INSTALLATION AND
OPERATION MANUAL
ACE-3200
Cell-Site Gateway
Version 6.1
The Access Company
ACE-3200
Cell-Site Gateway
Version 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Notice
This manual contains information that is proprietary to RAD Data Communications Ltd. ("RAD").
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without prior written
approval by RAD Data Communications.
Right, title and interest, all information, copyrights, patents, know-how, trade secrets and other
intellectual property or other proprietary rights relating to this manual and to the ACE-3200 and
any software components contained therein are proprietary products of RAD protected under
international copyright law and shall be and remain solely with RAD.
The ACE-3200 product name is owned by RAD. No right, license, or interest to such trademark is
granted hereunder, and you agree that no such right, license, or interest shall be asserted by
you with respect to such trademark. The RAD name, logo, logotype, and the terms EtherAccess,
TDMoIP and TDMoIP Driven, and the product names Optimux and IPmux, are registered
trademarks of RAD Data Communications Ltd. All other trademarks are the property of their
respective holders.
You shall not copy, reverse compile or reverse assemble all or any portion of the Manual or the
ACE-3200. You are prohibited from, and shall not, directly or indirectly, develop, market,
distribute, license, or sell any product that supports substantially similar functionality as the ACE3200, based on or derived in any way from the ACE-3200. Your undertaking in this paragraph
shall survive the termination of this Agreement.
This Agreement is effective upon your opening of the ACE-3200 package and shall continue until
terminated. RAD may terminate this Agreement upon the breach by you of any term hereof.
Upon such termination by RAD, you agree to return to RAD the ACE-3200 and all copies and
portions thereof.
This product is manufactured and sold under license to U.S. Patent 36,633.
For further information contact RAD at the address below or contact your local distributor.
International Headquarters
RAD Data Communications Ltd.
North America Headquarters
RAD Data Communications Inc.
24 Raoul Wallenberg Street
Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
Tel: 972-3-6458181
Fax: 972-3-6498250, 6474436
E-mail: market@rad.com
900 Corporate Drive
Mahwah, NJ 07430, USA
Tel: (201) 5291100, Toll free: 1-800-4447234
Fax: (201) 5295777
E-mail: market@rad.com
© 1998–2010 RAD Data Communications Ltd.
Publication No. 526-200-05/10
Limited Warranty
RAD warrants to DISTRIBUTOR that the hardware in the ACE-3200 to be delivered hereunder
shall be free of defects in material and workmanship under normal use and service for a period
of twelve (12) months following the date of shipment to DISTRIBUTOR.
If, during the warranty period, any component part of the equipment becomes defective by
reason of material or workmanship, and DISTRIBUTOR immediately notifies RAD of such defect,
RAD shall have the option to choose the appropriate corrective action: a) supply a replacement
part, or b) request return of equipment to its plant for repair, or c) perform necessary repair at
the equipment's location. In the event that RAD requests the return of equipment, each party
shall pay one-way shipping costs.
RAD shall be released from all obligations under its warranty in the event that the equipment has
been subjected to misuse, neglect, accident or improper installation, or if repairs or
modifications were made by persons other than RAD's own authorized service personnel, unless
such repairs by others were made with the written consent of RAD.
The above warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, expressed or implied. There are no
warranties which extend beyond the face hereof, including, but not limited to, warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, and in no event shall RAD be liable for
consequential damages.
RAD shall not be liable to any person for any special or indirect damages, including, but not
limited to, lost profits from any cause whatsoever arising from or in any way connected with the
manufacture, sale, handling, repair, maintenance or use of the ACE-3200, and in no event shall
RAD's liability exceed the purchase price of the ACE-3200.
DISTRIBUTOR shall be responsible to its customers for any and all warranties which it makes
relating to ACE-3200 and for ensuring that replacements and other adjustments required in
connection with the said warranties are satisfactory.
Software components in the ACE-3200 are provided "as is" and without warranty of any kind.
RAD disclaims all warranties including the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose. RAD shall not be liable for any loss of use, interruption of business or
indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages of any kind. In spite of the above RAD
shall do its best to provide error-free software products and shall offer free Software updates
during the warranty period under this Agreement.
RAD's cumulative liability to you or any other party for any loss or damages resulting from any
claims, demands, or actions arising out of or relating to this Agreement and the ACE-3200 shall
not exceed the sum paid to RAD for the purchase of the ACE-3200. In no event shall RAD be
liable for any indirect, incidental, consequential, special, or exemplary damages or lost profits,
even if RAD has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
This Agreement shall be construed and governed in accordance with the laws of the State of
Israel.
Product Disposal
To facilitate the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of waste
equipment in protecting the environment, the owner of this RAD product is
required to refrain from disposing of this product as unsorted municipal
waste at the end of its life cycle. Upon termination of the unit’s use,
customers should provide for its collection for reuse, recycling or other form
of environmentally conscientious disposal.
General Safety Instructions
The following instructions serve as a general guide for the safe installation and operation of
telecommunications products. Additional instructions, if applicable, are included inside the
manual.
Safety Symbols
This symbol may appear on the equipment or in the text. It indicates potential
safety hazards regarding product operation or maintenance to operator or service
personnel.
Warning
Danger of electric shock! Avoid any contact with the marked surface while the
product is energized or connected to outdoor telecommunication lines.
Protective ground: the marked lug or terminal should be connected to the building
protective ground bus.
Warning
Some products may be equipped with a laser diode. In such cases, a label with the
laser class and other warnings as applicable will be attached near the optical
transmitter. The laser warning symbol may be also attached.
Please observe the following precautions:
•
Before turning on the equipment, make sure that the fiber optic cable is intact
and is connected to the transmitter.
•
Do not attempt to adjust the laser drive current.
•
Do not use broken or unterminated fiber-optic cables/connectors or look
straight at the laser beam.
•
The use of optical devices with the equipment will increase eye hazard.
•
Use of controls, adjustments or performing procedures other than those
specified herein, may result in hazardous radiation exposure.
ATTENTION: The laser beam may be invisible!
In some cases, the users may insert their own SFP laser transceivers into the product. Users are
alerted that RAD cannot be held responsible for any damage that may result if non-compliant
transceivers are used. In particular, users are warned to use only agency approved products that
comply with the local laser safety regulations for Class 1 laser products.
Always observe standard safety precautions during installation, operation and maintenance of
this product. Only qualified and authorized service personnel should carry out adjustment,
maintenance or repairs to this product. No installation, adjustment, maintenance or repairs
should be performed by either the operator or the user.
Handling Energized Products
General Safety Practices
Do not touch or tamper with the power supply when the power cord is connected. Line voltages
may be present inside certain products even when the power switch (if installed) is in the OFF
position or a fuse is blown. For DC-powered products, although the voltages levels are usually
not hazardous, energy hazards may still exist.
Before working on equipment connected to power lines or telecommunication lines, remove
jewelry or any other metallic object that may come into contact with energized parts.
Unless otherwise specified, all products are intended to be grounded during normal use.
Grounding is provided by connecting the mains plug to a wall socket with a protective ground
terminal. If a ground lug is provided on the product, it should be connected to the protective
ground at all times, by a wire with a diameter of 18 AWG or wider. Rack-mounted equipment
should be mounted only in grounded racks and cabinets.
Always make the ground connection first and disconnect it last. Do not connect
telecommunication cables to ungrounded equipment. Make sure that all other cables are
disconnected before disconnecting the ground.
Some products may have panels secured by thumbscrews with a slotted head. These panels may
cover hazardous circuits or parts, such as power supplies. These thumbscrews should therefore
always be tightened securely with a screwdriver after both initial installation and subsequent
access to the panels.
Connecting AC Mains
Make sure that the electrical installation complies with local codes.
Always connect the AC plug to a wall socket with a protective ground.
The maximum permissible current capability of the branch distribution circuit that supplies power
to the product is 16A (20A for USA and Canada). The circuit breaker in the building installation
should have high breaking capacity and must operate at short-circuit current exceeding 35A (40A
for USA and Canada).
Always connect the power cord first to the equipment and then to the wall socket. If a power
switch is provided in the equipment, set it to the OFF position. If the power cord cannot be
readily disconnected in case of emergency, make sure that a readily accessible circuit breaker or
emergency switch is installed in the building installation.
In cases when the power distribution system is IT type, the switch must disconnect both poles
simultaneously.
Connecting DC Power
Unless otherwise specified in the manual, the DC input to the equipment is floating in reference
to the ground. Any single pole can be externally grounded.
Due to the high current capability of DC power systems, care should be taken when connecting
the DC supply to avoid short-circuits and fire hazards.
Make sure that the DC power supply is electrically isolated from any AC source and that the
installation complies with the local codes.
The maximum permissible current capability of the branch distribution circuit that supplies power
to the product is 16A (20A for USA and Canada). The circuit breaker in the building installation
should have high breaking capacity and must operate at short-circuit current exceeding 35A (40A
for USA and Canada).
Before connecting the DC supply wires, ensure that power is removed from the DC circuit. Locate
the circuit breaker of the panel board that services the equipment and switch it to the OFF
position. When connecting the DC supply wires, first connect the ground wire to the
corresponding terminal, then the positive pole and last the negative pole. Switch the circuit
breaker back to the ON position.
A readily accessible disconnect device that is suitably rated and approved should be incorporated
in the building installation.
If the DC power supply is floating, the switch must disconnect both poles simultaneously.
Connecting Data and Telecommunications Cables
Data and telecommunication interfaces are classified according to their safety status.
The following table lists the status of several standard interfaces. If the status of a given port
differs from the standard one, a notice will be given in the manual.
Ports
Safety Status
V.11, V.28, V.35, V.36, RS-530, X.21,
10 BaseT, 100 BaseT, Unbalanced E1,
E2, E3, STM, DS-2, DS-3, S-Interface
ISDN, Analog voice E&M
SELV
xDSL (without feeding voltage),
Balanced E1, T1, Sub E1/T1
TNV-1 Telecommunication Network Voltage-1:
Ports whose normal operating voltage is within the
limits of SELV, on which overvoltages from
telecommunications networks are possible.
FXS (Foreign Exchange Subscriber)
TNV-2 Telecommunication Network Voltage-2:
Ports whose normal operating voltage exceeds the
limits of SELV (usually up to 120 VDC or telephone
ringing voltages), on which overvoltages from
telecommunication networks are not possible. These
ports are not permitted to be directly connected to
external telephone and data lines.
FXO (Foreign Exchange Office), xDSL
(with feeding voltage), U-Interface
ISDN
TNV-3 Telecommunication Network Voltage-3:
Ports whose normal operating voltage exceeds the
limits of SELV (usually up to 120 VDC or telephone
ringing voltages), on which overvoltages from
telecommunication networks are possible.
Safety Extra Low Voltage:
Ports which do not present a safety hazard. Usually
up to 30 VAC or 60 VDC.
Always connect a given port to a port of the same safety status. If in doubt, seek the assistance
of a qualified safety engineer.
Always make sure that the equipment is grounded before connecting telecommunication cables.
Do not disconnect the ground connection before disconnecting all telecommunications cables.
Some SELV and non-SELV circuits use the same connectors. Use caution when connecting cables.
Extra caution should be exercised during thunderstorms.
When using shielded or coaxial cables, verify that there is a good ground connection at both
ends. The grounding and bonding of the ground connections should comply with the local codes.
The telecommunication wiring in the building may be damaged or present a fire hazard in case of
contact between exposed external wires and the AC power lines. In order to reduce the risk,
there are restrictions on the diameter of wires in the telecom cables, between the equipment
and the mating connectors.
Caution
To reduce the risk of fire, use only No. 26 AWG or larger telecommunication line
cords.
Attention
Pour réduire les risques s’incendie, utiliser seulement des conducteurs de
télécommunications 26 AWG ou de section supérieure.
Some ports are suitable for connection to intra-building or non-exposed wiring or cabling only. In
such cases, a notice will be given in the installation instructions.
Do not attempt to tamper with any carrier-provided equipment or connection hardware.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
The equipment is designed and approved to comply with the electromagnetic regulations of
major regulatory bodies. The following instructions may enhance the performance of the
equipment and will provide better protection against excessive emission and better immunity
against disturbances.
A good ground connection is essential. When installing the equipment in a rack, make sure to
remove all traces of paint from the mounting points. Use suitable lock-washers and torque. If an
external grounding lug is provided, connect it to the ground bus using braided wire as short as
possible.
The equipment is designed to comply with EMC requirements when connecting it with unshielded
twisted pair (UTP) cables. However, the use of shielded wires is always recommended, especially
for high-rate data. In some cases, when unshielded wires are used, ferrite cores should be
installed on certain cables. In such cases, special instructions are provided in the manual.
Disconnect all wires which are not in permanent use, such as cables used for one-time
configuration.
The compliance of the equipment with the regulations for conducted emission on the data lines
is dependent on the cable quality. The emission is tested for UTP with 80 dB longitudinal
conversion loss (LCL).
Unless otherwise specified or described in the manual, TNV-1 and TNV-3 ports provide secondary
protection against surges on the data lines. Primary protectors should be provided in the building
installation.
The equipment is designed to provide adequate protection against electro-static discharge (ESD).
However, it is good working practice to use caution when connecting cables terminated with
plastic connectors (without a grounded metal hood, such as flat cables) to sensitive data lines.
Before connecting such cables, discharge yourself by touching ground or wear an ESD preventive
wrist strap.
FCC-15 User Information
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits of the Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This
equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used
in accordance with the Installation and Operation manual, may cause harmful interference to the
radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful
interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own
expense.
Canadian Emission Requirements
This Class A digital apparatus meets all the requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing
Equipment Regulation.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A respecte toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel
brouilleur du Canada.
Warning per EN 55022 (CISPR-22)
Warning
Avertissement
Achtung
This is a class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio
interference, in which case the user will be required to take adequate measures.
Cet appareil est un appareil de Classe A. Dans un environnement résidentiel, cet
appareil peut provoquer des brouillages radioélectriques. Dans ces cas, il peut être
demandé à l’utilisateur de prendre les mesures appropriées.
Das vorliegende Gerät fällt unter die Funkstörgrenzwertklasse A. In Wohngebieten
können beim Betrieb dieses Gerätes Rundfunkströrungen auftreten, für deren
Behebung der Benutzer verantwortlich ist.
Français
Mise au rebut du produit
Afin de faciliter la réutilisation, le recyclage ainsi que d'autres formes de
récupération d'équipement mis au rebut dans le cadre de la protection de
l'environnement, il est demandé au propriétaire de ce produit RAD de ne pas
mettre ce dernier au rebut en tant que déchet municipal non trié, une fois
que le produit est arrivé en fin de cycle de vie. Le client devrait proposer des
solutions de réutilisation, de recyclage ou toute autre forme de mise au rebut
de cette unité dans un esprit de protection de l'environnement, lorsqu'il aura
fini de l'utiliser.
Instructions générales de sécurité
Les instructions suivantes servent de guide général d'installation et d'opération sécurisées des
produits de télécommunications. Des instructions supplémentaires sont éventuellement
indiquées dans le manuel.
Symboles de sécurité
Ce symbole peut apparaitre sur l'équipement ou dans le texte. Il indique des risques
potentiels de sécurité pour l'opérateur ou le personnel de service, quant à
l'opération du produit ou à sa maintenance.
Avertissement
Danger de choc électrique ! Evitez tout contact avec la surface marquée tant que le
produit est sous tension ou connecté à des lignes externes de télécommunications.
Mise à la terre de protection : la cosse ou la borne marquée devrait être connectée
à la prise de terre de protection du bâtiment.
•
Avant la mise en marche de l'équipement, assurez-vous que le câble de fibre
optique est intact et qu'il est connecté au transmetteur.
•
Ne tentez pas d'ajuster le courant de la commande laser.
•
N'utilisez pas des câbles ou connecteurs de fibre optique cassés ou sans
terminaison et n'observez pas directement un rayon laser.
•
L'usage de périphériques optiques avec l'équipement augmentera le risque pour
les yeux.
•
L'usage de contrôles, ajustages ou procédures autres que celles spécifiées ici
pourrait résulter en une dangereuse exposition aux radiations.
ATTENTION : Le rayon laser peut être invisible !
Les utilisateurs pourront, dans certains cas, insérer leurs propres émetteurs-récepteurs Laser SFP
dans le produit. Les utilisateurs sont avertis que RAD ne pourra pas être tenue responsable de
tout dommage pouvant résulter de l'utilisation d'émetteurs-récepteurs non conformes. Plus
particulièrement, les utilisateurs sont avertis de n'utiliser que des produits approuvés par
l'agence et conformes à la réglementation locale de sécurité laser pour les produits laser de
classe 1.
Respectez toujours les précautions standards de sécurité durant l'installation, l'opération et la
maintenance de ce produit. Seul le personnel de service qualifié et autorisé devrait effectuer
l'ajustage, la maintenance ou les réparations de ce produit. Aucune opération d'installation,
d'ajustage, de maintenance ou de réparation ne devrait être effectuée par l'opérateur ou
l'utilisateur.
Manipuler des produits sous tension
Règles générales de sécurité
Ne pas toucher ou altérer l'alimentation en courant lorsque le câble d'alimentation est branché.
Des tensions de lignes peuvent être présentes dans certains produits, même lorsque le
commutateur (s'il est installé) est en position OFF ou si le fusible est rompu. Pour les produits
alimentés par CC, les niveaux de tension ne sont généralement pas dangereux mais des risques
de courant peuvent toujours exister.
Avant de travailler sur un équipement connecté aux lignes de tension ou de télécommunications,
retirez vos bijoux ou tout autre objet métallique pouvant venir en contact avec les pièces sous
tension.
Sauf s'il en est autrement indiqué, tous les produits sont destinés à être mis à la terre durant
l'usage normal. La mise à la terre est fournie par la connexion de la fiche principale à une prise
murale équipée d'une borne protectrice de mise à la terre. Si une cosse de mise à la terre est
fournie avec le produit, elle devrait être connectée à tout moment à une mise à la terre de
protection par un conducteur de diamètre 18 AWG ou plus. L'équipement monté en châssis ne
devrait être monté que sur des châssis et dans des armoires mises à la terre.
Branchez toujours la mise à la terre en premier et débranchez-la en dernier. Ne branchez pas des
câbles de télécommunications à un équipement qui n'est pas mis à la terre. Assurez-vous que
tous les autres câbles sont débranchés avant de déconnecter la mise à la terre.
Français
Certains produits peuvent être équipés d'une diode laser. Dans de tels cas, une
étiquette indiquant la classe laser ainsi que d'autres avertissements, le cas échéant,
sera jointe près du transmetteur optique. Le symbole d'avertissement laser peut
aussi être joint.
Avertissement
Veuillez observer les précautions suivantes :
Français
Connexion au courant du secteur
Assurez-vous que l'installation électrique est conforme à la réglementation locale.
Branchez toujours la fiche de secteur à une prise murale équipée d'une borne protectrice de mise
à la terre.
La capacité maximale permissible en courant du circuit de distribution de la connexion alimentant
le produit est de 16A (20A aux Etats-Unis et Canada). Le coupe-circuit dans l'installation du
bâtiment devrait avoir une capacité élevée de rupture et devrait fonctionner sur courant de
court-circuit dépassant 35A (40A aux Etats-Unis et Canada).
Branchez toujours le câble d'alimentation en premier à l'équipement puis à la prise murale. Si un
commutateur est fourni avec l'équipement, fixez-le en position OFF. Si le câble d'alimentation ne
peut pas être facilement débranché en cas d'urgence, assurez-vous qu'un coupe-circuit ou un
disjoncteur d'urgence facilement accessible est installé dans l'installation du bâtiment.
Le disjoncteur devrait déconnecter simultanément les deux pôles si le système de distribution de
courant est de type IT.
Connexion d'alimentation CC
Sauf s'il en est autrement spécifié dans le manuel, l'entrée CC de l'équipement est flottante par
rapport à la mise à la terre. Tout pôle doit être mis à la terre en externe.
A cause de la capacité de courant des systèmes à alimentation CC, des précautions devraient
être prises lors de la connexion de l'alimentation CC pour éviter des courts-circuits et des risques
d'incendie.
Assurez-vous que l'alimentation CC est isolée de toute source de courant CA (secteur) et que
l'installation est conforme à la réglementation locale.
La capacité maximale permissible en courant du circuit de distribution de la connexion alimentant
le produit est de 16A (20A aux Etats-Unis et Canada). Le coupe-circuit dans l'installation du
bâtiment devrait avoir une capacité élevée de rupture et devrait fonctionner sur courant de
court-circuit dépassant 35A (40A aux Etats-Unis et Canada).
Avant la connexion des câbles d'alimentation en courant CC, assurez-vous que le circuit CC n'est
pas sous tension. Localisez le coupe-circuit dans le tableau desservant l'équipement et fixez-le
en position OFF. Lors de la connexion de câbles d'alimentation CC, connectez d'abord le
conducteur de mise à la terre à la borne correspondante, puis le pôle positif et en dernier, le
pôle négatif. Remettez le coupe-circuit en position ON.
Un disjoncteur facilement accessible, adapté et approuvé devrait être intégré à l'installation du
bâtiment.
Le disjoncteur devrait déconnecter simultanément les deux pôles si l'alimentation en courant CC
est flottante.
Declaration of Conformity
Manufacturer's Name:
RAD Data Communications Ltd.
Manufacturer's Address:
24 Raoul Wallenberg St., Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
Declares that the product:
Product Name:
ACE-3200
Conforms to the following standard(s) or other normative document(s):
EMC:
Safety:
EN 55022:1998
Information technology equipment – Radio disturbance
characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement.
EN 55024:1998
Information technology equipment – Immunity
characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement.
EN 60950-1:2000
Safety of information technology equipment.
Supplementary Information:
The product herewith complies with the requirements of the EMC Directive 8/336/EEC, the Low
Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC and the R&TTE Directive 99/5/EC for wired equipment. The product
was tested in a typical configuration.
Tel Aviv, 3 January 2005
Haim Karshen
VP Quality
European Contact:
RAD Data Communications GmbH, Otto-Hahn-Str. 28-30,
85521 Ottobrunn-Riemerling, Germany
Glossary
Address
A coded representation of the origin or destination of data.
Agent
In SNMP, this refers to the managed system.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute.
Attenuation
Signal power loss through equipment, lines or other transmission
devices. Measured in decibels.
Backhaul
Transporting traffic between distributed sites (typically access
points) and more centralized points of presence. See Cellular
Backhaul.
Balanced
A transmission line in which voltages on the two conductors are
equal in magnitude, but opposite in polarity, with respect to
ground.
Bandwidth
The range of frequencies passing through a given circuit. The
greater the bandwidth, the more information can be sent through
the circuit in a given amount of time.
Baud
Unit of signaling speed equivalent to the number of discrete
conditions or events per second. If each signal event represents
only one bit condition, baud rate equals bps (bits per second).
Bipolar
Signaling method in E1/T1 representing a binary “1” by alternating
positive and negative pulses, and a binary “0” by absence of
pulses.
Bit
The smallest unit of information in a binary system. Represents
either a one or zero (“1” or “0”).
Bridge
A device interconnecting local area networks at the OSI data link
layer, filtering and forwarding frames according to media access
control (MAC) addresses.
Buffer
A storage device. Commonly used to compensate for differences
in data rates or event timing when transmitting from one device to
another. Also used to remove jitter.
Byte
A group of bits (normally 8 bits in length).
Carrier
A continuous signal at a fixed frequency that is capable of being
modulated with a second (information carrying) signal.
Cell
The 53-byte basic information unit within an ATM network. The
user traffic is segmented into cells at the source and reassembled
at the destination. An ATM cell consists of a 5-byte ATM header
and a 48-byte ATM payload, which contains the user data.
Channel
A path for electrical transmission between two or more points.
Also called a link, line, circuit or facility.
Circuit Emulation
In ATM, a connection over a virtual circuit-based network providing
service to the end users that is indistinguishable from a real pointto point, fixed-bandwidth circuit.
Circuit Emulation
Service
New technology for offering circuit emulation services over
packet-switched networks. The service offers traditional TDM
trunking (at n x 64 kbps, fractional E1/T1, E1/T1 or E3/T3) over a
range of transport protocols, including Internet Protocol (IP), MPLS
and Ethernet.
Clock
A term for the source(s) of timing signals used in synchronous
transmission.
Compression
Any of several techniques that reduce the number of bits required
to represent information in data transmission or storage, thereby
conserving bandwidth and/or memory.
Concentrator
Device that serves as a wiring hub in a star-topology network.
Sometimes refers to a device containing multiple modules of
network equipment.
Congestion
A state in which the network is overloaded and starts to discard
user data (frames, cells or packets).
Congestion Control
A resource and traffic management mechanism to avoid and/or
prevent excessive situations (buffer overflow, insufficient
bandwidth) that can cause the network to collapse. In ATM
networks, congestion control schemes may be based on fields
within the ATM cell header (CLP, EFCI within the PTI) or may be
based on a more sophisticated mechanism between the ATM endsystem and ATM switches. The ATM Forum has developed a
mechanism based on rate control for ABR-type traffic. In Frame
Relay networks, congestion is handled by the FECN, BECN and DE
bits.
CORBA
The acronym for Common Object Request Broker Architecture,
OMG's open, vendor-independent architecture and infrastructure
that computer applications use to work together over networks.
One of its most important uses is in servers that must handle large
number of clients, at high hit rates, with high reliability, such as
network management systems.
Data
Information represented in digital form, including voice, text,
facsimile and video.
dBm
A measure of power in communications: the decibel in reference
to one milliwatt (0 dBm = 1 milliwatt and -30 dBm = .001
milliwatt).
Diagnostics
The detection and isolation of a malfunction or mistake in a
communications device, network or system.
Differential Delay
Differential delay is caused when traffic is split over different lines
that may traverse shorter and longer paths. Products like the RAD
IMX-2T1/E1 inverse multiplexer compensate for any differential
delay (up to 64 msec) between the T1 lines, to properly
reconstruct the original stream.
E1 Line
A 2.048 Mbps line, common in Europe, that supports thirty-two 64
kbps channels, each of which can transmit and receive data or
digitized voice. The line uses framing and signaling to achieve
synchronous and reliable transmission. The most common
configurations for E1 lines are E1 PRI, and unchannelized E1.
Encapsulation
Encapsulating data is a technique used by layered protocols in
which a low level protocol accepts a message from a higher level
protocol, then places it in the data portion of the lower-level
frame. The logistics of encapsulation require that packets traveling
over a physical network contain a sequence of headers.
Ethernet
A local area network (LAN) technology which has extended into
the wide area networks. Ethernet operates at many speeds,
including data rates of 10 Mbps (Ethernet), 100 Mbps (Fast
Ethernet), 1,000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet), 10 Gbps, 40 Gbps, and
100 Gbps.
Flow Control
A congestion control mechanism that results in an ATM system
implementing flow control.
Frame
A logical grouping of information sent as a link-layer unit over a
transmission medium. The terms packet, datagram, segment, and
message are also used to describe logical information groupings.
Framing
At the physical and data link layers of the OSI model, bits are fit
into units called frames. Frames contain source and destination
information, flags to designate the start and end of the frame,
plus information about the integrity of the frame. All other
information, such as network protocols and the actual payload of
data, is encapsulated in a packet, which is encapsulated in the
frame.
Full Duplex
A circuit or device permitting transmission in two directions
(sending and receiving) at the same time.
G.703
An ITU standard for the physical and electrical characteristics of
various digital interfaces, including those at 64 kbps and 2.048
Mbps.
Gateway
Gateways are points of entrance and exit from a communications
network. Viewed as a physical entity, a gateway is that node that
translates between two otherwise incompatible networks or
network segments. Gateways perform code and protocol
conversion to facilitate traffic between data highways of differing
architecture.
GUI (Graphical User
Interface)
Pronounced “gooey,” this software interface is based on pictorial
representations and menus of operations and files. Opposite of
command line interface.
Half Duplex
A circuit or device capable of transmitting in two directions, but
not at the same time.
IMA (Inverse
A method to pass ATM traffic over multiple E1/T1 links while
Multiplexing over ATM)
keeping the ATM’s Quality of Service and optimization of
bandwidth usage.
Impedance
The combined effect of resistance, inductance and capacitance on
a transmitted signal. Impedance varies at different frequencies.
Interface
A shared boundary, defined by common physical interconnection
characteristics, signal characteristics, and meanings of exchanged
signals.
Inverse Multiplexing
A method in which the inverse multiplexer slices the data stream
into equal portions and transmits each portion over an available
circuit. The receiving end adjusts for network-induced delay and
reassembles the data packets into their proper order. Therefore,
an inverse multiplexer allows lower speed channels across a
network to be combined into a single, higher speed data stream.
IP Address
Also known as an Internet address. A unique string of numbers
that identifies a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. The
format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four
numbers from 0 to 255, separated by periods (for example,
1.0.255.123).
J1
Digital interconnection protocol similar to T1 and E1 used in Japan.
Jitter
The deviation of a transmission signal in time or phase. It can
introduce errors and loss of synchronization in high speed
synchronous communications.
Laser
A device that transmits an extremely narrow and coherent beam
of electromagnetic energy in the visible light spectrum. Used as a
light source for fiber optic transmission (generally more expensive,
shorter lived, single mode only, for greater distances than LED).
Loopback
A type of diagnostic test in which the transmitted signal is
returned to the sending device after passing through all or part of
a communications link or network.
Manager
An application that receives Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) information from an agent. An agent and manager share a
database of information, called the Management Information Base
(MIB). An agent can use a message called a traps-PDU to send
unsolicited information to the manager. A manager that uses the
RADview MIB can query the RAD device, set parameters, sound
alarms when certain conditions appear, and perform other
administrative tasks.
Master Clock
The source of timing signals (or the signals themselves) that all
network stations use for synchronization.
Modular
Modular interfaces enable field-changeable conversion.
MPLS (Multiprotocol
Label Switching)
A standards-approved technology that allows core network routers
to operate at higher speeds without needing to examine each
packet in detail, and allows more complex services to be
developed, enabling discrimination on a QoS basis. MPLS speeds
up network traffic flow by bringing Layer 2 information to Layer 3
(IP) and facilitating network management. It forwards traffic using
a label that instructs the routers and the switches in the network
where to forward the packets based on pre-established IP routing
information. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with
TDM, Ethernet, IP, ATM, and Frame Relay network protocols.
Network
(1) An interconnected group of nodes. (2) A series of points,
nodes, or stations connected by communications channels; the
collection of equipment through which connections are made
between data stations.
NMS (Network
Management System)
The system that controls the network configuration, fault and
performance management, and diagnostic analysis.
Node
A point of interconnection to a network.
Packet
An ordered group of data and control signals transmitted through
a network, as a subset of a larger message.
Payload
The 48-byte segment of the ATM cell containing user data. Any
adaptation of user data via the AAL will take place within the
payload.
Physical Layer
Layer 1 of the OSI model. The layer concerned with electrical,
mechanical, and handshaking procedures over the interface
connecting a device to the transmission medium.
Policing
A method for verifying that the incoming VC complies with the
user’s service contract.
Port
The physical interface to a computer or multiplexer, for connection
of terminals and modems.
Protocol
A formal set of conventions governing the formatting and relative
timing of message exchange between two communicating
systems.
Pseudowire
Point-to-point connections set up to emulate (typically Layer 2)
native services like ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet, TDM, or
SONET/SDH over an underlying common packet-switched network
(Ethernet, MPLS or IP) core. Pseudowires are defined by the IETF
PWE3 (pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge) working group.
Router
An interconnection device that connects individual LANs. Unlike
bridges, which logically connect at OSI Layer 2, routers provide
logical paths at OSI Layer 3. Like bridges, remote sites can be
connected using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create
WANs.
Routing
The process of selecting the most efficient circuit path for a
message.
SFP (Small Form-factor
Pluggable)
A compact optical transceiver used in optical communications. It
interfaces a network device (a switch, router or similar device) to a
fiber optic or unshielded twisted pair networking cable. It is a
popular industry format.
Silence Suppression
In a telephone conversation, only about 50% of the full duplex
connection is used at any given time. This is generally because
only one person talks while the other person listens. In addition,
voice packets are not sent during interword pauses and natural
pauses in the conversation, reducing the required bandwidth by
another 10%. Silence suppression frees this 60% of bandwidth on
the full duplex link for other voice or data transmissions.
Single Mode
Describing an optical wave-guide or fiber that is designed to
propagate light of only a single wavelength (typically 5-10 microns
in diameter).
SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol)
The Internet standard protocol for managing nodes on an IP
network.
Space
In telecommunications, the absence of a signal. Equivalent to a
binary 0.
Sync
See Synchronous Transmission.
T1
A digital transmission link with a capacity of 1.544 Mbps used in
North America. Typically channelized into 24 DS0s, each capable of
carrying a single voice conversation or data stream. Uses two pairs
of twisted pair wires.
Telnet
The virtual terminal protocol in the Internet suite of protocols. It
lets users on one host access another host and work as terminal
users of that remote host. Instead of dialing into the computer,
the user connects to it over the Internet using Telnet. When
issuing a Telnet session, it connects to the Telnet host and logs in.
The connection enables the user to work with the remote machine
as though a terminal was connected to it.
Timeslot
A portion of a serial multiplex of timeslot information dedicated to
a single channel. In E1 and T1, one timeslot typically represents
one 64 kbps channel.
Traffic Policing
Mechanism whereby any traffic which violates the traffic contract
agreed to at connection setup, is detected and discarded.
Traffic Shaping
A method for smoothing the bursty traffic rate that might arrive
on an access virtual circuit so as to present a more uniform traffic
rate on the network.
Trunk
A single circuit between two points, both of which are switching
centers or individual distribution points. A trunk usually handles
many channels simultaneously.
VLAN-Aware
A device that is doing the Layer 2 bridging according to the VLAN
tag in addition to the standard bridging parameters. A VLAN-aware
device will not strip or add any VLAN header.
VLAN Stacking
A technique that lets carriers offer multiple virtual LANs over a
single circuit. In essence, the carrier creates an Ethernet virtual
private network to tunnel customer VLANs across its WAN; this
helps avoid name conflicts among customers of service providers
who connect to the carrier. Stacking works by assigning two VLAN
IDs to each frame header. One is a "backbone" VLAN ID used by
the service provider; the other one has up to 4,096 unique 802.1Q
VLAN tags.
Quick Start Guide
Only an experienced technician should carry out the installation of ACE-3200. If
you are familiar with ACE-3200, use this quick guide to prepare the unit for
operation.
1.
Installing ACE-3200
1. Determine the required configuration of ACE-3200, according to your
application.
2. Insert the desired modular interfaces into the slots to the left.
3. Connect the user/network ports as required for the application.
4. Connect the ASCII terminal to the RS-232 control port.
5. Connect power to the unit.
Connecting the Interfaces
³
To connect the interfaces:
1. Insert the SFP modules into the relevant SFP-based Ethernet ports (FE and/or
GbE), and then connect the optical cables.
2. Connect the appropriate cables to the ADSL, SHDSL, ATM-155 and E1/T1
ports.
Note
• The number and type of available ports depend on the chassis you purchased.
• Lock the wire latch of each SFP module by lifting it up until it clicks into place.
For additional information, refer to Chapter 2.
Connecting to a Terminal
³
To connect the unit to a terminal:
1. Connect the standard DB-9 flat cable to the unit's 9-pin connector,
designated 'CONTROL'.
2. Connect the other side of the cable to the ASCII terminal equipment.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installing ACE-3200
1
Quick Start Guide
Installation and Operation Manual
Connecting the Power
³
To connect the power:
1. Connect the power cable to the AC power connector on the
unit's front panel.
2. Connect the power cable to mains outlet.
The unit will be turned on automatically upon connection to the mains.
2.
Configuring ACE-3200
Configure ACE-3200 using a local ASCII-based terminal or a network management
station.
Starting a Terminal Session for the First Time
³
To start the terminal session:
1. Connect an ASCII terminal to the CONTROL port.
2. Configure the ASCII terminal to the settings listed below and then set the
terminal emulator to VT100 emulation for optimal view of system menus.
ƒ
Baud Rate:
9,600 bps
ƒ
Data bits:
8
ƒ
Parity:
None
ƒ
Stop bits:
1
ƒ
Flow control:
None.
3. Power up the unit. Verify that the power supply LEDs on the front panel are
on.
4. If you are using HyperTerminal, set the terminal mode to 132-column mode
for optimal view of system menus (Properties> Settings> Terminal Setup>
132 column mode).
5. Verify that ACE-3200 properly starts up by observing the state of the PS
LED(s) as follows:
•
On:
Power supply is on
•
Off:
Power supply is off.
6. Check the RDY (green) LED on the front panel of the unit:
2
•
Blinking:
Self-test failed (display the self-test results to check the
failure source)
•
On:
ACE-3200 is ready for operation.
Configuring ACE-3200
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Quick Start Guide
7. Check the ALM red LED on the front panel of the unit:
•
Blinking:
One or more alarms are active
•
Off:
No alarms.
Logging In
According to your user privileges, you may log in as super user, technician or
user. To configure ACE-3200, you have to log in as ‘super user’.
³
To login as a super user (su):
1. While connected to the terminal, press <ESC> to enter the login screen.
2. Enter your user name (su for full configuration and monitoring access) and
your password when prompted, and then press <Enter>.
Configuring the Physical Ports
The type and the number of available ports depend on the hardware
configuration you ordered. Configure the physical layer parameters for:
³
•
E1/T1 ports
•
Fast Ethernet ports
•
ATM-155 ports
To configure the E1/T1 ports:
•
³
To configure the Fast Ethernet ports:
•
³
At the config>port>e1/t1 prompt, set the required physical layer parameters.
At the config>port>eth prompt, set the required physical layer parameters.
To configure the ATM-155 ports:
•
At the config>port>sdh-sonet prompt, set the required physical layer
parameters.
Configuring the Router Parameters
To enable cross-network management, you have to first configure the router
parameters as follows:
•
At the config prompt, enter router 1 and then enter the network access
parameters.
Configuring ATM Parameters
³
To configure ATM related parameters:
•
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
At the config>port>atm prompt, enter the ATM related parameters.
Configuring ACE-3200
3
Quick Start Guide
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To configure an IMA group:
•
³
At the config>port>atm prompt, enter ima-group <ima-group number><port>
and then configure the related parameters.
To configure an ATM uplink:
1. At the config>port>atm prompt, enter
bind <interface>.
2. At the config>router>interface prompt, enter bind <interface> vc <vc index>
llc-snap-encapsulation bridged-pdu
³
To configure the ATM descriptor:
•
³
At the config>qos>atm prompt, enter the relevant parameters.
To configure ATM OAM:
•
At the config>oam>atm prompt, enter the relevant parameters.
Configuring Bridge Parameters
³
To configure a bridge:
•
At the config>bridge prompt, specify the related parameters.
Configuring Flows
Flows are needed for Ethernet pseudowires. The flows are uni-directional,
therefore separate flows have to be configured for both directions (ingress and
egress flows). Ingress and egress flows require a switched virtual interface (SVI).
³
To configure switched virtual interface (SVI):
•
At the config>port prompt, specify an SVI interface that will act as egress
(network) port for flows.
•
At the config>flows prompt, define the classifier profile and the ingress and
egress flows.
Configuring Ethernet OAM
³
4
To configure OAM for Ethernet at the First Mile (EFM):
•
At the config>oam>efm prompt, define a descriptor and specify the rate limit
for OAM EFM frames.
•
At the config>port>eth prompt, link the descriptor to an Ethernet port.
Configuring ACE-3200
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Quick Start Guide
Configuring the Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)
BFD detects errors between two device engines and is part of Ethernet OAM.
³
To enable and define a BFD descriptor:
•
At the config>oam prompt, enter bfd-descriptor <1..32> and then configure
the relevant parameters.
Configuring Cross Connections
You can establish the following cross connections:
³
•
ATM-VP
•
ATM-VP
•
ATM-CES
•
PW-VP
•
PW-VC
•
PW-TDM
•
PW-ETH
To configure a cross connection:
1. At the config prompt, enter cross-connect.
The config>xc prompt appears.
2. Specify and define the desired cross connection.
Setting the Clock Source
Set the source from which the unit should derive its timing.
³
To set the clock source:
•
At the config>system>clock prompt, specify the type of source and then set
the relevant parameters.
Adding/Removing a Manager
To add or remove a manager to/from the manager list, do the following:
³
To add a manager IP:
1. At the config prompt, enter management.
The config>mngmnt prompt appears.
2. At the config>mngmnt prompt, enter manager <management station’s IP
address>.
The respective management station is added to the managers list and
may access the unit with read/write access.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuring ACE-3200
5
Quick Start Guide
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To mask traps for a specific manager:
•
At the config>mngmnt>manager><management station’s IP address>
prompt, enter mask <relevant trap(s)>.
The relevant trap(s) will not be displayed when logged on from the
specified management station.
³
To unmask traps for a specific manager
•
At the config>mngmnt>manager><management station’s IP address>
prompt, enter no mask <relevant trap(s)>.
The relevant trap(s) will be displayed when logged on from the specified
management station.
³
To remove a manager IP:
•
At the config>mngmnt prompt, enter no manager <management station’s IP
address>.
The respective management station is removed from the managers list.
6
Configuring ACE-3200
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Overview.................................................................................................................... 1-1
Device Options ....................................................................................................... 1-2
E1/T1 Interfaces ................................................................................................. 1-2
Fast Ethernet Interfaces ..................................................................................... 1-2
STM-1OC3-c Interface ........................................................................................ 1-3
Power Supply ..................................................................................................... 1-3
Clock Synchronization ........................................................................................ 1-3
License Packs ..................................................................................................... 1-4
Applications ............................................................................................................ 1-4
ATM Traffic over PSN .......................................................................................... 1-4
ATM/TDM Traffic over PSN .................................................................................. 1-5
ATM Aggregation / CES over ATM ........................................................................ 1-5
HSDPA in a Hybrid Backhaul Solution .................................................................. 1-6
Features ................................................................................................................. 1-6
Pseudowire Capabilities over PSN ....................................................................... 1-6
Bridging Capabilities ........................................................................................... 1-7
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Virtual MAC Addresses ........................................ 1-8
ATM Switching and Policing Capabilities .............................................................. 1-8
Quality of Service (QoS) over PSN....................................................................... 1-8
Clock Synchronization ........................................................................................ 1-9
OAM and Diagnostics ......................................................................................... 1-9
Performance Monitoring ................................................................................... 1-10
Management .................................................................................................... 1-11
DHCP Client ...................................................................................................... 1-11
Security ........................................................................................................... 1-11
What’s New In This Version ...................................................................................... 1-12
Physical Description ................................................................................................. 1-13
Interfaces ............................................................................................................. 1-13
E1/T1 Interfaces ............................................................................................... 1-13
Fast Ethernet Interface .................................................................................... 1-14
Technical Specifications............................................................................................ 1-14
Chapter 2. Installation and Setup
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
Site Requirements and Prerequisites .......................................................................... 2-1
Package Contents ...................................................................................................... 2-2
Required Equipment ................................................................................................... 2-2
Power Cable............................................................................................................ 2-2
Interface Cables ...................................................................................................... 2-3
Mounting ACE-3200 ................................................................................................... 2-3
Connecting to PDH Equipment.................................................................................... 2-3
Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks ................................................................... 2-4
Using Fiber Optic Ethernet Interface ........................................................................ 2-4
Using Electrical Ethernet Interfaces ......................................................................... 2-5
Connecting to ATM Network Equipment...................................................................... 2-6
Connecting to a Terminal ........................................................................................... 2-7
Connecting to a Network Management Station ........................................................... 2-7
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
i
Table of Contents
Installation and Operation Manual
2.10 Connecting to Power .................................................................................................. 2-8
Connecting to AC Power.......................................................................................... 2-8
Connecting to DC Power ......................................................................................... 2-8
Chapter 3. Operation
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Turning On the Unit ................................................................................................... 3-1
Indicators .................................................................................................................. 3-2
Configuration and Management Alternatives .............................................................. 3-3
Working with Terminal ............................................................................................ 3-4
Connecting to the Control Port ........................................................................... 3-4
Login ................................................................................................................. 3-6
Using the CLI ...................................................................................................... 3-7
Command Tree ..................................................................................................... 3-10
Working with RADview .......................................................................................... 3-28
Startup .................................................................................................................... 3-29
Configuration Files ................................................................................................ 3-29
Loading Sequence ................................................................................................. 3-29
Using a Custom Configuration File ............................................................................ 3-30
Turning Off the Unit ................................................................................................. 3-30
Chapter 4. Configuration
4.1
4.2
4.1
4.2
4.3
ii
Terminal Control ........................................................................................................ 4-1
Factory Defaults ..................................................................................................... 4-1
Configuring the Terminal Connection ....................................................................... 4-1
Example .................................................................................................................. 4-2
User Access Levels ..................................................................................................... 4-2
Defining Users and Passwords ................................................................................ 4-2
Example .................................................................................................................. 4-3
Viewing Connected Users ........................................................................................ 4-4
Managers ................................................................................................................... 4-5
Configuring a Manager ............................................................................................ 4-5
Access ....................................................................................................................... 4-6
Configuring Access .................................................................................................. 4-7
SNMP Management .................................................................................................... 4-8
Standards ............................................................................................................... 4-8
Benefits.................................................................................................................. 4-9
Functional Description ............................................................................................ 4-9
SNMP Message Formats ................................................................................... 4-10
The SNMPv3 Mechanism ................................................................................... 4-14
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-15
Configuring for SNMP Management ....................................................................... 4-15
Specifying an SNMPv3 Engine ........................................................................... 4-15
Enabling SNMPv3 .............................................................................................. 4-16
Specifying an SNMPv3 User .............................................................................. 4-16
Defining User (Access) Groups.......................................................................... 4-17
Setting up a View ............................................................................................. 4-18
Mapping SNMPv1 to SNMPv3 ............................................................................ 4-19
Configuring Targets .......................................................................................... 4-20
Binding Managers to a Trap Synchronization Group........................................... 4-22
Viewing the Current Trap Synchronization Settings ........................................... 4-23
Configuring SNMP Communities for SNMPv1 ..................................................... 4-23
Adding SNMPv3 Notification Entries .................................................................. 4-24
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Table of Contents
Configuring a Notification Filter ........................................................................ 4-25
Configuring a Notification Filter Profile ............................................................. 4-26
Linking User (Access) Groups to an Access Control Policy .................................. 4-26
Configuring OpenView Severity ......................................................................... 4-27
Example ........................................................................................................... 4-27
4.4 Authentication via RADIUS Server ............................................................................. 4-27
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-27
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-27
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-28
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-28
Configuring the RADIUS Server .............................................................................. 4-28
Viewing the RADIUS Server Profile’s Status ............................................................ 4-29
Viewing RADIUS Statistics...................................................................................... 4-29
4.5 Out-Of-Band Ethernet Control .................................................................................. 4-30
What is the Out-Of-Band Ethernet Port? ............................................................... 4-30
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-30
Configuring the Out-Of-Band Management Port .................................................... 4-30
4.6 Ethernet Ports ......................................................................................................... 4-30
Configuring an Ethernet Port ................................................................................. 4-31
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-31
Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Status ......................................................................... 4-32
Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Statistics ..................................................................... 4-32
4.7 Bridge ...................................................................................................................... 4-34
What is a LAN-to-LAN Bridge ................................................................................ 4-34
What is a LAN-to-ATM Bridge? .............................................................................. 4-35
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-35
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-35
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-35
LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM Bridging .............................................................. 4-36
LAN-to-ATM Bridging ........................................................................................ 4-36
MAC Table Handling in Bridge Mode .................................................................. 4-36
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-37
Configuring a Bridge ............................................................................................. 4-37
Viewing Bridge Port Statistics ........................................................................... 4-39
Associating a Bridge Port with a VLAN .............................................................. 4-40
4.8 Quality of Service for Bridges ................................................................................... 4-41
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-41
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-41
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-41
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-42
Configuring a Queue Map Profile ........................................................................... 4-42
4.9 The Service Virtual Interface ..................................................................................... 4-43
Configuring the Service Virtual Interface ................................................................ 4-43
4.10 Flows ....................................................................................................................... 4-43
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-44
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-44
VLAN ID............................................................................................................ 4-45
VLAN ID + P-Bits ............................................................................................... 4-46
Destination IP .................................................................................................. 4-47
Destination IP and IP Precedence...................................................................... 4-47
Destination IP and DSCP ................................................................................... 4-48
Egress Flows .................................................................................................... 4-49
Configuring Flows ................................................................................................. 4-50
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-53
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
iii
Table of Contents
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
iv
Installation and Operation Manual
Configuring the Classifier Profile ....................................................................... 4-53
Configuring the User-Network Flow .................................................................. 4-53
Configuring the Network-User Flow .................................................................. 4-54
Viewing the Flow Summary ................................................................................... 4-54
Ethernet OAM .......................................................................................................... 4-55
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-55
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-55
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-55
Ethernet OAM Discovery Process ...................................................................... 4-56
Ethernet OAM with Traffic ................................................................................ 4-56
Timers.............................................................................................................. 4-56
Remote Failure Indication ................................................................................. 4-57
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-57
Configuring Ethernet OAM..................................................................................... 4-57
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-57
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ........................................................................... 4-58
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-58
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-58
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-59
Configuring Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ..................................................... 4-59
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-60
E1 Ports ................................................................................................................... 4-60
What is E1 ............................................................................................................ 4-60
Standards and MIBs .............................................................................................. 4-60
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-60
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-61
Physical Loopback Tests ................................................................................... 4-61
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-62
Configuring an E1 Port .......................................................................................... 4-62
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-64
Viewing an E1 Port’s Status................................................................................... 4-65
Viewing an E1 Port’s Statistics .............................................................................. 4-65
T1 Ports ................................................................................................................... 4-68
What is T1 ............................................................................................................ 4-68
Standards and MIBs .............................................................................................. 4-68
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-68
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-68
Physical Loopback Tests ................................................................................... 4-68
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-68
Configuring a T1 Port ............................................................................................ 4-69
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-71
Viewing a T1 Port’s Status..................................................................................... 4-72
Viewing a T1 Port’s Statistics ................................................................................ 4-72
SDH/SONET Interfaces.............................................................................................. 4-74
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-74
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-75
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-75
Configuring an SDH/SONET Interface ..................................................................... 4-75
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-75
Viewing an SDH/SONET Interface Status ................................................................ 4-76
Viewing SDH/SONET Interface Statistics................................................................. 4-76
Automatic Protection Switching ................................................................................ 4-78
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-78
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-78
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
Table of Contents
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-79
Configuring Automatic Protection Switching .......................................................... 4-79
Adding and Removing an APS Group ................................................................. 4-79
Binding Ports to an APS Group.......................................................................... 4-79
Configuring an APS Group................................................................................. 4-80
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-82
Viewing the Status of an APS Group ...................................................................... 4-82
ATM Traffic Descriptor.............................................................................................. 4-83
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-83
Benefits................................................................................................................ 4-83
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-83
Service Categories ............................................................................................ 4-83
Traffic Parameters ............................................................................................ 4-84
ATM Traffic Shaping ......................................................................................... 4-84
ATM Cell Scheduling.......................................................................................... 4-85
ATM Policing..................................................................................................... 4-86
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................... 4-86
Configuring the ATM Traffic Descriptor .................................................................. 4-87
Example ................................................................................................................ 4-88
ATM OAM ................................................................................................................. 4-89
Standards ............................................................................................................. 4-89
Functional Description .......................................................................................... 4-89
VP Intermediate Point....................................................................................... 4-89
VC Intermediate Point....................................................................................... 4-91
VP Segment Point............................................................................................. 4-92
VC Segment Point............................................................................................. 4-95
VC End-to-End Point ......................................................................................... 4-97
OAM Loopback ................................................................................................. 4-99
Configuring ATM OAM ......................................................................................... 4-100
Example .............................................................................................................. 4-101
ATM Cell Tests ........................................................................................................ 4-101
Configuring an ATM Cell Test ............................................................................... 4-102
Example .............................................................................................................. 4-103
ATM Uplink ............................................................................................................. 4-103
Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-103
Benefits.............................................................................................................. 4-103
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................. 4-103
Configuring an ATM Uplink .................................................................................. 4-104
IMA Groups ............................................................................................................ 4-104
Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-104
Benefits.............................................................................................................. 4-105
Configuring an IMA Group ................................................................................... 4-105
Example .............................................................................................................. 4-106
Viewing the Status of an IMA Group .................................................................... 4-107
Viewing the Status of a Link within an IMA Group ................................................ 4-108
Viewing IMA Group Statistics ............................................................................... 4-109
Viewing Statistics of an Entire IMA Group........................................................ 4-110
Viewing Statistics of a Link in an IMA Group .................................................... 4-111
Router ................................................................................................................... 4-113
What is the Router in ACE-3200? ........................................................................ 4-113
Benefits.............................................................................................................. 4-113
Factory Default ................................................................................................... 4-113
Configuring the Router........................................................................................ 4-114
Configuring a Remote Peer ............................................................................. 4-117
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
v
Table of Contents
4.23
4.24
4.25
4.26
4.27
4.28
vi
Installation and Operation Manual
Configuring a Static Route .............................................................................. 4-118
Configuring an MPLS Path ............................................................................... 4-118
Example on Configuring a Router Interface .......................................................... 4-123
Viewing the Router Status................................................................................... 4-124
VPL and VCL Interfaces ........................................................................................... 4-125
Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-125
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................. 4-125
Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces ..................................................................... 4-126
Example .............................................................................................................. 4-127
Viewing VPL Statistics ......................................................................................... 4-128
Viewing VCL Statistics ......................................................................................... 4-129
Point to Point over Ethernet ................................................................................... 4-131
Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-131
Functional Description ........................................................................................ 4-131
Benefits.............................................................................................................. 4-132
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................. 4-132
Configuring PPPoE ............................................................................................... 4-132
Example .............................................................................................................. 4-134
Viewing the PPP (PPPoE) Status........................................................................... 4-135
Pseudowires .......................................................................................................... 4-136
Standards ........................................................................................................... 4-136
Functional Description ........................................................................................ 4-137
Basic Pseudowire (PW) Encapsulation ............................................................. 4-137
Encapsulation over Different PSN Types ......................................................... 4-137
ATM Service Encapsulation ............................................................................. 4-144
TDM Service Encapsulation ............................................................................. 4-147
Ethernet Service Encapsulation ....................................................................... 4-150
Factory Defaults ................................................................................................. 4-152
Configuring Pseudowires ..................................................................................... 4-152
Viewing the Pseudowire Status ........................................................................... 4-157
Cross Connections ................................................................................................. 4-158
Configuring a Cross Connection ........................................................................... 4-158
Example .............................................................................................................. 4-166
Remote DSL Modem ............................................................................................... 4-166
Functional Description ........................................................................................ 4-166
Configuring the Connection to the Remote DSL Modem ...................................... 4-166
Administration ....................................................................................................... 4-167
Specifying Administrative Information ................................................................. 4-167
Configuring the Clocks ........................................................................................ 4-168
Clock Domain ................................................................................................. 4-168
Recovered Clock ............................................................................................. 4-169
Setting the Date and the Time ............................................................................ 4-171
Linking to a Network Time Server ................................................................... 4-172
Setting the Syslog Parameters ............................................................................ 4-173
Viewing the Hardware and Software Profile ......................................................... 4-174
File Operations ................................................................................................... 4-176
Downloading/Uploading Files .......................................................................... 4-176
Using CLI to Download/Upload Files ................................................................ 4-179
Copying Files Within ACE-3200 ....................................................................... 4-179
Displaying Files Within ACE-3200 .................................................................... 4-180
Swapping Files ............................................................................................... 4-180
Deleting Files ................................................................................................. 4-180
Saving the Configuration ..................................................................................... 4-181
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Table of Contents
Resetting ACE-3200 ............................................................................................ 4-181
Resetting to Factory Defaults ......................................................................... 4-181
Resetting to User Defaults ............................................................................. 4-182
Restarting the Unit ......................................................................................... 4-182
Global Commands ............................................................................................... 4-182
Chapter 5. Monitoring and Diagnostics
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Detecting Problems .................................................................................................... 5-1
Self-Test ................................................................................................................. 5-1
LEDs ....................................................................................................................... 5-2
Alarms and Traps .................................................................................................... 5-3
Statistic Counters ................................................................................................... 5-4
Configuring Error Messages ..................................................................................... 5-4
Handling Events ......................................................................................................... 5-5
Dealing with Alarms and Traps ................................................................................ 5-6
List of Alarms and Events ................................................................................... 5-6
Corrective Measures ........................................................................................... 5-9
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................... 5-10
Troubleshooting Chart .......................................................................................... 5-10
Performing Diagnostic Tests ..................................................................................... 5-21
IP Connectivity Tests ............................................................................................. 5-21
Frequently Asked Questions ..................................................................................... 5-22
Technical Support .................................................................................................... 5-24
Chapter 6. Software Upgrade
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
Impact ....................................................................................................................... 6-1
Software Upgrade Options ......................................................................................... 6-1
Prerequisites .............................................................................................................. 6-1
Software Files ......................................................................................................... 6-1
System Requirements ............................................................................................. 6-2
Upgrading Software using the CLI ............................................................................... 6-2
Using TFTP .............................................................................................................. 6-2
Verifying the IP Settings ..................................................................................... 6-3
Activating the TFTP Server .................................................................................. 6-3
Downloading the New Software Release File to the Unit ..................................... 6-4
Using XMODEM ....................................................................................................... 6-4
Copying the New Software Release File to the Unit............................................. 6-4
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu ...................................................................... 6-6
Preparing for Downloading an Application File ......................................................... 6-6
Using TFTP .............................................................................................................. 6-7
Downloading via TFTP......................................................................................... 6-8
Using XMODEM ....................................................................................................... 6-9
Managing the File System ..................................................................................... 6-11
Appendix A. Connection Data
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
vii
Table of Contents
viii
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1
Overview
RAD’s ACE-3200 multiservice cell site gateway is specifically designed to
accommodate the rapid expansion in cellular backhaul traffic resulting from the
widespread deployment of new mobile broadband services. It simplifies service
provisioning and control by enabling simultaneous delivery of GSM, UMTS and
next-generation 3GPP/LTE Wimax traffic over the same transport network.
