Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM

Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P1
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database
Server Encryption on IBM AIX
Application Notes
A Quick Guide to Securing Oracle Database Server Data Files
on AIX Platform
2007/12/12
Executive Summary
Bloombase StoreSafe storage security server protects privacy of sensitive enterprise data by transparent encryption and
decryption. This paper summarizes quick notes to setup of Bloombase StoreSafe and simple migration of Oracle database
on IBM AIX platform installed on IBM p-Series POWER based server with IBM DS4100 SAN storage sub-system to achieve
transparent Oracle encryption meeting various information security regulatory compliance standards without sacrificing
performance.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P2
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
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© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Bloombase, Spitfire, StoreSafe and Keyparc are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Bloombase in the United States, People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region and/or other countries.
The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.
Document No.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P3
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
3
Introduction
5
Purpose and Scope
7
Assumptions
8
Infrastructure
9
Setup ............................................................................................................. 9
Server ........................................................................................................... 10
Storage Area Network (SAN) ........................................................................... 10
Software........................................................................................................ 10
Configuration Overview
11
System Configuration..................................................................................... 11
Virtual Memory................................................................................................. 11
Spitfire StoreSafe Setup ................................................................................. 12
Oracle Database Setup and Migration ............................................................. 14
Setup Spitfire StoreSafe Virtual Storage............................................................ 15
Migrate Oracle Data Files ................................................................................. 16
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P4
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Validation Tests
18
Conclusion
19
Disclaimer
20
Technical Reference
21
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P5
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Introduction
Digital assets including financial reports, legal documents, private human resources information, confidential contracts and
sensitive user data are invaluable properties of a corporation. A business cannot risk losing these information, both
confidentiality and non-repudiation. Nevertheless, the Internet has becoming more pervasive, security attacks have grown.
News and reports have revealed millions of dollars of loss in various enterprises and organizations due to security
breaches.
Data protection at the persistence layer used to be an uncommon subject in information technology industry. Persistence
data, in the old days, are assumed safely kept and stored in highly secure data centers with effective physical access
control and close surveillance. However, trends in the industry in backup, archive and high availability with an aim to
safeguard data from the worst attack and be responsive to rescues, keeping the enterprise core system running non-stop,
have opened up chances confidential data get disclosed and tampered by unauthorized parties.
Numerous security compliance and standards including Sarbanes Oxley, Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and Personal Data Privacy
Ordinance have raised enterprises’ awareness of securing their core business and customer data. However, persistence
data protection is technically a difficult subject. One has to prepare for additional system complexity, loss of performance,
at the same time, maintaining the same level of stability and scalability, and most important of all, be highly secure, hackerproof rather than exposing more security loopholes.
Core business data of an enterprise constitutes a major segment of assets that a corporation possesses. Customer data,
marketing strategies, intellectual properties in form of source codes and business logic, sales history and prediction
figures, and other decision support numerical analysis as result of data-mining may often bury forward looking intelligence
that in some sense have very high future value when put into good use.
This application note discusses the application of Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe storage security server to protect the most
popular enterprise database server in the world, Oracle, where sensitive business information from ERP, knowledge base to
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P6
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
contents, etc are stored, achieving transparent deployment and performance encryption without tedious schema alteration
or application change.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P7
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Purpose and Scope
Securing Oracle data files is not an easy task as data files are dynamic, they keep updated at all times which means static
way of data encryption offered by encryption utilities are not going to fit the bill. Sensitive data committed to Oracle data
files will also be written to database redo logs, archive logs and
flash recovery logs. Thus, to secure the system as a whole, all data files, redo, archive and flash recovery logs have to be
encrypted as well. Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe storage security server provides a single solution to various information
security problems that place huge threats to sensitive data stored in Oracle databases.
This document describes application of Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe storage security server on Oracle databases installed
on IBM AIX operating system to secure sensitive database information at rest transparently without tedious second
development efforts and numerous deployment risks and enables customers to protect their private business information
and immediately achieve various information security regulatory compliances and standards.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P8
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Assumptions
This document describes interoperability testing of Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe storage security server 3.0 on Oracle 10g
release 2 database server on IBM AIX 5.3 ML 4.
