2001 Chevrolet 3500HD Truck

2001 Chevrolet 3500HD
Owner's Manual
Litho in U.S.A.
Part Number C2104 A First Edition
© Copyright General Motors Corporation 2000
All Rights Reserved
i
Table of Contents
Seats and Restraint Systems
Section 1
Seats and Seat Controls
Safety Belts
Restraint Systems for Children
Features and Controls
Section 2
ii
Windows
Keys and Door Locks
Keyless Entry System
Automatic Transmission
Manual Transmission
Parking Brake
Tilt Wheel
Turn Signal/Multifunction Lever
Windshield Wipers
Cruise Control
Exterior and Interior Lamps
Mirrors
Storage Compartments
Accessory Power Outlets
Instrument Panel, Warning Lights and Gages
Table of Contents (cont'd)
Comfort Controls and Audio Systems
Section 3
Heating and Air Conditioning
Setting the Radio Clock
Radio/Cassette Player
Your Driving and the Road
Section 4
Defensive Driving
Drunken Driving
Control of a Vehicle
Braking
Steering
Driving Tips for Various Road Conditions
Recreational Vehicle Towing
Loading Your Vehicle
Towing a Trailer
Problems on the Road
Section 5
Hazard Warning Flashers
Jump Starting
Towing Your Vehicle
Engine Overheating
Changing a Flat Tire
If You're Stuck
iii
Service and Appearance Care
Section 6
Fuel
Checking Fluids and Lubricants
Engine Air Cleaner/Filter
Brakes
Bulb Replacement
Windshield Wiper Blade Replacement
Tires and Wheels
Appearance Care
Electrical System/Fuses and Circuit Breakers
Capacities and Specifications
Normal Maintenance Replacement Parts
Maintenance Schedule
Section 7
iv
Scheduled Maintenance
Owner Checks and Services
Periodic Maintenance Inspections
Recommended Fluids and Lubricants
Maintenance Records
Table of Contents (cont'd)
Customer Assistance Information
Section 8
Customer Satisfaction Procedures
Customer Assistance Offices
Roadside Assistance and Courtesy Transportation
Warranty Information (See Warranty Manual)
Reporting Safety Defects on page 8-10
Service Publications
Index
Section 9
In the Index you will find an alphabetical listing of almost every subject in this manual.
You can use it to quickly find something you want to read.
Please refer to the last page of this manual for your Service Station Guide
v
We support voluntary
technician certification.
GENERAL MOTORS, GM, the GM Emblem,
CHEVROLET, and the CHEVROLET Emblem are
registered trademarks of General Motors Corporation.
This manual includes the latest information at the time it
was printed. We reserve the right to make changes after
that time without further notice. For vehicles first sold in
Canada, substitute the name “General Motors of Canada
Limited” for Chevrolet Motor Division whenever it
appears in this manual.
Please keep this manual in your vehicle, so it will be
there if you ever need it when you’re on the road.
If you sell the vehicle, please leave this manual in it so
the new owner can use it.
For Canadian Owners Who Prefer a
French Language Manual:
Aux propriétaires canadiens: Vous pouvez vous
procurer un exemplaire de ce guide en français chez
votre concessionaire ou au:
Helm, Incorporated
P.O. Box 07130
Detroit, MI 48207
vi
How to Use this Manual
Safety Warnings and Symbols
Many people read their owner’s manual from beginning
to end when they first receive their new vehicle. If you
do this, it will help you learn about the features and
controls for your vehicle. In this manual, you’ll find
that pictures and words work together to explain
things quickly.
You will find a number of safety cautions in this book.
We use a box and the word CAUTION to tell you
about things that could hurt you if you were to ignore
the warning.
CAUTION:
These mean there is something that could hurt
you or other people.
In the caution area, we tell you what the hazard is.
Then we tell you what to do to help avoid or reduce the
hazard. Please read these cautions. If you don’t, you or
others could be hurt.
vii
You will also find a circle
with a slash through it in
this book. This safety
symbol means “Don’t,”
“Don’t do this” or “Don’t
let this happen.”
In the notice area, we tell you about something that can
damage your vehicle. Many times, this damage would
not be covered by your warranty, and it could be costly.
But the notice will tell you what to do to help avoid
the damage.
When you read other manuals, you might see
CAUTION and NOTICE warnings in different colors or
in different words.
You’ll also see warning labels on your vehicle. They use
the same words, CAUTION or NOTICE.
Vehicle Damage Warnings
Also, in this book you will find these notices:
NOTICE:
These mean there is something that could
damage your vehicle.
viii
Vehicle Symbols
These are some of the symbols you may find on your vehicle. Also see “Warning Lights and Gages” in the Index.
For example,
these symbols
are used on an
original battery:
CAUTION
POSSIBLE
INJURY
PROTECT
EYES BY
SHIELDING
CAUSTIC
BATTERY
ACID COULD
CAUSE
BURNS
AVOID
SPARKS OR
FLAMES
SPARK OR
FLAME
COULD
EXPLODE
BATTERY
These symbols
are important for
you and your
passengers
whenever your
vehicle is driven:
CHILD
RESTRAINT
TOP STRAP
ANCHOR
DOOR LOCK
UNLOCK
These symbols
have to do with
your lamps:
These symbols
are on some of
your controls:
MASTER
LIGHTING
SWITCH
WINDSHIELD
WIPER
TURN
SIGNALS
WINDSHIELD
WASHER
PARKING
LAMPS
FASTEN
SEAT
BELTS
HAZARD
WARNING
FLASHER
POWER
WINDOW
DAYTIME
RUNNING
LAMPS
AIR BAG
FOG LAMPS
WINDSHIELD
DEFROSTER
REAR
WINDOW
DEFOGGER
These symbols
are used on
warning and
indicator lights:
Here are some
other symbols
you may see:
ENGINE
COOLANT
TEMP
FUSE
BATTERY
CHARGING
SYSTEM
LIGHTER
HORN
BRAKE
COOLANT
FUEL
ENGINE OIL
PRESSURE
VENTILATING
FAN
ANTI-LOCK
BRAKES
ix
Model Reference
This manual covers this model:
3500HD Chassis Cab
x
Service Station Guide
Battery
See Section 6*
For
a More
Detailed Look at
What's Under the Hood
Cooling System
Tire Pressure
See Section 6
See Section 5*
See Section 6*
Spare Tire Pressure
See Section 6
Hood Release
See Section 6
Windshield Washer
Fluid
See Section 6
Engine Oil Dipstick
Fuel
See Section 6*
See Section 6*
Oil Viscosity
Engine Oil
See Section 6*
*For vehicles equipped with a diesel engine, see the Diesel Engine Supplement
Section 1 Seats and Restraint Systems
Here you’ll find information about the seats in your vehicle and how to use your safety belts properly. You can also
learn about some things you should not do with safety belts.
1-2
1-6
1-10
1-11
1-11
1-19
1-20
Seats and Seat Controls
Safety Belts: They’re for Everyone
Here Are Questions Many People Ask
About Safety Belts -- and the Answers
How to Wear Safety Belts Properly
Driver Position
Safety Belt Use During Pregnancy
Right Front Passenger Position
1-20
1-21
1-24
1-33
1-36
1-36
1-36
Center Passenger Position
Children
Restraint Systems for Children
Older Children
Safety Belt Extender
Checking Your Restraint Systems
Replacing Restraint System Parts
After a Crash
1-
1-1
Seats and Seat Controls
This section tells you about the seats -- how to adjust
them, and fold them up and down. It also tells you about
reclining front seatbacks and head restraints.
You can adjust the seat
with this lever located at
the front of the seat.
Manual Front Seat
CAUTION:
You can lose control of the vehicle if you try to
adjust a manual driver’s seat while the vehicle is
moving. The sudden movement could startle and
confuse you, or make you push a pedal when you
don’t want to. Adjust the driver’s seat only when
the vehicle is not moving.
1-2
Slide the lever toward the passenger’s side to unlock the
seat. Using your body, slide the seat to where you want
it. Then, release the lever and try to move the seat with
your body in order to make sure the seat is locked
into place.
Power Lumbar Control (If Equipped)
Reclining Seatbacks
If you have power lumbar
adjustment, you can
increase or decrease
lumbar support in an area
of the lower seatback.
To increase support, press and hold the front of the
rocker switch. Let go of the switch when the lower
seatback reaches the desired level of support.
To decrease support, press and hold the rear of the
rocker switch. Let go of the switch when the lower
seatback reaches the desired level of support.
To adjust the front seatback, move the lever rearward.
Release the lever to lock the seatback where you want it.
Move the lever again rearward and the seatback will go
to an upright position.
1-3
CAUTION:
But don’t have a seatback reclined if your vehicle
is moving.
1-4
Sitting in a reclined position when your vehicle is
in motion can be dangerous. Even if you buckle
up, your safety belts can’t do their job when
you’re reclined like this.
The shoulder belt can’t do its job because it
won’t be against your body. Instead, it will be
in front of you. In a crash you could go into it,
receiving neck or other injuries.
The lap belt can’t do its job either. In a crash the
belt could go up over your abdomen. The belt
forces would be there, not at your pelvic bones.
This could cause serious internal injuries.
For proper protection when the vehicle is in
motion, have the seatback upright. Then sit well
back in the seat and wear your safety belt properly.
Head Restraints
Seatback Latches
The front seatback folds forward to let you access
the rear of the cab. To fold the seatback, pull the easy
entry lever located on the outboard side of the seat.
To return the seatback to the upright position, push the
seatback rearward until it latches. Then it will be locked
into place.
CAUTION:
If the seatback isn’t locked, it could move forward
in a sudden stop or crash. That could cause injury
to the person sitting there. Always press rearward
on the seatback to be sure it is locked.
Slide the head restraint up or down so that the top of the
restraint is closest to the top of your ears. This position
reduces the chance of a neck injury in a crash.
1-5
Safety Belts: They’re for Everyone
This part of the manual tells you how to use safety belts
properly. It also tells you some things you should not do
with safety belts.
CAUTION:
Don’t let anyone ride where he or she can’t wear
a safety belt properly. If you are in a crash and
you’re not wearing a safety belt, your injuries
can be much worse. You can hit things inside the
vehicle or be ejected from it. You can be seriously
injured or killed. In the same crash, you might
not be if you are buckled up. Always fasten your
safety belt, and check that your passengers’ belts
are fastened properly too.
1-6
CAUTION:
It is extremely dangerous to ride in a cargo area,
inside or outside of a vehicle. In a collision,
people riding in these areas are more likely to be
seriously injured or killed. Do not allow people
to ride in any area of your vehicle that is not
equipped with seats and safety belts. Be sure
everyone in your vehicle is in a seat and using a
safety belt properly.
Your vehicle has a light
that comes on as a reminder
to buckle up. See “Safety
Belt Reminder Light” in
the Index.
In most states and Canadian provinces, the law says to
wear safety belts. Here’s why: They work.
Why Safety Belts Work
When you ride in or on anything, you go as fast as it goes.
You never know if you’ll be in a crash. If you do have
a crash, you don’t know if it will be a bad one.
A few crashes are mild, and some crashes can be so
serious that even buckled up a person wouldn’t survive.
But most crashes are in between. In many of them,
people who buckle up can survive and sometimes
walk away. Without belts they could have been badly
hurt or killed.
After more than 30 years of safety belts in vehicles,
the facts are clear. In most crashes buckling up does
matter ... a lot!
Take the simplest vehicle. Suppose it’s just a seat
on wheels.
1-7
Put someone on it.
1-8
Get it up to speed. Then stop the vehicle. The rider
doesn’t stop.
The person keeps going until stopped by something.
or the instrument panel ...
In a real vehicle, it could be the windshield ...
1-9
Here Are Questions Many People Ask
About Safety Belts -- and the Answers
Q: Won’t I be trapped in the vehicle after an
accident if I’m wearing a safety belt?
or the safety belts!
With safety belts, you slow down as the vehicle does.
You get more time to stop. You stop over more distance,
and your strongest bones take the forces. That’s why
safety belts make such good sense.
1-10
A:
You could be -- whether you’re wearing a safety
belt or not. But you can unbuckle a safety belt,
even if you’re upside down. And your chance of
being conscious during and after an accident, so
you can unbuckle and get out, is much greater
if you are belted.
Q:
If my vehicle has air bags, why should I have
to wear safety belts?
A:
Air bags are in many vehicles today and will
be in most of them in the future. But they are
supplemental systems only; so they work with
safety belts -- not instead of them. Every air bag
system ever offered for sale has required the use of
safety belts. Even if you’re in a vehicle that has air
bags, you still have to buckle up to get the most
protection. That’s true not only in frontal collisions,
but especially in side and other collisions.
Q:
If I’m a good driver, and I never drive far from
home, why should I wear safety belts?
A:
You may be an excellent driver, but if you’re in an
accident -- even one that isn’t your fault -- you
and your passengers can be hurt. Being a good
driver doesn’t protect you from things beyond
your control, such as bad drivers.
Most accidents occur within 25 miles (40 km)
of home. And the greatest number of serious
injuries and deaths occur at speeds of less than
40 mph (65 km/h).
How to Wear Safety Belts Properly
Adults
This part is only for people of adult size.
Be aware that there are special things to know about
safety belts and children. And there are different
rules for smaller children and babies. If a child will be
riding in your vehicle, see the part of this manual called
“Children.” Follow those rules for everyone’s protection.
First, you’ll want to know which restraint systems your
vehicle has.
We’ll start with the driver position.
Safety belts are for everyone.
Driver Position
This part describes the driver’s restraint system.
Lap-Shoulder Belt
The driver has a lap-shoulder belt. Here’s how to
wear it properly.
1. Close and lock the door.
2. Adjust the seat so you can sit up straight.
To see how, see “Seats” in the Index.
1-11
3. Pick up the latch plate and pull the belt across you.
Don’t let it get twisted.
4. Push the latch plate into the buckle until it clicks.
Pull up on the latch plate to make sure it is secure.
If the belt isn’t long enough, see “Safety Belt
Extender” at the end of this section.
Make sure the release button on the buckle is positioned
so you would be able to unbuckle the safety belt quickly
if you ever had to.
1-12
The lap part of the belt should be worn low and snug on
the hips, just touching the thighs. In a crash, this applies
force to the strong pelvic bones. And you’d be less likely
to slide under the lap belt. If you slid under it, the belt
would apply force at your abdomen. This could cause
serious or even fatal injuries. The shoulder belt should
go over the shoulder and across the chest. These parts
of the body are best able to take belt restraining forces.
The safety belt locks if there’s a sudden stop or a crash.
Shoulder Belt Height Adjuster
Before you begin to drive, move the shoulder belt
adjuster to the height that is right for you.
To move it down, push in at the word PRESS and move
the height adjuster to the desired position. You can move
the adjuster up just by pushing up on the shoulder belt
guide. After you move the adjuster to where you want it,
try to move it down without pushing in to make sure it
has locked into position.
Adjust the height so that the shoulder portion of the
belt is centered on your shoulder. The belt should be
away from your face and neck, but not falling off
your shoulder.
1-13
Q:
What’s wrong with this?
CAUTION:
You can be seriously hurt if your shoulder belt is
too loose. In a crash, you would move forward too
much, which could increase injury. The shoulder
belt should fit against your body.
A:
The shoulder belt is too loose. It won’t give nearly
as much protection this way.
1-14
Q:
What’s wrong with this?
CAUTION:
You can be seriously injured if your belt is buckled
in the wrong place like this. In a crash, the belt
would go up over your abdomen. The belt forces
would be there, not at the pelvic bones. This could
cause serious internal injuries. Always buckle your
belt into the buckle nearest you.
A:
The belt is buckled in the wrong place.
1-15
Q:
What’s wrong with this?
CAUTION:
You can be seriously injured if your belt goes
over an armrest like this. The belt would be much
too high. In a crash, you can slide under the belt.
The belt force would then be applied at the
abdomen, not at the pelvic bones, and that could
cause serious or fatal injuries. Be sure the belt
goes under the armrests.
A:
The belt is over an armrest.
1-16
Q:
What’s wrong with this?
CAUTION:
You can be seriously injured if you wear the
shoulder belt under your arm. In a crash, your
body would move too far forward, which would
increase the chance of head and neck injury.
Also, the belt would apply too much force to the
ribs, which aren’t as strong as shoulder bones.
You could also severely injure internal organs
like your liver or spleen.
A:
The shoulder belt is worn under the arm. It should
be worn over the shoulder at all times.
1-17
Q:
What’s wrong with this?
CAUTION:
You can be seriously injured by a twisted belt.
In a crash, you wouldn’t have the full width
of the belt to spread impact forces. If a belt is
twisted, make it straight so it can work properly,
or ask your dealer to fix it.
A:
The belt is twisted across the body.
1-18
Safety Belt Use During Pregnancy
Safety belts work for everyone, including pregnant
women. Like all occupants, they are more likely to
be seriously injured if they don’t wear safety belts.
To unlatch the belt, just push the button on the buckle.
The belt should go back out of the way.
Before you close the door, be sure the belt is out of the
way. If you slam the door on it, you can damage both the
belt and your vehicle.
A pregnant woman should wear a lap-shoulder belt, and
the lap portion should be worn as low as possible, below
the rounding, throughout the pregnancy.
1-19
The best way to protect the fetus is to protect the
mother. When a safety belt is worn properly, it’s more
likely that the fetus won’t be hurt in a crash. For
pregnant women, as for anyone, the key to making
safety belts effective is wearing them properly.
Lap Belt
Right Front Passenger Position
To learn how to wear the right front passenger’s safety
belt properly, see “Driver Position” earlier in this section.
The right front passenger’s safety belt works the same
way as the driver’s safety belt -- except for one thing.
If you ever pull the lap portion of the belt out all the
way, you will engage the child restraint locking feature.
If this happens, just let the belt go back all the way and
start again.
Center Passenger Position
When you sit in the center seating position, you have a
lap safety belt, which has no retractor. To make the belt
longer, tilt the latch plate and pull it along the belt.
1-20
Children
Everyone in a vehicle needs protection! This includes
infants and all other children. Neither the distance
traveled nor the age and size of the traveler changes
the need, for everyone, to use safety restraints. In fact,
the law in every state in the United States and in every
Canadian province says children up to some age must be
restrained while in a vehicle.
Infants and Young Children
Every time infants and young children ride in
vehicles, they should have the protection provided by
the appropriate restraint. Young children should not use
the vehicle’s safety belts, unless there is no other choice.
To make the belt shorter, pull its free end as shown until
the belt is snug.
Buckle, position and release it the same way as the lap
part of a lap-shoulder belt. If the belt isn’t long enough,
see “Safety Belt Extender” at the end of this section.
Make sure the release button on the buckle is positioned
so you would be able to unbuckle the safety belt quickly
if you ever had to.
1-21
CAUTION: (Continued)
For example, in a crash at only 25 mph (40 km/h),
a 12-lb. (5.5 kg) baby will suddenly become a
240-lb. (110 kg) force on a person’s arms. A baby
should be secured in an appropriate restraint.
CAUTION:
People should never hold a baby in their arms
while riding in a vehicle. A baby doesn’t weigh
much -- until a crash. During a crash a baby will
become so heavy it is not possible to hold it.
CAUTION: (Continued)
1-22
Q:
What are the different types of add-on
child restraints?
A:
Add-on child restraints, which are purchased by the
vehicle’s owner, are available in four basic types.
Selection of a particular restraint should take into
consideration not only the child’s weight, height
and age but also whether or not the restraint will
be compatible with the motor vehicle in which it
will be used.
For most basic types of child restraints, there are
many different models available. When purchasing
a child restraint, be sure it is designed to be used
in a motor vehicle. If it is, the restraint will have a
label saying that it meets federal motor vehicle
safety standards.
CAUTION:
Newborn infants need complete support,
including support for the head and neck.
This is necessary because a newborn infant’s
neck is weak and its head weighs so much
compared with the rest of its body. In a crash,
an infant in a rear-facing seat settles into the
restraint, so the crash forces can be distributed
across the strongest part of an infant’s body, the
back and shoulders. Infants always should be
secured in appropriate infant restraints.
The restraint manufacturer’s instructions that
come with the restraint state the weight and
height limitations for a particular child restraint.
In addition, there are many kinds of restraints
available for children with special needs.
1-23
CAUTION:
Restraint Systems for Children
The body structure of a young child is quite
unlike that of an adult or older child, for whom
the safety belts are designed. A young child’s
hip bones are still so small that vehicle’s regular
safety belt may not remain low on the hip bones,
as it should. Instead, it may settle up around the
child’s abdomen. In a crash, the belt would apply
force on a body area that’s unprotected by any
bony structure. This alone could cause serious or
fatal injuries. Young children always should be
secured in appropriate child restraints.
An infant car bed (A), a special bed made for use in a
motor vehicle, is an infant restraint system designed to
restrain or position a child on a continuous flat surface.
Make sure that the infant’s head rests toward the center
of the vehicle.
1-24
A rear-facing infant seat (B) provides restraint with
the seating surface against the back of the infant.
The harness system holds the infant in place and, in a
crash, acts to keep the infant positioned in the restraint.
A forward-facing child seat (C-E) provides restraint for
the child’s body with the harness and also sometimes
with surfaces such as T-shaped or shelf-like shields.
1-25
Q:
A:
How do child restraints work?
A child restraint system is any device designed for
use in a motor vehicle to restrain, seat, or position
children. A built-in child restraint system is a
permanent part of the motor vehicle. An add-on
child restraint system is a portable one, which is
purchased by the vehicle’s owner.
For many years, add-on child restraints have
used the adult belt system in the vehicle. To help
reduce the chance of injury, the child also has to
be secured within the restraint. The vehicle’s belt
system secures the add-on child restraint in the
vehicle, and the add-on child restraint’s harness
system holds the child in place within the restraint.
A booster seat (F-G) is a child restraint designed to
improve the fit of the vehicle’s safety belt system.
Some booster seats have a shoulder belt positioner,
and some high-back booster seats have a five-point
harness. A booster seat can also help a child to see out
the window.
1-26
One system, the three-point harness, has straps
that come down over each of the infant’s shoulders
and buckle together at the crotch. The five-point
harness system has two shoulder straps, two hip
straps and a crotch strap. A shield may take the
place of hip straps. A T-shaped shield has shoulder
straps that are attached to a flat pad which rests low
against the child’s body. A shelf- or armrest-type
shield has straps that are attached to a wide,
shelf-like shield that swings up or to the side.
When choosing a child restraint, be sure the child
restraint is designed to be used in a vehicle. If it is,
it will have a label saying that it meets federal motor
vehicle safety standards.
Where to Put the Restraint
Then follow the instructions for the restraint. You may
find these instructions on the restraint itself or in a
booklet, or both. These restraints use the belt system in
your vehicle, but the child also has to be secured within
the restraint to help reduce the chance of personal injury.
When securing an add-on child restraint, refer to the
instructions that come with the restraint which may be
on the restraint itself or in a booklet, or both, and to this
manual. The child restraint instructions are important,
so if they are not available, obtain a replacement copy
from the manufacturer.
Keep in mind that an unsecured child restraint can move
around in a collision or sudden stop and injure people
in the vehicle. Be sure to properly secure any child
restraint in your vehicle -- even when no child is in it.
The child restraint must be secured properly in the
center or right front passenger seat.
Top Strap
Some child restraints have a top strap, or “top tether.”
It can help restrain the child restraint during a collision.
For it to work, a top strap must be properly anchored to
the vehicle.
If the child restraint does not have a top strap, one can
be obtained, in kit form, for many child restraints. Ask the
child restraint manufacturer whether or not a kit is available.
1-27
If you need to have an anchor installed, your dealer
can obtain a kit with anchor hardware and installation
instructions specifically designed for this vehicle.
The dealer can then install the anchor for you.
This work will be done for you free of charge.
Or, you may install the anchor yourself using the
instructions provided in the kit.
Securing a Child Restraint in a Center
Seat Position
In Canada, the law requires that forward-facing
child restraints have a top strap, and that the strap be
anchored. In the United States, some child restraints
also have a top strap. If your child restraint has a
top strap, it should be anchored.
You’ll be using the lap belt. Be sure to follow the
instructions that came with the child restraint.
Secure the child in the child restraint when and as
the instructions say.
See the earlier part about the top strap if the child
restraint has one.
1-28
1. Make the belt as long as possible by tilting the latch
plate and pulling it along the belt.