Working opposite the ACE-340x and ACE-3600 aggregation site gateways, ACE3200 minimizes capital investments and shortens service rollout times by
leveraging available ATM and SDH/SONET infrastructure to access high-capacity,
economical packet-switched transport networks.
Typically located at the BTS or Node B site (cell site), ACE-3200 aggregates traffic
from E1/T1 and Ethernet interfaces, and transmits the traffic over or Ethernet
uplinks. ACE-3200 provides different aggregation/switching abilities over different
types of networks:
•
Over packet-switched networks (PSNs) – aggregating multiservice protocols
(ATM and TDM) over packet-switched networks, such as Ethernet, MPLS and
IP networks, by utilizing pseudowire (PW) connections that are established by
ACE-3200 over the PSN. These virtual pseudowires comprise
uniquely-formatted Ethernet packets, which provide complete emulation of
ATM/TDM services (UNI/IMA/CES/SAT) over all types of packet-switched
networks.
•
Over ATM or SDH/SONET networks – aggregating multiservice protocols (ATM
and TDM) over ATM or SDH/SONET networks. ACE-3200 allows
switching/aggregation of multiple traffic types (UNI/IMA/CES/SAT) from
several ATM/TDM sources, onto a single STM-1/OC-3c fiber optic link towards
the ATM network or the RNC site, allowing optimal utilization of network
backbone resources.
Since traffic timing synchronization plays a critical role in cellular backhaul
applications, ACE-3200 can distribute the timing in adaptive mode over
packet-switched networks. In addition, and more typically, an optional hardware
component allows ACE-3200 to recover the timing from a dedicated PW clock
stream received from the PSN.
ACE-3200 is ready to implement the IEEE 1588v2 standard for precision clock
synchronization.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Overview
1-1
Chapter 1 Introduction
Installation and Operation Manual
Additional features of ACE-3200 include the following:
•
Advanced pseudowire connectivity verification using VCCV-BFD messages
•
Advanced pseudowire QoS
•
End-to-end fault propagation between legacy and packet-switched networks
•
A choice of clock synchronization modes
•
Various bridging modes such as LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM
•
MPLS capabilities such as LDP
•
Full OAM and statistics collection
•
Self-diagnostic tools
•
Inband and out-of-band management via various management access types
and user interfaces
•
Clock Synchronization
•
Robust clock synchronization and flexible timing modes include:
•
Unicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed with a dedicated
stream towards up to 32 remote PSN peers.
•
Multicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed towards the PSN
using a single IP multicast clock stream (IGMPv2 host).
•
The two 100BaseT/SFP interfaces support 1599 V2 and Synchronous
Ethernet.
•
Interoperability with third-party aggregation multiservice products from
manufacturers such as Cisco Nortel and Alcatel.
Device Options
ACE-3200 is a standalone, fully assembled non-modular unit.
E1/T1 Interfaces
ACE-3200 includes 8 or 16 E1 or T1 ports. The E1/T1 ports can be configured to
work in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables
high flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.
The E1 ports are available with balanced or unbalanced interfaces (via an optional
RJ-45 to BNC adapter cable).
Fast Ethernet Interfaces
ACE-3200 includes two Fast Ethernet RJ-45 or SFP ports, used for pseudowire
(PW) connectivity, user connections and inband management access.
The Ethernet ports are also used for out of band management in applications
that do not utilize an Ethernet uplink.
The Ethernet interfaces can be ordered as electrical (RJ-45) or fiber optic ports.
The fiber optic ports utilize hot swappable Ethernet-compliant SFPs, which are
identical in structure to the STM1/OC-3c SFPs.
1-2
Overview
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction
STM-1OC3-c Interface
ACE-3200 is equipped with 2 or without ATM-155 ports.
The ATM-155 (155 Mbps) interface is either STM-1 or OC-3c compliant,
depending on the country of distribution. The ports utilize field-replaceable
SFP transceivers.
Power Supply
ACE-3200 is supplied with one or two power supplies at the front, which can be
either AC-powered (100–240 VAC) or DC-powered (24/-48/-60 VDC).
Clock Synchronization
ACE-3200 provides robust clock synchronization and flexible timing modes,
including:
•
Clock recovery – a dedicated clock recovery module (optional) allows
ACE-3200 to adaptively recover the clock from a source device that
distributes the clock signal over a packet-switched network.
High precision clock recovery is performed according to the IEEE 1588v2
requirements.
Synchronization over packet transport networks (Sync-E) as performed
according to the ITU-T G.8261/G.8262 requirements.
•
Unicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed with a dedicated
stream towards up to 32 remote PSN peers via pseudowire connections.
•
Multicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed towards the PSN
using a single IP multicast clock stream (IGMPv2 host) via pseudowire
connections.
ACE-3200 can be ordered with clock recovery hardware components as specified
below. Activating the clock recovery hardware requires P2 or P3 as software
license packs.
P2 includes the functionalities of license packs P1 and P3 – P5. These license
packs support specific functionalities as listed under License Packs and can be
ordered separately at a later stage.
Clock Recovery Hardware Components
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
A
Clock recovery hardware component
AS
Synchronization over Packet Synchronous Ethernet hardware component
S
Synchronous Ethernet hardware component
Overview
1-3
Chapter 1 Introduction
Installation and Operation Manual
License Packs
Available software license packs are:
P1
ATM and PSN functionality, not including clock recovery over packet
P2
Complete functionality, including clock recovery over packet
P3
ATM and PSN uplink including software support for synchronization over
packet, and MPLS LDP software functionality
P4
ATM and PSN uplink, including MPLS LDP software functionality, not
including clock recovery over packet
P5
MPLS LDP software functionality only
Applications
ATM Traffic over PSN
In a typical 3G over PSN application, ACE-3100 and ACE-3200 receive ATM-based
traffic from the Node B units, and then encapsulate and transmit the traffic over
the PSN using pseudowire connections. On the carrier side, the pseudowire
connections are converted by ACE-3402 back to ATM-155 traffic, over an
STM-1/OC-3c link towards the RNC.
Figure 1-1. Emulated ATM Services over PSN
1-4
Overview
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction
ATM/TDM Traffic over PSN
In a typical TDM/ATM over PSN application, both 2G and 3G traffic is transported
over the PSN.
Figure 1-2. Emulated ATM/TDM Services over PSN
ATM Aggregation / CES over ATM
In the following application, ACE-3200 performs aggregation of multiple E1/T1
links (CES and IMA) and sends them towards the ATM network over a protected
STM-1/OC-3c connection as explained under Automatic Protection Switching in
Chapter 4. The traffic is then received at the central site by ACE-3400, which
transmits it towards the RNC and BSC units, by using STM-1/OC-3c and N E1/T1
CES links respectively.
Figure 1-3. 2G/3G Backhauling over ATM
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Overview
1-5
Chapter 1 Introduction
Installation and Operation Manual
HSDPA in a Hybrid Backhaul Solution
The following figure demonstrates how voice (R99) and data (HSDPA) traffic can
be separated in a hybrid backhaul solution. ACE-3200 is configured to send the
data traffic over the packet-switched network, and the voice traffic over an ATM
or SDH network.
Figure 1-4. Hybrid Backhaul Solution
Features
Pseudowire Capabilities over PSN
The device enables operators to converge multi-generation traffic over an all-IP
RAN by using ATM over PSN (ATMoPSN), TDM over PSN (TDMoPSN) or IP over PSN
(IPoPSN). For additional information, refer to Pseudowires in Chapter 4.
ATM over PSN
ACE-3200 utilizes up to 32 pseudowire connections to emulate ATM services over
packet-switched networks.
Three encapsulation methods are supported according to RFC 4717:
•
1:1 (one-to-one) VC/VP encapsulation – Each VCC/VPC is mapped to a single
pseudowire (PW) connection.
•
N:1 (N-to-one) VC/VP encapsulation – Several VCs or VPs are encapsulated to
a single PW connection.
•
AAL5 SDU – Each VCC is mapped to a single pseudowire connection
ACE-3200 allows single or multiple cells to be encapsulated per frame.
TDM over PSN
TDM pseudowire connections can be established over PSN according to IETF RFC
5086 (CESoPSN/ SAToP). SAToP complies with IETF RFC 4553.
1-6
Overview
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction
Ethernet over PSN
Ethernet pseudowire encapsulation is used to carry Ethernet/802.3 traffic over an
MPLS network. Ethernet PW operation complies with IETF RFC 4448.
Supported PSN Formats
ACE-3200 supports the following PSN formats:
•
MPLS
•
MPLS over IP
•
MPLS over GRE
•
PPPoE
•
UDP over IP.
Bridging Capabilities
ACE-3200 supports the bridging capabilities listed below. For additional
information, refer to Bridge in Chapter 4.
LAN-to-LAN Bridging
ACE-3200 supports LAN-to-LAN bridging to allow backhauling of Ethernet traffic
originating from the cellular site/Node B. Two modes of operation are supported:
•
Transparent – frames from the user port are forwarded to the PSN "as is".
•
VLAN stacking – a VLAN ID is added to any frame that is received on the user
port, and then forwarded to the network port. When received from the PSN,
the VLAN tag is removed and the frame is forwarded to the user port.
LDP, PHP and MPLS over GRE
ACE-3200 uses the MPLS label distribution protocol (LDP) to define and distribute
pseudowires and tunnel labels between up to 32 MPLS peers.
Traffic arrives to the device in pseudowires and above the tunnel label and not as
raw IP data.
Note
The LDP functionality requires a software license.
Additionally, ACE-3200 supports advanced MPLS label handling using Penultimate
Hop Popping (PHP), a packet-level modification process in which the label
switched router (LSR) removes the last label of MPLS packets before they are
passed to an adjacent label edge router (LER).
Lastly, MPLS (multiprotocol label switching) can be used over generic routing
encapsulation (GRE) to establish point-to-point tunnel connection over an IP
network. This tunneling service is used to transfer MPLS packets over an IP
network without using the IP addressing scheme.
For additional information, refer to Encapsulation over Different PSN Types
under Pseudowires in Chapter 4.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Overview
1-7
Chapter 1 Introduction
Installation and Operation Manual
GRE Keep Alive
GRE Keep Alive is a mechanism that ‘monitors’ the status of a GRE tunnel by
sending Keep Alive messages. In case that an interface on one of the GRE
tunnel’s endpoints fails and the Keep Alive message cannot be sent anymore, the
system can switch to a redundant path.
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Virtual MAC Addresses
To allow HSDPA connectivity in a variety of DSL-based cellular backhaul
applications, ACE-3200 initiates PPPoE sessions for acquiring IP addresses for all
data, voice and management connections.
Two PPPoE sessions can be established – one for management traffic and one for
data flow.
When working with multiple sessions of PPPoE or other dynamic entities,
ACE-3200 provides virtual MAC addresses in addition to the standard ones that
are provided for each physical port. For additional information, refer to Point-toPoint-over-Ethernet in Chapter 4.
ATM Switching and Policing Capabilities
ACE-3200 provides full ATM switching capabilities, including scheduling and
shaping of ATM-based traffic. It is possible to assign each virtual connection (VC)
or virtual path (VP) to a service class, define the QoS parameters and shape the
ATM egress traffic according to CBR, VBR and UBR+. Up to 128 VP and VC
connections can be established with full UNI/NNI VPI and VCI ranges.
ATM traffic policing allows operators to discard, tag or count non-conformant
cells per configuration.
In addition, ACE-3200 supports inverse multiplexing over ATM (IMA) versions 1.0
and 1.1, allowing users to define up to 8/16 IMA groups.
Each of the unit's E1/T1 ports can be configured to work in ATM IMA, ATM UNI or
TDM over ATM mode (structured/unstructured CES). Up to 8 CES bundles per port
and a total of 32 CES bundles are supported over ATM.
For additional information, refer to ATM Traffic Descriptor in Chapter 4.
Quality of Service (QoS) over PSN
Over packet-switched networks, QoS is provided according to the network type:
1-8
•
Layer-2 network – outgoing pseudowire packets are assigned a dedicated
VLAN ID according to 802.1Q and marked for priority using 802.1p bits (see
Quality of Service for Bridges in Chapter 4).
•
MPLS network – outgoing pseudowire packets are assigned to a specific MPLS
tunnel and marked for priority using EXP bits (see Pseudowires in Chapter 4)
•
IP network – outgoing pseudowire packets are marked for priority using ToS
or DSCP bits (see Pseudowires in Chapter 4).
Overview
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction
Clock Synchronization
Robust clock synchronization and flexible timing modes include the following:
•
Clock recovery – a dedicated clock recovery module (optional; requires a
software license) allows ACE-3200 to adaptively recover the clock from a
source device that distributes the ATM clock over a packet-switched network,
designed to meet the G.8261 requirements and depending on the network's
SLA. For additional information, refer to
•
Interface-based synchronization – the clock is recovered from the RX traffic
of a selected interface, in accordance with G.823 and depending on the
network's SLA
•
Unicast clock distribution – the master clock is distributed with a dedicated
stream towards up to 32 remote PSN peers
•
Multicast clock distribution – The master clock is distributed towards the PSN
using a single IP multicast clock stream (IGMPv2 host)
•
1588 V2 and Synchronous-Ethernet
•
2 MHz-bit interface clock for external synchronization support.
The adaptive clock signal is generated at a rate of 100 PPS for every remote site.
For additional information, refer to Configuring the Clocks under Administration
in Chapter 4.
OAM and Diagnostics
Operation and Maintenance (OAM) is implemented as detailed below for the
various network types.
Ethernet
ACE-3200 provides comprehensive monitoring and diagnostic capabilities on Fast
Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet interfaces according to 802.3ah, which include:
•
User configurable active and passive mode
•
Remote failure indications
ƒ
Remote OAM link event – link fault
ƒ
Remote OAM link event – dying gasp
•
OAM loopback (initiation/reacting in Active mode and reacting in Passive
mode)
•
The link OAM (802.3ah) is a trigger for alarm (fault) propagation towards the
ATM\TDM network.
•
When working with Ethernet redundancy, a remote link fault event will trigger
a port switch.
For additional information, refer to Ethernet OAM in Chapter 4.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Overview
1-9
Chapter 1 Introduction
Installation and Operation Manual
Pseudowires
ACE-3200 periodically verifies the connectivity status of pseudowire connections,
using VCCV-BFD messages according to the 'draft-ietf-bfd-base' requirements.
If a failure is detected, a notification is sent to both the remote peer and the
ATM/TDM connection of the specific PW. This allows complete monitoring over
the pseudowire connections in real-time.
•
External and internal physical loopbacks on the E1/T1 ports
(user-configurable) as explained in Physical Loopback Tests under E1 Ports
and T1 Ports in Chapter 4.
•
Cell test towards the ATM ports as explained under ATM Cell Tests in
Chapter 4.
ATM/TDM
In addition, ATM/TDM and PSN port alarms are propagated over the
packet-switched network from end to end, towards both the BTS/Node B side
and the BSC/RNC side. This includes the mapping of:
•
Packet-switched network alarms to ATM/TDM alarms
•
ATM/TDM alarms over the PSN to the remote customer equipment (CE)
•
Physical failures of ATM/TDM ports, over the packet-switched network
towards both the local and remote CE.
ATM Cross-Connects
For conventional ATM cross-connects (XCs), OAM is supported according to
ITU I.610 requirements:
•
F4 and F5 OAM
•
Configurable OAM mode per connection point
•
Segment/intermediate mode for user connections and end-to-end mode for
the management connection
•
AIS and RDI cell detection and generation upon physical layer and ATM layer
failures
•
CC cell generation and LOC state detection per VP/VC
•
Loopback location ID and configurable loopback source ID per device. For
detailed information about the ATM OAM functionality, refer to ATM OAM in
Chapter 4.
Performance Monitoring
Performance monitoring is provided by Ethernet and IP-layer network condition
statistics, such as packet sequence errors (loss or misorder) and packet delay
variation (jitter), which are monitored and stored by the device.
ACE-3200 collects statistics per physical port and per connection for 15-minute
intervals. Statistics for the last 6 hours are stored in the device and can be
retrieved at the network management station. For additional information, refer
1-10
Overview
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction
to the Statistics section for the relevant port in Chapter 4, for example Viewing
an Ethernet Port’s Statistics under Ethernet Ports .
ACE-3200 maintains a cyclic event log file that stores up to 2000 time-stamped
events. In addition, an internal system log agent can send all reported events to a
centralized repository or remote server. For additional information, refer to
Alarms and Traps in Chapter 5
Management
ACE-3200 can be managed using different access methods, via:
•
The dedicated RS-232 or 10/100BaseT ports (out-of-band, when the port is
not used for Ethernet traffic or clock recovery)
•
Ethernet uplink port, using IP-based connection (raw IP or over PW).
The unit can be fully managed and controlled using the following:
•
Command Line Interface – management via a local ASCII-based terminal
connection or a Telnet/SSH (Secure Shell Client) connection, accessible via an
IP-based connection. Instead of sending plain-text ASCII-based commands
and login requests over the network, SSH provides a secure communication
channel
•
RADview-EMS – RAD’s CORBA-based element management system, providing
a dedicated PC/Unix-based GUI for controlling and monitoring the unit from a
network management station. It also includes northbound CORBA interface
for integration into any third-party NMS (network management system). For
additional information, refer to the RADview-EMS User's Manual.
For more information about configuration alternatives, refer to Configuration and
Management Alternatives in Chapter 3.
The unit can be managed by and report to up to 16 different users
simultaneously. Accounts of existing and new users can be defined/changed
remotely, using a dedicated RADIUS server as explained under Authentication via
RADIUS Server in Chapter 4.
In addition, ACE-3200 allows retrieval of the current date and time from a
centralized location, by synchronizing with an SNTP (System Network Timing
Protocol) server as explained under Linking to a Network Time Server in
Chapter 4.
Software upgrades and preset configuration files can be downloaded/uploaded
to/from ACE-3200 via TFTP or XMODEM. For more information and instructions,
refer to Chapter 6.
DHCP Client
One DHCP client can be enabled for a router interface defined over an Ethernet
interface or a VC operating in bridged PDU mode.
Security
ACE-3200 supports the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol for enabling secure
Web access to the unit. If enabled, the SSL protocol encrypts the data between
the TCP and HTTP Web layers.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Overview
1-11
Chapter 1 Introduction
Installation and Operation Manual
Telnet-like management can be secured using a Secure Shell (SSH) client/server
program. Instead of sending plain-text ASCII-based commands and login requests
over the network, SSH provides a secure communication channel.
User access to the unit is restricted via user name and password. For more
information, refer to Access in Chapter 4.
In addition, ACE-3200 supports SNMP version 3, providing secure access to the
device by authenticating and encrypting packets transmitted over the network.
For more information, refer to The SNMPv3 Mechanism in Chapter 4.
1.2
What’s New In This Version
This section lists functionalities added since Version 5.2.
1-12
•
Command line interface. Users type commands using a specific syntax.
Configuration files are text-based and can be edited offline. This enables
users to import configurations into large scale applications. For additional
information on importing configuration files, refer to File Operations in
Chapter 4.
•
GRE Keep-Alive. Refers to a proprietary functionality developed by Cisco. It
monitors the status of a GRE tunnel by sending keep-alive messages. For
additional information, refer to Configuring the Router in Chapter 4.
•
IP-BFD. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) refers to a network protocol
that is used to detect errors between two devices engines connected by a
link. For additional information, refer to Bidirectional Forwarding Detection in
Chapter 4.
•
Path Redundancy based on GRE-Keep-Alive. You configure two routes to the
same destination (peer) with each route assigned a different priority. If an
interface fails or a Keep Alive message cannot be sent anymore, the system
switches to the redundant route as explained under Configuring the Router
in Chapter 4.
•
Ethernet over ATM. ACE-3200 can map an Ethernet flow into an ATM VCC in
compliance with RFC 1483. This functionality is also referred to as LAN-toATM bridge. For additional information, refer to What is a LAN-to-ATM Bridge
in Chapter 4.
•
Ethernet Pseudowire. Ethernet pseudowires allow backhauling Ethernet/IP
traffic coming from Node B/RNC over IP/MPLS networks. For additional
information, refer to Ethernet Service Encapsulation under Pseudowires in
Chapter 4.
•
DHCP support. ACE-3200 supports DHCP, which can be enabled on a router
interface above an Ethernet port or above DSL VC operating in bridged PDU
mode. For additional information, refer to Configuring the Router in Chapter
4.
•
SFTP. ACE-3200 supports the Secure File Transfer Protocol, which provides
secure file transfer over a reliable data stream. The SFTP protocol runs over
an already secure channel usually based on SSH. For additional information,
refer to Using an SFTP Application in Chapter 4.
What’s New In This Version
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction
•
Ethernet OAM according to 802.3ah. Ethernet OAM is supported in both
active and passive modes. For additional information, refer to Ethernet OAM
in Chapter 4.
•
Virtual IP addresses. ACE-3200 supports up to four system addresses
available for use as follows:
ƒ
In receive direction, every control packet whose destination IP is one of
the system addresses is allowed to access the unit. In other router
interfaces, it depends on the management access configuration.
ƒ
As LDP ID.
ƒ
As a source IP for a GRE tunnel.
1.3
Physical Description
ACE-3200 is a compact unit, 1U high and 17.5" wide, which can be mounted in a
19-inch rack or used as a desktop unit.
Figure 1-5 shows a 3D view of ACE-3200.
Figure 1-5. ACE-3200 3D Front View
The unit is fully accessible from the front panel, which includes the interface
ports, control connector and LED indicators. ACE-3200 has one or two power
connectors on its front panel.
For information about the initial installation and required cable connections, refer
to Chapter 2. For information about the unit's operation and LED indicators,
refer to Chapter 3.
Interfaces
ACE-3200 is equipped with Fast Ethernet and E1/T1 interfaces.
E1/T1 Interfaces
ACE-3200 includes 8 or 16 E1 or T1 multiservice ports that can be configured to
work in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables
high flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Physical Description
1-13
Chapter 1 Introduction
Installation and Operation Manual
The E1 ports are available with balanced or unbalanced interfaces (via an optional
RJ-45 to BNC adapter cable).
For detailed specifications and compliance of the E1/T1 interfaces, refer to
Technical Specifications. For the connector pinouts, refer to Appendix A.
Fast Ethernet Interface
ACE-3200 includes two Fast Ethernet RJ-45 or SFP ports, used for pseudowire
(PW) connectivity, user connections and inband management access.
The Ethernet ports are also used for out of band management in applications
that do not utilize an Ethernet uplink.
The Ethernet interfaces can be ordered as electrical (RJ-45) or fiber optic ports.
The fiber optic ports utilize hot swappable Ethernet-compliant SFPs, which are
identical in structure to the STM1/OC-3c SFPs.
STM1-OC3c Interface
ACE-3200 is available with two STM1/OC-3c TM SFP-based interfaces.
RS-232/V.24 Terminal Control Interface
An RS-232/V.24 DCE interface with a D-Type, 9-pin connector is available in
ACE-3200 for out-of-band ASCII terminal access. The interface supports 9.6, 19.2,
38.4, 57.6, and 115.2 kbps data rates.
For more information about the terminal connection, refer to Chapter 2. For the
connector pinout, refer to Appendix A.
1.4
E1 Interface
Technical Specifications
Number of Ports
8 or 16 (as ordered)
•
Data Rate
2048 Kbps
Compliance
G.703, G.704, G.732
Framing
• MF, CRC-4 enabled
• MF, CRC-4 disabled
• Unframed
Line Code
HDB3
Operation Mode
ATM UNI, ATM IMA or TDM
Jitter Performance
• Output and tolerance according to G.823
• Transfer according to G.705
1-14
Technical Specifications
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
E1 Interface (cont.)
Chapter 1 Introduction
LIU Support
Short haul
Line Impedance
• 120Ω, balanced
• 75Ω, unbalanced (via an adapter cable)
Connectors
• Balanced: RJ-45
• Unbalanced: BNC coaxial, via an adapter
cable
Input Signal
• Short haul: 0 to -10 dB
Signal Level
• ±3 V (±10%), balanced
• ±2.37 V (±10%), unbalanced
T1 Interfaces
Number of Ports
8 or 16 (as ordered)
•
Data Rate
1544 kbps
Compliance
G.703, ANSI T1.403
Jitter Performance
According to AT&T PB-62411
Operation Mode
ATM UNI, ATM IMA or TDM
Line Code
B8ZS
Line Mode
DSU
Framing
• ESF
• Unframed
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
CRC-6 Calculation
According to G.704
Line Impedance
100Ω
Connectors
RJ-45
Signal Levels
Voltage: 3.0 V ±10%, adjustable, measured in
range 0 to 655 feet in DSU mode
Technical Specifications
1-15
Chapter 1 Introduction
Fast Ethernet
Interfaces
Installation and Operation Manual
Number of Ports
2
Interface Type
10/100BaseTx, RJ-45 or fiber optic, based on
RAD SFPs
Operation Mode
Full or half-duplex, autonegotiation
Data Rate
10 Mbps, 100 Mbps
Max. Frame Size
1600 Bytes
Compliance
Relevant sections of IEEE 802.3ah
Connector
RJ-45 or via SFP transceiver
Range
RJ-45: 100 meters/328 feet on UTP Cat 5 cable
Data Rate
155 Mbps
Operation Mode
• Port level: UNI
• Network level: SDH or SONET (userselectable)
Jitter Performance
Output according to G.825
Tolerance according to G.823
Transfer according to G.783
Terminal Control Port
Physical Loopbacks
Fiber Optic
Interface Types
Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP); refer to the
SFP datasheet
Connector
Refer to the SFP datasheet.
Interface Type
RS-232/V.24 (DCE asynchronous)
Bit Rate
9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 57.6 or 115.2 kbps,
user-configurable
Connector
9-pin, D-type, female
Type
Internal, external
Supported
Interfaces
E1, T1
ATM Connections
1-16
Technical Specifications
Up to 128 VP/VC connections
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction
Max. Data PW Links
32
Max. Remote PSN
Peers
32
Power Supply
Number of Units
1 or 2 (as ordered) on the front panel
Type
AC: 100–240 VAC (±10%), 50 or 60 Hz
DC: -48 VDC nominal (-41 to -72 VDC)
or 24 VDC nominal (20 to 36 VDC)
Power Consumption
60VA max
Internal Fans
2
Physical
Environment
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Width
44.0 cm
(17.5 in)
Depth
24.0 cm
(9.4 in)
Weight
(with 16 E1/T1
ports)
3.68 kg
(8.11 lb)
Storage
-20°–70°C (-4°–158°F)
Humidity
Up to 90%, non-condensing
Technical Specifications
1-17
Chapter 1 Introduction
1-18
Technical Specifications
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Chapter 2
Installation and Setup
This chapter describes the physical installation and setup of ACE-3200, and
includes the following topics:
Warning
•
Site Requirements and Prerequisites
•
Package Contents
•
Required Equipment
•
Mounting ACE-3200
•
Connecting to PDH Equipment
•
Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks
•
Connecting to ATM Network Equipment
•
Connecting to a Terminal
•
Connecting to Power.
• No internal settings, adjustment, maintenance and repairs should be
performed by either the operator or the user. Such activities must be
performed only by skilled personnel who are aware of the hazards involved.
Always observe standard safety precautions during installation, operation and
maintenance of this product.
• A grounding cable must be connected to the dedicated grounding screw,
located next to the power supply outlet(s) at the front. The other end of the
cable must be connected to a proper grounding (Earth) point.
2.1
Site Requirements and Prerequisites
AC-powered ACE-3200 units should be installed within 1.5 meters (5 feet) of an
easily accessible grounded AC outlet capable of furnishing the required supply
voltage, in the range of 100 to 240 VAC, 50 or 60 Hz.
Allow at least 15 cm of frontal clearance for operator access. For cable
connections and continuous product operation, allow at least 15 cm of frontal
clearance and at least 15 cm at the rear of the unit.
ACE-3200 has two internal fans. The normal ambient operating temperature is
0°–50° C (32°–122°F), at a relative humidity of up to 90%, non-condensing.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Site Requirements and Prerequisites
2-1
Chapter 2 Installation and Setup
Note
Installation and Operation Manual
Since ACE-3200 units or other devices in use generate their own heat, the actual
ambient temperature may be higher than the room temperature if several units
are placed next to or on top of each other (such placement is allowed as long as
the ambient temperature does not exceed the specified above).
2.2
Package Contents
The ACE-3200 package contains the following items:
•
ACE-3200 unit
•
AC power cord or DC connection kit
•
CBL-RJ45/2BNC/E1/X – adapter cable for unbalanced E1 interface (if ordered)
•
RM-34 rack mounting kit
•
WM-34 – hardware kit for mounting one unit on a wall (if ordered)
•
Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) modules (if ordered)
•
Technical documentation CD – Contains the relevant PDF documents for
ACE-3200, including the DC power connection supplements and the relevant
RADview manuals.
2.3
Required Equipment
ACE-3200 is a standalone unit, designed for desktop or bench installation and is
delivered fully assembled. No provisions are made for bolting the unit to a
tabletop.
Mounting ACE-3200 in a 19-inch rack, however, requires a 3 mm Phillips
screwdriver and an RM-34 kit. For the rack installation instructions, refer to the
Rack Mounting Kit for 19-inch Racks guide that comes with the RM kit.
Power Cable
AC-powered ACE-3200 units are equipped with an appropriate power cord
(country or region dependent). It is used to connect the power socket of the
power supply unit to the mains. The power socket is accessible from the front
panel.
DC-powered ACE-3200 units are equipped with an appropriate DC connection kit,
which should be used for preparing the DC cable connection.
2-2
Required Equipment
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 2 Installation and Setup
Interface Cables
Refer to the following table to determine what cables and connectors are
required for installation. Appendix A specifies the wiring of all connector pinouts.
Table 2-1. Required Interface Cables
Interface
Cable Type
Terminal Control
DB-9 to DB-9, RS-232/V.24 compliant cable
(CBL-DB9F-DB9M-STR) for ASCII-based terminal control.
This cable is optional and must be ordered separately.
Fast Ethernet
Cat. 5, RJ-45 to RJ-45, IEEE 802.3 compliant cable.
STM-1/OC-3
Fiber optic cable that matches the ordered interface type
(not supplied). For more information, see Chapter 1.
E1/T1
See Connecting to PDH Equipment.
2.4
Mounting ACE-3200
ACE-3200 can serve as a desktop unit, or be mounted in a 19" rack.
•
For rack mounting instructions, refer to the RM-34 Installation Kit Manual.
•
For wall mounting instructions, refer to the WM-34 Installation Kit Manual.
•
If ACE-3200 is to be used as a desktop unit, place and secure the unit on a
stable, non-movable surface.
Refer to the clearance and temperature requirements in Site Requirements and
Prerequisites.
2.5
Connecting to PDH Equipment
ACE-3200 can serve as a desktop unit, or be mounted in a 19" rack.
•
For rack mounting instructions, refer to the RM-36 Installation Kit Manual.
•
If ACE-3200 is to be used as a desktop unit, place and secure the unit on a
stable, non-movable surface.
Refer to the clearance and temperature requirements in Site Requirements and
Prerequisites.
The PDH interfaces allow traffic to be received/transmitted over E1/T1 circuit
lines. The unit's balanced E1 and T1 interfaces terminate in RJ-45 connectors
designated E1 or T1. An unbalanced E1 interface is provided via the
CBL-RJ45/2BNC/E1/X adapter cable (see Appendix A for the cable wiring
diagram).
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Connecting to PDH Equipment
2-3
Chapter 2 Installation and Setup
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To connect a balanced E1 or T1 interface:
•
Connect the E1 or T1 line to the RJ-45 connector designated E1 or T1.
Figure 2-1. ACE-3200 - E1/T1 Ports
³
To connect an unbalanced E1 interface:
1. Connect the RJ-45 connector of the adapter cable to the RJ-45 port
designated E1.
2. Connect the transmit cable to the red coaxial connector of the adapter cable
marked "→" (see Figure 2-2).
3. Connect the receive cable to the green coaxial connector of the adapter cable
marked "←" (see Figure 2-2).
Figure 2-2. RJ-45 to 2BNC Adapter Cable
Note
E1 interfaces can be configured to operate in Balanced or Unbalanced mode. For
additional information, refer to Configuring an E1 Port in Chapter 4.
2.6
Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks
Using Fiber Optic Ethernet Interface
If fiber optic interfaces were ordered, there are two empty SFP slots.
ACE-3200 includes Class 1 lasers. For your safety:
Warning
• Do not look directly into the optical connectors (ATM-155) while the unit is
operating. The laser beams are invisible.
Use of controls or performing procedures other than those specified herein may
result in hazardous radiation exposure.
³
To install the fiber optic Ethernet interface (using SFP modules):
1. Lock the wire latch of each pluggable SFP module by lifting it up until it clicks
into place, as illustrated below.
2-4
Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Note
Chapter 2 Installation and Setup
The SFP you are installing may have a different wire latch or closing mechanism. If
this is the case, refer to its manufacturer instructions.
Figure 2-3. Locking the SFP Wire Latch
2. Carefully remove the dust covers from the SFP module.
3. Install the required SFP module by inserting it into the appropriate module
slot until it clicks into place.
Figure 2-4. ACE-3200 – Optical Fast Ethernet (FE) Ports
If the SFP module does not click into place, remove the SFP, lock it properly and
then re-insert the SFP module into the port.
³
To disconnect the fiber optic interface:
1. Disconnect the fiber optic cables from the SFP module.
2. Unlock the wire latch by lowering it downwards (opposite of locking).
3. Hold the wire latch and gently pull the SFP module out of the port.
Using Electrical Ethernet Interfaces
The electrical Ethernet interfaces terminate in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector (for
connector pinouts, see Appendix A) and support Auto MDI/MDIX.
³
To connect the electrical Ethernet interface:
1. Connect Cat. 5 cables to the relevant RJ-45 connectors of the Fast Ethernet
ports.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Connecting to Packet-Switched Networks
2-5
Chapter 2 Installation and Setup
Installation and Operation Manual
Figure 2-5. ACE-3200 – Electrical Fast Ethernet Ports
2. Connect the other end of each cable to the relevant packet-switched network
equipment.
2.7
Connecting to ATM Network Equipment
To transmit traffic over ATM networks, ACE-3200 can be ordered with two
fiber optic STM-1/OC-3c ATM ports, which utilizes various types of SFP (Small
Form-Factor Pluggable) modules (transceivers) that are fitted into the empty cage
of the ATM port.
Figure 2-6. ACE-3200 - STM-1/OC-3c ATM ports (ATM-155) Port
ACE-3200 includes Class 1 lasers. For your safety:
Warning
³
• Do not look directly into the optical connectors (ATM-155) while the unit is
operating. The laser beams are invisible.
Use of controls or performing procedures other than those specified herein may
result in hazardous radiation exposure.
To install the fiber optic STM-1/OC-3c interface (using SFP modules):
1. Lock the wire latch of each pluggable SFP module by lifting it up until it clicks
into place, as illustrated in Figure 2-3.
2. Carefully remove the dust cover from the SFP module.
3. Install the required SFP module by inserting it into the appropriate module
slot until it clicks into place.
Note
2-6
If the SFP you are installing has a different wire latch or closing mechanism, refer
to its manufacturer instructions.
Connecting to ATM Network Equipment
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
2.8
Chapter 2 Installation and Setup
Connecting to a Terminal
ACE-3200 can be managed out-of-band via the RS-232/V.24 (DCE) terminal
control port, which has a 9-pin, D-type, female connector.
Figure 2-7. ACE-3200 - Control Port
³
To connect the terminal control cable:
1. Connect the standard DB-9 to DB-9 control cable (CBL-DB9F-DB9M-STR) to
the 9-pin DTE connector of the management station.
2. Connect the other end of the control cable to the DB-9 connector designated
CONTROL in ACE-3200.
Caution Terminal cables must have a frame ground connection. Use ungrounded cables
when connecting a supervisory terminal to a DC-powered unit with floating
ground. Using improper terminal cable may result in damage to supervisory
terminal port.
2.9
Connecting to a Network Management Station
The ACE-3200 Ethernet interface terminates in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector (for
connector pinouts, see Appendix A). The Ethernet (100BaseTX) port can be used
for out-of-band management access only.
³
To connect the Ethernet control interface:
1. Connect one end of an Ethernet cable (not supplied) to the control device or
the network management station's hub.
2. Connect the other end of the Ethernet cable to the RJ-45 connector labeled
10/100 BaseT 1 or ETH 1, depending on the respective unit in use.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Connecting to a Network Management Station
2-7
Chapter 2 Installation and Setup
Installation and Operation Manual
2.10 Connecting to Power
ACE-3200 has either AC or DC power supply (as ordered), provided via one or two
integrated power supply units. A standard power cable is supplied with the unit.
Connecting to AC Power
AC power is supplied to ACE-3200 via a 3-prong plug. AC power should be
supplied through the 1.5m (5 ft) standard power cable terminated by a 3-prong
plug. The cable is provided with the unit.
In ACE-3200, two power cables may be connected to the unit simultaneously.
Before connecting to power or disconnecting any other cable, the protective
earth terminals of this unit must be connected to the protective ground
conductor of the mains power cord. If you are using an extension cord (power
cable), make sure it is grounded as well.
A grounding cable must be connected to the dedicated grounding screw, located
in next to the power supply outlet(s).
Warning
³
Any interruption of the protective (grounding) conductor (inside or outside the
instrument) or disconnecting of the protective earth terminal can make this unit
dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.
To connect ACE-3200 to AC power:
1. Connect the power cable to the AC power connector on the front panel.
2. Connect the power cable to the mains outlet.
The unit automatically turns on.
Connecting to DC Power
³
To connect ACE-3200 to DC power:
•
2-8
Refer to the DC power supply connection supplement, located on the
Technical Documentation CD or at the back of the official printed version of
this manual. Also, refer to the safety instructions at the beginning of this
manual.
Connecting to Power
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Chapter 3
Operation
This chapter describes the following:
•
Explains power-on and power-off procedures
•
Describes the ACE-3200 front panel LED indicators and their function
•
Lists configuration alternatives – the different management access options
available for ACE-3200
•
Provides a CLI command tree.
For detailed explanations of options and parameters, see Chapter 4.
3.1
³
Turning On the Unit
To turn the ACE-3200 unit on:
•
Connect the unit's power cable(s) to the mains.
The power supply indicator lights up and remains lit as long as ACE-3200
receives power.
ACE-3200 includes Class 1 lasers. For your safety:
Warning
• Do not look directly into the optical connectors while the unit is operating.
The laser beams are invisible.
• Do not attempt to adjust the laser drive current.
Once turned on, ACE-3200 requires no operator attention, with the exception of
occasional monitoring of front panel indicators. Intervention is required only
when:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
ACE-3200 must be configured to its operational requirements.
•
The Alarm LED indicator indicates an alarm.
•
Diagnostic tests are performed.
Turning On the Unit
3-1
Chapter 3 Operation
3.2
Installation and Operation Manual
Indicators
The front panel of ACE-3200 incorporates LED indicators that show the current
operating status of the unit and its different ports. Figure 3-1 illustrates the ACE3200 front panels respectively:
Figure 3-1. ACE-3200 Front Panel
The following table summarizes the function of all LED indicators in ACE-3200.
Note
The ATM-155 ports are optional.
Table 3-1. System LED Indicators
Name
LED Color
Function
PS1/PS2
Green
On: Power supply is on
Off: Power supply is off
ALM
Red
On: One or more alarms are active. Refer to list
of alarms in Chapter 5
Off: No active alarms
RDY
Green
On: Self-test ended successfully
Off: Self-test not started/ended
Blinking: Self-test failed
Table 3-2. ATM-155 Port LED Indicators
Name
LED Color
Function
ATM
Green
On: At least one cell received or transmitted
within the last second without any HEC
errors.
Off: No cells were transmitted or received
within the last second
SYNC
Green
On: ATM-155 port is synchronized and no alarm
is detected
Off: LOS, LOF, LOP, or Line /Path AIS were
detected
Blinking: Line or path RDI was detected
3-2
Indicators
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Operation
Table 3-3. Ethernet Port LED Indicators
Name
LED Color
Function
LINK
Green
On: Ethernet link is detected
Off: Ethernet link is not detected
ACT
Yellow
On: ETH frames are received or transmitted
Off: ETH frames are not received and
transmitted
Table 3-4. E1/T1 Port LED Indicators
Name
LED Color
Function
SYNC
(E1/T1 ports)
Green
On: The physical layer is synchronized
Off: The physical layer is not synchronized
Blinking: RAI alarm was detected
3.3
Configuration and Management Alternatives
Once installed, there are no special operating procedures for ACE-3200. The unit
operates automatically after it has started up. The unit’s operational status can
be constantly monitored.
If required, ACE-3200 can be configured via the following ports and applications:
•
Local management via an ASCII terminal connected to the RS-232 port.
Usually, preliminary configuration of the system parameters is performed via
ASCII terminal. Once at least one router interface and IP parameters have
been configured, it is possible to access it via Telnet, SSH or SNMP for further
configuration.
•
Remote inband management via one of the Ethernet ports or out-of-band via
the out-of-band port. Remote management via Telnet or SNMP. Alternatively,
you may manage ACE-3200 via a third-party SNMP-based NMS. Refer to
Dealing with Alarms and Traps in Chapter 5 for a trap list.
The following functions are supported by the ACE-3200 management software:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
Viewing system information
•
Modifying configuration and mode of operation, including setting system
default values and resetting the unit
•
Monitoring ACE-3200 performance
•
Initiating connectivity tests
•
Uploading and downloading software and configuration files.
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-3
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Working with Terminal
ACE-3200 has a V.24/RS-232 asynchronous DCE port, designated CONTROL and
terminated in a 9-pin D-type female connector. The control port continuously
monitors the incoming data stream and immediately responds to any input string
received through this port.
Connecting to the Control Port
³
To set up terminal control:
1. Verify that all the cables are properly connected. For more information, refer
to Chapter 2.
2. Connect ACE-3200 to a PC equipped with HyperTerminal. Refer to
Connecting to a Terminal in Chapter 2 for additional information on
connecting to the control port.
3. Turn on the control terminal or start the PC terminal emulation. To do so, go
to Start> All Programs> Accessories> Communications> HyperTerminal to
create a new terminal connection.
The HyperTerminal application opens, and the Connection Description
dialog box is displayed.
Figure 3-2. HyperTerminal, Connection Description Dialog Box
4. Enter a name for the terminal connection.
5. Select an icon to represent the terminal connection, or leave the default icon
selected.
6. Click <OK>.
The Connect To dialog appears.
3-4
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Operation
Figure 3-3. Connect To Dialog Box
7. Select a PC COM port to be used to communicate with ACE-3200 and click
<OK>.
The COM Properties dialog appears.
Figure 3-4. Properties Dialog Box
8. Configure the communication port parameters as follows:
ƒ
Bits per second: 9,600
ƒ
Data bits: 8
ƒ
Parity: None
ƒ
Stop bits: 1
ƒ
Flow control: None.
9. Click <OK>.
HyperTerminal is now ready for communication with the unit.
10. Power-up the unit by connecting the power cable.
ACE-3200 boots up and self-test results appear on the terminal screen.
The RDY LED on the left-hand side of the front panel becomes green
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-5
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
once the test was completed successfully. You are prompted to press
<ENTER> to receive the login prompt.
Figure 3-5. HyperTerminal Window
11. Press <ENTER> until the login prompt appears. Refer to the next section for
details on logging on.
Login
To access the unit's management/configuration/monitoring options, you must
log in.
ACE-3200 supports two access levels
Note
³
•
Superuser can perform all the activities supported by the ACE-3200
management facility, including defining new users.
•
User’s access rights (full control or read only) are defined by the superuser.
Users are not allowed to create new users.
It is recommended to change default passwords to prevent unauthorized access
to the unit.
To enter as Superuser:
1. At the User prompt (user>), Enter su and press <Enter>.
The Password prompt (password>) appears.
2. Enter 1234 as password and press <Enter>.
The base prompt ACE-3200 # appears.
Superuser allows you to configure all parameters of ACE-3200 and to change the
su and user passwords.
3-6
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 3 Operation
To enter as User:
1. Enter user as user name and press <Enter>.
2. Enter 1234 for password.
The base prompt ACE-3200# appears.
Using the CLI
The CLI consists of commands organized in a tree structure, starting at the base
prompt ACE-3200#. The base prompt is the device name, which can be
configured on the system level (refer to Specifying Administrative Information in
Chapter 4). By default the device name is ACE-3200.
Commands that are not global are available only at their specific tree location. To
find out what commands are available at the current location, type ?..
To navigate down the tree, type the name of the next level. To navigate up, type
exit. To navigate all the way up to the base prompt, type exit all.
At the prompt, one or more level names separated by space can be typed,
followed (or not) by a command. If only level names are typed, the prompt
changes to reflect the current location in the tree.
In the example below the levels and command were typed together and therefore
no navigation was performed, so the prompt has not changed.
ACE-3200#
ACE-3200# configure port ethernet 1 loopback local
ACE-3200# show configure port ethernet 1 loopback
Loopback : Local
Forever
ACE-3200#
Figure 3-6. Commands Without Level Navigation
In the example below, the levels were typed separately and the navigation is
reflected by the changing prompt.
Note
Level names are abbreviated in the prompt.
You can type only as many letters of the level or command as required by the
system to identify the level or command, for example you can enter
config manage to navigate to the management level.
In addition to being the default prompt, the # symbol also indicates a static entity
(such as a port) or already configured entity. The $ symbol indicates a new
dynamic entity (such as a flow) that takes several commands to configure. The
dynamic entity is created as inactive. After the configuration is completed, it is
activated by using the no shutdown command, as shown in the example below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-7
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200#
ACE-3200# configure
ACE-3200>config# port
ACE-3200>config>port# ethernet 1
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)# loopback local
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)# show loopback
Loopback : Local
Forever
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)#
Figure 3-7. Commands With Level Navigation
The shutdown command is also used to deactivate/disable a hardware element
(such as a port), while no shutdown enables/activates it.
CLI commands have the following basic format:
command [parameter]{ value1 | value2 | … | valuen }
[ optional parameter <value> ]
where:
{}
Indicates that one of the values must be selected
[]
Indicates an optional parameter
<>
Indicates a value to be replaced by user text
The following keys are available at any time:
?
Lists all commands available at the current level
<Tab>
Command autocomplete
<Ctrl-E>
Logs out
<Ctrl-U>
Erases the line
↑
Displays the previous command
↓
Displays the next command
<Backspace>
Deletes character
<Ctrl-C>
Interrupts current command
<Ctrl-Z>
Returns to the device prompt (root)
The following commands are available at any level:
3-8
echo [<text-to-echo>]
Echoes the specified text
exec <file-name> [echo]
Executes a file, optionally echoing the
commands
help [hotkeys] [globals]
Displays general help, or optionally just the
hotkeys and/or global commands
history
Displays the command history for the current
session (by default the history contains the last
10 commands)
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Operation
info [detail]
Displays information on the current configuration
tree [detail]
Displays all lower command levels and commands
accessible from the current context level
CLI commands can be gathered into text files called scripts. They can be created
using a text editor, by recording the user commands or by saving the current
configuration. The scripts can be imported from and exported to RAD devices via
file transfer protocols.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-9
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Command Tree
At the CLI root, the following categories are available:
•
version
•
self-test
•
admin
•
file
•
configure
Each category is detailed in the tables below.