We assume you have basic knowledge of administration of Oracle and AIX.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P9
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Infrastructure
Setup
The interoperability testing environment is setup as in below figure
Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe 3.0 on
AIX 5.3
pSeries
Oracle 10gR2 on AIX 5.3 on IBM
pSeries 615
Virtual plain Oracle
data
TotalStorage
DS4100
IBM DS 4100 SAN Storage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P10
Server
Server
IBM pSeries p5 550
Processors
8 x IBM POWER5+ 1.65 Hz
Memory
16 GB
Operating System
IBM AIX 5.3 ML 4
Storage Area Network (SAN)
SAN Storage
IBM DS4100
Link Speed
4 Gbps
Cache Size
2 GB
Software
Oracle
Oracle Databaser Server 10g R2
Spitfire StoreSafe
Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe storage security server 3.0
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P11
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Configuration Overview
System Configuration
Virtual Memory
As Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe is installed on the same physical server and OS instance with Oracle database server
sharing the same virtual memory and filesystem cache for both Oracle and Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe, system virtual
memory parameters have to be tuned to avoid exhaust of memory which might lead to unpredictable problems when vast
amount of storage data are accessed where Oracle and Spitfire StoreSafe will compete for memory resources
Tune AIX virtual memory parameters as
$ vmo -p -o minfree=3840 -o maxfree=4352
$ vmo -p -o maxperm%=40 -o maxclient%=40
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Spitfire StoreSafe Setup
Spitfire StoreSafe supports both file-based and block-based on-the-fly storage encryption. As a quick start, an Oracle data
file is to be secured by Spitfire StoreSafe file-based encryption and will be migrated to Spitfire StoreSafe virtual storage and
accessed enabling transparent data encryption and decryption on-the-fly.
Spitfire StoreSafe file-based virtual storage and physical storage settings are configured as followings.
Assume an Oracle database instance named
hammer
is to be secured by Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe having its flash recovery area and data file located at filesystem
Repository
Physical Location
Flash recovery area
/u02/flash_recovery_a
rea
Oracle data
/u02/oradata/hamme
r/
What we want to achieve is to have all files under
/u02
to get secured by Spitfire StoreSafe.
Physical storage u02 is configured in Spitfire StoreSafe server with storage physically located in IBM DS 4100 SAN
accessible at filesystem path
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P13
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/u02
u02 physical storage is configured to run on JFS filesystem as configured via Spitfire StoreSafe web-based management
console.
Parameter
Value
Name
hammer_physical
Physical Storage
Type
Local
Location
/u02_physical
Virtual storage namely hammer is created on Spitfire StoreSafe storage encryption server to virtualize physical SAN storage
hammer_physical as a network share. hammer virtual storage is secured using AES 256-bit cryptographic cipher and is
configured to be accessible by authorized hosts only using storage networking protocols including NFS.
Plain persistent data are sent from storage host to Spitfire StoreSafe via NFS and/or CIFS. When Spitfire StoreSafe
intercepts the plain sensitive contents, they are encrypted on-the-fly and committed to IBM DS 4100 SAN storage.