2. Put the restraint on the seat.
4. Buckle the belt. Make sure the release button is
positioned so you would be able to unbuckle the
safety belt quickly if you ever had to.
3. Run the vehicle’s safety belt through or around the
restraint. The child restraint instructions will show
you how.
1-29
5. To tighten the belt, pull its free end while you
push down on the child restraint. If you’re using
a forward-facing child restraint, you may find it
helpful to use your knee to push down on the
child restraint as you tighten the belt.
Securing a Child Restraint in the Right
Front Seat Position
6. Push and pull the child restraint in different
directions to be sure it is secure.
To remove the child restraint, just unbuckle the vehicle’s
safety belt. It will be ready to work for an adult or larger
child passenger.
You’ll be using the lap-shoulder belt. See the earlier
part about the top strap if the child restraint has one.
Be sure to follow the instructions that came with the
child restraint. Secure the child in the child restraint
when and as the instructions say.
1. Put the restraint on the seat.
2. Pick up the latch plate, and run the lap and shoulder
portions of the vehicle’s safety belt through or
around the restraint. The child restraint instructions
will show you how.
If the shoulder belt goes in front of the child’s face
or neck, put it behind the child restraint.
1-30
3. Buckle the belt. Make sure the release button is
positioned so you would be able to unbuckle the
safety belt quickly if you ever had to.
4. Pull the rest of the lap belt all the way out of the
retractor to set the lock.
1-31
5. To tighten the belt, feed the lap belt back into the
retractor while you push down on the child restraint.
If you’re using a forward-facing child restraint,
you may find it helpful to use your knee to push
down on the child restraint as you tighten the belt.
6. Push and pull the child restraint in different
directions to be sure it is secure.
To remove the child restraint, just unbuckle the vehicle’s
safety belt and let it go back all the way. The safety belt
will move freely again and be ready to work for an adult
or larger child passenger.
1-32
Older Children
Q:
A:
What is the proper way to wear safety belts?
If possible, an older child should wear a
lap-shoulder belt and get the additional restraint a
shoulder belt can provide. The shoulder belt should
not cross the face or neck. The lap belt should fit
snugly below the hips, just touching the top of the
thighs. It should never be worn over the abdomen,
which could cause severe or even fatal internal
injuries in a crash.
In a crash, children who are not buckled up can strike
other people who are buckled up, or can be thrown
out of the vehicle. Older children need to use safety
belts properly.
Older children who have outgrown booster seats should
wear the vehicle’s safety belts.
If you have the choice, a child should sit next to a
window so the child can wear a lap-shoulder belt and
get the additional restraint a shoulder belt can provide.
1-33
CAUTION:
Never do this.
Here two children are wearing the same belt.
The belt can’t properly spread the impact forces.
In a crash, the two children can be crushed
together and seriously injured. A belt must be
used by only one person at a time.
1-34
Q:
What if a child is wearing a lap-shoulder belt,
but the child is so small that the shoulder belt is
very close to the child’s face or neck?
A:
Move the child toward the center of the vehicle,
but be sure that the shoulder belt still is on the
child’s shoulder, so that in a crash the child’s upper
body would have the restraint that belts provide.
If the child is so small that the shoulder belt is still
very close to the child’s face or neck, you might
want to place the child in a seat that has a lap belt,
if your vehicle has one.
CAUTION:
Never do this.
Here a child is sitting in a seat that has a
lap-shoulder belt, but the shoulder part is behind
the child. If the child wears the belt in this way,
in a crash the child might slide under the belt.
The belt’s force would then be applied right on
the child’s abdomen. That could cause serious or
fatal injuries.
Wherever the child sits, the lap portion of the belt
should be worn low and snug on the hips, just touching
the child’s thighs. This applies belt force to the child’s
pelvic bones in a crash.
1-35
Safety Belt Extender
If the vehicle’s safety belt will fasten around you,
you should use it.
But if a safety belt isn’t long enough to fasten, your
dealer will order you an extender. It’s free. When you go
in to order it, take the heaviest coat you will wear, so the
extender will be long enough for you. The extender will
be just for you, and just for the seat in your vehicle that
you choose. Don’t let someone else use it, and use it
only for the seat it is made to fit. To wear it, just attach
it to the regular safety belt.
Checking Your Restraint Systems
Now and then, make sure the safety belt reminder light
and all your belts, buckles, latch plates, retractors and
anchorages are working properly. Look for any other
loose or damaged safety belt system parts. If you see
anything that might keep a safety belt system from
doing its job, have it repaired.
Torn or frayed safety belts may not protect you
in a crash. They can rip apart under impact forces.
If a belt is torn or frayed, get a new one right away.
1-36
Replacing Restraint System Parts
After a Crash
If you’ve had a crash, do you need new belts?
After a very minor collision, nothing may be necessary.
But if the belts were stretched, as they would be if worn
during a more severe crash, then you need new belts.
If belts are cut or damaged, replace them. Collision
damage also may mean you will need to have safety belt
or seat parts repaired or replaced. New parts and repairs
may be necessary even if the belt wasn’t being used at
the time of the collision.
Section 2 Features and Controls
Here you can learn about the many standard and optional features on your vehicle, and information on starting,
shifting and braking. Also explained are the instrument panel and the warning systems that tell you if everything is
working properly -- and what to do if you have a problem.
2-2
2-4
2-5
2-7
2-10
2-11
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-15
2-16
2-19
2-22
2-23
2-25
Windows
Keys
Door Locks
Keyless Entry System (If Equipped)
Theft
PasslockR
New Vehicle “Break-In”
Ignition Positions
Starting Your Gasoline Engine
Engine Coolant Heater (If Equipped)
Automatic Transmission Operation
Manual Transmission Operation
Parking Brake
Shifting Into PARK (P)
(Automatic Transmission Only)
Shifting Out of PARK (P)
(Automatic Transmission Only)
2-26
2-26
2-27
2-27
2-28
2-29
2-34
2-36
2-38
2-41
2-44
2-46
2-48
Parking Your Vehicle
(Manual Transmission Models Only)
Parking Over Things That Burn
Engine Exhaust
Running Your Engine While You’re Parked
(Automatic Transmission)
Tilt Wheel (If Equipped)
Turn Signal/Multifunction Lever
Exterior Lamps
Interior Lamps
Mirrors
Storage Compartments
Instrument Panel - Your Information System
Instrument Panel Cluster
Warning Lights, Gages and Indicators
2-
2-1
Windows
CAUTION:
Leaving children in a vehicle with the windows
closed is dangerous. A child can be overcome by
the extreme heat and can suffer permanent
injuries or even death from heat stroke. Never
leave a child alone in a vehicle, especially with the
windows closed in warm or hot weather.
Manual Windows
Turn the hand crank on each door to raise or lower the
manual windows.
2-2
Power Windows (If Equipped)
The driver’s door also has a switch for the passenger
window. The power windows will work when the
ignition has been turned to ACCESSORY or RUN.
Press the rear of the switch to lower the window.
Press the front of the switch to raise the window.
The driver’s window also has an express-down feature
that allows the window to be lowered without holding
the switch. Press and hold AUTO for one second to
activate the express-down mode. The express-down
mode can be canceled at any time by pressing the
opposite side of the switch. To open the window
partway, lightly tap the switch until the window is at the
desired position.
If your vehicle has power windows, the controls are
located on each of the doors.
2-3
Keys
CAUTION:
Leaving children in a vehicle with the ignition
key is dangerous for many reasons. A child or
others could be badly injured or even killed.
They could operate the power windows or other
controls or even make the vehicle move. Don’t
leave the keys in a vehicle with children.
2-4
Your vehicle has one
double-sided key for the
ignition and the door locks.
Door Locks
CAUTION:
If you ever lose your keys, your dealer will be able to
assist you with obtaining new ones.
NOTICE:
Your vehicle has a number of new features that
can help prevent theft. You can have a lot of
trouble getting into your vehicle if you ever lock
your key inside. You may even have to damage
your vehicle to get in. So be sure you have an
extra key.
Unlocked doors can be dangerous.
D Passengers -- especially children -- can
easily open the doors and fall out of a
moving vehicle. When a door is locked, the
handle won’t open it. You increase the
chance of being thrown out of the vehicle in
a crash if the doors aren’t locked. So, wear
safety belts properly and lock the doors
whenever you drive.
D Young children who get into unlocked
vehicles may be unable to get out. A child
can be overcome by extreme heat and can
suffer permanent injuries or even death
from heat stroke. Always lock your vehicle
whenever you leave it.
D Outsiders can easily enter through an
unlocked door when you slow down or stop
your vehicle. Locking your doors can help
prevent this from happening.
2-5
There are several ways to lock and unlock your vehicle.
Power Door Locks (If Equipped)
From the outside, use your key or the keyless entry
system, if your vehicle has this feature.
Press the top of the power
door lock switch, marked
LOCK, on either door to
lock both doors at once.
Press the ribbed side of the
switch to unlock both doors
at once.
To lock the door from the
inside, slide the manual lock
located on your door down.
Leaving Your Vehicle
To unlock the door, slide the manual lock up.
2-6
If you are leaving the vehicle, take your keys, open your
door and set the locks from inside. Then get out and
close the door.
Keyless Entry System (If Equipped)
If your vehicle has this feature, you can lock and unlock
your doors from about 3 feet (1 m) up to 30 feet (9 m)
away using the remote keyless entry transmitter supplied
with your vehicle.
Your keyless entry system operates on a radio frequency
subject to Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Rules and with Industry Canada.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference,
and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
This device complies with RSS-210 of Industry Canada.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause interference, and (2) this
device must accept any interference received, including
interference that may cause undesired operation of
the device.
Changes or modifications to this system by other than
an authorized service facility could void authorization to
use this equipment.
At times you may notice a decrease in range. This is
normal for any remote keyless entry system. If the
transmitter does not work or if you have to stand closer
to your vehicle for the transmitter to work, try this:
D Check the distance. You may be too far from your
vehicle. You may need to stand closer during rainy
or snowy weather.
D Check the location. Other vehicles or objects may be
blocking the signal. Take a few steps to the left or
right, hold the transmitter higher, and try again.
D Check to determine if battery replacement or
transmitter resynchronization is necessary. See the
instructions that follow.
D If you’re still having trouble, see your dealer or a
qualified technician for service.
2-7
Operation
Press the LOCK button to lock both doors. The interior
lamps will come on for two seconds as soon as all the
doors are closed. If you press the LOCK button twice
the horn will chirp to confirm that the doors have
locked. This will only occur if the transmitter has been
programmed with the ignition off.
If you do not want the horn to chirp as a confirmation
that the doors have locked or unlocked, please consult
your dealer.
Matching Transmitter(s) to Your Vehicle
To unlock the driver’s door, press the UNLOCK button.
The interior lamps will come on for 40 seconds or until
the ignition is turned on. If you press the UNLOCK
button again within five seconds, the passenger door
will unlock.
2-8
Each remote keyless entry transmitter is coded to
prevent another transmitter from unlocking your vehicle.
If a transmitter is lost or stolen, a replacement can be
purchased through your dealer. Remember to bring any
remaining transmitters with you when you go to your
dealer. When the dealer matches the replacement
transmitter to your vehicle, any remaining transmitters
must also be matched. Once your dealer has coded the
new transmitter, the lost transmitter will not unlock your
vehicle. Each vehicle can have only two transmitters
matched to it.
Battery Replacement
To replace the battery, do the following:
Under normal use, the battery in your remote keyless
entry transmitter should last about two years.
You can tell the battery is weak if the transmitter won’t
work at the normal range in any location. If you have to
get close to your vehicle before the transmitter works,
it’s probably time to change the battery.
NOTICE:
When replacing the battery, use care not to
touch any of the circuitry. Static from your
body transferred to these surfaces may damage
the transmitter.
Use one three volt, type CR2032, or equivalent battery.
1. Insert a thin coin or flat-tip screwdriver to separate
the bottom of the transmitter from the top.
2. Remove the battery and replace it with a new one,
making sure the positive (+) side of the battery is
facing down.
3. Snap the top and bottom together.
4. Test the operation of the transmitter with your
vehicle. If the transmitter does not work, try
synchronizing the transmitter with the receiver.
2-9
Resynchronization
Resynchronization may be necessary due to the security
method used by this system. The transmitter does not
send the same signal twice to the receiver. The receiver
will not respond to a signal it has been sent previously.
This prevents anyone from recording and playing back
the signal from the transmitter.
When you park your vehicle and open the driver’s door,
you’ll hear a tone reminding you to remove your key
from the ignition and take it with you. Always do this.
Your steering wheel will be locked, and so will your
ignition. If you have an automatic transmission, taking
your key out also locks your transmission. Also
remember to lock the doors.
To resynchronize your transmitter, stand close to your
vehicle and simultaneously press and hold the LOCK
and UNLOCK buttons on the transmitter for at least
five seconds. The door locks should cycle to confirm
synchronization. If the locks do not cycle, see your
dealer for service.
Parking at Night
Theft
Even if you park in a lot where someone will be
watching your vehicle, it’s still best to lock it up and
take your keys. But what if you have to leave your
ignition key? What if you have to leave something
valuable in your vehicle?
Vehicle theft is big business, especially in some cities.
Although your vehicle has a number of theft-deterrent
features, we know that nothing we put on it can make
it impossible to steal. However, there are ways you
can help.
Key in the Ignition
If you leave your vehicle with the keys inside, it’s an
easy target for joy riders or professional thieves -- so
don’t do it.
2-10
Park in a lighted spot, close all windows and lock your
vehicle. Remember to keep your valuables out of sight.
Put them in a storage area, or take them with you.
Parking Lots
D Put your valuables in a storage area, like your
glove box.
D If your vehicle has a remote keyless entry system,
take the transmitter with you.
D Lock all the doors except the driver’s.
PasslockR
Your vehicle is equipped with the Passlock
theft-deterrent system.
Passlock is a passive theft-deterrent system. Passlock
enables fuel if the ignition lock cylinder is turned with a
valid key. If a correct key is not used or the ignition lock
cylinder is tampered with, fuel is disabled.
During normal operation, the SECURITY light will
go off approximately five seconds after the key is turned
to RUN.
If the engine stalls and the SECURITY light flashes,
wait until the light stops flashing before trying to restart
the engine. Remember to release the key from START
as soon as the engine starts.
If the engine is running and the SECURITY light comes
on, you will be able to restart the engine if you turn the
engine off. However, your Passlock system is not
working properly and must be serviced by your dealer.
Your vehicle is not protected by Passlock at this time.
You may also want to check the fuses (see “Fuses and
Circuit Breakers” in the Index). See your dealer
for service.
New Vehicle “Break-In”
NOTICE:
Your vehicle doesn’t need an elaborate
“break-in.” But it will perform better in the
long run if you follow these guidelines:
D Keep your speed at 55 mph (88 km/h) or
less for the first 500 miles (805 km).
D Don’t drive at any one speed -- fast or
slow -- for the first 500 miles (805 km).
Don’t make full-throttle starts.
D Avoid making hard stops for the first
200 miles (322 km) or so. During this time
your new brake linings aren’t yet broken
in. Hard stops with new linings can mean
premature wear and earlier replacement.
Follow this breaking-in guideline every
time you get new brake linings.
D Don’t tow a trailer during break-in.
See “Towing a Trailer” in the Index for
more information.
2-11
Ignition Positions
You can use the key to turn the ignition switch to
five different positions.
LOCK (B): This position locks your ignition, steering
wheel and transmission. It’s a theft-deterrent feature.
You will only be able to remove your key when the
ignition is turned to LOCK.
OFF (C): This position lets you turn off the engine, but
still turn the steering wheel. It doesn’t lock the steering
wheel like LOCK. Use OFF if you must have your
vehicle in motion while the engine is off (for example, if
your vehicle is being pushed).
RUN (D): This is the position for driving.
START (E): This position starts your engine.
CAUTION:
ACCESSORY (A): This position lets you use things
like the radio, power windows and the windshield
wipers when the engine is off. Push in the key and turn
it toward you. Your steering wheel will remain locked,
just as it was before you inserted the key.
2-12
On manual transmission vehicles, turning the key
to LOCK will lock the steering column and result
in a loss of ability to steer the vehicle. This could
cause a collision. If you need to turn the engine
off while the vehicle is moving, turn the key only
to OFF. Don’t press the key release button while
the vehicle is moving.
To remove the key, turn the key to OFF, press and hold
the button and turn the key to LOCK. Do not hold the
button in while turning the key to OFF.
NOTICE:
If your key seems stuck in LOCK and you can’t
turn it, be sure you are using the correct key; if
so, is it all the way in? If it is, then turn the
steering wheel left and right while you turn the
key hard. But turn the key only with your hand.
Using a tool to force it could break the key or the
ignition switch. If none of this works, then your
vehicle needs service.
Starting Your Gasoline Engine
If you have a diesel engine, see “Starting Your Diesel
Engine” in the Diesel Engine Supplement.
Automatic Transmission
Move your shift lever to PARK (P) or NEUTRAL (N).
Your engine won’t start in any other position -- that’s a
safety feature. To restart when you’re already moving,
use NEUTRAL (N) only.
Key Release Button (Manual Transmission)
The ignition key cannot be
removed from the ignition
of manual transmission
vehicles unless the key
release button is used.
NOTICE:
Don’t try to shift to PARK (P) if your vehicle is
moving. If you do, you could damage the
transmission. Shift to PARK (P) only when your
vehicle is stopped.
2-13
Manual Transmission
The gear selector should be in NEUTRAL and the
parking brake engaged. Hold the clutch pedal to the
floor and start the engine. Your vehicle won’t start if
the clutch pedal is not all the way down -- that’s a
safety feature.
1. With your foot off the accelerator pedal, turn the
ignition key to START. When the engine starts, let
go of the key. The idle speed will go down as your
engine gets warm.
NOTICE:
Holding your key in START for longer than
15 seconds at a time will cause your battery to
be drained much sooner. And the excessive heat
can damage your starter motor. Wait about
15 seconds between each try to help avoid
draining your battery or damaging your starter.
2. If it doesn’t start within 10 seconds, push the
accelerator pedal all the way to the floor, while you
hold the ignition key in START. When the engine
starts, let go of the key and let up on the accelerator
pedal. Wait about 15 seconds between each try.
2-14
When starting your engine in very cold weather
(below 0_F or -18_C), do this:
1. With your foot off the accelerator pedal, turn the
ignition key to START and hold it there. When the
engine starts, let go of the key. Use the accelerator
pedal to maintain engine speed, if you have to, until
your engine has run for a while.
2. If your engine still won’t start (or starts but then stops),
it could be flooded with too much gasoline. Try
pushing your accelerator pedal all the way to the floor
and holding it there as you hold the key in START for
about three seconds. When the engine starts, let go of
the key and accelerator. If the vehicle starts briefly but
then stops again, do the same thing, but this time keep
the pedal down for five or six seconds. This clears the
extra gasoline from the engine.
NOTICE:
Your engine is designed to work with the
electronics in your vehicle. If you add electrical
parts or accessories, you could change the way
the engine operates. Before adding electrical
equipment, check with your dealer. If you don’t,
your engine might not perform properly.
Engine Coolant Heater (If Equipped)
In very cold weather, 0_F
(-18_C) or colder, the
engine coolant heater can
help. You’ll get easier
starting and better fuel
economy during engine
warm-up. Usually, the
coolant heater should be
plugged in a minimum of
four hours prior to starting
your vehicle.
To Use the Engine Coolant Heater
1. Turn off the engine.
2. Open the hood and unwrap the electrical cord.
The engine coolant heater electrical cord is located
on the driver’s side of the engine compartment, near
the power steering reservoir.
3. Plug it into a normal, grounded 110-volt AC outlet.
CAUTION:
Plugging the cord into an ungrounded outlet
could cause an electrical shock. Also, the wrong
kind of extension cord could overheat and cause
a fire. You could be seriously injured. Plug the
cord into a properly grounded three-prong
110-volt AC outlet. If the cord won’t reach, use a
heavy-duty three-prong extension cord rated for
at least 15 amps.
4. Before starting the engine, be sure to unplug and
store the cord as it was before to keep it away
from moving engine parts. If you don’t, it could
be damaged.
How long should you keep the coolant heater plugged
in? The answer depends on the outside temperature, the
kind of oil you have, and some other things. Instead of
trying to list everything here, we ask that you contact
your dealer in the area where you’ll be parking your
vehicle. The dealer can give you the best advice for that
particular area.
2-15
Automatic Transmission Operation
PARK (P): This position locks your rear wheels. It’s the
best position to use when you start your engine because
your vehicle can’t move easily.
CAUTION:
There are several different positions for your shift lever.
If your vehicle is equipped with an automatic
transmission, it features an electronic shift position
indicator within the instrument panel cluster. This
display must be powered any time the shift lever is
capable of being moved out of PARK (P). This means
that if your key is in OFF, rather than LOCK, there will
be a small current drain on your battery which could
discharge your battery over a period of time. If you have
to leave your key in the ignition in OFF for an extended
period, it is recommended that you disconnect the
battery cable from the battery to prevent discharging
your battery.
2-16
It is dangerous to get out of your vehicle if the
shift lever is not fully in PARK (P) with the
parking brake firmly set. Your vehicle can roll.
Don’t leave your vehicle when the engine is
running unless you have to. If you have left the
engine running, the vehicle can move suddenly.
You or others could be injured. To be sure your
vehicle won’t move, even when you’re on fairly
level ground, always set your parking brake and
move the shift lever to PARK (P).
See “Shifting Into PARK (P)” in the Index. If
you’re pulling a trailer, see “Towing a Trailer” in
the Index.
REVERSE (R): Use this gear to back up.
CAUTION:
NOTICE:
Shifting to REVERSE (R) while your vehicle is
moving forward could damage your
transmission. Shift to REVERSE (R) only after
your vehicle is stopped.
To rock your vehicle back and forth to get out of snow,
ice or sand without damaging your transmission, see
“Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow” in the Index.
NEUTRAL (N): In this position, your engine doesn’t
connect with the wheels. To restart the engine when
you’re already moving, use NEUTRAL (N) only. Also,
use NEUTRAL (N) when your vehicle is being towed.
Shifting out of PARK (P) or NEUTRAL (N) while
your engine is “racing” (running at high speed) is
dangerous. Unless your foot is firmly on the
brake pedal, your vehicle could move very
rapidly. You could lose control and hit people or
objects. Don’t shift out of PARK (P) or
NEUTRAL (N) while your engine is racing.
NOTICE:
Damage to your transmission caused by shifting
out of PARK (P) or NEUTRAL (N) with the
engine racing isn’t covered by your warranty.
2-17
B
AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE ( ): This position is
for normal driving. If you need more power for passing,
and you’re:
THIRD (3): This position is also used for normal
driving, however it offers more power and lower fuel
economy than AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE ( ).
D Going less than about 35 mph (56 km/h), push your
SECOND (2): This position gives you more power, but
lower fuel economy. You can use SECOND (2) on hills.
It can help control your speed as you go down steep
mountain roads, but then you would also want to use
your brakes off and on.
accelerator pedal about halfway down.
D Going about 35 mph (56 km/h) or more, push the
accelerator all the way down.
You’ll shift down to the next gear and have more power.
B
AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE ( ) can be used when
towing a trailer, carrying a heavy load or driving on
steep hills. You may want to shift the transmission to
THIRD (3) or, if necessary, a lower gear selection if the
transmission shifts too often.
2-18
B
If you manually select SECOND (2), the transmission
will drive in second gear. You may use this feature
for reducing torque to the rear wheels when you are
trying to start your vehicle from a stop on slippery
road surfaces.
FIRST (1): This position gives you even more power,
but lower fuel economy than SECOND (2). You can use
it on very steep hills, or in deep snow or mud. If the
selector lever is put in FIRST (1) while the vehicle is
moving forward, the transmission won’t shift into first
gear until the vehicle is going slowly enough.
Manual Transmission Operation
5-Speed
Here’s how to operate
your transmission.
NOTICE:
If your rear wheels can’t rotate, don’t try to
drive. This might happen if you were stuck in
very deep sand or mud or were up against a solid
object. You could damage your transmission.
Also, if you stop when going uphill, don’t hold
your vehicle there with only the accelerator
pedal. This could overheat and damage the
transmission. Use your brakes or shift into
PARK (P) to hold your vehicle in position on
a hill.
FIRST (1) is intended only for heavy loads and is not
recommended for normal driving.