Table 3-5. Global commands
Command
Description
GlobalCommands
|
exit
Return to previous level in the commands hierarchy
|
tree
Display commands hierarchy from current context
|
help
Display help
|
history
Display commands history
|
echo
Echo the text that is typed in
|
exec
Execute a file
|
logout
Log out this system
|
info
print configuration info
|
change-mode
Switch to Menus
|
ping
Verify the reachability of a remote host
|
trace-route
Determine the route to a destination address
|
save
|
mpls-ping
Sends a ping request over MPLS to verify the
reachability of a remote device
|
mpls-trace-route
Checks the path connectivity to a remote device over
MPLS
Table 3-6. Commands in the version category
Command
Description
version
Displays SW and configuration version numbers
Table 3-7. Commands in the self-test category
Command
Description
show self-test
Displays self test results
3-10
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Operation
Table 3-8. Commands in the admin category
Command
Description
admin
Adminstrative commands
|
reboot
Reboots the card
|
reboot
Reboots the device
|
factory-default
Loads factory default configuration
|
user-default
Loads user default configuration
Table 3-9. Commands in the file category
Command
Description
file
Initiates file operations
|
copy
Copies files within device or uploads/downloads files
to/from remote locations
|
swap
Exchanges two files in the device
|
delete
Deletes a file from the device
|
dir
Lists all files in the device
|
show version
Software Versions on the device
|
show transfer-status
Displays the upload/download status
Table 3-10. Commands in the configure category
Command
Description
configure
Changes configurable parameters of the device
|
terminal
|
|
baud-rate
|
|
timeout
|
|
length
|
oam
Defines OAM parameters
|
|
atm
Defines OAM for ATM
|
|
|
descriptor
Enables/disables the OAM descriptor
|
|
|
loopback
Defines the loopback test
|
|
bfd-descriptor
BFD descriptor configuration
|
|
|
min-interval
Defines/removes min. interval of packets (Rx/Tx)
|
|
|
detection-multiplier
Specifies number of lost packets before session
defined down
|
|
efm
Defines OAM for Ethernet in the access network
|
|
|
Defines an OAM EFM descriptor
descriptor
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Rows number that will be printed before more
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-11
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Description
|
|
|
Cancels the OAM EFM descriptor
|
|
efm-descriptor
Defines OAM for Ethernet in the access network
|
|
|
Actions in Passive upon receiving Loopback Request
|
qos
Quality of service
|
|
atm
ATM quality of service
|
|
|
ATM traffic descriptor configuration
|
|
queue-map-profile
|
|
|
|
port
Enables, disables and defines ports
|
|
sdh-sonet
Defines SDH/SONET port parameters
|
|
|
shutdown
Administratively disables/enables the port
|
|
|
frame-type
Specifies the cell frame type
|
|
|
loopback
Enables/disables loopback mode for the port
|
|
|
tx-clock-source
Specifies the source of the port's transmit clock
|
|
|
oam-cell-generator
Enables/disables generating OAM cells
|
|
|
output-rate
Sets the cell output rate
|
|
|
alarm-threshold
Defines the alarm threshold for SONET
|
|
|
alarm-threshold
Defines the alarm threshold for SDH
|
|
|
channelized
Enables/disables multiple channelized threads
|
|
|
tx-ssm
|
|
|
show status
Displays the SDH-SONET of the port
|
|
|
show statistics
Displays the specified ATM statistics
|
|
e1
|
|
|
shutdown
Administratively disables/enables the port
|
|
|
tx-clock-source
Specifies the source of the port's transmit clock
|
|
|
idle-code
Code transm. to fill unused timeslots in E1 frames
|
|
|
out-of-service
Transmits out of service signal for all services
|
|
|
functional-mode
The mode in which the E1 interface operates
|
|
|
trail-mode
Controls the propagation of alarm indications
|
|
|
line-type
Specifies the E1 framing mode
|
|
|
fractional
Enables/disables using fraction of E1 port
bandwidth.
|
|
|
oam-cell-generator
Generates OAM cells if physical layer fails
|
|
|
loopback
Enables/disables loopback mode for the port
3-12
descriptor
loopback-operation
traffic-descriptor
map
Specifies E1 parameters
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Operation
Command
Description
|
|
|
rx-sensitivity
Sets the attenuation level of the receive signal
|
|
|
tx-ssm
Enables/disables the SSM transmission from this
port.
|
|
|
show status
Displays the E1 port's status
|
|
|
show statistics
Displays the ATM statistics of an E1 port
|
|
t1
|
|
|
shutdown
Administratively disables/enables the port
|
|
|
tx-clock-source
Specifies the source of the port's transmit clock
|
|
|
line-code
Line code and zero suppression used by port
|
|
|
idle-code
Code transm. to fill unused timeslots in T1 frames
|
|
|
line-interface
Specifies the T1 operation mode
|
|
|
line-length
Specifies the length of the T1 line in DSU mode
|
|
|
line-buildout
Specifying the line build-out (relative output transmit
level of the port).
|
|
|
restoration-time
Time req. for port to resume normal oper after LOF
|
|
|
line-length
|
|
|
out-of-service
Transmits out of service signal for all services
|
|
|
functional-mode
The mode in which the T1 interface operates
|
|
|
trail-mode
Controls the propagation of alarm indications
|
|
|
line-type
Specifies the T1 framing mode
|
|
|
fractional
Enables/disables using fraction of T1 port bandw.
|
|
|
oam-cell-generator
Creates OAM cells in case of physical layer error
|
|
|
loopback
Enables/disables loopback mode for the port
|
|
|
scrambler
Enables/disables ATM cell payload scrambling mode
|
|
|
tx-ssm
Enables/disables the SSM transmission from this
port.
|
|
|
show status
Displays the T1 port's status
|
|
|
show statistics
Displays the ATM statistics of a T1 port
|
|
j1
|
|
|
shutdown
Administratively disables/enables the port
|
|
|
tx-clock-source
Specifies the source of the port's transmit clock
|
|
|
line-code
Variety of Zero Code Suppression used on port
|
|
|
idle-code
Code transm. to fill unused timeslots in J1 frames
|
|
|
line-interface
Specifies the J1 operation mode
|
|
|
line-length
Specifies the length of the J1 line in DSU mode
Specifies T1 parameters
Specifies J1 parameters
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-13
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Description
|
|
|
line-buildout
Specifies the line build out
|
|
|
restoration-time
Time req. for port to resume normal oper after LOF
|
|
|
line-length
|
|
|
out-of-service
Transmits out of service signal for all services
|
|
|
functional-mode
The mode in which the J1 interface operates
|
|
|
trail-mode
Controls the propagation of alarm indications
|
|
|
line-type
Specifies the J1 framing mode
|
|
|
oam-cell-generator
Generates OAM cells in case of physical error
|
|
|
loopback
Enables/disables loopback mode for the port
|
|
|
scrambler
Enables/disables ATM cell payload scrambling mode
|
|
|
tx-ssm
Enables/disables the SSM transmission from this
port.
|
|
|
show status
Displays the J1 port's status
|
|
|
show statistics
Displays the ATM statistics of a J1 port
|
|
ethernet
Specifies Ethernet parameters
|
|
|
shutdown
Administratively disables/enables the port
|
|
|
media-type
Specifies the interface to operate in combo ports
|
|
|
auto-negotiation
Enables/disables automatically adjusting the speed
|
|
|
max-capability
Identifies the set of capabilities advertised by the
local autonegotiation entity
|
|
|
speed-duplex
Specifies speed and duplex mode when
autonegotiation is disabled
|
|
|
efm
Enables/disables OAM (EFM) on the Ethernet port
|
|
|
output-rate-limit
Specifies/cancels the bandwidth limit
|
|
|
tx-ssm
Enables/disables Synchronous Status Messages
transmission
|
|
|
show status
Displays the Ethernet port status
|
|
|
show statistics
Specifies time increments of statistics for display
|
|
|
show oam-efm
EFM OAM (ah)
|
|
|
show oam-efm-statistics
Display statistics counters
|
|
shdsl
Defines an SHDSL port
|
|
|
shutdown
Enables/disables the SHDSL port
|
|
|
tc
Specifies the TC layer and functional mode
|
|
|
wires
Specifies number of wires for M-pair group or IMA
3-14
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Operation
Command
Description
|
|
|
4w-mode
Sets 4W mode for GSPN-enhanced or standard
DSLAM
|
|
|
stu
Setting the port operation mode: CO or CPE
|
|
|
transmission-mode
Defines region-dependant standard sets
|
|
|
power-backoff
Time of reduced power to counter magnetic fields
|
|
|
line-prob
Enables/disables Power Measurement Modulation
Session
|
|
|
data-rate
Setting the SHDSL port data rate
|
|
|
loop-attenuation-threshold
Specifies the loop attenuation threshold in db
|
|
|
snr-margin-threshold
Sets the current signal-to-noise margin
|
|
|
tx-clock-source
Specifies the transmit clock source
|
|
|
handshake
Specifies the handshake procedure
|
|
|
current-margin
get margin for the measured signal to noise ratio
relative to the current noise level
|
|
|
worst-margin
get margin for the measured SNR to reference worst
case near-end crosstalk noise
|
|
|
tx-ssm
Enables/disables source specific multicast
transmission
|
|
|
show status
Displays the status of an SHDSL interface
|
|
|
show statistics
Specifies the ATM statistics of an SHDSL interface
|
|
|
show bind-show
Displays an overview of interfaces bound to ATM
|
|
adsl2plus
Defines an ADSL2+ interface
|
|
|
shutdown
Enables/disables the ADSL2+ port
|
|
|
restart
Initiates/cancels restarting the synchronization
|
|
|
show status
Displays the status of an ADSL2+ interface
|
|
|
show statistics
ATM statistics of an ADSL2+ interface
|
|
abis-ater
Defines/cancels Abis optimization
|
|
|
shutdown
The no form of this command enables a port.
|
|
|
tx-direction
Specifies the uplink transmit direction
|
|
|
optimization
Specifies the optimization mode
|
|
|
byte-reversal
Defines whether the BTS/BSC reverses the traffic
bytes
|
|
|
idle-trau
Defines the idle mode type for TRAU/GPRS timeslots
|
|
|
tx-jitter
Sets size of transmit jitter towards the BTS/BSC
|
|
|
silence-suppression
Suppression rate of silent frames during voice call
|
|
|
silence-trau
Specifies the type of generated silence TRAU frames
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-15
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Description
|
|
|
gprs-frame
Specifies General Packet Radio Service frames
|
|
|
unknown-frame-optimization
Optimizes unspecified frames
|
|
|
spd-threshold
Sets threshold to discard packets
|
|
|
timeout
Specifies when a timeout is declared
|
|
|
mtu
Defines the max. transmission unit
|
|
|
bind
Binds a physical port to Abis
|
|
|
time-slots
Specifies time slots associated with the Abis port
|
|
|
interface-mode
Specifies the interface mode
|
|
|
clear-statistics
Clears the displayed statistics
|
|
|
show status
Displays operational and administrative status
|
|
|
show statistics
Displays Rx and Tx statistics
|
|
atm
Defines ATM parameters
|
|
|
ima-group
Create / Delete an IMA group
|
|
|
|
minimum-links
Min number of Rx/Tx links required
|
|
|
|
group-id
IMA group ID
|
|
|
|
tx-frame-length
Tx frame length
|
|
|
|
max-differential-delay
max link delay tolerated
|
|
|
|
ima-version
Valid IMA version
|
|
|
|
tx-clock-source
Tx clock source for current IMA group
|
|
|
|
ctc-source
Group Tx clock source
|
|
|
|
shutdown
Enable/disable the IMA group
|
|
|
|
blocking
Blocks IMA group
|
|
|
|
oam-cell-generation
Generates ATM OAM cells if an IMA group fails
|
|
|
|
restart
Restart the IMA group
|
|
|
|
bind
Adds/removes links to/from an IMA group
|
|
|
|
show status
Displays status of the current IMA group
|
|
|
|
show statistics
IMA group statistics
|
|
|
vpl
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
vcl
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
max-vpi-bits
Specifies the max VPI bits
|
|
|
cell-test
Defines parameters for ATM cell test
|
|
logical-mac
3-16
Enables/disables a virtual path link
show statistics
Display VPL statistics
Enables/disables a virtual channel link
show statistics
Configuration and Management Alternatives
Display VCL statistics
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Chapter 3 Operation
Description
|
|
|
bind
|
|
|
show oam-efm
|
|
|
show oam-efm-statistics
|
|
svi
|
|
|
|
|
ppp
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
bind
|
|
|
authentication
|
|
|
access-authentication
|
|
|
pppoe
|
|
|
|
ac-name
|
|
|
|
service-name
|
|
|
|
scheduled-restart
|
|
|
|
backoff-random-range
|
|
|
|
vlan
|
|
|
show status
|
|
pcs
Specifies physical coding sublayer parameters
|
|
|
shutdown
Enable/disable the port
|
|
|
bind
Bind ports to PCS bundle
|
|
|
show status
Displays the PCS port status
|
|
|
show statistics
Specifies time increments of statistics for display
|
|
|
show oam-efm
|
|
|
show oam-efm-statistics
|
bridge
Defines bridge parameters.
|
|
vlan-aware
Enable/Disable Layer 2 bridging according to the
VLAN tag
|
|
aging-time
Enable/Disable period for entries to age in the MAC
table.
|
|
port
Defines the behavior and attributes of bridge ports.
|
|
|
shutdown
Administratively enable/disable the bridge port.
|
|
|
bind
Binds Bridge to a device (physical/logical) port.
|
|
|
ingress-filtering
Enable/Disable ingress filtering mode behavior.
|
|
|
accept-frame-type
Enable/Disable frame admission rule for the bridge
port.
Create/delete service virtual interface
shutdown
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Administrtavly enable/disable the SVI port
Enable/disable the port
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-17
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Description
|
|
|
pvid
PVID assigned to untagged frames or priority-tagged
frames.
|
|
|
egress-tag
Enable/Disable egress VLAN Tag handling behavior.
|
|
|
ingress-tag
Enable/Disable ingress VLAN Tag handling behavior.
|
|
|
maximum-mac-addresses
Maximum number of total supported MAC Addresses.
|
|
|
show statistics
Displays the bridge port statistics
|
|
vlan
Enables/disables VLAN membership specifications.
|
|
|
Add/Remove bridge port as VLAN egress tagged
member.
|
|
show mac-address-table
Displays MAC addresses; adds/removes static MAC
address.
|
|
show vlans
Display VLAN members.
|
|
clear-mac-table
Clear MAC addresses.
|
protection
Defines protection mechanisms
|
|
aps
Enables/disables ATM-155 port protection
|
|
|
shutdown
Switches the APS to standby or re-activates the APS
|
|
|
oper-mode
Specifies the APS operation mode
|
|
|
bind
Adds/removes working and protection ports to/from
the APS for Compatible mode
|
|
|
bind
Adds/removes working and protection ports to/from
the APS for Optimized mode
|
|
|
revertive
Enables/disables reverting working port and
protection port
|
|
|
wait-to-restore
Specifies the time to elapse after the link recovers
and before traffic switches back
|
|
|
force-switch
Switches traffic from the active link to the next one
(in 1+1 Bi-Optimized Bidirectional mode)
|
|
|
lockout
Prevents a possible switch over (in 1+1 Bi-Optimized
Bidirectional mode)
|
|
|
clear
Clears the current command (Force Switch or
Lockout)
|
|
|
force-switch-to-working
Switches traffic to the working port (in Compatible
1+1 mode)
|
|
|
force-switch-to-protection
Switches traffic to the protection port (in
Compatible 1+1 mode)
|
|
|
manual-switch-to-working
Switches traffic to the working port (in Compatible
1+1 mode)
3-18
tagged-egress
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Operation
Command
Description
|
|
|
manual-switch-to-protection
Switches traffic to the protection port (in
Compatible 1+1 mode)
|
|
|
lockout-of-protection
Denies access of traffic to the protection port (in
Comaptible 1+1 mode)
|
|
|
clear
Clears all externally initiated switch commands and
the WTR time
|
|
|
show status
Displays the APS status
|
router
Configures router parameters
|
|
interface
Adds router interface
|
|
|
dhcp
Enables/disables DHCP client
|
|
|
address
Router interface IP and mask
|
|
|
name
Router interface name
|
|
|
bind
Binds router interface to device port, PVC or GRE
tunnel
|
|
|
vlan
VLAN tagging control
|
|
|
management-access
Managment access control
|
|
|
llc-snap-encapsulation
LLC/SNAP encapsulation type
|
|
|
dhcp-client
DHCP client configuration
|
|
|
|
class-id
String that is passed on to the DHCP server for
authentication
|
|
|
|
lease
DHCP requested lease time
|
|
|
shutdown
Enables/disables the router interface
|
|
|
show status
Router interface status
|
|
static-route
Creates/deletes static route entities
|
|
default-gateway
Default gateway for the router
|
|
loopback-address
Maximum number of loopback addresses is 4
|
|
arp-timeout
Address aging function
|
|
gre-tunnel
Specifies GRE tunnel
|
|
|
shutdown
Enable/disables the GRE tunnel
|
|
|
keepalive
Enable/disable GRE Keep Alive session
|
|
|
show status
|
|
peer
Peer configuration
|
|
show arp-table
Displays the router ARP table
|
|
show routing-table
Displays the routing table
|
|
path-verification
Configures path-verification parameters
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-19
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Description
|
|
|
ip-bfd
Enables/disables bidirectional forward detection
|
|
|
|
shutdown
Enable/disable IP-BFD session
|
|
|
|
address
Specifies IP-BFD session address
|
|
|
|
bfd-descriptor
Assign BFD descriptor to the configured session
|
|
|
|
show status
|
|
mpls
MPLS configuration
|
|
|
php
Enables/disables php
|
|
|
label-range
Defines the static and dynamic label range
|
|
|
ldp
LDP configuration
|
|
|
|
ldp-id
The LDP identifier for the device
|
|
|
|
hello-timer
Time between consequent hello messages
|
|
|
|
keep-alive-timer
time between consequent keep-alive messages
|
|
|
|
router-interface
LDP configuration of existing router interfaces
|
|
|
|
targeted-peers
Enables/disables LDP targeted peers
|
|
|
|
shutdown
Enables/disables the LDP
|
|
|
|
show hello-table
Displays LDP hello table
|
|
|
|
show session
Displays active LDP sessions status
|
|
|
ingress-tunnel
Ingress tunnel configuration
|
|
|
egress-tunnel
Egress tunnel configuration
|
management
Defines management parameters
|
|
snmp
Defines SNMP settings
|
|
|
server
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
snmp-engine-id
|
|
|
snmp-engine-id-string
|
|
|
snmpv3
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
user
|
|
|
|
authentication
|
|
|
|
privacy
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
access-group
|
|
|
|
3-20
trap-source-address
Text, administratively assigned. Maximum remaining
length 27
show information
shutdown
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Chapter 3 Operation
Description
|
|
|
|
context-match
|
|
|
|
read-view
|
|
|
|
write-view
|
|
|
|
notify-view
|
|
|
security-to-group
|
|
|
|
group-name
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
view
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
|
mask
|
|
|
|
type
|
|
|
community
|
|
|
|
name
|
|
|
|
sec-name
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
|
tag
|
|
|
target-params
|
|
|
|
message-processing-model
|
|
|
|
version
|
|
|
|
security
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
target
|
|
|
|
target-params
|
|
|
|
address
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
|
tag-list
|
|
|
|
trap-sync-group
|
|
|
notify
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
|
tag
|
|
|
|
bind
|
|
|
notify-filter
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
|
type
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-21
Chapter 3 Operation
Command
Installation and Operation Manual
Description
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
notify-filter-profile
|
|
|
|
profile-name
|
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
show trap-sync
|
|
|
trap-sync-group
|
|
|
|
target-params
|
|
|
|
tag-list
|
|
|
community
|
|
|
ov-severity-in-traps
|
|
manager
|
|
|
|
|
access
|
|
|
telnet
Configure telnet access
|
|
|
ssh
Configure SSH access
|
|
|
snmp
Configure SNMP access
|
|
|
auth-policy
Assign policy of authentication
|
|
radius
Set RADIUS parameters
|
|
|
server
Set RADIUS server parameters
|
|
|
|
address
Set address of RADIUS server
|
|
|
|
shutdown
Administratively enable/disable RADIUS server
|
|
|
|
key
Set client and RADIUS server shared secret
|
|
|
|
retry
Set number of requests attempts from RADIUS
server
|
|
|
|
timeout
Set timeout for a response from RADIUS server
|
|
|
|
auth-port
Set RADIUS server authentication port number
|
|
|
show status
Display status parameters
|
|
|
show statistics
Display statistics counters
|
|
|
clear-statistics
Clear statistics counters
|
|
show users
|
|
user
Create/delete user and assign user password
|
|
user
Assign user password
|
flows
3-22
mask
Managers configuration.Maximum number of
managers 16
trap-mask
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Chapter 3 Operation
Description
|
|
classifier-profile
|
|
|
|
|
flow
|
|
|
shutdown
|
|
|
classifier
|
|
|
mark
|
|
|
|
vlan
|
|
|
|
p-bit
|
|
|
vlan-tag
|
|
|
ingress-port
|
|
|
egress-port
|
|
show summary
|
pwe
Create/delete Psaudo-wire
|
|
atm-parameters
ATM parameters which relevant to all PWs
|
|
mtu
MTU size configuration
|
|
df-bit-cleared
Enable/disable clear the DF bit for PW traffic (interop
command)
|
|
mtu-tlv-sent
Enable/disable adding MTU TLV to TDM PW (interop
command)
|
|
pw
Create/delete Pseudo-wire
|
|
|
name
Create/delete PW name
|
|
|
peer
The number of the remote peer which terminated
this PW
|
|
|
label
The PW label used in the inbound /outbound
direction
|
|
|
ldp-pw-id
The PW ID in LDP mode
|
|
|
control-word
Enable/disable control word existance in the packet
heder
|
|
|
sequence-number
Enable/disable sequence number existance in the
packet heder
|
|
|
tx-queue
The TX queue level for this PW
|
|
|
oam
Enable/disable OAM protocol for this PW
|
|
|
vlan
Enable/disable VLAN tag on every transmitted packet
for this PW
|
|
|
exp-bits
Indicate the MPLS EXP bits for this PW
|
|
|
tos
TOS byte value in the outgoing traffic
match
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-23
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Description
|
|
|
tunnel-index
Index of the ingress/egress tunnel definitions for
this PW
|
|
|
tunnel-index
Index of the ingress/egress tunnel definitions for
this PW
|
|
|
tunnel-index
Index of the ingress/egress tunnel definitions for
this PW
|
|
|
atm-payload
ATM payload parameters for this PW
|
|
|
aal5-termination
AAL5 SDU termination mode
|
|
|
tdm-payload
TDM payload parameters
|
|
|
tdm-payload
TDM payload configuration
|
|
|
jitter-buffer
Jitter buffer size
|
|
|
shutdown
Administrativly enable/disable the current PW
|
|
|
show status
Dispaly PW status parameters
|
|
|
show statistics
Dispaly PW statistics counters
|
|
show pw-summary
|
cross-connect
Cross connect of ATM, PW, or TDM
(DS0,DS1,DS3,SDH/SONET)
|
|
atm-vp
Create / Delete an ATM VP cross connect
|
|
atm-vc
Create / Delete an ATM VC cross connect
|
|
atm-ces
CES cross connect
|
|
pw-vp
ATM attachment circuit
|
|
pw-vc
ATM attachment circuit
|
|
pw-tdm
TDM virtual circuit cross connect
|
|
pw-eth
Ethernet virtual circuit cross connect
|
system
|
|
product-name
|
|
name
Assigns/removes a name to the device
|
|
contact
Specifies/removes a contact person
|
|
location
Specifies/removes the location of a device
|
|
inventory
Specifies device inventory parameters
|
|
|
alias
Assigns/removes an alias to/from the device
inventory
|
|
|
show status
Displays the status of a device
|
|
show device-information
Displays device information
|
|
show inventory-summary
Displays a list with installed hardware and software
3-24
Configuration and Management Alternatives
Dispaly PWs summary
Defines system parameters
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Operation
Command
Description
|
|
show event-log
Displays the event log
|
|
clear-event-log
Clears the event log
|
|
show alarms
Displays alarms
|
|
tftp
|
|
sftp
|
|
date-and-time
Date and time parameters
|
|
|
date
System date
|
|
|
time
System time
|
|
|
zone
Time zone and offset
|
|
|
summer
Configure summer time (daylight savings time)
|
|
|
sntp
Sets Simple Network Time Protocol parameters
|
|
|
|
broadcast
Enables/disables broadcast client mode for SNTP
|
|
|
|
poll-interval
Interval between SNTP update requests
|
|
|
|
server
Defines an SNTP time server
|
|
|
|
|
Specifies the SNTP time server's IP address
|
|
|
|
send-request
|
|
show date-and-time
Displays current system data and time
|
|
clock
Clock configuration
|
|
|
recovered
Create/delete recovered clock
|
|
|
|
pw
Associate PW number to recovered clock
|
|
|
|
peer
Associate master peer number to recovered clock
|
|
|
|
source-quality
Source quality of the recovered clock
|
|
|
|
network-type
Network type of the recovered clock
|
|
|
|
source-port-identity
Identifier number of the master clock
|
|
|
|
sync-rate
Transmit rate of the clock packets
|
|
|
|
clock-quality
Clock quality of the master
|
|
|
|
multicast
Multicast IP address
|
|
|
|
source-address
Second IP address for receiving clock
|
|
|
|
shutdown
Enable/disable recovered clock
|
|
|
|
show statistics
Display statistics counters
|
|
|
|
show status
Display status parameters
|
|
|
|
debug
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-mode
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-logger
address
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Sends SNTP request in addition to periodic request
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-25
Chapter 3 Operation
Command
Installation and Operation Manual
Description
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-acqusition-switch
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-smart-delta-switch
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-smart-self-test
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-smart-delta-timeout
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-bw-adaptive-switch
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-const-delay-change
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-freeze-system
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-bw-adapter-lower-level
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-bw-adapter-upper-level
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-adaptive-jb-reset
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-adaptive-sw-reset
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-cdc-threshold-track1
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-cdc-threshold-track2
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-frequency-deflection
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-threshold-exit-slip
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-sdt-threshold
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-sdt-threshold-hysteresis
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-sliding-window
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-pvd-adev-target
|
|
|
|
|
dbg-pvd-adev-trg-indf-zone
|
|
|
|
|
show dbg-counters
|
|
|
station
Enable/disable station clock
|
|
|
|
interface-type
Assign station clock interface type
|
|
|
|
interface-type
Assign station clock interface type
|
|
|
distributed
Create/delete distributed clock
|
|
|
|
source-port-identity
Identifier number of the master clock
|
|
|
|
sync-rate
Transmit rate of the clock packets
|
|
|
|
priority-bit
VLAN priority associated to distributed clock
|
|
|
|
tos-dscp
Associate IP service type to the distributed clock
|
|
|
|
shutdown
Enable/disable distributed clock
|
|
|
|
stream
Create/delete distribured clock stream
|
|
|
|
|
shutdown
Administrtavly enable/disable distributed clock
stream
|
|
|
|
|
peer
Associate slave peer number to distributed clock
3-26
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Chapter 3 Operation
Description
|
|
|
|
|
name
|
|
|
|
show statistics
|
|
|
domain
Clock domain configuration
|
|
|
|
master
Create/delete master clock
|
|
|
|
fallback
Create/delete fallback clock
|
|
|
|
revertive
Enable/disable revertive mode
|
|
|
|
show status
Display status parameters
|
|
|
domain
Clock domain number
|
|
|
|
sync-network-type
The synchronous digital hierarchy type
|
|
|
|
quality
Clock Quality Level (QL)
|
|
|
|
quality
Clock Quality Level (QL)
|
|
|
|
max-frequency-deviation
Max. allowed frequency error compared to PRC
|
|
|
|
mode
Auto or Free Run
|
|
|
|
force
Forced selection of any configured Clock Source
|
|
|
|
manual
Manual selection of any configured Clock Source
|
|
|
|
clear
Clear the Forced or Manual selection
|
|
|
|
clear-statistics
Clear statistics for all Clock Sources
|
|
|
|
source
Clock Source parameters
|
|
|
|
|
priority
Clock Source priority
|
|
|
|
|
quality-level
QL of the Clock Source
|
|
|
|
|
wait-to-restore
De-bouncing timeout for Clock Source failure
recovery
|
|
|
|
|
hold-off
De-bouncing timeout for Clock Source failure
|
|
|
|
|
clear-wait-to-restore
One-time reset of running WTR
|
|
|
|
|
show status
Display status parameters
|
|
|
|
|
show statistics
Display statistics counters
|
|
|
|
show status
|
|
show license
Shows the License support
|
|
syslog
Sets Syslog server to log events on server instead of
internally
|
|
|
address
Specifies the Syslog server's IP address
|
|
|
shutdown
Opens/closes the connection to the Syslog server
|
|
|
facility
Identifies facility to send Syslog messages from
|
|
|
severity-level
Specifies the severity level of Syslog messages to be
sent
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Associate name to the distributed stream
Display statistics counters
Display status parameters
Configuration and Management Alternatives
3-27
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Description
|
|
|
port
Defines the UDP port for device or server, depending
on the mode that the Syslog server operates at
|
|
|
show statistics
Displays Syslog statistics
|
|
|
clear-statistics
Clears the Syslog statistics
|
remote-dsl-modem
Connects/disconnects to/from a remote DSL modem
|
|
address
The address of the DSL modem
|
|
reset
Resets the DSL modem
|
|
sw-download
Downloads software version to the DSL modem
|
|
show status
Display status parameters of the DSL modem
Working with RADview
RADview is a user-friendly and powerful SNMP-based element management
system (EMS), used for planning, provisioning and managing heterogeneous
networks. RADview provides a dedicated graphical user interface (GUI) for
monitoring RAD products via their SNMP agents. RADview for ACE-3200 is
bundled in the RADview package for PC (Windows-based) or Unix.
For more details about this network management software, and for detailed
instructions on how to install, set-up and use RADview – contact your local
distributor or refer to the RADview User's Manual, located on the Technical
Documentation CD or on RAD's Web site.
3-28
Configuration and Management Alternatives
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
3.4
Chapter 3 Operation
Startup
Configuration Files
The following files contain configuration settings:
•
factory-default – Contains the manufacturer default settings
•
running-config – Contains the current configuration that is different from the
default configuration
•
startup-config – Contains saved non-default user configuration. This file is
not automatically created. You can use the save or copy command to create
it.
•
user-default-config – Contains default user configuration. This file is not
automatically created. You can use the copy command to create it.
•
main-sw – Contains the active software image.
Refer to File Operations in Chapter 4 for details on file operations.
The save command is used to save the user configuration. Some commands that
reset the device also erase the saved user configuration by copying another file
to it before the reset. Refer to Figure 3-8for details.
Note
Figure 3-8. Commands That Reset Device/Copy Configuration Files
Loading Sequence
At startup, the device boots from the startup-config file, the user-default file, or
the factory-default file, in the sequence shown in Figure 3-9 . If none of these
files exist, the device boots using hard-coded defaults.
If the loading of startup-config or the user-default file fails, the loading failure
event is registered in the event log.
To display the parameter values after startup, use the info [detail]
command.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Startup
3-29
Chapter 3 Operation
Installation and Operation Manual
Figure 3-9. Loading Sequence
3.5
Using a Custom Configuration File
In large deployments, often a central network administrator sends configuration
scripts to the remote locations and all that remains for the local technician to do
is to replace the IP address in the script or other similar minor changes (using any
text editor), and then download the file to the device.
To download the configuration file, use the copy command. It is recommended to
copy the file to the startup-config file.
After downloading the configuration file, the unit must be reset in order to
execute the file. After the unit completes its startup, the custom configuration is
complete.
3.6
³
To turn the ACE-3200 unit off:
•
3-30
Turning Off the Unit
Disconnect the power cord from the power source.
Turning Off the Unit
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Chapter 4
Configuration
This chapter explains in detail the different configuration options available for
ACE-3200.
It is possible to use previously saved configurations by resetting the unit to the
user defaults. For additional information, refer to Resetting to User Defaults.
In addition, it is possible to use a standard configuration file that has been
generated on a different ACE-3200 unit with identical hardware profile. For
instructions, refer to File Operations.
4.1
Terminal Control
You use a terminal connection to connect a PC to the ACE unit’s control port and
configure a router and a router interface to make the unit available from a
management station on the network.
The terminal control parameters determine the control port's baud rate,
password used for each control session, and availability of the fixed security
timeout.
Factory Defaults
The table below lists the factory defaults of the terminal connection.
Description
Default Value
baud rate (bps)
9600
Security timeout (minutes)
10
Note
Terminal parameters can only be configured when using a terminal connection.
Configuring the Terminal Connection
³
To configure the terminal parameters:
•
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
At the Terminal config>terminal# prompt, enter the necessary parameters
according to the table below.
Terminal Control
4-1
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Setting the baud rate (bps)
baud-rate
{9600bps|19200bps|38400bps|57800bps|115200bps}
Enabling and defining a security
timeout (in minutes)
timeout limited 10
Disabling the security timeout
timeout forever
Comments
Example
The example below illustrates how to set up a terminal connection.
³
To set up a terminal connection at 19200 kbps with timeout after 10 minutes:
•
Set up the baud rate to 19200 kbps and make sure that the same rate is
selected in HyperTerminal for any future HyperTerminal connections.
•
Set the security timeout to 10 minutes.
ACE-3200>config>terminal# baud-rate 19200bps
ACE-3200>config>terminal# timeout-limited 10
Figure 4-1. Configuring a Terminal Connection
4.2
User Access Levels
ACE-3200 allows you to define new users, their management and access rights.
Only superusers (su) can create new users, the regular users are limited to
changing their current passwords, even if they were given full management and
access rights.
You can specify a user’s password as a text string. You can add a second user
with the same password using the hash function as explained below.
Defining Users and Passwords
Follow the instructions below to add users and assign passwords.
Notes
• User passwords are stored in a database so that the system can perform
password verification when a user attempts to log in. To preserve
confidentiality of system passwords, the password verification data is typically
stored after a one-way hash function is applied to the password, in
combination with other data. When a user attempts to log in by entering a
password, the same function is applied to the entered value and the result is
compared with the stored value.
• A cryptographic hash function is a deterministic procedure that takes an
arbitrary block of data and returns a fixed-size bit string, the (cryptographic)
hash value, such that any change to the data changes the hash value.
4-2
User Access Levels
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To add a user with a text password:
•
At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter
user <name> [level <su|user>] [password <non-encrypted password of up to
20 characters|encrypted password of 40 characters>].
The user name, the associated user level and the password are defined.
³
To change the text password of an existing user:
•
At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter
user <name> [level <su|user>] [password <non-encrypted password of up to
20 characters|encrypted password of 40 characters>].
<name> specifies the user name associated with the desired existing user.
<password> specifies the new password.
The new password for the existing user is changed.
Note
³
To add a user or change the password of an existing user, you must be logged on
as a super user.
To add an additional user with the same password using the hash function:
1. At the user prompt config>mngmnt> prompt, enter info detail and press
<Enter> until you get to the first user’s password hash value as illustrated
below.
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt# info detail
user "staff1" level user password
"3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef"
hash
2. Define another user with the hashed password obtained from the info
output.
The second user is added and can log on with the text password defined
in step 1.
³
To delete an existing user:
•
At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter no user <name>.
The specified user is deleted.
Example
³
To add a super user with a text password:
•
Specify the user name staff for the user level su.
•
Assign the password 1234.
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt# user staff level su password 1234
# Password is encrypted successfully
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt#
³
To add two new users with identical passwords using the hash function:
•
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Assign the user name staff1.
User Access Levels 4-3
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
•
Assign the password 4222.
•
Assign the user name staff2.
•
Assign the same password 4222 to staff2 by linking the hash output to
staff2.
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt# user staff1 level user password 4222
# Password is encrypted successfully
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt# info
user "staff1" level user password
"3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef" hash
user "su"
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt# user staff2 level user password
3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef hash
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt# info
user "staff1" level user password
"3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef" hash
user "staff2" level user password
"3fda26f8cff4123ddcad0c1bc89ed1e79977acef" hash
user "su"
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt# logout
CLI session is closed
user>staff2
password>4222
ACE-3200#
Viewing Connected Users
This section explains how to view users currently logged on to the unit.
³
To view all connected users:
•
At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter show users.
A list of all connected users is displayed, showing their access level, the
type of connection, and the IP address from which they are connected.
ACE-3200# configure management
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt# show users
User
Access Level
Source
IP-address
----------------------------------------------------------------------------su
SU
Terminal
172.4.3.3
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt#
4-4
Managers
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
4.1
Chapter 4 Configuration
Managers
This section explains how to add and remove managers and mask traps
associated with the respective manager.
Configuring a Manager
This section explains how to add and remove managers. You can add up to 16
managers. In addition, you can mask and unmask all traps or specific ones for a
specific manager.
³
To add a manager:
1. At the config# prompt, enter management.
The config>mngmnt# prompt appears.
2. At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>.
The specified manager has been added and the
config>mngmnt>manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> prompt appears
displaying the IP address of the manager you just added.
³
To mask traps for a specific manager using SNMPv1:
•
At the config>mngmnt>manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> prompt, enter
trap-mask {all| agent-status|atm-lcd|atm-line-ais|atm-line-bip|atm-linefebe|atm-line-rdi|atm-lof|atm-lop|atm-los|atm-path-ais|atm-path-bip|atmpath-febe|atm-path-rdi|atm-section-bip|atm-slm|atm-vc-ais-reception|atm-vccontinuity-loss|atm-vc-loopback|atm-vc-rdi-reception|atm-vp-aisreception|atm-vp-continuity-loss|atm-vp-loopback|atm-vp-rdireception|authentication-failure|bfd-session-up-down|cold-start|fanfailure|ima-group-status|ldp-session-up-down|license-update|link-updown|port-status|power-failure|pw-up-down|recovered-clock-frequencyalarm|recovered-clock-state|self-test-result|sonet-line-ais|sonet-linerdi|sonet-lof|sonet-los|sonet-path-ais|sonet-path-rdi|station-clockfailure|tftp-status|upload-data|csm-domain-state|csm-source-status}
The included traps will not be displayed to the respective manager.
³
To unmask traps (that have been previously masked) for a specific manager:
•
At the config>mngmnt>manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> prompt, enter
no trap-mask {all| agent-status|atm-lcd|atm-line-ais|atm-line-febe|atm-linerdi|atm-lof|atm-lop|atm-los|atm-path-ais|atm-path-rdi|atm-section-bip|atmslm|atm-vc-ais-reception|atm-vc-continuity-loss|atm-vc-loopback|atm-vc-rdireception|atm-vp-ais-reception|atm-vp-continuity-loss|atm-vp-loopback|atmvp-rdi-reception|authentication-failure|bfd-session-up-down|cold-start|fanfailure|ima-group-status|ldp-session-up-down|license-update|link-updown|port-status|power-failure|pw-up-down|recovered-clock-frequencyalarm|recovered-clock-state|self-test-result|sonet-line-ais|sonet-linerdi|sonet-lof|sonet-los|sonet-path-ais|sonet-path-rdi|station-clockfailure|tftp-status|upload-data|csm-domain-state|csm-source-status}
The included traps will be displayed to the respective manager.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Managers 4-5
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To delete a manager:
•
At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter
no manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>.
The specified manager has been removed.
4.2
Access
You can enable or disable access to the ACE-3200 management system via
Telnet, SSH, or SNMP applications for a specific router interface. By disabling
Telnet, SSH, or SNMP, you prevent unauthorized access to the system when
security of the associated IP address has been compromised. When Telnet, SSH,
and SNMP are disabled, ACE-3200 cannot be managed using the relevant router
interface. If Telnet, SSH and SNMP are disabled for all router interfaces, the unit
can be managed via an ASCII terminal only. In addition, you can limit access to the
device to only the defined management stations.
In addition, ACE-3200 can use up to four RADIUS servers to facilitate remote
authentication. Introducing a RADIUS server allows configuring up to two
authentication protocols according to a user-configured order. If the first
authentication method is unavailable or the user is not found, the next method is
used.
The table below lists management access implementation, according to the
defined management access and whether network managers are defined.
Access Method
Telnet Access
SSH Access (Secure Shell)
SNMP Access
4-6
Access
Mode
Allowed to Access
ACE-3200
If Network Manager(s)
Defined
If Network Manager(s)
not Defined
Enable
Anybody
Anybody
Disable
Nobody
Nobody
Managers Only
Only defined network
managers
Nobody
Enable
Anybody
Anybody
Disable
Nobody
Nobody
Managers Only
Only defined network
managers
Nobody
Enable
Anybody
Anybody
Disable
Nobody
Nobody
Managers Only
Only defined network
managers
Nobody
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Configuring Access
Follow the instructions below to enable/disable access via Telnet, SSH or SNMP. In
addition, you have to configure the access policy
³
To enable or disable access via management protocols:
1. At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter access.
The config>mngmnt>access# prompt appears.
2. Configure as illustrated and explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Enabling access via Telnet
telnet
Enabling access via Telnet for
managers only
telnet managers-only
Disabling acess via Telnet
no telnet
Enabling access via Secure Shell (SSH)
ssh
Enabling access via Secure Shell (SSH)
for managers only
ssh managers-only
Disabling access via SSH
no ssh
Enabling access via SNMP
snmp
Enabling access via SNMP for
managers only
snmp managers-only
Disabling access via SNMP
no snmp
³
Comments
To allow Telnet access to pre-defined
managers only, you have to first
block Telnet access if Telnet access is
curently allowed to everybody.
To allow SSH access to pre-defined
managers only, you have to first
block SSH access if SSH access is
curently allowed to everybody.
To allow SNMP access to pre-defined
managers only, you have to first
block SNMP access if SNMP access is
curently allowed to everybody.
To define the access policy:
•
At the config>mngmnt>access# prompt, configure the access levels as
illustrated and explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Comments
Authenticating
access queries via
the locally stored
data base
auth-policy 1st-level local
A second level can be configured
only if the 1st level is set to
Radius.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Access 4-7
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Authenticating
access queries via
the RADIUS server.
auth-policy 1st-level radius 2nd-level {local|none}
•
radius. Authentication via
RADIUS server.
•
local. If the RADIUS server is
unavailable, the system
authenticates via the locally
stored database.
•
none. Only the 1st level is
available. If the RADIUS server
is unavailable, the user cannot
access ACE-3200.
4.3
st
SNMP Management
SNMP stands for ‘Simple Network Management Protocol’ and is an application
layer protocol that provides a message format for the communication between
managers and agents. SNMP systems consist of an SNMP manager, an SNMP
agent and a MIB. The NMS can be part of a management network system. To
configure SNMP, you have to define the relationship between the manager and
the agent.
ACE-3200 supports SNMPv3, the latest SNMP version to date. SNMPv3 provides
secure access to devices in the network such as ACE units by using authentication
and data encryption.
Standards
This section states the standards that the supported SNMP versions are based
on.
4-8
•
RFC 1901, Introduction to Community-Based SNMPv2. SNMPv2 Working
Group.
•
RFC 1902, Structure of Management Information for Version 2 of the Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.
•
RFC 1903, Textual Conventions for Version 2 of the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.
•
RFC 1904, Conformance Statements for Version 2 of the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.
•
RFC 1905, Protocol Operations for Version 2 of the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.
•
RFC 1906, Transport Mappings for Version 2 of the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMPv2).
•
RFC 1907, Management Information Base for Version 2 of the Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). SNMPv2 Working Group.
•
RFC 1908, Coexistence between Version 1 and Version 2 of the Internetstandard Network Management Framework. SNMPv2 Working Group.
SNMP Management
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
•
RFC 2104, Keyed Hashing for Message Authentication.
•
RFC 2271, Architecture for Describing SNMP Management Frameworks.
•
RFC 2272, message processing and dispatching for the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP).
•
RFC 2273, SNMPv3 Applications.
•
RFC 2274, User-Based Security Model (USM) for version 3 of the Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMPv3).
•
RFC 2275, View-Based Access Control Model (VACM) for the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP).
•
RFC 3412, Version 3 Message Processing and Dispatching.
•
RFC 3414, User-based Security Model for SNMPv3
•
RFC 3416, Update for RFC 1904.
Benefits
The SNMP protocol allows you to remotely manage multiple units from a central
work station using RADview EMS. RADview EMS offers a graphical user interface
that resembles the front panel of your unit with its interfaces and LEDs.
ACE-3200 supports SNMPv3, which allows data to be collected securely from
SNMP devices. Confidential information such as SNMP commands can thus be
encrypted to prevent unauthorized parties from being able to access them.
Functional Description
In an SNMP configuration, one or more administrative computers manage a group
of hosts or devices. Each managed system continuously executes a software
component called agent, which reports information via SNMP back to the
managing systems.
Figure 4-2. SNMP Network Scheme
The SNMP agent contains MIB variables whose values the SNMP manager can
request or change. A manager receives/transmits a value from/to an agent. The
agent gathers data from the MIB (Management Information Base). A MIB module
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
SNMP Management 4-9
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
is actually the ‘store’ for data on network and device parameters. In addition, the
agent may set or get data according to manager commands. Commands are used
to send and receive data as follows:
•
get. Retrieving specific management information.
•
get-next. Retrieving management information via traversal
•
set. Manipulating management information.
•
get-response. Sent by an agent to respond to any of the above.
•
trap. Messages on events such as improper authentication, link status,
loss/restoration of connections etc, sent by the agent to notify the manager
of the current conditions.
SNMP Message Formats
ACE-3200 supports SNMPv1, SNMPv2c and SNMPv3. The SNMP message formats
of those three standards are illustrated below. Additional SNMPv2 formats exist,
but are not supported by ACE-3200.
SNMPv1 Message Format
The SNMP general message format was originally used to define the format of
messages in the original SNMP Protocol (SNMPv1), and was therefore relatively
straight-forward.
The general message format in SNMPv1 is a wrapper that consists of a small
header and an encapsulated PDU as illustrated and explained below.
There are not many header fields needed in SNMPv1 because of the simple
nature of the community-based security method in SNMPv1.
Table 4-1. SNMPv1 Header Fields
Field Name
Syntax
Size (Bytes)
Description
Version
Integer
4
Version Number. Describes the SNMP version number of
this message; used for ensuring compatibility between
versions. For SNMPv1, this value is 0.
Community
Octet string
Variable
Community String. Identifies the SNMP community in which
the sender and recipient of this message are located. This
is used to implement the simple SNMP community-based
security mechanism.
PDU
--
Variable
Protocol Data Unit. The PDU is communicated at the body
of the message.
4-10
SNMP Management
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
0
16
32
Version Number = 0
Community String
PDU Control Fields
Message Body (PDU)
PDU Variable Bindings
Figure 4-3. SNMPv1 General Message Format
SNMPv2c Message Format
Amongst various approaches to introduce SNMPv2, SNMPv2c was the most
accepted one. Its architecture is identical to SNMPv1 except for the version
number, which is 1 instead of 0. 0 is the version number for SNMPv1.
SNMPv3 Message Format
SNMPv3 adds security methods and parameters and completes the respective
approach that has been started with SNMPv2, but did not lead to a common
standard. This standard has been established with SNMPv3.
The significant changes made in SNMPv3 include a more flexible way of defining
security methods and parameters, to allow the coexistence of multiple security
techniques
The general message format for SNMPv3 still follows the idea of an overall
message “wrapper” that contains a header and an encapsulated PDU, but it has
been significantly refined. The fields in the header have been divided into those
dealing with security and those not dealing with security. The ’non-security’ fields
are common to all SNMPv3 implementations, while the use of the ‘security’ fields
can be tailored by each SNMPv3 security model, and processed by the module in
an SNMP entity that deals with security. The entire processing in SNMPv3 is
described in RFC 3412.
For a detailed illustration and explanation, refer to the figure and the table
below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
SNMP Management 4-11
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
0
16
32
Message Version Number = 3
Message Identifier
Maximum Message Size
Message Security Model
(bytes 1 to 3)
Message Flags
Message Security
Model (byte 4)
Message Security Parameters
Context Engine ID
Context Name
Scoped PDU
PDU Control Fields
Message Body (PDU)
PDU Variable Bindings
0
8
4
Reserved
Reportable
Flag
Privacy
Flag
(Priv)
Authentication
Flag
(Auth)
Figure 4-4. SNMPv3 General Message Format
4-12
SNMP Management
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Table 4-2. SNMPv3 General Message Format
Field Name
Syntax
Size (Bytes)
Description
Msg Version
Integer
4
Message Version Number. Describes the SNMP version
number of this message; used for ensuring compatibility
between versions. For SNMPv3, this value is 3.
Msg ID
Integer
4
Message Identifier. A number used to identify an SNMPv3
message and to match response messages to request
messages. This field was created to allow the matching at
the message processing level to protect against certain
security attacks regardless of the PDU content. Thus, Msg
ID and Request ID are used independently.
Msg Max Size
Integer
4
Maximum Message Size. The maximum size of message that
the sender of this message can receive. Minimum value of
this field is 484.
Msg Flags
Octet String
1
Message Flags. A set of flags tcontrols processing the
message. the substructure of this field is illustrated in
Table 4-3.
Msg Security
Model
Integer
4
Message Security Model. An integer value indicating which
security model was used for this message. For the userbased security model (default), this value is 3.
Msg Security
Parameter
--
Variable
Message Security Parameters. A set of fields that contain
parameters required to implement the respective security
model for this message. The contents of this field are
specified in every document that describes an SNMPv3
security model. For example, the parameters for the userbased model are defined in RFC 3414.
Scoped PDU
--
Variable
Scoped PDU. Contains the PDU to be transmitted along
with parameters that identify an SNMP context, which
describes a set of management information accessible by a
particular entity. The PDU is referred to as ‘scoped’
because it is applied within the scope of this context. This
field may or may not be encrypted, depending on the value
of the Private Flag. The structure of the PDU field is
illustrated in Table 4-4.
Table 4-3. SNMPv3 Message Flag Substructure
Field Name
Size (Bytes)
Reserved
5/8 (5 bits)
Reserved. For future use
Reportable Flag
1/8 (1 bit)
Reportable Flag. If set to 1, a device receiving this message has
to return a Report-PDU whenever conditions arise that require
such a PDU to be generated.
Priv Flag
1/8 (1 bit)
Privacy Flag. If set to 1, it indicates that the message was
encrypted to ensure its privacy.
Auth Flag
1/8 (1 bit)
Authentication Flag. If set to 1, it indicates that authentication
was used to protect the authenticity of this message.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
SNMP Management 4-13
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Table 4-4. Structure of the PDU Field
Field Name
Syntax
Size (Bytes)
Description
Context Engine ID
Octet String
Variable
Context Engine ID. Used to identify to which
application the PDU will be sent for processing.
Context Name
Octet String
Variable
Context Name. An object identifier specifying the
particular context associated with this PDU.
PDU
--
Variable
PDU. The protocol data unit being transmitted.
The SNMPv3 Mechanism
SNMPv3 uses the basic SNMP protocol and adds the following security
functionalities:
•
Message integrity. Ensuring that the package has not been tempered with
during transmission.
•
Authentication. Verifying that the message comes from a valid source.
•
Encryption. Preventing snooping by unauthorized sources.
SNMPv3 does not refer to managers and agents, but to SNMP entities. Each
entity consists of an SNMP engine and one or more SNMP components. The new
concepts define an architecture that separates different components of the
SNMP system in order to make a secure implementation possible. The SNMPv3
components are explained in the following sections.
The SNMPv3 Engine
The SNMPv3 engine consists of four subsystems that address authentication and
access authorization.
4-14
•
Dispatcher. Sending and receiving messages. It tries to determine the SNMP
version of each message (SNMPv1, SNMPv2c or SNMPv3) once it is handed
over to the message processing subsystem.
•
Message processing subsystem. Prepares messages to be sent and extracts
data from received messages.
•
Security subsystem. Provides authentication and privacy services. The
authentication uses either community strings to support SNMP Versions 1 and
2, or user-based authentication for SNMPv3. SNMPv3 user-based
authentication uses the MD5 or SHA algorithms to authenticate users without
sending a clear password. The privacy service uses the DES algorithm to
encrypt and decrypt SNMP messages. Currently, DES is the only algorithm
used, though others may be added in the future.
•
Access control system. Managing the access control to MIB objects. You can
define objects that a user can access as well as operations that a user is
allowed to perform on those objects. For example, you may grant read-write
access to certain parts of the MIB-2 tree, while allowing read-only access to
the remaining parts of the tree.
SNMP Management
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
SNMPv3 Components
SNMPv3 consists of components that deal with receiving/issuing requests,
generating traps etc. These commands are listed and explained below.
•
Command generator. Generates the Get, Get-Next, Get-Bulk requests, Set
requests, and processes the responses. This application is implemented by an
NMS to issue queries and set requests against entities on routers, switches,
Unix hosts etc.
•
Command responder. Responds to Get, Get-Next, Get-Bulk requests. The
command responder is implemented by the SNMP agent.
•
Notification originator. Generates SNMP traps and notifications. This
application is implemented by an entity on a router or host.
•
Proxy forwarder. Facilitates the passing of messages between entities.
RFC 2571 allows additional applications to be defined over time, which is a
significant advantage over the older SNMP versions. The figure below illustrates
how the components fit together creating an entity.
Figure 4-5. SNMPv3 Entity
Factory Defaults
By default, SNMPv1 is enabled. SNMPv2c and SNMPv3 are disabled.
Configuring for SNMP Management
Before configuring SNMPv3, you should specify an SNMPv3 engine.
Specifying an SNMPv3 Engine
By default, the SNMPv3 engine ID config type is set to MAC-address. To use a
different ID config type, refer to the instructions below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
SNMP Management 4-15
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To specify the SNMP engine ID config type:
1. At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter snmp.
The config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt appears.
2. At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter snmp-engine-id {mac<MAC
address>|ip4 <IP address>|text <string>}.
The SNMP engine ID config type ID is specified.
³
To enter the SNMP engine ID string:
•
At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter snmp-engine-id-string
<string of up to 27 alphanumeric characters>.
The SNMP engine ID is specified and SNMPv3 can be enabled and
configured.
Enabling SNMPv3
³
To enable/disable SNMPv3:
•
To enable the SNMPv3 engine, at the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter
snmpv3.
The SNMPv3 engine is enabled.
•
To disable the SNMPv3 engine, at the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter
no snmpv3.
The SNMPv3 engine is disabled.
Specifying an SNMPv3 User
³
To specify an SNMPv3 user:
•
After SNMPv3 has been enabled, at the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt,
enter the following, depending on the SNMPv3 authentication protocol used:
Task
Command
Comments
Adding a user who
authenticates using the
MD5 protocol.
user <security-name>
[md5-auth [{des|none}]]
•
security name. The user specific security
name, consisting of up to 32 alphanumeric
characters.
•
md5-auth. MD5 authentication protocol.
•
des. Using the DES privacy protocol.
•
none. No privacy protocol used.
Adding a user who
authenticates using the
SHA protocol.
user <security-name>
[sha-auth [{des|none}]]
•
sha-auth. SHA authentication protocol.
Adding a user who does
not authenticate.
user <security-name>
[none-auth]
•
none-auth. No authentication performed.
Removing a user
no user <security-name>
4-16
SNMP Management
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To deactivate a user:
1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter user <security name>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>user(<security name>)# prompt appears.
2. Enter shutdown.
The user is deactivated but remains available.
Defining User (Access) Groups
ACE-3200 supports up to 10 SNMPv3 managers with different authorization and
privacy tributes.
³
To define and remove an SNMP access group:
•
At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, add an access group as specified
in the table below.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>access-group(<group
name>/<snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm>/<no-auth-no-priv|auth-no-priv|authpriv>)# prompt appears.
Task
Command
Comments
Defining an access group
access-group <group-name>
{snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm}
{no-auth-no-priv|auth-no-priv|auth-priv}
•
group name. Identifies the
access group.
•
snmpv1, snmpv2c, usm.
Security model for the
SNMP messages.
•
usm. User based security
model
•
no-auth-no-priv.
Authorization and privacy
are disabled, lowest level
of security for generating
SNMP messages.
•
auth-no-priv. Authorization
enabled, privacy disabled.
•
auth- priv. Authorization
and privacy enabled,
highest level of security for
generating SNMP
messages.
³
To configure the access criteria for the SNMP access group:
•
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
At the config>mngmnt>snmp>access-group(<group
name>/<snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm>/<no-auth-no-priv|auth-no-priv|auth-priv>)#
prompt, enter the following:
SNMP Management 4-17
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Defining access matching criteria
context-match {exact|prefix}
•
exact. In order to gain access rights,
the group name must match exactly
the value of the instance of this
project.
•
prefix. The group name must match
partially the value of the instance of
this project.
Specifying the read view of the
access group
read-view <name>
Specifying the write view of the
access group
write-view <name>
Specifying the notify view of the
access group
notify-view <name>
³
To define the access control policy for users:
•
At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter the following:
Task
Command
Comments
Linking a user to a security
model
security-to-group
{any|snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm}
sec-name {security-name}
•
security name. The user
specific security name.
•
snmpv1, snmpv2c, usm.
Security model for the
SNMP messages as
explained previously.
•
any. Any security model is
allowed for the relevant
access group.
Removing the link of a user
to a security model
³
no security-to-group
{any|snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm}
sec-name {security-name}
To remove an access group:
•
At the the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter no access-group <groupname> {snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm} {no-auth-no-priv|auth-no-priv|auth-priv}.
The specified access group is removed.
Setting up a View
³
To define a view:
•
At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter parameters as illustrated and
explained in the table below.
The mngmnt>snmp>view(<view name>/<subtree OID>)# prompt appears.
4-18
SNMP Management
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Assigning a name and an
object ID to the view
view <view name> <subtree OID>
Removing the view
no view <view name> <subtree OID>
³
Comments
To configure the view you previously defined:
•
At the config>mngmnt>snmp>view(<view name>/<subtree OID>)# prompt,
enter parameters as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Enabling the view
no shutdown
Disabling the view
shutdown
The view is disabled, but remains
available.
Masking a view
mask <mask>
subtree OID mask (for example, the
standard mask 1.1.1 converts
1.3.6.7.8 OID to 1.3.6)
Including, excluding the
view.
type {included|excluded}
Mapping SNMPv1 to SNMPv3
ACE-3200 supports coexistence of different SNMP versions by mapping
SNMPv1/SNMPv2 community names to the SNMPv3 security name values. The
mapping is performed according to the RFC 3584 requirements.
³
To set up an SNMPv3 community:
•
At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter parameters as illustrated and
explained in the table below.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>community(<community-index>)# prompt
appears.
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a community
community <community-index>
community-index. Free text, consisting
of up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
Removing a community
no community <community-index>
³
To map an SNMPv1/SNMPv2 community to SNMPv3:
•
At the config>mngmnt>snmp>community(<community-index>)# prompt,
enter parameters as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the SNMPv1/SNMPv2
community name for which the
information is presented.
name <community-string>
community-string. Free text,
consisting of up to 32 alphanumeric
characters.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
SNMP Management 4-19
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the SNMPv3 security name
to be mapped to the SNMPv1/SNMPv2
community name
sec-name <sec-name>
sec-name. Free text, consisting of
up to 32 alphanumeric characters
Activating the community
no shutdown
De-activating the community
shutdown
The community is de-activated, but
remains available.
Specifying a set of the transport
endpoints that are used in either of
the following methods:
tag <transport-tag>
As defined for each target
•
Specifying the transport endpoints
from which an SNMP entity accepts
management requests.
•
Specifying the transport endpoints
to which a notification may be sent,
using the community string
matching the corresponding
instance of community name.
Configuring Targets
A target is a network management station to which ACE-3200 should send trap
notifications over SNMPv3. A set of parameters must be configured and assigned
to each target. Then, each target must have a valid IP address and IP mask. In
addition, a previously configured parameter set and notification tags must be
assigned to the target.
To configure a target, you have to first configure a parameter set that you will
have to attach to the relevant target when it is being configured.
³
To configure a target parameter set:
•
At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter target-params <params-name>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>target(<params-name>)# prompt appears and
the target parameters can be set as illustrated and explained below.
The target parameter set you configure must be attached to the relevant
target as explained on the next page.
Task
Command
Defining the message
preprocessing model to be used
when generating SNMP
messages.
message-processing-model
{snmpv1|snmpv2|snmpv3}
4-20
SNMP Management
Comments
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the security level to
be used when generating SNMP
messages.
security [name <security-name>][level
{no-auth-no-priv|auth-no-priv|auth-priv}]
•
security-name. Free
text, consisting of up to
32 alphanumeric
characters.
•
no-auth-no-priv. No
authentication, no
privacy
•
auth-no-priv.
Authentication, no
privacy
•
auth-priv.
Authentication and
privacy
•
usm. User based
security model
Specifying the SNMP version
(security model)
³
version {snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm}
To configure the target:
•
At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter target <name>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>target(<name>)# prompt appears and the
target parameters can be set as illustrated and explained in the table
below.
Task
Command
Comments
Identifying the
target NMS
address udp-domain <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>
You have to enter the domain
and the IP address or the OAM
port, depending on whether
the target NMS belongs to a
UDP domain or an OAM
domain.
Linking the target to
a set of target
parameters
target-params <params-name>
Activating the
transmission of
SNMP message to
the target NMS
address oam-domain <oam-port>
no shutdown
Deactivating the
transmission of
SNMP message to
the target NMS
shutdown
Selecting a tag from
the list of previously
defined notification
tags.
tag-list <list>
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
You use a target parameter
set configured as explained in
the previous section.
