user and command level, if the user level is above or equal to the command level, then
the command can be executed, otherwise it will return an error.
61 | P a g e
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
11 Appendix A
User Levels
We support user levels 0 to 15 in which assigning different user levels changes administrator’s rights.
Example Config Export
!
! Zebra configuration saved from vty
!
1970/01/01 01:23:06
!
!system configuration version: V2.2.8.2
!system datetime:17:22:15, Oct 14 2015
!
hostname BT3000
! cos vlan map configuration:
!
interface bundle 1
cable dhcp-giaddr strict
62 | P a g e
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
cable dhcp-giaddr 10.60.1.2 cm
cable dhcp-giaddr 10.60.2.2 host
cable dhcp-giaddr 10.60.3.2 stb
cable helper-address 192.168.20.1
ip address 10.60.1.2 255.255.255.0
ip address 10.60.3.2 255.255.255.0 secondary
ip address 10.60.2.2 255.255.255.0 secondary
cable source verify disable
exit
cable dhcp-l3-relay cm
cable dhcp-l3-relay host
cable dhcp-l3-relay mta
cable dhcp-l3-relay stb
! load balance configuration:
!
!static ip configuration:
!sav-static configuration:
!
ip address 10.60.0.2 255.255.255.0 primary
ip address 10.60.1.2 255.255.255.0 secondary
ip address 10.60.2.2 255.255.255.0 secondary
ip address 10.60.3.2 255.255.255.0 secondary
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.60.0.1
gateway 10.60.0.1
!auto config cofiguration:
clock timezone minus 5:00
ntpserver 192.168.20.1
! IPDR Configure
ipdr exporter keepalive 300
ipdr exporter max-unacked 200
63 | P a g e
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
ipdr exporter ack-timeout 60
! IPv6 Security Configuration:
!
line vty
exit
!
interface cmts 1/1/1
system name "CMTS_1/1/1"
no cable upstream 1 shutdown
no cable upstream 2 shutdown
no cable upstream 3 shutdown
no cable upstream 4 shutdown
cable upstream 1 frequency 16800000 channel-width 6.4M atdma profile-type qam64
channel-mode v2.0
cable upstream 2 frequency 23200000 channel-width 6.4M atdma profile-type qam64
channel-mode v2.0
cable upstream 3 frequency 29600000 channel-width 6.4M atdma profile-type qam64
channel-mode v2.0
cable upstream 4 frequency 36000000 channel-width 6.4M atdma profile-type qam64
channel-mode v2.0
no cable downstream 1 shutdown
no cable downstream 2 shutdown
no cable downstream 3 shutdown
no cable downstream 4 shutdown
no cable downstream 5 shutdown
no cable downstream 6 shutdown
no cable downstream 7 shutdown
no cable downstream 8 shutdown
no cable downstream 9 shutdown
no cable downstream 10 shutdown
64 | P a g e
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
no cable downstream 11 shutdown
no cable downstream 12 shutdown
no cable downstream 13 shutdown
no cable downstream 14 shutdown
no cable downstream 15 shutdown
no cable downstream 16 shutdown
cable downstream 1 frequency 561000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 2 frequency 567000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 3 frequency 573000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 4 frequency 579000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 5 frequency 585000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 6 frequency 591000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 7 frequency 597000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 8 frequency 603000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 9 frequency 609000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 10 frequency 615000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 11 frequency 621000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 12 frequency 627000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 13 frequency 633000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 14 frequency 639000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable downstream 15 frequency 645000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
65 | P a g e
BT-CMTS-3000
Instruction Manual
cable downstream 16 frequency 651000000 modulation qam256 annex b power-level 43.0
interleave 32
cable load-balance downstream even-distribution disable
exit
!
uplink statistics enable
interface uplink 1
up-down-trap enable
exit
syslog
exit
!
!cmts multicast configuration:
66 | P a g e
Extended Warranty Program
STANDARD TERMS & CONDITIONS OF THE EXTENDED WARRANTY
A.
THE EXTENDED WARRANTY AGREEMENT (EWA)
If during the period following the expiration of the Blonder Tongue Manufacturers’ Standard Warranty ( Copy Included) the products which constitute the subject
matter of the extended warranty, manifest any manufacturing or similar such defects then Blonder Tongue shall at its option repair or replace the product. It is
emphasized that the extended warranty is in effect an extension of the Blonder Tongue Warranty and covers the items stipulated in Paragraph B to the exclusion of
the terms in Paragraph C of this agreement. Eligibility to purchase EW is limited to 90 days following initial shipment on selected products of sufficient value.