During the first 500 miles (805 km) of vehicle use, start
your vehicle moving in FIRST (1). This allows clutch
components to break-in properly.
2-19
FIRST (1): Press the clutch pedal and shift into
FIRST (1). Then, slowly let up on the clutch pedal as
you press the accelerator pedal. Shift into FIRST (1)
only when the vehicle is below 5 mph (8 km/h). If you
try to shift down into FIRST (1) at excessive vehicle
speeds, the shift lever will not move into the FIRST (1)
position until vehicle speed is reduced.
FOURTH (4) and FIFTH (5): Shift into the higher
forward gears the same way you do for THIRD (3).
Slowly let up on the clutch pedal as you press the
accelerator pedal.
SECOND (2): Press the clutch pedal and shift into
SECOND (2). Then, slowly let up on the clutch pedal as
you press the accelerator pedal.
NEUTRAL (N): Use this position when you start or
idle your engine.
You can shift into SECOND (2) when you’re going less
than 20 mph (32 km/h). If you’ve come to a complete
stop and it’s hard to shift into SECOND (2), put the shift
lever into NEUTRAL and let up on the clutch. Press the
clutch pedal back down. Then shift into SECOND (2).
If you try to downshift into SECOND (2) at excessive
vehicle speeds, the shift lever will not move into the
SECOND (2) position until the vehicle speed is reduced.
THIRD (3): Press the clutch pedal and shift into
THIRD (3). Then, slowly let up on the clutch pedal as
you press the accelerator pedal.
To stop, let up on the accelerator pedal and press the brake
pedal. Just before the vehicle stops, press the clutch pedal
and the brake pedal, and shift to NEUTRAL.
REVERSE (R): To back up, first press down the clutch
pedal. Wait about five seconds for the internal parts to
stop spinning, and then shift into REVERSE (R). Let
up on the clutch pedal slowly while pressing the
accelerator pedal.
NOTICE:
Shift to REVERSE (R) only after your vehicle is
stopped. Shifting to REVERSE (R) while your
vehicle is moving could damage your transmission.
Also, use REVERSE (R), along with the parking brake,
when turning off your engine and parking your vehicle.
2-20
Shift Speeds
CAUTION:
If you skip a gear when you downshift, you could
lose control of your vehicle. You could injure
yourself or others. Don’t shift down more than
one gear at a time when you downshift.
If your speed drops below 20 mph (32 km/h), or if the
engine is not running smoothly, you should downshift to
the next lower gear. You may have to downshift two or
more gears to keep the engine running smoothly or for
good performance.
Up Shift Light
If you have a manual
transmission, you may have
a SHIFT light. This light
will show you when to shift
to the next higher gear for
best fuel economy.
When this light comes on, you can shift to the next
higher gear if weather, road and traffic conditions let
you. For the best fuel economy, accelerate slowly and
shift when the light comes on.
While you accelerate, it is normal for the light to go on
and off if you quickly change the position of the
accelerator. Ignore the SHIFT light when you downshift.
2-21
Parking Brake
To set the parking brake, hold the regular brake pedal
down with your right foot. Push down the parking brake
pedal with your left foot.
If the ignition is on, the brake system warning light will
come on.
To release the parking brake, hold the regular brake
pedal down.
Pull the lever, located
just above the parking
brake pedal, marked
BRAKE RELEASE.
NOTICE:
Driving with the parking brake on can cause
your rear brakes to overheat. You may have to
replace them, and you could also damage other
parts of your vehicle. Always check to be sure
your parking brake is fully released before
you drive.
If you are towing a trailer and are parking on any hill,
see “Towing a Trailer” in the Index. That section shows
what to do first to keep the trailer from moving.
It is recommended that the propshaft-mounted parking
brake be burnished as part of the new vehicle break-in.
The parking brake will work best after it has been
burnished following these instructions.
Make 10 stops, using the parking brake foot pedal, from
20 mph (32 km/h) about 2 1/2 miles (4 km) apart. In
between stops, drive the vehicle at 20 mph (32 km/h).
If the ignition is on when the parking brake is released,
the brake system warning light will go off.
2-22
Shifting Into PARK (P)
(Automatic Transmission Only)
2. Move the shift lever into PARK (P) position
like this:
CAUTION:
It can be dangerous to get out of your vehicle if
the shift lever is not fully in PARK (P) with the
parking brake firmly set. Your vehicle can roll.
If you have left the engine running, the vehicle
can move suddenly. You or others could be
injured. To be sure your vehicle won’t move, even
when you’re on fairly level ground, use the steps
that follow. If you’re pulling a trailer, see
“Towing a Trailer” in the Index.
1. Hold the brake pedal down with your right foot and
set the parking brake.
D Pull the lever toward you.
2-23
Leaving Your Vehicle With the Engine
Running (Automatic Transmission Only)
CAUTION:
D Move the lever up as far as it will go.
It can be dangerous to leave your vehicle with the
engine running. Your vehicle could move
suddenly if the shift lever is not fully in PARK (P)
with the parking brake firmly set. And, if you
leave the vehicle with the engine running, it could
overheat and even catch fire. You or others could
be injured. Don’t leave your vehicle with the
engine running unless you have to.
3. Turn the ignition key to LOCK.
4. Remove the key and take it with you. If you can
leave your vehicle with the ignition key in your
hand, your vehicle is in PARK (P).
2-24
If you have to leave your vehicle with the engine
running, be sure your vehicle is in PARK (P) and the
parking brake is firmly set before you leave it. After you
move the shift lever into PARK (P), hold the regular
brake pedal down. Then, see if you can move the shift
lever away from PARK (P) without first pulling it
toward you. If you can, it means that the shift lever
wasn’t fully locked into PARK (P).
Torque Lock (Automatic Transmission)
If you are parking on a hill and you don’t shift your
transmission into PARK (P) properly, the weight of the
vehicle may put too much force on the parking pawl in
the transmission. You may find it difficult to pull the
shift lever out of PARK (P). This is called “torque lock.”
To prevent torque lock, set the parking brake and then
shift into PARK (P) properly before you leave the
driver’s seat. To find out how, see “Shifting Into
PARK (P)” in the Index.
When you are ready to drive, move the shift lever out of
PARK (P) before you release the parking brake.
If torque lock does occur, you may need to have another
vehicle push yours a little uphill to take some of the
pressure from the parking pawl in the transmission, so
you can pull the shift lever out of PARK (P).
Shifting Out of PARK (P)
(Automatic Transmission Only)
Your vehicle has an Automatic Transmission Shift Lock
Control System. You have to fully apply your regular
brakes before you can shift from PARK (P) when the
ignition is in RUN. See “Automatic Transmission” in
the Index.
If you cannot shift out of PARK (P), ease pressure on
the shift lever and push the shift lever all the way up
into PARK (P) as you maintain brake application. Then,
move the shift lever to any gear you want.
If you ever hold the brake pedal down but still can’t
shift out of PARK (P), try this:
1. Turn the key to OFF.
2. Apply and hold the brake until the end of Step 4.
3. Shift to NEUTRAL (N).
4. Start the vehicle and shift to the drive gear you want.
5. Have the system fixed as soon as you can.
2-25
Parking Your Vehicle
(Manual Transmission Models Only)
Parking Over Things That Burn
Before you get out of your vehicle, move the shift lever
into REVERSE (R), and firmly apply the parking brake.
Once the shift lever has been placed into REVERSE (R)
with the clutch pedal pressed in, you can turn the
ignition key to OFF, remove the key and release
the clutch.
If you are parking on a hill, or if you are pulling a
trailer, see “Towing a Trailer” in the Index.
CAUTION:
Shifting the transfer case to NEUTRAL can
cause your vehicle to roll even if the manual
transmission is in gear. You or someone else could
be seriously injured. Be sure to set the parking
brake before placing the transfer case in
NEUTRAL. See “Parking Brake” in the Index.
CAUTION:
Things that can burn could touch hot exhaust
parts under your vehicle and ignite. Don’t park
over papers, leaves, dry grass or other things that
can burn.
2-26
Engine Exhaust
CAUTION:
Engine exhaust can kill. It contains the gas
carbon monoxide (CO), which you can’t see or
smell. It can cause unconsciousness and death.
You might have exhaust coming in if:
D Your exhaust system sounds strange
or different.
D Your vehicle gets rusty underneath.
D Your vehicle was damaged in a collision.
D Your vehicle was damaged when driving over
high points on the road or over road debris.
D Repairs weren’t done correctly.
D Your vehicle or exhaust system had been
modified improperly.
If you ever suspect exhaust is coming into
your vehicle:
D Drive it only with all the windows down to
blow out any CO; and
D Have your vehicle fixed immediately.
Running Your Engine While You’re
Parked (Automatic Transmission)
It’s better not to park with the engine running. But if you
ever have to, here are some things to know.
CAUTION:
Idling the engine with the climate control
system off could allow dangerous exhaust into
your vehicle. See the earlier Caution under
“Engine Exhaust.”
Also, idling in a closed-in place can let deadly
carbon monoxide (CO) into your vehicle even if
the fan switch is at the highest setting. One place
this can happen is a garage. Exhaust -- with
CO -- can come in easily. NEVER park in a
garage with the engine running.
Another closed-in place can be a blizzard.
See “Blizzard” in the Index.
2-27
CAUTION:
It can be dangerous to get out of your vehicle if
the shift lever is not fully in PARK (P) with the
parking brake firmly set. Your vehicle can roll.
Don’t leave your vehicle when the engine is
running unless you have to. If you’ve left the
engine running, the vehicle can move suddenly.
You or others could be injured. To be sure your
vehicle won’t move, even when you’re on fairly
level ground, always set your parking brake and
move the shift lever to PARK (P).
Follow the proper steps to be sure your vehicle won’t
move. See “Shifting Into PARK (P)” in the Index.
If you’re pulling a trailer, see “Towing a Trailer” in
the Index.
Horn
Press the pad in the center of the steering wheel to sound
the horn.
2-28
Tilt Wheel (If Equipped)
A tilt steering wheel allows
you to adjust the steering
wheel before you drive.
You can also raise it to the highest level to give your
legs more room when you enter and exit the vehicle.
To tilt the wheel, hold the steering wheel and pull the
lever. Move the steering wheel to a comfortable level,
then release the lever to lock the wheel in place.
Turn Signal/Multifunction Lever
Turn and Lane Change Signals
The turn signal has two upward (for right) and
two downward (for left) positions. These positions
allow you to signal a turn or a lane change.
To signal a turn, move the lever all the way up or down.
When the turn is finished, the lever will return automatically.
An arrow located on the
instrument panel cluster will
flash in the direction of the
turn or lane change.
The lever on the left side of the steering column
includes the following:
D
D
D
D
D
Turn and Lane Change Signals
Headlamp High/Low-Beam Changer
Windshield Wipers
Windshield Washer
Cruise Control (If Equipped)
To signal a lane change, just raise or lower the lever
until the arrow starts to flash. Hold it there until you
complete your lane change. The lever will return by
itself when you release it.
If you move the lever all the way up or down, and the
arrow flashes at twice the normal rate, a signal bulb
may be burned out and other drivers may not see your
turn signal.
If a bulb is burned out, replace it to help avoid an
accident. If the arrows don’t go on at all when you
signal a turn, check for burned-out bulbs and a blown
fuse (see “Fuses and Circuit Breakers” in the Index).
2-29
Headlamp High/Low-Beam Changer
To change the headlamps from low to high beam or high
to low beam, pull the multifunction lever all the way
toward you. Then release it.
When the high beams are
on, this light located on the
instrument panel cluster
also will be on.
Windshield Wipers
You control the windshield
wipers by turning the knob
with the wiper symbol on it.
For a single wiping cycle, turn the knob to MIST. Hold
it there until the wipers start, then let go. The wipers will
stop after one cycle. If you want more cycles, hold the
knob on MIST longer.
You can set the wiper speed for a long or short delay
between wipes. Use this setting in light rain or snow.
Turn the knob to choose the delay time. The closer to
LOW, the shorter the delay.
For steady wiping at low speed, turn the knob to the LOW
position. For high-speed wiping, turn the knob further,
to HIGH. To stop the wipers, turn the knob to OFF.
Damaged wiper blades may prevent you from seeing
well enough to drive safely. To avoid damage, be sure to
clear ice and snow from the wiper blades before using
them. If they are frozen to the windshield, carefully
loosen or thaw them. If your blades do become
damaged, get new blades or blade inserts.
Heavy ice or snow can overload your wipers. The
windshield wiper motor is protected from overload by a
circuit breaker and a fuse. If the motor overheats due to
heavy snow, etc., the wiper will stop until the motor
cools. Although protected from electrical overload,
overload due to heavy snow, etc. may cause wiper
linkage damage. Always clear ice and heavy snow from
the windshield before using your windshield wipers.
2-30
Windshield Washer
At the top of the lever,
there’s a paddle with the
word PUSH on it. To spray
washer fluid on the
windshield, push the paddle.
Washer fluid will spray as long as you push the paddle.
When you let go of the paddle, the wipers will continue
to wipe for a few seconds and then either stop or return
to the preset speed.
The use of a hood-mounted air deflector may adversely
affect windshield wiper and washer performance.
Cruise Control (If Equipped)
CAUTION:
In freezing weather, don’t use your washer until
the windshield is warmed. Otherwise the washer
fluid can form ice on the windshield, blocking
your vision.
With cruise control, you can
maintain a speed of about
25 mph (40 km/h) or more
without keeping your foot
on the accelerator. This can
really help on long trips.
Cruise control does not
work at speeds below about
25 mph (40 km/h).
When you apply your brakes, the cruise control shuts off.
2-31
Setting Cruise Control
CAUTION:
D Cruise control can be dangerous where you
D
can’t drive safely at a steady speed. So,
don’t use your cruise control on winding
roads or in heavy traffic.
Cruise control can be dangerous on
slippery roads. On such roads, fast changes
in tire traction can cause needless wheel
spinning, and you could lose control. Don’t
use cruise control on slippery roads.
CAUTION:
If you leave your cruise control switch on when
you’re not using cruise, you might hit a button
and go into cruise when you don’t want to. You
could be startled and even lose control. Keep the
cruise control switch off until you want to use
cruise control.
1. Move the cruise switch to ON.
2. Get up to the speed you want.
3. Press in the SET button at the end of the lever and
release it.
4. Take your foot off the accelerator pedal.
2-32
Resuming a Set Speed
Suppose you set your cruise control at a desired speed
and then you apply the brake. This, of course, shuts off
the cruise control. But you don’t need to reset it.
D Move the cruise switch from ON to R/A. Hold it
there until you get up to the speed you want, and
then release the switch. (To increase your speed in
very small amounts, move the switch to R/A briefly.
Each time you do this, your vehicle will go about
1 mph (1.6 km/h) faster.)
Once you’re going about 25 mph (40 km/h) or more,
you can move the cruise switch from ON to R/A
(Resume/Accelerate) briefly.
Reducing Speed While Using Cruise Control
You’ll go right back up to your chosen speed and
stay there.
There are two ways to reduce your speed while using
cruise control:
Remember, if you hold the switch at R/A longer, the
vehicle will keep going faster until you release the
switch or apply the brake. So unless you want to go
faster, don’t hold the switch at R/A.
Increasing Speed While Using Cruise Control
D Press the SET button at the end of the lever until you
reach the lower speed you want, then release it.
D To slow down in very small amounts, press the
button briefly. Each time you do this, you’ll go about
1 mph (1.6 km/h) slower.
There are two ways to go to a higher speed:
Passing Another Vehicle While Using Cruise Control
D Use the accelerator pedal to get to the higher speed.
Use the accelerator pedal to increase your speed. When
you take your foot off the pedal, your vehicle will slow
down to the cruise control speed you set earlier.
Press the SET button at the end of the lever, then
release the button and the accelerator pedal. You’ll
now cruise at the higher speed.
2-33
Using Cruise Control on Hills
Exterior Lamps
How well your cruise control will work on hills depends
upon your speed, load and the steepness of the hills.
When going up steep hills, you may have to step on the
accelerator pedal to maintain your speed. If the
steepness of the hill causes the vehicle speed to drop
more than 15 mph (24 km/h) below the set speed, your
cruise control will automatically disengage. When going
downhill, you may have to brake or shift to a lower gear
to keep your speed down. Of course, applying the brake
takes you out of cruise control. Many drivers find this to
be too much trouble and don’t use cruise control on
steep hills.
Ending Cruise Control
There are two ways to turn off the cruise control:
D Step lightly on the brake pedal or
D move the cruise switch to OFF.
Erasing Speed Memory
When you turn off the cruise control or the ignition,
your cruise control set speed memory is erased.
2-34
Your parking lamp and headlamp knob is located on the
driver’s side of your instrument panel.
Turn the knob clockwise to the parking lamp symbol, to
turn on the following:
D
D
D
D
D
D
Parking Lamps
Sidemarker Lamps
Clearance Lamps
Taillamps
License Plate Lamps
Instrument Panel Lights
Turn the knob clockwise again to the master lighting
symbol to turn on all the lamps listed as well as
the headlamps.
Turn the knob counterclockwise, to OFF, to turn off
your lamps.
You can turn your headlamps from high to low beams
by pulling on the turn signal/multifunction lever.
Headlamps On Reminder
A tone will sound when your headlamps are turned on
and the key is turned to OFF, LOCK or ACCESSORY.
If you need to use your headlamps when the key is
turned to OFF, LOCK or ACCESSORY, the buzzer can
be turned off by turning the thumbwheel next to the
parking lamp/headlamp knob all the way down.
Daytime Running Lamps
Daytime Running Lamps (DRL) can make it easier for
others to see the front of your vehicle during the day.
DRL can be helpful in many different driving
conditions, but they can be especially helpful in the
short periods after dawn and before sunset. Fully
functional daytime running lights are required on all
vehicles first sold in Canada.
The DRL system will make your headlamps come on
at a reduced brightness when the following conditions
are met:
D the ignition is on,
D the headlamp switch is off and
D the parking brake is released.
When the DRL are on, only your headlamps will be on.
The taillamps, sidemarker and other lamps won’t be on.
Your instrument panel won’t be lit up either.
When it begins to get dark, your DRL indicator light is a
reminder to turn your headlamp knob on. The other lamps
that come on with your headlamps will also come on.
2-35
When you turn off the headlamp knob, the regular lamps
will go off, and your headlamps will change to the
reduced brightness of DRL.
To idle your vehicle with the DRL off, set the parking
brake. The DRL will stay off until you release the
parking brake.
Illuminated Entry
Your vehicle is equipped with an illuminated
entry feature.
As with any vehicle, you should turn on the regular
headlamp system when you need it.
When a door is opened, the dome lamps will come on if
the dome lamp button is out. When all the doors are
closed, or the dome lamp button is pressed in, the
lamps will stay on for a short period of time and will
then go out.
Interior Lamps
Front Reading Lamps (If Equipped)
Instrument Panel Intensity Control
The instrument panel intensity control is located to the
right of the parking lamps and headlamp knob.
Turn the thumbwheel up to adjust the instrument panel
lights. Turn the thumbwheel up to the first notch to
return the radio display and shift position indicator LED
display to full intensity when the headlamps or parking
lamps are on. To turn on the dome lamps (with the
vehicle doors closed) turn the thumbwheel up to the
second notch position.
2-36
If your vehicle has reading
lamps, press the button next
to the lamp to turn the lamp
on or off. The lamps can be
adjusted to point in the
direction you want.
Dome Lamp
The dome lamp will come on when you open a door.
You can also turn the dome lamp on by turning the
thumbwheel, located next to the parking lamps and
headlamp knob, all the way up to the second notch.
In this position, the dome lamp will remain on whether a
door is opened or closed.
You can use the DOME OVERRIDE button, located
below the parking lamp and headlamp knob, to set the
dome lamp to come on automatically when a door is
opened, or to remain off. To turn the lamp off, press the
button “in”. Press the button again and return it to the
“out” position to set the dome light to come on.
Cargo Lamp (If Equipped)
Press the top of the switch
to turn the cargo lamp on.
Press the bottom of the
switch to turn it off.
The dome lamp must be on and one of the doors open
for the cargo lamp to work.
2-37
Mirrors
Inside Day/Night Rearview Mirror
Camper-Type Outside Mirrors
(If Equipped)
Push the tab under the mirror rearward to reduce glare
from headlamps behind you after dark. Pull the tab
forward for normal daytime operation.
Outside Manual Adjust Mirrors
Adjust your outside mirrors so you can see a little of the
side of your vehicle and have a clear view of any objects
behind you. Some mirrors can be folded in, to enter
narrow doorways.
The use of hood-mounted air deflectors and add-on
convex mirror attachments may adversely affect
mirror performance.
2-38
If your vehicle is equipped with the camper-type
mirrors, they can be adjusted so that you can have a
clear view of any objects that may be behind you.
1. To adjust the mirrors when hauling a slide-in camper
or towing a trailer, turn the mirror by pushing the
mirror head toward the front of the vehicle.
2. Turn the mirror head, so that the mirror surface faces
the rear of the vehicle.
2-39
West Coast-Type Outside Mirrors
(If Equipped)
If your vehicle is equipped with the west coast-type
mirrors, they can be adjusted so that you can have a
clear view of any objects that may be behind you.
A. Outer Mirror Frame
Convex Outside Mirror
Your passenger’s side mirror may be convex. A convex
mirror’s surface is curved so you can see more from the
driver’s seat.
CAUTION:
B. Mirror Head
C. Nut
The mirrors can be adjusted by turning the
mirror head (B) and moving the outer mirror
frame (A) backward or forward. You can also loosen
the nut (C) on the top and bottom of the outer mirror
frame to tilt the mirror head.
2-40
A convex mirror can make things (like other
vehicles) look farther away than they really are.
If you cut too sharply into the right lane, you
could hit a vehicle on your right. Check your
inside mirror or glance over your shoulder before
changing lanes.
Storage Compartments
Instrument Panel Cupholder
Your vehicle includes a number of storage
compartments for storage of often-used items.
Your vehicle has a cupholder located in the middle of
the instrument panel.
Some vehicles have storage areas in the instrument
panel. Use these spaces for items such as gloves or
small books.
To use the cupholder, pull
the handle and slide the
cupholder tray open.
Some models have a storage pocket on each of the front
doors and some vehicles may have a storage area behind
the seat.
Glove Box
To open your glove box, move the button toward the
passenger’s side and pull the door open.
To close the cupholder, slide it back into the
instrument panel.
2-41
Armrest Storage Compartment
(If Equipped)
The storage compartment also has a folding writing
table on top of the armrest lid.
To use the writing table, pull the latch at the rear of the
table and swing the writing table forward. Use it to hold
a pad of paper and a pen.
Ashtrays and Cigarette Lighter
The ashtray is located at the bottom of the instrument
panel. Pull on the notch in the ashtray door to open it.
NOTICE:
Your vehicle may have a center armrest storage
compartment in the front bench seat.
To open it, fold down the armrest and press the latch
handle located at the front of the armrest. Then, let the
lid pop up and swing open.
The storage compartment has a cassette/compact disc
holder. The holder will store up to five compact disc
cases and up to six cassette tape cases.
2-42
If you store paper or other things that burn in
your ashtrays, they could be set on fire by
cigarettes or other smoking materials. That could
cause a fire and possibly damage your vehicle.
Do not store papers and other things that burn in
your ashtrays.
To remove the front ashtray, press the retainer spring
and pivot the ashtray toward you. To reinstall the
ashtray, place the bottom part of the ashtray on the pivot
bar at the bottom of its mounting on the instrument
panel. Then turn the ashtray back to its original position.
Accessory Power Outlets
NOTICE:
Power outlets are designed for accessory plugs
only. Do not hang any type of accessory or
accessory bracket from the plug. Improper use of
the power outlet can cause damage not covered
by your warranty.
Sun Visors
To block out glare, you can swing down the visors. You
can also swing them out to help block glare at the front
and side windows.
Two accessory power outlets are located near the
cigarette lighter. Use these outlets to power mobile
telephones or other devices designed to operate with
vehicle electrical systems.
Some visors have an extender on the inside edge. When
the visor is down, pull the extender out for extra glare
coverage at the front or side.
Some visors have mirrors with lamps. If the mirror has
lamps, they will come on when you lift the mirror cover.
Certain power accessory plugs may not be compatible to
the power accessory outlet and could result in blown
vehicle or adapter fuses. If you experience a problem,
see your dealer for additional information on the power
accessory plugs.