Parameter
Value
Name
hammer
Mode
File
Physical Storage
hammer_physical
Protection Scheme
Privacy
Key
demo_valid1
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Cipher Algorithm
AES
Bit Length
256
Host Security
 127.0.0.1
 readable and
writable
Oracle Database Setup and Migration
Oracle flash recovery area and oradata are now in plain without protection. To secure Oracle data, customers have to follow
below steps to migrate and setup filesystem to enable Oracle to access ciphered data AS-IF they are in plain
 Setup Spitfire StoreSafe virtual plain storage
 Migrate Oracle data
IMPORTANT: Make sure Oracle database server is brought to a stop on data migration or seriou s data corruption might
occur. Please make sure you keep a separate database backup for rollback in case of disaster in the middle of migration.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P15
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Setup Spitfire StoreSafe Virtual Storage
Plain Oracle data are now stored under
/u02
and recall last section that Spitfire StoreSafe virtual storage has its physical storage setup at
/u02_physical
What we need to do is to setup mount point at
/u02
to enable filesystem read/write actions to route through Spitfire StoreSafe virtual storage
hammer
so that the sensitive Oracle data contents get transparently encrypted and migrated to physically stored at its preconfigured physical location
Rename current plain Oracle data repository
$ mv /u02 /u02_plain
Setup mount point /u02 for hammer Spitfire StoreSafe virtual storage
$ mount -o hard,llock,rw,bg,timeo=600,wsize=32768,rsize=32768,intr 127.0.0.1:/hammer /u02
Automate auto-mount of Spitfire StoreSafe virtual storage by configuring below in
/etc/filesystems
/u02:
Dev = 127.0.0.1:/hammer
vfs = nfs
mount
= false
options
= rw,bg,timeo=600,hard,llock,wsize=32768,rsize=32768,intr
Verify Spitfire StoreSafe virtual storage hammer by creating a test file
$ vi /u02/test.txt
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P16
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Browse virtual plain contents of the test file by invoking command in prompt
$ cat /u02/test.txt
where virtual-plain contents can be seen
Verify encrypted physical file at
/u02_physical/test.txt
by command
$ cat / u02_physical/test.txt
where contents are physically stored at IBM DS4100 SAN as ciphered and secured.
Migrate Oracle Data Files
Migrate plain Oracle contents to Spitfire StoreSafe virtual storage by
$ cp –R /u02_plain/* /u02
With above action, database flash recovery area, archive log, redo log, control files, data system files and database user
files get encrypted and migrated to the same IBM DS-series SAN disk via Spitfire StoreSafe virtual storage.
Sensitive Data
Location
Flash recovery area
/u02/flash_recovery_area
Redo log
 /u02/hammer/redo01.log
 /u02/hammer/redo02.log
 /u02/hammer/redo03.log
Database control files
 u02/hammer/control01.ctl
 /u02/hammer/control02.ct
l
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 /u02/hammer/control03.ct
l
Database system files
/u02/hammer/system01.dbf
Database user files
/u02/hammer/users01.dbf
Database temp tablespace
files
/u02/hammer/temp01.dbf
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Validation Tests
Startup Oracle database instance ‘hammer’ as normal and issue test SQLs to verify if sensitive data are transparently
decrypted on database select whereas they are transparently encrypted on database insert and update
$ sqlplus user/password
SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Thu Apr 3 06:50:59 2007
Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle.
All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options
SQL> select count(*) from CREDIT_CARD;
COUNT(*)
---------500016
SQL>
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P19
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Conclusion
Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe storage security server protects privacy of sensitive enterprise data by transparent encryption
and decryption. This paper summarizes quick notes to setup of Spitfire StoreSafe and simple migration of Oracle database
on IBM AIX platform installed on IBM p-Series POWER based server with IBM DS4100 SAN storage sub-system to achieve
transparent Oracle encryption meeting various information security regulatory compliance standards without sacrificing
performance.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P20
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Disclaimer
The tests described in this paper were conducted in the Bloombase InteropLab. Bloombase has not tested this configuration
with all the combinations of hardware and software options available. There may be significant differences in your
configuration that will change the procedures necessary to accomplish the objectives outlined in this paper. If you find that
any of these procedures do not work in your environment, please contact us immediately.
Bloombase StoreSafe Oracle Database Server Encryption on IBM AIX Application Notes P21
© 2008 Bloombase, Inc.
Technical Reference
1. Bloombase Spitfire StoreSafe storage security server certified on IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, eServer xSeries,
eServer p5 and IBM DS series SAN storage, http://www304.ibm.com/jct09002c/gsdod/solutiondetails.do?solution=27715
2. Oracle Storage Program Change Notice, http://www.oracle.com/technology/deploy/availability/htdocs/oscp.html
3. Oracle Database Protection by Spitfire StoreSafe,
http://www.bloombase.com/download/index.jsp?Url=/products/spitfire/storesafe/OracleDatabaseProtectionBy
SpitfireStoreSafe.pdf
4. Spitfire StoreSafe Compatibility Matrix,
http://www.bloombase.com/download/index.jsp?Url=/products/spitfire/storesafe/SpitfireStoreSafeNASCompati
bilityMatrix.pdf