Traps that do not belong to
this tag list are not sent to the
manager.
SNMP Management 4-21
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a trap
synchronization
group
trap-sync-group <group-id>
Binding Managers to a Trap Synchronization Group
In order to activate trap synchronization on a manager, it must be member of a
trap synchronization group.
This section explains how to associate managers with trap synchronization
groups.
Note
• A manager can be associated with one trap synchronization group only.
• A trap synchronization group is created once the first manager is added and
deleted once the last manager is removed from it.
• Managers being added to an existing trap synchronization group require
identical parameters such as the same target parameter set, tag list etc.
³
To configure a trap mask for SNMPv1:
•
At the config>mngmnt>manager<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> prompt, enter
parameters as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying traps to be part of the
trap mask in the trap syny group.
trap-mask {all|list-of-trap-names}
•
all. All traps are included.
•
list-of-trap-names. Traps
that are listed on the list of
trap names are included.
Removing trap masks.
no trap-mask {all|list-of-trap-names}
³
To configure a trap sync group for SNMPv3:
1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter target <name>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>target(<name>)# prompt appears.
2. At the config>mngmnt>snmp>target(<name>)# prompt, enter parameters as
explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Adding a trap synchronization
goup
trap-sync-group <group-id>
Enables trap synchronization
for the specified target.
Removing a trap synchronization
goup
no trap-sync-group <group-id>
Disables trap synchronization
for the specified target.
³
To configure a trap mask for SNMPv3:
1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter target <name>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>target(<name>)# prompt appears.
4-22
SNMP Management
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
2. At the config>mngmnt> snmp>target(<name>)# prompt, enter parameters as
illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Linking the target to a tag list.
tag-list <list>
Remove the link to the tag list
no tag-list
Comments
Viewing the Current Trap Synchronization Settings
³
To view the previously defined trap synchronization groups:
•
At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter show trap-sync-group.
The previously configure trap sync groups appear listed as illustrated
below.
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp# show trap-sync
Group ID
Member
----------------------------------------------------------------------------1
test1
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp#
Configuring SNMP Communities for SNMPv1
This section instructs you on setting up read-, write-, and trap communities for
SNMPv1.
³
To set up communities:
•
Make sure that SNMPv3 is disabled and at the
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, define the desired community as
illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a read community
community read <name>
Assign a name consisting of up to 20
alphanumerical characters.
Defining a write community
community write <name>
Assign a name consisting of up to 20
alphanumerical characters.
Defining a trap community
community trap <name>
Assign a name consisting of up to 20
alphanumerical characters.
Note
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
The names you assign to the communities are case sensitive.
SNMP Management 4-23
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Adding SNMPv3 Notification Entries
You can define which types of notification will be sent to previously configured
target management stations as explained under Configuring Targets.
³
To define and enable a notification entry:
1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter notify <notify_name>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>notify(<notify_name>)# prompt appears.
2. Configure the notification entries as illustrated and explained in the table
below.
Task
Command
Assigning a single tag
value to the notification
used to identify the
notification entry when
configuring the target
tag <name>
Associating traps with the
notification entry
bind {agnPowerFailureTrap|agnStatusChangeTrap|
agnUploadDataTrap|atmAceAlarmLineAIS|atmAceAlarmLi
neBIP|atmAceAlarmLineFEBE|atmAceAlarmLineRDI|atmAc
eAlarmLOF|atmAceAlarmLCD|atmAceAlarmSLM|atmAceAl
armLOP|atmAceAlarmLOS|atmAceAlarmPathAIS|atmAceAl
armPathBIP|atmAceAlarmPathFEBE|atmAceAlarmPathRDI|
atmAceAlarmSectionBIP|atmAceAlarmVcAISReception|at
mAceAlarmVcContinuityLoss|atmAceAlarmVcLoopback|at
mAceAlarmVcRDIReception|atmAceAlarmVpAISReception|
atmAceAlarmVpContinuityLoss|atmAceAlarmVpLoopback|
atmAceAlarmVpRDIReception|atmAceModuleChangeTrap|
atmImaGroupStatusChangeTrap|tftpStatusChangeTrap|pr
tStatusChangeTrap|agnFanFailureTrap|agnStationClkFailu
reTrap|atmAceModuleMismatchTrap|sysRedundancyStat
usTrap|sysRedundancyActiveCardTrap|sonetAlarmLOS|so
netAlarmLOF|sonetAlarmOOF|sonetAlarmLineAIS|sonetAl
armLineEED|sonetAlarmLineRDI|sonetAlarmLineSD|sonet
AlarmPathLOP|sonetAlarmPathAIS|sonetAlarmPathEED|so
netAlarmPathSLM|sonetAlarmPathLOMF|sonetAlarmPath
RDI|sonetAlarmPathSD|sonetAlarmVtLOP|sonetAlarmVtAI
S|sonetAlarmVtEED|sonetAlarmVtSLM|sonetAlarmVtRDI|s
onetAlarmVtSD|authenticationFailure|coldStart|linkDown|
linkUp|mplsLdpSessionUp|mplsLdpSessionDown|apsActiv
eChannelTrap|sysRedundancyActivePortTrap|licenseUpda
teTrap|agnClkSrcStateChangeTrap|agnSelfTestResultCha
ngeTrap|agnClkSrcFrequencyAlarmTrap|csmDomainState
Change|csmSourceStatusChange|pwDown|pwUp|bfdSess
Up|bfdSessDown|adslAturRateChangeTrap|dot3OamOper
StatusChange|dot3OamPeerEvent|hardSyncTrap}
4-24
SNMP Management
Comments
You can associate
one or more traps to
the notification
entry.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Activating the notification
entry
no shutdown
De-activating the
notification entry
shutdown
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
Comments
To disable notification:
•
At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter no notify <notify_name>.
The notification is disabled.
Configuring a Notification Filter
You can customize a notification filter view as explained below.
³
To set up a notification filter:
1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, define a notification filter and assign
a name and an object ID (sub-tree-oid) to it by entering
notify-filter <name> <sub-tree-oid>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>notify-filter(<name>/<sub-tree-oid>) prompt
appears.
ƒ
name. Refers to the name of the notify filter.
ƒ
sub-tree-oid. Refers to the MIB subtree, which defines a family of
subtrees included in or excluded from the filter profile, if combined with
the corresponding instance of snmpNotifyFilterMask.
2. Configure the notification filter as illustrated and explained in the table
below.
Task
Command
Activating the notification filter
no shutdown
De-activating the notification filter
shutdown
Defining if the notification filter includes
or excludes specific notifications.
type {included|excluded}
Masking the notification filter
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Comments
•
included. The subtrees defined by
sub-tree-oid are included in the
notification profile.
•
excluded. The listed subtrees by
sub-tree-oid excluded from the
notification profile.
mask
SNMP Management 4-25
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Configuring a Notification Filter Profile
You can customize the notification view as explained below.
³
To define a notification filter profile:
1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter
notify-filter-profile <params-name>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>filter-profile# prompt appears. params-name.
refers to the name of the profile notification parameter set.
2. Configure the notification filter profile as illustrated and explained in the table
below.
Task
Command
Comments
Assigning a name to the notification
profile
profile-name <name>
Refers to the name of the profile
itself
Enabling the notification filter profile
no shutdown
Disabling the notification filter profile
shutdown
Linking User (Access) Groups to an Access Control Policy
³
To create a user group linked to a specific access control policy:
1. At the config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter security-to-group
<any|snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm> sec-name <security name>.
The config>mngmnt>snmp>security-togroup(<any|snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm>/<security name>)# prompt appears.
2. Enter group-name <group name>.
The current user is linked to the group.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for another user with the same security-to-group
setting.
A user group consisting of two users linked to the same security model
has been created.
³
To disable a user group:
•
At the
config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(<any|snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm>/
<security name>)# prompt, enter shutdown.
The user group is disabled.
³
To enable a user group again:
•
At the
config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(<any|snmpv1|snmpv2c|usm>/
<security name>)# prompt, enter no shutdown.
The user group is enabled.
4-26
SNMP Management
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Configuring OpenView Severity
This section instructs you on attaching the OpenView severity to the alarm traps.
³
To attach OpenView severity to the alarm traps:
•
At the ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter ov-severity-in-traps.
The OpenView severity will be attached to the alarm traps.
³
To detach OpenView severity from the alarm traps:
•
At the ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp# prompt, enter
no ov-severity-in-traps.
The OpenView severity will be not be attached to the alarm traps.
Example
This example illustrates how to define an access control policy for two users and
link these two users to a user group.
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp# security-to-group any sec-name test
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(any/test)# group-name group
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(any/test)# exit
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp# security-to-group any sec-name test1
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(any/test1)$ group-name group
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>snmp>security-to-group(any/test1)$ no shutdown
4.4
Authentication via RADIUS Server
RADIUS stands for Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service and represents a
networking protocol that provides remote (centralized) authentication and
authorization for devices connected to the respective network.
Standards
RFC 2865, Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS).
RFC 2618, RADIUS Authentication Client MIB.
Benefits
The RADIUS protocol allows centralized authentication and access control,
avoiding the need of maintaining a local user data base on each device on the
network.
Because of its generic nature, the RADIUS protocol can easily be used by service
providers and enterprises to manage access to the Internet, internal networks,
wireless networks, and integrated e-mail services. These networks may
incorporate DSL, access points, VPNs, network ports etc.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Authentication via RADIUS Server 4-27
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Functional Description
A work station attempts to log on to an ACE unit, which in turn submits an
authentication request to the RADIUS server.
The password is not transmitted over the network. A hash code is generated over
it instead and a previously defined shared secret (string of free text) between
RADIUS server and ACE unit is transmitted.
Figure 4-6. RADIUS Server Operation Scheme
The RADIUS server verifies the user information against a database stored at the
RADIUS server. The RADIUS server replies in one of the following ways:
•
Access Rejected. Access to all resources denied.
•
Access Accepted. Access to the requested network resources granted.
Factory Defaults
Description
Default Value
The max number of authentication attempts.
2
Time interval between two authentication attempts.
2 seconds
UDP port used for the authentication channel
1812
Configuring the RADIUS Server
ACE-3200 provides connectivity to up to four Radius authentication servers. You
have to specify access parameters such as assigning Radius server IDs, specifying
the associated server IP addresses and the number of retries.
This section explains how to define and configure a RADIUS server, activate and
de-activate it.
³
To define a Radius server:
1. At the config>mngmnt# prompt, enter radius.
The config>mngmnt>radius# prompt appears.
2. Enter server <1..4>.
The config>mngmnt>radius>server <1..4># prompt appears.
3. Define the parameters for the relevant Radius server as illustrated and
explained in the table below.
4-28
Authentication via RADIUS Server
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Assigning an IP address to the server
address <1.1.1.1..255.255.255.255>
Defining a non-disclosed string (shared
secret) used to encrypt the user password.
key <string of free text>
Changing the number of authentication
request attempts
retry <0..10>
Changing the time interval between two
authentication attempts (in seconds).
timeout <1..5>
Changing the UDP port used for the
authentication channel
auth-port <1.. 65535>
Viewing the RADIUS Server Profile’s Status
This section explains how to display the status of the RADIUS servers.
³
To display the RADIUS server profile’s status:
•
At the config>mngmnt>radius# prompt, enter show status.
The status of the four RADIUS server entries appears regardless if they
are configured and enabled or not.
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>radius# show status
Server
IP Address
Access
Status
----------------------------------------------------------------------------1.
172.17.143.3
Enable
Connected
2.
0.0.0.0
Disable
Not connected
3.
0.0.0.0
Disable
Not connected
4.
0.0.0.0
Disable
Not connected
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>radius#
Viewing RADIUS Statistics
This section explains how to display RADIUS sever statistics.
³
To display RADIUS statistics:
•
At the config>mngmnt>radius# prompt, enter show statistics.
RADIUS statistics appear as illustrated below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Authentication via RADIUS Server 4-29
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>mngmnt>radius# show statistics
Server1
Server2
Server3
Server4
--------------------------------------------------------------Access Requests
: 0
0
0
0
Access Retransmits
: 0
0
0
0
Access Accepts
: 0
0
0
0
Access Rejects
: 0
0
0
0
Access Challenges
: 0
0
0
0
Malformed Response
: 0
0
0
0
Bad Authenticators
: 0
0
0
0
Pending Requests
: 0
0
0
0
Timeouts
: 0
0
0
0
Unknown Types
: 0
0
0
0
Packets Dropped
: 0
0
0
0
4.5
Out-Of-Band Ethernet Control
ACE-3200 can be managed via an independent LAN connection that does not
interconnect with the PW connectivity network.
What is the Out-Of-Band Ethernet Port?
The out-of-band Ethernet port is an Ethernet port dedicated to management
traffic.
Benefits
Configuring a dedicate management port eliminates the possibility that
management traffic reduces bandwidth and/or causes interruptions in the traffic
flow caused by the management.
Configuring the Out-Of-Band Management Port
Follow the instructions under Ethernet Port.
4.6
Ethernet Ports
Depending on the hardware profile, ACE units are equipped with two or four Fast
Ethernet electrical (RJ-45) or fiber optic ports. Ethernet ports are used for
Ethernet pseudowire connectivity, bridge configurations and inband management
access.
Ethernet ports may also be used for out of band management in applications that
do not utilize an Ethernet uplink.
4-30
Ethernet Ports
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
The fiber optic ports utilize hot swappable Ethernet-compliant SFPs, which are
identical in structure to the STM1/OC-3c SFPs.
Note
When configuring a flow over an Ethernet port, you cannot configure the
respective port to be the uplink port of a PW or bridge port.
Configuring an Ethernet Port
These instructions apply to all Ethernet ports on the unit. Parameters you set
depend on their purpose (inband, out-of-band) and their respective spec (SFP, RJ45 etc.)
³
To configure the Ethernet control port:
1. At the config>port# prompt, enter Ethernet 1 for the Ethernet port labeled
ETH-1.
The config>port>eth (1)# prompt appears.
2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.
Task
Command
Administratively enabling the port
no shutdown
Enabling the auto negotiation
mode
auto-negotiation
Disabling auto negotiation
no auto-negotiation
Canceling the bandwidth limit
no output-rate-limit
Enabling Ethernet OAM EFM
efm {<OAM EFM descriptor ID>}
Enabling the transmission of
synchronization status messages
tx-ssm
Disabling the transmission of
synchronization status messages
no tx-ssm
Note
Comments
Can only be set if the port is
enabled.
Enter the descriptor ID of the
OAM EFM descriptor you
added as explained under
Configuring Ethernet OAM.
To configure IP addresses for remote addresses, you have to set up a router
interface and bind the desired Ethernet pot to it as explained under Router.
Example
The following section explains how to configure the Fast Ethernet port labeled 1
on the front panel, and one of the Gigabit Ethernet combo ports.
This Ethernet ports are administratively enabled by default.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Ethernet Ports 4-31
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To configure the Ethernet port at 100 Mbps with auto negotiation enabled:
•
Enable auto negotiation.
•
Set the max capability to 100 Mbps Full Duplex.
ACE-3200>config>port>eth (1)# auto-negotiation
ACE-3200>config>port>eth (1)# max-capability 100-full-duplex
³
To configure the Ethernet port at 100 Mbps with auto negotiation disabled:
•
Disable auto-negotiation.
•
Set the Ethernet port’s default rate to 100 Mbps and the duplex mode to Full
Duplex.
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)# no auto-negotiation
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)# speed-duplex 100-full-duplex
Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Status
Follow the instructions below for viewing the management port’s status as an
example.
³
To view the management port status;
•
At the config>port>eth(1)# prompt, enter show status.
The status information appears as explained and illustrated below.
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)# show status
Administrative Status
Operational Status
Connector Type
Speed And Duplex (RJ-45)
MAC Address
:
:
:
:
:
Up
Up
RJ45
100 Full Duplex
00-20-D2-AA-BB-04
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)#
Viewing an Ethernet Port’s Statistics
You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition,
you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display.
³
To view the current statistics:
•
At the config>port>eth(1)# prompt, enter show statistics current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.
Parameter
Comments
Time Elapsed
The time (in seconds) since the port was enabled
Interval Number
In case of show-statistics <1..24>. Displays the results for the time interval
you chose. You can select interval 1 till 24.
In case of show-statistics interval-all or show-statistics all. Displays the
4-32
Ethernet Ports
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Parameter
Chapter 4 Configuration
Comments
results all intervals. The system displays the results for one interval at the
time. For the next interval, press <M>.
Start Date
The date you start recording statistics for a specific interval or all of them.
Start Time
The time you start recording the statistics for a specific interval or all of them.
Valid Intervals
Intervals that account for the statistics displayed
Total Frames
The total number of frames sent or received
Total Bytes
The total number of bytes sent or received
FCS Errors
The number of frames that failed the FCS test
Alignment Errors
The number of frames without an integral numbers octet
Congestion Drop
The number of frames dropped due to incompatibility with one of the defined
classification flows related to the port. This counter is relevant if the port is
connected to flows
Unclassified Drop
The number of frames dropped to other reasons than congestion
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)# show statistics current
Current
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (sec) 205
Valid Intervals
24
Total Frames
Total Bytes
Rx
96
8100
Tx
20608
2263868
FCS Errors
Alignment Errors
Length Errors
Congestion Drop
Unclassified Drop
0
0
0
0
0
---0
--
ACE-3200>config>port>eth(1)#
³
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>port>eth(1)# prompt, enter show statistics <interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Ethernet Ports 4-33
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>port>eth (1)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the Ethernet prompt
appears again.
³
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>port>eth (1)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>eth
(1)# prompt appears again.
4.7
Bridge
ACE-3200 supports LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM bridges.
What is a LAN-to-LAN Bridge
A LAN-to-LAN bridge is a data link layer protocol that connects network segments
on Layer 2 (according to the OSI model) and is used as a forwarding technique in
packet-switched computer networks besides routing.
The difference to routing, which is also a forwarding technique, is that no
assumptions are made about the location of a device associated with a specific
address. Bridging locates unknown devices by flooding and examining source MAC
addresses in received packet headers. Once located, the relevant device’s
location is recorded in a table where the MAC address is stored. The figure below
illustrates how ACE units provide LAN-to-LAN bridging between LAN networks.
4-34
Bridge
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Figure 4-7. Layer-2 Interconnection Bridges
What is a LAN-to-ATM Bridge?
A LAN-to-ATM bridge facilitates the transmission of Ethernet traffic over ATM
using the AAL5 layer according to RFC 1483 (multiprotocol encapsulation over
ATM). The Ethernet frames are transferred using LLC/SNAP encapsulation.
Standards
LAN-to-LAN: RFC 1493 and RFC 2674
LAN-to-ATM: RFC 1483.
Benefits
Allows extending the network reach as necessary.
Allows for scaling the total traffic without introducing severe congestion
problems.
Functional Description
ACE-3200 supports LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM bridging to allow backhauling of
Ethernet traffic originating from the cellular site/Node B. Accordingly, the bridge
port can consist of Fast Ethernet, a Gigabit Ethernet, VC over E1/T1, VC over ATM155, VC over IMA Group, ADSL2+ or SHDSL ports as available with your respective
hardware configuration and unit.
The bridge functionality includes support for a VLAN aware bridge in IVL mode,
configurable VLAN tag ingress stacking, VLAN tag egress stripping, learned MAC
addresses (up to 512), configurable aging time, and mapping of the VLAN priority
versus four Ethernet transmit queues.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Bridge 4-35
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
LAN-to-LAN and LAN-to-ATM Bridging
Bridges consist of two main processes and operate according to IEEE802.1d. The
two main processes are outlined below.
•
Forwarding Process. Forwards received VLAN tagged frames based on
information contained in the MAC table data base.
•
Learning Process. Observes the source addresses and the VLAN ID of frames
received on every port and updates the MAC table accordingly.
LAN-to-ATM Bridging
ACE-3200 supports the transfer of Ethernet traffic over ATM networks using the
AAL5 layer. The Ethernet frames are transferred using LLC/SNAP encapsulation.
Figure 4-8 illustrates the structure of the AAL5 CPCS PDU payload field used to
carry Ethernet frames using the LLC/SNAP encapsulation method.
AAL5 CPCS-PDU (with LLC-SNAP Field) Payload
DSAP SSAP Control
OUI
(AA) (AA)
(03) 00-80-C2
(1B)
(1B)
LLC
Header
(1B)
(3B)
PID
(2B)
Padding
(00 as
required)
Destination
MAC Address
(6B)
SNAP
Header
Remainder of
MAC Frame
LAN
FCS
(4B)
Only when CRC
use is enabled
Figure 4-8. Structure of Payload Field of AAL5 CPCS PDU Frame
The payload field includes the original LLC and SNAP headers. The PID field in the
SNAP header can assume two values:
•
0001 (hexa) to indicate the bridged IEEE 802.3 protocol, with end-to-end
transmission of the FCS field of the Ethernet frame.
•
0007 (hexa) to indicate the bridged IEEE 802.3 protocol, without end-to-end
transmission of the FCS field.
ACE-3200 supports both FCS transmission options, the selection being made by
the user.
After the SNAP header, the AAL5 CPCS PDU includes optional padding bytes (0
through 47, as required to ensure that the length of the payload field is an
integer multiple of 48 bytes (the ATM cell payload length), the destination MAC
address and then the other parts of the MAC frame. When the PID is 0001, the
AAL5 CPCS PDU also includes the 4 bytes of the LAN frame FCS field.
MAC Table Handling in Bridge Mode
Bridges support learned MAC addresses. Since VLAN-aware bridges operate in IVL
mode, the MAC table consists of MAC addresses + VIDs. The maximum number of
MAC addresses kept in the MAC table is 512.
4-36
Bridge
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
ACE-3200 allows configuring the maximal number of learned MAC addresses per
bridge port. New MAC addresses received by the bridge are transferred to the
host through a dedicated learning queue. The host samples this queue and
configures the bridge accordingly.
Unused learned MAC addresses are deleted from the MAC table in the MAC aging
process. A MAC address is regarded unused if no frames from that address were
received for a specified period of time. This time is the ‘aging time’ configurable
parameter.
Factory Defaults
Description
Default Value
Specifying the period in seconds for
entries to age in the MAC table
300
Specifying a bridge port
1
Configuring a Bridge
ACE-3200 currently supports one bridge. This section explains how to configure
it.
Note
• An Ethernet port cannot be configured as an uplink port of a bridge if a flow is
already configured over the respective Ethernet port.
• The priority of traffic that passes the bridge is configured using the Queue
Map Profile function as explained under Configuring a Queue Map Profile.
³
To define and configure a bridge:
1. At the config# prompt, enter bridge 1.
The new bridge is defined and the config>bridge(1)# prompt appears.
2. Configure the bridge as illustrated and explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the period in seconds
for entries to age in the MAC
table
aging-time <300..1000>
If no frame is received from a
specific MAC address, the address
is deleted from the MAC table onc
the specified period expires.
Deleting all learned MAC
addresses from the MAC table
clear-mac-table
Specifying a bridge port
port <1..39>
³
To define and configure a port for the bridge:
1. At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter port <1..39>.
The config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt appears.
2. Configure the new bridge port and bind it to the bridge as illustrated and
explained in the table below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Bridge 4-37
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Binding a physical or logical port
to the bridge port.
bind [{host|ethernet <
port>|logical-mac <port-number>}]
[<1..39>]
For instructions on configuring a
Logical MAC port, refer to
Configuring an ATM Uplink.
Setting the bridge port to discard
incoming frames whose VID is not
included in the member set.
ingress-filtering
•
The VLAN membership of the
port is set using the vlan
command.
•
Not relevant for the host
bridge port
•
all. All frames will be accepted.
•
vlan-only. Untagged received
frames are discarded
•
Not relevant for the host
bridge port.
•
pvid. VLAN ID
•
priority. The priority that the
frame will receive by default.
Setting the bridge port to ignore
the VID of the incoming frames.
no ingress-filtering
Setting the bridge port to accept
all frames or VLAN-tagged frames
only.
accept-frame-type {all|vlan-only}
Assigning a VLAN ID and defining
the priority to untagged frames
received on a VLAN Aware bridge,
or for use for stacking on tagged
frames.
pvid <0..4094> priority <0..7>
Stripping the higher layer
(external) VLAN tag before the
frame exits the bridge port.
egress-tag pop vlan
Leaving the VLAN tag in egress
direction as is.
no egress-tag
Adding an extra VLAN tag to the
frame and specifying the priority
ingress-tag push vlan p-bit
{fixed|copy}
Leaving the VLAN tag in ingress
direction as is
no ingress-tag
Specifying the max number of
MAC addresses that are kept for
the bridge port in the MAC table
maximum-mac-addresses
<0..512>
Administratively enabling the
bridge port
no shutdown
Administratively disabling the
bridge port
shutdown
4-38
Bridge
Not relevant for the host bridge
port.
•
copy. Copying the priority tag
associated with the original
VLAN tag of the frame.
•
fixed. Using the priority tag of
the pvid configured on the
port.
•
Not relevant for the host
bridge port
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To remove a port from the bridge:
•
At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter no port <1..39>.
The port is removed from the bridge.
Viewing Bridge Port Statistics
You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition,
you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display.
³
To view the current statistics:
•
At the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt, enter show statistics
current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.
Parameter
Comments
Time Elapsed
The time (in seconds) since the port was enabled
Interval Number
In case of show-statistics <1..24>. Displays the results for the time interval
you chose. You can select interval 1 till 24.
In case of show-statistics all-intervals or show-statistics all. Displays the
results all intervals. The system displays the results for one interval at the
time. For the next interval, press <M>.
Start Date
The date you start recording statistics for a specific interval or all of them.
Start Time
The time you start recording the statistics for a specific interval or all of them.
Valid Intervals
Intervals that account for the statistics displayed
Rx Correct Frames
Correct frames received
Tx Correct Frames
Correct frames transmitted
Rx Broadcast Frames
Broadcast frames received
Tx Broadcast Frames
Broadcast frames transmitted
Rx Multicast Frames
Multicast frames received
Tx Multicast Frames
Multicast frames transmitted
Tx Drop Frames
Dropped frames
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Bridge 4-39
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>bridge(1)>port(1)# show statistics current
Current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Elapsed Time
: 420
Rx
Correct Frames
Broadcast Frames
Multicast Frames
Drop Frames
: 0
: 0
: 0
:
Tx
0
0
0
0
ACE-3200>config>bridge(1)>port(1)#
³
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt, enter show statistics
<interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
³
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt, enter show statistics allintervals.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the
config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt appears again.
³
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the
config>bridge(1)>port(<1..39>)# prompt appears again.
Associating a Bridge Port with a VLAN
To associate a bridge port, you navigate to the desired bridge, navigate to the
desired VLAN and then list the relevant bridge port as egress port.
³
To associate the current bridge port with a VLAN:
1. At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter VLAN <1..4059>.
The config>bridge(1)>VLAN(<1..4095>)# prompt appears.
2. To associate a bridge port of the selected bridge with the selected VLAN,
enter tagged-egress <1..39>.
4-40
Bridge
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
To remove the current bridge port from a VLAN:
•
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
At the config>bridge(1)>VLAN(<1..4095>)# prompt, enter
no tagged-egress <1..39>.
To view a list of VLANs associated with the current bridge port:
•
At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter show vlans.
The associated VLANs appear listed.
ACE-3200>config>bridge(1)# show vlans
Vlan ID : 1
Tagged Ports : 1,3
ACE-3200>config>bridge(1)#
³
To view a list of MAC addresses associated with ports bound to the bridge:
•
At the config>bridge(1)# prompt, enter show mac-address-table.
A list of MAC addresses associated with ports and VLANs appears.
ACE-3200>config>bridge(1)# show mac-address-table
Total MAC Addresses
: 0
Dynamic MAC Addresses : 0
Static Mac Addresses : 0
VLAN ID
MAC Address
Port
Status
----------------------------------------------------------------------------ACE-3220>config>bridge(1)#
4.8
Quality of Service for Bridges
Quality of Service (QoS) is a resource reservation control mechanism and allows
providing different priorities to different applications, users, or data flows. It lets
you guarantee a certain level of performance for a specific data flow.
Standards
IEEE 802.1p
Benefits
QoS allows you to optimize bandwidth and ensure traffic flow while avoiding the
need of allocating excessive bandwidth to facilitate the necessary bandwidth for
traffic at different requirements for speed and quality.
Functional Description
To differentiate traffic, the IEEE 802.1p standard specifies eight classes of service
per queue map profile you define. These classes of service are associated with
priority values between 0 and 7, using the 3-bit user priority field in an IEEE
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Quality of Service for Bridges 4-41
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
802.1Q header added to VLAN-tagged frames within an Ethernet frame header.
The way traffic is treated when assigned to a specific priority value is only
generally defined and left to implementation. The general definitions are as
follows:
Table 4-5. User Priorities
User Priority
Traffic Type
0
Best effort
1
Background
2
Spare
3
Excellent effort
4
Controlled load
5
Video
6
Voice
7
Network control
Factory Defaults
All 7 priority levels are mapped to priority queue 3 as illustrated below:
ACE-3200>config>qos>queue-map-profile(test)# info
map 0 to-queue 3
map 1 to-queue 3
map 2 to-queue 3
map 3 to-queue 3
map 4 to-queue 3
map 5 to-queue 3
map 6 to-queue 3
map 7 to-queue 3
ACE-3200>config>qos>queue-map-profile(test)#
Configuring a Queue Map Profile
A queue map profile is configured on the configuration level and is associated
only with the bridge traffic. It defines the mapping of the VLAN priority to the
transmit queue. This section explains how to define a queue map profile and map
to it.
For information on ATM Quality of Service, refer to ATM Traffic Descriptor.
³
To define a queue map profile and assign a name to it:
•
At the config>qos# prompt, enter queue-map-profile [name], for example
enter queue-map-profile test.
The config>qos>queue-map-profile(test)# prompt appears according to
the example.
4-42
Quality of Service for Bridges
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Note
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
You can create one queue map profile only.
To map a priority (class value) to a queue:
•
At the config>qos>queue-map-profile(test)# prompt, enter
map <0..7> to-queue <queue-id>.
The priority value is attached to a queue and associated with the queue
map profile you created. The queue ID can be values between 0 and 3.
4.9
The Service Virtual Interface
The service virtual interface is a logical port that terminates ingress flows and
starts egress flows in order to facilitate Ethernet pseudowires. For additional
information, refer to Flows.
Configuring the Service Virtual Interface
You can enable and operate a service virtual interface as explained below.
³
To define an SVI port:
•
At the config>port# prompt, enter svi <1..16>.
The config>port>svi(<1..16>)# prompt appears and the relevant SVI port
is defined.
³
To administratively enable an SVI port:
•
At the config>port>svi(<1..16>)# prompt, enter no shutdown.
The SVI port is administratively enabled.
³
To administratively disable an SVI port:
•
At the config>port>svi(<1..16>)# prompt, enter shutdown.
The SVI port is administratively disabled.
4.10 Flows
Flows are used to define classified stream of packets received on Ethernet ports
and can be used to facilitate attachment circuits (AC) over a specified Ethernet
port, which in turn are required for configuring Ethernet pseudowires.
In case of Ethernet to ATM, packets related to a flow are transmitted to predefined ATM VCs.
Flows are uni-directional. To support bi-directional traffic, you have to create two
flows, an ingress flow (user -> network) and an egress flow (network -> user).
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Flows 4-43
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Standards
IEEE 802.3x
Functional Description
Packets can be identified and classified by means of their VLAN IDs, their
destination IP addresses, their class of service (CoS) or their ingress or egress
interfaces.
Ingress user traffic is mapped to Ethernet flows using the per-port classification
criteria listed below and explained in the sections below. In the classifications,
the term VLAN refers to the service provider VLAN as outer VLAN while the
customer entity VLAN is referred to as inner VLAN.
•
VLAN ID
•
VLAN ID + P-Bits
•
DST IP
•
DST IP + IP-Precedence (values are 0-7)
•
DST IP + DSCP (DSCP values are 0-63)
ACE-3200 supports up to 32 flows. An ingress flow is defined by the following
objects:
•
Ingress port. User interface (Ethernet port number)
•
Classifier. Group of classification rules that distinguish user traffic from flows
•
Marking. To change the user VLAN and priority bit within the original frame
•
Vlan Tag. Adding or removing a VLAN and priority bit from the original frame
•
Egress port. Service Virtual Interface (SVI). Information on the SVI is available
under The Service Virtual Interface.
The objects for the egress flow are listed under Egress Flows. Classification types
are relevant to ingress flows.
4-44
Flows
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
VLAN ID
Every VLAN is mapped to an ingress flow as illustrated below.
Ingress (User) Port
Egress (Network Port)
(Ethernet port)
(SVI)
Flow 1
VLAN ID 1
Flow 2
VLAN ID 2
Flow 3
VLAN ID 3
Classifier
SVI 1
SVI 2
Pseudowire 1
Pseudowire 2
SVI 3
PSN
Pseudowire 3
Cross Connect
(distinguishes user traffic from flows)
Ingress Flow
(User
Network)
Figure 4-9. Ingress Flows Mapped to VLANs
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Flows 4-45
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
VLAN ID + P-Bits
VLANs associated with a priority bit (p-bit) are mapped to an ingress flow as
illustrated below.
Ingress (User) Port
Egress (Network Port)
(Ethernet port)
(SVI)
VLAN ID 1 +
pbit <1..7>
Flow 1
VLAN ID 2 +
pbit <1..7>
Flow 2
VLAN ID 3 +
pbit <1..7>
Flow 3
Classifier
SVI 1
SVI 2
Pseudowire 1
Pseudowire 2
SVI 3
PSN
Pseudowire 3
Cross Connect
(distinguishes user traffic from flows)
Ingress Flow
(User
Network)
Figure 4-10. Ingress Flows Mapped to VLAN and p-bits
4-46
Flows
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Destination IP
The destination IP address may be associated with a specific device or a
broadcast/multicast address, depending on the intended service.
The destination device’s IP address (DST IP) is mapped to an ingress flow as
illustrated below.
Ingress (User) Port
Egress (Network Port)
(Ethernet port)
(SVI)
Flow 1
DST IP 1
Flow 2
DST IP 2
Flow 3
DST IP 3
SVI 1
Pseudowire 1
SVI 2
DST IP 1
Pseudowire 2
SVI 3
Pseudowire 3
DST IP 2
DST IP 3
PSN
Classifier
Cross Connect
(distinguishes user traffic from flows)
Ingress Flow
(User
Network)
Figure 4-11. Ingress Flows Mapped to the Destination IP Address
Destination IP and IP Precedence
The destination IP address (DST IP) can be associated with an IP Precedence bit
to define a specific priority, which is usually associated with a specific service.
The IP Precedence bits are the first three bits in the ToS byte as illustrated and
explained below.
Figure 4-12. ToS Byte
•
P2, P1, P0: IP Precedence bits
•
T2, T1, T0: Delay, throughput and reliability bits
•
CU1, CU0: Currently unused bits.
This concept has been replaced by DSCP, but is still being used by legacy system.
The destination IP address may be associated with a specific device or a
broadcast/multicast address, depending on the intended service.
The destination device’s IP address (DST IP) associated with a Precedence bit is
mapped to an ingress flow as illustrated below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Flows 4-47
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Ingress (User) Port
Egress (Network Port)
(Ethernet port)
(SVI)
DST IP 1 + IP
Precedence
<1..7>
Flow 1
DST IP 2 + IP
Precedence
<1..7>
Flow 2
DST IP 3 + IP
Precedence
<1..7>
SVI 1
Pseudowire 1
SVI 2
Flow 3
Pseudowire 2
SVI 3
Pseudowire 3
DST IP 1
DST IP 2
DST IP 3
PSN
Classifier
Cross Connect
(distinguishes user traffic from flows)
Ingress Flow
(User
Network)
Figure 4-13. Ingress Flows Mapped to the Destination IP associated with the precedence bits
Destination IP and DSCP
The destination IP address (DST IP) can be associated with DSCP bits to define a
specific priority, which is usually associated with a specific service. DSCP is a 6-bit
field in the IP header as illustrated below.
Figure 4-14. DiffServ Field
•
DS5, DS4, DS3, S2, DS1, DS0: DSCP bits
•
ECN: Two ECN bits
DSCP replaces IP Precedence. The destination IP address may be associated with
a specific device or a broadcast/multicast address, depending on the intended
service.
The destination device’s IP address (DST IP) associated with DSCP bit is mapped
to an ingress flow as illustrated below.
4-48
Flows
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Ingress (User) Port
Egress (Network Port)
(Ethernet port)
(SVI)
DST IP 1 +
DSCP
<0..63>
Flow 1
DST IP 2 +
DSCP
<0..63>
Flow 2
DST IP 3 +
DSCP
<0..63>
Flow 3
SVI 1
SVI 2
Pseudowire 1
Pseudowire 2
SVI 3
Pseudowire 3
DST IP 1
DST IP 2
DST IP 3
PSN
Classifier
Cross Connect
(distinguishes user traffic from flows)
Ingress Flow
(User
Network)
Figure 4-15. Ingress Flows Mapped to VLANs
Egress Flows
An egress flow carries traffic in network Æ user direction. It is defined by the
following objects:
•
Ingress port. The same SVI?logical MAC used as the egress port for the
ingress flow
(user -> network)
•
Classifier. NA
•
Marking. NA
•
Egress port. The Ethernet interface and priority queue on the user side
The following figure illustrates the egress flow:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Flows 4-49
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Ingress (User) Port
Egress (Network Port)
(Ethernet port)
(SVI)
Flow 1
Flow 3
SVI 3
Egress Flow
PSN
Pseudowire 2
SVI 2
Flow 2
(Network
Pseudowire 1
SVI 1
Pseudowire 3
Cross Connect
User )
Figure 4-16. Egress Flows
Configuring Flows
In order to configure Ethernet pseudowires, you have to configure an attachment
circuit (AC) over the relevant Ethernet port, only then they can be bound to a
cross connection (XC). An attachment circuit (AC) over Ethernet will be facilitated
by an ingress flow (user -> network) and an egress flow (network -> user)
configured over the relevant port. For additional information and objects that
define the ingress and egress flows, refer to the previous sections in this
chapter.
The Ethernet pseudowire cross connection (PW XC) is created by mapping the
pseudowire to the SVI. In N:1 mode, multiple flows will terminate at the same SVI
and this SVI will be mapped to a single pseudowire, so that different flows will be
directed to the same pseudowire.
³
To configure a classifier profile:
1. At the config# prompt, enter flows.
The config>flows# prompt appears.
2. Enter classifier-profile <classification-name> match-any.
The config>flows>classifier-profile(<classification-name>)$ prompt
appears. Any classifier profile associated with one of the combinations
below will be mapped to the flow that you define.
3. Specify the match criteria for the classifier profile as specified below. Layer-2
and Layer-3 classifications must not be combined. The combinations listed
below are the only ones allowed.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying a VLAN classifier
profile.
match [vlan <0..4094>]
Packets belonging to the
defined VLAN range will be
mapped to the flow.
4-50
Flows
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying a VLAN + Pbit
classifier profile.
match [vlan <0..4094>] {p-bit <0..7>}
Packets belonging to the
defined VLAN range and the
defined priority bits will be
mapped to the flow.
Specifying a Dest IP classifier
profile.
match [dst-ip
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>] [to-dst-ip
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>]
Packets transmitting to the
defined range of destination
IP addresses will be mapped
to the flow.
Specifying a Dest IP + IP
Precedence classifier profile.
match [ip-precedence <0..7>] [dst-ip
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>] [to-dst-ip
<0.0.0.0.255.255.255.255>]
Packets transmitting to the
defined range of destination
IP addresses and IP
precedence will be mapped
to the flow.
Specifying a Dest IP + DSCP
classifier profile.
match [ip-dscp <0..63>] [dst-ip
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>] [to-dst-ip
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>]
Packets transmitting to the
defined range of destination
IP addresses and IP DSCPs
will be mapped to the flow.
Specifying a classifier profile
that maps all packets to the
flow.
match all
All packets will be mappd to
the flow.
³
To remove a classifier profile:
•
At the config>flows# prompt, enter no classifier-profile <classificationname>.
The relevant classifier profile is removed.
³
To configure a user-network (ingress) flow:
1. At the config>flows# prompt, enter flow <name of the flow>.
The config>flows>flow(<name of the flow>)$ appears and the new flow
has been added.
2. Specify the flow as illustrated and explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Mapping the previously configured
classifier profile to the flow.
classifier <classification name>
Removing the classifier profile
no classifier <classification name>
If you want to map a
different classifier
profile to the flow,
you have to first
remove the current
one.
Enabling marking op tions on the flow
mark all
You have to add the
marking configuration.
Disabling marking options on the flow
no mark all
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Comments
Flows 4-51
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Specifying the VLAN ID that will
replace the first VLAN tag in the user
frame.
mark vlan <0..4094>
Not replacing the first VLAN tag
no mark vlan <0..4094>
Replacing the original VLAN priority
bit (pbit) with a new one or defining
a new one, if no pbit was previously
defined
mark pbit <0..7>
Not replacing the VLAN priority in the
first VLAN tag
no mark pbit <0..7>
Manipulating the outer VLAN.
vlan-tag {push|pop} [{vlan} <sp-vlan> p-bit
{fixed <value>|copy}]
The original VLAN either becomes the
inner VLAN or is removed without
anything being added instead.
Comments
•
push. The original
outer VLAN
becomes the inner
VLAN or adding an
outer VLAN to the
frame. If an other
VLAN already
exists, the original
outer VLAN of the
frame becomes
the inner VLAN
•
pop. The original
outer VLAN is
removed.
•
sp-vlan. The VLAN
•
p-bit. Priority bit
for each VLAN
If adding a new VLAN and the original
outer VLAN becomes the inner VLAN,
a new pbit must be defined, which
can be copied from the original or a
new value.
Removing the VLAN tag
configuration.
no vlan-tag
Specifying the user interface
ingress-port <Ethernet port name> <port
number>
Removing the user interface
no ingress-port <Ethernet port name>
<port number>
Specifying the network interface
(SVI/Logical MAC)
egress-port <SVI port name> <port
number> [queue <queue_id>]
Removing the network interface
(SVI/Logical MAC)
no egress-port <SVI port name> <port
number>
Activating the flow
no shutdown
4-52
Flows
Once activated, a flow
cannot be deactivated.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To configure a network-user (egress) flow:
1. At the config>flows# prompt, enter flow <name of the flow>.
The config>flows>flow(<name of the flow>)$ appears and the new flow
has been added.
2. Specify the flow as illustrated and explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Specifying the network interface
(SVI/Logical MAC)
ingress-port <SVI port name><port
number>
Removing the network interface
(SVI/Logical MAC)
no ingress-port <SVI port name><port
number>
Specifying the user interface
egress-port <Ethernet port name><port
number>
Removing the user interface
no egress-port <Ethernet port
name><port number>
Activating the flow
no shutdown
Comments
The network-user flow
cannot be de-ativated.
Example
This section illustrates creating a classifier profile, an ingress flow and the
corresponding egress flow.
Configuring the Classifier Profile
Use the parameters listed below for a VLAN + Pbit classifier profile.
•
Use my_test as name for the classifier profile.
•
Choose a VLAN range of 1 to 100.
•
Choose the priority bit 3.
ACE-3200>config>flows# classifier-profile my_test match-any
ACE-3200>config>flows>classifier-profile(my_test)$
ACE-3200>config>flows>classifier-profile(my_test)$ match vlan 1..100 pbit 3
Configuring the User-Network Flow
Use the parameters listed below for the user-network flow.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
Name the new flow test_ingress.
•
Use the classifier profile my_test.
•
Attach the marker using the Mark All command.
•
Specify 200 as the VLAN ID to replace the first VLAN tag in the user frame.
•
Use pbit 5 to replace the original pbit in the user frame.
•
Choose to remove the outer VLAN with VLAN 100.
Flows 4-53
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
•
Use the Gigabit Ethernet port ethernet 1 as ingress port if the Gigabit
Ethernet module is installed in slot 1, otherwise use any other Fixed Ethernet
port.
•
Use the previously configured SVI port SVI 1 as egress port.
•
Activate the flow.
ACE-3200>config>flows# flow test_ingress
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_ingress)$
classifier my_test
mark all
mark vlan 200
mark pbit 5
vlan-tag pop 100
ingress-port ethernet 1
egress-port SVI 1
no shutdown
Configuring the Network-User Flow
Use the parameters listed below for the user-network flow.
•
Name the new flow test_egress.
•
Use the previously configured SVI port SVI 1 as ingress port.
•
Use a Fast Ethernet port as egress port. You have to use the same Ethernet
port that was used as ingress port for the user-network flow.
You may choose to configure a priority queue for this Ethernet port.
•
Activate the flow.
ACE-3200>config>flows# flow test_egress
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_egress)$ ingress-port SVI 1
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_egress)$ egress-port ethernet 1 queue 3
ACE-3200>config>flows>flow(test_egress)$ no shutdown
Viewing the Flow Summary
You can view a summary of the flows you just configured.
³
To view the flows summary:
•
At the config>flows# prompt, enter show summary.
The summary of all configured flows appears.
4-54
Flows
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
ACE-3200>config>flows# show summary
Name
Admin Status
Oper Status
Classifier
Ingress Port
:
:
:
:
:
test_ingress
Up
Up
my_test
ethernet-1
Egress port
: SVI 1
Name
Admin Status
Oper Status
Ingress Port
:
:
:
:
test_egress
Up
Up
SVI 1
Egress port
: ethernet-1/1
ACE-3200>config>flows#
4.11 Ethernet OAM
OAM refers to Operation and Management/Maintenance and defines mechanisms
for monitoring and troubleshooting links and connections. This section covers the
monitoring of the Ethernet access links using OAM EFM (OAM at the Ethernet at
the First Mile).
Standards
The Ethernet OAM in use complies with the following standards:
•
Ethernet at the First Mile (EFM) according to the OAM Tutorial (Revision 3,
June 2004)
•
IEEE 802.3ah OAM specification.
•
Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) OAM MIB according to the Internet Draft
(draft-ietf-hubmib-efm-mib-03.txt), March 2005.
Benefits
Ethernet OAM monitors channels and links using the following capabilities:
Functional Description
IEEE 802.3ah specifies the Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) standard that includes
an Operation & Management/Maintenance (OAM) sublayer to the Data Link layer
(Layer 2).
OAM facilitates monitoring, testing, and reporting abilities that enables a link's
QoS to handle voice, video, and data.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Ethernet OAM 4-55
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Figure 4-17. OAM Sublayer on Layer 2
The OAM sublayer (Figure 4-17) enables Ethernet nodes to monitor a link's
service quality between two adjacent network elements such as a DSL modem
and a DSLAM. OAM EFM (802.3ah) is not an end-to-end network protocol,
enabling both copper and fiber network elements to send link information
encapsulated in ‘slow’ frames that pass at a rate of about one frame per second.
Thus, OAM adds little overhead to a link while adding link monitoring, remotefailure indication, and remote-loopback testing capabilities. The EFM OAM
supports the capabilities explained below.
Ethernet OAM Discovery Process
The discovery process allows a local data terminating entity (DTE) to detect
Ethernet OAM capabilities on a remote DTE. Once Ethernet OAM support is
detected, both ends of the link exchange state and configuration information,
such as mode, PDU size, loopback support etc. If both DTEs are satisfied with the
settings, OAM is enabled on the link. However, the loss of a link or a failure to
receive OAMPDUs for five seconds may cause the discovery process to restart.
DTEs may either be in active or passive mode. DTEs in active mode initiate the
ETH-OAM communications and can issue queries and commands to a remote
device. DTEs in passive mode generally wait for the peer device to initiate OAM
communications and respond to commands and queries, but do not start them.
Ethernet OAM with Traffic
The operation of OAM on an Ethernet interface does not adversely affect data
traffic as OAM is a slow protocol with very limited bandwidth potential, and it is
not required for normal link operation. By utilizing the slow protocol MAC
address, OAM frames are intercepted by the MAC sublayer and cannot propagate
across multiple hops in an Ethernet network. This implementation assures that
OAMPDUs only affect the operation of the OAM protocol itself and not user data
traffic.
Timers
Two timers drive this protocol, one, which controls how frequently OAMPDUs
must be sent, and the other one which controls how frequently OAMPDUs must
be received to maintain the adjacency between devices.
OAMPDUs must be sent at least once per second. If there is no other OAMPDU to
be sent within one second, an Information OAMPDU must be sent. Similarly,
OAMPDUs must be received at least once every 5 seconds. When the timer
4-56
Ethernet OAM
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
expires, the local OAM entity assumes that the remote OAM entity is nonoperational and resets its state machine.
The standard ensures that by defining OAM protocol as a slow protocol, where
the OAM client is not allowed to send more than 10 frames per second.
Remote Failure Indication
A flag in the OAMPDU allows an OAM entity to convey failure conditions to its
peer. The supported failure condition is Link Fault. Link Fault refers to the loss of
signal detected by the receiver; A Link Fault report is sent once per second with
the Information OAMPDU.
Factory Defaults
Ethernet OAM is disabled by default.
Configuring Ethernet OAM
This section explains how to configure the OAM for Ethernet at the First Mile. You
will later link this OAM descriptor to the desired port as explained under
Configuring an Ethernet Port.
³
To configure EFM OAM:
1. At the config>oam# prompt, enter efm.
The config>oam>efm# prompt appears.
2. Enter the parameters as explained below.
Task
Command
Enabling and defining an OAM
EFM descriptor
descriptor <ID> {active|passive}
Specifying the rate limit for OAM
EFM frames
descriptor {rate limit <1..10>}
Disabling a specific OAM EFM
descriptor
no descriptor <ID>
Comments
Example
The following section illustrates how to enable and specify an OAM descriptor.
³
To enable and configure the first OAM EFM descriptor in the system:
•
Define an active descriptor and assign the ID# 1 to it.
•
Set the rate limit of descriptor 1 to 5 frames per second.
ACE-3200>config>oam>efm# descriptor 1 active
ACE-3200>config>oam>efm# descriptor 1 rate-limit 5
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Ethernet OAM 4-57
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To disable the first OAM EFM descriptor:
•
Disable the OAM EFM descriptor previously configured.
ACE-3200>config>oam>efm# no descriptor 1
4.12 Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) refers to a network protocol that is
used to detect errors between two devices engines connected by a link. It
provides error detection creating low overhead even on physical media that does
not support any error detection such as Ethernet, virtual circuits, tunnels and
MPLS Label Switched Paths.
Standards
The BFD protocol standardization process is in draft stage at the IETF working
group. Internet drafts define the BFD protocol as follows:
•
draft-ietf-bdf-base-08 covers the BFD session initialization, the negotiation
process, the packet format etc.
•
draft-ietf-bfd-v4v6-1hop-08 covers the use of BFD to track IPv4/IPv6
connectivity between directly connected systems.
Functional Description
BFD establishes a session between two endpoints over a particular link. If more
than one link exists between two systems, multiple BFD sessions may be
established to monitor each one of them. The session is established with a threeway handshake, and will be removed the same way. The session usually passes
the following stages:
4-58
•
Down. The session is down or has just been created. A session remains down
until the remote system sends a BFD packet in Down or Init state. By that, it
indicates that the session is down on the other side as well. If this packet
indicates a Down state, the session advances to the Init state. If the packet
signals an Init state, the session moves to the Up state.
•
Init. The remote system is communicating and the local system requests to
enable the session, but the remote system does not yet realize it. A session
will remain in Init state until either a BFD Control packet is received, indicating
an Init or Up state (in which case the session advances to up state) or until
the detection time expires, which means that communication with the remote
system has been lost. In this case the session moves to the Down state.
•
Up. The BFD session has been successfully established, and implies that
connectivity between the systems is working. The session will remain in the
Up state until either the connectivity fails or the session is administratively
disabled. If either the remote system signals a Down state, or the detection
time expires, the session moves to the Down state.
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
•
Chapter 4 Configuration
AdminDown. The session is administratively disabled, which causes the
remote system to move to the Down state, and remain there until the local
system exits the AdminDown state.
Factory Defaults
The following defaults apply for BFD sessions.
Description
Default Value
The minimum interval (in microseconds) to receive
or transmit bfd-descriptor packets
•
Tx/Rx. 1000000
•
Echo-Rx. 500000
The number of lost packets before the session is
defined down
5
Configuring Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
This section explains how to enable and define a Bidirectional Forwarding
Detection (BFD) descriptor.
³
To enable and specify a BFD descriptor:
1. At the config# prompt, enter oam.
The config>oam# prompt appears.
2. Enter bfd-descriptor <1..32> to enable and define the BFD descriptor.
The config>oam>bfd-descriptor <1..32>$ appears.
3. At the config>oam>bfd-descriptor <1..32>$, define the parameters as
explained and illustrated below.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the minimum interval
(in microseconds) to receive or
transmit bfd-descriptor packets
min-interval [tx <50000..5000000>] [rx
<50000..5000000>] [echo-rx
<0|50000..5000000>]
•
Tx/Rx. Specifies the
interval of transmitted/
received BFD cotrol
packets respectively.
•
Echo-Rx. Specifies the
interval of received echo
packets. To disable echo
packets, enter 0.
Specifying the number of lost
packets before the session is
defined down.
³
detection-multiplier <2..60>
To remove a specific BFD descriptor:
•
At the config>oam# prompt, enter no bfd-descriptor <1..32>.
The relevant BFD descriptor is removed.
Note
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Make sure that the BFD descriptor is not in use when trying to remove it.
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection 4-59
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Example
The following section explains how to configure a Bidirectional Forwarding
Detection
³
To configure the BFD descriptor:
•
Define the first BFD descriptor (with ID# 1).
•
Set the minimum interval to 500000 microseconds for transmitting and
receiving BFD descriptor packets.
•
Disable the echo packets.
•
Allow up to 30 packets to be lost before the session would be declared as
failed.
ACE-3200>config>oam#
ACE-3200>config>bfd-descriptor(1)$
ACE-3200>config>bfd-descriptor(1)$min-interval tx 500000 rx 500000 echo-rx 0
ACE-3200>config>bfd-descriptor(1)$detection-multiplier 30
4.13 E1 Ports
ACE-3200 includes 8 or 16 E1 multiservice ports that can be configured to work
in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high
flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.
What is E1
The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations
(CEPT) standardized the E-Carrier system, which revised the already existing TCarrier system. After being adopted by the International Union
Telecommunication Standardization sector (ITU-T), the E-Carrier system is used in
almost all countries outside the USA, Canada and Japan.
The most commonly used versions are E1 and E3. E1 circuits are very common in
most telephone exchanges and used to connect medium and large companies to
remote exchanges. In many cases, E1 connects exchanges with each other. E1
ports allow you to perform loopback tests as explained Physical Loopback Tests.
Standards and MIBs
The original CEPT standard G.703 specifies several options for the physical
transmission. In practice, mostly the HDB3 format is used.
Benefits
E1 ports serve as multiservice ports that can be configured to work in ATM
UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high
flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.
4-60
E1 Ports
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Functional Description
An E1 link operates over a twisted pair of cables. A nominal 3 Volt peak signal is
encoded with pulses using a method that avoids long periods without polarity
changes. The line data rate is 2.048 Mbps at full duplex, which means 2.048 Mbps
for downstream and 2.048 Mbps for upstream. The E1 signal splits into 32
timeslots each which is being allocated 8 bits. Each timeslot sends and receives
an 8-bit sample 8000 times per second (8 x 8000 x 32 = 2,048,000), which is
ideal for voice telephone calls where the voice is sampled into an 8 bit number at
that data rate and restored at the other end. The timeslots are numbered from 0
to 31.