2-43
Instrument Panel - Your Information System
2-44
The main components of your instrument panel are the following:
A. Dome Override Button
J. Fuse Block
B. Exterior Lamp Controls
K. Hood Release
C. Air Outlets
L. Parking Brake Release
D. Multifunction Lever
M. Tilt Lever (If Equipped)
E. Instrument Panel Cluster
N. Storage Area (If Equipped)
F. Gearshift Lever
O. Accessory Power Outlets
G. Audio System
P. Cupholder
H. Comfort Control System
Q. Ashtray
I. Glove Box
2-45
Instrument Panel Cluster
United States automatic transmission shown, Canada similar
Your instrument panel cluster is designed to let you know at a glance how your vehicle is running. You’ll know
how fast you’re going, about how much fuel you have and many other things you’ll need to know to drive safely
and economically.
2-46
Speedometer and Odometer
Your speedometer lets you see your speed in both
miles per hour (mph) and kilometers per hour (km/h).
Your odometer shows how far your vehicle has been
driven, in either miles (used in the United States) or
kilometers (used in Canada).
Tamper-Resistant Odometer
Your odometer is tamper-resistant. The odometer will
show silver lines between the numbers if someone tries
to turn it back.
You may wonder what happens if your vehicle needs a
new odometer installed. If the new odometer can be set
to the mileage total of the old odometer, then it must be.
But if it can’t, then it’s set at zero, and a label must be
put on the driver’s door to show the old mileage reading
when the new odometer was installed.
Trip Odometer
The trip odometer can tell you how far your vehicle has
been driven since you last set the trip odometer to zero.
To reset the trip odometer, fully press the reset button
located near the trip odometer readout. If the reset
button is not fully pressed, the trip odometer may not go
all the way back to zero. If it doesn’t, you may have to
press the reset button again to reset the readout to zero.
Tachometer
Your tachometer displays the engine speed in
revolutions per minute (rpm).
NOTICE:
On vehicles with a manual transmission, if you
operate the engine with the tachometer in the
red area, your engine or other parts could
be damaged.
Damage to your engine or vehicle caused by
operating the engine in the red area isn’t covered
by your vehicle warranty. Don’t operate the
engine with the tachometer in the red area.
2-47
Warning Lights, Gages
and Indicators
This part describes the warning lights and gages that
may be on your vehicle. The pictures will help you
locate them.
Warning lights and gages can signal that something is
wrong before it becomes serious enough to cause an
expensive repair or replacement. Paying attention to
your warning lights and gages could also save you or
others from injury.
Warning lights come on when there may be or is a
problem with one of your vehicle’s functions. As you
will see in the details on the next few pages, some
warning lights come on briefly when you start the
engine just to let you know they’re working. If you are
familiar with this section, you should not be alarmed
when this happens.
Gages can indicate when there may be or is a problem
with one of your vehicle’s functions. Often gages and
warning lights work together to let you know when
there’s a problem with your vehicle.
2-48
When one of the warning lights comes on and stays on
when you are driving, or when one of the gages shows
there may be a problem, check the section that tells you
what to do about it. Please follow this manual’s advice.
Waiting to do repairs can be costly -- and even
dangerous. So please get to know your warning lights
and gages. They’re a big help.
Safety Belt Reminder Light
When the key is turned to RUN or START, a tone will
come on for about eight seconds to remind people to
fasten their safety belts, unless the driver’s safety belt is
already buckled.
The safety belt light will
also come on and stay on
for about 20 seconds,
then it will flash for
about 55 seconds.
If the driver’s belt is already buckled, neither the tone
nor the light will come on.
Charging System Indicator Light
This light should come on
briefly when you turn on the
ignition, before starting the
engine, as a check to show
you it is working.
After the engine starts, the light should go out. If it stays
on or comes on while you are driving, you may have a
problem with your charging system. It could indicate a
problem with the generator drive belt, or some other
charging system problem. Have it checked right away.
Driving while this light is on could drain your battery.
If you must drive a short distance with this light on, it
helps to turn off all your accessories, such as the radio
and the air conditioner.
Voltmeter
When your engine is not
running, but the ignition is
in RUN, this gage shows
your battery’s state of
charge in DC volts.
When the engine is running, the gage shows the
condition of the charging system. Readings between
the low and high warning zones indicate the normal
operating range.
Readings in the low warning zone may occur when a
large number of electrical accessories are operating in
the vehicle and the engine is left at an idle for an
extended period. This condition is normal since the
charging system is not able to provide full power at
engine idle. As engine speeds are increased, this
condition should correct itself as higher engine speeds
allow the charging system to create maximum power.
2-49
You can only drive for a short time with the reading in
either warning zone. If you must drive, turn off all
unnecessary accessories.
Readings in either warning zone indicate a possible
problem in the electrical system. Have the vehicle
serviced as soon as possible.
Brake System Warning Light
When the ignition is on, the brake system warning light
will come on when you set your parking brake. The light
will stay on if your parking brake doesn’t release fully.
If it stays on after your parking brake is fully released, it
means you have a brake problem.
Your vehicle’s hydraulic brake system is divided into
two parts. If one part isn’t working, the other part can
still work and stop you. For good braking, though, you
need both parts working well.
If the warning light comes on, there could be a brake
problem. Have your brake system inspected right away.
United States
Canada
This light should come on briefly when you turn the
ignition key to RUN. If it doesn’t come on then, have it
fixed so it will be ready to warn you if there’s a problem.
If the light comes on while you are driving, pull off the
road and stop carefully. You may notice that the pedal is
harder to push. Or, the pedal may go closer to the floor. It may
take longer to stop. If the light is still on, have the vehicle
towed for service. See “Towing Your Vehicle” in the Index.
CAUTION:
Your brake system may not be working properly
if the brake system warning light is on. Driving
with the brake system warning light on can lead
to an accident. If the light is still on after you’ve
pulled off the road and stopped carefully, have
the vehicle towed for service.
2-50
Anti-Lock Brake System Warning Light
With the anti-lock brake
system, this light will come
on when you start your
engine and may stay on
for several seconds.
That’s normal.
If the light stays on, or comes on when you’re driving,
your vehicle needs service. If the regular brake system
warning light isn’t on, you still have brakes, but you
don’t have anti-lock brakes. If the regular brake system
warning light is also on, you don’t have anti-lock brakes
and there’s a problem with your regular brakes. See
“Brake System Warning Light” earlier in this section.
The anti-lock brake system warning light should come
on briefly when you turn the ignition key to RUN. If the
light doesn’t come on then, have it fixed so it will be
ready to warn you if there is a problem.
Engine Coolant Temperature Gage
This gage shows the engine
coolant temperature.
It also provides an indicator of how hard your vehicle is
working. During a majority of the operation, the gage
will read 210_F (100_C) or less. If you are pulling a
load or going up hills, it is normal for the temperature to
fluctuate and approach the 260_F (125_C) mark. If the
gage reaches the 260_F (125_C) mark, it indicates that
the cooling system is working beyond its capacity.
See “Engine Overheating” in the Index.
2-51
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (Service
Engine Soon Light in the United States
or Check Engine Light in Canada)
(Gasoline Engine)
United States
Canada
Your vehicle is equipped with a computer which
monitors operation of the fuel, ignition and emission
control systems.
2-52
This system is called OBD II (On-Board
Diagnostics-Second Generation) and is intended to
assure that emissions are at acceptable levels for the life
of the vehicle, helping to produce a cleaner
environment. The SERVICE ENGINE SOON or
CHECK ENGINE light comes on to indicate that there
is a problem and service is required. Malfunctions often
will be indicated by the system before any problem is
apparent. This may prevent more serious damage to
your vehicle. This system is also designed to assist
your service technician in correctly diagnosing
any malfunction.
NOTICE:
If you keep driving your vehicle with this light
on, after a while, your emission controls may not
work as well, your fuel economy may not be as
good and your engine may not run as smoothly.
This could lead to costly repairs that may not be
covered by your warranty.
NOTICE:
Modifications made to the engine, transmission,
exhaust, intake or fuel system of your vehicle or
the replacement of the original tires with other
than those of the same Tire Performance Criteria
(TPC) can affect your vehicle’s emission controls
and may cause the SERVICE ENGINE SOON or
CHECK ENGINE light to come on.
Modifications to these systems could lead to
costly repairs not covered by your warranty. This
may also result in a failure to pass a required
Emission Inspection/Maintenance test.
This light should come on, as a check to show you it is
working, when the ignition is on and the engine is not
running. If the light doesn’t come on, have it repaired.
This light will also come on during a malfunction in one
of two ways:
D Light Flashing -- A misfire condition has been
detected. A misfire increases vehicle emissions and
may damage the emission control system on your
vehicle. Dealer or qualified service center diagnosis
and service may be required.
D Light On Steady -- An emission control system
malfunction has been detected on your vehicle.
Dealer or qualified service center diagnosis and
service may be required.
If the Light Is Flashing
The following may prevent more serious damage to
your vehicle:
D
D
D
D
Reducing vehicle speed.
Avoiding hard accelerations.
Avoiding steep uphill grades.
If you are towing a trailer, reduce the amount of
cargo being hauled as soon as it is possible.
If the light stops flashing and remains on steady, see “If
the Light Is On Steady” following.
If the light continues to flash, when it is safe to do so,
stop the vehicle. Find a safe place to park your vehicle.
Turn the key off, wait at least 10 seconds and restart the
engine. If the light remains on steady, see “If the Light
Is On Steady” following. If the light is still flashing,
follow the previous steps, and drive the vehicle to your
dealer or qualified service center for service.
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If the Light Is On Steady
You may be able to correct the emission system
malfunction by considering the following:
This will be detected by the system and cause the light
to turn on.
Did you recently put fuel into your vehicle?
If you experience one or more of these conditions,
change the fuel brand you use. It will require at least one
full tank of the proper fuel to turn the light off.
If so, reinstall the fuel cap, making sure to fully install
the cap. See “Filling Your Tank” in the Index. The
diagnostic system can determine if the fuel cap has been
left off or improperly installed. A loose or missing fuel
cap will allow fuel to evaporate into the atmosphere. A
few driving trips with the cap properly installed should
turn the light off.
If none of the above steps have made the light turn off,
have your dealer or qualified service center check the
vehicle. Your dealer has the proper test equipment and
diagnostic tools to fix any mechanical or electrical
problems that may have developed.
Did you just drive through a deep puddle of water?
If so, your electrical system may be wet. The condition
will usually be corrected when the electrical system
dries out. A few driving trips should turn the light off.
Have you recently changed brands of fuel?
If so, be sure to fuel your vehicle with quality fuel. See
“Fuel” in the Index. Poor fuel quality will cause your
engine not to run as efficiently as designed. You may
notice this as stalling after start-up, stalling when you
put the vehicle into gear, misfiring, hesitation on
acceleration or stumbling on acceleration. (These
conditions may go away once the engine is warmed up.)
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Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs
Some state/provincial and local governments have or
may begin programs to inspect the emission control
equipment on your vehicle. Failure to pass this
inspection could prevent you from getting a
vehicle registration.
Here are some things you need to know in order to help
your vehicle pass an inspection:
Your vehicle will not pass this inspection if the
SERVICE ENGINE SOON or CHECK ENGINE light is
on or not working properly.
Your vehicle will not pass this inspection if the OBD
(on-board diagnostic) system determines that critical
emission control systems have not been completely
diagnosed by the system. The vehicle would be
considered not ready for inspection. This can happen if
you have recently replaced your battery or if your
battery has run down. The diagnostic system is designed
to evaluate critical emission control systems during
normal driving. This may take several days of routine
driving. If you have done this and your vehicle still does
not pass the inspection for lack of OBD system
readiness, see your dealer or qualified service center to
prepare the vehicle for inspection.
Reduced Engine Power
The REDUCED ENGINE
POWER light will come on
when the cooling system
temperature gets too hot
and the engine further
enters the engine coolant
protection mode.
See “Engine Overheating” in the Index for
further information.
Oil Pressure Gage
United States
Canada
The oil pressure gage shows the engine oil pressure in
psi (pounds per square inch) when the engine is running.
Canadian vehicles indicate pressure in kPa (kilopascals).
CAUTION:
Don’t keep driving if the oil pressure is low.
If you do, your engine can become so hot that it
catches fire. You or others could be burned.
Check your oil as soon as possible and have your
vehicle serviced.
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NOTICE:
Damage to your engine from neglected oil
problems can be costly and is not covered by
your warranty.
Oil pressure may vary with engine speed, outside
temperature and oil viscosity, but readings above the
low pressure zone indicate the normal operating range.
A reading in the low pressure zone may be caused by
a dangerously low oil level or some other problem
causing low oil pressure. Check your oil as soon
as possible.
2-56
Security Light
This light will come on
briefly when you turn the
key to START.
The light will come on for five seconds after the key is
turned to ON and then go off. If the light flashes, the
PasslockR System has entered a tamper mode. If the
vehicle fails to start, see “Passlock” in the Index.
If the light comes on continuously while driving and
stays on, there may be a problem with the Passlock
System. Your vehicle will not be protected by Passlock,
and you should see your GM dealer.
Up Shift Light (If Equipped)
This light is used on models
with manual transmissions.
The SHIFT indicator light will help you get the best fuel
economy. See “Shift Light” or “Shift Speeds” in this
section for more information.
Daytime Running Lamps Indicator Light
This light goes on whenever
the DRL are on.
Check Gages Light
This light will come on
briefly when you are
starting the engine.
If the light comes on and stays on while you are driving,
it could indicate a problem with your vehicle. It could be
a problem with your oil pressure, coolant temperature,
or some other problem. Check your various gages to see
if they are in the warning zones. If they are, have your
vehicle serviced right away.
When it begins to get dark, the DRL indicator light
comes on as a reminder to turn on your headlamps.
2-57
The gage will first indicate empty before you are out of
fuel, and you should get more fuel as soon as possible.
Fuel Gage
Here are four situations you may experience with your
fuel gage. None of these indicate a problem with the
fuel gage.
D At the gas station, the fuel pump shuts off before the
gage reads full.
D It takes a little more or less fuel to fill up than the
United States
Canada
The fuel gage, when the ignition is on, tells you about
how much fuel you have left in your tank.
fuel gage indicated. For example, the gage may have
indicated the tank was half full, but it actually took a
little more or less than half the tank’s capacity to fill
the tank.
D The gage moves a little when you turn a corner or
speed up.
D The gage doesn’t go back to empty when you turn
off the ignition.
If you have a diesel engine, see “Fuel Gage” in the
Diesel Engine Supplement.
2-58
Section 3 Comfort Controls and Audio Systems
In this section, you’ll find out how to operate the comfort control and audio systems offered with your vehicle.
Be sure to read about the particular systems supplied with your vehicle.
3-2
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-6
Comfort Controls
Air Conditioning
Heating
Defogging and Defrosting
Ventilation System
Audio Systems
Setting the Clock
3-7
3-9
3-12
3-12
3-13
3-14
AM-FM Stereo
AM-FM Stereo with Cassette Tape Player
(If Equipped)
Understanding Radio Reception
Tips About Your Audio System
Care of Your Cassette Tape Player
Fixed Mast Antenna
3-
3-1
Comfort Controls
Heater Control System
Temperature Knob
The middle knob on the control panel lets you select the
temperature of the air flowing into the passenger area of
your vehicle. This knob will allow you to adjust the air
temperature independently of the fan knob settings. Turn the
knob clockwise, toward the red area, for warmer air. Turn the
knob counterclockwise, toward the blue area, for cooler air.
Mode Knob
The right knob on the control panel allows you to
choose the direction of air delivery. The knob can be
placed in any position between two mode settings to
blend the flow of air.
Fan Knob
The knob located on the left side of the heating system
control panel regulates the fan speed. The knob has
four speed positions. To increase airflow, turn the knob
toward HI. To decrease airflow, turn it toward LO.
To turn the fan off, turn the knob to OFF.
VENT: This setting directs air through the
instrument panel outlets.
BI-LEVEL: This setting divides airflow between
the floor outlets and instrument panel outlets.
HEATER: This setting directs air through the
floor outlets.
BLEND: This setting directs air to the heater
outlets and toward the windshield.
DEFROST: This setting directs air toward
the windshield.
3-2
Heater and Air Conditioning Control
System (If Equipped)
Temperature Knob
The middle knob on the control panel lets you select the
relative temperature of the air flowing into the passenger
area of your vehicle. This knob will allow you to adjust
the relative air temperature independently of the fan and
knob settings. Turn the knob clockwise, toward the
red area, for warmer air. Turn the knob counterclockwise,
toward the blue area, for cooler air.
Mode Knob
The right knob on the control panel allows you to choose the
direction of air delivery. The knob can be placed in any
position between two mode settings to blend the flow of air.
Fan Knob
The knob located on the left side of the heating system
control panel regulates the fan speed. The knob has
four speed positions. To increase airflow, turn the knob
toward HI. To decrease airflow, turn it toward LO. To
turn the fan off, turn the knob to OFF. If you have the air
conditioner on, turning the fan knob to OFF also turns
off the A/C compressor.
With the fan knob in OFF while driving, the airflow will
be directed to the floor air outlets. The mode knob will
not redirect airflow to other selected outlet positions.
This is normal operation for OFF.
VENT: This setting directs air through the
instrument panel outlets.
BI-LEVEL: This setting divides airflow between
the floor air outlets and instrument panel air outlets.
HEATER: This setting directs air through the
heater floor air outlets.
BLEND: This setting directs air to the heater air
outlets and toward the windshield.
DEFROST: This setting directs air toward
the windshield.
3-3
Air Conditioning
Heating
On hot days, open the windows long enough to let hot
air inside escape. This reduces the time it takes for your
vehicle to cool down. Then keep your windows closed
for the air conditioner to work its best.
The heater works best if you keep your windows closed
while using it. On cold days, use the HEATER or BI-LEVEL
setting with the temperature knob in the red area.
A/C: Press this button to turn the air conditioning on
and off. The system will cool and dehumidify the air
inside the vehicle when the A/C light is on.
Air conditioning will be automatically disabled when
the outside temperature drops below a level at which air
conditioning is ineffective.
With the A/C on, turn the temperature knob to MAX for
maximum cooling. This setting also puts the system in
the recirculation mode and helps to maximize your air
conditioner’s performance and your vehicle’s fuel economy.
RECIRCULATION: Pressing the
RECIRCULATION button limits the amount of outside
dust and odors entering your vehicle. This button will be
automatically disabled anytime the mode knob is turned to
BLEND or DEFROST mode. (The recirculation indicator
light will come on even though the recirculation button is
not selected). This setting also cools the air the fastest.
After the vehicle’s interior reaches a comfortable
temperature, turn the temperature knob clockwise, to
place the air conditioning system in the normal mode.
3-4
If you use the engine coolant heater before starting your
engine in cold weather, 20_F (-8_C) or lower, your
heating system will produce warmer air faster, to heat
the passenger compartment in cold weather.
The use of an engine coolant heater also reduces the
time it takes for the engine to reach normal operating
temperature, and shortens the time it takes the heater to
reach full output. For more information, see
“Engine Coolant Heater” in the Index.
Defogging and Defrosting
On cool, humid days, use BLEND to keep the windshield
and side windows clear. Use DEFROST to remove fog or
ice from the windshield in extremely humid or cold
conditions. Use DEFROST with the temperature knob
toward the red area and the fan control toward HI.
Ventilation System
For mild outside temperatures when little heating or
cooling is needed, use VENT to direct outside air
through your vehicle. Air will flow through the
instrument panel outlets.
Your vehicle’s ventilation system supplies outside air to
the inside of your vehicle when it is moving. With the side
windows closed, air will flow into the front air inlet grilles,
through the vehicle, and out the air exhaust valves.
Outside air will also enter the vehicle when the heater or
the air conditioning fan is running, unless you have the
recirculation button pushed in. For more information on
the recirculation button, see “Air Conditioning” earlier
in this section.
Your vehicle has air outlets in the center and on the sides
of your instrument panel. You can move the outlets from
side-to-side or up and down to direct the flow of air, or
close the outlets altogether. When you close an outlet, it
will increase the flow of air coming out of any outlets
that are open. These outlets do not completely shut off
airflow when in the closed position.
3-5
Ventilation Tips
D Keep the hood and front air inlet free of ice, snow or
any other obstruction (such as leaves). The heater
and defroster will work far better, reducing the
chance of fogging the inside of your windows.
D When you enter a vehicle in cold weather, turn
the fan to HI for a few moments before driving.
This helps clear the intake ducts of snow and
moisture, and reduces the chance of fogging the
inside of your windows.
D Keep the air path under the front seats clear of objects.
This helps air to circulate throughout your vehicle.
D The use of hood air deflectors may adversely affect the
performance of the heating and air conditioning system.
3-6
Audio Systems
Your audio system has been designed to operate easily
and give years of listening pleasure. You will get the
most enjoyment out of it if you acquaint yourself with it
first. Find out what your audio system can do and how
to operate all its controls, to be sure you’re getting the
most out of the advanced engineering that went into it.
Setting the Clock
Press SET. Within five seconds, press and hold the
SEEK right arrow until the correct minute appears on
the display. Press and hold the SEEK left arrow until the
correct hour appears on the display.
AM-FM Stereo
Finding a Station
AM-FM: Press the lower knob to switch between
AM, FM1 and FM2. The display shows your selection.
TUNE: Turn the lower knob to tune in radio stations.
SEEK: Press the right arrow to tune to the next higher
station and the left arrow to tune to the next lower
station and stay there.
Playing the Radio
VOLUME: This knob turns the system on and off and
controls the volume. To increase volume and turn the radio
on, turn the knob clockwise. Turn it counterclockwise to
decrease volume and turn the radio off.
SCAN: Select either AM, FM1 or FM2 mode and press
both SEEK buttons to listen to a few seconds of each
radio station. SCAN will light up on the display.
The radio will automatically SCAN to the next higher
station, play that station for a few seconds, then SCAN
to the next higher station. Press VOLUME or both
SEEK buttons to stop scanning.
RECALL: Display the time with the ignition off by
pressing the recall knob. When the radio is playing,
press this knob to recall the station frequency.
3-7
PUSHBUTTONS: The four numbered pushbuttons let
you return to your favorite stations. You can set up to
14 stations (seven AM and seven FM). Just:
3. Press two adjoining buttons at the same time, within
five seconds. Whenever you press the same
two buttons, the station you set will return.
1. Turn the radio on.
4. Repeat the steps for each pair of pushbuttons.
2. Press AM-FM to select the band.
Setting the Tone
3. Tune in the desired station.
4. Press SET. (SET will appear on the display.)
BASS: Slide this lever up or down to increase or
decrease bass.
5. Press one of the four pushbuttons within
five seconds. Whenever you press that numbered
button, the station you set will return.
TREB: Slide this lever up or down to increase or
decrease treble. If a station is weak or noisy, you may
want to decrease the treble.
6. Repeat the steps for each pushbutton.
Adjusting the Speakers
In addition to the four stations already set, up to three
more stations may be preset on each band by pressing
two adjoining buttons at the same time. Just:
BAL: Turn the control behind the upper knob to move
the sound to the left or right speakers. The middle
position balances the sound between the speakers.
1. Tune in the desired station.
FADE: Turn the control behind the lower knob to move
the sound to the front or rear speakers. The middle
position balances the sound between the speakers.
2. Press SET. (SET will appear on the display.)
3-8
AM-FM Stereo with Cassette Tape Player
(If Equipped)
Finding a Station
AM-FM: Press the lower knob to switch between AM,
FM1 and FM2.
TUNE: Turn the lower knob to tune in radio stations.
SEEK: Press the right arrow to tune to the next higher
station and the left arrow to tune to the next lower station.
PUSHBUTTONS: The four numbered pushbuttons let
you return to your favorite stations. You can set up to
21 stations (seven AM, seven FM1 and seven FM2). Just:
1. Turn the radio on.
2. Press AM-FM to select the band.
3. Tune in the desired station.
Playing the Radio
VOLUME: This knob turns the system on and off and
controls the volume. To increase volume and turn the radio
on, turn the knob clockwise. Turn it counterclockwise to
decrease volume and turn the radio off.
RECALL: Display the time with the ignition off by
pressing this knob. When the radio is playing, press this
knob to recall the station frequency.
4. Press SET. (SET will appear on the display.)
5. Press one of the four pushbuttons within five seconds.
Whenever you press that numbered button, the station
you set will return.