The product/products included in this extended warranty agreement are listed in the invoice that accompanies the EWA. Term of the extension will be ______
year(s). Purchase Order is required for extended warranty coverage.
B.
WHAT IS COVERED?
1.
If a product has been determined to have failed, which falls within the Terms & Conditions of this EWA, Blonder Tongue Inc. may at its sole discretion
repair, modify or replace its component parts that are defective at 100% coverage for parts and labor.
2.
A loaner unit may be available on request; PO required.
3.
Product is manufactured by Blonder Tongue.
4.
Extended warranty period is up to and not to exceed 24 months and sold in increments of 12 months. Order # 9981 for 1 year and #9982 for 2 year
extensions.
5.
Return of repair or replaced product shipping costs for ground shipments.
6.
Firmware upgrades at no charge with automatic notification.
C.
WHAT IS NOT COVERED?
1.
The warranty does not cover any defects caused by foreign objects /connection errors .
2.
Use other than by the customer at the declared address appearing in this document.
3.
Failure by the end user to comply with the manufacturers’ instructions for installation, maintenance or use.
4.
The use of accessories which have not been approved by Blonder Tongue.
5.
The application and/or use of any incorrect or abnormal electrical supply to the product.
6.
Any defect in wiring or electrical connections which does not form part of the product at the time of the original purchase.
7.
Neglect, misuse, or willful abuse of the product.
8.
Any repairs or attempted repairs of the product by any person other than Blonder Tongue Service Department.
9.
Any modification of the product by any person other than Blonder Tongue Service Department.
10. Fire, flood, war, civil disturbance, industrial action, acts of God or any other causes beyond the reasonable control of Blonder Tongue.
11. Any defect caused by lightning strike or power surges.
12. Shipping costs to return products to Blonder Tongue for warranty service.
13. Blonder Tongue will not in any circumstances be liable for any consequential loss or damages suffered by the customer whether directly or in directly
related defect in the product to the extent permissible by law.
14. Repairs may not be effected without prior authorization from Blonder Tongue Laboratories.
D.
GENERAL
1.
The customer shall notify Blonder Tongue Laboratories in writing within ten days of any change of his or her address.
2.
Customer must provide original purchase receipt and serial number to initiate extended warranty coverage.
3.
The fee paid for the warranty is not refundable under any circumstances unless cancelled within seven days of purchase.
4.
The customer shall take all reasonable precautions to maintain the product is maintained in good working order.
5.
The warranty contract ceases to exist if the product is replaced or a credit is given to the customer. Any monies paid for the warranty contract are forfeited
and not refundable. This is only applicable when the product is out of the manufacturer’s warranty.
6.
The extended warranty period as stated on the Extended Warranty Agreement shall be the governing period notwithstanding any additional supplier
warranty on specific components.
7.
The warranty shall in no way effect the terms and conditions of the sale agreement in terms of which the customer bought the product.
8.
The extended warranty is limited to the terms and conditions herein contained
9.
No agreement, varying, adding to, amended, deleting, or cancelling this warranty shall be effective unless given in writing (email is acceptable) and signed
by or on behalf of both parties.
10. The cost of the extended warranty is 8% of the purchase price for a 1 or 2 year extension beyond the Blonder Tongue standard warranty. e.g. A product
st
price of $1000 will be $80 for the 1 year (12 mos) and additional $80 for 2 year (24 mos) extension for a total of $160.
11. Warranty product return postage paid to: Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.
Attn: Warranty Service Dept.
1 Jake Brown Road
Old Bridge, NJ 08857
Contact Blonder Tongue at 800-523-6049 ext. 555 to order extended warranty service.
Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.
Limited
Warranty
Limited Warranty
Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. (BT) will at its sole option, either repair or replace (with a new or factory reconditioned product,
Seller will at its sole option, either repair or replace (with a new or factory reconditioned product, as Seller may determin e) any product manufactured or sold (or in
ascase
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A
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trademark
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assemblysub-assembly
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VideoCipher®
& DigiCipher® are registered trademarks of Motorola Corp.
One Jake Brown Road
Old Bridge, NJ 08857-1000 USA
732-679-4000 • Fax 732-679-4353
www.blondertongue.com
Rev 5/6/2009