PCB Design Flow using OrCAD Capture CIS and PCB Editor 17.2

University of Arkansas
PCB Design Flow
using OrCAD
Capture CIS and
PCB Editor 17.2
Learning the Electronics PCB design flow by example
Kirsch Mackey
8-23-2017
Contents
1
Chapter 1 – Understanding Printed Circuit Boards ................................................................ 6
1.1
1.1.1
The role of OrCAD Capture ..................................................................................... 7
1.1.2
The role of PCB Editor ............................................................................................. 7
1.2
2
Computer-Aided Design and OrCAD .............................................................................. 7
Printed Circuit Board Fabrication Process ....................................................................... 8
1.2.1
PCB Cores and Layer Stack up ................................................................................. 8
1.2.2
PCB Fabrication Process........................................................................................... 9
1.3
Function of Allegro PCB Editor in the PCB Design Process .......................................... 9
1.4
Design Files Made by PCB Editor ................................................................................. 10
Chapter 2 – PCB Design Example ........................................................................................ 11
2.1
Drawing and Simulating the LED Schematic ................................................................ 11
2.1.1
Placing Parts in OrCAD Capture CIS ..................................................................... 11
2.1.2
Find Any PSPICE Compatible Part ........................................................................ 14
2.1.3
Wiring Parts in OrCAD Capture CIS...................................................................... 14
2.1.4
Simulating the LED Circuit .................................................................................... 15
2.2
Preparing the Schematic for Layout ............................................................................... 16
2.2.1
Adding Connectors to the Schematic ...................................................................... 17
2.2.2
Attaching Footprints to Schematic Parts................................................................. 18
2.2.3
Setting Up the Printed Circuit Board in PCB Editor .............................................. 19
2.2.4
Creating the Netlist to Update the PC Board .......................................................... 20
2.3
Laying Out the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) ................................................................. 22
2.3.1
Routing the PCB ..................................................................................................... 23
2.3.2
Generating Artwork (Gerber) and Drill Files ......................................................... 23
2.4
Generating Documentation ............................................................................................ 24
2.4.1
Photoplot of PCB Layers ........................................................................................ 24
2.4.2
Creating a Smart PDF ............................................................................................. 25
2.4.3
Generating a Bill of Materials................................................................................. 27
2.5
Submitting Your PCB for Fabrication Check ................................................................ 27
2.5.1
Packaging the Artwork Files ................................................................................... 27
2.5.2
How to Submit Artwork (Gerber) Files for Design Review ................................... 27
3
Chapter 3 – PCB Design Project 1 ........................................................................................ 30
3.1
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 30
3.2
Background Information ................................................................................................ 31
3.3
Drawing and Simulating the LED Schematic ................................................................ 31
3.3.1
Placing Parts in OrCAD Capture CIS ..................................................................... 31
3.3.2
Find Any PSPICE Compatible Part ........................................................................ 33
3.3.3
Wiring Parts in OrCAD Capture CIS...................................................................... 35
3.3.4
Simulating the AMV Circuit ................................................................................... 36
3.4
Preparing the Schematic for Layout ............................................................................... 38
3.4.1
Adding Connectors to the Schematic ...................................................................... 39
3.4.2
Annotating the Parts in the Schematic .................................................................... 41
3.4.3
Attaching Package Symbols (Footprints) to Parts .................................................. 43
3.4.4
Adding Title Text to the Schematic ........................................................................ 44
3.4.5
Setting Up the Printed Circuit Board ...................................................................... 45
3.4.6
Setting Up Footprint and Padstack Search Paths .................................................... 46
3.4.7
Creating the Netlist to Update the PC Board .......................................................... 47
3.5
Setting Up the PCB Editor Environment ....................................................................... 49
3.5.1
Changing Default Text Width................................................................................. 49
3.5.2
Creating Color Views (Silk screen, Solder mask, Copper and Design Outlines) ... 50
3.6
Laying Out the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) ................................................................. 52
3.6.1
3.7
Routing the PCB ..................................................................................................... 54
Preparing for Manufacture ............................................................................................. 59
3.7.1
Generating Silk screen ............................................................................................ 59
3.8
Generating Artwork (Gerber) and Drill Files ................................................................. 64
3.9
Generating Documentation ............................................................................................ 66
3.9.1
Photoplot of PCB Layers ........................................................................................ 66
3.9.2
Adding Vendor Information to Parts ...................................................................... 67
3.9.3
Generating a Bill of Materials................................................................................. 68
3.9.4
Generating a Smart PDF of a Schematic ................................................................ 69
3.9.5
Generating a Regular PDF of the Schematic .......................................................... 70
3.10
Submitting Your PCB for Fabrication Check ............................................................. 71
3.10.1 Packaging the Artwork Files ................................................................................... 71
3.10.2 How to Submit Artwork (Gerber) Files for Design Review ................................... 71
4
Chapter 4 – Learning Capture CIS........................................................................................ 75
4.1
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 75
4.2
Finding electronic parts for the schematic ..................................................................... 75
4.2.1
4.3
Creating Schematic Symbols in Capture CIS ................................................................ 78
4.3.1
Capture CIS Libraries ............................................................................................. 78
4.3.2
Starting a new project ............................................................................................. 78
4.3.3
Creating a Schematic symbol library ...................................................................... 78
4.3.4
Creating an LED Schematic symbol ....................................................................... 79
4.3.5
Placing the LED Schematic symbol ....................................................................... 83
4.4
5
Searching Digi-Key parts ........................................................................................ 76
Adding merchant information to parts in Capture CIS .................................................. 83
Chapter 5 – Learning PCB Editor ......................................................................................... 85
5.1
Resources and Materials................................................................................................. 85
5.2
Footprint Creation Process Overview ............................................................................ 85
5.2.1
5.3
What types of component packages exist? ..................................................................... 86
5.3.1
5.4
Introduction to Package Symbols ........................................................................... 85
Overall Process ....................................................................................................... 87
Retrieving Package Symbol Information from Datasheets ............................................ 87
5.4.1
How to read a datasheet for a package symbol (footprint) ..................................... 87
5.4.2
What to look for in the datasheet ............................................................................ 88
5.4.3
Measurements in the datasheet ............................................................................... 89
5.5
Incorporating Datasheet Information into PCB Editor Package Symbol Wizard .......... 90
5.5.1
Starting a new package symbol creation ................................................................. 90
5.5.2
Setting up the package symbol parameters ............................................................. 90
5.5.3
Package dimensions and Parameters from the datasheet ........................................ 90
5.5.4
Selecting padstacks based on the datasheet ............................................................ 92
5.6
Making Through-Hole Package Symbols (Footprints) .................................................. 94
5.6.1
Using Package Symbol Wizard and Padstack Editor ............................................. 94
5.6.2
What the footprints are for ...................................................................................... 94
5.6.3
Creating Thru Pin Padstacks with Padstack Editor................................................. 98
5.6.4
TH Discrete in Package Symbol Wizard ................................................................ 99
5.6.5
Single In-line Package (SIP) in Package Symbol Wizard .................................... 100
5.6.6
Zig-Zag In-line Package (ZIP) for Through-hole Footprints ................................ 111
5.6.7
Dual In-Line Package (DIP) for Through-hole Integrated Circuits (ICs)............. 113
5.7
6
5.7.1
Zig-Zag In-line Package (ZIP) for Surface Mount Package Symbols (Footprints)
114
5.7.2
Creating Surface Mount Padstacks with Padstack Editor ..................................... 116
5.7.3
SMD Discrete in Package Symbol Wizard ........................................................... 117
Building and Testing the PCB ............................................................................................ 120
6.1
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 120
6.2
Populating the PCB ...................................................................................................... 121
6.2.1
Setting up your station and prepping your PCB ................................................... 121
6.2.2
Which order to place the parts .............................................................................. 121
6.2.3
Soldering the parts ................................................................................................ 121
6.3
Testing the PCB ........................................................................................................... 122
6.3.1
Test using a digital multi-meter ............................................................................ 122
6.3.2
Test using a power supply..................................................................................... 122
6.3.3
Test using an oscilloscope .................................................................................... 123
6.4
7
Making Surface Mount Package Symbols (Footprints) ............................................... 114
Documenting the Results ............................................................................................. 124
6.4.1
Taking pictures of the PCB ................................................................................... 124
6.4.2
Placing pictures in a report ................................................................................... 124
6.4.3
Formatting the report ............................................................................................ 124
References ........................................................................................................................... 125
1 Chapter 1 – Understanding Printed Circuit Boards
UNDERSTANDING PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS
Objectives
1. Understand what a printed circuit board is
2. Learn how a printed circuit board is fabricated.
3. Understand how Capture CIS and PCB Editor help in the PCB fab process.
Purpose of the Tutorial
Welcome to the PCB Design Flow using OrCAD Capture CIS and PCB Editor 17.2 Tutorial. The
purpose of this tutorial is so you learn how to use industry leading software to create electronics
and printed circuit board (PCB) designs from concept to prototype.
You will be given objectives at the beginning of each chapter so you know what to expect to gain.
Then the end of each chapter will have a summary of lessons and skills learned.
What are OrCAD Capture and Allegro PCB Editor and who uses them?
OrCAD Capture and Allegro PCB Editor are made and managed by Cadence Design Systems. It
is one of the leading industry software programs in the United States for PCB design flow.
Companies that use the Cadence suite include (but are not limited to):
 Apple Inc.
 Cadence Design Systems
 Intel
 IBM
By understanding the design flow, you will be better equipped to speak with hardware design
engineers about electronics engineering and PCB design.
Who is this Tutorial for?
This tutorial is written for sophomore, junior and senior undergraduate students with previous
schematic and simulation experience using OrCAD Capture and PSpice. Nonetheless, the reader
will be given a refresher on the OrCAD suite by going through the tutorials in this document.
This chapter introduces the PCB design and fabrication process and how OrCAD and PCB Editor
are used to create PCB designs. For more information, read Complete PCB Design Using OrCAD
Capture and PCB Editor by Kraig Mitzner [1].
1.1 Computer-Aided Design and OrCAD
Computer Aided Design (CAD) describes the use of software and computer tools to execute a
design idea.
As shown earlier, OrCAD Capture and Allegro PCB Editor are some of the choice software
programs used by top companies to design complex we use today. The OrCAD suite has been
known to have a high learning curve but is one of the most powerful electronics drawing and PCB
design software programs available.
1.1.1 The role of OrCAD Capture
The electronics engineer would still understand the design of a circuit by working through
theoretical calculations and drawing it by hand first. Then he or she would take the rough draft
drawings to the OrCAD Capture design tool and create a more professional set of drawings for
clients and other members of his/her engineering team.
1.1.2 The role of PCB Editor
After creating a circuit concept, then drawing the schematic in OrCAD’s Capture CIS software,
the design is imported to Allegro PCB Editor, another tool that interprets the circuit drawing into
a real-world physical drawing, known as an Artwork (Gerber) file. The Artwork files use X and Y
coordinate instructions to describe how to fabricate the printed circuit board.
Note: You can open artwork files in a simple text editor and read the instruction codes.
There are two methods to get the board fabricated. In the first method, the engineer would send
drawings of the PCB to a manufacturer for fabrication. In the second method, the engineer would
fabricate the board himself. In this guide, we’ll show you how to send your PCB to a manufacturer.
1.2 Printed Circuit Board Fabrication Process
Once you submit your PCB to a manufacturer, the company will fabricate your board, then return
it to you. Afterward, you can populate it with your own circuit components and test your design.
We’ll explain how the boards are made in the manufacturing facility.
1.2.1 PCB Cores and Layer Stack up
First, what is a PCB and what does it consist of? A PCB normally looks like Figure 1.1. If you
have seen a computer’s internal motherboard or inside any electronics device, you have seen this
kind of internal circuitry below.
Figure 1.1 PCB of a custom board with microcontroller circuit [4]
Figure 1.2 Structure of Multilayer PCB 1: Blind via. 2: Buried via. 3: Through-hole via 4: Trace [5]
Upon closer inspection, the PCB is actually made of layers of metal and non-metal materials shown
in Figure 1.2.
For simple boards, there may just be two layers of copper and a single layer of insulating material
between them (often FR-4). For most industrial boards, however, there are multiple layers of
conductive and non-conductive material.
The process to make circuit boards is very systematic, but pretty straightforward for the most part.
1.2.2 PCB Fabrication Process
Chemical Etching - The electrically conductive layers of the PCB (usually made of copper) have
their traces selectively routed out by way of acid or mechanical etching. Acid etching is the most
popular method, especially to make multiple PCBs.
Mechanical Etching – This method uses tools that rotate at very high speeds that route out
unwanted copper from the PCB’s layers to just leave the traces behind. The Electrical Engineering
department at the University of Arkansas has a milling machine that uses various tools to
mechanically etch away areas of copper. This video shows mechanical etching of a PCB.
You will use PCB Editor to create the blueprints that tell the manufacturing house where to etch
out the traces and patterns. For more information on the detailed process of PCB fabrication, refer
to [1].
1.3 Function of Allegro PCB Editor in the PCB Design Process
The Figure 1.3 below shows a graphical representation of how PCB Editor is part of this process.
Figure 1.3 The pieces of a "part" in reference to OrCAD [1]
PSpice and Capture model the electrical characteristics and drawing characteristics of the
components that would go on a PCB, respectively. PCB Editor is responsible for mapping the
physical dimensions of that component onto the printed circuit board in terms of what’s called
footprints. You will learn that footprints are made of some dimensions and use ‘padstacks’ later in
the tutorial chapters 2 through 5.
1.4 Design Files Made by PCB Editor
So, what exactly are the artwork files made in PCB Editor that describe the layers made in the PCB
layer process? Those files are shown in Table 1.1 with a brief description of what each file
represents.
Table 1.1 Artwork and Drill Files Created by PCB Editor
Artwork File name generated by PCB Editor Designer
TOP.art
BOTTOM.art
Silkscreen_Top.art
Soldermask_Top.art
Soldermask_Bottom.art
Solderpaste_Top.art
Outline
Project-name.drl
Associated PCB Layer
Top layer (copper)
Bottom layer (copper)
Top silk screen
Top solder mask
Bottom solder mask
Top solder paste
Board outline
Drill File
Page 12-13 of [1] explains the file information in greater detail.
Skills and Lessons Learned
In this chapter, you learned the following:
1. What is OrCAD Capture and why it’s important
2. What is PCB Editor and how it is used in the PCB design process
3. The process used to create PCBs like ones found predominantly in consumer electronics
2 Chapter 2 – PCB Design Example
THE PCB DESIGN FLOW BY EXAMPLE
Create
schematic
Simulate
design
Prepare for
Manufacturing
Objectives
1. Become familiar with OrCAD Capture CIS schematic creation.
2. Understand how to take a circuit schematic from drawing to a layout.
3. Learn the engineering design flow process for printed circuit boards.
2.1
Drawing and Simulating the LED Schematic
In this chapter, you will go through the entire design flow by making your first PCB design. The
design is a simple resistor, LED and power connectors. Once you draw the design in Capture CIS,
you will make the PCB in PCB Editor then submit the artwork files online for review. The LED
circuit will maintain steady voltage and stay lit as long as it’s connected to a power source.
2.1.1 Placing Parts in OrCAD Capture CIS
You will use Capture CIS to model the circuit drawings and behavior. Open OrCAD Capture by going
to the Windows Start button:
Go to All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products → Capture CIS, then when
prompted, choose the first Allegro design product (Allegro PCB Design CIS L) and choose OK. A new
window will open and you will be ready to start. When the software is done opening, go to:
1. File → New → Project… and the New Project window appears.
2. Click Browse then a Windows Explorer window will appear.
3. Navigate to a folder either on the computer OR on your eleg-storage drive (usually found
on drive L:).
4. Create a new folder for your project named “LED_yourusername” (where “yourusername”
= your University of Arkansas username without the @uark.edu).
5. Highlight the folder you just created
, then click Select Folder.
6. Inside the Name field, type “LED_yourusername”.
7. Under Create a New Project Using, choose PSpice Analog or Mixed A/D. Then click
OK.
8. If prompted, choose to Create a Blank project (NOT from a template) and click OK.
9. A new window appears that has your project loaded.
Figure 2.1 Place Part Icon and Window
Type “P” to bring up the Place Parts Window. You can also Go to Menu → Place → Part...
10. You may be at the schematic page or at the project window tab. If you are on the schematic
page proceed to the next step.
How to open the schematic page: If you are not on the schematic page for your new project,
click on the project tab labeled LED_yourusername
, then you will see the
project file hierarchy. First, expand the following items by double-clicking on each:
.\led_yourusername.dsn →
schematic page.
SCHEMATIC1. Then double-click
PAGE1 to open the
11. Now you will place some electronic components by clicking on the Place symbol
image in the quick access toolbar to the right, shown in Figure 2.1.
12. Click inside the Part field, then type “VDC” then hit the Enter key. In case VDC doesn’t
show up, follow the troubleshooting instructions below.
How to solve missing PSpice libraries/components problem: You will need to click on
the Add Library button
under the Libraries: section of the Place Part window. When
you click the Add Library button, Windows File Explorer will appear.
Navigate to C:\Cadence\SPB_17.2\tools\capture\library\PSpice\ then type Ctrl + A to
select everything, then click the Open button. The Libraries: section will load all the
libraries and they’ll all be highlighted in blue. When finished, the libraries and VDC will
show in the search field.
13. Click inside the Part search box where you typed “VDC”, then press Enter. The
component will attach to your mouse cursor (wait about 5 seconds if nothing is
happening).
V1
0Vdc
14. Use the mouse to click and place the VDC component
page.
onto the schematic
15. To place a resistor, repeat the previous steps by typing “R” into the Part search
box in the Place Part window, pressing the Enter key for it to attach to your cursor.
16. Press the R key to rotate the resistor so it’s vertical
resistor on the page.
R1
1k
, then click to place the
17. Once you have placed the resistor, you need to place a ground. Search for the
ground symbol
on the quick access toolbar on the right of the OrCAD Capture
window area and click on it, then the Place Ground window will appear.
18. Highlight “0/CAPSYM” in the list, then click OK. The ground symbol
attach to your cursor.
0
19. Place the ground symbol onto the schematic, then right click → End Mode.
Now you are going to place the LED.
will
2.1.2 Find Any PSPICE Compatible Part
This section will show you how to search for a part that can be simulated in PSPICE if you don’t
know its part number. We’ll perform this search with a light emitting diode (LED).
1. In Capture CIS menu, click on Place → PSpice component… → Search..., then the
PSpice Part Search window will appear.
2. Click OptoElectronics → LEDs → 5 mm(T1 0.75) Package → Amber (2Parts).
Notice the parts that appear in the list below under PART NAME and DESCRIPTION.
D1
LA_541B-TY P
3. Double click on the first part inside the list and it will attach to your cursor
.
4. Move the part onto the schematic area, pressing the R key to rotate the component until it’s
pointing downward, and place it where you like.
5. Now, click-drag the components along the schematic until they look like in Figure 2.2.
D1
LA_541B-TY P
V1
0Vdc
R1
1k
0
Figure 2.2 Unwired LED Circuit
This simple circuit is used for simulation in PSPICE
2.1.3 Wiring Parts in OrCAD Capture CIS
1. Click on the Place Wire (W) button
mode.
on the Quick Access toolbar to get into wiring
2. Click on the ends of the circuit components to start and terminate wire connections, wiring
the components together until they look similar to Figure 2.3, then right click and choose
End Wire.
Tip: Make sure to click-release when connecting the wire from one component leg/lead/wire to
another component leg/lead/wire. If you click-hold and drag the wire, you will get bad connections.
3. Double click on the text next to the LED that says LA_541B-TYP, to have the Display
Properties window appear.
4. Change the Display Format to Do Not Display, then click OK.
5. Next, change the resistor text value from “1k” to “500” by double-clicking on the “1k”
value to bring up the Display Properties window, then typing “500” into the Value field,
then clicking OK.
6. Repeat the previous step on the VDC part to change the “0VDC” value to “9VDC”.
7. Finally, go to the Capture CIS menu then click File → Save and save your project.
Your schematic should look like Figure 2.3.
D1
V1
9Vdc
R1
500
0
Figure 2.3 Wired LED Circuit
2.1.4 Simulating the LED Circuit
1. Go to the menu in OrCAD Capture CIS and choose PSpice →
Profile..., then the New Simulation window will appear.