6. Repeat the steps for each pushbutton.
3-9
In addition to the four stations already set, up to three
more stations may be preset on each band by pressing
two adjoining buttons at the same time. Just:
Setting the Tone
1. Tune in the desired station.
TREB: Slide this lever up or down to increase or
decrease treble. If a station is weak or noisy, you may
want to decrease the treble.
2. Press SET. (SET will appear on the display.)
3. Press two adjoining buttons at the same time, within
five seconds. Whenever you press the same
two buttons, the station you set will return.
4. Repeat the steps for each pair of pushbuttons.
P.SCAN: Select either AM, FM1 or FM2 mode and
press both SEEK buttons to scan through each of your
preset stations. The system will scan through and play
each preset station stored on your pushbuttons for a few
seconds. Press either SEEK button or RECALL to stop
scanning through the preset stations.
3-10
BASS: Slide this lever up or down to increase or
decrease bass.
Adjusting the Speakers
BAL: Turn the control behind the upper knob to move
the sound to the left or right speakers. The middle
position balances the sound between the speakers.
FADE: Turn the control behind the lower knob to move
the sound to the front or rear speakers. The middle
position balances the sound between the speakers.
Playing a Cassette Tape
CD Adapter Kits
Your tape player is built to work best with tapes that are
up to 30 to 45 minutes long on each side. Tapes longer
than that are so thin they may not work well in this player.
It is possible to use a portable CD player adapter kit
with your cassette tape player after activating the bypass
feature on your tape player.
Once the tape is playing, use the knobs for VOLUME, BAL,
FADE, BASS and TREB just as you do for the radio.
To activate the bypass feature, use the following steps:
REV: Press the SEEK left arrow to reverse the cassette tape.
Press the SEEK right arrow to stop reversing the tape.
2. Insert the adapter into the cassette slot.
FWD: Press the SEEK right arrow to advance the
cassette tape. Press the SEEK left arrow to stop
forwarding the tape.
3. Within five seconds, press and hold the REV and
FWD buttons at the same time for three seconds. The
tape symbol on the display will flash, showing that
the broken tape detection feature is no longer active.
RECALL: Press this knob to switch tape sides.
EJECT: Press this button to remove the tape or stop the
tape and play the radio.
1. Turn the radio on.
This override routine will remain active until EJECT
is pressed.
CLN: If this message appears on the display, the
cassette tape player needs to be cleaned. It will still play
tapes, but you should clean it as soon as possible to
prevent damage to the tapes and player. See “Care of
Your Cassette Tape Player” in the Index. After you clean
the player, press and hold EJECT for five seconds to
reset the CLN indicator. The radio will display --- to
show the indicator was reset.
3-11
Understanding Radio Reception
To help avoid hearing loss or damage:
AM
D Adjust the volume control to the lowest setting.
D Increase volume slowly until you hear comfortably
The range for most AM stations is greater than for
FM, especially at night. The longer range, however, can
cause stations to interfere with each other. AM can pick
up noise from things like storms and power lines. Try
reducing the treble to reduce this noise if you ever get it.
FM Stereo
FM stereo will give you the best sound, but FM signals
will reach only about 10 to 40 miles (16 to 65 km). Tall
buildings or hills can interfere with FM signals, causing
the sound to come and go.
Tips About Your Audio System
Hearing damage from loud noise is almost undetectable
until it is too late. Your hearing can adapt to higher
volumes of sound. Sound that seems normal can be loud
and harmful to your hearing. Take precautions by
adjusting the volume control on your radio to a safe
sound level before your hearing adapts to it.
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and clearly.
NOTICE:
Before you add any sound equipment to your
vehicle -- like a tape player, CB radio, mobile
telephone or two-way radio -- be sure you can
add what you want. If you can, it’s very
important to do it properly. Added sound
equipment may interfere with the operation of
your vehicle’s engine, Delphi Delco Electronics
radio or other systems, and even damage them.
Your vehicle’s systems may interfere with the
operation of sound equipment that has been
added improperly.
So, before adding sound equipment, check with
your dealer and be sure to check Federal rules
covering mobile radio and telephone units.
Care of Your Cassette Tape Player
A tape player that is not cleaned regularly can cause
reduced sound quality, ruined cassettes or a damaged
mechanism. Cassette tapes should be stored in their
cases away from contaminants, direct sunlight and
extreme heat. If they aren’t, they may not operate
properly or may cause failure of the tape player.
Your tape player should be cleaned regularly after every
50 hours of use. Your radio may display CLN to indicate
that you have used your tape player for 50 hours without
resetting the tape clean timer. If this message appears on
the display, your cassette tape player needs to be
cleaned. It will still play tapes, but you should clean it as
soon as possible to prevent damage to your tapes and
player. If you notice a reduction in sound quality, try a
known good cassette to see if it is the tape or the tape
player at fault. If this other cassette has no improvement
in sound quality, clean the tape player.
The recommended cleaning method for your
cassette tape player is the use of a scrubbing action,
non-abrasive cleaning cassette with pads which scrub
the tape head as the hubs of the cleaner cassette turn.
The recommended cleaning cassette is available through
your dealer (GM Part No. 12344789).
When using a scrubbing action, non-abrasive cleaning
cassette, it is normal for the cassette to eject because
your unit is equipped with a cut tape detection feature
and a cleaning cassette may appear as a broken tape.
To prevent the cleaning cassette from being ejected, use
the following steps.
1. Turn the ignition to RUN or ACCESSORY.
2. Turn the radio on.
3. Insert the scrubbing action cleaning cassette.
4. Within 5 seconds, press and hold the REV and FWD
buttons at the same time for three seconds. The tape
symbol on the display will flash, showing that the
cut tape detection feature is no longer active.
5. Eject the cleaning cassette after the manufacturer’s
recommended cleaning time.
When the cleaning cassette has been ejected, the cut tape
detection feature is active again.
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You may also choose a non-scrubbing action, wet-type
cleaner which uses a cassette with a fabric belt to clean
the tape head. This type of cleaning cassette will not
eject on its own. A non-scrubbing action cleaner may
not clean as thoroughly as the scrubbing type cleaner.
The use of a non-scrubbing action, dry-type cleaning
cassette is not recommended.
Fixed Mast Antenna
After you clean the player, press and hold EJECT for
five seconds to reset the CLN indicator. The radio will
display --- to show the indicator was reset.
Check every once in a while to be sure the mast is still
tightened to the cowl. If tightening is required, tighten
by hand, then with a wrench one quarter turn.
Cassettes are subject to wear and the sound quality may
degrade over time. Always make sure the cassette tape is in
good condition before you have your tape player serviced.
3-14
The fixed mast antenna can withstand most car washes
without being damaged. If the mast should ever become
slightly bent, you can straighten it out by hand. If the
mast is badly bent, as it might be by vandals, you should
replace it.
Section 4 Your Driving and the Road
Here you’ll find information about driving on different kinds of roads and in varying weather conditions. We’ve also
included many other useful tips on driving.
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4-3
4-6
4-6
4-9
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-16
Defensive Driving
Drunken Driving
Control of a Vehicle
Braking
Steering
Off-Road Recovery
Passing
Loss of Control
Driving at Night
Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads
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4-20
4-21
4-22
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4-24
4-27
4-29
4-31
4-39
City Driving
Freeway Driving
Before Leaving on a Long Trip
Highway Hypnosis
Hill and Mountain Roads
Winter Driving
Recreational Vehicle Towing
Loading Your Vehicle
Towing a Trailer
Power Take-Off (PTO)
(Manual Transmission) (If Equipped)
4-
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Defensive driving really means “be ready for anything.”
On city streets, rural roads or freeways, it means
“always expect the unexpected.”
Assume that pedestrians or other drivers are going to
be careless and make mistakes. Anticipate what they
might do. Be ready for their mistakes.
Rear-end collisions are about the most preventable
of accidents. Yet they are common. Allow enough
following distance. It’s the best defensive driving
maneuver, in both city and rural driving. You never
know when the vehicle in front of you is going to
brake or turn suddenly.
Defensive Driving
The best advice anyone can give about driving is:
Drive defensively.
Please start with a very important safety device in your
vehicle: Buckle up. See “Safety Belts” in the Index.
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Defensive driving requires that a driver concentrate
on the driving task. Anything that distracts from the
driving task -- such as concentrating on a cellular
telephone call, reading, or reaching for something on
the floor -- makes proper defensive driving more
difficult and can even cause a collision, with resulting
injury. Ask a passenger to help do things like this,
or pull off the road in a safe place to do them yourself.
These simple defensive driving techniques could save
your life.
Drunken Driving
Death and injury associated with drinking and driving is
a national tragedy. It’s the number one contributor to
the highway death toll, claiming thousands of victims
every year.
Alcohol affects four things that anyone needs to drive
a vehicle:
D
D
D
D
Judgment
Muscular Coordination
Vision
Attentiveness.
Police records show that almost half of all motor
vehicle-related deaths involve alcohol. In most cases,
these deaths are the result of someone who was drinking
and driving. In recent years, about 16,000 annual motor
vehicle-related deaths have been associated with the use
of alcohol, with more than 300,000 people injured.
Many adults -- by some estimates, nearly half the
adult population -- choose never to drink alcohol,
so they never drive after drinking. For persons under 21,
it’s against the law in every U.S. state to drink alcohol.
There are good medical, psychological and
developmental reasons for these laws.
The obvious way to solve the leading highway safety
problem is for people never to drink alcohol and then
drive. But what if people do? How much is “too much”
if the driver plans to drive? It’s a lot less than many
might think. Although it depends on each person
and situation, here is some general information on
the problem.
The Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of someone
who is drinking depends upon four things:
D The amount of alcohol consumed
D The drinker’s body weight
D The amount of food that is consumed before and
during drinking
D The length of time it has taken the drinker to
consume the alcohol.
According to the American Medical Association, a
180-lb. (82 kg) person who drinks three 12-ounce
(355 ml) bottles of beer in an hour will end up with a
BAC of about 0.06 percent. The person would reach the
same BAC by drinking three 4-ounce (120 ml) glasses
of wine or three mixed drinks if each had 1-1/2 ounces
(45 ml) of a liquor like whiskey, gin or vodka.
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It’s the amount of alcohol that counts. For example, if
the same person drank three double martinis (3 ounces
or 90 ml of liquor each) within an hour, the person’s
BAC would be close to 0.12 percent. A person who
consumes food just before or during drinking will have
a somewhat lower BAC level.
There is a gender difference, too. Women generally have
a lower relative percentage of body water than men.
Since alcohol is carried in body water, this means that
a woman generally will reach a higher BAC level than a
man of her same body weight when each has the same
number of drinks.
The law in many U.S. states sets the legal limit at a BAC
of 0.10 percent. In a growing number of U.S. states, and
throughout Canada, the limit is 0.08 percent. In some
other countries, it’s even lower. The BAC limit for all
commercial drivers in the United States is 0.04 percent.
The BAC will be over 0.10 percent after three to
six drinks (in one hour). Of course, as we’ve seen,
it depends on how much alcohol is in the drinks,
and how quickly the person drinks them.
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But the ability to drive is affected well below a BAC
of 0.10 percent. Research shows that the driving skills
of many people are impaired at a BAC approaching
0.05 percent, and that the effects are worse at night. All
drivers are impaired at BAC levels above 0.05 percent.
Statistics show that the chance of being in a collision
increases sharply for drivers who have a BAC of
0.05 percent or above. A driver with a BAC level of
0.06 percent has doubled his or her chance of having
a collision. At a BAC level of 0.10 percent, the chance
of this driver having a collision is 12 times greater; at a
level of 0.15 percent, the chance is 25 times greater!
There’s something else about drinking and driving that
many people don’t know. Medical research shows that
alcohol in a person’s system can make crash injuries
worse, especially injuries to the brain, spinal cord or
heart. This means that when anyone who has been
drinking -- driver or passenger -- is in a crash, that
person’s chance of being killed or permanently disabled
is higher than if the person had not been drinking.
The body takes about an hour to rid itself of the alcohol
in one drink. No amount of coffee or number of cold
showers will speed that up. “I’ll be careful” isn’t the
right answer. What if there’s an emergency, a need to
take sudden action, as when a child darts into the street?
A person with even a moderate BAC might not be able
to react quickly enough to avoid the collision.
Drinking and then driving is very dangerous.
Your reflexes, perceptions, attentiveness and
judgment can be affected by even a small
amount of alcohol. You can have a serious -- or
even fatal -- collision if you drive after drinking.
Please don’t drink and drive or ride with a driver
who has been drinking. Ride home in a cab; or if
you’re with a group, designate a driver who will
not drink.
CAUTION:
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Control of a Vehicle
Braking
You have three systems that make your vehicle go where
you want it to go. They are the brakes, the steering and
the accelerator. All three systems have to do their work
at the places where the tires meet the road.
Braking action involves perception time and
reaction time.
First, you have to decide to push on the brake pedal.
That’s perception time. Then you have to bring up
your foot and do it. That’s reaction time.
Average reaction time is about 3/4 of a second. But
that’s only an average. It might be less with one driver
and as long as two or three seconds or more with
another. Age, physical condition, alertness, coordination
and eyesight all play a part. So do alcohol, drugs and
frustration. But even in 3/4 of a second, a vehicle
moving at 60 mph (100 km/h) travels 66 feet (20 m).
That could be a lot of distance in an emergency, so
keeping enough space between your vehicle and others
is important.
And, of course, actual stopping distances vary greatly
with the surface of the road (whether it’s pavement or
gravel); the condition of the road (wet, dry, icy); tire
tread; the condition of your brakes; the weight of the
vehicle and the amount of brake force applied.
Sometimes, as when you’re driving on snow or ice, it’s
easy to ask more of those control systems than the tires
and road can provide. That means you can lose control
of your vehicle.
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Avoid needless heavy braking. Some people drive
in spurts -- heavy acceleration followed by heavy
braking -- rather than keeping pace with traffic. This
is a mistake. Your brakes may not have time to cool
between hard stops. Your brakes will wear out much
faster if you do a lot of heavy braking. If you keep pace
with the traffic and allow realistic following distances,
you will eliminate a lot of unnecessary braking. That
means better braking and longer brake life.
If your engine ever stops while you’re driving, brake
normally but don’t pump your brakes. If you do, the
pedal may get harder to push down. If your engine
stops, you will still have some power brake assist. But
you will use it when you brake. Once the power assist is
used up, it may take longer to stop and the brake pedal
will be harder to push.
Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS)
Your vehicle has anti-lock brakes (ABS). ABS is
an advanced electronic braking system that will help
prevent a braking skid.
When you start your engine and begin to drive away,
your anti-lock brake system will check itself. You may
hear a momentary motor or clicking noise while this test
is going on. This is normal.
If there’s a problem with the
anti-lock brake system, this
warning light will stay on.
See “Anti-Lock Brake
System Warning Light”
in the Index.
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The anti-lock system can change the brake pressure faster
than any driver could. The computer is programmed to
make the most of available tire and road conditions.
This can help you steer around the obstacle while
braking hard.
Here’s how anti-lock works. Let’s say the road is wet.
You’re driving safely. Suddenly an animal jumps out in
front of you.
You slam on the brakes and continue braking. Here’s
what happens with ABS.
A computer senses that wheels are slowing down. If one
of the wheels is about to stop rolling, the computer will
separately work the brakes at each front wheel and at
both rear wheels.
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As you brake, your computer keeps receiving updates on
wheel speed and controls braking pressure accordingly.
Remember: Anti-lock doesn’t change the time you need
to get your foot up to the brake pedal or always decrease
stopping distance. If you get too close to the vehicle in
front of you, you won’t have time to apply your brakes
if that vehicle suddenly slows or stops. Always leave
enough room up ahead to stop, even though you have
anti-lock brakes.
Steering
Using Anti-Lock
Steering Tips
Don’t pump the brakes. Just hold the brake pedal down
firmly and let anti-lock work for you. You may feel the
brakes vibrate, or you may notice some noise, but this
is normal.
Driving on Curves
Braking in Emergencies
With anti-lock, you can steer and brake at the same
time. In many emergencies, steering can help you more
than even the very best braking.
Power Steering
If you lose power steering assist because the engine
stops or the system is not functioning, you can steer
but it will take much more effort.
It’s important to take curves at a reasonable speed.
A lot of the “driver lost control” accidents mentioned
on the news happen on curves. Here’s why:
Experienced driver or beginner, each of us is subject to
the same laws of physics when driving on curves. The
traction of the tires against the road surface makes it
possible for the vehicle to change its path when you turn
the front wheels. If there’s no traction, inertia will keep
the vehicle going in the same direction. If you’ve ever
tried to steer a vehicle on wet ice, you’ll understand this.
The traction you can get in a curve depends on the
condition of your tires and the road surface, the angle at
which the curve is banked, and your speed. While you’re
in a curve, speed is the one factor you can control.
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Suppose you’re steering through a sharp curve. Then you
suddenly accelerate. Both control systems -- steering and
acceleration -- have to do their work where the tires meet
the road. Adding the sudden acceleration can demand too
much of those places. You can lose control.
What should you do if this ever happens? Ease up on
the accelerator pedal, steer the vehicle the way you want
it to go, and slow down.
Speed limit signs near curves warn that you should
adjust your speed. Of course, the posted speeds are
based on good weather and road conditions. Under less
favorable conditions you’ll want to go slower.
If you need to reduce your speed as you approach a
curve, do it before you enter the curve, while your front
wheels are straight ahead.
Try to adjust your speed so you can “drive” through
the curve. Maintain a reasonable, steady speed. Wait to
accelerate until you are out of the curve, and then
accelerate gently into the straightaway.
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Steering in Emergencies
There are times when steering can be more effective
than braking. For example, you come over a hill and
find a truck stopped in your lane, or a car suddenly pulls
out from nowhere, or a child darts out from between
parked cars and stops right in front of you. You can
avoid these problems by braking -- if you can stop
in time. But sometimes you can’t; there isn’t room.
That’s the time for evasive action -- steering around
the problem.
Your vehicle can perform very well in emergencies like
these. First apply your brakes. See “Braking in
Emergencies” earlier in this section. It is better to
remove as much speed as you can from a possible
collision. Then steer around the problem, to the left
or right depending on the space available.
Off-Road Recovery
You may find that your right wheels have dropped off the
edge of a road onto the shoulder while you’re driving.
An emergency like this requires close attention and a
quick decision. If you are holding the steering wheel at
the recommended 9 and 3 o’clock positions, you can
turn it a full 180 degrees very quickly without removing
either hand. But you have to act fast, steer quickly, and
just as quickly straighten the wheel once you have
avoided the object.
The fact that such emergency situations are always
possible is a good reason to practice defensive driving
at all times and wear safety belts properly.
If the level of the shoulder is only slightly below the
pavement, recovery should be fairly easy. Ease off the
accelerator and then, if there is nothing in the way, steer
so that your vehicle straddles the edge of the pavement.
You can turn the steering wheel up to one-quarter turn
until the right front tire contacts the pavement edge.
Then turn your steering wheel to go straight down
the roadway.
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Passing
The driver of a vehicle about to pass another on a
two-lane highway waits for just the right moment,
accelerates, moves around the vehicle ahead, then goes
back into the right lane again. A simple maneuver?
Not necessarily! Passing another vehicle on a two-lane
highway is a potentially dangerous move, since the
passing vehicle occupies the same lane as oncoming
traffic for several seconds. A miscalculation, an error in
judgment, or a brief surrender to frustration or anger
can suddenly put the passing driver face to face with the
worst of all traffic accidents -- the head-on collision.
So here are some tips for passing:
D “Drive ahead.” Look down the road, to the sides and
to crossroads for situations that might affect your
passing patterns. If you have any doubt whatsoever
about making a successful pass, wait for a better time.
D Watch for traffic signs, pavement markings and lines.
If you can see a sign up ahead that might indicate a
turn or an intersection, delay your pass. A broken
center line usually indicates it’s all right to pass
(providing the road ahead is clear). Never cross
a solid line on your side of the lane or a double
solid line, even if the road seems empty of
approaching traffic.
4-12
D Do not get too close to the vehicle you want to
pass while you’re awaiting an opportunity. For one
thing, following too closely reduces your area of
vision, especially if you’re following a larger vehicle.
Also, you won’t have adequate space if the vehicle
ahead suddenly slows or stops. Keep back a
reasonable distance.
D When it looks like a chance to pass is coming up,
start to accelerate but stay in the right lane and
don’t get too close. Time your move so you will be
increasing speed as the time comes to move into the
other lane. If the way is clear to pass, you will have
a “running start” that more than makes up for the
distance you would lose by dropping back. And if
something happens to cause you to cancel your pass,
you need only slow down and drop back again and
wait for another opportunity.
D If other cars are lined up to pass a slow vehicle, wait
your turn. But take care that someone isn’t trying to
pass you as you pull out to pass the slow vehicle.
Remember to glance over your shoulder and check
the blind spot.
D Check your mirrors, glance over your shoulder and
start your left lane change signal before moving out
of the right lane to pass. When you are far enough
ahead of the passed vehicle to see its front in your
inside mirror, activate your right lane change signal
and move back into the right lane. (Remember that
if your right outside mirror is convex, the vehicle
you just passed may seem to be farther away from
you than it really is.)
D Try not to pass more than one vehicle at a time
on two-lane roads. Reconsider before passing the
next vehicle.
D Don’t overtake a slowly moving vehicle too rapidly.
Even though the brake lamps are not flashing, it may
be slowing down or starting to turn.
D If you’re being passed, make it easy for the following
driver to get ahead of you. Perhaps you can ease a
little to the right.
Loss of Control
Let’s review what driving experts say about what happens
when the three control systems (brakes, steering and
acceleration) don’t have enough friction where the tires
meet the road to do what the driver has asked.
In any emergency, don’t give up. Keep trying to
steer and constantly seek an escape route or area
of less danger.
Skidding
In a skid, a driver can lose control of the vehicle.
Defensive drivers avoid most skids by taking reasonable
care suited to existing conditions, and by not “overdriving”
those conditions. But skids are always possible.
The three types of skids correspond to your vehicle’s
three control systems. In the braking skid, your wheels
aren’t rolling. In the steering or cornering skid, too
much speed or steering in a curve causes tires to slip
and lose cornering force. And in the acceleration skid,
too much throttle causes the driving wheels to spin.
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A cornering skid and an acceleration skid are best
handled by easing your foot off the accelerator pedal.
Driving at Night
If your vehicle starts to slide, ease your foot off the
accelerator pedal and quickly steer the way you want
the vehicle to go. If you start steering quickly enough,
your vehicle may straighten out. Always be ready for a
second skid if it occurs.
Of course, traction is reduced when water, snow, ice,
gravel or other material is on the road. For safety, you’ll
want to slow down and adjust your driving to these
conditions. It is important to slow down on slippery
surfaces because stopping distance will be longer and
vehicle control more limited.
While driving on a surface with reduced traction, try
your best to avoid sudden steering, acceleration or
braking (including engine braking by shifting to a lower
gear). Any sudden changes could cause the tires to
slide. You may not realize the surface is slippery until
your vehicle is skidding. Learn to recognize warning
clues -- such as enough water, ice or packed snow on
the road to make a “mirrored surface” -- and slow
down when you have any doubt.
Remember: Any anti-lock brake system (ABS) helps
avoid only the braking skid.
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Night driving is more dangerous than day driving.
One reason is that some drivers are likely to be
impaired -- by alcohol or drugs, with night vision
problems, or by fatigue.
Here are some tips on night driving.
D Drive defensively.
D Don’t drink and drive.
D Adjust your inside rearview mirror to reduce the
D
D
D
D
glare from headlamps behind you.
Since you can’t see as well, you may need to
slow down and keep more space between you and
other vehicles.
Slow down, especially on higher speed roads. Your
headlamps can light up only so much road ahead.
In remote areas, watch for animals.
If you’re tired, pull off the road in a safe place
and rest.
No one can see as well at night as in the daytime. But as
we get older these differences increase. A 50-year-old
driver may require at least twice as much light to see the
same thing at night as a 20-year-old.
What you do in the daytime can also affect your night
vision. For example, if you spend the day in bright
sunshine you are wise to wear sunglasses. Your eyes
will have less trouble adjusting to night. But if you’re
driving, don’t wear sunglasses at night. They may cut
down on glare from headlamps, but they also make a
lot of things invisible.