One timeslot (TS0) is reserved for framing purposes, and alternately transmits a
fixed pattern. This allows the receiver to lock onto the start of each frame and
match up each channel in turn. The standards allow a full cyclic redundancy check
to be performed across all bits transmitted in each frame, to detect if the circuit
is losing bits (information), but this is not always used.
Another timeslot (TS16) is often reserved for signaling purposes to control
setting up and ending a transmission according to one of several standard
telecommunications protocols.
Physical Loopback Tests
ACE-3200 supports two types of user-defined physical loopback operations on
ATM ports:
•
Local loopback – returns the transmitted data at the physical layer to the
receive path. The internal physical loopback includes a configurable timeout
mechanism that ends the loopback operation after expiry of the user-defined
period.
•
Remote loopback – returns the received data at the physical layer to the
transmit path.
PHY
ATM
User Port
ATM
PHY
Network Port
Data path in internal loopback mode
Figure 4-18. Data Path in Local Loopback Mode
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
E1 Ports 4-61
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
PHY
ATM
User Port
ATM
PHY
Network Port
Figure 4-19. Data Path in Remote Loopback Mode
The physical loopback includes a configurable timeout mechanism to terminate
the loopback operation upon expiry of the assigned period. In addition, the
loopback test can be disabled before the configured timeout.
Factory Defaults
ACE-3200 ships with all E1 ports enabled.
Description
Default Value
The byte pattern of data received/transmitted in the
E1 idle timeslots (idle code).
7E
The E1 line type that implements this circuit.
732n-crc
The type of circuit affects the number of bits per
second that the circuit can reasonably carry, as well
as the usage interpretation and the error statistics.
The attenuation level of the received signal,
compensated for by the interface receive path
Short-haul
Configuring an E1 Port
³
To configure an E1 port:
1. At the config>port# prompt, enter e1 <1–8/16> for the E1 port labeled 1–
8/16 respectively.
The config>port>e1(<1–8/16>) prompt appears.
2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.
Task
Command
Administratively enabling the port
no shutdown
Specifying the byte pattern of
data received/transmitted in the
E1 idle timeslots (idle code).
idle-code {<0x00..0xFF>}
Transmitting an out of service
signal for all services
out-of-service-all
4-62
E1 Ports
Comments
Will be generated towards
the TDM port in case of
failure.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Controlling the propagation and
specifying the conditions of alarm
indications
trail-mode {terminated|extended}
•
terminated. TDM channel
defects are translated to
trunk conditions on the
specific bundle of the
TDM port. The trunk
condition pattern is
associated with the value
specified under
out-of-service-all.
•
extended. TDM channel
defects are
extended\regenerated as
TDM defect (AIS\RAI) on
the entire TDM port. This
setting is suitable only for
cases where a
pseudowire is connected
to the TDM interface.
•
The CES mode can be
either over PSN or ATM.
•
The mode cannot be
changed while IMA groups
or VP/VC XC or a CES
connection are
configured.
•
unframed. E1 line type
set to Unframed
Specifying the mode in which the
E1 interface operates
Specifying the E1 line type that
implements this circuit.
functional-mode
{ima|uni|ces-atm|ces-psn}
line-type {unframed|g732n| g732n-crc}
Note:
The type of circuit affects the
number of bits per second that
the circuit can reasonably carry,
as well as the usage
interpretation and the error
statistics.
•
In UNI/IMA mode, Unframed is not
valid.
•
g732n. G.732.N with CRC
disabled.
•
In CES-ATM mode, the line type
cannot be changed from
g732n-crc/g732n to Unframed and
vice versa as long as CES XC is active
on the relevant port.
•
g732n-crc. G.732.N with
CRC enabled.
Generating OAM cells in case of a
physical layer failure
oam-cell-generator
Disabling OAM
no oam-cell-generator
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
E1 Ports 4-63
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Enabling the loopback mode for
the E1 port. The duration is
expressed in minutes.
loopback {remote|local} [duration
<1..300>]
•
local. Returns the
transmitted data at the
physical layer to the
receiving path. The local
physical loopback
includes a configurable
timeout mechanism that
ends the loopback
operation after a userdefined duration.
•
remote. Returns the
received data at the
physical layer to the
transmitting path.
•
short-haul. Low sensitiviy
•
long-haul. High sensitivity
Disabling the loopback mode for
the E1 port
no loopback
Specifying the attenuation level
of the received signal,
compensated for by the interface
receive path
rx-sensitivity {short-haul|long-haul}
Enabling the transmission of a
source-specific multicast stream
from this port.
tx-ssm
Disabling the transmission of a
source-specific multicast stream
from this port.
no tx-ssm
Example
The following section illustrates how to configure the E1 port labeled 1 for use in
IMA mode as follows:
4-64
E1 Ports
•
Set the transmit (Tx) clock type to Domain and use domain 1.
•
Set the Functional mode to IMA.
•
Set the idle code to 0xFF.
•
Enable OAM.
•
Administratively enable the port.
•
Leave all other parameters disabled or at their defaults.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)#
Chapter 4 Configuration
tx-clock-source domain 1
functional mode ima
idle-code 0xFF
oam-cell-generator
no shutdown
Viewing an E1 Port’s Status
Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the E1 port labeled 1 as
an example.
³
To view the E1 port status;
•
At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show status.
The status information appears as illustrated below.
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)# show status
Administrative Status : Up
Operation Status
: Down
Connector Type
: RJ45
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)#
Viewing an E1 Port’s Statistics
You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition,
you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display.
³
To view the current statistics:
•
At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
images. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.
Parameter
Comments
Time Elapsed (Sec)
The elapsed time since the beginning of the current interval
Valid Intervals
The number of intervals saved
LOS
Number of seconds during which Loss Of Signal was detected
LOF
Number of seconds during which Loss Of Frame was detected.
Note: LOF is not available in Unframed mode.
LCD
Number of seconds during which Loss of Cell Delineation was detected.
Note: LCD is not available in E1/T1 CES mode.
RAI
Number of seconds during which Remote Alarm Indication was detected.
Note: RAI is not available in Unframed E1/T1 mode.
AIS
Number of seconds during which Alarm Indication Signal was detected.
FEBE
Number of Far End Block Error, i.e. seconds during which an MF-CRC4 error
indication is received from the remote E1 device.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
E1 Ports 4-65
Chapter 4 Configuration
Parameter
Installation and Operation Manual
Comments
Note: FEBE is not available in Unframed mode.
ES
Number of Errored Seconds, i.e. seconds during which CRC, SEF (Severely
Errored Frame) or AIS errors have occurred.
SES
Number of Severely Errored Second, i.e. seconds during which 320 or more
CRC error events with at least one SEF or AIS have occurred.
UAS
Number of Unavailable Seconds, i.e. seconds counted in the period after 10
consecutive SES occurrences. UAS state is deactivated after 10 consecutive
seconds without SES occurrences.
Rx Frames Slip
Increments when the framer’s buffer is full
BES
Number of Burst Errored Seconds, i.e. seconds during which 2 to 319 CRC
error events with no AIS or SEF have occurred
DM
Number of Degraded Minutes, i.e. the minutes during which at least 15
errored seconds have occurred on a T1 line, or at least 20 errored seconds on
an E1 line
LVC
Number of code violations, i.e. the times when both a BPV (Bipolar Violation)
and an EXZ error have occurred in one second
Rx Cells
Number of cells received without HEC error
Tx Cells
Number of cells transmitted
Uncorrected HEC Cells
Number of cells received with two or more uncorrected HEC errors that have
been dropped.
Note: Invisible for IMA groups.
4-66
E1 Ports
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)# show statistics current
Current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) : 11
Valid Intervals
: 7
LOS
LOF
LCD
RAI
:
:
:
:
10
0
0
0
AIS
FEBE
: 0
: 0
ES
SES
UAS
Rx Frames Slip
BES
:
:
:
:
:
0
0
10
0
0
DM
LCV
: 0
: 0
ATM
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Rx Cells
:
Tx Cells
:
Uncorrected HEC Cells
:
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)#
³
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics <interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
³
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>e1(1)#
prompt appears again.
³
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>port>e1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>e1(1)#
prompt appears again.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
E1 Ports 4-67
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
4.14 T1 Ports
ACE-3200 includes 8 or 16 T1 multiservice ports that can be configured to work
in ATM UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high
flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.
What is T1
T1, also referred to as DS-1 is a T-carrier signaling scheme devised by Bell Labs
and a widely used standard in telecommunications in the USA, Canada and Japan
to transmit voice and data between devices.
Standards and MIBs
The G.703 standard specifies several options for the physical transmission. In
practice, mostly the B8ZS format is used.
Benefits
T1 ports serve as multiservice ports that can be configured to work in ATM
UNI/IMA or TDM mode. This Any-Service-Any-Port framework enables high
flexibility in deployment within various backhaul solutions.
Functional Description
A T1 link operates over a twisted pair of cables. A nominal 3 Volt peak signal is
encoded with pulses using a method that avoids long periods without polarity
changes. The line data rate is 1.544 Mbps at full duplex, which means 1.544 Mbps
for downstream and 1.544 Mbps for upstream. The T1 signal splits into 32
timeslots each which is being allocated 8 bits. Each timeslot sends and receives
an 8-bit sample 8000 times per second (8 x 8000 x 24 = 1,544,000), which is
ideal for voice telephone calls where the voice is sampled into an 8 bit number at
that data rate and restored at the other end. The timeslots are numbered from 0
to 24.
Physical Loopback Tests
T1 ports allow you to perform loopback tests as explained under Physical
Loopback Tests (Functional Description for E1 ports).
Factory Defaults
ACE-3200 ships with all T1 ports enabled.
Description
Default Value
The byte pattern of data received/transmitted in the
E1 idle timeslots (idle code).
7E
4-68
T1 Ports
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Description
Default Value
The length of the T1 line in DSU format (in feet).
0–133
The type of circuit affects the number of bits per
second that the circuit can reasonably carry, as well
as the usage interpretation and the error statistics.
The T1 line type
ESF
Configuring a T1 Port
³
To configure a T1 port:
1. At the config>port# prompt, enter T1 <1–8/16> for the T1 port labeled 1–
8/16 respectively.
The config>port>t1(<1–8/16>) prompt appears.
2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.
Task
Command
Administratively enabling the port
no shutdown
Specifying the variety of zero
code suppression used for this
port.
line-code b8zs
Specifying the byte pattern of
data received/transmitted in the
T1 idle timeslots (idle code).
idle-code {<0x00..0xFF>}
Specifying the T1 operation mode
line-interface {dsu|csu}
Specifies the length of the T1 line
in DSU mode (in feet)
line-length {0–133|134–266|267–399|
400–533|534–655}
Specifying the line build out (in
db)
line-buildout {0db|minus-7dot5db|
minus-15db|minus-22dot5db}
Specifying the time (in seconds)
used to modify the
synchronization algorithms and
reduce the time required for the
port to return to normal
operation after a local loss of
synchronization (LOF event).
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Comments
b8zs. Bipolar with Eight-zero
substitution
•
dsu. Sets the T1 line to
act as data service unit
•
csu. Sets the T1 line to
act as channel service
unit
•
0db. 0 db
•
minus-7dot5db. -7.5 db
•
minus-15db. -15 db
•
minus-22dot5db. -22.5
db
restoration-time {1sec|10sec}
T1 Ports 4-69
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Transmitting an out of service
signal for all services
out-of-service-all
Will be generated towards
the TDM port in case of
failure
Controlling the propagation and
specifying the conditions of alarm
indications
trail-mode {terminated|extended}
•
terminated. TDM channel
defects are translated to
trunk conditions on the
specific bundle of the
TDM port. The trunk
condition pattern is
associated with the value
specified under
out-of-service-all.
•
extended. TDM channel
defects are
extended\regenerated as
TDM defect (AIS\RAI) on
the entire TDM port. This
setting is suitable only for
cases where a
pseudowire is connected
to the TDM interface.
•
The CES mode can be
either over PSN or ATM.
•
The mode cannot be
changed while IMA groups
or VP/VC XC or a CES
connection are
configured on units
equipped wit DSP
•
unframed. T1 line type
set to Unframed
•
esf. Extended Super
Frame (24 T1 frames)
Specifying the mode in which the
T1 interface operates
Specifying the T1 line type that
implements this circuit.
functional-mode
{ima|uni|ces-atm|ces-psn}
line-type {unframed|esf}
Note:
The type of circuit affects the
number of bits per second that
the circuit can reasonably carry,
as well as the usage
interpretation and the error
statistics.
•
In UNI/IMA mode, Unframed is not
valid.
•
In CES-ATM mode, the line type
cannot be changed to Unframed
and vice versa as long as CES XC is
active on the relevant port.
Generates OAM cells in case of a
physical layer failure
oam-cell-generator
4-70
T1 Ports
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Enabling the loopback mode for
the T1 port. The duration is
expressed in minutes.
loopback {remote|local} [duration
<1..300>]
•
local. Returns the
transmitted data at the
physical layer to the
receiving path. The local
physical loopback
includes a configurable
timeout mechanism that
ends the loopback
operation after a userdefined duration.
•
remote. Returns the
received data at the
physical layer to the
transmitting path.
Disables the loopback mode for
the T1 port
no loopback
Enables the ATM cell payload
scrambling mode
scrambler
The scrambler cannot be
changed for a link in an IMA
group.
Not available in CESATM/CES-PSN modes.
Disables the ATM cell payload
scrambling mode
no scrambler
Example
The following section illustrates how to configure the T1 port labeled 1 for use in
IMA mode as follows:
•
Set the transmit (Tx) clock type to Domain and use domain 1.
•
Set the Functional mode to IMA.
•
Set the idle code to 0xFF.
•
Enable OAM.
•
Administratively enable the port.
•
Leave all other parameters disabled or at their defaults.
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)#
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
tx-clock-source domain 1
functional mode ima
idle-code 0xFF
oam-cell-generator
no shutdown
T1 Ports 4-71
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Viewing a T1 Port’s Status
Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the T1 port labeled 1 as
an example.
³
To view the T1 port status;
•
At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show status.
The status information appears as illustrated below.
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)# show status
Administrative Status : Up
Operation Status
: Down
Connector Type
: RJ45
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)#
Viewing a T1 Port’s Statistics
You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval. In addition,
you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display.
³
To view the current statistics:
•
At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.
Parameter
Comments
Time Elapsed (Sec)
The elapsed time since the beginning of the current interval
Valid Intervals
The number of intervals saved
LOS
Number of seconds during which Loss Of Signal was detected
LOF
Number of seconds during which Loss Of Frame was detected.
Note: LOF is not available in Unframed mode.
LCD
Number of seconds during which Loss of Cell Delineation was detected.
Note: LCD is not available in E1/T1 CES mode.
RAI
Number of seconds during which Remote Alarm Indication was detected.
Note: RAI is not available in Unframed E1/T1 mode.
AIS
Number of seconds during which Alarm Indication Signal was detected.
FEBE
Number of Far End Block Error, i.e. seconds during which an MF-CRC4 error
indication is received from the remote E1 device.
Note: FEBE is not available in Unframed mode.
ES
4-72
Number of Errored Seconds, i.e. seconds during which CRC, SEF (Severely
Errored Frame) or AIS errors have occurred.
T1 Ports
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Parameter
Comments
SES
Number of Severely Errored Second, i.e. seconds during which 320 or more
CRC error events with at least one SEF or AIS have occurred.
UAS
Number of Unavailable Seconds, i.e. seconds counted in the period after 10
consecutive SES occurrences. UAS state is deactivated after 10 consecutive
seconds without SES occurrences.
Rx Frames Slip
Increments when the framer’s buffer is full
BES
Number of Burst Errored Seconds, i.e. seconds during which 2 to 319 CRC
error events with no AIS or SEF have occurred
DM
Number of Degraded Minutes, i.e. the minutes during which at least 15
errored seconds have occurred on a T1 line, or at least 20 errored seconds on
an E1 line
LVC
Number of code violations, i.e. the times when both a BPV (Bipolar Violation)
and an EXZ error have occurred in one second
Rx Cells
Number of cells received without HEC error
Tx Cells
Number of cells transmitted
Uncorrected HEC Cells
Number of cells received with two or more uncorrected HEC errors that have
been dropped
Note: Invisible for IMA groups.
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)# show statistics current
Current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) : 11
Valid Intervals
: 7
LOS
LOF
LCD
RAI
:
:
:
:
10
0
0
0
AIS
FEBE
: 0
: 0
ES
SES
UAS
Rx Frames Slip
BES
:
:
:
:
:
0
0
10
0
0
DM
LCV
: 0
: 0
ATM
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Rx Cells
:
Tx Cells
:
Uncorrected HEC Cells
:
ACE-3200>config>port>t1(1)#
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
T1 Ports 4-73
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics <interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
³
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>t1(1)#
prompt appears again.
³
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>port>t1(1)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>t1(1)#
prompt appears again.
4.15 SDH/SONET Interfaces
SDH and SONET are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple
digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Due to the protocol neutrality of SDH/SONET and their transport-oriented
features, SDH/SONET became the obvious choice for the transport of ATM
frames. It quickly evolved mapping structures and concatenated payload
containers to transport ATM connections over ATM and other protocols such as
TCP/IP and Ethernet. The internal complex structure used previously to transport
circuit-oriented connections is removed and replaced with a large and
concatenated frame (such as STS-3c) into which ATM frames, IP packets or
Ethernet are placed.
Standards
The SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) standard was originally defined by the
ETSI or European Telecommunications Standards Institute
The SONET (synchronous optical networking) standard was defined by GR-253CORE from Telcordia and T1.105 from ANSI.
4-74
SDH/SONET Interfaces
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Benefits
Prior to implementing SDH and SONET, transmitting circuit mode communications
over T1 and T3 that derived from different sources caused each circuit to operate
at a slightly different rate and phase. Introducing SDH and SONET as transport
protocol allowed for the simultaneous transport of many different circuits from
different sources to be transported simultaneously within one single framing
protocol.
Factory Defaults
The SDH/SONET interface is enabled by default. For default settings of
parameters, refer to the table below.
Description
Default Value
The cell frame type
sdh
The SDH/SONET interface’s output rate (cells per second)
353208
The alarm threshold for SDH
2400
The alarm threshold for SONET
2400
Configuring an SDH/SONET Interface
The SDH/SONET interfaces are optional.
³
To configure an SDH/SONET interface:
1. At the config>port# prompt, enter sdh-sonet <1..2> for the SDH/SONET port
labeled 1 respectively.
The config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# prompt appears.
2. Enter all necessary information according to the tasks below.
Example
The following section illustrates how to enable the SDH/SONET interface labeled
1 and set it to SDH:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
Administratively enable the port.
•
Set the cell frame type to SDH.
•
Set the Tx clock source to Internal.
•
Enable OAM.
•
Set the actual and the minimum output rates to 353208 cells per minute.
•
Set the alarm thresholds for all alarms to 3500.
•
Leave all other parameters at their default values.
SDH/SONET Interfaces 4-75
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>port>sdh-sonet
ACE-3200>config>port>sdh-sonet
ACE-3200>config>port>sdh-sonet
ACE-3200>config>port>sdh-sonet
(1)#
(1)#
(1)#
(1)#
no shutdown
frame-type sdh
tx-clock-source-atm internal
oam-cell-generator
Viewing an SDH/SONET Interface Status
Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the SHDSL port labeled 1
as an example.
³
To view an SDH/SONET interface status;
•
At the config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# prompt, enter show status.
The status information appears as illustrated below.
ACE-3200>config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# show status
Administrative Status : Up
Operation Status
: Down
Connector Type
: SFP-In
ACE-3200>config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)#
Viewing SDH/SONET Interface Statistics
You can view statistics of the current interval or a specified interval for every wire
pair. In addition, you can view all intervals by continuously refreshing the display.
³
To view the current statistics:
•
At the config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# prompt, enter show statistics
current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
images. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.
Parameter
Comments
LOS
Number of seconds where LOS is detected
ATM
Total number of ATM cells passing that port
Rx Cells
Number of cells received without HEC error
Tx Cells
Number of cells transmitted
Uncorrected HEC Cells
Number of cells received with two or more uncorrected HEC errors that have
been dropped
Note: Invisible for IMA groups.
Rx Cells
Number of cells received on that port
Tx Cells
Number of cells transmitted
Corrected HEC Cells
Number of cells received without HEC error
4-76
SDH/SONET Interfaces
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Parameter
Comments
Uncorrected HEC Cells
Number of cells received with two or more uncorrected HEC errors that have
been dropped
Note: Invisible for IMA groups.
ACE-3200>config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# show statistics current
Current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) : 524
Valid Intervals
: 24
LOS
: (0)
ATM
:
Rx Cells
Corrected HEC Cells
Tx Cells
Uncorrected HEC Cells
: (0)
ACE-3200>config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)#
³
To view the statistics at interval 20:
•
At the config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# prompt, enter show statistics
interval 20.
Statistics for the specified interval (20) appear.
³
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the
config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# prompt appears again.
³
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# prompt, enter show statistics all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first wire pair and interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the
config>port>sdh-sonet (<1..2>)# prompt appears again.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
SDH/SONET Interfaces 4-77
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
4.16 Automatic Protection Switching
Two SDH/SONET (ATM-155) ports can work correspondingly in APS mode. The
APS configuration allows you to specify the two working ports and their
operational mode, which can be to one of the standards quoted below
Standards
Automatic Protection Switching complies with the following standards:
•
1+1 optimized bi-directional – according to G.841, Annex B
•
1+1 compatible bi-directional – according to G.841, Clause 7.1, Linear
multiplex section protection (MSP); compatible with 1:n bidirectional
switching.
Functional Description
Automatic protection switching (APS) is a link-level protection mechanism for
ensuring service continuity in the case of interface failure/error. If ACE-3200 is
equipped with two STM-1/OC-3c interfaces, they can be configured to work in
APS mode.
In the receive direction, each node monitors the corresponding link for SD and SF
conditions, and selects the better of the protected RX links. If an interface's
uplink traffic fails, the other continues and compensates for the loss, allowing
uninterrupted service. This form of APS is called 1+1 protection.
APS in ACE-3200 functions according to G.841 Annex B or Clause 7.1, Linear MSP
(multiplex section protection; compatible with 1:n bidirectional switching), and
allows a channel to be bridged on the transmit direction at the SONET/SDH path
level. The protocol used between the devices to handle the switching is carried
out using K1 and K2 bytes from the line header of the SONET/SDH frame.
The APS path information (APS TX) may be sourced from either the receive side
or the transmit side of a channel. ACE-3200 logs and monitors all errors across
the APS receive stream.
Figure 4-20. Two nodes working and communicating in APS mode
4-78
Automatic Protection Switching
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Factory Defaults
In Revertive mode, the waiting time is 300 s before the system returns to the
primary port after it has been restored after recovering from an error.
Configuring Automatic Protection Switching
This section explains how to enable and configure Automatic Protection
Switching.
Adding and Removing an APS Group
³
To add and define an APS group:
1. At the config> prompt, enter protection.
The config>protection prompt appears.
2. At the config>protection# prompt, enter aps <group name>. The group name
may consist of up to 31 alphanumeric characters.
The APS group is defined and enabled and the
config>protection>aps(<group name>)# prompt appears.
³
To remove an APS group:
•
At the config>protection prompt, enter no aps <group name>.
The APS group is removed.
Binding Ports to an APS Group
Before you can bind ports to the APS group, you have to first specify the desired
operation mode. You define the following:
³
•
1+1 optimized bi-directional mode. You specify two working ports, 1 and 2
and bind sdh-sonet 1 to working port 1 and sdh-sonet 2 to working port 2
respectively.
•
1+1 compatible bi-directional mode. You specify a working port and a
protection port. Bind the working port to sdh-sonet 1 and the protection port
to sdh-sonet 2.
To specify the operation mode:
•
At the config>protection>aps(<group name>)# prompt, enter
oper-mode {optimized-1-plus-1|compatible-1-plus-1}.
You are now able to bind a port to the APS group.
³
To define the working ports for the APS group if ‘optimized-1-plus-1’ selected:
1. At the config>protection>aps <group name># prompt, enter
bind working 1 sdh-sonet 1.
Working port 1 is bound to the APS group.
2. At the config>protection>aps <group name>#, enter
bind working 2 sdh-sonet 2.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Automatic Protection Switching 4-79
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Working port 2 is bound to the APS group.
³
To bind the working and protecting ports to the APS group if ‘compatible-1-plus1’ selected:
1. At the config>protection>aps <group name># prompt, enter
bind working sdh-sonet 1.
The working port is bound to the APS group.
2. At the config>protection>aps <group name>#, enter
bind protection sdh-sonet 2.
The protection port is bound to the APS group.
Configuring an APS Group
This section explains how to manually switch to the backup port or back. It also
configures automatic switch-over.
³
To configure an APS group:
•
At the config>protection>aps(<group name>)# prompt, enter and configure
parameters as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Enabling the reverting of the
working and protection ports.
revertive
Specifying the waiting time (in
seconds) before the system
returns to the working port once
it has been restored after
recovering from an error.
wait-to-restore <1..720>
Disabling the Revertive mode
no revertive
Manually switching over to the
backup port.
force-switch
Freezing the transmitted K-bytes
and the selector's position. In this
case, the traffic is retrieved from
the port which is currently the
working port until the lockout is
cleared. Lockout is considered a
local request that is not signaled
over the K-bytes.
4-80
lockout
Automatic Protection Switching
Comments
•
Available if the Revertive mode has
been enabled.
•
This parameter cannot be changed
dynamically (on-ithe-fly).
•
Available for the 1+1 optimized bidirectional mode.
•
This command can only be issued, if
the last-issued was clear or no
command had been issued.
•
This command can obnly be issued,
if the last-issued was clear or no
command had been issued.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Clearing the current command
(Force Switch or Lockout).
clear
•
If you clear the 'Lockout' command,
the selector and the transmitted Kbytes return to their previous state.
•
If you clear the 'Force Switch'
command, the primary line returns
to be the currently active line, and
the local request for lockout is
cleared.
Switching traffic from the
protection port to the working
port, unless an equal or higher
priority request has been issued.
Since a forced switch has a higher
priority than SF or SD on a
working port, this command is
carried out regardless of the
current condition of the working
port
force-switch-to-work
Switching traffic from the working
port to the protection port,
unless an equal or higher priority
switch command is in effect, or if
an SF condition exists on the
protection port.
force-switch-to-protect
Switching the traffic from the
protection port back to the
working port, unless an equal or
higher priority request is in
effect. Since a manual switch has
lower priority than SF or SD on a
working port, this command is
carried out only if the working
port is not in SF or SD condition.
manual-switch-to-work
Switching the traffic from the
working port to the protection
port, unless a failure condition
exists on the protection port or
an equal/higher priority switch
command is in effect.
manual-switch-to-protect
Denying access of all traffic
signals to the protection port by
issuing a "Lockout of protection"
request, unless an equal
protection switch command is in
effect.
lockout-of-protection
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Automatic Protection Switching 4-81
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Clearing Force Switch or Lockout
commands and the WTR time on
the node to which the command
was addressed
clear-compatible
•
Valid only in 1+1 optimized bidirectional mode
Example
This section illustrates how to set up an APS group in 1+1 Optimized Bidirectional mode. The following parameters are used:
•
APS group name: test
•
Operation mode: 1+1 Optimized Bi-directional
•
Working port 1: SDH/SONET port 1.
•
Working port 2: SDH/SONET port 2.
ACE-3200>config>protection# aps test
ACE-3200>config>protection>aps(test)#oper-mode optimized-1-plus-1
ACE-3200>config>protection>aps(test)# bind working 1 sdh-sonet 1
ACE-3200>config>protection>aps(test)# bind working 2 sdh-sonet 2
ACE-3200>config>protection>aps(test)#
Viewing the Status of an APS Group
This section illustrates the status display of an APS group created in
1+1 Optimized Bi-directional mode.
³
To view the APS group’s status:
•
At the config>protection>aps(<group name>)# prompt, enter show status.
The APS group’s status appears.
ƒ
In this example, the APS group name is test.
ACE-3200>config>protection>aps(test)# show status
Group
-----------------------------------------------------------------Current Working
Rx K1K2
: 0x0000
Tx K1K2
: 0x0000
Operational
: Down
Mode
: Optimized 1+1
Ports
-----------------------------------------------------------------Port
Active
Status
SD Cnt
SF Cnt
-----------------------------------------------------------------Working1
SDH-1
Up
0
0
Working2
SDH-2
Up
0
0
ACE-3200>config>protection>aps(test)#
4-82
Automatic Protection Switching
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Before your ACE-3200 unit becomes available for remote management, you have
to configure the router and define at least one router interface and bind the
Management Ethernet port to it. In addition, you have to set up your router to
enable communication with the network.
4.17 ATM Traffic Descriptor
ATM traffic descriptors represent the ‘quality of service’ concept for ATM
networks and determine the ATM traffic’s service category, shaping mode and
other distinct parameters. Traffic descriptors are individually configured as ATM
application parameters via the Traffic Descriptor command.
Standards
ITU-T I.371 (ATM transfer capability definition)
Benefits
The ATM Traffic Descriptor divides traffic into priority queues, thus allowing the
transmission of traffic according to specified service categories and priorities.
Functional Description
A traffic descriptor consists of the following:
•
Service categories
•
Traffic parameters of each data flow in both directions
•
ATM Traffic shaping
•
ATM cell scheduling
•
ATM policing.
The traffic descriptor parameters and their functionalities are explained in the
sections below.
Service Categories
Services are divided into four service categories, which define the methods to
correlate traffic characteristics and QoS requirements with network behavior. The
service categories and levels are listed in Table 4-6. The concept distinguishes
real-time services such as CBR and VBR and non-real-time services such as
UBR+/UBR. The service categories are listed and explained in the subsections
below.
Table 4-6. Traffic Service Categories
ATM Service Category
Typical Use
Constant Bit-rate (CBR)
Real-time, QoS guarantees
Variable Bit-rate (VBR)
Real-time, statistical mux
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
ATM Traffic Descriptor 4-83
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ATM Service Category
Typical Use
Unspecified Bit-rate (UBR+)
Best effort, no guarantees
Unspecified Bit-rate (UBR)
Best effort, no guarantees
Constant Bit-Rate
The CBR service category serves connections at constant bit-rates. This option
can be used in cases where synchronization between the source and the
destination is highly reliable. The CBR is geared towards data for which a
predictable response time and constant bandwidth capacity are required at the
end points. The amount of bandwidth is characterized by the peak cell rate (PCR).
Real-Time Variable Bit-Rate
The VBR service category serves traffic at variable bit-rates that relies on accurate
timing between the traffic source and destination. An example for traffic that
requires this service type is the transmission of video streams. Sources that use
VBR connections are expected to transmit at a rate that varies with time such as
bursty video streams. VBR connections can be characterized by a peak cell rate
(PCR), sustained cell rate (SCR) and a maximum burst size (MBS).
Unspecified Bit-Rate
The UBR service category serves connections, which transport variable bit-rate
traffic that does not rely on synchronization between the traffic source and its
destination. UBR is used for applications that are most tolerant against delays
and losses. The system works on reaching a specified minimum cell rate (MCR),
but commits only to best effort. UBR+ guarantees the MCR you specify.
Traffic Parameters
Traffic parameters describe the traffic characteristics of the source. Traffic
parameters are the following:
•
PCR. Refers to the peak cell rate, which defines the highest rate at which cells
can be transported along a connection in the ATM network. PCR determines
how often cells are sent during a given time increment in an effort to
minimize jitter. PCR is usually coupled with the cell delay variation tolerance
(CDVT) parameter, which indicates how much jitter can be allowed.
•
SCR. Refers to the sustainable cell rate, which defines the average long-term
cell rate allowed on a specific ATM connection.
•
MBS. Refers to the maximum burst size, which defines the burst size of cells
allowed for transmission contiguously on a particular connection.
•
MCR. Refers to the minimum cell rate, which defines the minimum rate
allowed for transmission along an ATM connection.
ATM Traffic Shaping
ACE-3200 has a built-in shaper and controls ATM traffic transmitted to the public
network based on the single/dual leaky bucket protocol. The traffic shaping
improves ATM services by smoothing bursty traffic and enabling flexible and
accurate traffic adaption for the required service.
4-84
ATM Traffic Descriptor
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Traffic shaping prevents network congestion and achieves increased network
utilization. The traffic descriptor assigned to a VC specifies both the connection
priority according to strict priority queues and the shaping parameters. Each side
of a VC/VP cross connection can be either shaped or unshaped according to its
traffic descriptor. The shaping can be set to one of the following service
categories, which define the shaping parameters as listed in Table 4-7.
Table 4-7. Service Categories and associated Shaping Parameters
Service Category
Shaping Parameters
CBR Shaped
PCR, CDVT
VBR1 shaped
PCR, CDVT, SCR, MBP
UBR+ shaped
PCR, CDVT, MDCR
PCR/SCR granularity is up to 0.39% (worst case) and the min PCR/SCR supports up
to 100 cells per second.
ATM Cell Scheduling
Each port's egress ATM cell traffic is associated with a service category and
hierarchically matched to four strict-priority queues. The traffic is transmitted
according to the four outbound queue levels of priority as listed in Table 4-8,
which is referred to as ATM Cell Scheduling:
Table 4-8. ATM Cell Scheduling
Priority Queue
Egress ATM Cell Traffic
First
CBR-Shaped, CBR Unshaped
Second
VBR
Third
UBR+
Fourth
UBR
Figure 4-21. ATM Queues Priority
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
ATM Traffic Descriptor 4-85
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ATM Policing
The ATM Policing mechanism defines which non-conformant ATM cells should be
discarded, tagged or counted by ACE-3200 per user configuration. The following
policing modes (listed below) are supported according to ATMF TM4.1:
•
CBR.1
•
VBR.1
•
VBR.2
•
VBR.3
•
UBR.1
•
UBR.2
The policing is configurable per received channel. Multiple channels can be
mapped to a single policing policy (group policing).
The granularity of the CDVT is 10 ns. The minimum CDVT depends on the port
type as follows:
Port Type
Minimum CDVT
TDM
1 cell time at line rate
UPI multi-PHY
4 cell time at line rate
UPI single-PHY
16 cell time at line rate
IMA
1 cell time at minimum IMA group rate
Equal-rate-slow-PHY (ERSP)
1 cell time at line rate
The ATM policing functionality is based on a single/double leaky bucket
mechanism. Any cells that do not confirm with these parameters are either
dropped or tagged as follows:
Policing
Bucket 1 Parameters – PCR, CDVT
Bucket 2 Parameters – SCR, MBS
CBR
CLP 0+1, drop
VBR.1
CLP 0+1, drop
CLP 0+1, drop
VBR.2
CLP 0+1, drop
CLP 0, drop
VBR.3
CLP 0+1, drop
CLP 0, tag
UBR.1
CLP 0+1, drop
UBR.2
CLP 0+1, tag
Factory Defaults
By default, the ATM descriptor is not activated.
4-86
ATM Traffic Descriptor
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Configuring the ATM Traffic Descriptor
Follow the instructions below to configure the traffic descriptor.
³
To configure the ATM descriptor:
1. At the config>qos# prompt, enter atm.
The config>qos>atm# prompt appears.
2. Enter parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below.
• The shaping parameters' availability depends on the traffic descriptor's service
category.
• The max number of possible ATM traffic descriptors equals
{MAX ATM XC} x 2 + {MAX ATM PW}.
• A traffic descriptor cannot be deleted or modified while a VP/VC is using it.
Task
Command
Creating an ATM
descriptor for a stream
transmitted at constant
bit-rate (CBR).
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> cbr
scheduling
Comments
CBR streams are
transmitted at the
highest priority.
Creating an ATM
descriptor for a shaped
CBR stream.
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> cbr
shaping-scheduling [pcr <100..353208>]
[cdvt <1..8000>]
•
pcr. Peak cell rate (cells per
second, cps).
•
cdvt. Cell delay variation tolerance
(microseconds, usec).
Creating an ATM
descriptor for a policed
CBR stream.
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> cbr
policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt
<1..8000>]
•
Policing. This function determines
which non-conformant cells
should be discarded or marked as
discardable according to the
traffic contract.
Creating an ATM
descriptor for a shaped
stream transmitted at
variable bit-rate.
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> vbr1
shaping-scheduling [pcr <100..353208>]
[cdvt <1..8000>] [scr <100..353208>]
[mbs <1..8388608>]
•
vbr1 shaping-scheduling. Shaping
stands for smoothening the
stream and limit its burstiness. vbr
stands for variable bit-rate.
•
scr. Sustainable cell rate (cells per
second, cps).
•
mbs. Max burst size (cells). Enter
the value that reflects the
requirement according to the
traffic contract.
•
vbr1. Variable bit-rate, set to
transmit at best effort.
VBR streams are
transmitted at the
second highest priority.
Creating an ATM
descriptor for a policed
VBR stream
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> vbr1
policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt
<1..8000>] [scr <100..353208>] [mbs
<1..8388608>]
ATM Traffic Descriptor 4-87
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Installation and Operation Manual
Command
Comments
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> vbr2
policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt
<1..8000>] [scr <100..353208>] [mbs
<1..8388608>]
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> vbr3
policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt
<1..8000>] [scr <100..353208>] [mbs
<1..8388608>]
Creating an ATM
descriptor for a stream
transmitted at an
unspecified bit-rate
(UBR).
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> ubr
scheduling
UBR streams are
transmitted at the
lowest priority
Creating an ATM
descriptor for a policed
UBR stream
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> ubr1
policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt
<1..8000>]
•
ubr1. Unspecified bit-rate, set to
transmit at best effort.
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> ubr2
policing [pcr <100..353208>] [cdvt
<1..8000>]
Creating an ATM
descriptor for a shaped
UBR+ stream.
traffic-descriptor <1..99999> ubr-plus
shaping-scheduling [pcr <100..353208>]
[cdvt <1..8000>]
UBR+ streams are
transmitted at third
priority.
Example
This example illustrates how to configure a traffic descriptor for a CBR stream.
Use the following parameters:
•
Set the descriptor up for a shaped-scheduled stream
•
Choose Traffic Descriptor #2
•
Set the peak cell rate (PCR) to 10.000 cells per second.
•
Set the cell delay variation tolerance (CDVT) to 4000 usec.
ACE-3200>config>qos>atm# traffic-descriptor 2 cbr shaping-scheduling pcr 10000
cdvt 4000
ACE-3200>config>oam>efm#
4-88
ATM Traffic Descriptor
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
4.18 ATM OAM
ACE-3200 provides F4/F5 OAM support that complies with ITU-I.610 (AIS, RDI and
CC). OAM cells are inserted into the VP/VC cell stream ahead of the shaper,
enabling accurate conformance to shaping parameters.
Four operating modes are supported:
•
End-to-end (for a host only)
•
Segment
•
Intermediate
•
Loopback – OAM loopback cells are used to determine connectivity at specific
points in a network or between networks. OAM cells are part of the F4 and
F5 OAM service, which allows fault management for VPs and VCs. Loopback
cells can be defined as Segment or End-to-End.
Standards
ACE-3200 provides F4 and F5 ATM OAM support that complies with ITU-I.610.
Functional Description
OAM can operate over ATM networks in five different modes:
•
VP Intermediate Point
•
VC Intermediate Point
•
VP Segment Point
•
VC Segment Point
•
VC End-to-End Point.
VP Intermediate Point
When a VP connection point (CP) is set as an intermediate point, it operates as
follows:
•
If the other side of the VP XC is also set as an intermediate point:
ƒ
F4 segment, F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded
transparently to the other side of the XC.
Figure 4-22. VP Intermediate Point – Case A
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
ATM OAM 4-89
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ƒ
When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and
F4 segment AIS and end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the
forward direction.
Figure 4-23. VP Intermediate Point – Case B
•
If the other side of the VP XC is set as a segment point:
ƒ
F4 end-to-end, F5 segment and F5 end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded
transparently to the other side of the XC. F4 segment OAM cells are
dropped from the cell stream, while F4 segment AIS, RDI and CC cells are
counted.
Figure 4-24. VP Intermediate Point – Case C
ƒ
When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and
F4 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction.
Figure 4-25. VP Intermediate Point – Case D
•
4-90
ATM OAM
For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines
the loopback state:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Figure 4-26. VP Intermediate Point – Case E
VC Intermediate Point
When a VC connection point is set as an intermediate point, it operates as
follows:
•
If the other side of the VC XC is also set as an intermediate point:
ƒ
F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the
other side of the XC. F4 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are dropped
from the cell stream.
Figure 4-27. VC Intermediate Point – Case A
ƒ
When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and
F5 segment AIS together with end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards
the forward direction.
Figure 4-28. VC Intermediate Point – Case B
•
If the other side of the VC XC is set as a segment point:
ƒ
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
F5 end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the other side of
the XC. F4 segment and end-to-end and F5 segment OAM cells are
dropped from the cell stream.
ATM OAM 4-91
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Figure 4-29. VC Intermediate Point – Case C
•
When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and F5
end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction.
Figure 4-30. VC Intermediate Point – Case D
•
For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines
the loopback state:
Figure 4-31. VC Intermediate Point – Case E
VP Segment Point
When a VP connection point is set as a segment point, it operates as follows:
•
4-92
ATM OAM
F4 end-to-end, F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded
transparently to the other side of the XC. F4 segment OAM cells are dropped
from the cell stream, while F4 segment AIS, RDI and CC cells are monitored.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Figure 4-32. VP Segment Point – Case A
•
When F4 segment AIS cells are received on the connection point, AIS state is
declared. F4 end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward
direction, while F4 segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward
direction.
Figure 4-33. VP Segment Point – Case B
•
When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared. F4
end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction, while F4
segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.
Figure 4-34. VP Segment Point – Case C
•
When a VP segment point is set as a CC source point, F4 segment CC cells are
generated towards the backward direction.
Figure 4-35. VP Segment Point – Case D
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
ATM OAM 4-93
Chapter 4 Configuration
•
Installation and Operation Manual
When a VP segment point is set as a CC sink point, F4 segment CC cells are
expected to be received every second. If no CC cell has been received during
the last 3.5 seconds, an AIS state is declared, F4 end-to-end AIS cells are
generated towards the forward direction and F4 segment RDI cells are
generated towards the backward direction.
Figure 4-36. VP Segment Point – Case E
•
When a VP segment point is set as CC both, it behaves both as source and
sink point.
•
For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines
the loopback state (see Figure 4-37), and delays are calculated if the
loopback cell has been authenticated and returned within 5 seconds (see
Figure 4-38):
Figure 4-37. VP Segment Point – Case F
Figure 4-38. VP Segment Point – Case G
4-94
ATM OAM
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
VC Segment Point
When a VC connection point is set as a segment point, it operates as follows:
•
F5 end-to-end OAM cells are forwarded transparently to the other side of the
XC. F4 segment, F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are dropped from the
cell stream, while F5 segment AIS, RDI and CC cells are monitored.
Figure 4-39. VC Segment Point – Case A
•
When F5 segment AIS cells are received, AIS state is declared. F5 end-to-end
AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction, while F5 segment RDI
cells are generated towards the backward direction.
Figure 4-40. VC Segment Point – Case B
•
When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared. F5
end-to-end AIS cells are generated towards the forward direction, while F5
segment RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.
Figure 4-41. VC Segment Point – Case C
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
ATM OAM 4-95
Chapter 4 Configuration
•
Installation and Operation Manual
When a VC segment point is set as a CC source point, F5 segment CC cells are
generated towards the backward direction every second.
Figure 4-42. VC Segment Point – Case D
•
When a VC segment point is set as a CC sink point, F5 segment CC cells are
expected to be received every second. If no CC cell has been received during
the last 3.5 seconds, AIS state is declared. F5 end-to-end AIS cells are
generated towards the forward direction, while F5 segment RDI cells are
generated towards the backward direction.
Figure 4-43. VC Segment Point – Case E
•
When a VC segment point is set as CC both, it functions both as a source and
a sink point.
•
For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines
the loopback state (see Figure 4-44), and delays are calculated if the
loopback cell has been authenticated and returned within 5 seconds (see
Figure 4-45):
Figure 4-44. VC Segment Point – Case F
4-96
ATM OAM
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Figure 4-45. VC Segment Point – Case G
VC End-to-End Point
When a VC connection point is set as an endpoint (end-to-end), it operates as
follows:
•
F4 and F5 segment and end-to-end OAM cells are dropped from the cell
stream. F5 end-to-end AIS, RDI and CC cells are monitored.
Figure 4-46. VC Endpoint – Case A
•
When F5 end-to-end AIS cells are received, AIS state is declared and F5
end-to-end RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.
Figure 4-47. VC Endpoint – Case B
•
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
When a failure is detected on the physical port, AIS state is declared and F5
end-to-end RDI cells are generated towards the backward direction.
ATM OAM 4-97
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Figure 4-48. VC Endpoint – Case C
•
When a VC endpoint is set as a CC source point, F5 end-to-end CC cells are
generated towards the backward direction every second.
Figure 4-49. VC Endpoint – Case D
•
When a VC endpoint is set as a CC sink point, F5 end-to-end CC cells are
expected to be received every second. If no CC cell has been received during
the last 3.5 seconds, AIS state is declared and F5 end-to-end RDI cells are
generated towards the backward direction.
Figure 4-50. VC Endpoint – Case D
4-98
ATM OAM
•
When a VC end point is set as CC both, it functions both as a source and a
sink point.
•
For OAM loopback cells (see OAM Loopback), an ID match check determines
the loopback state (see Figure 4-51), and delays are calculated if the
loopback cell has been authenticated and returned within 5 seconds (see
Figure 4-52):
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Figure 4-51. VC End Point – Case E
Figure 4-52. VC End Point – Case F
Note
Only an ATM host connection can be set as a VC endpoint.
OAM Loopback
OAM loopback cells are used to determine connectivity at specific points in a
network or between networks. OAM cells are part of the F4 and F5 OAM service,
which allows fault management for VPs and VCs. Loopback cells can be defined as
Segment or End-to-End.
OAM loopback support includes the following functionality:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
OAM loopback cell generation – If OAM loopback generation is enabled for a
VC/VP at a certain CP, a loopback cell is sent for this VC/VP once every 5
seconds. The loopback cell is inserted towards the uplink (Tx) direction and
must be looped through another CP back to the origin point, all within no
more than 5 seconds.
•
OAM loopback reply – Each CP must:
ƒ
Have the ability to receive OAM LB cells that are addressed to it,
regardless of whether the OAM LB generation is enabled
ƒ
Loop the cells back towards the originator according to the standard
definitions.
ATM OAM 4-99
Chapter 4 Configuration
•
Installation and Operation Manual
Min/max/average delay statistics – loopback statistics is updated for each
VP/VC that generates OAM loopback, upon each time a loopback cell
completes a roundtrip before the 5 seconds loopback cycle period is over.
Statistics are available for both current and previous intervals.
Configuring ATM OAM
For ATM OAM, you can define up to 256 OAM descriptors and the OAM loopback
parameters.
³
To configure the ATM OAM descriptor:
1. At the config>oam# prompt, enter atm.
The config>oam>atm# prompt appears.
2. Enter one of the strings in the table below for the desired configuration.
Note
To add or modify a parameter, you have to re-enter the entire string covering all
relevant descriptor parameters at the config>oam>atm# prompt.
Task
Command
Comments
Adding a descriptor with
OAM mode set to End-toEnd, loopback enabled
and a loopback
destination address
defined
descriptor <1..256> end-to-end [cc-direction
{source|sink|both|off}] [loopback on lb-destaddr <00–FFx16>]
•
OAM Descriptor 1, 2 and
3 are default OAM
descriptors and cannot be
deleted or modified.
•
OAM descriptors cannot
be modified while being
used by connections.
•
CC-Direction stands for
the OAM continuity
check.
Adding a descriptor with
OAM mode set to End-toEnd, loopback disabled
descriptor <1..256> end-to-end [cc-direction
{source|sink|both|off}] [loopback off]
Adding a descriptor with
OAM mode set to
Segment, loopback
enabled and a loopback
destination address
defined
descriptor <1..256> segment [cc-direction
{source|sink|both|off}] [loopback on lb-destaddr <00–FFx16>]
Adding a descriptor with
OAM mode set to
Segment, loopback
disabled
descriptor <1..256> segment [cc-direction
{source|sink|both|off}] [loopback off]
Adding a descriptor with
OAM mode set to
Intermediate, loopback
disabled
descriptor <1..256> intermediate [cc-direction
{source|sink|both|off}]
4-100
ATM OAM
If set to Intermediate,
Loopback is unavailable.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Disabling the ATM OAM
descriptor
no descriptor <1..256>
³
Comments
To configure the ATM OAM loopback:
•
At the config>oam>atm# prompt, enter the Loopback string as explained
below.
Task
Command
Specifying the loopback address and the
number of lost loopback cells required
before a loopback failure state is declared.
loopback [source-addr <00–FFx16>] [fail-threshold <1..16>]
Example
The following section illustrates how to enable and configure the first ATM OAM
descriptor that can be modified and set up a loopback.
•
Set the descriptor to 4.
•
Choose end-to-end for the OAM mode.
•
Set the Loopback destination address to FF and the source address to 00.
•
Set the threshold of lost loopback packets to 8.
ACE-3200>config>oam>atm# descriptor 4 end-to-end cc-direction source loopback
on lb-dest-addr FF
ACE-3200>config>oam>atm# loopback source-addr 00 fail-threshold 8
4.19 ATM Cell Tests
‘ATM Cell Test’ refers to the insertion of test cells into ATM streams. They are
generated and inserted into an ATM combined data stream in such a manner that
a desired average insertion rate is maintained. The desired average insertion rate
is obtained by enabling the generation and insertion of test cells into each idle
cell of the ATM combined data stream as long as the number of test cell inserted
does not exceed a number that should have been inserted.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
ATM Cell Tests 4-101
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Configuring an ATM Cell Test
ATM cell tests can be specified and manually invoked as explained below. You can
define a cell test for cells without OAM information, for cells with Segment OAM,
and cells with End-to-End OAM.
³
To specify the ATM cell test:
•
Note
At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter one of the strings in the table below.
To add or modify a parameter, you have to re-enter the entire string covering all
relevant cell-test parameters at the config>port>atm# prompt.
Task
Command
Comments
Configuring and running a
cell test for cells without
OAM information
cell-test {e1|t1|sdh-sonet|imagroup|shdsl|adsl2-plus} <slot/port> vc
<0..4095>/<0..65535> [user-cell {clp
{clp0|clp1}] [payload <0x00..0xFF>] [noof-cells <1..10000>]]
•
e1. E1 port
•
t1. T1 port
•
ima-group. Logical port,
grouping SHDSL or E1 ports
•
shdsl. SHDSL port
•
adsl2-plus. ADSL2+ port
•
sdh-sonet. ATM-155 port
•
slot/port. Slot, port or group
number.
•
port. Port or group number
•
vc. Virtual circuit, defined by
the virtual path identifier
(vpi = 0..4095) and the
virtual circuit identifier
(vci = 0..65535)
•
user-cell. Cell without OAM
information.
•
clp0. Cell always passes.
•
clp1. Cell passes if bandwidth
sufficient.
•
payload. Payload content of
the ATM cell.
•
no-of-cells. Number of cells
to be sent.
•
oam-segment. Cell with OAM
information.
•
oam. OAM type.
•
ais. Alarm indication signal.
•
rdi. Remote defect indication
signal.
•
cc. Continuity cell.
Configuring and running a
cell test for cells with OAM
information
4-102
ATM Cell Tests
cell-test {e1|t1|sdh-sonet|imagroup|shdsl|adsl2-plus} <slot/port> vc
<0..4095>/<0.. 65535> [oam-segment
{clp {clp0|clp1}] [oam {ais|rdi|cc}] [no-ofcells <1..10000>]]
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Configuring and running a
cell test for cells with Endto-End OAM information
cell-test {e1|t1|sdh-sonet|imagroup|shdsl|adsl2-plus} < port> vc
<0..4095>/<0.. 65535> [oam-end-to-end
{clp {clp0|clp1}] [oam {ais|rdi|cc} [no-ofcells <1..10000>]]
•
oam-end-to-end. Cell with
OAM end-to-end
information.
Example
The example below illustrates how to set up and run an ATM cell test for ATM
cells with segmented OAM information over E1 ports.
•
Choose the E1 port labeled 1 as the desired port.
•
Set VPI to 4095 and VCI to 65535.
•
Choose the OAM cells that are always forwarded (CLP0).
•
Use cells with OAM information of OAM type AIS.
•
Set the number of cells to be sent for this test to 5000.
ACE-3200>config>port>atm# cell-test e1 1 vc 4095/65535 oam-segment clp clp0
oam ais no-of-cells 5000
ACE-3200>config>port>atm#
4.20 ATM Uplink
ATM Uplink stands for the ability to carry pseudowire payloads over an AAL5
virtual channel (VC) over any ATM port such as STM-1, E1/T1, xDSL, UNI or IMA.
The use of an ATM uplink requires a virtual MAC address bound to relevant port
as explained below.
Standards
The encapsulation and transport of multiprotocol data over ATM over AAL5 is
specified in RFC1483.
Benefits
The ATM uplink extends the ability of carrying pseudowires over DSL to the ability
of carrying pseudowires over other physical and logical ATM ports.
Factory Defaults
By default, no virtual MAC addresses are bound to ATM ports (E1/T1/SDH-SONET).
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
ATM Uplink 4-103
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Configuring an ATM Uplink
The configuration of an ATM uplink is identical to creating an uplink interface over
ADSL or SHDSL ports.
³
To create a logical port by assigning a virtual MAC address to the relevant ATM
port:
1. Create the VCL of the type vcl_interface as explained under Configuring VPL
and VCL Interfaces. You may use physical interfaces (E1/SDH-SONET) or
logical ones (IMA group).
2. Create a router bound to the VCL, setting llc-snap-encapsulation to bridgedpdu. For additional information, refer to Configuring the Router.
Task
Command
Comments
Creating an ATM uplink
interface
At the config>port>atm# prompt:
•
A VCL must be configured
before binding it to an
ATM uplink router
interface.
•
The encapsulation of
AAL5 VC is available in
Bridged PDU mode only.
•
The total number of
router interfaces defined
for the ATM uplink is
limited to 8.
bind {e1|t1|sdh-sonet||ima} {port index} {group
index} [vc {vc index}] [type vcl-interface]
At the config>router(1)>interface(1)# prompt:
bind {e1|t1|sdh-sonet|ima} {slot|port} {group
index} [vc {vc index}] [llc-snap-encapsulation
bridged-pdu]
4.21 IMA Groups
Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) is a standardized technology and is used to
transport ATM traffic over a bundle of up to 8/16 T1 or E1 lines. This bundle is
referred to as IMA Group. The maximum number of lines that define an IMA Group
is 32, enabling transmission at an accumulated data rate of about 64 Mbps. ACE3200 supports up to 8/16 IMA groups.
The IMA inverse multiplexing functionality requires some overhead (ICP or IMA
control protocol cells, typically one ICP cell in every IMA frame, commonly 128
cells in length, and in CTC (Common Transmit Clock) mode, an ICP stuff cell must
be inserted after every 2048 cells and an IMA sublayer on the physical layer.
Standards
The standard specification (version 1.0) was initially approved by The ATM Forum
in July 1997 and updated to version 1.1 in March 1999.
4-104
IMA Groups
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Benefits
The IMA protocol allows ‘breaking up’ ATM traffic and transmit over several links
combined to one logical link, thus increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 8/16,
depending on the number of E1/T1 ports belonging to the IMA group.
Configuring an IMA Group
ACE-3200 allows the creation of up to 8/16 IMA groups for E1/T1 ports. To
configure the IMA groups, follow the instructions below.
³
To define an IMA group and the physical port type:
1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter ima-group <ima-group number>
e1|t1.