New Simulation
2. In the Name field, type “transient” for example, then click Create.
3. There will be a short wait until PSpice shows up on the Windows task bar
4. Click on that software icon
.
and a Cadence Product Choices window will appear.
5. Select the first product “Allegro PSpice Simulator”, then click OK. The Simulation
Settings window will appear.
6. In the Simulation Settings window, change the Run to time field value to “1” (second)
then change the Maximum step size to “0.001”.
7. Click Apply then click OK.
8. Go to the menu PSpice → Markers →
marker
Voltage Differential. The voltage differential
will attach to your mouse cursor.
9. Click and place the first marker on the node (line) between the resistor and LED, then place
0
the second marker on the node between the 0 Ground
and Resistor
click and choose End Mode. Your schematic should look like Figure 2.4.
R1
500
, then right
D1
V1
9Vdc
V+
R1
500
V-
0
Figure 2.4 LED Circuit with Differential Probe Markers
10. Finally, go to menu PSpice →
Run. You may need to click the PSpice icon
appears on the Windows Task Bar to see the simulation waveform.
that
11. The simulation will show a green line to indicate the voltage difference between the
voltage probes over a 1 second period of time. The waveform should look the same shown
in Figure 2.5.
12V
10V
8V
6V
4V
2V
0s
0.1s
0.2s
0.3s
0.4s
0.5s
0.6s
0.7s
0.8s
0.9s
1.0s
V(D1:2,R1:1)
Time
Figure 2.5 Simulation of LED Circuit Resistor Voltage
2.2 Preparing the Schematic for Layout
Now that your simulation works, you will prepare the circuit for board layout. You will learn how
to put the schematic on a new page and add some connectors that would be used on a physical
board. In OrCAD Capture CIS:
1. Close any simulation windows you may have open.
2. Save this LED_yourusername schematic by going to and clicking File → Save. Make sure
to save the project frequently.
3. Click on the Project tab
window tabs in Capture CIS. You will see the field hierarchy for the project.
among the
4. Then in the project hierarchy, right click on the project file ending in “.dsn” extension (for
example,
LED_yourusername.dsn, and then select “New Schematic”. A New
Schematic window prompt will appear.
5. In the Name field, type LEDSCH_yourusername, then click OK and a new folder
_yourusername will be created in the file hierarchy.
6. After the
LED
LED _yourusername folder is created, right click on it → choose New Page.
7. In the Name field, type LEDSCH_yourusername, click OK, then an
LEDSCH_yourusername* file will be created below the
LEDSCH_yourusername
folder.
8. Double-click the previous schematic page (should be named PAGE1 under the folder
SCHEMATIC1), click and drag your mouse cursor across the components, to highlight all
of them.
9. Right click the work area then select Copy (or Ctrl+C).
10. Click on the Project tab again (labeled LED_yourusername) then double-click on the page
named “LEDSCH_yourusername”, under the folder named “LEDSCH_yourusername”.
The blank schematic page will appear.
11. Right click on this new blank work area → select Paste (or type Ctrl+V).
The new schematic is now placed.
2.2.1 Adding Connectors to the Schematic
Now that you have copied the simulation schematic to the layout schematic, you need to replace
the VDC with two real-world connectors - one for power and one for ground.
1. So press P on the keyboard to open the Place Part
window.
2. Then in the Part search box type “con1”, then press Enter on your keyboard. The part
should attach to your cursor (if it doesn’t, see below) and you can place it on the schematic.
How to solve missing libraries/components problem: You will need to click on the Add Library
button in the Part Add section of OrCAD PCB Editor. Navigate to
C:\Cadence\SPB_17.2\tools\capture\library then type Ctrl+A on the keyboard to select all Files in
that folder, then click the Open button. You only needed to add the library named
CONNECTOR.OLB, but it’s best to add all the libraries anyway. The libraries and connector
library will show up in the Libraries: window section.
3. Place the CON1 component such that its connector leg (red pin) connects to the VDC
positive terminal on the schematic. A good connection is indicated by a pink circle
the connection point.
and
4. Search for the “con1” part and place a second copy of it on the negative terminal of VDC.
5. Right click on the schematic page → click End Mode.
6. Click the VDC part → then press the Delete/Backspace key to delete it. Then your
schematic would look similar to Figure 2.6.
7. If the CON1 blocks aren’t connected to the wiring, select the
Place Wire tool (or press W),
then wire the CON1 to the top of the LED, where the positive end of the VDC used to be
connected.
8. Repeat the previous step to connect a second CON1 part to the bottom of the circuit, where the
negative VDC terminal used to be connected.
Your circuit should look similar to Figure 2.6. Now you are ready to associate footprints with
the components and prepare them for printed circuit board layout.
D1
J1
1
R1
500
1
J2
CON1
CON1
0
Figure 2.6 LED Circuit with Power and Ground Connectors
The connectors replace the +ve and -ve VDC because the VDC part was only for simulation
2.2.2 Attaching Footprints to Schematic Parts
You are going to match circuit package symbols (footprints) with parts from your schematic.
1. Click and drag the mouse across all the components to highlight them.
2. Go to menu Edit → Properties... (or press Ctrl+E).
3. Click on the Parts tab near the bottom left
.
4. Scroll to the PCB Footprint column field at the top of this window. Notice that there's a
footprint name that's already preloaded for R1 (you will see the name R1 in the Part Reference
column next to PCB Footprint), named “AX/RC05”.
5. Delete that footprint value (using the Delete key) and type in “res400” instead.
6. In the field for D1, type or copy/paste “RAD100X050LS100031”.
7. For the remaining parts, J1 and J2, type “jumper1” into each of their PCB Footprint fields.
8. Go to File → Save, to save the project.
9. Click the Project tab
→ right click on the folder “
LEDSCH_yourusername” and choose Make Root, then you will see the PCB folder jump to
the top of the hierarchy.
10. Finally, go to File → Save, to save your project again.
2.2.3 Setting Up the Printed Circuit Board in PCB Editor
1. Go to the Windows Start menu icon, then click All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 →
Allegro Products → PCB Editor.
2. When prompted, choose Allegro PCB Designer then click OK.
3. Wait for PCB Editor to open.
4. Click on the PCB Editor menu File → New. A New Drawing window appears.
5. Choose Board (wizard) from the list, then name the drawing “LEDPCB_yourusername”.
6. Click the Browse button, then navigate to your project folder (LED_yourusername).
7. Create a new folder inside the LED project folder and name the new folder “allegro” (all
lowercase).
8. Double-click the allegro folder to open it, then finally, click the Open button.
9. Back in the New Drawing window, make sure Board (wizard) is still highlighted, and that
your board name is correct (LEDPCB_yourusername.brd), then click OK. The Board Wizard
will then appear.
10. Click the Next button until you get the Board Wizard – General Parameters window (shown
at the top bar of your window).
11. Choose the Units to be Mils, Size set to A and choose the “At the center of the drawing” radio
button. Click Next.
12. In the General Parameters (Continued) window, leave the settings as they are, but select the
“Don’t generate artwork films.” radio button. Click Next.
13. Click Next to get past this Etch Cross-section details window and go to the Spacing
Constraints window.
14. Type 12 in the Minimum Line width then press Tab key. Everything will update to 12 mils.
15. Then select the ellipses next to Default via padstack and a new window will appear.
16. In the Board Wizard Padstack Browser, type “pad35*” in the search field, then press Enter
on the keyboard.
17. Select “pad35cir25d” on the list below → click OK.
18. You will be back in the Board Wizard – Spacing Constraints window. Click Next.
19. Choose Rectangular board then click Next.
20. Leave the default values as they are. The Width and Height of the board will be 1000 mils
each (1 inch each).
21. Click Next → Finish. The board will be made in the work area and should look like Figure
2.7. Scroll your mouse wheel down to zoom out if you are not able to see its outline.
22. Close the PCB Editor software and click Yes to save if prompted.
Figure 2.7 PCB Outline for LED Circuit
2.2.4 Creating the Netlist to Update the PC Board
Now you are ready to update the board you just made in PCB Editor. You will translate the
schematic from Capture CIS into circuit symbols that can be placed onto the PCB in PCB Editor.
1. Close PCB Editor if you still have it open. Choose Yes if asked to save changes.
2. Go back to OrCAD Capture CIS if it’s already open OR if it’s closed, Go to Windows Start →
All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products → Capture CIS, choose the first
product option, then click OK.
3. Open your project from File → Open → Project, then find your project and open it.
4. When your project is open, click on the Project Tab → expand the project file named
“LED_yourusername.dsn” → select the LEDSCH_yourusername folder → select the
LEDSCH_yourusername page.
5. While the file (LEDSCH_yourusername) in the hierarchy is selected/highlighted, go to menu
Tools → Create Netlist..., then a new window will appear.
6.
Check mark the option that says Create or Update PCB Editor Board (Netrev).
7. Choose the Input board to be the one you just created (it’s found in your project folder then
inside the “allegro” folder you made earlier > LEDPCB_yourusername.brd).
8. Then change the output board to the same name “LEDPCB_yourusername.brd”.
9. Make sure the settings and options are set to as shown in Figure 2.8. Then click OK.
10. If a prompt appears, click Okay then the net list will be generated and Capture CIS will
automatically open PCB Editor. A Cadence 17.2 Allegro Product Choices window will appear,
asking which product to use.
11. Select the first option: Allegro PCB Designer, then click OK. The board will be opened in PCB
Editor. We recommend saving your PCB before moving on.
Figure 2.8 LED Create Netlist Settings
2.3 Laying Out the Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
Now it’s time to lay out the printed circuit board in PCB Editor. If you don’t recall how to open
PCB Editor, Go to Windows Start → All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products
→ PCB Editor, choose the Allegro PCB Designer option, then click OK and PCB Editor will open.
1. In PCB Editor, Go to the menu: Place → Manually…, the Placement window appears.
2. Choose in the dropdown field on the left “Component by refdes”
.
3. Below the dropdown bar, check mark all the components by clicking in the box beside
Components by refdes.
4. Click the Hide button at the bottom of the window and a part will attach to your cursor.
5. Click the work area to place each component that’s attached to your cursor. You can right click
then choose Rotate to rotate each part before you place the part.
! How to Rotate a Part: To rotate a part, right click when the part is still attached to your
cursor and is floating, then a dropdown menu will show up. Click Rotate then the part will
stop moving and will begin rotating depending on which angle you move your cursor. When
you have decided which angle you want, click once, then the part will re-attach itself to your
mouse cursor and you can place the newly rotated part by clicking once on the work area.
6. If you place a part by mistake, click-release (do not drag) the part to pick it up, then move it
anywhere you like, then click once to place the part in some location.
7. Once the components have been placed like in Figure 2.9, right click the work area and select
Done (shortcut F6).
Figure 2.9 LCB PCB Components Placed
Connectors are on the right of the board for power. The left side of the PCB has the signal.
2.3.1 Routing the PCB
1. In PCB Editor, Go to the menu Route → PCB Router → Route Automatic…. The
Automatic Router window will appear.
2. Click the Route button. The PCB will automatically be routed.
3. Click Close and then save your design by going to File → Save, then select Yes when
asked to overwrite the pre-existing File.
Note: Sometimes the PCB can suddenly disappear into all black. To solve this problem,
minimize PCB Editor, then maximize it or scroll up/down in the work area.
2.3.2 Generating Artwork (Gerber) and Drill Files
Generating Artwork (Gerber) Files
1. In PCB Editor, Go to Manufacture → Artwork… The Artwork Control Form window
will open.
2. Check mark
BOTTOM and
TOP. These are called film folders.
3. Highlight the TOP film folder name, then change its Undefined line width value (on the
right) to 5 (mil).
4. Also set the Undefined line width to 5 for the
BOTTOM film folder.
5. Click the Create Artwork button. It’s okay if you get errors/warnings. Just delete the View
of file: photoplot window if one appears.
6. Then back in the Artwork Control Form window, click the OK button at the bottom. The
Artwork Files will be generated and placed in your “allegro” folder.
Generating a Drill File
You have made the artwork files, now generate the drill file to indicate where to drill holes.
1. In PCB Editor go to menu Manufacture → NC → NC Drill. The NC Drill window will
open.
2. Click the NC Parameters… button to open the NC Parameters window.
3. Checkmark
Close.
Leading zero suppression and
Enhanced Excellon Format, then click
4. Back in the NC Drill window, change the scale factor to 1. Check Auto tool select and
Optimize drill head travel, leaving the other two boxes unchecked (especially uncheck
Repeat codes).
5. Change the Root File name to LEDPCB_yourusername.drl.
6. Click the drill button, then a drill File will be generated in your “allegro” folder.
7. After the drill file has been generated, click Close in the NC Drill window.
2.4 Generating Documentation
Artwork generation is finished. Now you are ready to submit some documentation and send the
board files in for fabrication review.
2.4.1 Photoplot of PCB Layers
1. In PCB Editor go to File → Plot Setup. The Plot Setup window will open.
2. Set Plot scaling to “Fit to page”, Plot method to “Color”, Plot contents to “Screen
contents”, then click OK.
3. In PCB Editor go to File → Plot. The Print window will appear.
4. Click the Setup button and the Print Setup window will open.
5. You may choose a printer you prefer, but for this tutorial, we’ll go with CutePDF Writer.
Important Note: If you are doing this tutorial on Blackmesa, use CutePDF, not the option that
says CutePDF (redirected 69), because the CutePDF option will print to the Blackmesa computer
if you are using Blackmesa, while CutePDF (redirected 69) will not.
6. Click OK to close the Print Setup window and you will be back in the Print window.
7. Click OK to start the print operation. Wait for a few moments.
Note: If CutePDF is taking too long to start, click once in the work area of PCB Editor (black
area), the CutePDF icon
should show in the Windows Task Bar.
8. Click the CutePDF icon
to view the Save As window.
9. Within the Save As window, navigate to your project folder (
create a new folder named Documentation.
LED_yourusername, then
10. Navigate to the inside of the Documentation folder, name the File
“LEDPCB_yourusername”.
11. Click the Save button to save the printout file.
12. In Windows File Explorer
, navigate to your project folder
and double-check your LED PCB schematic plot File (.pdf File)
and make sure that it shows all the PCB layers. Your figure should
look similar to what’s on the right.
2.4.2 Creating a Smart PDF
1. Open OrCAD Capture CIS and open your project in Capture CIS if it’s not already open.
2. Click on the Project tab that says “LED_yourusername” to show your project Files.
3. Expand the “
.\led_yourusername.dsn” folder and
LEDSCH_yourusername folder.
4. Click and highlight your schematic you created the netlist from earlier (“
LEDSCH_yourusername” in this case).
Important Note: The schematic file LEDSCH_yourusername must be highlighted before
generating the PDF, else the smart PDF won’t know which page you want to print. Also, you
should have ghostscript installed on your machine.
5. Click on the menu File → Export → PDF and the PDF Export window will appear.
6. Under the Postscript Commands section, choose the Converter to be “Ghostscript 64
bit/equivalent” (or to “Acrobat Distiller” if using Blackmesa).
7. In the Converter Path field, click the ellipses button
to open the Select Converter
window, and navigate to “c:\program files\gs\gs9.21\bin\gswin64c.exe” (if using
Blackmesa, choose “c:\program Files (x86)\adobe\acrobat 11.0\acrobat\acrodist.exe”).
Then click Open to confirm the directory. You will notice the text at the PDF Export
window Go from red to green.
8. For the Output Directory field, under Output Properties section, click on the ellipses
button
to open the Select Folder window.
9. Navigate to the “Documentation” folder you created earlier and choose Select Folder.
10. When those options are finished and your PDF Export window looks similar to Figure
2.10, click OK.
11. The PDF will be generated and will open automatically in Adobe Acrobat/Reader. This
PDF is “smart” because you can click on each component to see its properties and if you
click on the bookmarks on the left you jump directly to that component on the sheet.
12. Close the smart PDF.
Figure 2.10 PDF Export Settings for Smart PDF
2.4.3 Generating a Bill of Materials
1. In Capture CIS, Click on the Project tab
and then click/highlight the page
schematic you want to create a bill of materials for (
).
2. Click menu Tools → Bill of Materials and the Bill of Materials window appears.
3. In the Scope section, select Process selection.
4. Check mark Open in Excel.
5. Click the Browse button, then navigate to the Documentation folder that you created
earlier, name the file “BOM_LED_yourusername” and click the Open button.
6. Name the File BOM_LED_youusername, then click Open to confirm the file name and the
directory.
7. Back in the Bill of Materials window, click OK, then Excel will open and present a list of
all the components in your schematic.
8. In Excel, choose File → Save As → Browse and the Save As window will appear.
9. You should be in the Documentation folder already. Select the Save as type: dropdown
bar where it says “Text (Tab delimited)” and change it to Excel Workbook (*.xlsx)
instead.
10. Name the file BOM_LED_yourusername again, then click the Save button. Choose Yes if
prompted to replace the existing file, then close Excel.
2.5 Submitting Your PCB for Fabrication Check
2.5.1 Packaging the Artwork Files
1. In Windows File Explorer, go to the artwork (.ART) Files you created earlier, located in
“[Folder LED_youusername]\allegro\”.
2. While holding the Ctrl key on the keyboard, select all the Files with extension “.ART” (not
.ART-1) and .DRL.
3. Right click the highlighted Files. Choose Send to →Compressed (Zipped) Folder. The
.ZIP File will be generated. I will have an arbitrary name, .zip, and extension.
4. Click on the zip File that is generated and change it to LEDART_yourusername.
2.5.2 How to Submit Artwork (Gerber) Files for Design Review
Now you are going to submit your Gerber Files to http://freeDFM.com for PCB review.
1. Open up a web browser (Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge, etc.) and go to freeDFM.com.
2. Type in your University of Arkansas email address in the appropriate web forms.
3. Click the Browse… button and then navigate to the “LEDART_yourusername.zip” file
that you just created.
4. Select the zip file, and then click Open, then the zip file will be placed inside the web form.
5. Click the Upload ZipFile button. A new webpage will load.
6. Next, choose the layer types by setting BOTTOM.art as Bottom Copper and TOP.art as
Top Copper in the dropdown menus.
7. The LEDPCB_yourusername-1-2.drl File will automatically be assigned as NC Drill.
8. Input all the requested information:
Part #: type “LEDyourusername1inx1in.
Revision #: 1
Layer Count: 2
X Dimension: 1,
Y Dimension: 1
Solder mask Sides: None
Silk screen Sides: None
9. Finally click the No radio button
for the ITAR option (found to the right of the
Quantities section at the bottom of the page).
10. Double check that your settings are similar to those shown in Figure 2.11, then click
Submit.
The free DFM quote will be submitted. Just wait 10 to 30 minutes and you will receive results for
your PCB via email.
Figure 2.11 Settings for FreeDFM.com Submission
Double check all the settings shown above.
Excellent job! You just finished your first printed circuit board design. The next chapter will cover
a more complex printed circuit board design. The PCB is simple but you will gain experience
creating a variety of footprints. In addition, you will learn how to create the footprints components
from scratch.
Skills and Lessons Learned
In this chapter, you learned the following:
1. The entire electronics to PCB engineering design flow process
2. How to create a circuit schematic in OrCAD Capture, and a PCB in Allegro PCB Editor
3. How to generate a bill of materials, generate PCB Artwork and order a PCB DFM check.
3 Chapter 3 – PCB Design Project 1
CREATING AN ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
Astable multivibrator circuit taken from [6]
Objectives
1. Create and simulate a schematic in OrCAD Capture CIS
2. Create and Lay out a printed circuit board in Allegro PCB Editor
3. Generate documentation and submit a PCB for fabrication.
3.1 Overview
In this chapter, you will learn how to create a more complicated PCB than in Chapter 2. You will:







simulate a schematic that has a varying voltage signal, then
design the schematic for manufacturing,
create through-hole and surface mount device footprints using PCB Editor,
create the net list and set up a PCB environment with various color views,
manually route the PCB instead of auto-routing it,
generate silk screen, solder mask and drawing files, and
submit documentation for your PCB.
3.2 Background Information
Your project is to repeat the PCB Design Flow with an astable multivibrator circuit. The astable
multivibrator is a circuit that constantly changes its voltage at a particular frequency and has no
known stable voltage level.
In this tutorial, we have chosen a design that oscillates at about 4 Hz. The circuit has 2 light
emitting diodes that will each blink at the 4 Hz frequency to indicate that the astable multivibrator
is actually oscillating within some voltage range. We chose 4 Hz, because that frequency is slow
enough for the human eye to see the lights blinking.