You can be temporarily blinded by approaching
headlamps. It can take a second or two, or even several
seconds, for your eyes to readjust to the dark. When
you are faced with severe glare (as from a driver who
doesn’t lower the high beams, or a vehicle with misaimed
headlamps), slow down a little. Avoid staring directly
into the approaching headlamps.
Keep your windshield and all the glass on your vehicle
clean -- inside and out. Glare at night is made much
worse by dirt on the glass. Even the inside of the glass
can build up a film caused by dust. Dirty glass makes
lights dazzle and flash more than clean glass would,
making the pupils of your eyes contract repeatedly.
Remember that your headlamps light up far less of a
roadway when you are in a turn or curve. Keep your
eyes moving; that way, it’s easier to pick out dimly
lighted objects. Just as your headlamps should be
checked regularly for proper aim, so should your eyes
be examined regularly. Some drivers suffer from night
blindness -- the inability to see in dim light -- and
aren’t even aware of it.
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Driving in Rain and on Wet Roads
Rain and wet roads can mean driving trouble. On a wet
road, you can’t stop, accelerate or turn as well because
your tire-to-road traction isn’t as good as on dry roads.
And, if your tires don’t have much tread left, you’ll get
even less traction. It’s always wise to go slower and be
cautious if rain starts to fall while you are driving. The
surface may get wet suddenly when your reflexes are
tuned for driving on dry pavement.
The heavier the rain, the harder it is to see. Even if your
windshield wiper blades are in good shape, a heavy rain
can make it harder to see road signs and traffic signals,
pavement markings, the edge of the road and even
people walking.
It’s wise to keep your wiping equipment in good shape
and keep your windshield washer tank filled with
washer fluid. Replace your windshield wiper inserts
when they show signs of streaking or missing areas
on the windshield, or when strips of rubber start to
separate from the inserts.
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CAUTION:
Wet brakes can cause accidents. They won’t work
as well in a quick stop and may cause pulling to
one side. You could lose control of the vehicle.
After driving through a large puddle of water or
a car wash, apply your brake pedal lightly until
your brakes work normally.
Hydroplaning
Driving too fast through large water puddles or even
going through some car washes can cause problems, too.
The water may affect your brakes. Try to avoid puddles.
But if you can’t, try to slow down before you hit them.
Hydroplaning is dangerous. So much water can build up
under your tires that they can actually ride on the water.
This can happen if the road is wet enough and you’re
going fast enough. When your vehicle is hydroplaning,
it has little or no contact with the road.
Hydroplaning doesn’t happen often. But it can if your
tires do not have much tread or if the pressure in one or
more is low. It can happen if a lot of water is standing on
the road. If you can see reflections from trees, telephone
poles or other vehicles, and raindrops “dimple” the
water’s surface, there could be hydroplaning.
Hydroplaning usually happens at higher speeds.
There just isn’t a hard and fast rule about hydroplaning.
The best advice is to slow down when it is raining.
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Driving Through Deep Standing Water
NOTICE:
If you drive too quickly through deep puddles or
standing water, water can come in through your
engine’s air intake and badly damage your
engine. Never drive through water that is slightly
lower than the underbody of your vehicle. If you
can’t avoid deep puddles or standing water, drive
through them very slowly.
Driving Through Flowing Water
CAUTION:
Flowing or rushing water creates strong forces.
If you try to drive through flowing water, as you
might at a low water crossing, your vehicle can
be carried away. As little as six inches of flowing
water can carry away a smaller vehicle. If this
happens, you and the other vehicle occupants
could drown. Don’t ignore police warning signs,
and otherwise be very cautious about trying to
drive through flowing water.
Some Other Rainy Weather Tips
D Besides slowing down, allow some extra following
distance. And be especially careful when you pass
another vehicle. Allow yourself more clear room
ahead, and be prepared to have your view restricted
by road spray.
D Have good tires with proper tread depth.
See “Tires” in the Index.
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City Driving
One of the biggest problems with city streets is the
amount of traffic on them. You’ll want to watch out for
what the other drivers are doing and pay attention to
traffic signals.
Here are ways to increase your safety in city driving:
D Know the best way to get to where you are
going. Get a city map and plan your trip into an
unknown part of the city just as you would for a
cross-country trip.
D Try to use the freeways that rim and crisscross
most large cities. You’ll save time and energy.
See the next part, “Freeway Driving.”
D Treat a green light as a warning signal. A traffic
light is there because the corner is busy enough to
need it. When a light turns green, and just before you
start to move, check both ways for vehicles that have
not cleared the intersection or may be running the
red light.
4-19
Freeway Driving
The most important advice on freeway driving is: Keep
up with traffic and keep to the right. Drive at the same
speed most of the other drivers are driving. Too-fast or
too-slow driving breaks a smooth traffic flow. Treat the
left lane on a freeway as a passing lane.
At the entrance, there is usually a ramp that leads to the
freeway. If you have a clear view of the freeway as you
drive along the entrance ramp, you should begin to
check traffic. Try to determine where you expect to
blend with the flow. Try to merge into the gap at close to
the prevailing speed. Switch on your turn signal, check
your mirrors and glance over your shoulder as often as
necessary. Try to blend smoothly with the traffic flow.
Once you are on the freeway, adjust your speed to the
posted limit or to the prevailing rate if it’s slower. Stay
in the right lane unless you want to pass.
Before changing lanes, check your mirrors. Then use
your turn signal.
Mile for mile, freeways (also called thruways, parkways,
expressways, turnpikes or superhighways) are the safest
of all roads. But they have their own special rules.
Just before you leave the lane, glance quickly over your
shoulder to make sure there isn’t another vehicle in your
“blind” spot.
Once you are moving on the freeway, make certain you
allow a reasonable following distance. Expect to move
slightly slower at night.
4-20
When you want to leave the freeway, move to the proper
lane well in advance. If you miss your exit, do not,
under any circumstances, stop and back up. Drive on
to the next exit.
The exit ramp can be curved, sometimes quite sharply.
The exit speed is usually posted.
Reduce your speed according to your speedometer, not
to your sense of motion. After driving for any distance
at higher speeds, you may tend to think you are going
slower than you actually are.
Before Leaving on a Long Trip
Make sure you’re ready. Try to be well rested. If you
must start when you’re not fresh -- such as after a day’s
work -- don’t plan to make too many miles that first part
of the journey. Wear comfortable clothing and shoes you
can easily drive in.
Here are some things you can check before a trip:
D Windshield Washer Fluid: Is the reservoir full?
Are all windows clean inside and outside?
D Wiper Blades: Are they in good shape?
D Fuel, Engine Oil, Other Fluids: Have you checked
all levels?
D Lamps: Are they all working? Are the lenses clean?
D Tires: They are vitally important to a safe,
trouble-free trip. Is the tread good enough for
long-distance driving? Are the tires all inflated to
the recommended pressure?
D Weather Forecasts: What’s the weather outlook
along your route? Should you delay your trip a
short time to avoid a major storm system?
D Maps: Do you have up-to-date maps?
Is your vehicle ready for a long trip? If you keep it
serviced and maintained, it’s ready to go. If it needs
service, have it done before starting out. Of course,
you’ll find experienced and able service experts in
GM dealerships all across North America. They’ll be
ready and willing to help if you need it.
4-21
Highway Hypnosis
Hill and Mountain Roads
Is there actually such a condition as “highway hypnosis”?
Or is it just plain falling asleep at the wheel? Call it
highway hypnosis, lack of awareness, or whatever.
There is something about an easy stretch of road with
the same scenery, along with the hum of the tires on the
road, the drone of the engine, and the rush of the wind
against the vehicle that can make you sleepy. Don’t let
it happen to you! If it does, your vehicle can leave the
road in less than a second, and you could crash and
be injured.
What can you do about highway hypnosis? First, be
aware that it can happen.
Then here are some tips:
D Make sure your vehicle is well ventilated, with a
comfortably cool interior.
D Keep your eyes moving. Scan the road ahead
and to the sides. Check your mirrors and your
instruments frequently.
D If you get sleepy, pull off the road into a rest, service
or parking area and take a nap, get some exercise, or
both. For safety, treat drowsiness on the highway as
an emergency.
4-22
Driving on steep hills or mountains is different from
driving in flat or rolling terrain.
If you drive regularly in steep country, or if you’re
planning to visit there, here are some tips that can make
your trips safer and more enjoyable.
CAUTION:
D Keep your vehicle in good shape. Check all fluid
Coasting downhill in NEUTRAL (N) or with the
ignition off is dangerous. Your brakes will have to
do all the work of slowing down. They could get
so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would
then have poor braking or even none going down
a hill. You could crash. Always have your engine
running and your vehicle in gear when you
go downhill.
levels and also the brakes, tires, cooling system and
transmission. These parts can work hard on
mountain roads.
D Know how to go down hills. The most important
thing to know is this: let your engine do some of the
slowing down. Shift to a lower gear when you go
down a steep or long hill.
CAUTION:
If you don’t shift down, your brakes could get
so hot that they wouldn’t work well. You would
then have poor braking or even none going
down a hill. You could crash. Shift down to
let your engine assist your brakes on a steep
downhill slope.
D Know how to go uphill. You may want to shift down
D
D
D
to a lower gear. The lower gears help cool your engine
and transmission, and you can climb the hill better.
Stay in your own lane when driving on two-lane
roads in hills or mountains. Don’t swing wide or cut
across the center of the road. Drive at speeds that let
you stay in your own lane.
As you go over the top of a hill, be alert. There could be
something in your lane, like a stalled car or an accident.
You may see highway signs on mountains that warn of
special problems. Examples are long grades, passing or
no-passing zones, a falling rocks area or winding
roads. Be alert to these and take appropriate action.
4-23
Winter Driving
Include an ice scraper, a small brush or broom, a supply
of windshield washer fluid, a rag, some winter outer
clothing, a small shovel, a flashlight, a red cloth and
reflective warning triangles. And, if you will be driving
under severe conditions, include a small bag of sand,
a piece of old carpet or a couple of burlap bags to help
provide traction. Be sure you properly secure these
items in your vehicle.
Driving on Snow or Ice
Most of the time, those places where your tires meet the
road probably have good traction.
However, if there is snow or ice between your tires
and the road, you can have a very slippery situation.
You’ll have a lot less traction or “grip” and will need
to be very careful.
Here are some tips for winter driving:
D Have your vehicle in good shape for winter.
D You may want to put winter emergency supplies in
your vehicle.
4-24
Whatever the condition -- smooth ice, packed, blowing
or loose snow -- drive with caution.
Accelerate gently. Try not to break the fragile traction.
If you accelerate too fast, the drive wheels will spin and
polish the surface under the tires even more.
Your anti-lock brakes improve your vehicle’s stability
when you make a hard stop on a slippery road. Even
though you have an anti-lock braking system, you’ll
want to begin stopping sooner than you would on dry
pavement. See “Anti-Lock” in the Index.
D Allow greater following distance on any
slippery road.
D Watch for slippery spots. The road might be fine
What’s the worst time for this? “Wet ice.” Very cold
snow or ice can be slick and hard to drive on. But wet
ice can be even more trouble because it may offer the
least traction of all. You can get wet ice when it’s about
freezing (32_F; 0_C) and freezing rain begins to fall.
Try to avoid driving on wet ice until salt and sand crews
can get there.
until you hit a spot that’s covered with ice. On an
otherwise clear road, ice patches may appear in
shaded areas where the sun can’t reach: around
clumps of trees, behind buildings or under bridges.
Sometimes the surface of a curve or an overpass
may remain icy when the surrounding roads are
clear. If you see a patch of ice ahead of you,
brake before you are on it. Try not to brake while
you’re actually on the ice, and avoid sudden
steering maneuvers.
4-25
If You’re Caught in a Blizzard
D Tie a red cloth to your vehicle to alert police that
you’ve been stopped by the snow.
D Put on extra clothing or wrap a blanket around you.
If you have no blankets or extra clothing, make body
insulators from newspapers, burlap bags, rags, floor
mats -- anything you can wrap around yourself or
tuck under your clothing to keep warm.
If you are stopped by heavy snow, you could be in a
serious situation. You should probably stay with your
vehicle unless you know for sure that you are near help
and you can hike through the snow. Here are some
things to do to summon help and keep yourself and
your passengers safe:
D Turn on your hazard flashers.
4-26
You can run the engine to keep warm, but be careful.
CAUTION:
Snow can trap exhaust gases under your vehicle.
This can cause deadly CO (carbon monoxide) gas
to get inside. CO could overcome you and kill
you. You can’t see it or smell it, so you might not
know it is in your vehicle. Clear away snow from
around the base of your vehicle, especially any
that is blocking your exhaust pipe. And check
around again from time to time to be sure snow
doesn’t collect there.
Open a window just a little on the side of the
vehicle that’s away from the wind. This will help
keep CO out.
Run your engine only as long as you must. This saves
fuel. When you run the engine, make it go a little faster
than just idle. That is, push the accelerator slightly.
This uses less fuel for the heat that you get and it
keeps the battery (or batteries) charged. You will need a
well-charged battery (or batteries) to restart the vehicle,
and possibly for signaling later on with your headlamps.
Let the heater run for a while.
If you have a diesel engine, you may have to run it at a
higher speed to get enough heat. Then, shut the engine
off and close the window almost all the way to preserve
the heat. Start the engine again and repeat this only
when you feel really uncomfortable from the cold.
But do it as little as possible. Preserve the fuel as long
as you can. To help keep warm, you can get out of
the vehicle and do some fairly vigorous exercises every
half hour or so until help comes.
4-27
Recreational Vehicle Towing
There may be times when you want to tow your vehicle
behind another vehicle for use at your destination.
Be sure to use the proper towing equipment designed
for recreational vehicle towing. Follow the instructions
for the towing equipment.
Your vehicle should not be towed with all four wheels
on the ground. The transmission has no provisions for
internal lubrication while being towed. To properly tow
the vehicle, it should be placed on a platform trailer with
all four wheels off the ground.
In rare cases when it’s unavoidable that the vehicle is
to be towed with all four wheels on the ground, the
propeller shaft to axle yoke orientation should be marked
and the propeller shaft removed following the applicable
service manual removal/installation procedure.
Dust or dirt can enter the back of the transmission
through the opening created by removing the propeller
shaft if proper protection is not provided. Also, check
the transmission fluid level before driving the truck.
4-28
Loading Your Vehicle
The Certification/Tire label also tells you the maximum
weights for the front and rear axles, called Gross Axle
Weight Rating (GAWR). To find out the actual loads
on your front and rear axles, you need to go to a weigh
station and weigh your vehicle. Your dealer can help
you with this. Be sure to spread out your load equally
on both sides of the centerline.
Never exceed the GVWR for your vehicle, or the GAWR
for either the front or rear axle.
And, if you do have a heavy load, you should spread it out.
CAUTION:
The Certification/Tire label is found on the rear edge of
the driver’s door or in the Incomplete Vehicle Document
in the cab.
The label shows the size of your original tires and the
inflation pressures needed to obtain the gross weight
capacity of your vehicle. This is called the GVWR
(Gross Vehicle Weight Rating). The GVWR includes
the weight of the vehicle, all occupants, fuel and cargo.
In the case of a sudden stop or collision, things
carried in the bed of your truck could shift
forward and come into the passenger area,
injuring you and others. If you put things in
the bed of your truck, you should make sure
they are properly secured.
Using heavier suspension components to get added
durability might not change your weight ratings. Ask
your dealer to help you load your vehicle the right way.
4-29
CAUTION:
Do not load your vehicle any heavier than the
GVWR, or either the maximum front or rear
GAWR. If you do, parts on your vehicle can
break, and it can change the way your vehicle
handles. These could cause you to lose control
and crash. Also, overloading can shorten the
life of your vehicle.
NOTICE:
Your warranty does not cover parts or
components that fail because of overloading.
If you put things inside your vehicle -- like suitcases,
tools, packages, or anything else -- they go as fast as
the vehicle goes. If you have to stop or turn quickly,
or if there is a crash, they’ll keep going.
4-30
CAUTION:
Things you put inside your vehicle can strike
and injure people in a sudden stop or turn,
or in a crash.
D Put things in the cargo area of your vehicle.
Try to spread the weight evenly.
D Never stack heavier things, like suitcases,
inside the vehicle so that some of them are
above the tops of the seats.
D Don’t leave an unsecured child restraint in
your vehicle.
D When you carry something inside the
vehicle, secure it whenever you can.
D Don’t leave a seat folded down unless
you need to.
Towing a Trailer
CAUTION:
If you don’t use the correct equipment and drive
properly, you can lose control when you pull a
trailer. For example, if the trailer is too heavy,
the brakes may not work well -- or even at all.
You and your passengers could be seriously
injured. Pull a trailer only if you have followed
all the steps in this section. Ask your dealer for
advice and information about towing a trailer
with your vehicle.
NOTICE:
Pulling a trailer improperly can damage your
vehicle and result in costly repairs not covered by
your warranty. To pull a trailer correctly, follow
the advice in this part, and see your dealer for
important information about towing a trailer with
your vehicle. Additional rear axle maintenance is
required for a vehicle used to tow a trailer. See
“Scheduled Maintenance Services” in the Index.
To identify what the vehicle trailering capacity is for
your vehicle, you should read the information in
“Weight of the Trailer” that appears later in this section.
If yours was built with trailering options, as many are,
it’s ready for heavier trailers. But trailering is different
than just driving your vehicle by itself. Trailering means
changes in handling, durability and fuel economy.
Successful, safe trailering takes correct equipment,
and it has to be used properly.
That’s the reason for this part. In it are many time-tested,
important trailering tips and safety rules. Many of these
are important for your safety and that of your passengers.
So please read this section carefully before you pull
a trailer.
4-31
If You Do Decide To Pull A Trailer
If you do, here are some important points:
D There are many different laws, including speed limit
restrictions, having to do with trailering. Make sure
your rig will be legal, not only where you live but
also where you’ll be driving. A good source for this
information can be state or provincial police.
D Don’t tow a trailer at all during the first 500 miles
(800 km) your new vehicle is driven. Your engine,
axle or other parts could be damaged.
D Then, during the first 500 miles (800 km) that you
tow a trailer, don’t drive over 50 mph (80 km/h) and
don’t make starts at full throttle. This helps your
engine and other parts of your vehicle wear in at the
heavier loads.
D If you have an automatic transmission, you can tow
B
in AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE ( ). You may
want to shift the transmission to THIRD (3) or, if
necessary, a lower gear selection if the transmission
shifts too often (e.g., under heavy loads and/or hilly
conditions). If you have a manual transmission
and you are towing a trailer, it’s better not to use
FIFTH (5) gear. Just drive in FOURTH (4) gear
(or, as you need to, a lower gear).
4-32
Three important considerations have to do with weight:
D the weight of the trailer,
D the weight of the trailer tongue
D and the weight on your vehicle’s tires.
Weight of the Trailer
How heavy can a trailer safely be?
It depends on how you plan to use your rig. For example,
speed, altitude, road grades, outside temperature and
how much your vehicle is used to pull a trailer are all
important. And, it can also depend on any special
equipment that you have on your vehicle.
Use the following chart to determine how much your
vehicle can weigh, based upon your vehicle model
and options.
Maximum trailer weight is calculated assuming the
driver and one passenger are in the tow vehicle and it
has all the required trailering equipment. The weight
of additional optional equipment, passengers, cargo in
the tow vehicle and the loaded trailer weight must not
exceed the Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR).
Refer to the Trailering Guide for oil
cooler recommendations.
3500HD
Engine
6.5L Diesel
8.1L
Weight of the Trailer Tongue
Axle
Ratio
4.63
5.13
Gross Combination
Weight Rating
17,000 lbs. (7 718 kg)
17,000 lbs.* (7 718 kg)
4.63
5.13
19,000 lbs.* (8 626 kg)
19,000 lbs.* (8 626 kg)
*Fifth wheel hitch rating; weight distributing hitch
rating is limited to 10,000 lbs. (4 540 kg).
The tongue load (A) of any trailer is an important
weight to measure because it affects the total or gross
weight of your vehicle. The Gross Vehicle Weight
(GVW) includes the curb weight of the vehicle, any
cargo you may carry in it, and the people who will be
riding in the vehicle. And if you will tow a trailer, you
must add the tongue load to the GVW because your
vehicle will be carrying that weight, too. See “Loading
Your Vehicle” in the Index for more information about
your vehicle’s maximum load capacity.
3500HD models are incomplete vehicles and trailer
ratings are not assigned. Use the GCWR chart to
determine the combination weight limit.
You can ask your dealer for our trailering information or
advice, or you can write us at the address listed in your
Warranty and Owner Assistance Information Booklet.
In Canada, write to:
General Motors of Canada Limited
Customer Communication Centre, 163-005
1908 Colonel Sam Drive
Oshawa, Ontario L1H 8P7
4-33
If you’re using a weight-carrying hitch, the trailer
tongue (A) should weigh 10 percent of the total loaded
trailer weight (B). If you’re using a weight-distributing
hitch, the trailer tongue (A) should weigh 12 percent of
the total loaded trailer weight (B).
After you’ve loaded your trailer, weigh the trailer and
then the tongue, separately, to see if the weights are
proper. If they aren’t, you may be able to get them
right simply by moving some items around in the trailer.
Total Weight on Your Vehicle’s Tires
Be sure your vehicle’s tires are inflated to the upper
limit for cold tires. You’ll find these numbers on the
Certification label at the rear edge of the driver’s door or
see “Tire Loading” in the Index. Then be sure you
don’t go over the GVW limit for your vehicle, including
the weight of the trailer tongue.
Hitches
It’s important to have the correct hitch equipment.
Crosswinds, large trucks going by and rough roads
are a few reasons why you’ll need the right hitch.
4-34
Safety Chains
You should always attach chains between your vehicle
and your trailer. Cross the safety chains under the
tongue of the trailer to help prevent the tongue from
contacting the road if it becomes separated from the
hitch. Instructions about safety chains may be provided
by the hitch manufacturer or by the trailer manufacturer.
Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for
attaching safety chains and do not attach them to the
bumper. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendation for
attaching safety chains. Always leave just enough slack
so you can turn with your rig. Never allow safety chains
to drag on the ground.
Trailer Brakes
If your trailer weighs more than 1,000 lbs. (450 kg)
loaded, then it needs its own brakes -- and they must
be adequate. Be sure to read and follow the instructions
for the trailer brakes so you’ll be able to install, adjust
and maintain them properly.
Your trailer brake system can tap into the vehicle’s
hydraulic brake system only if:
D The trailer parts can withstand 3,000 psi
(20 650 kPa) of pressure.
D The trailer’s brake system will use less than
0.02 cubic inch (0.3 cc) of fluid from your vehicle’s
master cylinder. Otherwise, both braking systems
won’t work well. You could even lose your brakes.
If everything checks out this far, make the brake tap
at the port on the master cylinder that sends the fluid
to the rear brakes. But don’t use copper tubing for this.
If you do, it will bend and finally break off. Use steel
brake tubing.
Driving with a Trailer
Towing a trailer requires a certain amount of experience.
Before setting out for the open road, you’ll want to
get to know your rig. Acquaint yourself with the feel
of handling and braking with the added weight of the
trailer. And always keep in mind that the vehicle you
are driving is now a good deal longer and not nearly
as responsive as your vehicle is by itself.
Before you start, check the trailer hitch and platform
(and attachments), safety chains, electrical connector,
lamps, tires and mirror adjustment. If the trailer has
electric brakes, start your vehicle and trailer moving
and then apply the trailer brake controller by hand to be
sure the brakes are working. This lets you check your
electrical connection at the same time.
During your trip, check occasionally to be sure that the
load is secure, and that the lamps and any trailer brakes
are still working.
Following Distance
Stay at least twice as far behind the vehicle ahead as you
would when driving your vehicle without a trailer. This
can help you avoid situations that require heavy braking
and sudden turns.
Passing
You’ll need more passing distance up ahead when
you’re towing a trailer. And, because you’re a good
deal longer, you’ll need to go much farther beyond
the passed vehicle before you can return to your lane.
4-35
Backing Up
Turn Signals When Towing a Trailer
Hold the bottom of the steering wheel with one hand.
Then, to move the trailer to the left, just move that hand
to the left. To move the trailer to the right, move your
hand to the right. Always back up slowly and, if
possible, have someone guide you.