The config>port>atm>ima-group(<1–8/16>)$ prompt appears.
2. Configure the IMA group as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the minum number
of required Rx and Tx links.
minimum-links {rx <1..8/16>} {tx <1..8/16>}
Default: 1 for Rx and Tx
The required min
number of links must
be the same for Rx
and Tx links.
Specifying the IMA group ID.
group-id <0..255>
Default: 0
Specifying the Tx frame length
used by the IMA group.
tx-frame-length {32cells|64cells|128cells|256cells}
Specifying the maximum link
delay that can be tolerated
(in ms).
max-differential-delay <1..100>
Default: 128cells
Default: 25
Specifying the supported IMA
spec according to the ATM
forum.
ima-version {1.0|1.1}
Specifying the transmit clock
source used by the near-end
IMA group.
tx-clock-source {ctc|itc}
Default: 1.1
Default: ctc
Specifying the IMA group’s Tx
clock source
ctc-source {internal|system}
Administratively disabling the
IMA group
shutdown
Administratively enabling the
IMA group
no shutdown
Blocking the IMA group for any
reason other than an
insufficient number of links
blocking
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
The block value is valid
only if the IMA group
is administratively
enabled.
IMA Groups 4-105
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Unblocking the IMA group
no blocking
Generating ATM OAM cells in
case of Near End or Far End
operational state failures.
oam-cell-generation
Cancelling the generation of
ATM OAM cells.
no oam-cell-generation
Resetting and restarting the
IMA group
restart
This option is visible
and operational if the
blocking mode is
disabled.
Adds E1 links to the IMA
group.
bind <slot>/<1..8/16>
•
The link number
represents the
respective port
number.
•
The relevant port’s
functional mode
must be set to
IMA.
Removes E1 links from the IMA
group.
³
no bind <slot>/<1..8/16>
Comments
The last link in the IMA
group cannot be
removed if the IMA
group is chosen as
system clock. Links
must first be
configured as E1-IMA
or SHDSL-IMA.
To remove an IMA group:
•
At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter no ima-group <ima-group number>
{e1|t1|shdsl}.
The IMA group is removed.
Example
The example below illustrates how to create and configure an IMA group over the
first E1 port and bind more to it. Set parameters as follows:
4-106
IMA Groups
•
Set the functional mode of the first E1 port labeled 1 on the front panel to
IMA.
•
Specify IMA group 1 and enter the first E1 port (the one labeled 1 at the
front panel) as the physical port.
•
Assign 1 as ID for the IMA group.
•
Set the Tx frame length to 32 cells.
•
Set the max differential delay to 50 ms.
•
Associate the IMA group with IMA version 1.1.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
•
Use CTC as the Tx clock source.
•
Choose the internal oscillator as CTC source.
•
Set the min number of Tx and Rx links to 16.
•
Bind the first E1 port (the one labeled 1 at the front panel) to the IMA group.
•
Administratively enable the IMA group.
ACE-3200>config>port# e1 1
ACE-3200>config>port>e1(1)# functional-mode ima
ACE-3200>config>port>atm# ima-group 1 E1
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)#
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# group-id 1
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# tx-frame-length 32cells
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# max-differential-delay 50
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# ima-version 1.1
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# tx-clock-source ctc
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# ctc-clock-source internal
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# minimum-links rx 16 tx 16
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# no shutdown
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# bind 1
Viewing the Status of an IMA Group
Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of IMA group 1.
³
To view an IMA group’s status:
•
At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)$ prompt, enter show status group.
The IMA group status information appears as illustrated below.
Parameter
Comment
Near End/Far End State
Current state of the near/far end group state
engine
Near End Tx Clock
Clock mode of near-end IMA group, CTC only
Far End Tx Clock
Clock mode of far-end IMA group, either CTC or
ITC.
Rx/Tx IMA ID
The received/transmitted IMA ID
Rx/Tx Frame Length
IMA frame length in cells of tranmitted/received
frames
Rx/Tx Active Links
Number of active receiving/transmitting links
Rx/Tx Available Cell Rate
Current cell rate provided by the IMA group in
receiving/transmitting direction
Rx Time Reference Links
The index of the received timing reference link
used by the near end for IMA data cell clock
recovery toward the ATM layer.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Possible Values
Numerical
IMA Groups 4-107
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Parameter
Comment
Possible Values
Tx Time Reference Links
The index of the transmitted timing reference
link used by the near end to indicate the far
end on IMA data cell clock recovery from the
ATM layer.
Rx/Tx Configured Links
Number of links that are configured to
receive/transmit in a group.
Failure Status
Current failure status of the IMA group
Last Change
Date and time when IMA has changed its state
last.
Max Observed Differential
Delay
The maximum differential delay observed
(in milliseconds) between the links having the
least and most link propagation delay
Least Delay Link
Index of the link with the shortest propagation
delay
GSMT Running Seconds
Number of seconds since IMA group has been in
operational state.
Numerical
Numerical
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# show status group
Near End
Far End
State
Start Up
Start Up
TX Clock
CTC
CTC
IMA ID
Frame Length
Active Links
Available Cell Rate
Time Reference Link
Configured Links
Rx
0
32
0
0
0
0
Failure Status
Last Change
Max Observed Differential Delay
Least delay Link
GSMT Running Seconds
Tx
1
32
0
0
0
0
NE Start Up
2009-11-22 21:25:20
0
0
0
ACE-3200>config>atm>ima-group(1)$
Viewing the Status of a Link within an IMA Group
Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of a link as part of
IMA group 1.
4-108
IMA Groups
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To view the status of a link as part of an IMA group:
1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show status link.
The status information for the first link that is part of the IMA group
appears as illustrated below.
2. Press <M> to view the status information on the next link and so on.
Parameter
Comment
Rx Link ID
The link ID used by the far end
Tx Link ID
The link ID used by the near end
Near End Rx State
Current state of near end receiving link state machine
Near End Tx State
Current state of near end transmitting link state machine
Near End Rx Failure
Current link failure status of the near end receive link
Far End Rx State
Current state of far end receiving link state machine
Far End Tx State
Current state of far end transmitting link state machine
Far End Rx Failure
Current link failure status of the far end receive link
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# show status link
E1-1
Rx
Tx
IMA ID
0
1
Frame Length
32
32
Active Links
0
0
Available Cell Rate
0
0
Time Reference Link
0
0
Configured Links
0
0
Failure Status
Last Change
Max Observed Differential Delay
Least delay Link
GSMT Running Seconds
NE Start Up
2009-11-22 21:25:20
0
0
0
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)$
Viewing IMA Group Statistics
You can view statistics of an entire IMA group or individual links that are part of
an IMA group.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
IMA Groups 4-109
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Viewing Statistics of an Entire IMA Group
You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals.
³
To view the current statistics for IMA group 1:
•
At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics group
current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.
Parameter
Comments
Time Elapsed
Time that has elapsed since the IMA group has been administratively enabled
Valid Intervals
Intervals that account for the statistics displayed
Rx Cells
Recived cells
Tx Cells
Transmitted cells
Group UAS
Number of one second intervals during which the IMA group traffic state
machine is down
NE Failures
Number of times when a near end group failure has occured due to aborting
the configuration or insufficient links.
FE Failures
Number of times when a far end group failure has occurred such as start-up,
aborting the cofiguration, insufficient links or blocking.
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# show statistics group current
Current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed
: 632
Valid Intervals
: 24
Rx Cells
: 0
Tx Cells
: 0
ACE-3200> config>port>atm>ima-group(1)#
³
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics group
interval <interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
4-110
IMA Groups
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics group
all-intervals.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the
config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt appears again.
³
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics group
all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the
config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt appears again.
Viewing Statistics of a Link in an IMA Group
You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals.
³
To view the current statistics for a link:
•
At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics link
current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.
Parameter
Comments
Time Elapsed
Time that has elapsed since the IMA group has been administratively enabled.
Valid Intervals
Intervals that account for the statistics displayed.
IMA Link
The link for whichstatistics are recorded.
Violation
Number of ICP cells that are in error, invalid or missing (except during seconds
when a SES or UAS-IMA condition is reported).
OIF
Number of OIF (Out of IMA Frame) irregularities (except during SES or UAS IMA
at the near end).
Near End SES
Number of one-second intervals containing one of the following at the near
end:
Far End SES
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
More than 30% of ICP cells are IV-IMA (invalid IMA).
•
One or more of the following link errors: LOS, OOF/LOF, AIS, LCD.
•
LIF (Loss of IMA Frame) error.
•
LODS (Link Out of Delay Synchronization) error.
Number of one-second intervals containing one or more RDI IMA errors (except
IMA Groups 4-111
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Parameter
Comments
during UAS IMA at the far end).
Near End/Far End UAS
Number of unavailable seconds (UAS) at the near/far end respectively. A status
of unavailable is initiated when there are 10 consecutive IMA near/far end SES
occurrences; the status ends when there are 10 consecutive seconds with no
IMA near/far end SES occurrences.
Near End/Far End Tx UUS
Number of unusable seconds at the near/far end transmission LSM (Link State
Machine) respectively.
Near End/Far End Rx UUS
Number of unusable seconds at the near/far end receiving LSM.
Near End/Far End Rx Fail
Number of occurrences of a near/far end receiving failure, causing an alarm
condition on this link
Far End Tx Fail
Number of occurrences of a far end transmission failure causing an alarm
condition on this link.
ACE-3200>config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# show statistics link current
Current
---------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed
651
Valid Intervals
24
IMA Link
1
Violation
0
OIF
0
Near End
Far End
SES
0
0
UAS
651
0
TX UUS
0
0
RX UUS
651
0
RX Fail
0
0
TX Fail
N/A
0
ACE-3200>config>atm>ima-group(1)$
³
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics link
interval <interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
4-112
IMA Groups
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics link allintervals.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the
config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt appears again.
³
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt, enter show statistics link all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the
config>port>atm>ima-group(1)# prompt appears again.
4.22 Router
What is the Router in ACE-3200?
The internal router is an interconnection device that connects individual LANs and
makes ACE-3200 accessible from up to 256 access points (router interfaces) that
you may define. Unlike bridges, which logically connect at OSI Layer 2, routers
provide logical paths at OSI Layer 3. Like bridges, remote sites can be connected
using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs.
Benefits
Router interfaces enables users to assign up to 32 IP addresses to a single ACE3200 unit using various protocols.
Factory Default
By default, no router interface is enabled. Initially, ACE-3200 must be accessed
via a local craft connection using a terminal application such as HyperTerminal.
Description
Default Value
ARP timeout (in seconds)
1200
LLC/SNAP encapsulation
routed-pdu
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Router 4-113
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Configuring the Router
The router functionality allows ACE-3200 to establish a link over IP or ATM with
the management station(s), and allows management traffic to be carried through
the unit towards specified targets, over pseudowire connections or other
channels.
³
To set up the router:
1. At the config> prompt, enter router 1.
The config>router(1)# prompt appears.
2. Configure the router specified below.
Task
Command
Specifying the period in seconds
to pass before address resolution
protocol entries are discarded
(ARP timeout in seconds)
arp-timeout <300..100000>
Specifying an IP address that
represents the device.
loopback-address
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>
³
Comments
•
This IP address is also referred to as
system address.
•
Cannot be included in the subnet of
one of the interfaces.
•
Cannot be changed when the LDP
ID has the same address.
To define a router interface and assign IP settings to it:
1. At the config>router(1)# prompt, enter config>router(1)>interface <1.. 32>.
The config>router(1)>interface(<1.. 32>)# prompt appears.
2. At the config>router(1)>interface(<1.. 32>)# prompt, enable the DHCP or
specify the IP settings as illustrated below.
Task
Command
Comments
Enabling the DHCP client
dhcp
•
If DHCP is enabled, you may
configure the DHCP client as
explained below.
•
You can configure a single DHCP
client over every Ethernet port.
•
If DHCP is enabled over a specific
port, you cannot configure another
router interface over the same port.
Disabling the DHCP client
no dhcp
Assigning an IP address and a
subnet mask to the router
interface
address <ip-address|Imask>
Assigning a name to the router
interface
name <string of up to 35
alphanumeric characters>
4-114
Router
Only if DHCP disabled.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To define a default gateway for the router:
•
At the config>router(1)# , enter all necessary information as outlined below.
Task
Command
Specifying a default gateway
default-gateway address
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>
Disabling the default gateway
no default-gateway
³
Note
Comments
To configure the DHCP client:
The DHCP client can only be configured if DHCP is enabled.
1. At the config>router(1)>interface(<1.. 32>)# prompt, enter dhcp-client.
The config>router(1)>interface(<1.. 32>)>dhcp-client# prompt appears.
2. Configure the DHCP Client parameters as illustrated in the table below.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the vendor class
identifier
class-id <free text of max 25
characters>
The vendor class identifier is a
string that is passed on to the
DHCP server for authentication.
Setting the lease time
lease <lease time in days>
The DHCP requested lease time
³
To bind interfaces to a router interface:
•
At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, bind the desired
interfaces as illustrated in the table below.
Task
Command
Comments
Binding an E1 interface
bind e1 <1..16> vc
{<0..4095>/<0..65535>}
You must have a VCL inteface
configured as explained under
Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces.
Binding an SDH/SONET (ATM155) port.
bind sdh-sonet <port>
You must have a VCL inteface
configured as explained under
Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces.
Binding a pseudowire
bind pw <1..162>
You must have a pseudowire
configured as explained under
Configuring Pseudowires.
Binding a PPP connection
bind ppp <1..4>
You must have PPP configured as
explained under Configuring PPPoE.
Binding the bridge
bind bridge 1
You must have a bridge configured
as explained under Configuring a
Bridge.
Binding an SHDSL port
bind shdsl {1..4}{1/1..1/4}
You must have a VCL inteface
configured as explained under
Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Router 4-115
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Binding an ADSL2+ port
bind adsl {1|2}{1/1|1/2}
You must have a VCL inteface
configured as explained under
Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces.
Binding a GRE tunel
³
bind gre-tunnel <1..4>
For instructions on defining a GRE
tunnel, refer to the section below.
To define a GRE tunnel
•
At the config>router(1)# prompt, enter the syntax illustrated below.
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a GRE tunnel
gre-tunnel <tunnel-id> source
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> destination
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>
•
gre-tunnel tunnel-id. Up to four
GRE tunnels can be defined.
•
source. The GRE tunnel source
address must either be a loopback
address or one of the configured
router interfaces.
•
The tunnel source address may
consist of all zeros (0.0.0.0) if the
GRE source is configured by DHCP.
•
destination. The GRE tunnel
destination address must be
associated with a known route,
originated in the tunnel source
address
³
To configure the GRE Keep Alive
•
At the config>router(1)>gre-tunnel<1..4># prompt, enable and define Keep
Alive as explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Defining and enabling
Keep Alive
keepalive [interval <1..32767>] [retries
<1..255>
•
Disabling Keep Alive
no keepalive
³
To enable/disable VLAN tagging:
•
At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, configure the VLAN
tagging as illustrated below.
Task
Command
Enabling VLAN tagging and
assigning a VLAN ID and a priority
vlan <1..4094> priority <0..7>
Disabling VLAN tagging
no vlan
4-116
Router
keepalive. Enables and specifies
the interval at which keep alive
messages will be sent, and the
number of keep alive messages to
be sent.
Comments
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To enable/disable management access control:
•
At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, configure the
management access control as illustrated below.
Task
Command
Comments
Enabling management access for
SNMP, Telnet and SSH via this
router interface.
management-access
The device can be accessed for
management only if
management access is enabled
via this router interface.
Disabling management access via
this router interface.
no management-access
If management access is
disabled, settings can only be
viewed by any user via the
relevant router interface.
³
To define the LLC/SNAP encapsulation:
•
At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, configure the LLC/SNAP
encapsulation as illustrated below.
Task
Command
Comments
Setting the LLC/SNAP
encapsulation used with the AAL5
frame
llc-snap-encapsualtion {routedpdu|bridged-pdu}
Relevant and available only for
E1, IMA group, SDH/SONET
(ATM-155).
³
To enable a router interface:
•
At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, enter no shutdown.
The router interface is active.
³
To display the status of the DHCP client:
•
³
At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, enter show status.
ƒ
If DHCP disabled. A summary of the router interface settings appear.
ƒ
If DHCP enabled: A summary of the current DHCP settings appears.
To disable the router interface:
•
At the config>router(1)>interface(<1..32>)# prompt, enter shutdown.
The router interface is disabled.
Configuring a Remote Peer
Pseudowires and targeted LDP sessions require a remote peer device as
destination.
To enable path redundancy, you have to configure two routes at different
priorities to the same peer. A redundant path will be used if Keep Alive identifies
an error.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Router 4-117
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
To specify a remote peer:
•
Note
Installation and Operation Manual
At the config>router(1)# prompt, enter peer <1..32> ip
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> {name <name>} to assign an ID, a name and
specify its IP address.
The remote peer’s IP address must be associated with a known route
Configuring a Static Route
For remote manager IP addresses and peers that are located in a subnet different
than that of the router interface, you need to assign static route parameters as
explained in this section.
³
To configure a static route:
•
At the config>router(1)# prompt, configure the required parameter as
explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Enabling the static route and the
next gateway (next hop) using
the next hop’s IP address
static-route <IP address/IP mask of
static route> address <IP address of
next hop> priority <1..2>
•
static-route. The next hop
must be a subnet of one of
the router interfaces.
•
The IP addresses and the
mask may range between
0.0.0.0 and
255.255.255.255.
•
address. Multicast, broadcast
or all ones address is not
allowed.
•
priority. The default is 1.
Enabling the static route and the
router interface number towards
which the destination subnet is
to be routed.
static-route <IP address/IP mask of
static route> interface <router
interface number> [priority <1..2>]
Disabling the static route and the
next hop using the next hop’s IP
address.
no static-route <IP address/IP mask
of static route> address <IP address
of next hop>
Disabling the static route and the
router interface number towards
which the destination subnet was
to be routed.
no static-route <IP address/IP mask
of static route> interface <router
interface number>
Configuring an MPLS Path
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in telecommunication
networks that directs and carries data from one network node to the next. MPLS
makes it easy to create "virtual links" between distant nodes. It can encapsulate
packets of various network protocols.
4-118
Router
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
You can do the following:
³
•
Enabling Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)
•
Defining a Label Distribution Protocol
•
Defining an Ingress Tunnel
•
Defining an Egress Tunnel
To configure the MPLS path:
1. At the config>router(1)# prompt, enter mpls.
The config>router(1)>mpls# prompt appears.
2. Configure the MPLS parameters as illustrated below.
Task
Command
Comments
Enabling Penultimate Hop
Popping (PHP)
php
ACE-3200 advertises an implicit null label (a
reserved label value of 3) for directly
connected routes. This implicit null label
causes the previous hop (penultimate)
router to pop the most outer label before
transmitting the packet to the LER. Thus,
the packet arriving at the device through
this port will not carry a tunnel label
Disabling Penultimate Hop
Popping (PHP)
no php
ACE-3200 advertises an actual label value to
the previous hop. After the tunnel label is
established, all traffic arriving at the device
from the previous hop through this port, will
arrive above the tunnel label. This includes
IP control traffic (such as LDP, PING etc…)
that will be transmitted over a tunnel label
and not as a raw IP address. The PHP mode
cannot be disabled when there are PWs
configured without tunnel label
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Router 4-119
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Defining the dynamic label range
label-range dynamic {0–
0|10000–65534}
•
Relevant only for incoming traffic. These
settings have no effect on outgoing
traffic.
•
Cannot be changed when the LDP
signaling protocol is enabled.
•
The range setting is rejected if there are
static PW connections or tunnels
configured with labels that are included
in the dynamic range.
•
The range is relevant to both tunnel
and0020PW labels.
•
The static range is automatically
determined according to the dynamic
range selection,
•
A static label cannot be allocated in the
range allocated only for dynamic labels.
•
0–0. To be set if no dynamic label range
is used.
•
10000–65534. ACE-3200 supports a
single dynamic label range of up to 4094
labels within the range of 10000 and
65534. For example, the label range may
be set to 20000–24094.
Default: 10000–14095
Defining the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
This section explains how to configure the Label Distribution Protocol as part of
the MPLS path on the router interface.
³
To define and configure the LDP:
1. At the config>router(1)>mpls# prompt, enter ldp.
The config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# prompt appears.
2. Configure the LDP parameters as illustrated below.
Task
Command
Comments
Associating an interface with the
LDP.
ldp-id <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>
•
The LDP identifier to be used
in all LDP sessions
established with the unit.
•
The IP address must match
one of the interface IP
addresses or loopback
addresses.
•
Cannot be changed when
LDP is enabled.
Removing the LDP identifier
4-120
Router
no ldp-id
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Defining the required interval
between two consecutive Hello
messages (in seconds).
hello-timer <0..65535>
•
LDP Hello messages enable
LDP nodes to discover each
other and to detect the
failure of an LDP node or the
link to it.
•
LDP Hello messages are sent
periodically on all interfaces
where LDP is enabled.
•
The Hello timer cannot be
modified when the the LDP
mode is enabled.
•
The Keep Alive timer cannot
be modified when the the
LDP mode is enabled.
•
basic-hello. Activates LDP
Basic Hello on the selected
interface.
•
For instructions on defining a
remote, refer to Configuring
a Remote Peer.
Default: 45
Defining the time after which a
keep alive is sent (in seconds) for
periods of inactivity
keep-alive-timer <1..65535>
Activating LDP on the selected
router interface.
router-interface <1..32> [basic-hello
{disable|enable}]
Removing the router interface
associated with LDP.
no router-interface <1..32>
Specifying a previously defined
remote peer to establish an LDP
session with.
targeted peers <1..32>
Activating the LDP
no shutdown
De-activating the LDP
shutdown
³
Default: 40
To display the Hello table:
•
At the config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# prompt, enter show hello-table.
The Hello Table appears.
ACE-3200>config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# show hello-table
LDP ID
Peer LDP ID
Type
Interval Time left
(sec)
(sec)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------ACE-3220>config>router(1)>mpls>ldp#
³
To display all LDP session:
•
At the config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# prompt, enter show session all.
The LDP sessions appear listed.
³
To display a specific LDP session:
•
At the config>router(1)>mpls>ldp# prompt, enter show session [options [ldpid <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>] [peer-ldp-id <1..32>]].
The specified LDP session appears listed.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Router 4-121
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Configuring an Ingress Tunnel
MPLS pseudowire connections require an ingress tunnel label. Follow the
instructions below.
³
To configure or remove an ingress tunnel:
•
At the config>router(1)>mpls# prompt, configure as illustrated and explained
in the table below.
Task
Command
Comments
Configuring the ingress tunnel
with the provisioning mode set to
Manual
ingress-tunnel <1..32> manual
[label <16..65534>] [name <string
of up to 32 characters>]
•
1..32. Ingress Tunnel index
•
manual. Tunnel assignment
mode.
The tunnel assignment mode
cannot be changed
dynamically (on-the-fly)
•
label. ID of the label within
the static label range. This
value can only be set if the
tunnel assignment mode is
set to Manual.
•
name. Name of the ingress
tunnel connection.
•
ldp. Indicates whether the
Tunnel Assignment mode is
manual or LDP-assigned.
If LDP-assigned, only one
ingress tunnel can be
configured.
The tunnel assignment mode
cannot be changed
dynamically (on-the-fly)
•
A label-binding message is
not published over an LDP
session created with
targeted peers, meaning that
tunnel labels are never
created with targeted peers.
•
Only one ingress tunnel is
possible in LDP mode.
Configuring the ingress tunnel
with the provisioning mode set to
LDP
Removing the ingress tunnel.
ingress-tunnel <1..32> ldp [name
<string of up to 32 characters>]
no ingress-tunnel <1..32>
Configuring an Egress Tunnel
To configure an egress tunnel, refer to the instructions below.
³
To configure or remove an egress tunnel:
•
4-122
Router
At the config>router(1)>mpls# prompt, configure as illustrated and explained
in the table below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Configuring the egress tunnel
with the provisioning mode set to
Manual and the EXP bits mode set
to Static.
egress-tunnel <1..32> manual [label
<16..1048575>] [name <string of
up to 32 characters>] [static-exp
<0..7>]
•
1..32. Egress Tunnel index
•
manual. Tunnel assignment
mode.
The tunnel assignment mode
cannot be changed
dynamically (on-the-fly)
•
label. ID of the label within
the static label range. This
value can only be set if the
tunnel assignment mode is
set to Manual.
•
name. Name of the egress
tunnel connection.
•
static-exp. The EXP biots
mode is set to static and the
EXP bits have to be specified.
Configuring the egress tunnel
with the provisioning mode set to
Manual and the EXP bits mode set
to copy the EXP bit from the
pseudowire.
egress-tunnel <1..32> manual [label
<16..1048575>] [name <string of
up to 32 characters>] copy-expfrom-pw
•
copy-exp-from-pw. The EXP
bits are copied from the PSN
parameters of the specific
pseudowire.
Configuring the egress tunnel
with the provisioning mode set to
LDP and the EXP bits mode set to
Static.
egress-tunnel <1..32> ldp [name
<string of up to 32 characters>]
[static-exp <0..7>]
•
ldp. Indicates whether the
Tunnel Assignment mode is
manual or LDP-assigned.
The tunnel assignment mode
cannot be changed
dynamically (on-the-fly).
Configuring the egress tunnel
with the provisioning mode set to
LDP and the EXP bits mode set to
copy the EXP bit from the
pseudowire.
egress-tunnel <1..32> ldp [name
<string of up to 32 characters>]
copy-exp-from-pw
Removing the egress tunnel.
no egress-tunnel <1..32>
Example on Configuring a Router Interface
The following section illustrates how to configure a router and define a router
interface and bind the out-of-band Management Ethernet port to it for remote
management.
³
To configure the router and a router interface for the Ethernet port:
•
Don’t specify a system address. You use the IP address of the to-beconfigured router interface to access ACE-3200.
•
Define the first router interface (router interface 1) as follows:
ƒ
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Assign 172.17.180.153 or any desired IP address and 24 as the prefix for
the 24-bit prefix of the mask. Leave DHCP disabled.
Router 4-123
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ƒ
Assign Ethernet port 1 (to reflect the port in use) as name to identify the
router interface.
ƒ
Enable the router interface using the no shutdown command.
•
Configure a static route, setting the static route’s IP address to
172.17.181.100, the next gateway (hop) to 172.17.180.200 and the priority
to 1.
•
Define a default gateway, for example 172.17.180.1.
ACE-3200>config>router(1)# arp-timeout 1200
ACE-3200>config>router(1)>interface(1)# address 172.17.180.153/24
ACE-3200>config>router(1)>interface(1)# name ETH-01
ACE-3200>config>router(1)>interface(1)# bind ethernet 1
ACE-3200>config>router(1)>interface(1)# management-access
ACE-3200>config>router(1)>interface(1)# no shutdown
ACE-3200>config>router(1)# static-route 172.17.181.100/24 address 172.17.180.1
priority 1
ACE-3200>config>router(1)# default-gateway 172.17.180.1
Viewing the Router Status
You can view the following status overviews:
•
Routing table
•
Address resolution protocol
•
Routing interface table.
To view the relevant status reports, follow the instructions below.
³
To view the routing table:
•
At the config>router(1) # prompt, enter show routing-table.
A list of routes appears.
ACE-3200>config>router(1)> show routing-table
Num
IP Address/Mask
Next Hop
Protocol
----------------------------------------------------------------------------³
To view the address resolution protocol (ARP) table:
•
At the config>router(1) # prompt, enter show arp-table.
The table appears displaying the original MAC addresses and the
associated (resolved) IP addresses.
ACE-3200>config>router(1)> show ARP-table
Num
IP Address
MAC Address
---------------------------------------------------------------------------1.
66.66.66.66
00-1D-71-98-A8-40
4-124
Router
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To view a router interface without DHCP:
•
At the config>router(1)>interface(1)$ prompt, enter show status.
The status information appears as illustrated below for the example.
ACE-3200>config>router(1)># interface(1)$ show status
IP Address: 172.17.180.153/24
configured
³
To view a router interface with DHCP:
•
At the config>router(1)>interface(1)$ prompt, enter show status.
The status information appears as illustrated below for the example.
ACE-3200>config>router(1)># interface(1)$ show status
IP Address : 172.17.180.127/24
DHCP
DHCP Client Information
-------------------------------------------------------------------------Status
: Holding Lease
Server IP
: 192.114.24.10
Gateway IP
: 172.17.180.1
Lease Obtained Time : 2010-01-12 16:17:33
Lease Expire Time
: 2010-02-11 16:17:33
ACE-3200>config>router(1)># interface(1)$
4.23 VPL and VCL Interfaces
ATM operates as a channel-based transport layer using virtual path connections
(VPCs) and virtual channel connections (VCCs), which consist of a series of virtual
links forming a path between two end points. These virtual links are called virtual
path links (VPL) and virtual channel links (VCL), which are defined by virtual paths
(VPs) and virtual channels using the 8- or 12-bit virtual path identifier (VPI) and
the 16-bit virtual channel identifier (VCI) in the ATM header.
Standards
VCCs/VPCs and VCLs/VPLs are defined in RFC1695.
Factory Defaults
No VCL or VPL interfaces are defined by default.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
VPL and VCL Interfaces 4-125
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Configuring VPL and VCL Interfaces
Follow the instructions below to configure VCL and VPL interfaces over SDHSONET, E1/T1, ADSL, SHDSL or IMA groups.
³
To add and configure a VPL interface:
•
At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter the relevant syntax as illustrated and
explained below, depending on the ATM interface used.
Task
Command
Comments
Configuring a VPL
interface over E1
vpl e1 < port> vp <0..4095> type {atm-xc|pw}
[out-traffic-descriptor <1..99999>] [in-trafficdescriptor <0..99999>] [oam-descriptor
<1..256>]
•
VP: Virtual path, states
the virtual path index
(VPI).
•
Type: Specifies if the VPL
interface is associated
with a pseudowire or an
ATM cross connection.
•
Out traffic descriptor:
Specifies the channel’s
Out-TD.
•
In traffic descriptor:
Specifies the channel’s
In-TD.
Configuring a VPL
interface over an IMA
group
³
vpl ima-group <port number> vp <0..4095> type
{atm-xc|pw} [out-traffic-descriptor <1..99999>]
[in-traffic-descriptor <0..99999>] [oamdescriptor <1..2048>]
To delete a VPL interface:
•
At the config>port>atm# prompt, specify the relevant VPL by entering the
relevant syntax as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Deleting a VPL interface over E1
no vpl e1 < port> vp <0..4095> type {atm-xc|pw}
Deleting a VPL interface over an IMA
group
no vpl ima-group <port number> vp <0..4095> type {atm-xc|pw}
³
To add and configure a VCL interface:
•
4-126
At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter the relevant syntax as illustrated and
explained below, depending on the ATM interface used.
VPL and VCL Interfaces
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Configuring a VCL
interface over E1
vcl e1 < port> vc <0..4095/0..65535> type
{atm-xc|ces-vc|pw|vcl-interface|router} [outtraffic-descriptor <1..99999>] [in-trafficdescriptor <0..99999>] [oam-descriptor
<1..256>]
•
VC: Virtual channel, states
the virtual path index and
the virtual channel index
(VPI/VCI).
•
CES-VC: CES virtual
connection
•
VCL-Interface: Virtual
channel link interface
•
Router. Router interface.
VCL interfaces must be
configured before
configuring an ATM router
interface.
Configuring a VCL
interface over an IMA
group
³
vcl ima-group <port number>
vc <0..4095/0..65535> type {atmxc|ces-vc|pw|vcl-interface|router} [out-trafficdescriptor <1..99999>] [in-traffic-descriptor
<0..99999>] [oam-descriptor <1..2048>]
To delete a VCL interface:
•
At the config>port>atm# prompt, specify the relevant VPL by entering the
relevant syntax as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Disabling a VCL interface over E1
no vcl e1 < port> vc <0..4095/0..65535> type
{atm-xc|ces-vc|pw|vcl-interface|router}
Disabling a VCL interface over an
IMA group
no vcl ima-group <port number> vc <0..4095/0..65535> type
{atm-xc|ces-vc|pw|vcl-interface|router}
³
To specify the max number of VPI bits:
1. Make sure that no logical connections exist, otherwise an error is returned.
2. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter max-vpi-bits {8-bits|12-bits}
The max number of VPI bits is set to 8 bits or 12 bits respectively.
Example
The example below illustrates how to create and configure a VCL interface over
the first E1 interface and an ATM cross-connection. Use the following
parameters:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
For the virtual channel (VC), use 4095 for the VPI and 65535 for the VCI.
•
Set the type to ATM-XC (ATM cross connection).
•
Set the outbound traffic descriptor to 1.
•
Set the inbound traffic descriptor to 1.
•
Set the OAM descriptor to 1.
VPL and VCL Interfaces 4-127
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>port>atm# vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65535 type atm-xc out-trafficdescriptor 1 in-traffic-descriptor 1 oam-descriptor 1
ACE-3200>config>port>atm#
Viewing VPL Statistics
You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals.
³
To view the current statistics for a VPL (over the second E1 port and VP set to
4095):
•
At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show e1 2 vp 4095 statistics current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
image. Parameters that appear are illustrated below.
ACE-3200>config>port>atm# show vpl e1 2 vp 4095 statistics current
E1-UNI 1 VP 4095
Current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec)
403
Valid Intervals
24
Rx Cells(CLP 0+1)
Rx Cells(CLP 0)
Policing Discard(CLP 0+1)
Policing Discard(CLP 0)
Tagged Cells
Tx Cells(CLP 0+1)
Tx Cells(CLP 0)
Congestion Discard (CLP 0+1)
Congestion Discard (CLP0)
OAM Rx AIS
OAM Rx RDI
OAM Tx RDI
ATM-155 1 VP 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
E1-UNI 2 VP 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LOC
FM SES
FM UAS
Loopback
Loopback
Loopback
Loopback
Loopback
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Avrg.Delay (usec)
Min.Delay (usec)
Max.Delay (usec)
CDV
Errored Session
ACE-3200>config>port>atm#
³
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vpl e1 2 vp 4095 statistics
interval <interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
4-128
VPL and VCL Interfaces
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vpl e1 2 vp 4095 statistics allintervals.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>atm#
prompt appears again.
³
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vpl e1 2 vp 4095 statistics all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>atm#
prompt appears again.
Viewing VCL Statistics
You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals.
³
To view the current statistics for a VCL (over the first E1 port and VC set to
4095/65535):
•
At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65535
statistics current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
image. Parameters that appear are illustrated below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
VPL and VCL Interfaces 4-129
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>port>atm# show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65535 statistics current
E1-UNI 1 VC 4095/65535
Current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec)
447
Valid Intervals
24
Rx Cells(CLP 0+1)
Rx Cells(CLP 0)
Policing Discard(CLP 0+1)
Policing Discard(CLP 0)
Tagged Cells
Tx Cells(CLP 0+1)
Tx Cells(CLP 0)
Congestion Discard (CLP0)
Congestion Discard (CLP 0+1)
OAM Rx AIS
OAM Rx RDI
OAM Tx RDI
LOC
ATM-155 1 VC 32
4468564
0
457
0
0
2024336
0
0
2443773
0
0
0
0
FM SES
FM UAS
Loopback
Loopback
Loopback
Loopback
Loopback
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Avrg.Delay (usec)
Min.Delay (usec)
Max.Delay (usec)
CDV
Errored Session
³
E1-UNI 1 VC 32
2024338
0
0
0
0
2024338
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65335
statistics interval <interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
³
To view the statistics for all intervals:
1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65335
statistics all-intervals.
Statistics for the first interval appear.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the next interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all recorded intervals until the config>port>atm#
prompt appears again.
4-130
VPL and VCL Interfaces
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To view all statistics:
1. At the config>port>atm# prompt, enter show vcl e1 1 vc 4095/65335
statistics all.
The total of all statistics appears for the valid intervals.
2. Press <M>.
The statistics for the first interval appear.
3. Repeat this procedure for all following intervals until the config>port>atm#
prompt appears again.
4.24 Point to Point over Ethernet
At the logical layer you can configure the PPPoE (Point to Point over Ethernet)
protocol, if such features are used and required in your application. The PPPoE
protocol allows retrieving IP addresses of all data, voice and management sources
in order to ensure HSDPA connectivity in a variety of DSL-based cellular backhaul
applications.
Standards
RFC 2516.
Functional Description
PPPoE stands for Point-to-Point over Ethernet. It is a protocol that encapsulates
PPP frames inside Ethernet frames and is used mainly with DSL services where
individual users connect to the DSL modem over Ethernet.
Up to four PPPoE sessions can be initiated for acquiring IP addresses of all
data/voice and management connections. When working with multiple sessions
of PPPoE or other dynamic entities, ACE-3200 provides virtual MAC addresses in
addition to the standard ones that are provided for each physical port. Once the
virtual MAC file is loaded, it is used by PPPoE entities and bridge ports, if such are
configured.
In addition:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
When a VCL is defined for DSL ports, several PPPoE sessions can be defined
on the same VCL
•
Two PPPoE sessions can be established over the same ADSL2+ interface.
•
One PPPoE session is used to carry OAM traffic directed towards/from
ACE-3200, and the second PPPoE session is used to carry all the traffic
to/from the Node B (a single PPPoE session is used for both data and OAM
traffic of the Node B)
Point to Point over Ethernet 4-131
Chapter 4 Configuration
•
Installation and Operation Manual
Each PPPoE session uses a different virtual source MAC address, and allocates
a dynamic IP address from the LNS. The allocated IP address does not
change, and another IP interface is defined statically on the Ethernet port
that communicates with the Node B, to allow ARP processing between
ACE-3200 and the Node B.
Figure 4-53. Example for Implementing two PPPoE Sessions
Benefits
The PPPoE protocol allows point-to-point connections over Ethernet while
Ethernet networks themselves are packet-based and have no concept of a
connection or circuit.
Factory Defaults
By default, PPPoE is disabled.
Configuring PPPoE
Some parameters apply to point-to-point (PPP) protocols in general while others
specifically apply to the point-to-point over Ethernet (PPPoE). Therefore
parameters are available under PPP and PPPoE.
You can enable and operate up to four PPP ports as explained below.
³
To administratively enable and configure a PPP connection:
1. At the config>port# prompt, enter ppp <1..4> ethernet.
The config>port>ppp(<1..4>)# prompt appears and the relevant PPPoE
port is administratively enabled.
2. Additional commands and parameters are explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Comments
Binding an Ethernet port or an
ATM uplink to the PPP port.
bind {ethernet < port>|logical-mac
<port>}
For instructions on
configuring a Logical MAC
port, refer to Configuring an
ATM Uplink.
4-132
Point to Point over Ethernet
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Defining the authentication and
the minimum authentication level
used by the PPP session.
authentication chap [minimum
{pap|chap}}
•
pap. Simple password
authentication, no
encryption prior to
transmission
•
chap. Secure
authentication protocol
that does not transmit
passwords over the
networks.
Default: chap,
minimum authentication level: pap
Specifying a user name and a
password for authentication
access-authentication [username
<username>] [password <password>]
Administratively enabling the PPP
no shutdown
Administratively disabling the PPP
shutdown
³
To configure PPPoE:
1. At the config>port>ppp(<1..4>)# prompt, enter pppoe.
The config>port>ppp(<1..4>)>pppoe# prompt appears.
2. Configure the PPPoE settings as illustrated and explained.
Task
Command
Comments
Assigning a name to the access
concentrator (AC)
ac-name {free text]
Defining the name of a specific
service that may be requested
during the PPPoE session.
service-name {free text]
If the the access
concentrator does not
support the requested
service, the session will not
be enabled.
Scheduling the time at around
which the PPPoE session should
restart.
scheduled-restart <hh:mm:ss>
{random-range [0..3600]}
Changing the random range
triggers the re-selection of a
random value.
A random time range can be
defined during to which the
scheduled restart will occur.
Cancelling the the time at which
the PPPoE session should start.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
no scheduled-restart
Point to Point over Ethernet 4-133
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Defining the range from which a
random back-off value will be
chosen.
backoff-random-range {0..600}
Changing the random range
triggers the re-selection of a
random value.
The random value is the number
of delay seconds, applied before
the initialization of each PPPoE
session. This means that the
PPPoE initialization packet (PADI)
is not sent until the defied delay
expires.
Cancelling the backoff random
range.
no backoff-random-range
Enabling the VLAN tag being
inserted into the Tx frames and
specifying the VLAN ID and the
VLAN priority bits carried with the
VLAN tag.
vlan {1..4095} [priority {0..7}]
Disabling VLAN tagging
no vlan
Example
The following section illustrates how to enable and configure a PPP port and the
PPPoE:
4-134
•
Bind Gigabit Ethernet port labeled 1 (port 1) to the PPP.
•
Set the authentication level to CHAP and the minimum authentication level to
PAP.
•
Specify test as user name and 1234 as password for authentication.
•
Administratively enable the PPP.
•
Enable and configure the PPPoE.
ƒ
Assign conc-1 as AC name.
ƒ
Assign serv-1 as service name.
ƒ
Schedule 7:00:00 as restart time and provide a random range of 600 s.
ƒ
Do not define a backoff random range.
ƒ
Do not enable VLAN tagging.
Point to Point over Ethernet
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)# bind ethernet 1
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)# authentication chap minimum pap
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)# access-authorization username test password 1234
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)# no shutdown
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)# pppoe
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# ac-name conc-1
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# service-name serv-1
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# scheduled-restart 07:00:00 random-range 600
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# backoff-random-range 0
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)>pppoe# no vlan
Viewing the PPP (PPPoE) Status
Follow the instructions below for viewing the status of the PPP (PPPoE) port
labeled 1 as an example.
³
To view the status:
•
At the config>port>ppp(1)#prompt, enter show status.
The status information appears as illustrated below.
Parameter
Comment
Possible Values
LCP
Indicates whether the LCP of the PPP session is
currently up or down.
Not applicable
Up
Down
IPCP
Indicates whether the IPCP of the PPP session is
currently up or down
Not applicable
Up
Down
Authentication
The authentication method used for the PPP
session
None
PAP
Chap
Remote MRU
Value of the remote MRU (maximum receive unit)
Numerical
Local IP
IP address allocated to the ACE unit by IPCP
Valid IP address
PPPoE
ID of the PPPoE entity
ID of a previously defined
PPPoE entity
Session Status
Indicates whether the PPPoE session is currently
up or down.
Up
Down
Session ID
ID # assigned to the PPPoE session by the access
concentrator
Numerical
Remote MAC
MAC address of the access concentrator with
which the PPPoE session is associated.
XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX
(hexadecima)
Local MAC
Displays the MAC address associated with the
PPPoE session.
XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX
(hexadecima)
Backoff Time
The actual delay in seconds before every PPPoE
initialization process (not including a scheduled
restart). If the first PPPoE packet is not sent, this
delay expires.
Number of seconds
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Point to Point over Ethernet 4-135
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>port>ppp(1)# show status
LCP
: Up
IPCP
Authentication
: CHAP
Remote MRU
: 1500
Local IP
: 172.17.143.91
PPPoE
Session Status
Remote MAC
Backoff Time (Sec)
Scheduled Restart
:
:
:
:
:
UP
00-20-D2-20-51-CD
0
07:08:17
Session ID
Local MAC
: Up
: 1
: 00-20-D2-22-AB-60
ACE-3200>config>port> ppp(1)#
4.25 Pseudowires
Pseudowires are an emulation of Layer-2 point-to-point connection-oriented
services over packet-switching networks (PSN).
Services are carried over pseudowires over PSN such as ATM, Ethernet or TDM,
while the PSN may either be MPLS (Multi-protocol label switching) or IP.
Standards
RFC 4448 - Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Ethernet over MPLS Networks
RFC 4447 - Pseudowire Setup and Maintenance - Using the Label Distribution
Protocol (LDP)
RFC 4553 - Structure-Agnostic Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) over Packet
(SAToP)
RFC 4717 - Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) over MPLS Networks
RFC 5086 - Structure-Aware Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) Circuit Emulation
Service over Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN)
RFC 5287 - Control Protocol Extensions for the Setup of Time-Division
Multiplexing (TDM) Pseudowires in MPLS Networks.
Y.1411 - ATM pseudowires
Y.1412 - AAL5 pseudowires
Y.1413 - TDM pseudowires
Y.1414 - Voice Services pseudowires
Y.1415 - Ethernet pseudowires
Y.1418 - Pseudowire Layer Networks
Y.1452 - Voice Services over IP
Y.1453 - TDM over IP
4-136
Pseudowires
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Functional Description
This section illustrates and explains the pseudowire structure for Ethernet, ATM
and TDM pseudowires.
Basic Pseudowire (PW) Encapsulation
A pseudowire (PW) packet comprises the following data components (see
Figure 4-54):
•
Ethernet header – contains the DA (destination MAC address), SA (local MAC
address) and Ethernet network type.
•
PSN header – defines the PSN transport type: MPLS, UDP over IP,
MPLS over IP, MPLS over GRE and PPPoE.
•
Control Word – a data control as defined in the relevant IETF RFCs and drafts.
•
Payload – the service payload (ATM or TDM payload), which contains the
actual traffic data.
Ethernet header
PSN Header
Control Word
Payload
Figure 4-54. Basic PW Structure
Encapsulation over Different PSN Types
Pseudowire connections may be encapsulated in different formats, depending on
the type of PSN used in the application. The supported formats are:
MPLS/Layer-2, MPLS over IP, MPLS over GRE, UDP over IP, and PPPoE.
MPLS/Layer-2 Packet Format
The following figure illustrates the MPLS or Layer-2 encapsulation format:
DA
SA
Type
8100
VLAN
tag
Type
8847
Tunnel
label
PW
label
Control Word
Payload
Figure 4-55. MPLS/Layer-2 Encapsulation Format
Table 4-9. MPLS/Layer-2 Encapsulation Parameters
Optiona
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the remote
peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8100
If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet
packet type is set to 0x8100. 2 bytes long.
VLAN tag
If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes
the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per
Pseudowires 4-137
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
PW. 2 bytes long.
Type 8847
MPLS packet type – 0x8847. 2 bytes long.
Tunnel label
Label of the PW tunnel between
ACE-3200 and the PE. This parameter is
manually configured per PW/peer and per
direction, or dynamically learned using LDP.
4 bytes long.
Optional
A different value is possible for the RX and
TX directions (tunnel in/out).
PW label
Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined
per PW and per direction, or dynamically
learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.
Control Word
Contains the sequence number and control
bits. 4 bytes long.
Payload
The service data carried on the frame,
depending on the PW type.
MPLS over IP Packet Format
The following figure illustrates the MPLS over IP encapsulation format:
DA
SA
Type
8100
VLAN
tag
Type
800
IP
header
PW
label
Control Word
Payload
Figure 4-56. MPLS over IP Encapsulation Format
Table 4-10. MPLS over IP Parameters
Optional
4-138
Pseudowires
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the remote
peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8100
If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet
packet type is set to 0x8100. 2 bytes long.
VLAN tag
If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes
the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per
PW. 2 bytes long.
Type 800
IP packet type – 0x800. 2 bytes long.
IP header
The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set
to 137 (MPLS in IP). 20 bytes long.
PW label
Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined
per PW and per direction, or dynamically
learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.
Control Word
Contains the sequence number and control
bits. Optional for some PW types. 4 bytes
long.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Parameter Name
Purpose
Payload
The service data carried on the frame,
depending on the PW type.
MPLS over GRE Packet Format
The following figure illustrates the MPLS over GRE encapsulation format:
DA
SA
Type
8100
VLAN
tag
Type
800
IP
header
GRE
header
PW
label
Control
Word
Payload
Figure 4-57. MPLS over GRE Encapsulation Format
Table 4-11. MPLS over GRE Encapsulation Parameters
Optional
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the remote
peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8100
If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet
packet type is set to 0x8100. 2 bytes long.
VLAN tag
If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes
the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per
PW. 2 bytes long.
Type 800
IP packet type – 0x800. 2 bytes long.
IP header
The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set
to 47 (GRE). 20 bytes long.
GRE header
The Protocol Type field of the GRE header is
set to 0x8847 (MPLS). 4 bytes long.
PW Label
Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined
per PW and per direction, or dynamically
learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.
Control Word
Contains the sequence number and control
bits. 4 bytes long.
Payload
The service data carried on the frame,
depending on the PW type.
MPLS Packet with/without PHP
The following figures illustrate the MPLS packet format with and without PHP (for
more information, refer to Chapter 1).
PHP Disabled – Control Packet
DA
SA
Type
8100
VLAN
tag
Type
8847
Tunnel
label
IP header
UDP
LDP
Figure 4-58. MPLS Control Packet when PHP is Disabled
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Pseudowires 4-139
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Table 4-12. Encapsulation Parameters
Optional
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the remote
peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8100
If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet
packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.
VLAN tag
If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes
the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per
PW. 2 bytes long.
Type 8847
MPLS packet type – 0x8847. 2 bytes long.
Tunnel label
Label of the PW tunnel between
ACE-3200 and the PE. This parameter is
manually configured per PW/peer and per
direction, or dynamically learned using LDP.
4 bytes long.
A different value is possible for the Rx and
Tx directions (tunnel in/out).
IP header
The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set
to 17 (UDP). 20 bytes long.
UDP
UDP bytes
LDP
LDP bytes
PHP Disabled – Data Packet
DA
SA
Type
8100
VLAN
tag
Type
8847
Tunnel
label
PW
label
Control
Word
Payload
Figure 4-59. MPLS Data Packet when PHP is Disabled
Table 4-13. Encapsulation Parameters
Optional
4-140
Pseudowires
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the remote
peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8100
If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet
packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.
VLAN tag
If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes
the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per
PW. 2 bytes long.
Type 8847
MPLS packet type – 0x8847. 2 bytes long.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Parameter Name
Purpose
Tunnel label
Label of the PW tunnel between
ACE-3200 and the PE. This parameter is
manually configured per PW/peer and per
direction, or dynamically learned using LDP.
4 bytes long.
A different value is possible for the Rx and
Tx directions (tunnel in/out).
PW label
Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined
per PW and per direction, or dynamically
learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.
Control Word
Contains the sequence number and control
bits. Optional for some PW types. 4 bytes
long.
Payload
The service data carried on the frame,
depending on the PW type.
PHP Enabled – Control Packet
DA
SA
Type
8100
VLAN
tag
Type
800
IP header
UDP
LDP
Figure 4-60. MPLS Control Packet when PHP is Enabled
Table 4-14. Encapsulation Parameters
Optional
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the remote
peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8100
If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet
packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.
VLAN tag
If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes
the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per
PW. 2 bytes long.
Type 800
MPLS packet type – 0x800. 2 bytes long.
IP header
The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set
to 17 (UDP). 20 bytes long.
UDP
UDP bytes
LDP
LDP bytes
PHP Enabled – Data Packet
DA
SA
Type
8100
VLAN
tag
Type
8847
PW
label
Control
Word
Payload
Figure 4-61. MPLS Data Packet when PHP is Enabled
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Pseudowires 4-141
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Table 4-15. Encapsulation Parameters
Optional
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the remote
peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8100
If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet
packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.
VLAN tag
If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes
the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per
PW. 2 bytes long.
Type 8847
MPLS packet type – 0x8847. 2 bytes long.
PW label
Label of the Pseudowire; manually defined
per PW and per direction, or dynamically
learned using LDP. 4 bytes long.
Control Word
Contains the sequence number and control
bits. Optional for some PW types. 4 bytes
long.
Payload
The service data carried on the frame,
depending on the PW type.
UDP over IP Packet Format
The following figure illustrates the UDP over IP encapsulation format:
DA
SA
Type
8100
VLAN
tag
Type
800
IP
header
UDP
header
Control
Word
Payload
Figure 4-62. UDP over IP Encapsulation Format
Table 4-16. UDP over IP Encapsulation Parameters
Optional
4-142
Pseudowires
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the remote
peer or next hop unit. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8100
If VLAN support is enabled, the Ethernet
packet type is set to 0x8100 . 2 bytes long.
VLAN tag
If VLAN support is enabled, this tag includes
the VLAN ID and its priority; configured per
PW. 2 bytes long.
Type 800
IP packet type – 0x800. 2 bytes long.
IP header
The protocol field of the IPv4 header is set
to 17 (UDP). 20 bytes long.
UDP header
8 bytes long; contains the details of:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Parameter Name
Purpose
•
UDP source port – identifies the PW label
of the destination unit
•
UDP destination Port – uses TDMoIP
protocol number: 0x85E (2142)
Control Word
Contains the sequence number and control
bits. 4 bytes long.
Payload
The service data carried on the frame,
depending on the PW type.
PPPoE Packet Format
A PPPoE encapsulation can be either of the following two formats:
DA
SA
Type
8864
PPPoE
header
PPP
header
IP
header
UDP
header
Control
Word
Payload
Figure 4-63. PPPoE Encapsulation Format – with UDP Header
DA
SA
Type
8864
PPPoE
header
PPP
header
IP
header
PW label
Control
Word
Payload
Figure 4-64. PPPoE Encapsulation Format –with MPLS in IP
Table 4-17. PPPoE Encapsulation Parameters
Parameter Name
Purpose
DA
Destination MAC address of the access
concentrator which was learned in the
PPPoE session. 6 bytes long.
SA
MAC address of the device. 6 bytes long.
Type 8864
Ethernet packet type is set to 0x8864,
which indicates that it is a PPPoE data
frame. 2 bytes long.
PPPoE header
Contains the PPPoE session ID. 6 bytes long.
PPP header
Identifies the PPP payload and set to 0x21
to indicate an IP frame. 2 bytes long.
IP header
20 bytes long and contains:
UDP header
•
Source IP of the device, as was learned
by the PPP/IPCP session
•
Destination IP of the remote peer
(configured manually)
•
Protocol field of the IP header; can be
either UDP (17) or MPLS in IP (137),
depending on the PW configuration.
Used only for UDP traffic.
8 bytes long and contains:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Pseudowires 4-143
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Parameter Name
PW Label
Purpose
•
UDP source port – identifies the PW label
of the destination unit
•
UDP destination Port – uses TDMoIP
protocol number: 0x85E (2142)
Used only for MPLS in IP mode.
Manually defined per PW and per direction.
4 bytes long.
Control Word
Contains the sequence number and control
bits. Optional for some PW types. 4 bytes
long.
Payload
The service data carried on the frame,
depending on the PW type.
ATM Service Encapsulation
ATM traffic is encapsulated in either the one-to-one or N-to-1 mode.
One-to-One (1:1) ATM PW Encapsulation
In the one-to-one (1:1) ATM PW mapping mode (selectable), one ATM VCC/VPC is
mapped to a single pseudowire link. The following figure illustrates the packet
format in 1:1 mode:
0
ATM Control
0
0
0
Reserved (4 bits)
Sequence number (2 bytes)
M
Cell Header
V
Reserved
PTI
C
VCI (2 bytes)
Figure 4-65. 1:1 Encapsulation Structure
Table 4-18. 1:1 Encapsulation Parameters
4-144
Pseudowires
Parameter Name
Purpose
Sequence
number
An unsigned 16-bit rounded number for
guaranteeing an ordered packet delivery.
M
Transport mode bit of the control byte; indicates
whether the packet contains an ATM cell or a
frame payload (cell mode = 0; frame mode = 1).
V
Indicates whether the VCI field is present in the
packet; its value is either 0 or 1.
PTI
The 3-bit Payload Type Identifier (PTI) value;
copied form the PTI bits of the encapsulated ATM
cell header.
C
Indicates the CLP (Cell Loss Priority) value of the
encapsulated cell; copied from the encapsulated
ATM cell header.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Parameter Name
Purpose
VCI
The 16-bit Virtual Circuit Identifier (VCI). Valid only
if V=1 (see above).