The circuit you build will look similar to Figure 3.1. Now that you know what to expect, let us get
started.
Figure 3.1 3D Model of astable multivibrator
3.3 Drawing and Simulating the LED Schematic
3.3.1 Placing Parts in OrCAD Capture CIS
Open OrCAD Capture by Going to the Windows Start button: Go to All Programs → Cadence Release
17.2 → Allegro Products → Capture CIS. When prompted, choose Allegro PCB Design CIS L then
click OK. A new window will open and you will be ready to start. When the software is done opening,
go to:
3.3.1.1 Starting a Project in Capture CIS
1. File → New → Project and a New Project window appears.
2. Click Browse then a Windows File Explorer window will appear.
3. Navigate to a folder either on the computer, a personal drive OR on your eleg-storage drive
(usually found on drive L:).
4. Create a new folder for your project named “AMV_yourusername” (where
“yourusername” = your University of Arkansas username without the @uark.edu).
5. Go into the new folder, then click the “Select Folder” button for the folder you just created.
6. Back in the New Project window in the Name field, type “AMV_yourusername”.
7. Then under the Create a New Project Using section, choose “PSpice Analog or Mixed
A/D”. Then Click OK. The Create PSpice Project window appears.
8. Choose to Create a Blank project (NOT from a template) and click OK. Capture CIS
will load a schematic, ready for you to place and wire the parts.
Figure 3.2 Place Part Icon and Window
Type “P” to bring up the Place Parts Window. You can also Go to Menu → Place → Part...
3.3.1.2 Placing Parts in Capture CIS
1. Place some components by clicking on the Place Symbol
found on the quick access
toolbar to right of the work area as shown in Figure 3.2. Or select Place → Part from Part Search
the menu.
2. Then click inside the Part field, then type “VDC” and hit the Enter key. In case VDC
doesn’t show up, follow the troubleshooting instructions below.
How to solve missing PSpice libraries/components problem: You will need to click
on the Add Library button
in the Libraries: section of OrCAD PCB Editor (to find
the button, Press P to show the Place Part window on the right and look for the
Libraries:
section
in
the
middle).
Navigate
to
C:\Cadence\SPB_17.2\tools\capture\library\PSpice\ then type Ctrl + A on the keyboard
to select all Files in that folder, then click the Open button. You only needed to add
the library named SOURCE.OLB for the VDC part, but it’s best to add all the libraries
anyway. When finished, the libraries and VDC will show in the search field.
3. Use the mouse to click and place the VDC component onto the schematic page.
4. Next you will place 4 resistors onto the schematic page. To place a resistor, repeat the
previous two steps by typing “R” into the Part field, then Enter key and clicking on the
schematic page to place it (type R to rotate the resistors as you place them).
Ground
5. Next, place two capacitors onto the schematic. You would type “c” into the search field
this time, hit the Enter key on your keyboard, and then click to place two copies of them
onto your schematic page.
6. Next you will place a ground symbol. Click the ground symbol
on the Quick Access
toolbar as shown in the image in the upper right, then the Place Ground window will appear.
7. In the Place Ground window, highlight 0/CAPSYM, then click OK. The ground symbol
will attach to your cursor.
8. Place the ground symbol onto the schematic, then right click → End Mode.
9. So far, your schematic page might look like Figure 3.3.
R1
1k
R2
1k
R4
1k
R3
1k
V1
0Vdc
C1
C2
1n
1n
0
Figure 3.3 Schematic page placed 4 resistors, 2 capacitors and 1 ground
Now you are going to place the LEDs and transistors.
3.3.2 Find Any PSPICE Compatible Part
This section will show you how to search for a part if you don’t know its part number. For an
example, you will find a light emitting diode (LED) and place two of them onto the schematic then
you will repeat the same process to find and place 2 copies of a transistor. Even though you may
not know the model number of the LED, you can find one in the PSpice folders. To place the LED:
1. In Capture CIS menu, click on Place → PSpice component… → Search..., then the PSpice
Part Search window will appear.
2. In the PSpice Part Search window that pops up, click OptoElectronics → LEDs →
5 mm(T1 0.75) Package → Amber (2Parts). Notice the parts that appear in the list below.
3. Double click on the first part in the list that appears so it attaches to your cursor.
4. Move the part onto the schematic area, pressing the R key to rotate the component and
place 2 copies with the arrow pointing downward. Right click and choose End Mode.
5. Next you will find the MMBT3904 transistor we’ll be using for the circuit. So go back to
the PSpice Part Search window that should still be opened and click in the search field then
type “MMBT3904” and press Enter.
6. A list will appear in the bottom. Double click on the first part in the list so it’s attached to
your cursor.
7. Place two copies of the transistor on the schematic, then right click → End Mode.
8. Now left click on the first transistor you placed (Q1) so it’s highlighted.
9. Then right click on the transistor, then choose Mirror Horizontally.
10. Click-drag the components along the schematic until they look like Figure 3.4.
D1
LA_541B-TY P
D2
LA_541B-TY P
V1
0Vdc
R1
1k
R2
1k
R3
1k
C1
C2
1n
1n
Q1
R4
1k
Q2
MMBT3904
MMBT3904
0
Figure 3.4 Unwired LED Circuit
This simple circuit will be used for simulation in PSPICE
3.3.3 Wiring Parts in OrCAD Capture CIS
Now that your components are placed on the schematic page, you can wire them together.
1. Click on the Place Wire (W) button
mode.
on the quick access toolbar area to get into wiring
2. Click the ends of each component and connect their ends to wire them together until the
components are wired like Figure 3.5 and read the tips below for wiring components.
Note: Make sure to click-release when connecting a wire from one component leg/lead to another
component leg/lead. If you click-hold and drag the wire, you will make bad connections.
Tip: If you want to make diagonal connections, then while in wire mode, hold the Shift key before
you start a wire and keep holding it down until you click the end point of the wire.
3. When the components are wired, right click the work area and choose End Wire.
4. Double-click the text value for one of the LEDs (starts with “LA_” in the text) and change
it to Do Not Display, then click OK. Repeat this step for the second LED if necessary.
5. Change the two outer resistor values from 1k to 5k by double-clicking on the “1k” value,
then typing “5k” into the Value field, then clicking OK.
6. Change the two inner resistor values to “470k” using the method in step 5.
7. Change the VDC value from “0Vdc” to “9Vdc” and the C1, C2 values from “1n” to
“0.47uF”.
8. Double-click and change the MMBT3904 text on the Q1 and Q2 parts to “Do Not Display”
in their Display options, respectively.
9. Finally, go to the Capture CIS menu and click File → Save and save your project.
Your schematic should now look like Figure 3.6.
1
D1
LA_541B-TY P
D2
LA_541B-TY P
V1
0Vdc
R1
1k
R2
1k
R3
1k
C1
C2
1n
1n
Q1
R4
1k
Q2
MMBT3904
MMBT3904
0
Figure 3.5 Wired Astable Multivibrator Circuit
D1
D2
V1
9Vdc
R1
5k
R2
470k
R3
470k
R4
5k
C1
C2
0.47uF
0.47uF
Q1
Q2
0
Figure 3.6 Astable Multivibrator Circuit with new values
3.3.4 Simulating the AMV Circuit
1. Go to the menu in Capture CIS and choose PSpice → New Simulation Profile.
2. A New Simulation window will appear. Name the simulation something generic for a time
simulation, like “transient”. Then click Create.
3. There will be a short wait until PSpice shows up on the Windows task bar
it appears, click the icon
.
, but when
4. If the Cadence Product Choices window appears, select “Allegro PSpice Simulator”, then
click OK. The Simulation Settings window will eventually appear.
5. The Simulation Settings icon
will show up on the Windows Task Bar, so click on it
to open the Simulation Settings window.
6. Change the Run to time field value to “1” (this is in seconds) and change the Maximum
step size to “0.001”.
7. Click Apply then click OK.
8. Go to the menu PSpice → Markers →
will attach to your mouse cursor.
Voltage Differential. The voltage marker
9. Click and place the first marker on the node (line) between the left-side 5k resistor and the
left-side capacitor, then place the second marker on the node between the right-side 5k
resistor and right-side capacitor, just like in Figure 3.7.
D1
D2
V1
9Vdc
R1
5k
R2
470k
R3
470k
R4
5k
C1
C2
0.47uF
0.47uF
V+
Q1
V-
Q2
0
Figure 3.7 AMV Circuit with Differential Probe Markers
10. Once the probes are placed, right click and choose End Mode.
11. Finally, go to the menu PSpice →
this dialog again”, click OK.
Run. If warnings appear, just select “Do not show
12. The simulation will run and open a PSpice analysis window or the PSpice icon
Windows Task Bar.
in the
13. Click the icon to see your simulation results. The waveform should look the same shown
in Figure 3.8.
8.0V
4.0V
0V
-4.0V
-8.0V
0s
0.1s
0.2s
0.3s
0.4s
0.5s
0.6s
0.7s
0.8s
0.9s
1.0s
V(Q1:C,C2:2)
Time
Figure 3.8 Simulation of AMV Circuit Resistor Voltage
3.4 Preparing the Schematic for Layout
You will need to make a copy of the AMV schematic and place it in a new page, because the circuit
needs to have a more realistic representation of the parts that will be connected to the board. This
section shows you how to put the schematic on a new page and add some connectors that would
be used on a physical PC board. In OrCAD Capture CIS:
1. Close any simulation windows you may have open.
2. Save this AMV_yourusername schematic by going to File → Save. Make sure you save
your project frequently.
3. Click on the Project tab
above the schematic).
(in the upper left area
4. Right click on the project file ending in “.dsn” extension, then select “New Schematic”. A
New Schematic window will appear.
5. In the Name field, type “AMVSCH_yourusername”. Click OK. A new folder is created.
6. When the folder is created in the project files hierarchy under the Project Tab, right click
on the folder (named AMVSCH_yourusername) → choose New Page.
7. Name the page AMVSCH_yourusername then click OK.
8. Double-click on the previous schematic page in this hierarchy list (should be named
PAGE1 under the folder SCHEMATIC1), which will bring up your simulation schematic.
9. Click and drag your mouse cursor across the components, to highlight all of them.
10. Right click the work area then select Copy (or Ctrl+C).
11. Click on the Project tab (labeled AMV_yourusername) then double-click on the Page
named
“AMVSCH_yourusername”,
under
the
folder
named
“
AMVSCH_yourusername”. A new blank schematic page will appear.
12. Right click on this new blank work area → select Paste (or type Ctrl+V) and the entire
schematic will attach to your cursor.
13. Left click and place the schematic onto the page.
14. Go to File → Save to save your project.
3.4.1 Adding Connectors to the Schematic
We're going to replace V1 with some connectors, because the V1 block was only for simulation.
There will be one connector for power and another connector for ground. You will also need two
test points so you can attach oscilloscope probes to see the voltage waveforms after you get your
PCB manufactured. Let’s place some connectors and test points:
1. In Capture CIS, press P on the keyboard to start to Place a Part
.
2. Then in the Place Part search box type “con1”. The part should appear (if it doesn’t, see
below) so you can press Enter and it will attach to your cursor.
How to solve missing libraries/components problem: You will need to click on the Add Library
button in the Part Add section of OrCAD PCB Editor. Navigate to
C:\Cadence\SPB_17.2\tools\capture\library then type Ctrl+A on the keyboard to select all Files in
that folder, then click the Open button. You only needed to add the library named
CONNECTOR.OLB, but it’s best to add all the libraries anyway. The libraries and connector
library will show up in the Libraries: window section. When the libraries are loaded, make sure
they’re all highlighted (Ctrl+A), then continue your part search in the “Place Part” window.
3. Place the CON1 component such that its connector leg connects to the VDC positive
terminal on the schematic.
4. Place another copy of CON1 on the negative terminal of VDC.
5. Right click → End Mode.
6. Left click the VDC part to make sure it’s highlighted, then → Right Click → Delete.
7. If the CON1 blocks aren’t connected to the wiring, select the Place Wire tool (or press W)
, then wire up the connectors so they’re connected like in Figure 3.9.
D1
D2
J1
1
CON1
R1
5k
J2
R2
470k
R3
470k
R4
5k
C1
C2
0.47uF
0.47uF
1
CON1
Q1
Q2
0
Figure 3.9 Placed connectors on AMV circuit
8. Repeat steps 1 through 5 with the same process for these part names: “HEADER 2” (x1
copy) and “TEST POINT” (x2 copies), rotating them as necessary and wiring them to
match Figure 3.10
9. You may have different part reference names (like R1, J3) for each component, so we’ll
correct that in the next section.
10. Go to File → Save to save your project.
Important Note: Ensure the header 2 part has its legs pointing downward and that the part is
higher than the CON1 connectors. That Header 2 part being at the top of the schematic will give
it a consistent reference letter and number to match the rest of this tutorial.
2
1
J1
HEADER 2
D1
D2
J2
1
CON1
J3
1
CON1
R1
5k
R2
470k
R3
470k
R4
5k
TP1
1
TEST POINT
C1
0.47uF
0.47uF
Q1
TP2
1
C2
TEST POINT
Q2
0
Figure 3.10 AMV Circuit with Power and Ground Connectors
The connectors replace the +ve and -ve VDC, because the VDC part was only for simulation purposes
3.4.2 Annotating the Parts in the Schematic
Once you have placed the connectors, headers and test points, you will annotate the parts. You can
manually change the part reference numbers one by one, but instead you will do it automatically
using the Annotation tool.
1. With your project open in OrCAD Capture CIS go to the Project tab
left are of your window, then click on the AMVSCH_yourusername page.
in the upper
2. Right click on the folder named “
AMVSCH_yourusername” and choose Make Root, then
you will see the AMVSCH folder jump to the top of the hierarchy.
3. Select the
AMVSCH_yourusername file and make sure it’s highlighted in blue.
4. Go to tools → Annotate then under the Action section, select the radio button that says
Reset part references to “?” Then select OK.
5. If prompted about annotating and saving your design, click OK.
You will notice that if you click on the
Hierarchy tab
above your list
of files under the project folder, then expand the
SCHEMATIC1 list, all of the parts will have
question marks after their reference letters. All the reference numbers have been cleared.
6. Still under the Project tab, click on the File tab
to pull up your project folders list.
7. Click on the AMVSCH_yourusername page again then go to tools → Annotate then select
the radio button that says Incremental reference update then click the OK button, then if
prompted about saving the project, click OK.
8. Click the
Hierarchy tab again then this time you will notice all the parts have been
renamed. If you did the schematic like the one in this tutorial then your 2-position header
connector should be J1, your power connector should be J2, and your ground connector
should be J3 again just like Figure 3.10.
9. Once you have verified these reference numbers are fixed, go to File → Save to save the
project.
3.4.2.1 Remove unnecessary details from the Schematic
The bill of materials and other documentation you will generate will have enough information for
someone else to understand the parts. For this reason, you should remove any information that may
confuse the reader or make the schematic difficult to read. You would delete the values for some
of the parts and also change the value for some of the parts, as well.
1. If you haven’t done so earlier in this chapter, double click on the value field for the D1 and
D2 components (starts with “LA”) and choose Do Not Display for each of them then click
OK.
2. Change the text value that says “TEST POINT” on TP1 to “Out+” and change TP2’s value
to “Out-“.
3. Change the J1 part’s text value to from “HEADER 2” to “Jumper”.
4. If you haven’t done so already, for Q1 and Q2, double-click on each of their respective
“MMBT3904” value fields and change each of their options to Do Not Display, just like
you did with the LEDs.
5. Change the J2 part’s text value from “CON1” to “PWR” and change J3’s value from “CON1”
to “GND”. Then your schematic will look similar to Figure 3.11. Be sure to delete and add
wires as needed.
2
1
J1
Jumper
D1
D2
J2
1
PWR
R1
5k
R2
470k
R3
470k
R4
5k
TP2
TP1
1
1
C1
C2
Out-
Out+
J3
0.47uF
0.47uF
1
GND
Q1
Q2
0
Figure 3.11 Finished Astable Multivibrator Schematic
Now you are ready to associate package symbols/footprints with the schematic parts and prepare them
for printed circuit board layout.
3.4.3 Attaching Package Symbols (Footprints) to Parts
In Chapter 2 – PCB Design Example you learned how to attach package symbols to the parts on the
schematic. The package symbols were pre-made, but oftentimes it’s important to design your own
package symbols.
In this section, you attach footprints/package symbols to the schematic components, but the package
symbols will be created by you from scratch. To make the package symbols, go to Chapter 5 –
Learning PCB Editor of this tutorial and follow that chapter until it redirects you back here.
When you return to this section, you will attach the symbols to your schematic parts in Capture CIS.
So go Chapter 5 – Learning PCB Editor now.
3.4.3.1 Attaching Custom Footprints to Schematic Parts
1. In Capture CIS with your project’s AMVSCH_yourusername page open, click and drag the
mouse across all the components to highlight all of them.
2. Go to menu Edit → Properties... (or press Ctrl+E).
3. Click on the Parts tab near the bottom left
.
4. Scroll to the PCB Footprint column field. Notice that there are footprint names already
associated with some of the parts.
5. Delete all PCB Footprint values (using the Delete key) and you will fill in the footprint names
from the Excel Workbook for this chapter’s AMV tutorial according to the part reference.
6. Enter the footprint names found in the Excel Workbook or as shown in Table 3.1.
IMPORTANT: First, make sure that you have either created the footprints or downloaded the footprints
already for this tutorial. If not, please create them in Chapter 5 – Learning PCB Editor or download
the footprints and padstacks here. Second, have the footprints and padstacks in a folder named “AMV
Footprints and Padstacks” within your project folder. Third, double-check that the footprint names and
padstack names are exactly as shown in the Excel Workbook provided with this tutorial and shown in
Table 3.1.
7. You may hit the Enter or Tab or Up/Down keys to update the field when you are done typing
in a part’s footprint.
8. When you are finished adding the footprint names, Go to File → Save, to save the project.
Table 3.1 PCB footprint names to use for AMV parts
Part Reference
R1, R4 (5k resistors)
R2, R3 (470k resistors)
C1
C2
Q1
Q2
D1, D2
TP1, TP2 (Out+, Out-)
J1 (2-pin header)
J2, J3 (power, ground)
PCB Footprint
amv_res_axial
amv_res_1206
amv_cap_0805
amv_cap_radial
amv_sot-23
amv_to-92
amv_LEDT-1_075
amv_test_point
amv_header_1x2
amv_con1
3.4.4 Adding Title Text to the Schematic
1. In OrCAD Capture CIS, double-click the
to open the schematic drawing.
AMVSCH_yourusername schematic page
2. Choose menu Place → Text. In the Place Text window, type in the text you want to add
to your schematic. For this tutorial, the author wrote “Astable Multivibrator”.
Note: You must type Ctrl+Enter to make a new line in this text entry field. If you only press Enter,
the software will interpret your entry as clicking the OK button instead.
3. Before you click OK, change the font and size by clicking on the Change button under the
Font section, then making modifications you prefer. This tutorial uses Times New Roman
as the font style, Bold and size 16.
4. Once you have confirmed your settings for the text, choose OK, then OK again, then a text
box will attach to your cursor, waiting for you to click on the schematic to place it.
5. Place the text above the schematic, then right click and choose End Mode.
6. Click the Project tab in the upper
.\AMVSCH_yourusername.dsn design file.
left,
and
then
highlight
the
7. Go to File → Save, and save your project.
3.4.5 Setting Up the Printed Circuit Board
Next, you will get a PCB ready to import the schematic and footprints.
Important Note: You must follow the parameters in this section exactly. If you choose any options
that deviate from these parameters/instructions your PCB will not be fabricated.
1. Go to the Windows Start menu icon, then click All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 →
Allegro Products → PCB Editor.
2. When prompted, choose Allegro PCB Designer then click OK.
3. Wait for PCB Editor to open.
4. Click on the PCB Editor menu File → New. A New Drawing window appears.
5. Choose Board (wizard) from the list, then name the drawing “AMVPCB_yourusername”.
6. Click the Browse button, then navigate to your project folder (AMV_yourusername).
7. Create a new folder inside the AMV project folder and name it “allegro” (all lowercase).
8. Double-click the allegro folder to open it, then finally, click the Open button.
9. Back in the New Drawing window, make sure Board (wizard) is still highlighted, and that
your board name is correct (AMVPCB_yourusername.brd), then click OK, then the Board
Wizard window will load.