The arrows on your instrument panel will flash
whenever you signal a turn or lane change. Properly
hooked up, the trailer lamps will also flash, telling other
drivers you’re about to turn, change lanes or stop.
Making Turns
NOTICE:
Making very sharp turns while trailering could
cause the trailer to come in contact with the
vehicle. Your vehicle could be damaged. Avoid
making very sharp turns while trailering.
When you’re turning with a trailer, make wider turns than
normal. Do this so your trailer won’t strike soft shoulders,
curbs, road signs, trees or other objects. Avoid jerky or
sudden maneuvers. Signal well in advance.
4-36
When towing a trailer, the arrows on your instrument
panel will flash for turns even if the bulbs on the trailer
are burned out. Thus, you may think drivers behind
you are seeing your signal when they are not. It’s
important to check occasionally to be sure the trailer
bulbs are still working.
Driving On Grades
Reduce speed and shift to a lower gear before you start
down a long or steep downgrade. If you don’t shift
down, you might have to use your brakes so much
that they would get hot and no longer work well.
If you have an automatic transmission, you can tow in
AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE ( ). You may want to
shift the transmission to THIRD (3) or, if necessary, a
lower gear selection if the transmission shifts too often
(e.g., under heavy loads and/or hilly conditions).
B
If you have a manual transmission and you are towing a
trailer, it’s better not to use FIFTH (5) gear. Just drive in
FOURTH (4) gear (or, as you need to, a lower gear).
When towing at high altitude on steep uphill grades,
consider the following: Engine coolant will boil at a
lower temperature than at normal altitudes. If you turn
your engine off immediately after towing at high altitude
on steep uphill grades, your vehicle may show signs
similar to engine overheating. To avoid this, let the
engine run while parked (preferably on level ground)
with the automatic transmission in PARK (P) (or the
manual transmission out of gear and the parking brake
applied) for a few minutes before turning the engine off.
If you do get the overheat warning, see “Engine
Overheating” in the Index.
Parking on Hills
CAUTION:
You really should not park your vehicle, with
a trailer attached, on a hill. If something goes
wrong, your rig could start to move. People can
be injured, and both your vehicle and the trailer
can be damaged.
But if you ever have to park your rig on a hill, here’s
how to do it:
1. Apply your regular brakes, but don’t shift into
PARK (P) yet for an automatic transmission,
or into gear for a manual transmission.
2. Have someone place chocks under the trailer wheels.
3. When the wheel chocks are in place, release the
regular brakes until the chocks absorb the load.
4. Reapply the regular brakes. Then apply your
parking brake and shift into PARK (P) for an
automatic transmission, or REVERSE (R) for
a manual transmission.
5. Release the regular brakes.
4-37
When You Are Ready to Leave After
Parking on a Hill
1. Apply your regular brakes and hold the pedal down
while you:
D Start your engine;
D Shift into a gear; and
D Release the parking brake.
this manual, and the Index will help you find them
quickly. If you’re trailering, it’s a good idea to review
these sections before you start your trip.
Check periodically to see that all hitch nuts and bolts
are tight.
Power Winches
If you wish to use a power winch on your vehicle, only
use it when your vehicle is stationary or anchored.
2. Let up on the brake pedal.
3. Drive slowly until the trailer is clear of the chocks.
4. Stop and have someone pick up and store the chocks.
Maintenance When Trailer Towing
Your vehicle will need service more often when you’re
pulling a trailer. See the Maintenance Schedule for
more on this. Things that are especially important
in trailer operation are automatic transmission fluid
(don’t overfill), engine oil, axle lubricant, belts, cooling
system and brake system. Each of these is covered in
4-38
NOTICE:
Using a power winch with the transmission
in gear may damage the transmission. When
operating a power winch, always leave the
transmission in NEUTRAL (N).
Use the regular brakes, set the parking brake, or block
the wheels to keep your vehicle from rolling.
Power Take-Off (PTO)
(Manual Transmission) (If Equipped)
To engage a PTO on a vehicle with a
manual transmission:
1. Hold the clutch pedal down.
NOTICE:
2. Set the parking brake.
If you have a PTO that will exceed 35 hp installed
on your vehicle, it could damage the transmission.
When having a PTO installed on your vehicle,
make sure that it will not exceed 35 hp.
4. Engage the PTO. Refer to the manufacturer’s or
installer’s instructions on electrically engaged PTOs.
Before using a PTO, refer to the manufacturer’s or
installer’s instructions.
NOTICE:
Using a PTO while operating in one place
before the vehicle has reached normal operating
temperature can damage the transmission.
If you will be using the PTO while operating
in one place, drive and warm up the vehicle
before using the PTO.
3. Shift the transmission into NEUTRAL (N).
5. For mobile operations, shift the transmission into
the gear you want, apply the regular brakes and
release the parking brake. For stationary operations,
leave the parking brake applied.
6. Release the clutch and regular brakes as you
normally would. When the clutch is released,
the PTO will start.
7. Turn the PTO rotary switch to ON.
To engage a PTO on a vehicle with an
automatic transmission:
1. Engine speed must be less than 1000 rpm.
2. Turn the PTO rotary switch ON.
4-39
Using PTO speed control in Preset Mode
(Factory Setting):
NOTICE:
1. Engage the PTO.
2. Select PARK (P) or NEUTRAL (N) range.
Apply the parking brake if NEUTRAL (N) is
selected. Torque Converter Clutch (TCC) is not
available in NEUTRAL (N) and is available only
in PARK when speed is above 1100 rpm.
Using a PTO for more than four hours without
driving your vehicle can damage the transmission.
If using a PTO for more than four hours without
driving your vehicle, drive your vehicle for a while
to allow the transmission to cool.
3. Make sure your foot is off the brake pedal
(and off the clutch on vehicles equipped with a
manual transmission). Select the desired engine
speed for PTO operation. Please read the following
Preset Mode information regarding operation.
If you are going to drive the vehicle, shift the transmission
into the gear you want, apply the regular brakes and
release the parking brake.
Preset Mode: PTO speed control mode is used for
stationary applications. This mode provides a default
standby speed of 800 or 850 rpm (depending on the
engine/transmission combination) and two default
PTO control speeds which follow:
To engage a PTO while the vehicle is moving:
Release the clutch (and the regular brakes) as you
normally would. When you release the clutch,
the PTO will start.
1. Hold the clutch pedal down.
1. PTO Fast Idle Speed of 1250 rpm, or
2. Shift the transmission into NEUTRAL.
2. PTO Fast Idle Resume Speed of 1700 rpm.
3. Engage the PTO.
Please note that the standby speed (800/850 rpm) is
not to be used as a PTO control speed. Vehicles not
equipped with cruise control will not have the resume
speed capability.
4. Shift the transmission into the gear you want.
4-40
5. Release the clutch as you normally would.
When you release the clutch, the PTO will start.
Using PTO speed control in Variable Mode (Mobile):
1. Engage the PTO.
2. Vehicle speed must be greater than 5 mph for vehicles
equipped with gasoline engines or greater than 0 mph
for vehicles equipped with diesel engines.
3. Make sure your foot is off the brake pedal
(and off the clutch for vehicles equipped with a
manual transmission).
4. Select the desired engine speed (with the foot pedal)
and select SET on the PTO switch or with the
cruise control.
Using PTO speed control in Variable
Mode (Stationary):
1. Engage the PTO.
2. Vehicle speed must be less than 5 mph for vehicles
equipped with gasoline engines or at 0 mph for
vehicles equipped with diesel engines.
3. Make sure your foot is off the brake pedal
(and off the clutch for vehicles equipped with a
manual transmission).
Variable Mode: PTO speed control mode can be used
for both stationary and mobile applications. This mode
allows PTO to be controlled in a fashion similar to how
cruise control sets vehicle speed. The operator can set to
an rpm (between 800 and 2200) with the cruise control
feature or with the SET position on the PTO switch.
The operator is then able to increase rpm in increments
of 100, or “tap”, with the resume position on the cruise
control. Or, the operator can decrease rpm in increments
of 100 with either of the SET switches on the PTO or
the cruise control. Vehicles not equipped with
cruise control will not be able to increase in
100 rpm increments.
All engine speed values listed above are factory preset
values. With the exception of the TCC lockup speed
(1100 rpm) and the “tap” increment (100 rpm), all of
these values are programmable and can be adjusted by
your GM dealer or body upfitter. If the PTO software
settings do not match the settings shown here, then
they may have already been altered in order to satisfy
the requirements of the installed PTO system and
body equipment.
4. Select the desired engine speed (with the foot pedal)
and select SET on the PTO switch or with the
cruise control.
4-41
Section 5 Problems on the Road
Here you’ll find what to do about some problems that can occur on the road.
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-8
5-8
Hazard Warning Flashers
Other Warning Devices
Jump Starting
Towing Your Vehicle
Engine Overheating (Gasoline Engine)
5-11
5-19
5-19
5-20
5-21
Cooling System (Gasoline Engine)
Engine Fan Noise
If a Tire Goes Flat
Changing a Flat Tire
If You’re Stuck: In Sand, Mud, Ice or Snow
5-
5-1
Hazard Warning Flashers
Press the button located at
the top of the steering
column all the way down to
make your front and rear
turn signal lamps flash on
and off.
Your hazard warning flashers work no matter what
position your key is in, and even if the key isn’t in.
To turn off the flashers, press the button until the first
click and release.
Your hazard warning flashers let you warn others. They
also let police know you have a problem. Your front and
rear turn signal lamps will flash on and off.
But they won’t flash if you’re braking.
5-2
When the hazard warning flashers are on, your turn
signals won’t work.
Other Warning Devices
If you carry reflective triangles, you can use them to
warn others. Set one up at the side of the road about
300 feet (100 m) behind your vehicle.
Jump Starting
If your battery (or batteries) have run down, you may
want to use another vehicle and some jumper cables to
start your vehicle. But please use the following steps to
do it safely.
CAUTION:
Batteries can hurt you. They can be
dangerous because:
D They contain acid that can burn you.
D They contain gas that can explode or ignite.
D They contain enough electricity to
burn you.
If you don’t follow these steps exactly, some or all
of these things can hurt you.
NOTICE:
Ignoring these steps could result in costly damage
to your vehicle that wouldn’t be covered by
your warranty.
The ACDelcoR battery in your vehicle has a
built-in hydrometer. Do not charge, test or jump
start the battery if the hydrometer looks clear or
light yellow. Replace the battery when there is
a clear or light yellow hydrometer and a
cranking complaint.
Trying to start your vehicle by pushing or pulling
it won’t work, and it could damage your vehicle.
5-3
1. Check the other vehicle. It must have a 12-volt
battery with a negative ground system.
NOTICE:
If the other system isn’t a 12-volt system with a
negative ground, both vehicles can be damaged.
2. Get the vehicles close enough so the jumper cables
can reach, but be sure the vehicles aren’t touching
each other. If they are, it could cause a ground
connection you don’t want. You wouldn’t be able
to start your vehicle, and the bad grounding could
damage the electrical systems.
3. To avoid the possibility of the vehicles rolling, set
the parking brake firmly on both vehicles involved
in the jump start procedure. Put an automatic
transmission in PARK (P) or a manual transmission
in NEUTRAL.
4. Turn off the ignition on both vehicles. Unplug
unnecessary accessories plugged into the cigarette
lighter or accessory power outlets. Turn off all lamps
that aren’t needed as well as radios. This will avoid
sparks and help save both batteries. In addition, it
could save your radio!
5-4
NOTICE:
If you leave your radio on, it could be badly
damaged. The repairs wouldn’t be covered by
your warranty.
5. Open the hoods and locate the batteries. Find the
positive (+) and negative (-) terminals on
each battery.
CAUTION:
If your vehicle has air conditioning, the auxiliary
electric fan under the hood can start up even
when the engine is not running and can injure
you. Keep hands, clothing and tools away from
any underhood electric fan.
CAUTION:
Using a match near a battery can cause battery
gas to explode. People have been hurt doing this,
and some have been blinded. Use a flashlight if
you need more light.
Be sure the batteries have enough water. You
don’t need to add water to the ACDelcoR battery
(or batteries) installed in every new GM vehicle.
But if a battery has filler caps, be sure the right
amount of fluid is there. If it is low, add water to
take care of that first. If you don’t, explosive gas
could be present.
Battery fluid contains acid that can burn you.
Don’t get it on you. If you accidentally get it in
your eyes or on your skin, flush the place with
water and get medical help immediately.
6. Check that the jumper cables don’t have loose or
missing insulation. If they do, you could get a shock.
The vehicles could be damaged too.
Before you connect the cables, here are some basic
things you should know. Positive (+) will go to
positive (+) and negative (-) will go to a heavy,
unpainted metal engine part. Don’t connect
positive (+) to negative (-) or you’ll get a short that
would damage the battery and maybe other parts too.
On vehicles equipped with dual batteries, make any
battery connections to the primary battery located on
the passenger’s side of the vehicle.
CAUTION:
Fans or other moving engine parts can injure you
badly. Keep your hands away from moving parts
once the engine is running.
5-5
8. Don’t let the other end
touch metal. Connect
it to the positive (+)
terminal of the
good battery.
7. Connect the red positive (+) cable to the positive (+)
terminal of the vehicle with the dead battery.
9. Now connect the black
negative (-) cable to
the good battery’s
negative (-) terminal.
Don’t let the other end
touch anything until the
next step. The other end
of the negative (-) cable
doesn’t go to the dead
battery. It goes to a
heavy, unpainted metal
part of the vehicle with
the dead battery.
5-6
Attach the cable at least 18 inches (45 cm) away
from the dead battery, but not near engine parts that
move. The electrical connection is just as good
there, but the chance of sparks getting back to the
battery is much less.
Jumper Cable Removal
A. Heavy, Unpainted Metal Engine Part
B. Good Battery
C. Dead Battery
10. Now start the vehicle with the good battery and run
the engine for awhile.
11. Try to start the vehicle with the dead battery.
If it won’t start after a few tries, it probably
needs service.
5-7
To disconnect the jumper cables from both vehicles,
do the following:
If your vehicle has a diesel engine, see “Engine
Overheating” in the Diesel Engine Supplement.
1. Disconnect the black negative (-) cable from the
heavy, unpainted metal engine part on the vehicle
that had the dead battery.
Overheated Engine Protection
Operating Mode
2. Disconnect the black negative (-) cable from
the negative (-) terminal on the vehicle with the
good battery.
Should an overheated engine condition exist and the
REDUCED ENGINE POWER light is displayed, an
overheat protection mode which alternates firing groups
of cylinders helps prevent engine damage. In this mode,
you will notice a loss in power and engine performance.
This operating mode allows your vehicle to be driven to
a safe place in an emergency. Towing a trailer in the
overheat protection mode should be avoided.
3. Disconnect the red positive (+) cable from the
vehicle with the good battery.
4. Disconnect the red positive (+) cable from the
other vehicle.
Towing Your Vehicle
Consult your dealer or a professional towing service if
you need to have your vehicle towed. See “Roadside
Assistance” and “Recreational Vehicle Towing” in
the Index.
Engine Overheating (Gasoline Engine)
You will find a coolant temperature gage on your
vehicle’s instrument panel. See “Engine Coolant
Temperature Gage” in the Index.
5-8
NOTICE:
After driving in the overheated engine protection
operating mode, to avoid engine damage, allow
the engine to cool before attempting any repair.
The engine oil will be severely degraded. Repair
the cause of coolant loss and change the oil. See
“Engine Oil” in the Index.
If Steam Is Coming From Your Engine
CAUTION:
Steam from an overheated engine can burn you
badly, even if you just open the hood. Stay away
from the engine if you see or hear steam coming
from it. Just turn it off and get everyone away
from the vehicle until it cools down. Wait until
there is no sign of steam or coolant before you
open the hood.
If you keep driving when your engine is
overheated, the liquids in it can catch fire. You or
others could be badly burned. Stop your engine if
it overheats, and get out of the vehicle until the
engine is cool. See “Overheated Engine
Protection Operating Mode” in the Index.
NOTICE:
If your engine catches fire because you keep
driving with no coolant, your vehicle can be
badly damaged. The costly repairs would not be
covered by your warranty. See “Overheated
Engine Protection Operating Mode” in the Index.
5-9
If No Steam Is Coming From Your Engine
If you get an engine overheat warning but see or hear no
steam, the problem may not be too serious. Sometimes
the engine can get a little too hot when you:
D
D
D
D
If you no longer have the overheat warning, you can
drive. Just to be safe, drive slower for about 10 minutes.
If the warning doesn’t come back on, you can
drive normally.
If the warning continues, pull over, stop, and park your
vehicle right away.
Climb a long hill on a hot day.
Stop after high-speed driving.
1. If you have an air conditioner and it’s on, turn it off.
If there’s still no sign of steam, push down the
accelerator until the engine speed is about twice as fast
as normal idle speed for at least three minutes while
you’re parked. If you still have the warning, turn off the
engine and get everyone out of the vehicle until it cools
down. Also, see “Overheated Engine Protection
Operating Mode” listed previously in this section.
2. Turn on your heater to full hot at the highest fan
speed and open the window as necessary.
You may decide not to lift the hood but to get service
help right away.
Idle for long periods in traffic.
Tow a trailer. See “Driving on Grades” in the Index.
If you get the overheat warning with no sign of steam,
try this for a minute or so:
3. If you’re in a traffic jam, shift to NEUTRAL (N);
otherwise, shift to the highest gear while
driving -- AUTOMATIC OVERDRIVE ( ) for
automatic transmissions, FIFTH (5) gear for
manual transmissions.
B
5-10
Cooling System (Gasoline Engine)
When you decide it’s safe to lift the hood, here’s what
you’ll see:
CAUTION:
If your vehicle has air conditioning, the auxiliary
electric engine cooling fan under the hood can
start up even when the engine is not running and
can injure you. Keep hands, clothing and tools
away from any underhood electric fan.
If the coolant inside the coolant recovery tank is boiling,
don’t do anything else until it cools down.
A. Coolant Recovery Tank
B. Radiator Pressure Cap
C. Engine Cooling Fan(s)
5-11
When the engine is
cold, the coolant level
should be at or above
the COLD mark.
If it isn’t, you may have a leak in the radiator hoses,
heater hoses, radiator, water pump or somewhere else
in the cooling system.
CAUTION:
Heater and radiator hoses, and other engine
parts, can be very hot. Don’t touch them. If you
do, you can be burned.
Don’t run the engine if there is a leak. If you run
the engine, it could lose all coolant. That could
cause an engine fire, and you could be burned.
Get any leak fixed before you drive the vehicle.
NOTICE:
Engine damage from running your engine
without coolant isn’t covered by your warranty.
See “Overheated Engine Protection Operating
Mode” in the Index.
5-12
NOTICE:
When adding coolant, it is important that you use
only DEX-COOLR (silicate-free) coolant.
If coolant other than DEX-COOL is added to the
system, premature engine, heater core or
radiator corrosion may result. In addition, the
engine coolant will require change sooner -- at
30,000 miles (50 000 km) or 24 months,
whichever occurs first. Damage caused by the use
of coolant other than DEX-COOLR is not
covered by your new vehicle warranty.
If there seems to be no leak, start the engine again.
See if the engine cooling fan speed increases when idle
speed is doubled by pushing the accelerator pedal
down. If it doesn’t, your vehicle needs service. Turn off
the engine.
How to Add Coolant to the Coolant
Recovery Tank (Gasoline Engines)
If you haven’t found a problem yet, but the coolant level
isn’t at or above the COLD mark, add a 50/50 mixture
of clean, drinkable water and DEX-COOLR engine
coolant at the coolant recovery tank. See “Engine
Coolant” in the Index for more information.
CAUTION:
Adding only plain water to your cooling system
can be dangerous. Plain water, or some other
liquid like alcohol, can boil before the proper
coolant mixture will. Your vehicle’s coolant
warning system is set for the proper coolant
mixture. With plain water or the wrong mixture,
your engine could get too hot but you wouldn’t
get the overheat warning. Your engine could
catch fire and you or others could be burned.
Use a 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water
and DEX-COOLR coolant.
5-13
NOTICE:
In cold weather, water can freeze and crack the
engine, radiator, heater core and other parts.
Use the recommended coolant and the proper
coolant mixture.
CAUTION:
You can be burned if you spill coolant on hot
engine parts. Coolant contains ethylene glycol
and it will burn if the engine parts are hot
enough. Don’t spill coolant on a hot engine.
When the coolant in the coolant recovery tank is at or
above the COLD mark, start your vehicle.
If the overheat warning continues, there’s one more
thing you can try. You can add the proper coolant
mixture directly to the radiator, but be sure the cooling
system is cool before you do it.
5-14
CAUTION:
Steam and scalding liquids from a hot cooling
system can blow out and burn you badly. They
are under pressure, and if you turn the radiator
pressure cap -- even a little -- they can come out
at high speed. Never turn the cap when the
cooling system, including the radiator pressure
cap, is hot. Wait for the cooling system and
radiator pressure cap to cool if you ever have to
turn the pressure cap.
5-15
How to Add Coolant to the Radiator
2. Then keep turning the pressure cap, but now push
down as you turn it. Remove the pressure cap.
1. You can remove the radiator pressure cap when the
cooling system, including the radiator pressure cap
and upper radiator hose, is no longer hot. Turn the
pressure cap slowly counterclockwise until it first
stops. (Don’t press down while turning the
pressure cap.)
If you hear a hiss, wait for that to stop. A hiss means
there is still some pressure left.
5-16
3. Fill the radiator with the proper DEX-COOLR
coolant mixture, up to the base of the filler neck. See
“Engine Coolant” in the Index for more information
about the proper coolant mixture.
4. Then fill the coolant recovery tank to the
COLD mark.
5. Put the cap back on the coolant recovery tank, but
leave the radiator pressure cap off.
5-17
6. Start the engine and let it run until you can feel the
upper radiator hose getting hot. Watch out for the
engine cooling fan(s).
7. By this time, the coolant level inside the radiator
filler neck may be lower. If the level is lower, add
more of the proper DEX-COOLR coolant mixture
through the filler neck until the level reaches the
base of the filler neck.
5-18
8. Then replace the pressure cap. At any time during
this procedure if coolant begins to flow out of the
filler neck, reinstall the pressure cap. Be sure the
arrows on the pressure cap line up like this.
Engine Fan Noise
If a Tire Goes Flat
Your vehicle has a clutched engine cooling fan. When
the clutch is engaged, the fan spins faster to provide
more air to cool the engine. In most everyday driving
conditions, the fan is spinning slower and the clutch is
not fully engaged. This improves fuel economy and
reduces fan noise. Under heavy vehicle loading, trailer
towing and/or high outside temperatures, the fan speed
increases as the clutch more fully engages. So you may
hear an increase in fan noise. This is normal and should
not be mistaken as the transmission slipping or making
extra shifts. It is merely the cooling system functioning
properly. The fan will slow down when additional
cooling is not required and the clutch disengages.
It’s unusual for a tire to “blow out” while you’re driving,
especially if you maintain your tires properly. If air goes
out of a tire, it’s much more likely to leak out slowly.
But if you should ever have a “blowout,” here are a few
tips about what to expect and what to do:
You may also hear this fan noise when you start
the engine. It will go away as the fan clutch
partially disengages.
If a front tire fails, the flat tire will create a drag that
pulls the vehicle toward that side. Take your foot off
the accelerator pedal and grip the steering wheel firmly.
Steer to maintain lane position, and then gently brake
to a stop well out of the traffic lane.
A rear blowout, particularly on a curve, acts much like
a skid and may require the same correction you’d use
in a skid. In any rear blowout, remove your foot from
the accelerator pedal. Get the vehicle under control by
steering the way you want the vehicle to go. It may be
very bumpy and noisy, but you can still steer. Gently
brake to a stop -- well off the road if possible.
If a tire goes flat, avoid further tire and wheel damage
by driving slowly to a level place and turn on your
hazard warning flashers. The next part tells you what
to do.
5-19
Changing a Flat Tire
Your truck, when new, included no tire changing
equipment and no place to store a tire in the vehicle.
Few drivers of these vehicles have the necessary
equipment aboard to be able to change a flat tire safely.
For example, you would need a truck jack that can lift
several thousand pounds and a torque wrench that can
generate several hundred foot-pounds (Newton-meters)
of twisting force.
CAUTION:
If you try to put air back into a tire that has run
flat, or even a tire that was quite low on air, the
tire can have a sudden air-out. This could cause
you to lose control of the vehicle and have a
serious crash. Don’t refill a flat or very low tire
with air without first having the tire taken off
the wheel and checked for damage.