The following figure illustrates the multiple cells concatenation in 1:1 mode:
ATM Control
0
0
0
0
Reserved (4 bits)
Sequence number (2 bytes)
Cell Header
M
V
Reserved
PTI
C
PTI
C
PTI
C
VCI (2 bytes)
Payload (48 bytes)
Cell Header
M
V
Reserved
VCI (2 bytes)
Payload (48 bytes)
Cell Header
M
V
Reserved
VCI (2 bytes)
Payload (48 bytes)
Figure 4-66. Multiple Cells Concatenation in 1:1 Encapsulation Mode
N-to-One (N:1) ATM PW Encapsulation
In N-to-one (N:1) mapping mode (selectable), one or more ATM VCCs/VPCs are
mapped to a pseudowire link. The following figure illustrates the packet format in
N:1 mode:
0
ATM Control
0
0
Reserved
0
flags (4 bits)
length (6 bits)
Sequence number (2 bytes)
VPI (12 bits)
4 bytes Cell Header
VCI (16 bits)
PTI/CLP
Figure 4-67. N:1 Encapsulation Structure
The following figure illustrates the multiple cells concatenation in N:1 mode:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Pseudowires 4-145
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
0
ATM Control
0
0
0
Reserved
flags (4 bits)
length (6 bits)
Sequence number (2 bytes)
4 bytes cell header
Payload (48 bytes)
4 bytes cell header
Payload (48 bytes)
Figure 4-68. Multiple Cells Concatenation in 1:1 Encapsulation Mode
AAL5-SDU ATM PW Encapsulation
The AAL5-SDU control word for an ATM PW has the following structure:
0
0
Reserved
0
0
T
E
C
U
length (6 bits)
Sequence number (2 bytes)
Figure 4-69. AAL5-SDU Control Word Structure
4-146
Pseudowires
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Table 4-19. AAL5-SDU Control Word Parameters
Parameter Name
Purpose
Reserved
Reserved for future use; assigned with 0 value.
T
Transport type bit. If set to 1, the packet contains
an ATM admin cell. If not set, the PDU contains
an AAL5 payload.
E
EFCI bit. Set to 1 if the EFCI bit of one or more
cells in the AAL5 CPCS-SDU is set also to 1.
Otherwise, it is set to 0.
C
CLP bit. Set to 1 if the CLP bit of one or more cells
in the AAL5 CPCS-SDU is set also to 1. Otherwise,
it is set to 0.
U
Command/response field bit. Set to 0.
Sequence number
A 16 bits, unsigned and rounded number that can
be used to guarantee ordered packet delivery.
TDM Service Encapsulation
TDM traffic can be encapsulated over PSN in two modes:
•
CESoPSN – CES (Circuit Emulation Services) over PSN
•
SAToP – Structure-Agnostic over Packet.
Accordingly, the TDM Control Word frame is structured differently for each
encapsulation mode. For the TDM payload illustration, see TDM Payload.
CESoPSN Control Word
The following figure illustrates the structure of the CESoPSN Control Word:
0
0
0
0
L
R
M
FRG
LEN (6 bits)
Sequence number (2 bytes)
Figure 4-70. CESoPSN Control Word Structure
Table 4-20. CESoPSN Control Word Parameters
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Parameter Name
Purpose
Bits 0–3
Structure bits that their value must be zero
L
If set, indicates that the TDM data carried in the
payload in invalid due to a TDM circuit failure
R
Remote receive failure (PSN RDI) on the PSN side
Pseudowires 4-147
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Parameter Name
Purpose
M
A 2-bit modifier field that further defines the
failure if the L parameter was set:
•
L|M=000 means no failure; the payload must
be processed as received
•
L|M=100 means TDM failure; the TDM data is
invalid
•
L|M=010 means RDI state of the TDM
attachment circuit (AC)
FRG
Fragmentation field for services with CAS
LEN
Used to specify the length of the CESoPSN packet
(CESoPSN header size + the payload size) if it is
less than 64 bytes. If the total length is 64 bytes
or more, the LEN value is set to zero.
Sequence
number
Used to provide the common PW sequencing
functions, as well as the detection of lost packets
SAToP Control Word
The following figure illustrates the structure of the SAToPSN Control Word:
0
0
0
0
L
R
RSV
FRG
LEN (6 bits)
Sequence number (2 bytes)
Figure 4-71. SAToP Control Word Structure
Table 4-21. SAToP Control Word Parameters
4-148
Pseudowires
Parameter Name
Purpose
Bits 0–3
Structure bits that their value must be zero
L
If set, indicates that the TDM data carried in the
payload in invalid due to a TDM circuit failure
R
Remote receive failure (PSN RDI)
RSV
Reserved; must be set to zero
FRG
Fragmentation; must be set to zero
LEN
Used to specify the length of the SAToP packet
(SAToP header size + the payload size) if it is less
than 64 bytes. If the total length is 64 bytes or
more, the LEN value is set to zero.
Sequence
number
Used to provide the common PW sequencing
functions, as well as the detection of lost packets
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
TDM Payload
The following figure illustrates the structure of the TDM payload:
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
Up to N
timeslots in a
bundle
Timeslot N
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
Up to N
timeslots in a
bundle
Payload –
Up to M
TDM frames
Timeslot N
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
Timeslot N
Figure 4-72. TDM Payload
The TDM payload illustrated above consists of the following parameters:
•
N – number of timeslots in a bundle
•
M – number of bundles in a packet
•
L – the packet payload size in bytes (up to 512 bytes), calculated by
multiplying N by M (N¯M)
•
D – the packetization delay in milliseconds, calculated by dividing L by N¯8
(L / N¯8).
Clock Encapsulation
ACE-3200 can encapsulate and distribute an adaptive clock, based on the
CESoPSN format, explained and illustrated under CESoPSN Control Word. The
maximum payload size is 512 bytes. ACE units at the desired destination receive
the adaptive clock by setting the recovered clock to Adaptive as explained under
Recovered Clock.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Pseudowires 4-149
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Ethernet header
PSN Header
0
0
0
0
L
R
M
FRG
LEN (6 bits)
Sequence number (2 bytes)
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
Up to N
timeslots in a
bundle
Timeslot N
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
Up to N
timeslots in a
bundle
Payload –
Up to M
TDM frames
Timeslot N
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
Timeslot N
Figure 4-73. Clock Encapsulation
Ethernet Service Encapsulation
The Ethernet pseudowire allows ACE-3200 to backhaul Ethernet traffic originating
from a Node B or an RNC over IP/MPLS networks and can be used together with
TDM and ATM pseudowire mechanisms if 2G BTS and 3G node are located on the
same site. The Ethernet pseudowire mechanism uses the same signaling
mechanism as the TDM and ATM signaling mechanisms.
The Ethernet pseudowire mechanism can operate on Layer 2 or Layer 3 and uses
the following classification methods:
4-150
•
VLAN ID (Layer 2)
•
VLAN ID + P bits (Layer 2)
•
DST IP (Layer 3)
•
DST IP + IP Precedence (Layer 3)
•
DST IP + DSCP (Layer 3)
•
All.
Pseudowires
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Each port can only operate in one classification mode. The mode of a port is
determined by the mode of the first flow configured on that specific Ethernet
port.
The Ethernet pseudowire cross connection (PW XC) is created by mapping the
pseudowire to the SVI. In N:1 mode, multiple flows will terminate at the same SVI
and this SVI will be mapped to a single pseudowire, so that different flows will be
directed to the same pseudowire
VLAN ID
The RNC differentiates the traffic to several Node Bs by assigning an individual
VLAN ID to every Node B. A single pseudowire is created per assigned VLAN ID.
VLAN ID + P Bits
The RNC differentiates the traffic to several Node Bs by assigning a different
VLAN ID to every Node B. Different traffic classes such as signaling, voice and
data are separated by defining a different priority for every class. A single
pseudowire is created per combination of VLAN ID and priority.
DST IP
The RNC differentiates traffic directed to several Node Bs by assigning a different
IP address to every Node B. A single pseudowire is created per destination (Node
B) IP address or range of destination IP addresses.
DST IP + IP Precedence
The RNC differentiates traffic to several Node Bs by assigning a different IP
address to every Node B. Different traffic classes such as signaling, voice and
data are separated by defining a different priority for every class. A single
pseudowire is created per combination of destination IP address and IP
Precedence bit or per range of destination IP addresses and IP Precedence bits.
DST IP + DSCP
This option is similar to the previous one. The difference is that the priorities are
marked by DSCP bits instead of IP Precedence bits.
Raw/Tagged Mode
In both modes, VLAN Manipulation (push, pop, swap) is supported in user to
network direction. It is not supported in network to user direction.
The only difference between the two modes is that if the Ethernet pseudowire is
configured with LDP enabled, the Ethernet pseudowire is bound to a single flow
over a single VLAN. This VLAN is published via LDP packets.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Pseudowires 4-151
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Factory Defaults
By default, no pseudowires are configured. If you configure a pseudowire, the
following default values are set.
Description
Default Value
Specifying the misorder window size (atm-parameters window-size)
4
Enabling/disabling the PW reordering mechanism (atm-parameters reordering)
disable
The number of an existing peer device to which to assign the current pseudowire.
Next higher number
after the the last peer
device you defined
Tx queue level (SAToP and Basic CES-PSN)
High
Tx queue level (ATM VP 1 to 1, ATM VC 1 to 1, ATM VP N to 1, ATM VC N to 1 and
AAL5-SDU)
Low
VLAN tagging on every transmitted packet
As configured for the
matching router
interface
ToS byte used on outbound traffic
0
Ingress and egress tunnel indices
0
Specifying if AAL5-SDU frames are forwarded to an ATM-VCC or a router
router
Configuring Pseudowires
To configure pseudowires, you have to configure the ATM parameters, clear the
DF bit (if required), set the MTU settings (if required) and then select the
pseudowire type.
Note
³
An Ethernet port cannot be configured as an uplink port of a pseudowire if a flow
is already configured over the respective Ethernet port.
To configure ATM parameters for ATM pseudowires:
1. At the config# prompt, enter pwe.
The config>pwe# prompt appears.
2. Configure the desired pseudowire as explained and illustrated in the table
below.
4-152
Pseudowires
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the
misorder window
size
atm-parameters [window-size {0|1|2|4|8|16|32}]
In packet-switched traffic, some
packets are not received
according to their predefined
sequence number.
The misorder window size
defines the number of packets
in the window, in which ACE3200 tries to correct the packet
sequence misorder errors.
Note: Cannot be changed if
pseudowires already exist.
Enabling/disabling
the PW reordering
mechanism
atm-parameters [reordering {disable|enable}]
To allow proper de-capsulation
of ATM traffic, ACE-3200 has a
mechanism that corrects
misorders by re-ordering the
received packets.
Note: Cannot be changed if
pseudowires already exist.
³
Note
To disable/enable the defragmentation of packets over pseudowires:
This parameter is relevant only if you use certain Cisco routers as pseudowire
peers.
•
At the config>pwe# prompt, enter the following:
Task
Command
Comments
Disabling the
defragmentation of
packets transmitted
over the pseudowire
df-bit-cleared
This setting is required when
transmitting over ATM
pseudowires over Cisco routers
such as the 7600 Series.
df-bit stands for
defragmentation bit.
Enabling the
defragmentation of
packets
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
no df-bit-cleared
This setting is the default and
should not be changed except
when using Cisco routers such
as the 7600 Series.
Pseudowires 4-153
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Note
Installation and Operation Manual
To add/remove the MTU type-length-value:
This parameter is relevant only if you use certain Cisco routers as pseudowire
peers.
•
At the config>pwe# prompt, enter the following:
Task
Command
Comments
Enabling the MTU
type length value.
mtu-tlv-sent
The MTU type length value must
be enabled for transmitting LDP
TDM pseudowires over Cisco
routers.
Defining the MTU
size
mtu-size <MTU size>
Disabling the MTU
type length value.
no mtu-tlv-sent
³
The MTU type length value
should be disabled for all other
configurations.
To define and configure a pseudowire:
1. At the config>pwe# prompt, enter the syntax illustrated in the table below.
The config>pwe>pw(<1.. 66>)# prompt appears.
Task
Command
Comments
Assigning the
pseudowire number
and type, and
specifying the PSN.
pw <1..66> [type {atm-vc-1-to-1|atm-vp-1-to1|atm-vc-n-to-1|atm-vp-n-to-1|ces-psn-data|cespsn-distribution-clock|e1satop|aal5-sdu|ethraw|eth-tagged}] [psn {mpls|udp-over-ip|mplsover-ip|mpls-over-gre}] [{manually|ldp}]
•
type. Specifies the
pseudowire type.
•
psn. Specifies the PSN type.
•
manually/ldp. Specifies the
provisoning mode, i.e.
whether the pseudowire is
manually established or using
signaling.
2. At the config>pwe>pw(<1.. 66>)# prompt, enter the parameters specified in
the table below.
Task
Command
Assigning a name to
the pseudowire
name <up to 32 characters>
Specifying the PW
label used in the
inbound direction.
label in <1..4095>,
if the PSN type is UDPoIP (udpover-ip).
label in <16..655345>
for all other PSN types
4-154
Pseudowires
Comments
•
Not relevant for clock distribution
•
If defined manually and the PSN type is
MPLS (mpls), MPLSoIP (mpls-over-ip) or
MPLSoGRE (mpls-over-gre), the PW value
range must be within the static label
range.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the
pseudowire ID
ldp-pw-id <1..4294967295>
The pseudowire ID is a unique number that
must be defined identically on both the local
and remote unit. This ID is used to identify
the PW connection when labels are exchanged
with LDP.
Enabling the use of a
control word on this
pseudowire
control-word
The control word can be disabled only in the
following pseudowire types:
•
ATM VP 1 to 1 (atm-vp-1-to-1)
•
ATM VC 1 to 1 (atm-vc-1-to-1)
•
ATM VP N to 1 (atm-vp-n-to-1)
•
ATM VC N to 1 (atm-vc-n-to-1)
•
Ethernet PW
Disabling the use of a
control word on this
pseudowire
no control-word
Enabling sequence
numbering
sequence-number
The AAL5-SDU and Ethernet pseudowire types
do not support sequence numbering.
Disabling sequence
numbering
no sequence-number
When disabled, the Sequence bit in the
control word equals zero (0), relevant only if
the control word is enabled.
Sequence numbering can only be disabled in
the following PW types:
Selecting the Tx queue
level
tx-queue {high|medium|low}
•
ATM VP 1 to 1 (atm-vp-1-to-1)
•
ATM VC 1 to 1 (atm-vc-1-to-1)
•
ATM VP N to 1 (atm-vp-n-to-1)
•
ATM VC N to 1 (atm-vc-n-to-1)
•
Ethernet pseudowire
Specifies the priority of the pseudowire in the
outbound direction via the Ethernet port. Not
relevant when the pseudowire subtype is
clock recovery.
Note: For clock distribution pseudowires, the
priority level is assigned automatically and
cannot be changed.
Enabling and
configuring the OAM
VCCV-BFD protocol
oam vccv-bfd [{multiplier <2..60}
{tx-minimum
<1000000..4294967295>}
{rx-minimum
<1000000..4294967295>}]
Disabling the OAM
VCCV-BFD protocol
oam disable
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Not relevant for SAToP, Basic CES PSN or
AAL5-SDU pseudowires
Pseudowires 4-155
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Eabling and
configuring VLAN
tagging on every
transmitted packet
vlan [id <0..4094>] [priority
<0..7>]
The VLAN ID and priority are indicated to
every transmitted packet of the relevant
pseudowire.
Assigning the EXP bits
to be used on the
pseudowire label and
the tunnel label.
exp-bits <0..7>
Applies only to MPLS-based PSNs such as
MPLS, MPLSoIP, MPLSoGRE and only if the PW
subtype is data or clock distribution.
Specifying the value
for the ToS byte used
on outbound traffic
tos <0..255>
Applies if the PSN type is UDP over IP, MPLS
over IP, or MPLS over GRE.
Configuring the ATM
service parameters
(ATM payload)
atm-payload [max-cells <1..29>]
[aal5-mode {enable|disable}]
[timeout-mode enable timeout
<100..5000000>}
•
max-cells. Refers to the max number of
ATM cells concentrated in a single
Ethernet frame for this pseudowire.
An Ethernet frame is sent only if the max
number of cells has been reached, if an
ATM cell indicating the end of AAL5-PDU
has been received (LBS in PTI field = 1),
if the timeout for this pseudowire has
expired.
•
aal5-mode. Enables or disables the AAL5
mode for the relevant psudowire. When
enabled, reciving a cell with PTI=1 triggers
a frame transmission. This parameter is
not relevant for AAL5-SDU pseudowires.
•
timeout-mode. Enables or disables the
timeout mechanism for the relevant
pseudowire and specifies the timeout in
usec, if enabled. This parameter is not
relevant for the AAL5-SDU pseudowire
type.
•
Relevant if the selected pseudowire type
is AAL5-SDU.
•
Cannot be changed dynamically (on the
fly).
•
size. The payload size in bytes. It is
multiplied with the number of timeslots in
the bundle.
•
rate. The number of time slots for each
frame in the packet. The value of size/rate
should be 2 to 256.
atm-payload [max-cells <1..29>]
[aal5-mode {enable|disable}]
[timeout-mode disable}
Specifying whether
AAL5-SDU frames
received from the PSN
are forwarded to the
router or an ATM VCC.
aal5-termination {atm|router}
Configuring the TDM
payload for CES over
PSN.
tdm-payload [size <34..512>]
[rate <1..31>]
4-156
Pseudowires
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Configuring the TDM
payload for SAToP.
tdm-payload [size <34..512>]
•
size. The payload size in bytes, The
payload size is multiplied with 32.
•
rate. The number of time slots for each
frame in the packet. The value of size/rate
should be 2 to 256.
Specifying the jitter
buffer’s delay towards
the transmit direction
in usec.
Activating the current
pseudowire
Note
jitter-buffer <1000..32000>
The jitter buffer compensates for the packet
delay variation tolerance (PDVT) and general
network jitter.
The minimum value cannot be lower than the
packetization delay, which is calculated as
follows:
•
For E1/T1 CES PSN packetization delay –
the payload size (frames in packet) is
doubled by 125 microseconds.
•
For T1 SAToP packetization delay – the
payload size (frames in packet) is
multiplied with 32. The result is divided by
24 and then multiplied with 125
microseconds:
{[payload size x 32] : 24} x 125 usecs.
no shutdown
Once activated, a pseudowire cannot be deactivated (shut down).
Viewing the Pseudowire Status
1. At the config#pwe prompt, enter the desired pseudowire (pw <number>).
The config>pwe>pw(<number>)$ prompt appears.
2. Enter show status.
The status screen appears. For information on the displayed parameters
and settings, refer to the table above.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Pseudowires 4-157
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>pwe>pw(5)$ show status
PW : 5
Name
PW Type
PSN Type
Operational Status
Local Status
Remote Status
Active Router IF
Out Label
Out Tunnel Label
In Label
In Tunnel Label
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
PW-5
SAToP
MPLS
Forwarding
N/A
0
0
0
0
ACE-3220>config>pwe>pw(5)$
4.26 Cross Connections
Cross connections are internal connections of two streams that are transmitted
over the same port or two different ports. In this case, these two streams can be
two ATM streams or an Ethernet stream over ATM with an ATM stream.
Configuring a Cross Connection
³
To configure an ATM-VP cross connection:
1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect.
The config>xc# prompt appears.
2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the
various interfaces.
4-158
Cross Connections
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Defining an ATMVP cross
connection for a
stream of one VP
received over
E1/T1 and to be
cross-connected
with a stream of
another VP to be
transmitted over
the same or a
different E1/T1
port.
atm-vp [{e1|t1} <1..8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [{e1|t1}
<1..8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [name {name}}
•
e1/t1. ‘Port 1’, carrying
the stream to be cross
connected with the
stream on ‘port 2’
•
vp. Virtual path of the
stream on ‘port 1’.
•
e1/t1. ‘Port 2’
•
vp. Virtual path of the
stream on ‘port 2’
•
name. Name of the
cross connection that
attaches the stream
received over E1/T1
(port 1) to the stream
that transmits over
E1/T1 (port 2).
Defining an ATMVP cross
connection for a
stream received of
one VP over E1/T1
and to be crossconnected with a
stream of another
VP to be
transmitted over
IMA.
atm-vp [{e1|t1} <1..8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [ima-group
<group number>] [vp <0..4095>] [name {name}}
•
e1/t1. Carries the
stream to be cross
connected with the
stream transmitted over
the IMA group. The
number of available E1
ports depends on your
hardware profile.
•
vp. Virtual path of the
stream on E1.
•
ima-group. IMA group
•
vp. Virtual path of the
stream transmitted over
the IMA group.
•
name. Name of the
cross connection that
attaches the stream
received via E1 to the
stream that transmits
over the IMA group.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Cross Connections 4-159
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Defining an ATMVP cross
connection for a
stream received
over IMA and to be
cross-connected
with a stream to
be transmitted
over E1/T1.
atm-vp [ima-group <group number>] [vp <0..4095>]
[{e1|t1} <1..8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [name {name}}
•
ima-group. Carries the
stream to be cross
connected with the
stream transmitted over
E1.
•
vp. Virtual path of the
stream transmitted over
the IMA group.
•
e1/t1. E1/T1 port
•
vp. Virtual path of the
stream transmitted over
E1/T1.
•
name. Name of the
cross connection that
attaches the stream
received via E1/T1 to
the stream that
transmits over E1/T1.
•
ima-goup. ‘Port 1’,
carrying the stream to
be cross connected with
the stream on ‘port 2’
•
vp. Virtual path of the
stream on ‘port 1’.
•
ima-group. ‘Port 2’
•
vp. Virtual path of the
stream on ‘port 2’
•
name. Name of the
cross connection that
attaches the stream
received over the IMA
group (port 1) to the
stream that transmits
over the IMA group
(port 2).
Defining an ATMVP cross
connection for a
stream received
over IMA and to be
cross-connected
with a stream to
be transmitted
over a different
IMA group.
Removing a VP
cross connection
for ATM VPs.
³
atm-vp [ima-group <group number>] [vp <0..4095>]
[ima-group <group number>] [vp <0..4095>] [name
{name}}
no atm-vp [{e1|t1} <1..8/16>] [vp <0..4095>] [{e1|t1}
<1..8/16>] [vp <0..4095>]
Modify the syntax for
removing cross connections
over other ports
accordingly.
To configure an ATM-VC cross connection:
1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect.
The config>xc# prompt appears.
2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the
various interfaces.
4-160
Cross Connections
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Defining an ATMVC cross
connection for a
stream received
over E1/T1 and to
be crossconnected with a
stream to be
transmitted over a
different E1/T1
port.
atm-vc [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>]
[e1|t1} <1..16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [name
{name}}
•
e1/t1. ‘Port 1’, carrying
the stream to be cross
connected with the
stream on ‘port 2’
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream on ‘port 1’.
•
e1/t1. ‘Port 2’
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream on ‘port 2’
•
name. Name of the
cross connection that
attaches the stream
received over E1/T1
(port 1) to the stream
that transmits over
E1/T1 (port 2).
Defining an ATMVC cross
connection for a
stream received
over E1/T1 and to
be crossconnected with a
stream to be
transmitted over
IMA.
atm-vc [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [imagroup <group number>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [name
{name}}
•
e1/t1. Carries the
stream to be cross
connected with the
stream transmitted over
the IMA group.
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream on E1/T1.
•
ima-group. IMA group
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream transmitted
over the IMA group.
•
name. Name of the
cross connection that
attaches the stream
received via E1/T1 to
the stream that
transmits over the IMA
group.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Cross Connections 4-161
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Defining an ATMVC cross
connection for a
stream received
over IMA and to be
cross-connected
with a stream to
be transmitted
over E1/T1.
atm-vc [ima-group <group number>] [vc
<0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..8/16>] [vc
<0..4095/0..65535>] [name {name}}
•
ima-group. Carries the
stream to be cross
connected with the
stream transmitted over
E1/T1.
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream transmitted
over the IMA group.
•
e1/t1. E1/T1 port
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream transmitted
over E1/T1.
•
name. Name of the
cross connection that
attaches the stream
received via E1/T1 to
the stream that
transmits over E1/T1.
•
ima-goup. ‘Port 1’,
carrying the stream to
be cross connected with
the stream on ‘port 2’
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream on ‘port 1’.
•
ima-group. ‘Port 2’
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream on ‘port 2’
•
name. Name of the
cross connection that
attaches the stream
received over the IMA
group (port 1) to the
stream that transmits
over the IMA group
(port 2).
Defining an ATMVC cross
connection for a
stream received
over IMA and to be
cross-connected
with a stream to
be transmitted
over a different
IMA group.
Removing a VP
cross connection
for ATM VPs over
E1/T1 ports.
³
atm-vc [ima-group <group number>] [vc
<0..4095/0..65535>] [ima-group <group number>] [vc
<0..4095/0..65535>] [name {name}}
no atm-vc [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>]
[{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>]
Modify the syntax for
removing cross connections
over other ports
accordingly.
To configure an ATM-CES cross connection:
1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect.
The config>xc# prompt appears.
2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the
various interfaces.
4-162
Cross Connections
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Defining an ATMCES cross
connection for
ATM VPs over IMA
group and E1/T1.
atm-ces [ima-group <group number>] [vc
<0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [time-slots
<0..31>] [jitter-buffer <1..32>} [name {name}}
•
ima-group. Carries the
stream to be crossconnected with the E1
stream.
•
vc. Virtual channel of
the stream on ‘port 1’.
•
e1/t1. E1/T1 port
•
time-slots. The CES
bundle’s time slot.
•
jitter-buffer. CDVT
buffer delay in
milliseconds towards
the transmit direction
(ATM to TDM).
•
name. Name of the
cross connection.
Removing the
ATM-CES cross
connection for
ATM VPs over IMA
group and E1/T1
³
no atm-ces [ima-group <group number>] [vc
<0..4095/0..65535>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>]
To configure pseudowire VPL cross-connections:
1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect.
The config>xc# prompt appears.
2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the
various interfaces.
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a
pseudowire cross
connection over E1
between two
PSNs.
pw-vp [pw <pw number>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vp
<0..4095>] [to-psn <0..4095>] [from-psn <0..4095>]
•
pw-vp. A previously
configured pseudowire
•
e1/t1. The port used by
the pseudowire
•
to-psn. VP carried
towards the target PSN
•
from-psn. VP carried
towards the PSN that
carries the PW.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Cross Connections 4-163
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a
pseudowire cross
connection over
IMA between two
PSNs.
pw-vp [pw <pw number>] [ima-group <group number>]
[vp <0..4095>] [to-psn <0..4095>] [from-psn
<0..4095>]
•
pw-vp. A previously
configured pseudowire
•
ima-group. A previously
configured pseudowire
•
to-psn. VP carried
towards the target PSN
•
from-psn. VP carried
towards the PSN that
carries the PW.
•
pw-vp. A previously
configured pseudowire
•
e1/t1. The port used by
the pseudowire
•
to-psn. VP carried
towards the target PSN
•
from-psn. VP carried
towards the PSN that
carries the PW.
Removing a
pseudowire cross
connection over
E1/T1.
no pw-vp [pw <pw number>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vp
<0..4095>]
Defining a
pseudowire cross
connection over E1
between two
PSNs.
pw-vp [pw <pw number>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vp
<0..4095>] [to-psn <0..4095>] [from-psn <0..4095>]
³
To configure pseudowire VCL cross-connections:
1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect.
The config>xc# prompt appears.
2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the
various interfaces.
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a
pseudowire cross
connection over E1
between two
PSNs.
pw-vc [pw <pw number>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vc
<0..4095/0..65535>] [to-psn <0..4095/0..65535>]
[from-psn <0..4095/0..65535>]
•
pw-vc. A previously
configured pseudowire
•
e1/t1. The port used by
the pseudowire
•
to-psn. VC carried
towards the target PSN
•
from-psn. VC carried
towards the PSN that
carries the PW.
4-164
Cross Connections
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a
pseudowire cross
connection over
IMA between two
PSNs.
pw-vc [pw <pw number>] [ima-group <group number>]
[vc <0..4095/0..65535>] [to-psn <0..4095/0..65535>]
[from-psn <0..4095/0..65535>]
•
pw-vc. A previously
configured pseudowire
•
ima-group. A previously
configured pseudowire
•
to-psn. VC carried
towards the target PSN
•
from-psn. VC carried
towards the PSN that
carries the PW.
Removing a
pseudowire cross
connection over
E1/T1.
no pw-vc [pw <pw number>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [vc
<0..4095/0..65535>]
Removing a
pseudowire cross
connection over
IMA.
no pw-vc [pw <pw number>] [ima-group <group
number>] [vc <0..4095/0..65535>]
³
To configure a pseudowire TDM cross connection:
1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect.
The config>xc# prompt appears.
2. Configure the pseudowire as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Defining a TDM
pseudowire cross
connection over
E1/T1
pw-tdm [pw <pw number>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>] [timeslots <0..31>]
•
pw-tdm. A previously
configured TDM
pseudowire
•
e1/t1. The port used by
the pseudowire
•
time-slots. The
designated time slots at
the destination
Removing a TDM
pseudowire cross
connection over
E1/T1
³
no pw-tdm [pw <pw number>] [{e1|t1} <1..16>]
To configure an Ethernet cross conection:
1. At the config# prompt, enter cross-connect.
The config>xc# prompt appears.
2. Configure the cross connection as illustrated and explained below for the
various interfaces.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Cross Connections 4-165
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Example
This section provides an example on creating a TDM pseudowire cross connection
using the following parameters:
•
Use pseudowire (pw) 1.
•
Use E1 port 4.
•
Set the time slot to 10.
ACE-3200>config>xc# pw-tdm pw 1 e1 4 time-slots 10
ACE-3200>config>xc#
4.27 Remote DSL Modem
A DSL modem enables services over DSL even though the ACE-3200 is not
equipped with an xDSL interface.
Functional Description
The DSL modem is accessed via one of the Ethernet ports of an ACE-3200 unit
and located between the relevant ACE-3200 unit and the DSLAM as illustrated
below. The example application below illustrates the provision of data services
(HSDPA) over DSL using ACE-3200.
Figure 1-74. HSDPA over DSL using a DSL Modem
Configuring the Connection to the Remote DSL Modem
You have to enable the connection and specify the IP address of the remote DSL
modem. In addition, you can reset the modem and update its software.
4-166
Remote DSL Modem
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Note
Chapter 4 Configuration
• The IP address cannot be the same as the router interface IP.
• The type of the local router’s interface must be set to Ethernet.
• Multicast, broadcast, all ones and all zeroes are not allowed.
• The IP address can be changed dynamically (on-the-fly).
• Before you can update the DSL modem’s software, you have to download the
software file to your local ACE-3200 unit.
³
To enable the connection to a remote DSL modem:
•
At the config# prompt, enter remote-dsl-modem <1..2>.
The config>remote-dsl-modem(<1..2>)# prompt appears.
³
To specify the IP address of the DSL modem:
•
At the config>remote-dsl-modem(<1..2>)# prompt, enter
address <IP address>.
The IP address is defined and ACE-3200 connects to the associated DSL
modem.
³
To reset the remote DSL modem:
•
At the config>remote-dsl-modem(<1..2>)# prompt, enter
reset.
The DSL modem is reset.
³
To update the remote DSL modem’s software:
•
At the config>remote-dsl-modem(<1..2>)# prompt, enter
sw-download.
The DSL modem’s software is updated.
³
To disconnect from a remote DSL modem:
•
At the config# prompt, enter no remote-dsl-modem <1..2>.
The connection to the remote DSL mode is terminated.
4.28 Administration
This section covers administrative tasks such as entering contact info, viewing
inventory, defining the clock source, adjusting the system clock, file management,
operating a remote system slog (Syslog) server etc. In addition, this section
instructs you on resetting the unit. It also contains the global commands, which
are available from any level.
Specifying Administrative Information
You can assign a name to ACE-3200, specify information on its location and
whom to contact if necessary. In addition, you can modify the timeout and
number of retries for file transfers to the unit and view the inventory.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Administration 4-167
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To enter information and set administrative parameters:
•
At the config>system# prompt, specify the unit’s details as illustrated and
explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Comments
Assigning a name to the unit.
name <free text>
Removing the name from the unit
no name
Specifying a contact person in
charge for this unit
contact <free text>
Removing the contact person
no contact
Specifying the location of this
unit.
location <free text>
Removing the location
no location
Specifying the interval for retrying
file transfers and the timeout
after unsuccessful attempts (in
seconds).
tftp timeout <1..1000> retry-timeout 10
In this case, TFTP refers to
file transfers not related to
upgrades.
Assigning an alias name for the
physical entity as specified by a
network manager.
inventory alias <user assigned alias
name>
Refer to Viewing the
Hardware and Software
Profile for additional
information.
Clearing the event log
clear-event-log
Configuring the Clocks
ACE-3200 requires a distinct clock source and a defined clock domain in order to
fulfill its purpose in a given backhauling application.
ACE units allow you to configure an adaptive master clock that you may recover
from another ACE unit. The adaptive master clock is encapsulated and distributed
over a TDM pseudowire as explained under Clock Encapsulation (TDM Service
Encapsulation). This master clock is then retrieved (recovered) by another ACE
unit in the network.
Clock Domain
You have to select the clock source type, as well as the port of the master
system clock, which will be used as the source for all other E1/T1 and STM-1/OC3c ports.
You may also select a fallback clock that takes over in case the master clock fails.
In addition, you can enable/disable the system to revert to the master clock after
an error has been resolved that caused the master clock to become unavailable
causing the system to switch to the fallback clock.
4-168
Administration
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To configure a clock domain:
1. At the config>system# prompt, enter clock.
The config>system>clock# appears.
2. Enter domain 1 to specify a clock domain.
The config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt appears.
3. Configure the clock domain as illustrated and explained below.
³
To configure the master clock:
•
At the config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt, configure the master clock
as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the master clock
source
master rx-port [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>|
sdh-sonet <1..2>|shdsl 1|ima-group <1..5>/9/17>]
Specifies the port via
which to transmit the
master clock source.
Specifying the recovered
master clock
master recovered 1
Removing the master clock
no master
³
To configure the fallback clock:
•
At the config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt, configure the fallback clock
as illustrated and explained below.
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the fallback
clock source
fallback rx-port [{e1|t1} <1..4/8/16>|
sdh-sonet <1..2>|shdsl 1|ima-group <1..5>/9/17>]
•
Specifies the port via
which to transmit
the fallback clock
source.
•
You should use the
same port as for the
master clock.
Specifying the master
fallback clock
fallback master 1
Removing the fallback clock
no fallback
³
To enable/disable the Revertive mode:
•
At the config>system>clock>domain(1)# prompt, enter revertive <0..720> (in
seconds).
•
To disable the Revertive mode, enter no revertive.
Recovered Clock
ACE-3200 and ACE-3205 units can recover a clock transmitted over TDM
pseudowire by any ACE unit.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Administration 4-169
Chapter 4 Configuration
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To configure a recovered clock:
1. At the config>system# prompt, enter clock.
The config>system>clock# appears.
2. Enter recovered 1 adaptive.
The config>system>clock>recovered(1/adaptive)# prompt appears.
3. Configure the recovered clock as illustrated and explained below.
Recovered Clock - Adaptive
Task
Command
Comments
Specifying the pseudowire
on which the clock stream
is carried.
pw <1..66>
Enabling the recovered
clock
no shutdown
Disabling the recovered
clock
shutdown
Specifying the second IP
address for receiving the
clock.
source-address
<0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>
Must be one of the preconfigured loopbackaddresses.
Defining the required
accuracy level of the
recovered clock source
source-quality
<stratum1|stratum2|stratum3|
stratum3e|stratum4>
•
stratum1. Servers connected to atomic
or GPS clocks. Synchronizes at an
accuracy of 1x10E-11 frames.
Default: stratum1
•
stratum2. Servers that send NTP
requests to Stratum 1 servers.
Synchronizes at an accuracy of
1.6x10E-8 frames.
•
stratum3. Like Stratum 2, but operates
over a larger range. Synchronizes at an
accuracy of 4.6x10E-6 frames.
•
stratum3e. Standard created as a result
of SONET equipment requirements.
Synchronizes at an accuracy of 1.0x10E6 frames
•
stratum4. Like Stratum 2 and 3, but
operates over a larger range and does
not have a holdover capability.
Synchronizes at an accuracy of 3.2x10E5 frames.
•
The source quality cannot be changed if
the clock recovery is active.
Displaying Statistics for the Recovered Clock
You can view statistics of the current interval, a specified interval or all intervals.
4-170
Administration
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To view current statistics:
•
At the config>system>clock>recovered(1/adaptive)# prompt, enter show
statistics current.
Statistics for the current time interval appear as illustrated in the screen
image. Parameters that appear are explained in the table below.
ACE-3200>config>system>clock>recovered(1/adaptive)# show statistics current
Current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Elapsed (Sec) 685
Valid Intervals
3
Rx Packets
Lost Packets
Out of Order
Packets
0
0
0
ACE-3200>config>system>clock>recovered(1/adaptive)#
Parameter
Comments
Time Elapsed
Time that has elapsed since the beginning of he current interval .
Valid Intervals
Intervals that account for the statistics displayed.
Rx Packets
Number of received packets from the clock source
Lost Packets
Number of lost packets
Out of Order Packets
Number of packets that arrived in the wrong order
³
To view the statistics for a specific interval:
•
At the config>system>clock>recovered(1/adaptive)# prompt, enter show
statistics <interval number>.
Statistics for the specified interval appear.
Setting the Date and the Time
You can adjust the time and the date, set the unit to summer time or link the
system clock to a network time server to receive the network time.
³
To specify the system date and time and daylight saving time options:
1. At the config>system# prompt, enter date-and-time.
The config>system>date-time# prompt appears.
2. Specify the date and time and associated parameters as illustrated and
explained below.
Task
Command
Specifying the system
date
date <yyyy-mm-dd>
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Administration 4-171
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Specifying the system
time
time <hh:mm[:ss]>
Specifying the time zone
of the unit’s location
zone utc <-12:00..+12:00>
Defining the summer time
to recur annually during a
specified period defined
by a the xth week on a
given weekday in a given
week.
summer recurring start {1st|2nd|3rd|4rd|last}
{sunday|monday|tuesday|wednesday|thursday|friday|saturday}
{january|february|march|april|may|june|july|august|september|october|november|
december} <hh:mm> end {1st|2nd|3rd|4rd|last}
{sunday|monday|tuesday|wednesday|thursday|friday|saturday}
{january|february|march|april|may|june|july|august|september|october|november|
december} <hh:mm> offset <0..600>
Defining the summer time
according to specified
dates.
summer date start <yyyy-mm-dd> <hh:mm> end <yyyy-mm-dd> <hh:mm>
offset <0..600>
Disabling summer time
no summer
³
Default: +0.00
To view the date and time settings:
•
At the config>system# prompt, enter show date-and-time.
The date, time and the time zone are displayed.
ACE-3200>config>system# show date-and-time
2009-12-22
19:52:23
UTC +02:00
Linking to a Network Time Server
This section explains how to link configure ACE-3200 in order to receive the
network time Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) server.
³
To set the SNTP parameters:
1. At the config>system>date-time# prompt, enter sntp.
The config>system>date-time>sntp# prompt appears.
2. Specify the SNTP parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Setting ACE-3200 to operate in SNTP Broadcast
mode
broadcast
Setting ACE-3200 to operate in SNTP Unicast
mode
no broadcast
Specifying the required delay between
automatic SNTP requests (in minutes)
poll-interval interval <1..1440>
4-172
Administration
Default: 60
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To specify the SNTP sever:
1. At the config>system>date-time>sntp# prompt, enter server 1.
The config>system>date-time>sntp>server(1) prompt appears.
2. To assign an IP address to the SNTP server, at the config>system>datetime>sntp>server(1)# prompt, enter address <1.1.1.1..255.255.255.255>.
The IP address is assigned to the SNTP server.
³
To send a single SNTP request to the SNTP server:
•
At the config>system>date-time>sntp# prompt, enter send-request.
A single request is sent to the SNTP server.
Setting the Syslog Parameters
ACE-3200 uses the Syslog protocol to generate and transport event notification
messages over IP networks to a syslog server. The Syslog operation is compliant
with the RFC 3164 requirements.
You have to configure a syslog server and additional syslog parameters on the
ACE unit (device) to enable it to communicate with the syslog server.
³
To specify and configure a syslog server:
1. At the config>system# prompt, enter syslog server <1..5>.
The config>system>syslog(server/<1..5>) prompt appears.
2. Specify the syslog server parameters as illustrated and explained in the table
below.
Task
Command
Specifying the IP address of the relevant syslog
server.
address <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>
Specifying the UDP port on the server that receives
the syslog messages.
port <1..65535>
³
Default: 514
To configure the ACE-3200 (device):
1. At the config>system# prompt, enter syslog device.
The config>system>syslog(device)# prompt appears.
2. Specify the device parameters as illustrated and explained in the table below.
Task
Command
Specifying the module, task or function
from which syslog messages are sent.
facility {local1|local2|local3|local4|local5|local6|local7}
Specifying the UDP port that transmits
syslog messages
port <1..65535>
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Default: local1
Default: 514
Administration 4-173
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Task
Command
Setting to send events whose severity
equals or exceeds the selected severity
level.
severity-level {critical|major|minor|warning|event|info|debug}
³
Default: major
To view the syslog statistics:
•
At the config>system>syslog(device) prompt, enter show statistics.
Syslog statistics appear as illustrated below.
ACE-3200>config>system>syslog(device)# show statistics
Total Tx Messages
: 356
Non-queued Dropped Messages : 265
ACE-3200>config>system>syslog(device)#
Parameter
Description
Total Tx Messages
The total number of transmitted syslog messages
Non- queued Dropped Messages
The total number of syslog messages that were dropped before being
queued.
³
To clear the syslog statistics:
•
At the config>system>syslog(device) prompt, enter clear statistics.
The statistics are reset.
Viewing the Hardware and Software Profile
You are able to view the hardware and software inventory.
³
To view the system info:
•
At the config>system# prompt, enter show device-info.
The system info appears as illustrated below.
ACE-3200>config>system#
Description
:
Name
:
Location
:
Contact
:
MAC Address
:
System Up Time
:
Configuration Version :
show device-info
ACE-3200
HW: 1.1
SW: 6.10A9
ACE-3200
The location of this device
Name of contact person
00-20-D2-FF-98-D2
08:12:16
6.10A9
ACE-3200>config>system#
4-174
Administration
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
³
Chapter 4 Configuration
To view the inventory:
•
At the config>system# prompt, enter show inventory.
The hardware and software inventory appears as illustrated below. The
unit used for the example below is equipped with E1 ports.
ACE-3200>config>system# show inventory
Index Physical Class Name
HW Ver
SW Ver
FW Ver
----------------------------------------------------------------------------1001 Chassis
ACE-3200
1.0-D\1.1
6.10A9/Boot-3.01
0\1
3001 Container
ATM155 Container 1
3002 Container
ATM155 Container 2
4001 Power Supply
PS 1/AC
A
4002 Power Supply
PS 2/AC
A
4003 Fan
Fan 1
4004 Fan
Fan 2
7004 Port
E1 port 1
7005 Port
E1 port 2
7006 Port
E1 port 3
7007 Port
E1 port 4
7008 Port
E1 port 5
7009 Port
E1 port 6
7010 Port
E1 port 7
7011 Port
E1 port 8
7012 Port
E1 port 9
7013 Port
E1 port 10
7014 Port
E1 port 11
7015 Port
E1 port 12
7016 Port
E1 port 13
7017 Port
E1 port 14
7018 Port
E1 port 15
7019 Port
E1 port 16
7020 Port
ETH port 1
7021 Port
ETH port 2
7022 Port
Control Port
8001 CPU
MIPS
ACE-3200>config>system#
³
To show the status of a specific item in the inventory:
1. At the config>system# prompt, enter inventory <Index>.
The config>system>inventory(<Index>)# appears.
(Index# 1001).
2. At the config>system>inventory(<Index>)# prompt, enter show status.
The status info on the selected inventory item (for example chassis,
index# 1001) appears as illustrated below.
³
To assign an alias to the chassis item in the inventory list:
•
At the config>system>inventory(1001)# prompt (the inventory entry of the
chassis), enter inventory alias <user assigned alias name>.
The alias is assigned to the chassis item in the inventory list.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Administration 4-175
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
File Operations
You can do the following:
•
Transfer files via SFTP, TFTP or XMODEM
•
Copy files within the ACE-3200 unit
•
Display files
•
Swap files
•
Delete files.
You can copy files using the copy command, or via the commands shown in
Table 4-22. As shown in the table, some commands that reset the device also
erase the saved user configuration by copying another file to it before the reset.
Table 4-22. Commands That Copy Files
Command
Level
Copies…
Impact
Manual Section
factory-default
admin
factory-default to startup-config
Unit resets
after copying
Resetting to
Factory Defaults
user-default
admin
user-default-config to startup-config
Unit resets
after copying
Resetting to User
Defaults
save
global
running-config to startup-config
None
Saving the
Configuration
Downloading/Uploading Files
You can download or upload files to the ACE-3200 unit via SFTP. Normally the
types of files copied are configuration files and software files.
Software files can also be downloaded to ACE-3200 via the Boot Manager, using
XMODEM or TFTP. For details on upgrading the device software and additional
information on TFTP and XMODEM, refer to Chapter 6.
Note
TFTP is available only when downloading a software image via the Boot Manager.
When you copy files using the copy command, you have to use SFTP.
Using an SFTP Application
The SFTP protocol is used to provide secure file transfers via the product's
Ethernet interface. SFTP is a version of FTP that encrypts commands and data
transfers, keeping your data secure and your session private. For SFTP file
transfers, an SFTP server application must be installed on the local or a remote
computer.
A variety of third-party applications offer SFTP server software. For more
information, refer to the documentation of these applications.
4-176
Administration
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Figure 4-75. Downloading a Software Application File via SFTP
Setting up a SFTP Server
If you use a local laptop and SFTP is the preferred transfer method, an SFTP
server application must be installed on it.
As mentioned above, third-party applications are available. For additional
information, refer to the associated setup documentation.
Checking the Firewall Settings
SFTP file transfers are carried out through TCP port 22. You should check that the
firewall you are using on the server computer allows communication through this
port.
³
To allow communication through port 22 in Windows XP:
1. Double-click the My Network Places icon, located on the desktop.
The My Network Places window appears.
2. On the Network Tasks sidebar, click View network connections.
The available network connections are displayed.
Figure 4-76. Viewing Network Connections
3. On the Network Tasks sidebar, click Change Windows Firewall settings.
The Windows Firewall dialog box appears.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Administration 4-177
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Figure 4-77. Changing Firewall Settings
4. Click the Exceptions tab.
Figure 4-78. Windows Firewall Dialog Box – Exceptions Tab
5. Check whether port 22 appears on the exceptions list. If it does not, click
Add Port and add it to the list of exceptions.
Note
4-178
Different firewall types require different configuration. Refer to your firewall's
documentation to check how SFTP file transfers can be allowed to pass through it
using TCP port 22.
Administration
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Using CLI to Download/Upload Files
You use the copy command in the file context to download/upload files. While
the SFTP transfer requires user credentials, you may choose an ‘unsecure’ TFTP
connection.
³
To download a file via SFTP:
•
At the file# prompt, enter:
copy
sftp://<user>:<password>@<sftp-server-ip-addr>/<source-file>
<destination-file>.
For example:
•
SFTP server address – 192.20.20.20
•
SFTP user name – admin
•
SFTP password – 1234
•
Source file name –ACE-3200.img
•
Destination file name –ACE-3200.img.
ACE-3200# file
ACE-3200>file# copy sftp://<admin>:<1234>@192.20.20.20/ACE-3200.img ACE-3200.img
³
To upload a file via SFTP:
•
At the file# prompt, enter:
copy <source-file>
sftp://<user>:<password>@<sftp-server-ip-addr>/<dest-file>.
For example:
•
SFTP server address – 192.20.20.20
•
SFTP user name – admin
•
SFTP password – 1234
•
Source file name – db1conf.log
•
Destination file name – db1conf.cfg.
ACE-3200# file
ACE-3200>file# copy db1conf.log sftp://<admin>:<1234>@192.20.20.20/db1conf.cfg
Copying Files Within ACE-3200
You can copy files within the ACE-3200 unit with the copy command.
³
To copy files within the device:
•
At the file# prompt, enter:
copy <source-file> <dest-file>.
For example:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
•
Source file name – running-config
•
Destination file name – startup-config.
Administration 4-179
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200# file
ACE-3200>file# copy running-config startup-config
Displaying Files Within ACE-3200
The dir command is used to display the files within the device.
³
To display the files:
•
At the file# prompt, enter dir.
A list of the file names and types is displayed.
For example:
ACE-3200# file
ACE-3200>file# dir
Path
Type
Name
----------------------------------------------------------------------------tffs:1
Software
ACE-3200-backup.hex
tffs:1
Software
ACE-3200-main.hex
tffs:1
License
Licenses.cfg
tffs:1
Event Log
LOGFILE.cfg
tffs:1
MAC
mac.txt
tffs:1/config
Configuration db.0
tffs:1/config
Configuration db.1
tffs:1/config
Configuration factDef.0
tffs:1/config
Configuration startup.0
Swapping Files
You can swap local files, for example the main and backup configurations.
³
To swap the files:
•
At the file# prompt, enter the swap command in one of the following forms,
according to where the files are located.
•
To swap <file 1> with <file 2>, enter swap <file1> <file2>.
Deleting Files
You can delete the user default configuration or the license. Before deleting a
file, make sure that it is not in use. For additional information on configuration
files and the consequences of deleting, refer to Configuration Files and Loading
Sequence in Chapter 3.
³
To delete a file:
1. At the file# prompt, enter delete {user-default|license}.
You are asked to confirm the deletion.
2. Confirm the deletion.
The unit reverts to the factory default.
4-180
Administration
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
For example:
ACE-3200# file
ACE-3200>file# delete user-default
File will be erased. Are you sure?? [yes/no] _yes
Saving the Configuration
You must save your configuration if you wish to have it available, as it is not
saved automatically. You can save your configuration as outlined below.
Additional information on config files is available under Configuration Files in
Chapter 3.
³
³
To save your current configuration in the startup-config file:
•
At any level, enter save.
•
At the file# prompt enter:
copy running-config startup-config.
To save your current configuration in the user-default-config:
•
To save the user default configuration in user-default-config, at the file#
prompt enter:
copy running-config user-default-config.
Resetting ACE-3200
ACE-3200 supports the following types of reset:
•
Reset to factory defaults
•
Reset to user defaults
•
Overall reset (restart) of the device.
Resetting to Factory Defaults
³
To reset ACE-3200 to factory defaults:
1. At the device prompt, enter admin.
The admin> prompt appears.
2. Enter factory-default.
A confirmation message is displayed:
Current configuration will be erased and device will reboot with factory
default configuration. Are you sure?? [yes/no]
3. Enter yes to confirm resetting to factory defaults.
The factory-default file is copied to the startup-config file. The unit
resets, and after it completes its startup the factory defaults are loaded.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Administration 4-181
Chapter 4 Configuration
Installation and Operation Manual
Resetting to User Defaults
³
To reset ACE-3200 to user defaults:
1. At the device prompt, enter admin.
The admin> prompt appears.
2. Enter user-default.
A confirmation message is displayed:
Current configuration will be erased and device will reboot with user
default configuration. Are you sure?? [yes/no]
3. Enter yes to confirm the reset to user defaults.
The user-default-config file is copied to the startup-config file. The unit
resets, and after it completes its startup the user defaults are loaded.
Restarting the Unit
If necessary, you can restart ACE-3200 without interrupting the power supply.
³
To restart ACE-3200:
1. At the device prompt, enter admin.
The admin> prompt appears.
2. Enter reboot.
A confirmation message is displayed:
Device will reboot. Are you sure?? [yes/no]
3. Enter yes to confirm the reset.
The unit restarts.
Global Commands
Global commands are general commands that let you ping different devices,
display the tree of the current level etc. For a list of those commands, refer to
the table below.
Task
Command
Echoing the text that is typed in
echo <text-to-echo>
Excecuting a file
exec <file name> [echo]
Returning to the previous level in the commands
hierarchy
exit
Returning to the device prompt
exit all
Displaying help
help
Printing the history of the last 10 commands
history
Printing configuration info
info
Logging out
logout
4-182
Administration
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 4 Configuration
Task
Command
Saving the current configuration
save
Displaying the command tree from your current level
down.
tree
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Administration 4-183
Chapter 4 Configuration
4-184
Administration
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Chapter 5
Monitoring and
Diagnostics
This chapter covers methods to monitor the unit, detect errors. It also suggests
trouble-shooting methods.
5.1
Detecting Problems
Problems can be detected on the hardware level, for example by running the self
test and monitoring the LED behavior.
On the software level, you can follow statistical counters and events and errors
returned by the system.
Self-Test
ACE-3200 can be tested in order to diagnose possible setbacks as explained
below.
³
To run the self-test:
•
At the Device prompt, enter show self-test.
The self-test results are displayed.
ƒ
PASS indicates that the self-test completed successfully.
ƒ
FAIL indicates a failure. In case of a modular interface, replace the
relevant interface module. Otherwise, send the entire unit for repair.
ACE-3200 – RAD Data Communications
ACE-3200# show self-test
Index Module
Result
--------------------------------------------------------------1
Host memory
PASS
2
Packet memory
PASS
3
Flash memory
PASS
4
Fast Ethernet access
PASS
5
E1/T1 framer access
PASS
6
TOD access
PASS
Figure 5-1. Self-Test Results
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Detecting Problems
5-1
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Installation and Operation Manual
LEDs
This section lists the LED statuses for the system and the various ports and
explains what they indicate.
Table 5-1. System LED Indicators
Name
LED Color
Function
PS1/PS2
Green
On: Power supply is on
Off: Power supply is off
ALM
Red
On: One or more alarms are active. Refer to list
of alarms under Alarms and Traps.
Off: No active alarms
RDY
Green
On: Self-test ended successfully
Off: Self-test not started/ended
Blinking: Self-test failed
Table 5-2. ATM-155 Port LED Indicators
Name
LED Color
Function
ATM
Green
On: At least one cell received or transmitted
within the last second without any HEC
errors.
Off: No cells were transmitted or received
within the last second
SYNC
Green
On: ATM-155 port is synchronized and no alarm
is detected
Off: LOS, LOF, LOP, or Line /Path AIS were
detected. Additional information is
available under Alarms and Traps.
Blinking: Line or path RDI was detected
Table 5-3. Ethernet Port LED Indicators
Name
LED Color
Function
LINK
Green
On: Ethernet link is detected
Off: Ethernet link is not detected
ACT
Yellow
On: ETH frames are received or transmitted
Off: ETH frames are not received and
transmitted
5-2
Detecting Problems
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Table 5-4. E1/T1 Port LED Indicators
Name
LED Color
Function
SYNC
(E1/T1 ports)
Green
On: The physical layer is synchronized
Off: The physical layer is not synchronized
Blinking: RAI alarm was detected. This error is
listed in Table 5-7.
Alarms and Traps
Instructions on viewing alarms and events can be found below. Lists of possible
alarms and events can be found under List of Alarms and Events.
³
To view the event log:
•
At the config>system# prompt, enter show event-log.
The event log appears. The image below illustrates a section of a possible
event log display.