10. Click the Next button until you see Board Wizard – General Parameters at the top of this
window.
11. Choose the Units to be Mils, set Size to “A” and choose the At the center of the drawing
radio button. Click Next.
12. In the General Parameters (Continued) window, leave the settings as they are, but select the
“Don’t generate artwork films.” radio button. Click Next.
13. Click Next to go to the Spacing Constraints window.
14. Type “12” in the Minimum Line width field then press Tab key. Everything will update to 12
mils.
15. Then select the ellipses beside Default via padstack and the Board Wizard Padstack
Browser window will appear.
16. In the Board Wizard Padstack Browser window, type in “pad35*” in the search field, then
press Enter on the keyboard.
17. Select “pad35cir25d” on the list below → click OK. (This is how we choose the default via).
18. You will be back in the Board Wizard – Spacing Constraints window. Click Next.
19. Choose Rectangular board then click Next.
20. Leave the default values as they are. The Width and Height of the board will be 1000 mils each
(1 inch each).
21. Click Next → Finish. The board will be made in the work area and should look like Figure
2.7. If you can’t see the borders, scroll up/down to zoom until you find the borders.
22. In PCB Editor go to menu File → Save to save the board.
Figure 3.12 PCB Outline for AMV Circuit
3.4.6 Setting Up Footprint and Padstack Search Paths
Before we can generate a net list of all the parts in the circuit for PCB layout, we must go on the
PCB Editor and make sure it knows where to search for the custom footprints. Any footprints that
are not placed inside the Cadence software symbols folder will not be loaded or recognized during
netlist creation. So the software must be told which additional directories to search.
1. Open up PCB Editor then go to menu Setup → User Preferences →
and choose padpath under the Preference list.
Paths → Library
2. Click the ellipses next to padpath under the Value column to add a new pad path. The
padpath Items window will appear.
3. Click the New (insert) button
to add a new row to this window. Then click the ellipses
button on the extreme right of the new row to bring up the Windows File Explorer. Search
and find the folder inside your project folder named “AMV Footprints and Padstacks”.
Important Note: The path should lead to the AMV Footprints and Padstacks folder you created in
Chapter 5 – Learning PCB Editor, related to this AMV project tutorial. For example, the
author’s path is L:\AMV_knmackey\AMV Footprints and Padstacks\
4. Choose that folder to add to the list, then click the OK button.
5. Back in the padpath Items window, click OK again.
6. Click the ellipses for the “psmpath” preference and add the exact same folder to it also.
7. Once you have set those two preferences to look for your custom footprint folder in the
User Preferences Editor window, click the Apply button, then click OK.
Note: You did not have to do the folder and path setup for the previous chapter because the
footprints that we used in the previous chapter were already included inside the software package.
So remember this: Anytime you are using your own custom Footprints and padstacks you must
use this setup process for PCB Editor and OrCAD Capture CIS to locate the footprints for your
parts during netlisting.
3.4.7 Creating the Netlist to Update the PC Board
Now you are ready to update the board you just made in PCB Editor. You will translate the schematic
from Capture CIS into circuit symbols that can be placed onto the PC board. The process is called
netlisting.
1. Close PCB Editor if you still have it open. Choose Yes if asked to save changes.
2. Go back to OrCAD Capture CIS if it’s already open OR if it’s closed, go to Windows Start
→ All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products → Capture CIS, choose the
first product option, then click OK.
3. To open your project go to File → Open → Project, then find your project and open it.
4. When your project is open, click on the Project Tab → expand the project File named “
AMV_yourusername.dsn” → select the AMVSCH_yourusername folder → select the
AMVSCH_yourusername page.
5. While the file (AMVSCH_yourusername) in the hierarchy is highlighted, go to menu Tools →
Create Netlist..., then the Create Netlist window will appear.
6.
Check mark the option that says Create or Update PCB Editor Board (Netrev).
7. Choose the Input board file to be the one you just created (AMVPCB_yourusername.brd) by
clicking on the ellipses button, then searching for the AMVPCB_yourusername.brd file you
made in an ‘allegro’ folder within your project folder.
8. Then change the output board to the same name “allegro\AMVPCB_yourusername.brd”.
9. Make sure the settings and options are set to as shown in Figure 2.8, then click OK.
10. When a prompt appears, click Okay then the net list will be generated.
11. Capture CIS will automatically open PCB Editor, then a “Cadence 17.2 Allegro Product
Choices” window will appear, asking which product to use.
12. Select the first option: Allegro PCB Designer, then click OK. The board will be opened in
PCB Editor. We recommend saving your PCB before moving on.
You will notice that PCB Editor opened the same board you created earlier. There is no visible
difference and the outlines are still present, but now this PCB has imported all the components and
their footprints into the software. You will see the imported parts in the following sections.
Figure 3.13 AMV Create Netlist Settings
3.5 Setting Up the PCB Editor Environment
This section shows you how to further set up the design environment color views and text in
Allegro PCB Editor/Designer. You may use these settings for any PCB you design, not just the
astable multivibrator. You can set up a lot of parameters in the PCB environment but color views
and text width are the only ones we’ll cover in this chapter.
3.5.1 Changing Default Text Width
By default, PCB Editor uses 0 line width for the text width, but this can be a problem when
generating Artwork Files. Open PCB Editor:
1. Go to Setup in the menu → Design Parameters and the Design Parameter Editor
window appears.
2. Choose the Text tab at the top of this window.
3. Click the ellipses
next to Setup text sizes. Now in the Text Setup window, change
the Photo Width for all the text fields to 10 (these units were already in mils, when you
used the board wizard), then click OK to go back to the Design Parameter Editor
window.
4. Click Apply → click OK.
5. Back in the Design Parameter Editor window, click the Design tab and double check that
your units are in Mils and the Size is set to A (this is the size of the work area).
6. Once you verify the units, click the OK button.
3.5.2 Creating Color Views (Silk screen, Solder mask, Copper and Design Outlines)
The color of the different PCB layers are a convenient way for you to print out the Gerber files
and artwork files. You would set up the views for top and bottom copper, top and bottom solder
mask and top silk screen and the outline.
Top Copper View
1. Go to the PCB Editor menu Display →
Color/Visibility and the Color Dialog
window will appear.
2. Click the Off button to the right of Global Visibility found on the right of this window.
3. Then check mark the left box at the intersection of Top and All, so your options choice
should look like what’s shown in Figure 3.14.
Figure 3.14 Top Copper View Options
4. Click Apply, then OK. You must always click Apply for the Color Dialog box to save.
5. Then go to menu View → Color View Save and the Color View Save window will appear.
6. Type “TOPL” in the Save view field, then click the Save button then Close.
The TOPL color view save file is saved in the same allegro folder the AMVPCB file is saved.
All Other Color Views
Next you would repeat this process for the subsequent layers according to Table 3.2. So go back
to PCB Editor’s Color Dialog tool (menu Display →
Color/Visibility) and turn Global
visibility off, then check mark the boxes found in column 2 of the table. Then click Apply and
OK, go to the View → Color View Save option, then save that view with the name shown in
column 3 for that row. So for example, look at row #2 for the Bottom Copper layer, choose the
color view shown in column 2 (all yellow check boxes). Apply that color view, then save it in the
View → Color View Save as the file “BOTL”. Turn off all the colors again before you save
another color view. Repeat these steps for the remaining rows in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Color View Save Layers
Layer
Active Class + Subclass
Colorview
Save
Name
Top Copper (done)
TOPL
Bottom Copper
Top Solder mask
Bottom Solder mask
BOTL
MASK_TOP
MASK_BOT
Oultine
OUTLINE
Top Silk screen
All
SILK_TOP
Choose all boxes shown above and add:
ALL
Geometry > Package Geometry > Place Bound Top and Dfa_Bound_Top
Components > Ref des > Assembly Top
When your color views are finished and saved, you can
navigate to the right side of the work area in PCB Editor and
select the Visibility tab
seen on
the right, then click the dropdown box next to View and select
any saved view you want to work with. Or if you want, just
click the On button next to Global Visibility.
These views will be used during the artwork manufacturing in
a later section to generate Gerber files. Go to the Visibility tab on the right and select the ALL
view. Now you can see all the relevant color views and continue working.
3.6 Laying Out the Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
Now it’s time to lay out the printed circuit board in PCB Editor. If you don’t recall how to open
PCB Editor, Go to Windows Start → All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products
→ PCB Editor, choose the Allegro PCB Designer option, then click OK and PCB Editor will
open.
1. In PCB Editor, open your project if it’s not already open. With your project open, go to
the menu: Place → Manually. The Placement window appears.
2. Choose “Components by refdes” in the dropdown field on the left.
3. Below it, check mark all the components by clicking in the
Component by refdes
folder’s check box.
4. Click the Hide button and you will find a part attached to your cursor.
5. Click the work area to place each component that’s attached to your cursor. If you want to
rotate the part before placing it, can right click the part, then choose Rotate.
How to Rotate a Part: To rotate a part, right click the work area when the part is still attached to
your cursor and is floating, then a dropdown menu will show up. Click Rotate then the part will
stop moving and will begin rotating depending on which angle you move your cursor. When you
have decided which angle you want, click once, then the part will re-attach itself to your mouse
cursor and you can place the newly rotated part by clicking once on the work area.
6. If when you are done placing all the parts, you found that you placed a part in the wrong
location, click-release (do not drag) the part to pick it up, then move it anywhere you like.
Then click-release once to place the part in some new location.
7. Keep placing the parts until they’re all on the PCB area and look similar to Figure 3.15.
8. You may need to right click the work area and select Done (shortcut F6).
9. Be sure to save your file by going to menu File →Save then choose Yes if prompted about
overwriting your file.
Tip: If you have your project open in Capture CIS at the same time, you can click the part on
your schematic and in PCB Editor that same part’s symbol will attach itself to your cursor for
placement.
Figure 3.15 AMV PCB Components Placed
Connectors are at the top side of the board for power.
3.6.1 Routing the PCB
In the previous chapter, you routed the PCB for the LED circuit using Autoroute. This time, you
will route your PCB manually. Most PCBs are routed manually and engineers often swear by it,
because there are many design considerations while routing a PCB that most automatic routing
tools can miss.
Be aware of these general guidelines as you get ready to lay out your design:









Place all the components onto your work area so you can plan where to put the components
(proper placement accounts for 90% of the ease of routing a PCB)
Section the components according to the sections on your schematic
Place connectors toward the edges of the PCB
Place components onto the PCB in a way that minimizes the trace length between parts
Route the traces for the most important connections first (critical power and digital signals)
Route ground connections last
Place a copper pour for ground on the bottom of the board (if 2-layer PCB)
Run a design rules check for all connections on the PCB
Clean up the traces so they look more appealing
You will be done routing with the design rules check returns no errors. Now let’s route the PCB.
To start manual routing:
1. In PCB Editor with your project open, go to the menu Route →
Connect. You can
now click on the padstack/pin of a component, then move the mouse along the PCB area
until you connect the wire to another padstack/pin.
You may notice that there are blue lines showing you where your wire should connect to. The blue
lines are called Rats Nets and follow the same connections from the schematic you made earlier
for the AMV.
2. Keep making connections from one pin/pad to another as you are guided by the blue lines.
3. Do not make connections for the ‘0’ net just yet. You are going to make a ground plane to
deal with those connections to ‘0’ (ground).
Eventually most of the Rats Nest will disappear as you make all the connections, but sometimes
it’s not possible to connect everything without crossing the wires, but you should get most of them.
For example, the author routed his board as illustrated in Figure 3.16.
Figure 3.16 Partially routed AMV PCB without '0' ground connection or vias
In this tutorial we use a single via to the ground plane. So we’ll discuss the ground plane first, then
placing vias.
3.6.1.1 Placing copper pour and a ground plane
In general, the electrical engineer should place a layer of ground copper on the bottom of a 2-sided
board. The ground plane provides a solid return path for currents running through the top layer of
the PCB.
The designer should make the ground plane as large as possible to reduce the overall board
resistance and inductance. Here’s how to place the ground plane:
1. With your AMV PCB board open in PCB Editor, go to Shape → Rectangular, then you
will be in that shape placement mode.
2. Click on the Options tab to the right of the Allegro PCB Designer window and choose
the options shown in Figure 3.17.
Click here to choose from
the list of net names
Figure 3.17 Settings for the ground plane
When you have confirmed your settings above:
3. The rectangle will be attached to your cursor
4. Hover over the PCB and then click to place the copper plane as evenly inside the PCB
outline as possible, then right click and choose Done.
5. Your PCB would look similar to Figure 3.18.
Figure 3.18 AMV PCB layout with ground plane
Tip: If you made a mistake placing the rectangular ground plane, you can click Edit → Undo
(Ctrl+Z) then try placing it again.
You will notice from the figure above that there is a connection left to be made, but we have no
easy way of connecting those components on the top layer. This situation calls for a via.
3.6.1.2 Placing Vias
A via is a hole that is plated in conductive material that connects the top layer of copper to the
bottom layer of copper. If your board had multiple layers of copper, the via would also connect
multiple layers vertically in the PCB.
You can only place a Via while you are routing in Route mode. So while for practice, start routing:
1. Click on the work area to start a trace, then click again to make a vertex for the trace where
you will want to drop a via.
2.
Right click then select Add Via. You will notice that a hole with a pad will appear.
Note: This is the same “pad35cir25d” we chose in the Board Wizard setup procedure to be the
Default Via Pad stack.
Tip: You can also double-click to add a via, instead of right clicking then choosing Add Via.
3. Continue routing as usual to whichever layer the via took you to (the bottom layer in our
case).
4. Right click then choose Done when you have finished routing.
Note: Sometimes the PCB can suddenly disappear into all black. To solve this problem, minimize
PCB Editor, then maximize it or scroll up/down in the work area.
To apply the above knowledge to our situation, if you have a single pad that needs to connect to
the ground plane on the bottom:
1. Click on Route → Connect to get into routing mode.
2. Click on the pad of the transistor that has the unconnected ‘0’
pin to start routing from there.
3. Extend the trace about 100 mils from the pad.
4. Right click at that spot then choose Add via.
5. A via will be created and will immediately connect to the ‘0’
plane on the bottom layer, as seen on the right.
6. Right click the work area, then select Done.
Placed
via
If you have been routing your board exactly like the author, you have now finished routing your
PCB!
You will know there are no more connections to be made when there are no more Rats Nest lines.
Your finished board can have an endless number of routing path combinations. Take a look at the
three versions of layout and routing the author has done in Figure 3.19 for examples.
Figure 3.19 Routed AMV PCB version 1 (left) and this final version (right)
Sometimes the routing isn’t always as good as we would like and there are many rules and
guidelines on how to route a PCB. We’ll leave in-depth analysis on routing paths for PCBs to the
student for further investigation. Nonetheless, once you have finished routing, you can use a tool
in PCB Editor to ‘clean up’ the traces you routed on the board.
3.6.1.3 Cleaning Up Routing
To clean up the routing, you would use the gloss feature in PCB Editor. In PCB Editor:
1. Choose the menu Route → Gloss → Parameters…. The Glossing Controller window
will appear.
2. There are some pre-selected options, so keep those checked, then click Gloss at the bottom
of the window.
Warning: Do not check mark other options in this window before click Gloss. It can cause PCB
Editor to suddenly close without saving yoru design. This bug may be solved in future versions of
Cadence 17.2 suite.
3. The Gloss tool will smoothen up the traces and angles, making the board traces look more
attractive. The result is illustrated for in Figure 3.20.
Now that the routing is cleaned up you are ready to prepare the board for manufacturing.
Figure 3.20 AMV PCB after using Gloss version 1 (left) and version 2 (right)
3.7 Preparing for Manufacture
3.7.1 Generating Silk screen
The silk screen is usually white text on a PCB that shows the names of all the components and
other important information. To generate Silk screen in PCB Editor:
1. Go to the menu Manufacturer → Silk screen.
2. The Auto Silk screen window will appear. In this window, you will need to the options to
be just like in Figure 3.21.
3. So under the Classes and subclasses set: Board geometry, Package geometry and
Reference designator to ‘Silk’.
4. Set the other classes to ‘None’.
5. Ensure that under the Text section, that Rotation is set
to 0.
6. Uncheck the option that says “Allow under
components”.
7. Click the Silk screen button then the silk screen will
automatically be generated. It will appear in the work
area as new text and lines (similar to on the right).
8. To see the silk screen clearly, change the view to “SILK_TOP” from the Visibility tab on
the right of the work area.
Your text may be a different color from green if you have been using different color settings.
Nonetheless, we’re going to change the silk screen to white using the Color Dialog window.
Figure 3.21 Silk screen Options
This will generate silk screen from the layers you select on the left and place the silk screen text at various angles
Changing Active Class and Subclass Layer Colors (Changing Silk screen Color)
The silk screen will show up in green by default but you can change that color to something like
white, because most silk screen is printed in white in on PCBs:
1. With your PCB open in PCB Editor, go to menu Display →
Color/Visibility. The Color Dialog window will appear.
white
2. In the Color Dialog window, select from the left area, Manufacturing.
3. Click the color white in one of the boxes from the color palette at the bottom
of the window.
4. Then click the box beside the
Subclass element “Autosilk Top”.
5. The silk screen text will turn white.
6. Also change Geometry → Package Geometry → Silk screen_Top to white.
7. While you are changing colors, go ahead and select
Geometry on the left → Package Geometry, then select
the yellow color box
at the bottom from the Available
colors: section, and make Pin_Number in the list above
change to yellow. This change is shown on the right.
8. Be sure to click Apply, then OK.
Note: The colors selected do not save unless you click Apply, even if you click OK.
Now the color change is done. However, the board silk screen should be made easy to read. In the
next section, you will make all the text read in one direction (where possible) so anyone can easily
read the PCB at a glance.
Moving Text Around in PCB Editor
For readability, all silk screen text on a PCB should be facing the same direction. It's also
recommended to place the text consistently above or below or left or right of the components you
are working with. To manipulate the silk screen text:
1. In PCB Editor, click the Visibility tab on the right of your window.
2. In the View section, change the video to “ALL” (you would have made this color view
earlier in the tutorial under Creating Color Views (Silk screen, Solder mask, Copper
and Design Outlines)).
3. With your PCB open in in PCB Editor, right click the work area. Select Super Filter →
Text. This makes it so that you can only select text on the work area.
4. Click-hold and drag an instance of the silk screen text that was generated for the auto silk
layer (for example, grab R4) and while still holding the left mouse button, right click at the
same time to bring up some options.
5. Select Rotate, then you can rotate the text, just like you rotated the parts when placing
them.
6. Once you have rotated the text to an angle you like (upright is best), click-release and now
the text will stay attached to your cursor from this point on until you click-place it.
7. Place the text as close to its respective part as possible without covering any other text,
pads or parts. It can get tricky, but it’s doable.
8. Have the silk screen text make it clear which part it is referring to. In general you can
achieve such clarity by putting the text right next to the part.
9. Also place the text above the part, where possible.
10. Repeat the same steps to move all text reference designators to appropriate locations.
11. When you are done placing the text where they should go, change your Visibility to
SILK_TOP. Your PCB may end up looking like Figure 3.22.
Figure 3.22 Silk screen with corrected text positions
3.7.1.1 Adding (Silk screen) Text to the PCB
You will also need to add some text that includes your
name, the date and the name of the circuit you just made.
To add text:
1. With your PCB open in PCB Editor, change the
Visibility to ALL.
2. Now select menu Add → Text.
3. Look at the Options tab on the right of the work
area.
4. In the Active Class and Subclass section, click
the first dropdown bar and choose Manufacturing
(this is the Class).
5. Then click the second dropdown bar and choose
Autosilk Top (this is the Subclass).
6. Put the text block size to 1.
7. Now click on the work area where you want to place the text. This is where you will place
information about you and your PCB.
8. Type your 1) first and last name, 2) username, 3) “Astable Multivibrator” then 4) date in
this format MM/DD/YY on to the board where you have space.
9. Then right click and choose Done.
10. Move the text around if needed (by click-holding and dragging the text) so that no
components will be hiding it when the PCB is assembled.
Your board may end up looking similar to Figure 3.23.
Figure 3.23 Finished AMV PCB with Title and Designer's Information
Ensure the text is all in one direction where possible
Once you finish the silk screen text, you are ready to generate their Artwork (Gerber) Files.
3.8 Generating Artwork (Gerber) and Drill Files
Artwork (Gerber) Files
1. In PCB Editor, go to menu Manufacture → Artwork… The Artwork Control Form
window will open. You will also see two pre-loaded artwork film folders, BOTTOM
and TOP.
2. Now you will make use of the color views to add more artwork layers. While the Artwork
Film Control window is open, click on the Visibility tab to the right of the PCB Editor
work area.
3. Choose the MASK_TOP view to only see the top solder mask of the board.
4. Then right click on one of the folders inside the Artwork Control Form window and
choose “Add”.
5. Type the name of the color view exactly. In this case, it’s “MASK_TOP” then click OK.
The current view (solder mask) will be added and will create a MASK_TOP folder in
the Artwork Control Form window.
6. Repeat the previous three steps to add “MASK_BOT” layer, “SILK_TOP”, and
“OUTLINE”. No need to add the TOPL or BOTL layers or ALL layers because those will
already be generated.
7. Back in the Artwork Control Form window, check mark
the remaining folders. These are all called
film folders OR you can click the Select all
button.
8. Highlight the
BOTTOM film folder
name, then change its Undefined line width
value (on the right area inside the Artwork
Control Form window) to 5 (mil), making
sure to press the Tab key (or clicking on
another field after entering ‘5’) to update the
field.
BOTTOM and
TOP and
Undefined line width
9. Repeat the previous step with the remaining folders, making all their Undefined line
widths to be 5 mils as well.
10. Now click the button at the bottom that says Apertures → Edit → Auto -> → Without
rotation, then 36 new apertures should fill this Edit Aperture Stations window if this is
your first time doing this step.
11. Click OK → OK and you will be back in the Artwork Control Form window.
12. Go to the General Parameters tab in this window.
13. Change the suffix field to “_yourusername”. For example, the author’s username is
“knmackey”, so the author would type “_knmackey”.
14. Go back to the Artwork Film Control tab then check mark all the layers again if needed.
15. Finally, click the Create Artwork button. Choose “Yes” if prompted about using the
DESIGN_OUTLINE and CUTOUT subclasses.
Note: The software believes you are not using the proper subclass, but if you look inside the
OUTLINE folder, you indeed are using the correct subclass.
16. The artwork Files will be generated, then placed inside the ‘allegro’ folder inside your
project folder, so click OK in the Artwork Control Form window to finish.
Note: The ‘allegro’ folder also houses the “AMVPCB_yourusername.brd” File for this board.
When the artwork files are generated, there are usually errors/warnings that show up in a View
of file: photoplot output window, but most of the times it turns out fine, so just close it. Now that
the artwork files have been generated, it’s time to generate the drill file.
Drill File
1. With your PCB open in PCB Editor go to menu Manufacture → NC → NC Drill. The
NC Drill window will open.
2. Click the NC Parameters… button to open the NC Parameters window.
3. Checkmark Leading zero suppression and Enhanced Excellon format, then click Close.
4. Back in the NC Drill window, set the Root file name to AMVPCB_yourusername.drl.
5. Change the scale factor to 1, checkmark Auto tool select and Optimize drill head travel.
6. Uncheck Separate files for plated/non-plated holes and uncheck Repeat codes.
7. Click the Drill button then a drill file will be generated in your “allegro” folder (you will
only see a progress bar appear then disappear after a “Successfully Completed” status).
8. After the drill file has been generated, click Close in the NC Drill window.
9. At this time, definitely save your project by going to the menu File → Save, then click Yes
if prompted about overwriting the file.
3.9 Generating Documentation
3.9.1 Photoplot of PCB Layers
1. With your PCB open in PCB Editor go to File → Plot Setup. The Plot Setup window
will open.
2. Set Plot scaling to “Scaling factor” of 1.35, Plot method to “Color”, Plot contents to
“Sheet contents”, then click OK.
3. In PCB Editor Go to File → Plot…. The Print window will appear.
4. Click the Setup… button and the Print Setup window will open.
5. You may choose a printer you prefer, but for this tutorial, we’ll go with CutePDF Writer.
Important Note: If you are using Blackmesa, Use CutePDF, not the option that says CutePDF
(redirected 69), because CutePDF option will print to the Blackmesa computer if you are using
Blackmesa, while CutePDF (redirected 69) will not let you print from through Blackmesa.
6. Choose your settings as desired (we’ll go with Landscape, under the Orientation section,
but Portrait works fine, too).
7. Click OK to close the Print Setup window going back to the Print window.
8. Click OK to start the print operation. Wait for a few moments.
Note: If CutePDF is taking more than 5 seconds to start, click once in the work area of PCB Editor
(black area), the CutePDF icon
icon
should show in the Windows Task Bar. Click the CutePDF
if no window appears so that you pull up the Save As window.
9. In the Save As window that should appear, navigate to your project folder, then create a
new folder named Documentation.
10. Navigate to the inside of the Documentation folder, name the File
“AMVPCB_LAYERNAME_yourusername”, where “LAYERNAME” is replaced with
the View you currently have visible in PCB Editor.
11. Click Save to save the file.
12. In Windows File Explorer
, navigate to your project folder named AMV_yourusername,
then check the file you just made in the Documentation folder and see your AMV PCB
schematic plot File (.pdf File) and make sure that it shows the PCB layer you intended to
plot.
13. You will need to repeat this section’s instructions for each layer in your Visibility tab’s
View drown list (i.e. TOPL, BOTL, MASK_TOP, etc.) and print them into separate PDF
files. Be sure to check each one so they’re correct and to change their names accordingly.
3.9.2 Adding Vendor Information to Parts
According to source [3], you should include more information about your schematic parts than is
provided by default in Capture CIS. In this section, you are going to attach manufacturer and
vendor parts information to each of your parts on the AMVSCH_yourusername schematic.
Open the Excel Workbook that comes with this tutorial. For each part in the workbook, there is a
Digi-Key Part number just above the part’s reference number. For example, R1 and R4 both have
the part number “RNF14FTD4K99CT-ND”. To associate the part number with each of these parts:
1. Open your AMV_yourusername project in Capture CIS.
2. Then open your AMVSCH_yourusername schematic page and make sure all parts are
visible.
3. Highlight all the schematic parts (or press Ctrl+A), then go to menu Edit → Properties,
then information about all the selected items will appear.
4. Click the Parts tab in the lower left of this window to show only the parts on your
schematic. You should see all the reference numbers of the parts on the far left.
Note: If you can’t see the reference numbers for each part, like C1 and R2, click-drag the column
bar
to
the
right
until
the
reference
numbers
are
revealed.
Click-hold
Drago to the right
5. Click the New Property button
in the upper left area.
6. Type “DigiKey Part Number” exactly, then click OK. A new column will appear to the far
right.
Important Note: As soon as you hit Tab or Enter or click outside the row where you input the
first part number, the DigiKey Part Number column may automatically disappear. If this happens,
just scroll to the left to find that it’s placed itself alphabetically in the list of properties and continue
entering your information.
7. Enter the part number for the first part into the DigiKey Part Number column. In our
example, the first part is C1, so the part number is “311-1364-ND” found on the SMDs
worksheet tab of the Excel file.
8. Continue entering (you can copy and paste) the part numbers from the Excel Workbook
into the respective rows of the DigiKey Part Number column until your parts list looks
something like Figure 3.24.
Figure 3.24 List of components with vendor part number
You can create any property you want for all the parts in your schematic and fill in the appropriate
information just like above. For more information on how to search for component manufacturing
and vendor information in general, refer to Chapter 4. The next section will show how to generate
a bill of materials.
3.9.3 Generating a Bill of Materials
1. With your project open in Capture CIS, click on the Project tab and then the page
schematic you want to create a bill of materials for. Double check to make sure that the
page is highlighted. In this tutorial, the page would be AMVSCH_yourusername.
2. Click menu Tools → Bill of Materials and the Bill of Materials window appears.
3. In the Scope section, select Process selection.
4. Check mark Open in Excel.
5. Click the Browse button, then navigate to the Documentation folder that you created
earlier.
6. Name the file “BOM_yourusername”, then click Open to confirm the file name and the
directory.
7. Back in the Bill of Materials window, change the following field values:
Header: Item\tQuantity\tReference\tPart\tDigiKey Part Number
Combined property string: {Item}\t{Quantity}\t{Reference}\t{Value}\t{DigiKey Part Number}
8. When the fields are updated, click OK, then Excel will open and present a list of all the
components in your schematic.
9. In Excel, choose File → Save As and the Save As window will appear.
10. You should be in the Documentation folder already. If not, then navigate to the folder
within your project folder for this tutorial. Select the Save as type: dropdown bar where it
says “Text (Tab delimited)” and change it to Excel Workbook instead.
11. Name the file BOM_yourusername again, then click the Save button. Choose Yes if
prompted to replace the existing File.
3.9.4 Generating a Smart PDF of a Schematic
1. Open OrCAD Capture CIS and open your project in OrCAD Capture CIS if it’s not
already open.
2. Click on the Project tab that says “AMV_yourusername” to show your project Files.
3. Expand the “.\AMV_yourusername.dsn” folder and AMVSCH_yourusername folder.
4. Click and highlight your schematic
(“AMVSCH_yourusername” in this case).
you
created
the
netlist
from
earlier
Important Note: The schematic File AMVSCH_yourusername must be highlighted to generate
the PDF, else the smart PDF won’t know which page you want to print. Also, you should have
Ghostscript or Adobe Acrobat Pro installed on your machine.
5. Click menu File → Export → PDF and the PDF Export window will appear.
6. In the Converter field under the Postscript Commands section, choose the converter to
be Ghostscript 64 bit/equivalent or Ghostscript /equivalent or Acrobat Distiller.
Note: If you are using Blackmesa, choose Acrobat Distiller. If on another machine, you might not
have Ghostscript nor Acrobat Distiller installed. In this case, you can’t generate a smart PDF.
7. In the Converter Path field, click the ellipses button
and navigate to “c:\program
Files (x86)\adobe\acrobat 11.0\acrobat\acrodist.exe” if you are using Acrobat Distiller or
to “c:\program files\gs\gs9.21\bin\gswin64c.exe” if using Ghostscript 64. Then click OK.
You will notice the text at the PDF Export window go from red to green.
8. For the Output Directory field, under Output Properties section, click on the ellipses
button
and navigate to the “Documentation” folder you created earlier, then click
Select Folder.
9. When those options are finished and your PDF Export window looks similar to Figure 3.25,
click OK.
10. The PDF will be generated and will open automatically in Adobe Acrobat. This PDF is
“smart” because you can click on each component to see its properties, click on the
bookmarks on the left and on different components in the list to jump directly to that
component on the sheet.
11. Close the smart PDF.
Figure 3.25 PDF Export Settings for Smart PDF
3.9.5 Generating a Regular PDF of the Schematic
If you are not able to generate a smart PDF, you can still print your schematic to a regular PDF.
To generate a normal printout/PDF of your schematic:
1. Open your AMV_yourusername project in OrCAD Capture CIS. If prompted about which
product to use, choose the first option in the Allegro Product selection window, then click
OK.
2. After the project is opened in Capture CIS, choose the project tab in the windows midway
down the software window. It should be beside the Start Page tab.
3. Then highlight the page name AMVSCH_yourusername found under the root folder of
the folder hierarchy.
4. While the page is highlighted go to File → Print, then click the Setup button.
5. Then in the Print Setup window, click the dropdown next to Name: to choose the printer
you want to use to generate the PDF, like CutePDF Writer.
6. Click the OK button to confirm how you want the schematic printed then click OK again
and the schematic will bring up CutePDF for you to save it in the appropriate
“Documentation” directory in your project folder.
3.10 Submitting Your PCB for Fabrication Check
3.10.1 Packaging the Artwork Files
1. In Windows File Explorer go to the artwork (.ART) files you created earlier in the tutorial,
located in “[Folder AMV_yourusername]\allegro\”.
2. While holding the Ctrl key on the keyboard, select all the files with extension “.ART” (not
.ART-1) and .DRL.
3. Right click the highlighted files. Choose Send to →Compressed (Zipped) Folder. The
.ZIP File will be generated with an arbitrary name and .zip and extension.
4. Click on the zip File which is generated and change it to AMVART_yourusername.
Important note: Some find it easier to just copy and paste the files into a new folder, then they
right click the folder and zip the folder. However, zipping the folder is incorrect. The FreeDFM
software is programmed to scan the contents in the zip file directly. Therefore, if it has to look into
the zip file, then into the folder within the zip file before it can get to the art and drill Files, your
zipped folder won’t be scanned properly. So the zip folder is the only main folder; that’s it.
3.10.2 How to Submit Artwork (Gerber) Files for Design Review
Now you are going to submit your Gerber Files to freeDFM.com for PCB review.
1. Open up a web browser (Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge, etc.) and type in freeDFM.com.
The web page will load so you can enter your PCB information.
2. Type in your University of Arkansas email address in the appropriate web forms.
3. Click the Choose File button and then navigate to the zip folder that you just created.
4. Select the zip File, then click Open, then the zip File will upload to the web page.
5. Click the Upload ZipFile button. A new webpage will load.
6. Next choose the layer types as shown in Table 3.3.
7. The AMVPCB_yourusername-1-2.drl File will automatically be assigned as the NC Drill.
8. Input all the requested information: for a:
Part #: type “AMVyourusername1inx1in.
Revision #: 1
X Dimension: 1, Y Dimension: 1
Layer Count: 2
Solder mask Sides: Both
Silk screen Sides: top
9. Finally click ‘no’ radio button for the ITAR option.
10. Double check that your settings are similar to those shown in Figure 3.26, then click
Submit.
Table 3.3 FreeDFM layer import settings for PCB layers
File Name
TOP
BOTTOM
MASK_TOP
MASK_BOT
SILK_TOP
OUTLINE
PROJECTNAME-1.DRL
PCB Layer
Copper top
Copper Bottom
Solder mask Top
Solder mask Bottom
Silk screen Top
Drawing/Other
Drill
Figure 3.26 Settings for FreeDFM.com Submission
Double check all the settings shown above.
The free DFM quote will be submitted. Just wait 10 to 30 minutes and you will receive results for
your PCB via email. If you did your design well, your results should come back clean and look
like Figure 3.27.
Figure 3.27 Free DFM Results - no errors
Excellent job! You just finished your second printed circuit board design. The next chapter will
cover how to use Capture CIS to create schematic symbols and searching for and finding parts
from electronics distributors.
Skills Acquired




PCB Design flow
OrCAD schematics development
PCB Editor board development
Routing a PCB
The author has completed project files here: Astable Multivibrator – Kirsch Mackey.
4 Chapter 4 – Learning Capture CIS
LEARNING CAPTURE CIS
BOOT
C7
0.47uF
R5 4.7Ohm
HIDR
1
TP3
TPGATEHIGH D_HIGH
G_HIGH
U6
D2
IRF540NSTRLPBF
DIODE
R6
S_HIGH
D3
0
BAT54C
LOWDR
R8
D5 BAT54C
1
TP5
TPGATELOW D_LOW
220uH
D4
U7
DIODE
IRF540NSTRLPBF
G_LOW
D6
4.7Ohm
R11
L2
0
D7
BOOT
S_LOW
BAT54C
BAT54C
0
Objectives
Vcc1
1
2
1. Find parts on electronics vendors’ websites
12V
2. Be able to create parts symbols from scratch
3. Associate new properties to parts
4.1 Overview
Welcome to the Capture CIS chapter of this guide. Now that you have completed the tutorials in
chapters 2 and 3, you are ready to create your own symbols. This chapter has instructions on how
to search for parts through electronic components vendors and how to create your own part
libraries and symbols.
For sake of continuity from the tutorials in chapters 2 and 3, this chapter will show you how to
search for the LED and other components on a parts vendor website. Then you will learn how to
create the LEDs used in those chapters from scratch.
4.2 Finding electronic parts for the schematic
The engineer ideally would start with a problem statement, such as “make an astable multivibrator
circuit that operates at a frequency of about 4 Hz on its output voltage and blinks LEDs while
doing so”. The engineer would then use circuit theory and analysis techniques from Circuits 1 and
2 to create a circuit that achieves the task.
This chapter will show you how one can select the LED for the astable multivibrator circuit that
satisfies constraints involving voltage, current and cost. To demonstrate this process, let’s say you
have already determined that your LEDs should not have a voltage drop greater than 3 Volts. In
addition, you don’t want to spend more than $0.75 on the LED. Lastly, you want it to be reasonably
sized, such as the popular 5mm (T-1 ¾) package used in the PSPICE simulation.
4.2.1 Searching Digi-Key parts
To search for a part like this, go to Digi-Key Electronics at http://www.digikey.com. Go to the
appropriate category on the left menu under Products: LED/Optoelectronics > LED Indication –
Discrete. There are thousands of parts to choose from, but you should enter specific filters, first.
Active status (always)
In stock (always check)
Cut Tape (most times)
Clear All Selections
Figure 4.1 Searching Digi-Key for parts
4.2.1.1 Filter Options
Enter the following filters when searching for parts on Digi-Key. Refer to the image above on
where to find the following choices:


Find the Clear All Selections button, then check mark the In stock option above it.
Then under the Part Status column, select Active.
When those options above are selected, click the Apply Filters button, then you can really start
your search based on what is now available.
4.2.1.2 Supplier Device Package
Now you will check to see if the part you are looking for has the packaging you want. Knowing
the desired packaging from the top of your head comes with experience. Ask a fellow engineer or
instructor or do an online search on most useful packages for your application.
In this guide, you will scroll to the “T-1 3/4” package found in the Supplier Device Package
column all the way to the right.
Highlight the “T-1 3/4” package, and then click the Apply Filters button
reduce the options from over 7,000 to about a few hundred.
. That will
4.2.1.3 Ratings (current or voltage)
You know that you do not want the LED to have a voltage drop requirement greater than 3 Volts,
so go to the Voltage – Forward (Vf) (Typ) column, click-drag to highlight only the values 1.6V
through 2.1V in. then click Apply Filters
.
Tip: You would use a similar method to select a range of acceptable currents/voltages for any part
you need (e.g. voltage rating for a capacitor or power rating for a resistor).
4.2.1.4 Minimum Quantity
With the options low enough, find the Minimum Quantity column in the lists below, and then
click the down arrow
found there. The down arrow
will search from the largest minimum
quantities of a part first, and then search according to cost (oftentimes you can only order parts in
hundreds or thousands).
4.2.1.5 Cost
The last option to look for is minimum cost. Once you have entered your entire filter and search
criteria from the previous steps, click the up arrow
under the Unit Price USD column. Notice
that the least expensive LEDs with a minimum quantity of 1 comes only in green (that’s LTL4234).
Normally you would go with the cheapest part(s) to minimize costs. However, for the tutorial, the
author chose the LEDs that come in both green and red. They are sold by Lite-On Inc. that are next
in line to be the cheapest and at the time of this tutorial, the
LTL-4233 is the ideal choice (in
green and in the other in red), costing $0.36 each. Click the LTL-4233 part (green or red is fine).
In the part window, see the Documents & Media section and click on the link next to Datasheet.
The datasheet will open. Save the datasheet PDF document inside a project folder of your
choosing. Later in this chapter, you will be using the datasheet for part creation and making a bill
of materials in Capture CIS.
4.3 Creating Schematic Symbols in Capture CIS
Now that you have all the information you need for your part, you can create a library to house the
part and create its schematic symbol. You will make the library for the parts using Capture CIS.
4.3.1 Capture CIS Libraries
Capture CIS holds a number of pre-built parts that are stored in libraries. A library file has the
.OLB extension and most of the libraries you find are included in the installation folders for the
Cadence software in:

C:\Cadence\SPB_17.2\tools\capture\library (and subsequent folders)
Many of the parts in the library files cannot be simulated and only serve as drawings. However,
the “PSpice” subfolder found inside the capture library folder has parts that can be simulated. We’ll
show you how to make your own LED in Capture CIS.
4.3.2 Starting a new project
First, go to Windows Start → All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products →
Capture CIS, then with the Cadence Product Choices window appears, highlight Allegro PCB
Design CIS L then click OK. The Capture CIS software will open. Now go to the menu and click
File → New → Project.
In the New Project window, you can select Schematic or PSpice Analog or Mixed A/D. Name
the project “LED” and change the location to wherever you want your project to be stored. It’s
recommended to make a folder specifically for your project, named “LED” for example. When
your settings are set up, click OK, then a Create PSpice Project window will appear.