ACE-3200>config>system# show event-log
…
2009-12-28 16:46:34 | Cold start
2009-12-27 16:31:57 | Login
Valid
2009-12-27 16:31:53 | Login
Invalid
2009-12-27 10:32:16 | Login
Valid
2009-12-27 10:32:12 | Login
Invalid
2009-12-24 09:46:23 | Station clock OK
2009-12-24 09:46:13 | Source 2 status changed to PHYSICAL FAIL
2009-12-24 09:46:13 | Station clock Fail
2009-12-24 09:27:35 | Domain source changed to number 0
…
ACE-3200>config>system#
³
To clear the event log:
•
At the config>system# prompt, enter clear event-log.
The event log is cleared.
³
To view a list of alarms:
•
At the config>system# prompt, enter show alarms.
A list of alarms appears as illustrated below.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Detecting Problems
5-3
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200>config>system# show alarms
System
----------------------------------------------------------------------------E1
1 LOS
E1
2 LOS
E1
3 LOS
E1
4 LOS
E1
5 LOS
E1
6 LOS
E1
7 LOS
E1
8 LOS
E1
9 LOS
E1
10 LOS
E1
11 LOS
E1
12 LOS
E1
13 LOS
E1
14 LOS
E1
15 LOS
Ethernet
1 Down
Ethernet
2 Down
SDH
1 LOS
SDH
2 LOS
ACE-3200>config>system#
Statistic Counters
Statistic counters provide information on possible abnormal behavior and failures.
You can collect statistics of the following:
•
RADIUS server
•
Physical ports such as Ethernet, E1/T1, SDH/SONET etc.
•
IMA groups
•
VPL and VCL connections.
For further information, refer to the relevant sections in Chapter 4 and the
relevant sections in the troubleshooting chart.
Configuring Error Messages
ACE-3200 maintains a cyclic event log file that stores up to 2000 events. All
stored events are time-stamped. The event log file contents may be viewed on
the ASCII terminal or on a Network Management Station (NMS), and it may be
cleared at any time using the clear event-log command as explained under Alarms
and Traps in the Detecting Problems section.
To detect and resolve faults/errors in ACE-3200, the following options are
available:
5-4
Detecting Problems
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
•
•
Check for active alarms as follows:
ƒ
View current alarms as explained under Alarms and Traps.
ƒ
For a full list of alarms and associated traps, refer to Table 5-14.
Review the events recorded in the event log:
ƒ
•
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
View current events as explained under Alarms and Traps.
For the complete list of possible events, refer to the relevant tables as
follows:
ƒ
Table 5-5 for system events
ƒ
Table 5-7 for E1/T1 port events
ƒ
Table 5-8 for Ethernet port events
ƒ
Table 5-9 for OAM events
ƒ
Table 5-10 for BFD (pseudowire connectivity) events
ƒ
Table 5-11 for pseudowire events
ƒ
Table 5-12 for TDM pseudowire alarm forwarding events
ƒ
Table 5-13 for LDP events.
•
Perform loopback tests as explained in the relevant sections of Chapter 4.
•
Perform cell tests, in which a predefined cell is sent towards the ATM link.
Refer to ATM Cell Test in Chapter 4 for additional information.
•
Review the troubleshooting charts (Table 5-15), based on LED indications or
additional indicators.
5.2
Handling Events
Reported events can be events, traps and alarms. The difference between them
is as follows:
•
Events. Any change of status in a managed object in the network. SNMP
equipment can generate traps for many different kinds of events, not all of
which are important for telemetry. The ability to filter unimportant events is
essential for high-quality SNMP alarm management.
•
Trap. An SNMP message issued by an agent that reports an event
•
Alarm. An SNMP message issued by an agent that reports a failure.
ACE-3200 includes a configurable mechanism of detecting and reporting alarms.
Once an alarm is triggered, ACE-3200 sends or does not send an alarm trap to
the relevant network manager, depending on whether the relevant trap has been
masked or activated. For additional information on masking traps, which renders
them invisible to a given manager, refer to Configuring a Manager in Chapter 4.
Even though masked traps are not sent, all alarms are recorded in the system
event log once they are triggered.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Handling Events
5-5
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Installation and Operation Manual
Dealing with Alarms and Traps
The trap masking command can be executed from the Manager prompt
(config>mngmnt>manager <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>). For additional
information, refer to Configuring Alarm Traps in Chapter 4.
List of Alarms and Events
Refer to Table 5-14 for all the alarm traps that are implemented in
ACE-3200.
Refer to the tables below for the full list of system, port and OAM events.
Note
Not all events and alarms may be relevant for you specific configuration. Relevant
alarms and events depend on your hardware configuration.
Table 5-5. System Events List
No.
5-6
Event string
Status/Entity Type/Entity #
1.
Cold start
2.
Device reset
3.
Software watchdog reset
4.
Login
Valid/Invalid
5.
Authentication
Fail
6.
Power supply #n
Active/ Not Active
7.
Fan #n
OK/ Fail
8.
Software download
Ended OK/ Failed
9.
Configuration download
Ended OK/ Failed
10.
Configuration upload
Ended OK/ Failed
11.
Fatal error
File: <file name>, line: <line number>
12.
Exception
PC=<0xXXXXXXXX>,
CAUSE=<0xYYYYYYYY>
13.
Master clock is active
14.
Fallback clock is active
15.
No reference clock is active
16.
Recovered clock
Free run/Frequency acquisition/Rapid
phase lock/Fine phase lock/Hold over #n
17.
Statistics collection
Ended OK - #n files
Handling Events
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Table 5-6. SDH/SONET (ATM-155) Port Events List
No.
Event String
Status
Port Type/Port #
1.
SFP
Plugged/Unplugged
ATM155 #n
2.
LOS
Start/End
ATM155 #n
3.
LOF
Start/End
ATM155 #n
4.
LOP
Start/End
ATM155 #n
5.
LCD
Start/End
ATM155 #n
6.
SLM
Start/End
ATM155 #n
7.
Line AIS
Start/End
ATM155 #n
8.
Path AIS
Start/End
ATM155 #n
9.
Line RD
Start/End
ATM155 #n
10.
Path RD
Start/End
ATM155 #n
11.
Section BIP/ RS BIP
Start/End
ATM155 #n
12.
Line BIP/MS BIP
Start/End
ATM155 #n
13.
Path BIP/HP BIP
Start/End
ATM155 #n
14.
Line FEBE/MS FEBE
Start/End
ATM155 #n
15.
Path FEBE/HP FEBE
Start/End
ATM155 #n
Table 5-7 E1/T1 Port Events List
No.
Event String
Status
Port Type/Port #
1.
LOS*
Start/End
E1/T1 #n
2.
LOF
Start/End
E1/T1 #n
3.
AIS
Start/End
E1/T1 #n
4.
RAI
Start/End
E1/T1 #n
5.
FEBE
Start/End
E1/T1 #n
6.
LCD
Start/End
E1/T1 #n
Table 5-8 Ethernet Port Events List
No.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Event String
Status
Port Type/Port #
1.
Link
Up/Down
Ethernet - #n
2.
Ethernet port is active
Ethernet - #n
Handling Events
5-7
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Installation and Operation Manual
Table 5-9. OAM Events List
No.
Event String
Status
Port Type/Port #
VPI/VCI
1.
Rx RDI
Start/End
E1 #n
VPI #X, VCI #Y
2.
Tx RDI
Start/End
T1 #n
VPI #X, VCI #Y
3.
Loopback
Active/Failed
E1 #n
VPI #X, VCI #Y
Table 5-10. BFD (PW Connectivity) Events List
No.
Event String
Status
PW #
1.
BFD Up
No diagnostic
PW #n
2.
BFD Down
No diagnostic
PW #n
3.
BFD Down
Control detection time expired
PW #n
4.
BFD Down
Neighbor signaled session down
PW #n
Table 5-11. PW Events List
No.
Event String
Status
PW #
1.
PW Up
No diagnostic
PW #n
2.
PW Down
No diagnostic
PW #n
Table 5-12. TDM PW Alarm Forwarding Events List
No.
Event String
Status
PW #
1.
Rx L|M='100'
Start/End
PW #n
2.
Rx R=L
Start/End
PW #n
3.
Underrun
Start/End
PW #n
Table 5-13. LDP Events List
No.
Event String
Status
ID
1.
LDP Session Up
Peer LDP
#
2.
LDP Session
Down
Peer LDP
#
Table 5-14. List of Alarm Traps
5-8
Number
Trap Name
1.
Cold Start
2.
Agent Status
3.
TFTP status
Handling Events
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Note
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Number
Trap Name
4.
Authentication failure
5.
Power failure
6.
Fan failure
7.
Upload data
8.
Self test result
9.
Port status
10.
Link up/down (only for Ethernet ports)
11.
LOS (Loss of signal)*
12.
LOF (Loss of frame)*
13.
LCD (Loss of ATM Cell Delineation)
14.
Line AIS
15.
Line RDI
16.
Line FEBE
17.
VP AIS reception (Fault Management in ATM layer)*
18.
VC AIS reception (Fault Management in ATM layer)*
19.
VP RDI reception (Fault Management in ATM layer)*
20.
VP continuity loss (Fault Management in ATM layer)*
21.
VC continuity loss (Fault Management in ATM layer)*
22.
VP loopback failure (Fault Management in ATM layer)*
23.
VC loopback failure (Fault Management in ATM layer)*
24.
IMA group status
25.
PW up/down
26.
BFD session up/down
27.
LDP session up/down
* Also implemented as an active alarm.
Corrective Measures
Depending on the reported alarm and its severity, change the unit’s configuration
or check the integrity of ports, connections or standalone devices (such as
switches, routers, etc.) that are part of the particular application.
If the alarm/problem persists, refer to Troubleshooting or Technical Support.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Handling Events
5-9
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
5.3
Installation and Operation Manual
Troubleshooting
This section provides you with a general troubleshooting chart that lists possible
failures and provides workarounds.
In addition, failure scenarios with instructions on testing and resolving these
issues are provided.
Troubleshooting Chart
The following troubleshooting chart is based on LED indications or other inputs.
Use this chart to identify the cause of a problem that may arise during operation.
For detailed description of the LED indicators functions, refer to Chapter 3.
To correct the reported problem, perform the suggested corrective actions. If a
problem cannot be resolved by performing the suggested action, please contact
Technical Support.
Table 5-15. Troubleshooting Chart
Fault/Problem
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
The unit is “dead”
(POWER LED is off)
No power
•
Verify that both ends of the power
cable are properly connected.
Blown fuse
•
Disconnect the power cable from both
ends and replace the fuse with another
fuse of proper rating.
Self test failed
•
Run the self test as explained under
Self-Test.
•
If a component indicates a failure,
restart the unit.
•
If the error persists, send the unit for
repair.
•
View the inventory file by entering
show inventory at the config>system
prompt.
•
Restart the unit.
•
In case of failure, replace the entire
unit.
SYSTEM RDY LED
blinks
The log file reports a
fan or power supply
error.
5-10
Troubleshooting
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Fault/Problem
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
The unit is unreachable
Incorrect management settings
•
Using a local serial connection, enable
the relevant management access type
by entering telnet, snmp and/or ssh at
the config>mngmnt>access prompt.
•
View the list of enabled management
access types and settings by entering
info at the config>mngmnt prompt.
•
In case of SNMP, verify that the read,
write and trap communities match the
setting (public, private) of your
management station.
•
Verify that the management station’s
IP address is included in the manager
list. To do so, try to add the desired
management station’s IP address using
the command manager <IP address> at
the config>mngmnt prompt. The
manager is added to the list if it was
not already listed. You may also try to
delete a manager by entering
no manager <IP address>. If the
manager was not listed, an error is
returned.
•
Verify that the router interface in use
is enabled for management. To do so,
enter management-access at the
config>router>interface prompt.
•
In case of remote management,
analyze this issue using a local serial
connection.
•
At the current prompt, check whether
the desired unit responds by entering
ping <IP address>.
•
Check network connectivity issues and
firewall settings.
•
Verify that the router interface is
properly configured and that the
correct routes are defined. To do so,
enter info under config>router.
•
Follow the procedure for Physical link
fails to respond.
Management path disconnected
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Troubleshooting
5-11
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Installation and Operation Manual
Fault/Problem
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
Physical link fails to
respond
Link may be administratively
disabled.
•
Administratively enable the link at the
relevant port prompt, for example
config>port>eth.
•
In case of Ethernet links, make sure
that the autonegotiation, speed and
duplex modes match the configured
values on the access switch/router.
•
Run the self test as explained under
Self-Test. If a component returns FAIL,
the relevant interface module must be
replaced. If associated with a fixed
interface, the unit must be sent in for
repair.
•
Check the SONET/SDH statistics by
entering show statistics all at the
relevant config>port>sdh-sonet
prompt.
•
In case of AIS, check the remote unit’s
status
•
Check the fiber or cable and Rx levels,
as well as the remote unit’s Tx level.
•
Check the SONET/SDH to verify that
RDI is received.
•
Check the Tx optical power it is in the
allowed range. If it is out of range,
send it for repair.
•
Check the fiber optic connections.
•
Check the Ethernet cable to see
whether a cross or straight cable is
needed.
•
Check/replace Ethernet cable.
•
Verify that the range is within the
limits.
•
Check the port by connecting the
remote end of the cable to a different
switch.
•
Send the unit for repair.
•
Check the SONET/SDH statistics by
entering show statistics all at the
relevant config>port>sdh-sonet
prompt.
•
Follow the suggestions for corrective
action listed under SONET/SDH SYNC
LED is off and SONET/SDH SYNC LED
blinks.
SDH/SONET SYNC
LED is off
SDH/SONET SYNC
LED blinks
Ethernet LINK LED
is off
ATM service problems
5-12
Troubleshooting
SONET/SDH Rx
path failure
SONET/SDH Tx
path failure
Ethernet cable problem
Physical layer problems
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Fault/Problem
Loss of ATM cells
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
ATM layer problems
•
Check the ATM OAM statistics. If AIS or
RDI is received, check ATM network
modes.
•
Use CC to check ATM connection
integrity.
•
To monitor Rx, Tx and HEC cells,
perform a physical loopback test. To do
so, enter loopback at the prompt
associated with the relevant ATM port,
for example config>port>e1.
•
Check whether the relevant interface
reports an LCD error. To do so,
navigate to the relevant port prompt
and use the show statistics command.
For further information, refer to the
sections associated with the physical
ATM ports.
•
Replace the cable.
•
Replace the ACE unit.
Policy/shaping issues. It is possible
that the error is related to the
shaping settings.
•
Monitor the number of policing
discarded frames. To do so, enter
show statistics current at the
config>port>atm prompt. If the
number of policing discarded frames is
increasing, the policy mechanism
settings may cause the cell loss. For
additional information, refer to the
Statistics section under Configuring VPL
and VCL Interfaces.
Rx congestions – can be caused in
networks that carry PW packets.
•
To view if cells have been lost, view the
PW statistics by entering show
statistics all at the config>pwe>pw
prompt of the relevant pseudowire.
Packet loss/misorder - can be
caused in networks that carry PW
packets. The most common causes
are congestions, bandwidth
bottlenecks and poor queuing
performance etc.
•
To verify that packets have been lost
or misordered, view the PW statistics
and monitor the Packet Loss Event
counter or the Mis-order Dropped
Packet counter respectively.
•
Make sure to correct the network
performance.
•
Verify that the QoS is active for traffic
transmitted towards the PSN.
•
Increase the Misorder window size by
entering the atm-parameters windowsize command at the config>pwe
prompt. For additional information,
refer to Configuring Pseudowires in
Physical line errors (CRC errors).
Cells discarded due to bad HEC.
They may also be caused by
incorrect configuration.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Troubleshooting
5-13
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Fault/Problem
Probable Cause
Installation and Operation Manual
Corrective Action
Chapter 4.
Echo in voice
5-14
Troubleshooting
•
Packets can be reordered by the
system. To do so, enable the packet
reordering by entering atm-parameters
reordering enable at the config>pwe
prompt.
•
To reduce the chance of misordered
packets, you may increase the timeout
and/or the max cell per packet by
entering atm-payload max-cells
<1..29> at the config>pwe>pw prompt
for ATM PWs. For TDM PWs, enter tdmpayload size <34..512>. For additional
information, refer to Configuring
Pseudowires in Chapter 4.
•
Check whether QoS is enabled on the
network for PW traffic on the entire
path (end-to-end) and in both
directions.
•
Define the expected VLAN ID and p-bits
are configured for the PW by entering
vlan [id <0..4094>] [priority <0..7>] at
the config>pwe>pw prompt.
•
If EXP bits are used in MPLS based
PSNs, define the EXP bits by entering
exp-bits <0..7> at the config>pwe>pw
prompt.
•
If ToS bits are used in PSN networks
such as UDP over IP, MPLS over IP, or
MPLS over GRE, define the correct ToS
bit by entering tos <0..255> at the
config>pwe>pw prompt.
•
If you transmit TDM pseudowires over
Cisco routers, make sure that the MTU
transmitted by ACE-3200 does not
exceed the smallest MTU configured in
the network. To configure the MTU
size, enter the mtu-size command at
the config>pwe prompt. For additional
information, refer to Configuring
Pseudowires in Chapter 4.
•
Check the network delay and try to
decrease the delay.
•
Try to decrease the CDVT buffer
setting.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Fault/Problem
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
Error while transmitting
over Ethernet
pseudowire
Physical layer fault
•
Refer to the respective troubleshooting
section on the physical layer at the
beginning of this table.
•
Check for FCS and alignment errors
working opposite the switch or router.
To do so, view the Ethernet port
statistics by entering show statistics at
the relevant Ethernet port prompt
(config>port>eth).
•
Verify that the remote device (Layer 2
networks) or default gateway MAC
address was learnt by ACE-3200. To do
so, enter show arp-table at the router
prompt (config>router).
•
If this is not the case, attempt to ping
the address in its subnet from the local
ACE unit by entering ping <IP
address>from any command prompt.
IP (ARP) logical error
PPPoE error
Packets are not received
At the config>port>ppp prompt, enter
show status. and do the following:
•
Verify that an operational PPPoE
session is active. Session Status must
be Up.
•
Check the status of the PPPoE session
and what negotiation parts opposite
the BRAS/LNS were completed
successfully.
•
Check whether a local IP address was
received. If no local IP address was
received, check the credential
allocation on the RADIUS server. To do
so, enter access-authentication and
the desired user name and password at
the config>port>ppp prompt.
Make sure that the minimum
authentication level (CHAP/PAP)
matches the security settings on the
LNS.
•
Check the PW In/Out labels on both
end PW devices.
•
Use the label in and label out
commands at the config>pwe>pw
prompt at both end PW devices.
Additional information is available in
Chapter 4 under Configuring
Pseudowires.
•
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Check whether the LDP mode is used.
Troubleshooting
5-15
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Fault/Problem
Probable Cause
Installation and Operation Manual
Corrective Action
To do so, enter info at the
config>pwe>pw prompt. The LDP mde
is used if an LDP PW ID
(ldp-pw-id) appears.
•
Check whether both devices have the
same LDP PW ID assigned.
•
Check the path connectivity by
enabling the BFD or validating the path
using PSN OAM tools.
LDP error
Errors occur while trying to switch
PW and tunnel labels,
•
At the config>router(1)>mpls>ldp
prompt, enter show hello-table to
monitor the LDP session.
The BFD fails to receive
keep-alive messages in
the given time frame
and the PW is disabled.
The BFD on the local unit failed to
receive BFD messages from the
remote unit.
•
Verify that the BFD is enabled on the
remote unit. To do so, view the status
of the PW at the remote unit using the
show status command at the
config>pwe>pw prompt.
The local system did not receive any
BFD packets from each other at the
pre-defined time interval.
•
Check the network path between ACE3200 (local unit) and the remote unit
using the ping command from any
prompt.
•
Increase the detection multiplier using
the detection-multiplier command and
the Min Tx interval using the mininterval tx command. Both are available
at the config>oam>bfd-descriptor
prompt.
•
Check whether BFD packets are indeed
received on the remote unit.
•
Follow the steps listed above for the
remote unit.
BFD keep-alive messages cannot
synchronize although both the local
and the remote unit are receiving
them.
•
Remove the BFD descriptor on both
the local and the remote unit using the
no bfd-descriptor command at the
config>oam prompt.
The jitter buffer failed to
compensate PSN packet delay
variations (PDV).
•
Monitor the pseudowire statistics by
entering show statistics all at the
relevant config>pwe>pw prompt.
The PDV buffer is used to
compensate for PDV in PSN
networks. If the network PDV
exceeds the configured depth of
the jitter buffer, an underrun
occurs, causing the jitter buffer to
•
To view the frequency of underruns,
view the log file by entering show logfile at the config>system prompt.
•
Investigate the clocking settings and
the network topology. The screen
image below illustrates and explains a
Neighbor-signaled session is down.
The remote system does not get
the BFD packets from the local
system, but the local system gets
the packets from the remote
system.
Error while transmitting
over TDM pseudowire
5-16
Troubleshooting
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Fault/Problem
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
re-initialize.
2010-03-16
2010-03-16
2010-03-16
| 2010-03-16
v 2010-03-16
2010-03-16
2010-03-16
2010-03-16
2010-03-16
2010-03-16
10:01:25
10:01:25
10:01:24
10:01:24
10:01:24
10:00:23
09:50:33
09:50:33
09:50:32
09:50:04
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Underrun
PW
Rx R=1
Underrun
PW
Rx R=1
Underrun
PW
Rx L|M=100
Rx R=1
possible scenario.
•
Make sure that the Ethernet link is
running in Full Duplex mode by entering
show status at the relevant
config>port>eth or prompt.
•
Increase the jitter buffer delay. To do
so, you have to remove the PW and
recreate it with the new jitter buffer
delay. To specify the jitter buffer delay,
enter jitter-buffer <1000..32000> at
the relevant config>pwe>pw prompt.
•
Identify different network elements
that may cause the underrun, such as
LAN congestions, overloaded queuimg
mechanisms, routing table updates,
load sharing and re-route events.
End
Up
Start
Start
Down
End
End
Up
End
Start
PW 3
3 - 3
PW 3
PW 3
3 - 3
PW 3
PW 3
3 - 3
PW 3
PW 3
•
Rx R=1 means that the remote unit was experiencing Underrun condition.
•
Rx L|M=100 means that the remote unit is reporting on failure on the TDM
interface.
•
When Rx L|M is up together with Underrun event, continue with the fault on
the remote TDM interface procedure.
•
In case the missing packets counter is also increasing along with the
underruns, it is possible that the underruns are simply caused by the massive
packet loss events and not by high PDV.
Fault/Problem
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
Clock related underruns
may cause periodic
underruns.
Incorrect clocking configuration
•
Rule out that there is more than one
active clock source in the network.
Adaptive clock recovery
failure
Pseudowire problems
•
Run a self test as explained under SelfTest to determine if a physical port or
component associated with the
pseudowire has failed.
•
Check events and alarms that are
active for the associated physical
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Troubleshooting
5-17
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Fault/Problem
Probable Cause
Installation and Operation Manual
Corrective Action
ports.
Faults related to TDM interface
related underruns
ATM bandwidth issues
5-18
Troubleshooting
•
Check the status of the CES PSN
Recovery Clock PW. The operational
status must be up and the local status
must be forwarding.
•
Verify that the clock source associated
with the CES PSN Recovery Clock PW is
set to Recovered.
•
Restart the adaptive clock recovery
(ACR) by changing the configuration to
a different clock option, for example to
Rx Clock and then back to Recovered.
•
Check the status of the clock recovery
PW on the distribution unit. To do so,
verify that the distributed clock
associated with the CES PSN Recovery
Clock PW is set to Distributed.
•
If the underrun is also associated with
the Rx L|M=100 alarm, check the status
of the remote Data interface (not the
clocking interface). Enter show
statistics all at the relevant
config>port>e1 prompt.
•
If LOS and AIS are increasing, the
attached PW is not sending traffic to
the remote unit.
•
LOS (loss of signal) may indicate a
physical link failure. In case of AIS
(alarm indication signal), check why
connected equipment is generating AIS
towards ACE-3200.
•
IMA group. View the status of the
relevant IMA group(s) by entering show
status group at the relevant
config>port>atm>ima-group prompt.
Check for the number of links and
available cell rate.
•
SDH/SONET. Check whether the output
cell rate is lower than the expected
transmission rate by entering show
statistics all at the relevant
config>port>atm>sdh-sonet prompt.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Fault/Problem
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
Insufficient PSN -> ATM buffer size
•
Increase the buffer size by entering
atm-payload max-cells <1..29> at the
relevant config>pwe>pw prompt.
•
If traffic transmitted to the ATM side is
shaped by ACE-3200, check the
shaping parameter configuration for
the ATM Descriptor.
•
Advise with your network administrator
before changing any settings.
•
For additional information and
instructions, refer to Configuring the
ATM Traffic Descriptor in Chapter 4.
•
Enable policing on the remote unit by
entering traffic-descriptor <1..99999>
cbr policing [pcr <100..353208>]
[cdvt <1..8000>] at the
config>qos>atm prompt.
Additional information and instructions
are available under Configuring the
ATM Traffic Descriptor in Chapter 4.
•
Enable shaping for the ACE unit
connected to the remote unit so that
bursty traffic is shaped before being
transmitted to ACE-3200.
•
Check the status of the relevant IMA
group by entering show status group
at the relevant config>port>atm>imagroup prompt.
•
Check the physical ports that belong to
the relevant IMA group. To do so, enter
show status link.
•
View the status of the link that
encountered an error by entering show
statistics at the relevant port’s prompt.
In case of LOS, a physical error
occurred.
The buffer size is too small for the
number of cells per packet.
the buffer size is determined
according to the number of cells
per packet using the following
formula:
ATM buffer [cells] =
max cells per frame] x 50
Shaping problems
Bursty traffic from the remote
device. The remote unit receives
traffic at a rate that causes
temporary burstiness, which cannot
be handled by the receiving unit’s
ATM -> PSN buffer.
An IMA group failed
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Physical link failure
Troubleshooting
5-19
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Fault/Problem
5-20
Troubleshooting
Installation and Operation Manual
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
The number of active links is below
the minimal
•
In the IMA Group Status screen,
compare the number of active links (Rx
and Tx) with the min. number of links
you configured. If the number of active
links is lower, reduce the min number
of active links by entering minimumlinks {rx <1..8/16>} {tx <1..8/16>} at
the relevnt config>port>atm>imagroup prompt.
The max link delay may have been
exceeded.
•
Increase the allowed max differential
delay by entering
max-differential-delay <1..100>.
A clocking issue may cause the IMA
group to fail.
•
Make sure that the clock settings
match the settings on the opposite
unit. For additional information and
instructions, refer to the clock
parameters under Configuring an IMA
Group in Chapter 4.
Clocking problems may have caused
out of IMA frame irregularities
(OIF), except during SES or UAS IMA
at the near end.
•
Monitor the OIF by entering show
statistics link all at the relevant
config>port>atm>ima-group prompt.
Protocol mismatch
•
Verify that the IMA group ID matches
for the local unit’s and the remote
unit’s IMA groups by entering show
status group at the relevant
config>port>atm>ima-group prompt on
both units.
•
Verify that the IMA protocol version
matches for the local and the remote
unit’s IMA groups. ACE units support
IMA Version 1.0 and 1.1.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Fault/Problem
5.4
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Probable Cause
Corrective Action
Problems may occur in the IMA
control plane (ICP cells)
•
Check the number of ICP cells that are
in error, invalid or missing (except
during seconds when a SES or UAS-IMA
condition is reported). To do so, enter
show statistics link current at the
relevant config>port>atm>ima-group
prompt. The counter of the relevant
ICP cells is listed under Violation.
•
Restart the IMA group on the local and
the remote unit. To do so, enter no
blocking and then restart at the
relevant config>port>atm>ima-group
prompt.
•
Disconnect and reconnect all active
links and restart the IMA group again
on the local and remote units.
Performing Diagnostic Tests
This section lists and explains I connectivity tests such as the ping and the trace
route tests.
IP Connectivity Tests
The IP connectivity tests include two types of tests and are available from every
command level:
•
Ping test – allows you to send packet shares towards a specified IP address
•
IP route tracing – allows you to send trace-route packets towards a specified
IP address to trace and locate bottlenecks over the IP network.
Task
Command
Checking the reachability of a remote host
ping <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255> [number-ofpackets <packets>] [payload-size <bytes>]
Determining the route to a destination address
trace-route <0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255>
Note
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Only one ping or trace route session is allowed at a time.
Performing Diagnostic Tests
5-21
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
5.5
Installation and Operation Manual
Frequently Asked Questions
Q
Does ACE-3200 support ATM over PSN and ATM switching at the same time?
A
Yes, both function types are supported by the unit and can be utilized
simultaneously.
Q
What kinds of AAL types does ACE-3200 support over a packet-switched
network?
A
ACE-3200 supports all AAL type (AAL1, AAL2, and AAL5) and transfers them
via the PSN transparently.
Q
What exactly is the timeout mechanism?
A
When using the ATM cell concatenation mechanism, ACE-3200 stores the
data cells until the maximum number of concentrated cells is reached. TDM
traffic, however, requires continuous delivery of data. Accordingly, ACE-3200
uses the timeout mechanism to reduce the cell storage time before
encapsulated data is sent towards the PSN. The timeout delay value can be
set between 100 to 5,000,000 microseconds. The timer accuracy is +500
microseconds.
Q
In packet-switched traffic, what triggers the sending of a packet?
A
ACE-3200 has several trigger of sending packet towards the PSN:
ƒ
When reaching the maximum cells concatenation number
ƒ
When the timeout timer has expired
ƒ
When the end of AAL5 (SDU bit=1, configurable) is received.
Q
How can an ATM VPs (virtual paths) be mapped to a pseudowire?
A
Any ATM VP can be mapped to a PW using 1:1 mode (1 VP per PW) or N:1
mode (N VPs per PW).
Figure 5-2 demonstrates how VPs can be mapped to pseudowires in the 1:1
encapsulation mode.
5-22
Frequently Asked Questions
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
PW VP
1
1
PW=1
VP PW
1
1
2
2
3
3
ETH
ATM
STM-1
ACE
VP=1
PW VP
2
ACE
VP1, VP2, VP3
PW1, PW2, PW3
STM-1
ETH
Ethernet
Network
1
PW=2
ATM
ETH
STM-1
ACE
VP=1
PW VP
3
1
PW=3
ETH
ATM
ACE
STM-1
VP=1
Figure 5-2. VP Mapping to PW
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Q
What kind of QoS does ACE-3200 support over packet-switched networks?
A
ACE-3200 complies with 802.1p and 802.1q for L2 (VLAN), EXP bits of MPLS
and for the ToS/DSCP of the IP layer. You can assign a QoS to each PW
(configurable).
Q
How can one calculate the required Ethernet bandwidth for a PW based on
the ATM parameters?
A
Bandwidth utilization depends on the ATM connection rate, mapping methods
(VPoPSN or VCoPSN), network type (L2/MPLS or IP), VLAN existence and
number of concatenated cells. A calculator that calculates the bandwidth
based on these parameters can be obtained from Technical Support.
Q
How can end-to-end OAM be maintained over a packet-switched network?
A
ACE-3200 transfers transparent End-to-End OAM over the PSN. You can set
the Intermediate mode for the OAM Descriptor, in order to instruct ACE3200 to transparently forward the ATM OAM cells as user data over the PSN.
Q
How does the pseudowire connectivity check (VCCV-BFD) works?
A
BFD control messages are generated by both the local and remote ACE units,
on both directions of the pseudowire. When the local ACE unit does not
receive control messages from the remote ACE unit during a number of
transmission intervals, it declares that the PW on its receive (Rx) direction is
down. The PW then enters a defect forwarding state on the local ACE unit. In
addition, the local ACE generates "control-detection-time-expired" packets
towards the remote ACE, and the remote ACE replies with "neighbor-signalsession-down" packets.
Q
What is "Misorder" in the context of packet-switched traffic?
Frequently Asked Questions
5-23
Chapter 5 Monitoring and Diagnostics
Installation and Operation Manual
A
In packet-switched traffic, some packets are not received according to their
predefined sequence number. This condition is defined as misorder.
Accordingly, to allow proper de-capsulation of ATM/TDM traffic, ACE-3200 has
a mechanism that fixes this condition by re-ordering the received packets
correctly.
A
You can enable or disable the ordering mechanism, and also set the 'number
of packets' window (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 packets) in which
ACE-3200 will try to fix erroneous packet sequences (misorders). For more
information, refer to Chapter 4.
5.6
Technical Support
Technical support for ACE-3200 can be obtained from the local distributor from
whom it was purchased.
For further information, please contact the RAD distributor nearest you or one of
RAD's offices worldwide. This information can be found at RAD's Web site:
http://www.rad.com/ (for offices location, click About RAD > Worldwide Offices ;
for distributors location, click Where to Buy > End Users).
5-24
Technical Support
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Chapter 6
Software Upgrade
This chapter explains how to upgrade ACE-3200.
Software upgrades may be required to fix product limitations, enable new
features, or to make the unit compatible with other devices that are already
running the new software version.
The information includes the following:
•
Detailed conditions required for the upgrade
•
Any impact the upgrade may have on the system
•
Overview of downloading options
•
Upgrade via the CLI
•
Upgrade via the Boot menu.
6.1
Impact
ACE-3200 is upgraded once the unit has been reset.
6.2
Software Upgrade Options
Application software can be downloaded to ACE-3200 via CLI or the Boot menu,
using the XMODEM or the TFTP protocol.
6.3
Prerequisites
This section details the software file names and outlines system requirements
needed for the upgrade procedure.
Software Files
New version releases are distributed as software files named for example
ACE3200_SW6_10A18.cmp. The files can be obtained from the local RAD business
partner from whom the device was purchased.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Prerequisites
6-1
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
Installation and Operation Manual
System Requirements
Before starting the upgrade, verify that you have the following:
•
Note
For upgrade via TFTP:
ƒ
ACE-3200 unit with a router interface bound to the management
interface used, and a static route defined to a PC with the TFTP server
application (such as 3Cdaemon or PumpKIN), and a valid IP address.
ƒ
Software file stored on the PC.
ACE-3200 communicates with TFTP servers via Ethernet ports only.
•
For upgrade via XMODEM
ƒ
Operational ACE-3200 unit
ƒ
Connection to a PC with HyperTerminal installed
ƒ
Software file stored on the PC.
6.4
Upgrading Software using the CLI
Other than upgrading via the Boot menu, you can start running the upgrade
without restarting the unit, allowing processing the upgrade remotely.
Using TFTP
Network administrators use the TFTP protocol to distribute new software
releases to all the managed ACE-3200 units in the network from a central
location. The central application is a PC on the network with a TFTP server
application such as the PumpKIN server installed on it.
Figure 6-1. Downloading a Software Application File to ACE-3200 via TFTP
Use the following procedure to download the software release to ACE-3200 using
the copy command.
1. Verify that the required image file is stored on the PC together with the TFTP
server application.
2. Verify that ACE-3200 has a router interface assigned to it as explained under
Adding and Configuring Router Interfaces in Chapter 4.
6-2
Upgrading Software using the CLI
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
3. Verify that a static route is configured to the PC as explained under Defining
Static Routes in Chapter 4.
4. Ping the PC to verify the connection as explained under Pinging the PC.
5. Activate the TFTP server application as explained under Activating the TFTP
Server.
6. Download the image file to the unit as explained under Downloading the New
Software Release File to the Unit.
Note
Configuration values shown in this chapter are examples only.
Verifying the IP Settings
ACE-3200 must have a router interface with IP parameters configured according
to your network requirements. In addition, a static route must be established to
the TFTP server to establish a communication session with the TFTP server.
³
To verify the IP parameters:
•
At the router# prompt, enter info.
The router interface configuration information is displayed.
ACE>config>router(1)# info
interface 1
address 172.17.141.65/24
name “Interface-1”
bind ethernet 1
no shutdown
exit
static-route 172.17.151.1/32
address
172.17.141.1
Pinging the PC
To verify IP settings and the communication between ACE-3200 and the PC, send
a ping command from the ACE unit to the PC.
³
To ping the PC:
1. At any level, start pinging the desired host specifying its IP address and the
number of packets being sent:
ACE>config>router(1)# ping 172.17.151.1 number-of-packets 25
2. If the ping request is timed out, check the link between ACE-3200 and the PC
(physical path, configuration parameters etc).
Activating the TFTP Server
Once the TFTP server is activated on the PC, it waits for any TFTP file transfer
request originating from the product, and carries out the received request
automatically. The Downloading/Uploading Files section in Chapter 4 explains
how to prepare your PC for SFTP/TFTP file transfer.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Upgrading Software using the CLI
6-3
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To run the TFTP server:
•
Activate a TFTP server application, such as 3Cdaemon (available from
www.3com.com) or PumpKIN (available from http://kin.klever.net/pumpkin/).
Downloading the New Software Release File to the Unit
This procedure is used to download the new software release to the disk of your
ACE unit.
³
To download a file via TFTP:
1. At the file# prompt, enter the copy command, as follows:
ACE>file# copy tftp://172.17.151.1/ACE3200_SW6_10A18.cmp
The application file is downloaded and saved on the flash disk
2. Disconnect the power, wait a few seconds and then reconnect the power.
ACE-3200 is upgraded and starts with the new software version.
Using XMODEM
XMODEM is used to download and upgrade from a PC connected to the CONTROL
port of the relevant ACE unit.
Application file is
transferred to
ACE-3xxx
RS-232
ACE-3xxx
PC with a Terminal
Emulation and
Application File
Figure 6-2. Downloading a Software Application File to ACE-3200 via XMODEM
Copying the New Software Release File to the Unit
This procedure is used to download the new software release to the disk of your
ACE unit.
³
To download a file via XMODEM:
1. At the file# prompt, enter the copy command, as illustrated below.
You are asked to send the file.
ACE>file# copy xmodem: main-sw
ACE>file#
*****Send file from terminal using XMODEM protocol*****
2. In HyperTerminal’s Menu bar, choose the Transfer menu of HyperTerminal
and then select Send File.
The Send File window appears as illustrated below.
6-4
Upgrading Software using the CLI
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
3. In the Protocol field, select Xmodem.
4. In the Filename field, enter the prescribed ACE-3200 software file name and
its path or click <Browse> to navigate to it.
The Send button becomes available
5. When ready, click <Send>.
The Xmodem File Transfer window appears and the download starts. A
progress bar and counters let you monitor the progress as illustrated
below.
6. Disconnect the power, wait a few seconds and then reconnect the power.
ACE-3200 is upgraded and starts with the new software version.
Note
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
The command times out and the send file request is considered as failed if you
do not initiate sending the file within approximately three minutes.
Upgrading Software using the CLI
6-5
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
6.5
Installation and Operation Manual
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu
Software downloading may also be performed using the Boot menu. The Boot
menu can be reached while ACE-3200 performs initialization, for example, after
power-up.
You may need to start the loading from the Boot menu when it is not possible to
activate TFTP using the CLI (for example, because the ACE-3200 software has not
yet been downloaded or is corrupted).
Caution The Boot menu procedures are recommended only for use by authorized
personnel, because this menu provides many additional options that are intended
for use only by technical support personnel.
Similar to upgrading via the CLI, you can upgrade via the Boot menu using either
the TFTP or the XMODEM protocol. Both protocols are briefly explained with the
respective upgrade options via CLI under Using TFTP and Using XMODEM
respectively.
Note
All the screens shown in this section serve illustration purposes only. Your ACE3200 may display different software versions and port profiles.
Preparing for Downloading an Application File
Use the following procedure to prepare the system and to access the Boot menu:
1. Verify that the management PC is connected to the ACE unit via serial
connection and that the ACE unit and the Configuration PC can access each
other and that they are accessible from the network.
2. If you use the TFTP protocol, activate the TFTP server application and refer to
File Operations in Chapter 4 for further information and instructions on
preparing the system for TFTP/SFTP download.
3. Disconnect your unit from the power.
4. Open HyperTerminal and configure the communication parameters associated
with the selected PC’s serial port as follows:
ƒ
Baud Rate:
9,600 bps
ƒ
Data bits:
8
ƒ
Parity:
None
ƒ
Stop bits:
1
ƒ
Flow control:
None.
5. Click <OK>.
HyperTerminal is now ready for communication with the unit.
6. Reconnect your unit to power and immediately press <Alt> + <A> once you
are asked to do so (illustrated below).
ƒ
6-6
The Boot menu appears and you are asked whether you wish to
download the application file or access the file utility.
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
ƒ
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
If the self test starts before you press <Ctrl> + <A> as illustrated below,
you have to wait until the self test is complete and then restart the unit
in order to access the Boot menu.
BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1
RAD DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Boot software version 1.1
Mar 26 2009, 09:55:28
Press 'ctrl a' to enter file menu screen (within 3 sec).
BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 - FILE MENU
1. Download Application File
2. File Utility
Select mode:
Boot software version 1.1
Mar 26 2009, 09:55:28
Press 'ctrl a' to enter file menu screen (within 3 sec).
Self Test : Start
Packet :
42284K
Using TFTP
The preparations needed for using the TFTP protocol via the Boot menu are
similar to the preparations needed to download software using the TFTP protocol
via the CLI. Additional information on preparing the system for using the TFTP
protocol, refer to File Operations in Chapter 4.
The main difference is that you need to define the IP communication parameters
associated with the corresponding Ethernet port (IP addresses and the associated
subnet mask and a default gateway IP address).
Use the following procedure to download software release 6.1 to ACE-3200 via
TFTP.
1. Verify that the ACE3200_SW6_10A18.cmp is stored on the PC with the TFTP
server application.
2. Prepare the system and access the File menu as explained under Preparing
for Downloading an Application File.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu
6-7
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
Installation and Operation Manual
Downloading via TFTP
This section explains how to download and activate an application file using the
TFTP protocol.
³
To download the application file using TFTP:
1. In the Boot menu, press 1 for downloading the application file.
You are asked whether to download via application file via XMODEM or
TFTP.
Download application file using:
1. Xmodem Protocol
2. TFTP Protocol
Select one protocol: (Esc to exit)
2. To use the TFTP protocol, press 2.
You are asked to confirm your request.
BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 - FILE MENU
Download application file using:
1. Xmodem Protocol
2. TFTP Protocol
Select one protocol: (Esc to exit)
Download application file using TFTP: [Y/N]
3. Press <Y> to confirm your request.
You are asked which Ethernet port you use for the transfer. The listed
ports depend on the current profile of your unit. Therefore the image
below may differ from the profile on your unit.
Select ethernet port for download:
1. Eth1
2. Eth2
3. Ext MAC
4. Type the number associated with the relevant Ethernet port and press
<Enter>.
You are asked for the application file name.
5. Enter the path with the application file’s name including its suffix.
You are asked for the IP settings of the relevant ACE unit (Host) and the
TFTP server.
6. Enter the IP settings and then press <S> to transfer the application file as
illustrated below.
6-8
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
FILE NAME:
HOST IP:
HOST MASK:
DEFAULT GATEWAY:
ACE3200_SW6_10A18.cmp
172.17.180.30
255.255.255.0
172.17.180.1
TFTP IP SERVER:
172.17.180.153
Press S to start transferring the file (N to cancel).
ƒ
HOST IP: The IP address of the Ethernet port used for the upload. Press
<Enter> to continue.
ƒ
HOST Mask: The IP subnet mask. Press <Enter> to continue.
ƒ
DEFAULT GATEWAY: If the TFTP server is located on a different LAN, you
have to define the IP address of the default gateway associated with the
relevant port. Make sure to select an IP address within the subnet of the
assigned port’s IP address. To change the current value, type the desired
IP address, and then press <Enter> to end the configuration.
ƒ
If no default gateway is needed, for example, because the TFTP server
belongs to the same LAN as the relevant port used for the upgrade, enter
0.0.0.0.
ƒ
TFTP IP SERVER: The IP address of the TFTP (e.g. PumpKIN) server.
7. To complete the upgrade and log on again, follow the onscreen instructions.
Using XMODEM
Use the following procedure to download software release 6.1 to ACE-3200 via
XMODEM.
1. Verify that the ACE3200_SW6_10A18.cmp is stored on the PC with the
HyperTerminal application installed.
2. Prepare the system and access the File menu as explained under Preparing
for Downloading an Application File.
³
To download the application file using XMODEM:
1. At the Boot menu, press 1 for downloading the application file.
You are asked whether to download via application file via XMODEM or
TFTP.
Download application file using:
1. Xmodem Protocol
2. TFTP Protocol
Select one protocol: (Esc to exit)
2. To use the XMODEM protocol, press 1.
You are asked to send the application file.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu
6-9
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
Installation and Operation Manual
BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 - Xmodem file transfer
Downloading application file.
Send the file.
3. In HyperTerminal’s Menu bar, choose the Transfer menu of HyperTerminal
and then select Send File.
The Send File window appears as illustrated below.
4. In the Protocol field, select Xmodem.
5. In the Filename field, enter the prescribed ACE-3200 software file name and
its path or click <Browse> to navigate to it.
The Send button becomes available
6. When ready, click <Send>.
The Xmodem File Transfer window appears and the download starts. A
progress bar and counters let you monitor the progress.
6-10
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
When the download is complete, the ACE unit’s file system is updated as
illustrated below. Once the update is complete, the unit restarts and you are
ready to log on.
Downloading application file.
Send the file.
download file succeeded
Boot file system version 1.1 Mar 26 2009, 10:06:23
Tffs Configuration process has succeeded
Writing application to file system. This may take several minutes.
50% Completed [||||||||||||
Note
]
If downloading fails, the current version remains active and you have to repeat
the entire procedure to upgrade the unit.
Managing the File System
When a new application file is downloaded, the current one will be moved to the
backup folder.
In addition, you can perform additional file operations by using the file utility.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu
6-11
Chapter 6 Software Upgrade
³
Installation and Operation Manual
To manage the file system:
1. Access the Boot menu as explained under Preparing for Downloading an
Application File.
The Boot menu appears.
BOOT WP 827-Rev-A1 - FILE MENU
1. Download Application File
2. File Utility
Select mode:
2. In the Boot menu, press 2 for accessing the file utility.
The File Menu appears as ill, listing options on how to manage the backup
and the active configuration file.
Boot file system version 1.1 Mar 26 2009, Version 10:06:23
Tffs Configuration process has succeeded
RAD BOOT
FILE MENU
0.
1.
2.
3.
4.
9.
Reset the system.
File swap: operating backup.
Delete Operating file (existing backup will be saved as operating).
Delete configuration file.
Show files list in flash directory.
Delete all file system (software and configuration files).
Select operating mode:
3. Enter the number associated with the desired option (explained below).
6-12
ƒ
0 - Reset the system. Restarts ACE-3200.
ƒ
1 - File swap: operating backup. Operates the backup file. The previously
active file is now the backup.
ƒ
2 - Delete Operating file (existing backup will be saved as operating).
Deletes the active file. The backup file becomes the operating file and no
backup is available. If no backup is available, the unit reverts to the
factory default.
ƒ
3 - Delete configuration file. Deletes the user configuration. The unit
reverts to the factory default configuration.
ƒ
4 - Show files list in flash directory. Displays all files stored on the flash
disk of your unit.
ƒ
9 - Delete all file system (software and configuration files). Deletes all
files. To operate the unit, a new application file must be downloaded as
explained under Using XMODEM or Using TFTP.
Upgrading Software via the Boot Menu
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Appendix A
Connection Data
A.1
E1 or T1 Connectors
The E1 or T1 interfaces of ACE-3200 terminate in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector, wired
as follows:
Table A-1. E1/T1 Connector Pinouts
Pin
Function
1
RX+
2
RX-
3
–
4
TX+
5
TX-
6
–
7
Input signal (TTL input)
8
GND
Balanced-to-Unbalanced E1 Adapter Cable
When ACE-3200 is ordered with unbalanced E1 interfaces, it is necessary to
convert the RJ-45 connector to the standard pair of BNC female connectors used
by unbalanced E1 interfaces. For this purpose, RAD offers a 150-mm long
adapter cable, CBL-RJ45/2BNC/E1/X, wired as illustrated in
Figure A-1.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
E1 or T1 Connectors
A-1
Appendix A Connection Data
Installation and Operation Manual
Figure A-1. CBL-RJ45/2BNC/E1/X Cable Wiring Diagram
A.2
Ethernet Connector
The electrical Ethernet interface terminates in an 8-pin RJ-45 connector, wired as
follows:
Table A-2. Ethernet Connector Pinout
Note
A-2
Pin
Function
1
TX+
2
TX–
3
RX+
6
RX–
4, 5, 7, 8
GND
Fiber optic Ethernet interface (if ordered) uses SFP transceivers.
Ethernet Connector
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Installation and Operation Manual
A.3
Appendix A Connection Data
Terminal Control Connector
The terminal control interface of ACE-3200 terminates in a V.24/RS-232, 9-pin,
D-type female DCE connector (straight cable), wired as follows:
Table A-3. CONTROL Connector Pinout
A.4
Pin
Function
5
Common
2
RX Data
3
TX Data
ATM-155 Optical Connector
Figure A-2 illustrates the structure of the ATM-155 (STM-1/OC-3c) fiber optical
connectors, using hot-swappable SFP transceivers:
Figure A-2. STM-1 Optical Transmitters Diagram
Refer to Table 1-2 in Chapter 1 for listing of the available SFP transceiver types.
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
ATM-155 Optical Connector
A-3
Appendix A Connection Data
A-4
ATM-155 Optical Connector
Installation and Operation Manual
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Supplement
AC/DC Adapter
(AD) Plug
for DC Power Supply Connection
Note
Ignore this supplement if the unit is AC-powered.
Certain units are equipped with a wide-range
AC/DC power supply. These units are equipped
with a standard AC-type 3-prong power input
connector located on the unit rear panel. This
power input connector can be used for both AC
and DC voltage inputs.
For DC operation, a compatible straight or
90-degree AC/DC Adapter (AD) plug for attaching
to your DC power supply cable is supplied with
your RAD product (see Figure 1 and Figure 2).
Figure 1. Straight AD Plug
Connect the wires of your DC power supply cable
to the AD plug, according to the voltage polarity
and assembly instructions provided on page 2.
Figure 2. 90-Degree AD Plug
Caution
Prepare all connections to the AD plug before inserting it into the unit’s power
connector.
Publication No. SUP-930-03/08
1
AC/DC Adapter (AD) Plug
³ To prepare the AD plug and connect it
to the DC power supply cable:
1. Loosen the cover screw on the bottom
of the AD plug to open it (see
Figure 3).
2. Run your DC power supply cable
through the removable cable guard
and through the open cable clamp.
3. Place each DC wire lead into the
appropriate AD plug wire terminal
according to the voltage polarity
mapping shown. Afterwards, tighten
the terminal screws closely.
4. Fit the cable guard in its slot and then
close the clamp over the cable.
Tighten the clamp screws to secure
the cable.
5. Reassemble the two halves of the AD
plug and tighten the cover screw.
Figure 3. AD Plug Details
6. Connect the assembled power supply
cable to the unit.
• Reversing the wire voltage polarity will not cause damage to the unit, but the
internal protection fuse will not function.
Warning
• Always connect a ground wire to the AD plug’s chassis (frame) ground
terminal. Connecting the unit without a protective ground, or interrupting the
grounding (for example, by using an extension power cord without a
grounding conductor) can damage the unit or the equipment connected to it!
• The AD adapter is not intended for field wiring.
2
Supplement
Terminal Block
Connector
for DC Power Supply Connection
Note
Ignore this supplement if the unit is AC-powered.
Certain DC-powered units are equipped
with a plastic 3-pin VDC-IN power input
connector, located on the unit rear
panel. Different variations of the
connector are shown in Figure 1. All
are functionally identical.
0
Supplied with such units is a kit
including a mating Terminal Block (TB)
type connector plug for attaching to
your power supply cable.
Connect the wires of your power
supply cable to the TB plug, according
to the voltage polarity and assembly
instructions provided on the following
pages.
Caution
Figure 1. TB DC Input Connector Types
Appearing on Unit Panels
Prepare all connections to the TB plug before inserting it into the unit’s VDC-IN
connector.
Publication No. SUP-220-06/08
The Access Company
Terminal Block Connector
³ To prepare and connect the power
supply cable with the TB Plug:
Note: Refer to Figure 2 for assistance.
1
1. Strip the insulation of your power
supply wires according to the
dimensions shown.
2. Place each wire lead into the
appropriate TB plug terminal according
to the voltage polarity mapping shown
in Figure 3. (If a terminal is not already
open, loosen its screw.) Afterwards,
tighten the three terminal screws to
close them.
2
3. Pull a nylon cable tie (supplied) around
the power supply cable to secure it
firmly to the TB plug grip, passing the
tie through the holes on the grip.
Figure 2. TB Plug Assembly
4. Isolate the exposed terminal
screws/wire leads using a plastic
sleeve or insulating tape to avoid a
short-circuit.
5. Connect the assembled power supply
cable to the unit by inserting the
TB plug into the unit’s VDC-IN
connector until it snaps into place.
Figure 3. Mapping of the Power Supply Wire
Leads to the TB Plug Terminals
• Reversing the wire voltage polarity can cause damage to the unit!
Warning
2
• Always connect a ground wire to the TB plug’s chassis (frame) ground
terminal. Connecting the unit without a protective ground, or interruption of
the grounding (for example, by using an extension power cord without a
grounding conductor) can cause harm to the unit or to the equipment
connected to it!
Terminal Block Connector
Note: Certain TB plugs are equipped with
captive screws for securing the assembled
cable’s TB plug to the unit’s VDC-IN
connector (C and E types only). To secure
the plug, tighten the two screws on the
plug into the corresponding holes on the
sides of the input connector as shown in
Figure 4.
3
Figure 4. TB Plug with Captive Screws (optional)
³
To disconnect the TB plug:
1. If the TB plug is equipped with captive screws, loosen the captive screws
(see Figure 4).
4
2. If the unit’s VDC-IN connector is type B, lift the locking latch (see Figure 1).
5
3. Pull out the TB plug carefully.
Caution Always lift the locking latch of type B connectors before disconnecting the
TB plug, to avoid damaging the TB plug.
3
Terminal Block Connector
4
24 Raoul Wallenberg Street, Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
Tel: +972-3-6458181, Fax +972-3-6483331, +972-3-6498250
E-mail: erika_y@rad.com, Web site: http://www.rad.com
Customer Response Form
RAD Data Communications would like your help in improving its product documentation.
Please complete and return this form by mail or by fax or send us an e-mail with your
comments.
Thank you for your assistance!
Manual Name:
ACE-3200 Ver. 6.1
Publication Number:
526-200-05/10
Please grade the manual according to the following factors:
Excellent
Installation instructions
Operating instructions
Manual organization
Illustrations
The manual as a whole
What did you like about the manual?
Good
Fair
Poor
Very Poor
Error Report
Type of error(s) or
problem(s):
Incompatibility with product
Difficulty in understanding text
Regulatory information (Safety, Compliance, Warnings, etc.)
Difficulty in finding needed information
Missing information
Illogical flow of information
Style (spelling, grammar, references, etc.)
Appearance
Other
Please list the exact page numbers with the error(s), detail the errors you found (information missing,
unclear or inadequately explained, etc.) and attach the page to your fax, if necessary.
Please add any comments or suggestions you may have.
You are:
Distributor
End user
VAR
Other
Who is your distributor?
Your name and company:
Job title:
Address:
Direct telephone number and extension:
Fax number:
E-mail:
Publication No. 526-200-05/10
Order this publication by Catalog No. 803929
International Headquarters
24 Raoul Wallenberg Street
Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
Tel. 972-3-6458181
Fax 972-3-6498250, 6474436
E-mail market@rad.com
North America Headquarters
900 Corporate Drive
Mahwah, NJ 07430, USA
Tel. 201-5291100
Toll free 1-800-4447234
Fax 201-5295777
E-mail market@rad.com
www.rad.com
The Access Company