In the Create PSpice Project window, select Create a blank project, then click OK. The project will
be loaded in a project tab named LED.opj. Click the project tab then click the + button to the left
of your “
.\parts_yourusername.dsn” file, then click the + button to expand the
SCHEMATIC1 folder to reveal the
PAGE1 page. Rename the page by right clicking on
PAGE1, then in the Rename Page pop-up window, type “LED” then click OK. Right click and
rename the
SCHEMATIC1 to “PARTS_Project_yourusername”.
4.3.3 Creating a Schematic symbol library
Now that you have created your project and page in Capture CIS, go, in the project tab hierarchy,
click the
Library folder. Then go to the menu File → New → Library and you will see a “
.\library1.olb*” file appear. Next you will save the library file in your project directory, so right
click “
.\library1.olb* then click Save As in the dropdown menu. A Save As window will
appear. Navigate to inside the project directory “Parts Example”, then name the file LED and click
the Save button. The
.\library1.olb* file will change to
.\discrete_yourusername.olb, just
like one of the OLB files found in the Capture CIS parts libraries discussed in Capture CIS
Libraries. Now that you have made the library, you can start adding parts to it.
4.3.4 Creating an LED Schematic symbol
You are going to add a generic LED schematic symbol to represent the LED-4233 part found on
Digi-Key earlier in this chapter. So with your PARTS_Project_youusername project tab still open
in Capture CIS, right click on
Properties window will appear.
.\discrete_yourusername.olb → New Part, then a New Part
Type LED-4233 in the Name field, change the Part Reference Prefix to “D”, and set Part
Numbering to “Numeric” then click OK. The Schematic Symbol drawing window will appear in
Capture. Now go to the menu Place → Pin then the Place Pin window will appear. Enter “C”
(for Cathode) for Name, “1” for Number, then click OK.
The first pin will attach to your cursor. Click and place the pin on the left of the symbol’s dashed
box, then place a second pin on the right side, so your drawing looks like Figure 4.2, then right
click and choose End Mode.
Figure 4.2 Placed two pins for LED-4233
Double-click on pin 2 and a Pin Properties window will appear. Change the pin Name to “A” (for
Anode), then click OK. Important Note: Remember or write down that pin number 1 is the
cathode and pin 2 is the anode. Next, click-hold and drag the corners of the rectangle to make it
taller and a bit wider. You will need some extra space to work with while making the symbol for
the LED.
Now go to the menu Options → Preferences → Grid Display tab → then uncheck Pointer snap to
grid. Doing this step turns off the forcing the pointer to adhere to the grid on the drawing. In reality,
it just makes the pointer snap to an
extremely fine grid. You may see a
Snap/unsnap to grid
shortcut for this option on your
shortcut bar near the top of the screen
as shown on the right. When you click
the Snap to Grid button
, it will
Figure 4.3 Snap to Grid button
change to red
. Now that the grid is
off, you can draw some lines for the LED.
Adding a line
Figure 4.4 Drawn first line on LED
Click on the menu Place →
Line, then draw a vertical
line just to the right of the “C” on the drawing, similar to
Figure 4.3, then right click and choose End Mode (or hit
Escape on the keyboard).
Drawing a triangle
Next, choose menu Place →
Polyline (Y) then click-release on the center of the vertical line
to start drawing a polygon in the shape of a triangle. Hold down the Shift key to draw in diagonal
directions, then while holding down the Shift key, click to make the second vertex in the upper
right, the third vertex on the bottom, then back to the first point to close the triangle. When the
triangle has been made, right click and select End Mode.
Figure 4.5 Draw triangle for LED Left is unfilled, right is filled
With the triangle still highlighted (in pink) go to the menu and click Edit → Properties (or Ctrl+E)
then an Edit Filled Graphic window will appear. Change the Fill Style to Solid, then click OK and
your triangle will be filled in completely.
Drawing the LED arrows
Next you need to draw the two arrows to indicate that the diode emits light. So you will make a
triangle, then a line and combine them to make an arrow, then copy those two make another arrow.
Go to the menu Place →
Polyline (Y), then hold down the Shift key and draw a triangle
similar to the one shown in Figure 4.5. Then either hit the Escape key or right click → End Mode.
Then while the triangle is still highlighted (pink), go to the menu Edit → Properties and just like
the first larger triangle, change the Fill Style to Solid, then click OK. The triangle will be filled.
Figure 4.6 Triangle for LED arrow
Next, place a line in the same direction as the triangle by going to Place → Line, then hold down
the Shift key. Click-release at the rear-center of the arrow head, then draw a line for the arrow’s
body like in Figure 4.7..
Figure 4.7 Drawn arrow body
Right click → End Mode, then while the line is still highlighted (in pink), hold down the Ctrl key
on the keyboard and select the arrow head triangle. Both the arrowhead and body will be selected.
While they’re both highlighted, continue holding the Ctrl key, then click-hold and drag both
highlighted components to the right. This action will create a copy of the arrow. Highlight and
click-hold drag the arrows so they are placed similar to Figure 4.8
Figure 4.8 Both arrows placed in LED drawing
Now that the arrows are placed, snap back to the grid by click menu Options → Preferences →
Grid Display tab → check mark Pointer snap to grid. Next, add a line that connects the inside of
the “C” to the large triangle’s nose and another line that connects to A, as shown in Figure 4.9.
Figure 4.9 Draw a line between C and triangle and A and triangle
Changing the properties of the LED schematic symbol
Now let’s change some properties about the part, like whether the numbers show on the schematic
and so on. With your LED open in Capture CIS go to menu Options → Part Properties, then the
User Properties window will open. Change Pin Names Visible to False and Pin Numbers Visible
to False, then click OK. Drag the dashed outline’s corners closer to the LED until they’re similar
to Figure 4.10, then go to menu File → Save. Finally, right click the library tab that says
DISCRETE.OLB
and select Close.
D?
<Value>
Figure 4.10 LED boundary fixed
Congratulations on completing your LED-4233 part! You can look for the part and re-open the
LED-4233 any time from the
project tab’s hierarchy.
.\discrete_yourusername.olb in your “parts_yourusername”
4.3.5 Placing the LED Schematic symbol
Now it’s time to use the LED-4233 part in a schematic. To place the component, all you do is
double-click on the schematic page (in this case, “PARTS_yourusername”), go to the menu Place
→ Part, then in the part search field, type the name of your part “LED-4233”. It will appear in the
list below. Hit the Enter key, then the part will be attached to your cursor.
You can press the “R” key on the keyboard or right click and select Rotate to rotate the part, then
click to place as many copies you want on the schematic. You can see an example of the placed
LEDs in Figure 4.11.
D2
LED-4233
D1
LED-4233
Figure 4.11 Placed LED-4233s
Simulating the LEDs
Simulating the LEDs is not possible as they are and activating simulations are beyond the scope
of this tutorial/guide. For information on how to implement a PSPICE simulation with your
components, you may refer to many online resources concerning SPICE simulation and
implementation within OrCAD Capture.
A note on simulation: Most schematics made cannot be simulated unless you create or find the
SPICE files for the parts being simulated, so not having a SPICE profile for the part is not a huge
problem in the engineering design process. The engineer should be creating the schematic after
already having performed circuit analysis on whether the design will work.
Feel free to use this process to create parts for your custom libraries at any time.
4.4 Adding merchant information to parts in Capture CIS
Earlier in this guide, you found the information for the green and red LED for the schematic. In
the Astable Multivibrator Tutorial, you were only shown how to attach the vendor part number to
the components. However, we recommend attaching more information to the parts.
For an easier time copying those parts information to Capture CIS, create a Digi-Key cart, then
click the Download link under the Cart Tools > Output section on the right of your Digi-Key
Shopping Cart. The website will create a .CSV file with all the parts in the cart for you to
copy/paste from.
To add those properties, follow the Adding Vendor Information to Parts section on adding
properties to your schematic parts, but in addition to adding the DigiKey Part Number property,
also enter these properties.





Unit Price
Quantity
PCB Footprint (already included in part properties, but must be added to BOM tool).
Manufacturer Part Number
Manufacturer
When you are finished adding those properties to your parts, copy and paste the information from
the spreadsheet. Then when you go to generate the bill of materials, include those additional fields
like you did the DigiKey Part Number field. Finally, execute the generation of the bill of materials
and all your component information will be neatly placed in your BOM spreadsheet.
5 Chapter 5 – Learning PCB Editor
MAKING FOOTPRINTS AND PADSTACKS
Objectives
1. Learn how to read a datasheet for package symbol information
2. Learn how to create package symbols using PCB Editor.
3. Learn how to order parts from Digi-Key Electronics vendor.
5.1 Resources and Materials
This part of the process requires the Excel Workbook that comes with the tutorial and can be
found here – AMV Tutorial Chapter 3 Footprints Workbook. Also, the author has prepared a parts
list on DigiKey Electronics’ website. A link to the parts can be found here – DigiKey Shopping
Cart of AMV Parts.
Excel Workbook – Contains all information regarding the parts list, including padstack names, and
footprint/package symbol names and dimensions that you will be using for the tutorial in Chapter 3 –
PCB Design Project 1.
5.2 Footprint Creation Process Overview
5.2.1 Introduction to Package Symbols
First you will learn how to create the footprints and padstacks from a datasheet so that you understand
the process in depth. Then you will make your first footprint, then make the remaining footprints for
the astable multivibrator tutorial.
What is a Package Symbol/Footprint?
A footprint is a drawing that shows how an electronic component would attach to a PCB. The footprint
incorporates much information about an electronic component, including the pins on it. The pins are
called padstacks.
Difference between Package Symbol (Footprint) and Padstack
The footprint (incorporating the padstacks) shows the entirety of the package symbol and its attachment
to the board, while the padstack only shows the size and shape of the pins for the part.
5.3 What types of component packages exist?
There are generally two type of discrete component packages you will be using – surface mount
and through-hole. Most parts are packaged in both ways but some only come in surface mount
packaging or only through-hole packaging.
For a visual idea of these components, see the figure below. The picture shows the cross section
of a printed circuit board (PCB). The red layers on the top and bottom are copper. The material in
between is some insulating material (usually FR-4 or other silicon material).
Through-hole parts look similar to the above part named “Component”. Through-hole parts go
through the holes on the printed circuit board, hence the package name.
Surface mount parts are soldered and mounted directly to a copper surface and do not go through
the copper.
5.3.1 Overall Process
You will use PCB Editor to start making a footprint, then use Padstack Editor to create a
padstack/pin to use within that footprint. You will then finish creating the footprint and save it.
Normally you would repeat that process of making the footprint and its necessary padstacks
together for every single component on your schematic, but that method is very time consuming.
In this tutorial, the author proposes a slightly modified process to speed things up:






Make the first footprint and padstack for a through-hole component first, then save it. This
is so you see how the two are integrated.
Make all the thru-pin padstacks for the remaining through-hole footprints in the Excel
Workbook
Make all the remaining through-hole footprints, making sure to attach their associated
padstacks from the previous step to those footprints
Start making a surface-mount footprint, make its surface mount padstack, integrate both,
then save the first surface mount footprint
Make all the remaining surface mount padstacks one after another until they’re done.
Make all remaining surface-mount footprints, being sure to attach the surface mount
padstacks from the previous step to these surface mount footprints.
Before going through the full process though, you must understand how to interpret a datasheet to
get the dimensions for the package symbol/footprint.
5.4 Retrieving Package Symbol Information from Datasheets
All electronics components have physical characteristics that are being modeled Capture CIS,
PSPICE or PCB Editor. PCB Editor contains package symbols that model the shape, size and
connectors of physical components.
To understand how to model the package symbols, one must look at a part’s datasheet. The next
section will cover how you can interpret a datasheet to model its packaging and physical design in
PCB Editor.
5.4.1 How to read a datasheet for a package symbol (footprint)
Every electronic component has a datasheet. With that knowledge in the datasheet you will see
how to model the package information of a part into PCB Editor. Let’s use the same LED from
Chapters 2 and 3 as our example and use the LED from the Digi-Key shopping cart shown earlier
in this chapter.
5.4.2 What to look for in the datasheet
The device package for the LTL-4233 LED in the Digi-Key shopping cart is found on page 1 of
the part’s datasheet (link). The first thing to look for is the drawing of the device, shown in Figure
5.1.
The second thing to look for is to note the primary and secondary measurement units. Oftentimes
manufacturers include both inches and millimeters, with the primary units being either one. For
example, the units in this datasheet are primarily in mm as indicated by Figure 5.1. The secondary
units are in inches.
Important Note: Be familiar with inches (and mils) vs. millimeters. A Mil is 1000th of an inch
and is much smaller than a millimeter.
Primary units
Secondary
units
Figure 5.1 Datasheet for LED-4233 Package information
5.4.3 Measurements in the datasheet
The measurement values you see on the Package Dimensions of the datasheet are usually flanked
by sets of arrows. Pay close attention to where the arrows stop and where they start and which
areas they’re pointing to.
Also keep the numbers in perspective and think about them realistically against your experience
and common sense. For example, if you know the LED’s legs (leads) should be longer than its
bulb and you read off “5 mm” for its lead length, but “25 mm” for its bulb length, then that should
raise a red flag that you took measurements down by mistake.
The best way you will see how the dimensions will be related to PCB Editor’s Package Symbol
Wizard tool is by example.
5.5 Incorporating Datasheet Information into PCB Editor Package Symbol
Wizard
First you will open PCB Editor from the Windows Start menu by going to Start → All Programs
→ Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products → PCB Editor. When the Product Selection window
appears, click Allegro PCB Designer, then click OK. PCB Editor will open.
5.5.1 Starting a new package symbol creation
In PCB Editor, go to the menu and click File → New then the New Drawing window will appear.
Click the Browse button to set the location for your LED on a personal drive or anywhere you’d
like, since this is only an example. Once your folder is selected, click Open, then you will be back
in the New Drawing window in PCB Editor. Now type “LED-4233_example” in the Drawing
Name: field. Then in the Drawing Type: section highlight Select Package symbol (wizard), then
click OK. The Package Symbol Wizard will load.
5.5.2 Setting up the package symbol parameters
When the Package Symbol Wizard window opens, you can select either TH DISCRETE or SIP.
We’ll go with SIP for this example so select SIP then click Next. In the Template window, click
Load Template then Next. Now in the General Parameters window, you will set the units to the
same as what’s in our datasheet (Millimeter).
You can go with inches, too since that information is also provided, but for this example, we’ll go
with mm. Set the Reference designator prefix to D*, because D stands for diode and an LED is a
diode that emits light. Your settings will look like Figure 5.2, then click Next.
Figure 5.2 General Parameters settings in Package Symbol Wizard for LED-4233_example
5.5.3 Package dimensions and Parameters from the datasheet
This SIP Parameters window is the most important part of this wizard symbol creation process.
The dimensions in this window need to match the datasheet very closely. You will receive
explanations on what values are chosen for each parameter and why.
Perspective
The image to the left of this SIP Parameters window shows the package symbol view as if looking
at the device from the top. Notice in Figure 5.3 that the leads are going in a vertical direction,
whereas the datasheet has a side view and a top view that’s rotated 90 degrees from what’s in the
Package Symbol Wizard.
It’s important to note that all dimensions must be entered with respect to the image shown in
Package Symbol Wizard. You will fill in the parameters with this difference of perspectives in
mind.
Package length (D)
TOP VIEW
Package width (E)
Lead pitch (e)
Figure 5.3 SIP Parameters window for LED-4233_example
Number of pins (N)
This parameter is simple. The number of pins on the LED is 2, so set this parameter to 2.
Side Note: If you were making the footprint for a single-pin connector, the number of pins can be
set to 1.
Lead pitch (e)
This dimension is the distance from the center of one lead to the center of the adjacent lead. The
datasheet shows 2.54 mm as the nominal distance for terminal pin spacing. So set Lead pitch (e)
to 2.54 millimeters.
Package width (E)
This package width is perpendicular to the direction of the leads. That means it’s the dimension
from rounded edge to rounded edge on the LED in Figure 5.3. Therefore, set this package width
parameter to 5.60 millimeters.
Package length (D)
Package length is the dimension running parallel to the pin direction. Therefore set this value to
5.0 millimeters as indicated in Figure 5.3 from the datasheet.
With the units corrected in Package Symbol Wizard, select Next to go to the next window.
5.5.4 Selecting padstacks based on the datasheet
The leads of a component can be either thru-pin or surface mount. The PCB Editor software comes
pre-installed with many padstacks ready for use. For this LED example, you will use a pre-made
padstack. In later parts of this chapter, you will make your own padstack based on the datasheet
information. First you will need to know what most of these padstacks are and how they’re named.
Padstack Naming Convention 1 (inches/mils)
The thru-pin padstacks of interest for circular holes are usually named “padXXXcirXXXd”. The
first set of XXX’s indicate the diameter of the thru-pin’s pad in mils
Pad
(thousandths of inches). The second set of XXX’s indicate the
diameter of the thru-pin’s drill hole size in mils.
Drill hole
The ‘pad’ in the name indicates that the first dimension is for the pad
of the thru-pin padstack and the ‘cir’ tells us that the thru-pin padstack
has a circular pad size.
What that means is we’ll know which padstacks to consider for a component’s leads just by looking
at a padstack’s name. Now that you know what to look for, let’s choose a default padstack for this
LED in PCB Editor.
5.5.4.1 Choosing a default padstack in Package Symbol Wizard Padstack Browser
Continuing in the Package Symbol Wizard – Padstacks window, click the ellipses next to the
Default padstack to use for symbol pins field and the Padstack Browser will appear. There are
many padstacks to choose from, but we’re interested in the padstacks that will easily fit the LED’s
leads.
Choosing the correct hole size
Normally resistors and capacitors have circular leads, making the choice of padstack hole
dimensions pretty straightforward. However, the LED-4233 has square leads. That means we have
to find a padstack with a hole that can fit the longest distance on the lead – its hypotenuse.
So for instance, this LED’s leads are 0.5 mm by 0.5 mm according to Figure 5.3. Therefore its
2
diagonal is = √0.52 + 0.52 = 0.7071 millimeters. That translates to a drill hole size of at least
0.71 millimeters, then that converts to 0.0278 inches or 28 thousandths of an inch (mils). Therefore,
you need a padstack whose drill hole is at least 28 mils in diameter.
For tolerance purposes then, choose a padstack that has a circular hole size of 35 mils (28 mils +
10 mils) or greater. You could go as small as 30 mils, but we want to be sure the 28 mil leads will
fit, so 35 mils is our choice.
Choosing the correct pad size
The general rule of thumb is the pad diameter should be at least 0.020 inches (0.508 mm) larger
than the drill hole size. That means you should choose a pad from the list that’s at least 55 mils
(20 mils more than 35 selected in the previous section).
So, in the search bar type “pad*”, hit Enter, and see what comes up. If you scroll down, you will
find a pad in the 55+ range, but the hole sizes are all less than the 35 mil size we selected. Scrolling
down some more, you will find “Pad60cir35d”. This padstack works so highlight it then click OK.
Next, you will use a different padstack for pin 1 to indicate the diode’s polarity. Click on the
ellipses button for Padstack to use for pin 1. In the Padstack Browser window, search for “*sq*”.
This search looks for all padstacks with the letters ‘sq’ (for square) within the name. Select the
padstack named “Pad60sq36d” then click OK. This name means the pad is square shaped and the
diameter of the drill hole is 36 mils, which is close to what we need.
Back in the Padstacks window, click Next to move on. In the Symbol Compilation window,
leave the default options, so the origin of the part is in the center of the symbol body and so the
Package Wizard creates a compiled symbol, then click Next. Finally, the wizard shows a summary
of your settings, then click Finish to compile the symbol.
Your symbol should look like Figure 5.4. Go to File → Save to save your footprint and the
Command window at the bottom will let you know that a .psm file was created for your part. Close
PCB Editor. In Windows File Explorer, you will find your footprint’s .dra and .psm files in the
“LED-4233_example” folder you created earlier in this chapter.
Figure 5.4 Package symbol (footprint) for LED-4233_example
Congratulations on completing this section! You learned how to interpret and translate a
component’s dimensions into Package Symbol wizard. Now you are able to create almost any
footprint based on the principles learned in this section. The next sections will take you through
making all the footprints for the Astable Multivibrator tutorial using the other package options.
5.6 Making Through-Hole Package Symbols (Footprints)
5.6.1 Using Package Symbol Wizard and Padstack Editor
The strategy of this section is to create the entire first footprint in the AMV tutorial from scratch
so that you understand the process of how a footprint is made. Then you will create all of the thrupin padstacks for all of the remaining through-hole footprints first, just to make the process go a
lot faster.
General Dimensioning Rules for Padstacks
Pad size vs drill size – In general when you are creating pad Stacks or thru-pin padstacks, you
will want to make sure the thru-pin pad diameter is at least 20 thousands of an inch (0.6 mm)
greater than the drill hole diameter.
Solder mask – Another rule of thumb for padstack design is to make the solder mask at least 0.2
mm larger than the width/height/diameter of the through pin pad that you just created.
Solder Paste – The last rule of thumb is to make the solder paste layer 0.6 mm smaller than the
drill size if you are in millimeters. This rule may vary, depending on the shape of the pad.
5.6.2 What the footprints are for
The footprints that you will make in the following sections are intended to be associated with the
parts in your astable multivibrator schematic. The AMV tutorial project will require that you use
a surface mount and through-hole version of every part in the schematic, except the LEDs, header
and power/ground connectors, which are all through-hole.
The Excel Workbook for the Astable Multivibrator tutorial tells you which part will be associated
with which footprint. Now to make the footprints.
5.6.2.1 THD Discrete Method for Through-hole Footprints
Through-hole Resistor (Axial)
1. Go to Windows Start → Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products → PCB Editor, then if
the Cadence 17.2 Allegro Product Choices window appears, choose Allegro PCB
Designer then click OK.
2. First you will create a footprint and a padstack together then integrate them. So while PCB
Editor is open, go back to Start → All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Product
Utilities → PCB Editor Utilities → open
Padstack Editor.
3. Keep both Padstack Editor and PCB Editor opened at the same time.
4. In PCB Editor, Go to File → New then the New Drawing window will appear.
5. For Drawing Type, choose Package symbol (wizard).
6. Click the Browse button, then in the pop-up window, navigate into your
AMV_yourusername project folder and create a new folder inside named “AMV Footprints
and Padstacks”.
7. Then enter the folder you just made (can double-click or select the Open button).
8. For File name, type/copy whatever is in the Excel Workbook provided with this tutorial
for R1 (that would be “amv_res_axial”).
9. Once the name is correct, click Open, then back in the New Drawing window, click OK,
then the Package Symbol Wizard will start.
10. In the first window, under Package Type select TH DISCRETE. Click Next.
11. In the Template window click the Load Template button. Click Next
12. In the General Parameters window, change both units fields to “millimeter” and then
change the Reference designator prefix to R* then click Next.
13. Now you are in the TH Discrete Parameters window. Enter the dimensions found in the
Excel Workbook for Terminal pin spacing (e1), Package width (E) and so on. Click
Next.
14. In the Padstacks window, you are supposed to choose the default Padstack to use for the
symbol pins. At this point you are going to need to create the thru-pin pad stack for this
footprint before you finish this step for the footprint.
15. Keep PCB Editor open and go to Padstack Editor.
16. In Padstack Editor, select menu File → New, then the New Padstack window will appear.
17. Click the ellipses button on the right and navigate to the “AMV Footprints and Padstacks”
folder you made earlier.
18. For File name: type the padstack name according to the information in the Excel
Workbook. For this example, the name is “pad130mm_cir070mm”. Click Save.
19. Back in the New Padstack window, make sure the Padstack usage: field value is set to
“Thru Pin” then click OK. The New Padstack window will disappear then you can start
modifying the padstack in the Pad Editor window.
20. In the low left part of the Pad Editor window, change the units to Millimeter
and confirm Yes when prompted.
21. Under the Start tab then the Select padstack usage section, select Thru Pin.
Under the Select pad geometry section, select Circle.
22. Click on the Drill tab and change the Finished diameter: field to 0.7 (it’s in mm).
a. Go to the Drill Symbol tab and under the Define a drill
symbol section, set Type of drill figure to Diamond,
b. Drill figure width to 0.70 and
c. Drill figure height to 0.70.
d. Your figure should look similar to the one on the right.
23. Click the Design Layers tab, then click the field under the Select pad to change section
inside the table and under the Regular Pad column and choose the Geometry (bottom of
window) to be Circle.
24. Change the diameter to 1.30. Then you will see the field in the table under the Regular
Pad column change to “Circle 1.3000”.
25. Right click and copy the field under Regular Pad column then
right click on the field below it that says “None” and choose
Paste. Its field (DEFAULT INTERNALxRegular Pad) will
change to “Circle 1.3000” and your images will change to
those shown on the right.
26. Right click and paste again into the field below that, too (should intersect with the END
LAYER row and Regular Pad column), until your window shows something similar to
Figure 5.5.
27. Click on the Mask Layers tab, choose Circle for the Geometry section and then in the
Diameter field, type the value that’s shown next to “solder mask_top” for this R1 part in
the Excel Workbook (the value should be 1.5). Solder mask top is done.
28. Right click the field under the Pad column that says “Circle 1.5000” then choose Copy →
Right click on the field just below it (for SOLDER MASK_BOTTOM) → Paste.
29. Then click menu File → Save and your thru pin padstack is done!
Figure 5.5 pad130mm_cir070mm Padstack Design Layers settings in Padstack Editor
Now that you created the pad stack for this through-hole resistor you can go back to PCB Editor
and you should be at the Package Symbol Wizard - Padstacks window.
30. Click on the ellipses under the Default pad stack to use for symbol pins section, then the
Package Symbol Wizard Padstack Browser will appear. Search for the padstack you just
made by typing the first few letters/numbers of the padstack name followed by an asterisk
(*), then pressing the Enter key. The name is found in the Excel Workbook for R1 (should
be pad130mm_cir070mm).
31. Highlight the footprint when it appears, then click OK and it will fill the both fields in the
Padstacks window with the pad stack name.
32. Click Next, Next again, then click Finish.
The illustration in Figure 5.6 shows what the finished footprint for the through-hole resistor should
look like. Make sure go to File → Save to save your package symbol and choose Yes if prompted
to overwrite it. When it’s saved you will notice the lower left command window will confirm that
the .psm file has been made.
We will follow this padstack-to-footprint creation process for all of the footprints but first let's
create the remaining padstacks for the rest of the footprints to make things move more smoothly.
Figure 5.6 Finished through-hole resistor
5.6.3 Creating Thru Pin Padstacks with Padstack Editor
Padstack Naming Convention 2 (millimeters)
There is a certain nomenclature that we use for the footprints and for the padstacks.
In this tutorial we've chosen to name the padstacks according to the pad diameter if it's circular,
and to ensure that the dimensions are listed as well. Then we use an underscore to indicate that the
drill hole is present. Then we use “cir” in the pad name to indicate that it is a circular drill hole.
The dimensions are listed in millimeters without the decimal point and then finally mm is used at
the end of each of the dimensions to indicate the units. If no units are indicated, then assume the
measurements are in thousandths of an inch (mils).
So for example a thru pin-pad stack with a drill hole of 0.70 mm diameter and with a pad size of
1.30 mm will be named pad130mm_cir070mm. You will notice this naming convention being
followed for the entirety of the padstack creation process.
Batch Thru-pin Padstack Creation
For this section you will complete the remaining through pin padstacks shown in the Excel
Workbook and shown in Figure 5.7 with your own guidance. If you need a reminder on the
instructions, just repeat what you learned to create the padstack in the previous section.
So for each remaining padstack in the Excel Workbook, copy and paste the next padstack name
into a new file with that name for example, your second padstack you’d be making would be named
“amv_cap_radial”. Then you will repeat the exact same process you used in the last section to
create the first thru-pin pad stack, making sure that the units are in millimeters.
Padstack Settings to remember
As you have done before in the previous section, make sure that every time create a new padstack
in Padstack Editor that you select the Thru-pin option and set the units to mm first. Set the drill
hole size correctly (indicated by the “cirXXXmm” part of the padstack name), then set the drill
symbol to a diamond shape with the same dimensions as the drill hole.
Then make sure the Design Layers are all set to circle (except for the ‘sqpad140mm_cir080mm’
padstack. It must have its pad Geometry and SOLDER MASK_TOP and SOLDER
MASK_BOTTOM Pad shapes set to Square), whose diameter is indicated in the padstack’s name
by “padXXXmm”.
Finally, set the solder mask top layers to at least 0.2 mm larger than the pad layer, as per the
dimensions in the Excel Workbook that comes with the AMV tutorial. As you repeat the process
for all of these thru-pin padstacks in the Excel Workbook, save them all in the same directory as
the first foot print and pad stack. Then you will be ready to create the remaining footprints.
As a reference, when you are finished, your list of padstacks should look similar to Figure 5.7.
Figure 5.7 AMV list of custom thru-pin padstacks
With those design rules in mind, you should be able to make all the padstacks shown in Figure 5.7.
When you have verified that they’re finished, you are ready to create the remaining through-hole
footprints with ease, so close Padstack Editor.
STOP HERE if you haven’t created all the padstacks. You must make the padstacks to move on.
5.6.4 TH Discrete in Package Symbol Wizard
You would follow the same process in THD Discrete Method for Through-hole Footprints you
went through to create the remaining through-hole footprints. There are some slight modifications
for each footprint however, so we’ll briefly walk you through each footprint.
Creating the Footprint for the Through-hole capacitor
1. In PCB Editor, go to menu File → New. In the New Drawing window, select Package
symbol (wizard) and copy and paste the name for the radial capacitor
(amv_cap_radial) from the AMV tutorial workbook.
2. Make sure that the footprint will be in the footprints and Padstacks folder then click
Open, and in the New Drawing window, click OK.
3. For the package type choose TH Discreet. Click Next.
4. Then click Load Template, then click Next.
5. Change the units to Millimeter and change the reference designator prefix to “C*”,
then click Next.
6. Change the terminal pin spacing what’s shown in the Excel workbook that comes
with this tutorial then click Next.
7. Change the Default padstack to whatever is mentioned in the Excel Workbook.
Note: The padstack should have been created from the previous section Batch Thru-pin Padstack
Creation. If the padstack is not available at this point, either you didn’t save the padstack in the
AMV Footprints and Padstacks folder, or you did not create the padstack.
8. Click Next, Next, then Finish.
9. Go to File→ Save, then choose Yes if asked to overwrite the capacitor footprint.
Figure 5.8 Footprint for the through-hole capacitor
Your footprint will look similar to Figure 5.8. Next you will follow a similar process using the
Single In-line Package option to make a footprint for the test points.
5.6.5 Single In-line Package (SIP) in Package Symbol Wizard
Creating Footprint for Test Point(s)
1. Following the same process as shown in TH Discrete in Package Symbol Wizard , open
PCB Editor.
2. Go to menu File → New → select Package symbol (wizard).
3. Set the file name to what’s in the Excel document (e.g. “amv_testpoint”).
4. Click Browse and make sure your Footprints and Padstacks folder is selected, then click
OK.
5. This time you will use the SIP method, which stands for Single In-line Package. So click
the SIP radio button and choose Next.
6. Click Load template → Next.
7. Change the units to Millimeter and set (type in) the reference designator prefix to “TP*”.
8. Click Next, then fill in parameter values based on the Excel Workbook provided.
9. Once you have updated the parameters, click Next.
10. Select the ellipses next to Default Padstack, then type in the padstack name (followed by
a *) shown in the Excel Workbook associated with this footprint, and hit Enter key to
show it in the list.
11. Click on that footprint name, then click OK to confirm that padstack.
12. Back in the Package Symbol Wizard – Padstacks window, click Next → Next then
Finish.
13. Finally, go to menu File → Save. If asked about whether to overwrite another footprint
with the same name, choose Yes.
Figure 5.9 Footprint for the test point(s)
The test point footprint is done and shown in Figure 5.9. Now you can go on to create the header
pin’s footprint.
Creating Footprint for the Header Pins
Creating the header is the same as with making the test point, but it uses a different padstack.
1. Go to PCB Editor → File → New, then in the pop up window, choose Package symbol
(wizard).
2. Change the drawing name to what is provided in the Excel Workbook for J1.
3. Then choose Browse to make sure that your footprint is in your “AMV Footprints and
Padstack” folder within your project folder, clicking Open to select the folder.
4. When back inside the New Drawing window with the correct file name, click OK.
5. Choose the Single In-line Package option (SIP), then click Next.
6. Choose to Load Template then click Next.
7. Change the units to Millimeter and change the Reference Designator prefix to “J*” then
click Next.
8. Change the Package Symbol Wizard - SIP parameters to the values shown in the Excel
Workbook.
9. When you have entered all the component parameter values, click Next. Now you must
choose the Default Padstack.
10. Click the ellipses button next to the Default padstack field and you will see a list of
padstack names. Type in the padstack name mentioned in the Excel Workbook for this
header footprint, then click OK. The Default Padstack fields will be filled.
11. Click Next → Next → Finish. When done, your footprint should look like Figure 5.10
12. Go to File → Save then choose Yes if prompted to overwrite the file.
Figure 5.10 Footprint for header
Creating Footprint for the Connector(s)
The connector uses a single pin so we’ll use the SIP method just like the previous footprint:
1. In PCB Editor go to File → New.
2. Select Package Symbol (wizard) and choose the name footprint name (amv_con1) in the
Excel Workbook for the connector part and the appropriate “AMV Footprints and
Padstacks” directory, then click OK to get the wizard started.
3. Again, make sure you choose Single In-line Package or SIP for the package symbol then
click Next.
4. Load the Template, then click Next again.
5. Ensure that the units are in Millimeter and that the Reference designator prefix is J*, then
click Next so you get to entering the part parameters’ values.
6. Use the same parameter values as shown in the Excel Workbook for these headers J2/J3.
7. Once you enter the parameter values, click Next then choose the Default padstack used
for symbol pin to be what is shown in the Excel Workbook.
8. Once you click OK to confirm the padstack, click Next, Next then Finish.
9. Save the footprint (see Figure 5.11) and you are ready to create the LED footprint.
Figure 5.11 Footprint for CON1 connector
Creating Footprint for the LED(s)
This follows the same process as the SIP method, but we’ll be using two different padstacks for
this footprint, as indicated on the Excel Workbook.
1. Open PCB Editor → File → New. Choose Package symbol (wizard) then copy and paste
the name for the LEDs D1/D2 (amv_LEDT-1_075) found in the Excel Workbook for the
AMV tutorial.
2. Make sure the footprint will be in the “AMV Footprints and Padstacks” folder you made
earlier, then back in the New Symbol window, click OK to start the wizard.
3. Select SIP, click Next, then Load template then Next again.
4. Change the units to Millimeter and change the reference designator prefix to “D*” (for
diode) then click Next.
5. Change the Number of pins, lead pitch, package width and package length to the
parameters and values shown and the Excel Workbook for the LED, then click Next.
6. Choose the Default packstack to be what is in the Excel Workbook, then you need to
change the padstack for pin 1.
7. For the padstack to use for pin 1, search for and select the square padstack you made earlier
(sqpad140mm_cir080mm) in Padstack Editor, then click OK. Now this is the first time
your footprint will have two type of padstacks for its pins.
8. Click Next and choose Next again, then click Finish.
9. The LED footprint created by the author is shown in Figure 5.12, so yours should look the
same.
10. Save your footprint and choose Yes if prompted about overwriting the file.
Figure 5.12 Footprint for through-hole LED
However, you are not done with this part yet. All LED footprints need to show the shape of the
LED’s body and the direction of the anode and cathode. So open the datasheet for this LED (find
it in the Excel Workbook or click here).
5.6.5.1 Modifying a footprint (for the LEDs)
Sometimes the Package Symbol Wizard doesn’t give the exact footprint you want. This section
will show you how to modify a pre-existing footprint to your needs. With your LED footprint open
in PCB Editor, change the grid spacing of the work area:
1. Right click the work area and choose Quick Utilities → Grids…. Then the Define Grid
window will appear.
2. Look to the right of the Non-Etch section, then next to Spacing:, change x: and y: to 0.1
and 0.1 respectively.
3. Uncheck “Grids On” in the upper left.
4. Click OK.
Now you can delete the package geometry boxes on this LED footprint and move along with finer
precision in the work area.
Deleting unwanted objects on the work area
With the LED footprint open in PCB Editor:
1. Go to Edit → Delete.
2. Then click on 4 different boxes in the footprint that outline
the perimeter of the footprint (look on the right. The boxes
you should delete will overlap and are on the perimeter of
the footprint. So do not delete the square pin or the other
pin and do not delete any text) until the footprint looks like
Figure 5.13 below.
3. When the boxes have been deleted, right click the work
area and choose Done.
Four boxes
outside here.
Figure 5.13 LED footprint with Package Geometry box outlines deleted.
Adding a Line to the footprint
First we’ll show you how to make multiple copies of the shapes and lines similar to Figure 5.14.
Figure 5.14 Duplicated shapes using Copy
1. To make the four lines in the picture above, go to Add → Line.
2. Look at the Options tab to the right of the work
area (and to the right of this text) while in Add
Line mode.
3. Set the Line lock values to: Line, 90.
4. Set Line width to 0.120 millimeters
5. Keep the Line font to Solid.
6. Ignore the Active Class and Subclass: section
for now.
7. Now click (do not hold down the mouse button)
on the work area and draw 1 line some distance
below pin number 2.
8. Right click the work area then choose Done.
9. Your first line would have been placed.
Adding an arc to the footprint
Next we’ll show you how to make multiple copies of the arcs in Figure 5.14.
1. To make the first arc go to Add → 3pt Arc.
2. Look at the Options tab to the right of the
work area (and to the right of this text)
while in this mode.
3. Ignore the Active Class and Subclass:
section for now.
4. Set Line width to 0.120 millimeters
5. Keep the Line font to Solid.
6. Now click (do not hold down the mouse
button) on the right end of the line you
drew earlier, then click on the left end of
the same line. These first two points determine the end of the arc.
7. Finally, click some distance above pin 1 (ideally this distance would be the dimensions of
the LED, but an estimate is fine, once the arc passes pin 1 above) to finish the arc.
8. Right click the work area then choose Done.
9. Your first arc would have been placed and may look like Figure 5.15.
Figure 5.15 First line and first arc placed on LED footprint
Using Copy to copy anything
Now you are going to make duplicates of the line and the arc until you have 4 lines and 4 arcs
each. As a reminder, we’re trying to make your work area look similar to below as a starting point
for modifying our LED footprint.
Figure 5.16 Reminder: Duplicated shapes and lines using Copy
To accomplish these multiple arcs and lines, you will use Copy. Whenever in Copy mode, you
can click on a line, shape, object or almost anything, then a copy of that object will attach to your
cursor. Then when you click in some new location, you will drop a copy of that object into that
location. You can keep doing this indefinitely, so let’s do it.
1. In PCB Editor, go to Edit → Copy. Now you are in Copy mode.
2. Click the straight line you created earlier and place 3 copies of it arbitrarily on the work
area.
3. Then click the arc and place 3 copies of said arc arbitrarily around the work area also.
4. Right click the work area and choose Done.
Now your work area will be just like and you are ready to move on.
Changing the Class and Subclass of an Object
When you deleted the 4 boxes at the beginning of this LED footprint modification section, you
deleted all areas allocated for the LED. Now you are going replace those boxes with shapes that
look like the LED, but you need to change their classes first.
To change the class and subclass of a line/shape:
1. Right click on an arc then in the dropdown menu, choose Change class/subclass →
PACKAGE GEOMETRY → [appropriate subclass]. Make sure that each arch and each
line is set to only one of each of these subclasses below.
Package Geometry / Assembly Top
Package Geometry / Place_Bound_Top
Package Geometry / Silk screen_Top
Package Geometry / Dfa_Bound_Top
Therefore, set one arc and one line each to the Package Geometry / Assembly Top subclass, another
arc and line each be from the Package Geometry/Place_Bound_Top subclass and so on.
When you are done changing to the four subclasses above, your arcs and lines should have colors
shown in Figure 5.17.
Figure 5.17 LED arcs and lines with changed class/subclass
2. Now move those arcs and lines into place by clicking on Edit → Move and moving the
lines on top of one another first (until only one is seen), then placing the arcs’ legs to
straddle the straight lines just like Figure 5.18 demonstrates.
Figure 5.18 Overlapping arcs and lines for LED footprint
Adding silk screen art to a footprint
Now you are going to add the arrow to indicate which direction the diode is facing.
3. With your LED footprint still open in PCB Editor go to Add → Line.
4. Look at the Options tab to the right of the work
area (and to the right of this text) while in Line
Add mode.
5. Under the Active Class and Subclass: section,
choose Package Geometry → Silk screen_Top,
to indicate that we want this graphic on the silk
screen layer of the PCB.
6. Set the Line lock to Line, 45.
7. Set Line width to 0.120 millimeters
8. Keep the Line font to Solid.
9. Now click on the work area to draw a triangle in
the center of the diode so it points downward,
then right click and choose End Mode when the
triangle shape is done, similar to Figure 5.19.
Figure 5.19 Silk screen triangle inside diode
10. Next, add another line in parallel with the bottom horizontal line and crosses the apex of
the triangle like.
Figure 5.20 LED silk screen arrow and cathode bar line
11. Then draw a line perpendicular straight down from the top of the LED to the triangle like
below.
Figure 5.21 Finished silk screen arrow for LED footprint
12. Finally, go to File → Save and click Yes if prompted about overwriting your footprint.
When you are done, your finished footprint will look very similar to Figure 5.22.
Figure 5.22 Final footprint for LED
Now you can make the next package symbol (footprint).
5.6.6 Zig-Zag In-line Package (ZIP) for Through-hole Footprints
Creating Footprint for the Through-hole Transistor
We will use the Package Symbol Wizard to create the through-hole transistor footprint so:
1. Open PCB Editor. Choose File → New.
2. In the New Drawing window select Package symbol (wizard) and use the same drawing
name (amv_to-92) as found in the Excel Workbook for part Q2 in the Astable
Multivibrator Tutorial.
3. Choose the AMV Footprints and Padstacks folder you have been using, then click OK.
4. In the new window, select ZIP and click Next.
Note: As you can tell, the ZIP package tool/method is like the SIP method, but the pins are in a
staggered zig-zag pattern instead of being in a straight line.
5. Choose to Load Template then click Next.
6. Set the units to Millimeter and set the Reference designator to be “Q*”, then choose Next.
7. Set the measurement parameters as shown in the Excel Workbook, then click Next.
8. In the next window, set the Default padstack to the padstack found in Excel Workbook
for your Q2 part.
9. Once you have selected the default padstack and clicked OK, you will return to the Default
Padstack window. Click OK then click Next and Next again.
10. Finally click Finish, then the footprint will be loaded in PCB Editor and presented with
the numbers 1, 2 and 3 going from top to bottom pins.
You must change the pin numbering according to the data sheet (part datasheet link is in the
workbook), because the pin numbers on the datasheet state pin 1 should be in the center and pin 2
at the top.
Figure 5.23 Footprint for TO-92 through-hole transistor package
Changing Pin Numbers in a Footprint
1. To change the center pin number to 1 (instead of 2), click on the PCB Editor menu Edit
→ Text.
2. Click on the center pin number text and a cursor will start blinking where the number is.
Type in “1” for the center pin’s number, then press Enter on the keyboard.
3. Then click on the top pin’s number, and change the pin number to “2” instead of 1.
4. Finally, go to File → Save to save the footprint. Choose Yes if prompted about overwriting
the file. The final footprint will look like Figure 5.23 when you are done.
5.6.7 Dual In-Line Package (DIP) for Through-hole Integrated Circuits (ICs)
This footprint is not part of the Astable Multivibrator tutorial, so you may skip this if you are only
doing the Astable Multivibrator Tutorial and go to Making Surface Mount Package Symbols
(Footprints). If you are doing the LED Organ Tutorial, then continue in this section.
Oftentimes a design requires a chip that holds integrated circuits, such as an operational amplifier
or optocoupler. In this section, you will learn how to create an integrated circuit in a DIP8 package
for the LEDs Organ Tutorial Project.
1. Go to Windows Start → All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Allegro Products →
PCB Editor. When prompted in the product selection window, select the first option then
click Open. PCB Editor will load.
2. In PCB Editor go to File → New, then a new window will load.
3. In the new window, select Package symbol (wizard) and use the same drawing name for
the DIP8 component as found in the Excel Workbook for the LED Organ Tutorial.
4. Click the Browse button and choose the Footprints and Padstacks folder you have been
using, as a location to save the footprint. Then click OK.
5. In the new window, select DIP and click Next.
6. Choose to load the default template and set the units to millimeters.
7. Set the Reference Designator to be U*. Choose Next.
8. Set the measurement parameters as shown in the Excel Workbook for that component,
then click Next.
9. In the new window, select the Default padstack to be what’s in the Excel Workbook for
the LED Organ Tutorial.
Important Note: If you haven’t made the padstack yet, then you will need to create and save the
padstack in Padstack Editor into your Footprints and Padstacks folder first, then come back to the
PCB Editor software to add it as the default padstack. Use the same methods you did for the
through-hole padstack creation earlier in this chapter to generate the needed padstack or you can
use a pre-made padstack. For more information on pre-made padstack go to Selecting padstacks
based on the datasheet.
10. Once you have selected the default padstack and clicked OK, you will return to the Default
Padstack window. Click OK then click Next and Next again, then Finish.
The footprint will load in PCB Editor. Save the footprint and your DIP package will be finished
and ready to use in the LED Organ Tutorial.
Now that you have completed through-hole footprints, you are ready to do surface mount footprints
5.7 Making Surface Mount Package Symbols (Footprints)
The same zig zag in line package method used to create through-hole package symbols can also
create surface mount package symbols (footprints). It really just depends on the padstacks used for
the package symbol. In the sections below we will show how you can use the methods for throughhole footprints to also create surface mount footprints.
5.7.1 Zig-Zag In-line Package (ZIP) for Surface Mount Package Symbols (Footprints)
So to demonstrate, we will again use the ZIP option in PCB Editor’s Package Symbol Wizard to
create the surface mount sot-23 footprint for a surface mount transistor.
Creating the SOT-23 Transistor Footprint
1. Open PCB Editor. Go to menu File → New. In the new window, select Package symbol
(wizard) from the list.
2. Use the name that's found in the “SMDs” worksheet tab of the AMV Excel Workbook
provided with the AMV tutorial.
3. Also double-check that in the PCB Editor New Drawing window, that you click Browse
and place this footprint you will make (amv_sot-23) inside your “AMV Footprints and
Padstacks” folder. Then click OK to start the Package Symbol Wizard. The Package
Symbol Wizard will start.
4. Choose the ZIP package method. Click Next. Load Template then click Next.
5. Change the units to Millimeter and change the reference designator prefix to “Q*” then
click Next, then you will go to the Parameters window.
6. Fill in the parameters shown in the Excel Workbook (SMDs spreadsheet→Q1) then click
Next.
At this point we will take a detour to create the surface mount padstack in Padstack Editor, then
attach it to this surface mount footprint currently in progress. So keep PCB Editor open.
5.7.1.1 How to create a surface mount padstack in Padstack Editor
1. Go to Windows Start → All Programs → Cadence Release 17.2 → Product Utilities →
PCB Editor Utilities → Padstack Editor.
2. Now go to menu File → New and a New Padstack window will appear.
3. Under Padstack usage, choose SMD pin.
4. Name the padstack the same as the associated SMD pad written in the Excel Workbook
for Q1.
5. Click the browse button
to save it in the AMV Footprints and Padstacks folder you
have been saving to, then finally, click OK in the New Padstack window to begin making
the padstack.
6. The Padstack Editor window will load (or stay loaded). First, change the units on the lower
left of it from Mils to Millimeter. If asked about loss of accuracy, confirm Yes.
7. Select the Design Layers tab. Look at the bottom of the window for section that says
Geometry and change the shape from None to Rectangle.
8. Choose the width and height of the rectangle according to the AMV Tutorial Excel
Workbook values.
9. Click the Mask Layers tab, then change both the solder mask top and solder paste top
layers to the rectangle shape. Have those layers be the dimensions shown in the Excel
Workbook as well.
10. Also make sure that you maintain the exact same nomenclature for this padstack as shown
in the Excel Workbook (e.g. “smd140mm_rec100m”) and finally save the padstack in the
same folder as the other padstacks “AMV Footprints and Padstacks”.
Now that you have made the surface mount padstack, you will switch back to PCB Editor to finish
make the sot-23 footprint using the padstack you just created. So first, close Padstack Editor:
1. Switch back to PCB Editor (should still be open), click the ellipses button in the Default
Padstack section. A new window will appear.
2. Find and select the padstack you just made (by typing the “padstackyoujustmade*”) and
click OK.
3. Back in the default Padstack window, click Next → Next → Finish.
4. The footprint has been made, but the pin numbers need to be changed to match the
datasheet for this part. The part’s datasheet can be found in the Excel Workbook.
5. So in PCB Editor go to menu Edit → Text, click on the bottom pin number, then delete it
and type “2”, then press Enter.
6. Next, change the right pin to “3” and hit Enter.
7. Leave the top pin as “1”.
8. Then go to File → Save. If prompted about overwriting the file, choose Yes.
Your footprint will look like Figure 5.24.
Figure 5.24 Footprint for SOT-23 Surface Mount Transistor
Next you are going to create the final sets of surface mount footprints. However, before making
the footprints, you will create all the surface mount padstacks first.
Then you will make the footprints that will use those just-made padstacks, just like what was done
in the through-hole footprint creation process.
5.7.2 Creating Surface Mount Padstacks with Padstack Editor
In this section, you would finish create the remaining padstacks shown in the SMD tab of the Excel
Workbook provided in the AMV tutorial. You will use the same method from the How to create
a surface mount padstack in Padstack Editor section.
SMD Padstack Naming Convention
There is also a naming convention used for surface mount padstacks. When the padstack is
rectangular/square in shape, the width is mentioned first, then the height is mentioned second in
the padstack name. No decimal points are used and the units are indicated if in millimeters, but not
indicated if the units are in thousandths of an inch (mils).
So for example, a rectangular padstack with a width of 1.2 millimeters and a height (if looking at
it from the top bird’s eye view on a PCB) of 0.8 mm, then the padstack’s name would be
smd120mm_rec080mm.
Batch SMD Padstack Creation
Now it’s time to create all the remaining padstacks. Luckily only two padstacks are left and are
found in the Excel Workbook. Follow the exact same procedure you did in How to create a
surface mount padstack in Padstack Editor for each padstack and save them to your “AMV
Footprints and Padstacks” folder. When you have finished all the padstacks, your AMV Footprints
and Padstacks folder of files should look like Figure 5.25 if you only view the .pad files.
Figure 5.25 All padstacks for Astable Multivibrator Tutorial
5.7.3 SMD Discrete in Package Symbol Wizard
Creating a 1206 SMD Resistor
This surface mount resistor process is similar to the previous package symbol creation methods
but this time we use the SMD Discrete option in PCB Editor Package Symbol Wizard to create
the footprint.
1. For the discrete resistor open PCB Editor and then choose File → New.
2. Select the Package symbol (wizard) option, name the footprint file according to the AMV
Excel Workbook and make sure it will be located in the AMV Footprints and Padstacks
folder, then click OK. The Package Symbol Wizard will start.
3. This time choose SMD discrete when prompted by the Package Symbol Wizard, then,
click Next.
4. Click the Load Template button. Click Next then change the units to Millimeter and
change the Reference designator prefix to R*, then click Next again.
5. In this Surface Mount Discrete Parameters window, fill in the resistor measurements
and parameters as per the Excel Workbook information, then click Next.
6. In the new window, choose the Default padstack to use for symbol pins as what is written
in the Excel Workbook (padstack was made during Batch SMD Padstack Creation).
7. Click Next then Next again, then choose Finish.
8. Go to File → Save to save the footprint and click Yes if prompted about overwriting.
Figure 5.26 Footprint for 1206 Surface Mount Chip Resistor
Your footprint will look similar to Figure 5.26. You will repeat this footprint creation process one
more time for the surface mount capacitor.
Creating a 0805 SMD Capacitor Package Symbol
Just like all the other footprints until now, you would open the Allegro PCB Editor Package
Symbol Wizard:
1. Go to PCB Editor, and choose menu File → New. A New Drawing window will appear.
2. Select Package symbol (wizard) from the list and fill in the name for C1 that's provided
in the Excel Workbook for the AMV tutorial (e.g. “amv_cap_0805”).
3. Ensure that the file will be created inside the AMV Footprints and Padstacks folder inside
your project folder.
4. Once you have confirmed the directory location, name and the wizard, click OK. The
wizard will start.
5. Choose SMD Discrete, then click Next.
6. Load Template then click Next.
7. Choose the dimensions to be Millimeter, then put “C*” as the reference designator prefix,
then select Next.
8. In the Surface Mount Discrete Parameters window, change the parameters to match
what’s in the Excel Workbook then click Next.
9. Select the Default padstack to use for symbol pins to be what you created based on the
Excel Workbook for the AMV tutorial, then click OK and the default padstack will be
loaded in both fields.
10. Click Next, then Next again and finally, click Finish. The footprint will be loaded in PCB
Editor.
11. Go to File → Save, then if PCB Editor asks about overwriting the file, choose Yes.
Your final footprint will look like Figure 5.27.
Figure 5.27 Footprint for 0805 Surface Mount Chip Capacitor
Now all of the footprints for the astable multivibrator are finished and you are ready to attach
footprint names to parts and start the AMV PCB Layout.
The footprints you made for through-hole and surface mount devices are used in Chapter 3 – PCB
Design Project 1. If you are following Astable multivibrator tutorial, then you should return to
Chapter 3 - Attaching Custom Footprints to Schematic Parts at this time.
6 Building and Testing the PCB
BUILDING AND TESTING THE PCB
Objectives
1. Learn how to prototype a printed circuit board
2. Use a digital oscilloscope to debug and troubleshoot hardware
3. Practice soldering surface mount devices and through-hole devices
6.1 Overview
In this chapter, you will place the parts you receive from your instructor onto your printed circuit board.
You need the following items to continue:
1. Your astable multivibrator (AMV) PCB
2. AMV circuit components
3. Soldering station + soldering iron
4. Solder flux
5. Solder
6. Safety goggles
7. Power supply
8. Oscilloscope
9. Digital multimeter with probes
10. Electrical wire cutters
11. Pencil
12. Printouts of your schematic and PCB.
The Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Arkansas has lab stations equipped with
the above items, except for pencils and paper. Your Teaching Assistant will distribute your PCB and
electronics parts to you as well.
6.2 Populating the PCB
Soldering the components to your PCB takes a lot of preparation. Skill and technique are the main
reasons for good versus poor soldering. Follow the next few sections closely to avoid a lot of
trouble when soldering your PCB.
6.2.1 Setting up your station and prepping your PCB
1. First and foremost, equip your safety goggles.
2. Place your PCB on a flat surface or in between Helping Hands clips to suspend the PCB in
the air. Be careful that the Helping Hands clips do not make contact with metallic parts of
the PCB. These clips and pads connections will cause short circuits.
3. Use the flux pen to coat the PCB in flux liquid. The flux will make it a lot easier to solder
your circuit components to your PCB.
4. Turn your soldering station and iron on to 374 degrees Celsius.
5. Also turn on your solder smoke fan.
6. Clean the tip of your soldering iron then tin the tip immediately afterward with the solder
at your station. Always keep the tip tinned with some solder.
7. Place the printout of your schematic in plain view but away from your PCB or soldering
station.
8. Double check to make sure you have all your electronic parts.
Now you are ready to begin soldering.
6.2.2 Which order to place the parts
You will solder the surface mount components onto the PCB first then you will solder the throughhole components. From experience this order is the best way to solder the PCB.
You should also test every part’s parameter that applies to it to see if that part is functioning
properly. Below is the list of things to check before and after you solder it to the PCB:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Resistor – resistance
Capacitor – capacitance
LED – diode direction. You should also test if it lights up using pins from a power source
Transistor – not applicable
Once you have tested all the components and verify that they work, you are ready to solder them
to the PCB.
6.2.3 Soldering the parts
Use your flux pen and apply a generous amount of flux to the PCB. Turn your soldering iron on
to 374 degrees Celsius while you wait for the flux to dry (takes about 10-30 seconds).
6.2.3.1 Soldering the surface mount components
Use a solder iron with a wide tip to solder your components, because the wider tip transfers heat
quickly. Never use a small soldering iron tip, because they do not transfer heat quickly enough for
normal components.
Here’s a video on how to solder surface mount components: https://youtu.be/_6tpQE7ptqo
6.2.3.2 Soldering through-hole components
As mentioned before, use a wide soldering tip, especially for through-hole components.
Watch the following video for through-hole parts: https://youtu.be/b15MMzb_GWw
Note: Do not solder the battery clasp wires just yet. You will want to test that the board works
first.
6.3 Testing the PCB
In general, you should always test if your power connection to your board works as soon as you
are able. So before you connect the battery clasps, use a power supply in the lab to test your board.
6.3.1 Test using a digital multi-meter
Sometimes you can damage components when soldering them (especially transistors). So you need
to test them before applying power. Use the digital multimeter to test:



that the diodes are placed in the correct direction,
the resistors have roughly their original resistances and
the capacitors have roughly their original capacitance values.
That’s the majority of the testing. The transistor doesn’t have as straightforward a test so just hope
that it works for now. If everything is good after your testing, let’s apply power.
6.3.2 Test using a power supply
Turn on a power supply in your lab.
Setting voltage and current
Limit the current to 0.5 A and set the output voltage to 9 Volts. Make sure the supply is not actually
outputting a voltage yet though.
Connecting to the circuit
Connect the positive and negative clips of your power cables from the supply to the V+ and GND
connectors on your PCB. If you don’t know which connectors those are, double check your
schematic and PCB layout.
Turn on the output from the power supply, then the LEDs should start flashing in succession. It is
common for students to not see any flashing LEDs at this point. The main reasons are usually:




The room is too bright to see the LEDs flashing. Cover the LEDs with something dark
and that could help you see them flashing,
One or more of the LEDs is backwards. Desolder and re-solder the backwards LED.
One or more of the components were damaged. Swap out the surface mount capacitor
first, since capacitors tend to be sensitive to heat. Try swapping other parts as needed.
The design is incorrect. The author recommends drawing a circuit diagram by hand based
on the actual PCB you are trying to debug, then noticing inconsistencies between your
drawing and your original schematic and layout.
If you have tested all the above conditions and your board still doesn’t work, speak with your
instructor/teaching assistant.
6.3.3 Test using an oscilloscope
Assuming that your lights are blinking on the PCB, now is time to test the signal coming out the
test points. Turn on an oscilloscope and hit Auto-Set as a starting point.
Note: Usually using Auto-Set this is frowned upon but in general Auto-Set can clear a lot of weird
settings all at once.
Connect the oscilloscope probes to the hooks inside the test point terminals. Hit Auto-Set on the
oscilloscope again and see if you get a clean waveform signal. You may see something similar to
Figure 6.1.
Figure 6.1 Astable Multivibrator output voltage on an oscilloscope
6.4 Documenting the Results
The final stage is the fun part, where you get to prove the results of your experiment and to show
off all your hard work!
6.4.1 Taking pictures of the PCB
Use a smartphone or high-resolution camera to take a photo of your working PCB. Take pictures
of the PCB from the top, bottom and sides. Store those images on a computer to place into a report
for later.
6.4.2 Placing pictures in a report
When you start writing your report for your instructors/teaching assistants, import your images
into Microsoft Word or another word document editor. Learn how to add Captions and Cross
References in your document so you can hyperlink to your pictures within the document.
As a general rule of thumb, always use high quality images that are cropped appropriately to
maximize the important part of the image to the viewer. Nothing is more annoying than seeing an
image in a report that’s hard to understand. Whoever the author was should just not have included
the image in the first place!
6.4.3 Formatting the report
As with all reports in the undergraduate program, double check your report for spelling and
grammatical errors. Treat your work professionally and others will, too. The tutorial is finished so
happy engineering!
7 References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
Complete PCB Design by Kraig Mitzner
PCB Design Guidelines – by QualiEco
PCB Design Basics – QualiEco
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Layout. AirBorn Electronics. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
[Online]. http://airborn.com.au/method/layout.html
[5] Sephton, G. What is a PCB? Figure 1. Retrieved July 24, 2017. [Online]
http://hobbygenius.co.uk/tutorials/pcbdesign/1510
[6] Astable Multivibrator and Astable Oscillator Circuit. Electronics Tutorials. Retrieved
July 12, 2017. [Online] http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/waveforms/astable.html