5-20
So if you’re stopped somewhere by a flat or damaged
tire or wheel, you should get expert help. See “Roadside
Assistance” in the Index.
CAUTION:
Your vehicle, when new, included no tire
changing equipment and no place to store a tire
in the vehicle. Special tools and procedures are
required if a tire needs to be serviced. If these
tools and procedures aren’t used, you or others
could be injured or killed while trying to change
or service a truck tire.
If You’re Stuck: In Sand, Mud,
Ice or Snow
NOTICE:
In order to free your vehicle when it is stuck, you will
need to spin the wheels, but you don’t want to spin your
wheels too fast. The method known as “rocking” can
help you get out when you’re stuck, but you must
use caution.
Spinning your wheels can destroy parts of your
vehicle as well as the tires. If you spin the wheels
too fast while shifting your transmission back
and forth, you can destroy your transmission.
CAUTION:
If you let your tires spin at high speed, they can
explode, and you or others could be injured. And,
the transmission or other parts of the vehicle can
overheat. That could cause an engine
compartment fire or other damage. When you’re
stuck, spin the wheels as little as possible. Don’t
spin the wheels above 35 mph (55 km/h) as shown
on the speedometer.
For information about using tire chains on your vehicle,
see “Tire Chains” in the Index.
Rocking Your Vehicle To Get It Out
First, turn your steering wheel left and right. That will
clear the area around your front wheels. Then shift back
and forth between REVERSE (R) and a forward gear
(or with a manual transmission, between FIRST (1) or
SECOND (2) and REVERSE (R)), spinning the wheels
as little as possible. Release the accelerator pedal while
you shift, and press lightly on the accelerator pedal
when the transmission is in gear. By slowly spinning
your wheels in the forward and reverse directions, you
will cause a rocking motion that may free your vehicle.
If that doesn’t get you out after a few tries, you may
need to be towed out. If you do need to be towed out,
see “Towing Your Vehicle” in the Index.
5-21
Section 6 Service and Appearance Care
Here you will find information about the care of your vehicle. This section begins with service and fuel information,
and then it shows how to check important fluid and lubricant levels. There is also technical information about your
vehicle, and a part devoted to its appearance care.
6-2
6-3
6-5
6-5
6-7
6-7
6-10
6-11
6-15
6-17
6-20
6-21
6-22
6-23
6-27
6-27
Service
Fuel (Gasoline Engine)
Fuels in Foreign Countries (Gasoline Engines)
Filling Your Tank (Gasoline Engine)
Filling a Portable Fuel Container
Checking Things Under the Hood
Noise Control System
Engine Oil (Gasoline Engine)
Engine Air Cleaner/Filter (Gasoline Engines)
Automatic Transmission Fluid
Manual Transmission Fluid
Hydraulic Clutch
Rear Axle
Engine Coolant
Radiator Pressure Cap (Gasoline Engine)
Power Steering Fluid
6-28
6-29
6-33
6-33
6-40
6-41
6-51
6-52
6-55
6-58
6-59
6-59
6-65
6-66
6-67
Windshield Washer Fluid
Brakes
Battery
Bulb Replacement
Windshield Wiper Blade Replacement
Tires
Appearance Care
Cleaning the Inside of Your Vehicle
Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle
GM Vehicle Care/Appearance Materials
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
Electrical System
Replacement Bulbs
Capacities and Specifications
Normal Maintenance Replacement Parts
6-
6-1
Service
Doing Your Own Service Work
Your dealer knows your vehicle best and wants you to
be happy with it. We hope you’ll go to your dealer for
all your service needs. You’ll get genuine GM parts and
GM-trained and supported service people.
If you want to do some of your own service work, you’ll
want to use the proper service manual. It tells you much
more about how to service your vehicle than this manual
can. To order the proper service manual, see “Service
and Owner Publications” in the Index.
You should keep a record with all parts receipts and list
the mileage and the date of any service work you
perform. See “Maintenance Record” in the Index.
We hope you’ll want to keep your GM vehicle all GM.
Genuine GM parts have one of these marks:
CAUTION:
You can be injured and your vehicle could be
damaged if you try to do service work on a
vehicle without knowing enough about it.
D Be sure you have sufficient knowledge,
experience, the proper replacement parts
and tools before you attempt any vehicle
maintenance task.
D Be sure to use the proper nuts, bolts and
other fasteners. “English” and “metric”
fasteners can be easily confused. If you use
the wrong fasteners, parts can later break
or fall off. You could be hurt.
6-2
In Canada, look for the
“Auto Makers’ Choice”
label on the fuel pump.
Adding Equipment to the Outside of
Your Vehicle
Things you might add to the outside of your vehicle can
affect the airflow around it. This may cause wind noise
and affect windshield washer performance. Check with
your dealer before adding equipment to the outside of
your vehicle.
Fuel (Gasoline Engine)
If your vehicle has a diesel engine, see “Diesel Fuel
Requirements and Fuel System” in the Diesel Engine
Supplement. For vehicles with gasoline engines, please
read this.
Use regular unleaded gasoline rated at 87 octane or
higher. It is recommended that the gasoline meet
specifications which were developed by the American
Automobile Manufacturers Association (AAMA) and
endorsed by the Canadian Motor Vehicle Manufacturers
Association for better vehicle performance and engine
protection. Gasolines meeting the AAMA specification
could provide improved driveability and emission control
system performance compared to other gasolines.
Canada Only
Be sure the posted octane is at least 87. If the octane is
less than 87, you may get a heavy knocking noise when
you drive. If it’s bad enough, it can damage your engine.
If you’re using fuel rated at 87 octane or higher and
you hear heavy knocking, your engine needs service.
But don’t worry if you hear a little pinging noise when
you’re accelerating or driving up a hill. That’s normal,
and you don’t have to buy a higher octane fuel to get rid
of pinging. It’s the heavy, constant knock that means
you have a problem.
6-3
If your vehicle is certified to meet California Emission
Standards (indicated on the underhood emission control
label), it is designed to operate on fuels that meet
California specifications. If such fuels are not available
in states adopting California emissions standards, your
vehicle will operate satisfactorily on fuels meeting
federal specifications, but emission control system
performance may be affected. The malfunction indicator
lamp on your instrument panel may turn on and/or your
vehicle may fail a smog-check test. See “Malfunction
Indicator Lamp” in the Index. If this occurs, return to
your authorized GM dealer for diagnosis to determine
the cause of failure. In the event it is determined that the
cause of the condition is the type of fuels used, repairs
may not be covered by your warranty.
Some gasolines that are not reformulated for low
emissions may contain an octane-enhancing additive
called methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl
(MMT); ask your service station operator whether
or not the fuel contains MMT. General Motors does
not recommend the use of such gasolines.
6-4
If fuels containing MMT are used, spark plug life
may be reduced and your emission control system
performance may be affected. The malfunction indicator
lamp on your instrument panel may turn on. If this
occurs, return to your authorized GM dealer for service.
To provide cleaner air, all gasolines in the United States
are now required to contain additives that will help
prevent deposits from forming in your engine and fuel
system, allowing your emission control system to
function properly. Therefore, you should not have
to add anything to the fuel. In addition, gasolines
containing oxygenates, such as ethers and ethanol,
and reformulated gasolines may be available in your
area to contribute to clean air. General Motors
recommends that you use these gasolines, particularly
if they comply with the specifications described earlier.
NOTICE:
Your vehicle was not designed for fuel that
contains methanol. Don’t use it. It can corrode
metal parts in your fuel system and also damage
plastic and rubber parts. That damage wouldn’t
be covered under your warranty.
Fuels in Foreign Countries
(Gasoline Engines)
If you plan on driving in another country outside the
United States or Canada, the proper fuel may be hard
to find. Never use leaded gasoline or any other fuel not
recommended in the previous text on fuel. Costly repairs
caused by use of improper fuel wouldn’t be covered by
your warranty.
To check on fuel availability, ask an auto club, or
contact a major oil company that does business in the
country where you’ll be driving.
Filling Your Tank (Gasoline Engine)
CAUTION:
Gasoline vapor is highly flammable. It burns
violently, and that can cause very bad injuries.
Don’t smoke if you’re near gasoline or refueling
your vehicle. Keep sparks, flames and smoking
materials away from gasoline.
If your vehicle has a diesel engine, see “Filling Your
Tank (Diesel Engine)” in the Diesel Engine supplement.
The fuel cap is located on the driver’s side of your
vehicle. On vehicles with dual tanks, refuel the front
tank first, or in instances when only a partial fuel fill is
desired. An automatic transfer mechanism will maintain
approximately equal fuel levels in both tanks, so no
switching is required by the operator.
6-5
To remove the cap, turn it slowly to the
left (counterclockwise).
CAUTION:
If you get gasoline on yourself and then
something ignites it, you could be badly burned.
Gasoline can spray out on you if you open the
fuel filler cap too quickly. This spray can happen
if your tank is nearly full, and is more likely in
hot weather. Open the fuel filler cap slowly and
wait for any “hiss” noise to stop. Then unscrew
the cap all the way.
Be careful not to spill gasoline. Clean gasoline from
painted surfaces as soon as possible. See “Cleaning the
Outside of Your Vehicle” in the Index.
6-6
When you put the cap back on, turn it to the right
(clockwise) until you hear a clicking sound. Make sure
you fully install the cap. The diagnostic system can
determine if the fuel cap has been left off or improperly
installed. This would allow fuel to evaporate into the
atmosphere. See “Malfunction Indicator Lamp” in
the Index.
NOTICE:
If you need a new cap, be sure to get the right
type. Your dealer can get one for you. If you get
the wrong type, it may not fit properly. This may
cause your malfunction indicator lamp to light
and your fuel tank and emissions system may be
damaged. See “Malfunction Indicator Lamp” in
the Index.
Filling a Portable Fuel Container
CAUTION:
Never fill a portable fuel container while it is in
your vehicle. Static electricity discharge from the
container can ignite the gasoline vapor. You can
be badly burned and your vehicle damaged if this
occurs. To help avoid injury to you and others:
D Dispense gasoline only into
approved containers.
D Do not fill a container while it is inside a
vehicle, in a vehicle’s trunk, pickup bed or
on any surface other than the ground.
D Bring the fill nozzle in contact with the
inside of the fill opening before operating
the nozzle. Contact should be maintained
until the filling is complete.
D Don’t smoke while pumping gasoline.
Checking Things Under the Hood
CAUTION:
If your vehicle has air conditioning, the auxiliary
engine fan under the hood can start up and
injure you even when the engine is not running.
Keep hands, clothing and tools away from any
underhood electric fan.
CAUTION:
Things that burn can get on hot engine parts and
start a fire. These include liquids like fuel, oil,
coolant, brake fluid, windshield washer and other
fluids, and plastic or rubber. You or others could
be burned. Be careful not to drop or spill things
that will burn onto a hot engine.
6-7
Hood Release
To open the hood, first pull
the handle located near the
lower left side of the
instrument panel.
Then go to the front of the vehicle and pull up on the
secondary hood release, located just to the passenger’s
side of the center of the grill.
Lift the hood.
Before closing the hood, be sure all filler caps are on
properly. Pull down the hood and close it firmly.
6-8
Engine Compartment Overview
When you open the hood, this is what you will see:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Battery
Air Filter Restriction Indicator
Engine Air Cleaner/Filter
Coolant Recovery Tank
Radiator Pressure Cap
F. Engine Oil Dipstick
G. Automatic Transmission Dipstick
(If Equipped)
H. Engine Oil Fill
I. Engine Cooling Fan
J. Power Steering Fluid Reservoir
K. Brake Fluid Reservoir
L. Hydraulic Clutch Fluid Reservoir
M. Windshield Washer Fluid Reservoir
N. Underhood Fuse/Relay Center
6-9
Noise Control System
The following information relates to compliance with
federal noise emission standards for vehicles with a Gross
Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of more than 10,000 lbs.
(4 536 kg). The Maintenance Schedule provides
information on maintaining the noise control system
to minimize degradation of the noise emission control
system during the life of your vehicle. The noise control
system warranty is given in your warranty booklet.
These standards apply only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
Tampering With Noise Control
System Prohibited
Federal law prohibits the following acts or the
causing thereof:
1. The removal or rendering inoperative by any person,
other than for purposes of maintenance, repair or
replacement, of any device or element of design
incorporated into any new vehicle for the purpose
of noise control, prior to its sale or delivery to the
ultimate purchaser or while it is in use; or
2. The use of the vehicle after such device or element
of design has been removed or rendered inoperative
by any person.
6-10
Among those acts presumed to constitute tampering are
the acts listed below.
Insulation:
D Removal of the noise shields or any
underhood insulation.
Engine:
D Removal or rendering engine speed governor
(if equipped) inoperative so as to allow engine speed
to exceed manufacturer specifications.
Fan and Drive:
D Removal of fan clutch (if equipped) or rendering
clutch inoperative.
D Removal of the fan shroud (if equipped).
Air Intake:
D Removal of the air cleaner silencer.
D Reversing the air cleaner cover.
Exhaust:
D Removal of the muffler and/or resonator.
D Removal of the exhaust pipes and exhaust
pipe clamps.
Engine Oil (Gasoline Engine)
If your vehicle has a diesel engine, see “Engine Oil
(Diesel Engine)” in the Diesel Engine Supplement.
Pull out the dipstick and clean it with a paper towel or
cloth, then push it back in all the way. Remove it again,
keeping the tip down, and check the level.
Checking Engine Oil
It’s a good idea to check your engine oil every time you
get fuel. In order to get an accurate reading, the oil must
be warm and the vehicle must be on level ground.
The engine oil dipstick
has a yellow ring handle
and is located on the
passenger’s side of the
engine. See “Engine
Compartment Overview”
in the Index for more
information on location.
Turn off the engine and give the oil several minutes to
drain back into the oil pan. If you don’t, the oil dipstick
might not show the actual level.
When to Add Engine Oil
If the oil is at or below the ADD mark, then you’ll need
to add at least one quart of oil. But you must use the
right kind. This part explains what kind of oil to use. For
crankcase capacity, see “Capacities and Specifications”
in the Index.
6-11
What Kind of Engine Oil to Use
NOTICE:
Don’t add too much oil. If your engine has so
much oil that the oil level gets above the upper
mark that shows the proper operating range,
your engine could be damaged.
The engine oil fill cap
is located at the front of
the engine. See “Engine
Compartment Overview”
in the Index for more
information on location.
Oils recommended for your vehicle can be identified by
looking for the starburst symbol.
This symbol indicates that the oil has been certified by
the American Petroleum Institute (API). Do not use any
oil which does not carry this starburst symbol.
If you change your own oil,
be sure you use oil that has
the starburst symbol on the
front of the oil container.
If you have your oil
changed for you, be sure
the oil put into your engine
is American Petroleum
Institute certified for
gasoline engines.
You should also use the proper viscosity oil for your
vehicle, as shown in the following chart:
Be sure to fill it enough to put the level somewhere in
the proper operating range. Push the dipstick all the way
back in when you’re through.
6-12
As in the chart shown previously, SAE 5W-30 is best for
your vehicle. However, you can use SAE 10W-30 if it’s
going to be 0 F (-18 C) or above. These numbers on
an oil container show its viscosity, or thickness. Do not
use other viscosity oils, such as SAE 20W-50.
_
_
NOTICE:
Use only engine oil with the American Petroleum
Institute Certified For Gasoline Engines starburst
symbol. Failure to use the recommended oil
can result in engine damage not covered by
your warranty.
GM GoodwrenchR oil meets all the requirements for
your vehicle.
If you are in an area where the temperature falls below
-20_F (-29_C), consider using either an SAE 5W-30
synthetic oil or an SAE 0W-30 oil. Both will provide
easier cold starting and better protection for your engine
at extremely low temperatures.
6-13
Engine Oil Additives
Don’t add anything to your oil. The recommended oils
with the starburst symbol are all you will need for good
performance and engine protection.
When to Change Engine Oil
If any one of these is true for you, use the short trip/city
maintenance schedule:
D Most trips are less than 5 to 10 miles (8 to 16 km).
This is particularly important when outside
temperatures are below freezing.
D Most trips include extensive idling (such as frequent
driving in stop-and-go traffic).
D You operate your vehicle in dusty areas or
off-road frequently.
D You frequently tow a trailer.
D The vehicle is used for delivery service, police, taxi
or other commercial application.
Driving under these conditions causes engine oil to
break down sooner. If any one of these is true for your
vehicle, then you need to change your oil and filter
every 3,000 miles (5 000 km) or 3 months -- whichever
occurs first.
6-14
If none of them is true, use the long trip/highway
maintenance schedule. Change the oil and filter every
7,500 miles (12 500 km) or 12 months -- whichever
occurs first. Driving a vehicle with a fully warmed
engine under highway conditions causes engine oil to
break down slower.
What to Do with Used Oil
Did you know that used engine oil contains certain
elements that may be unhealthy for your skin and could
even cause cancer? Don’t let used oil stay on your skin
for very long. Clean your skin and nails with soap and
water, or a good hand cleaner. Wash or properly throw
away clothing or rags containing used engine oil.
See the manufacturer’s warnings about the use and
disposal of oil products.
Used oil can be a real threat to the environment. If you
change your own oil, be sure to drain all free-flowing
oil from the filter before disposal. Don’t ever dispose of
oil by putting it in the trash, pouring it on the ground,
into sewers, or into streams or bodies of water. Instead,
recycle it by taking it to a place that collects used oil.
If you have a problem properly disposing of your used
oil, ask your dealer, a service station or a local recycling
center for help.
Engine Air Cleaner/Filter
(Gasoline Engines)
The engine air cleaner/filter
assembly has an indicator
that lets you know when
the engine air cleaner/filter
is dirty and needs to be
serviced. The indicator
is located in the air intake
tube between the engine
air cleaner/filter and
the engine.
See “Owner Checks and Services” in the Index to
determine when to check the indicator.
Your engine air cleaner/filter is located between the
battery and coolant recovery tank.
If the area inside the clear section of the indicator is
green, no engine air cleaner/filter service is required.
When the area inside the indicator is orange and
CHANGE AIR FILTER appears, the filter should
be replaced.
See “Engine Compartment Overview” in the Index for
more information on location.
6-15
5. Install the duct and the filter into the engine air
cleaner/filter housing. Make sure that the duct fits
properly into the housing.
To remove the engine air cleaner/filter:
1. Unhook the retaining clips and remove the cover.
2. Lift the filter and the connected duct out of the air
cleaner/filter housing. Hold the duct and remove the
filter by both pulling and twisting the filter away
from the duct. Care should be taken to dislodge
as little dirt as possible.
3. Clean the filter sealing surface of the duct and the
filter housing.
4. Install the new filter by pushing it all the way to the
stop on the duct.
6-16
6. Install the cover and fasten the two retaining clips.
7. After the engine air cleaner/filter is properly
serviced, the indicator should be reset. Push the
button on top of the indicator to reset it to the
green (clean) filter zone.
Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine when to
replace the engine air cleaner/filter. See “Owner Checks
and Services” in the Index.
CAUTION:
Operating the engine with the air cleaner/filter
off can cause you or others to be burned. The air
cleaner not only cleans the air, it stops flame if
the engine backfires. If it isn’t there, and the
engine backfires, you could be burned. Don’t
drive with it off, and be careful working on the
engine with the air cleaner/filter off.
Automatic Transmission Fluid
If your vehicle has a diesel engine, see “Automatic
Transmission Fluid” in the Diesel Supplement.
When to Check and Change
A good time to check your automatic transmission fluid
level is when the engine oil is changed.
Change both the fluid and filter every
50,000 miles (83 000 km).
See “Scheduled Maintenance Services” in the Index.
How to Check
NOTICE:
If the air cleaner/filter is off, a backfire can
cause a damaging engine fire. And, dirt can
easily get into your engine, which will damage it.
Always have the air cleaner/filter in place when
you’re driving.
Because this operation can be a little difficult, you
may choose to have this done at the dealership
service department.
If you do it yourself, be sure to follow all the instructions
here, or you could get a false reading on the dipstick.
6-17
NOTICE:
Too much or too little fluid can damage your
transmission. Too much can mean that some of
the fluid could come out and fall on hot engine
parts or exhaust system parts, starting a fire.
Be sure to get an accurate reading if you check
your transmission fluid.
A cold fluid check can be made after the vehicle has
been sitting for eight hours or more with the engine off,
but this is used only as a reference. Let the engine run at
idle for five minutes if outside temperatures are 50_F
(10_C) or more. If it’s colder than 50_F (10_C),
you may have to idle the engine longer. Should the fluid
level be low during this cold check, you must check the
fluid hot before adding fluid. Checking the fluid hot will
give you a more accurate reading of the fluid level.
Checking the Fluid Level
Wait at least 30 minutes before checking the
transmission fluid level if you have been driving:
D
D
D
D
When outside temperatures are above 90_F (32_C).
At high speed for quite a while.
In heavy traffic -- especially in hot weather.
While pulling a trailer.
To get the right reading, the fluid should be at normal
operating temperature, which is 180_F to 200_F
(82_C to 93_C).
Get the vehicle warmed up by driving about 15 miles
(24 km) when outside temperatures are above 50_F
(10_C). If it’s colder than 50_F (10_C), drive the
vehicle in THIRD (3) until the engine temperature gage
moves and then remains steady for 10 minutes.
6-18
Prepare your vehicle as follows:
D Park your vehicle on a level place. Keep the
engine running.
D With the parking brake applied, place the shift lever
in PARK (P).
D With your foot on the brake pedal, move the shift
lever through each gear range, pausing for about
three seconds in each range. Then, position the
shift lever in PARK (P).
D Let the engine run at idle for three minutes or more.
Then, without shutting off the engine, follow these steps:
2. Push it back in all the way, wait three seconds and
then pull it back out again.
3. Check both sides of the dipstick, and read the lower
level. The fluid level must be in the COLD area,
below the cross-hatched area, for a cold check or in
the HOT area or cross-hatched area for a hot check.
1. The red transmission dipstick handle is located at the
rear of the engine compartment, on the passenger’s
side. See “Engine Compartment Overview” in the
Index for more information on location. Flip the
handle up and then pull out the dipstick and wipe
it with a clean rag or paper towel.
4. If the fluid level is in the acceptable range, push the
dipstick back in all the way; then flip the handle
down to lock the dipstick in place.
6-19
How to Add Fluid
Manual Transmission Fluid
Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine what
kind of transmission fluid to use. See “Recommended
Fluids and Lubricants” in the Index.
When to Check
Add fluid only after checking the transmission fluid
while it is hot. (A cold check is used only as a
reference.) If the fluid level is low, add only enough
of the proper fluid to bring the level up to the HOT
area for a hot check. It doesn’t take much fluid,
generally less than one pint (0.5 L). Don’t overfill.
NOTICE:
We recommend you use only fluid labeled
DEXRONR-III, because fluid with that label is
made especially for your automatic transmission.
Damage caused by fluid other than DEXRONR-III
is not covered by your new vehicle warranty.
D After adding fluid, recheck the fluid level as
described under “How to Check.”
D When the correct fluid level is obtained, push the
dipstick back in all the way; then flip the handle
down to lock the dipstick in place.
6-20
A good time to have it checked is when the engine oil is
changed. However, the fluid in your manual transmission
doesn’t require changing.
How to Check
Because this operation can be a little difficult, you
may choose to have this done at your GM dealership
service department.
If you do it yourself, be sure to follow all the
instructions here, or you could get a false reading.
NOTICE:
Too much or too little fluid can damage your
transmission. Too much can mean that some of
the fluid could come out and fall on hot engine
parts or exhaust system parts, starting a fire.
Be sure to get an accurate reading if you check
your transmission fluid.
Check the fluid level only when your engine is off, the
vehicle is parked on a level place and the transmission
is cool enough for you to rest your fingers on the
transmission case.
Then, follow these steps:
How to Add Fluid
Here’s how to add fluid. Refer to the Maintenance
Schedule to determine what kind of fluid to use. See
“Recommended Fluids and Lubricants” in the Index.
1. Remove the filler plug.
2. Add fluid at the filler plug hole. Add only enough
fluid to bring the fluid level up to the bottom of the
filler plug hole.
3. Install the filler plug. Be sure the plug is fully seated.
Hydraulic Clutch
The hydraulic clutch linkage in your vehicle is
self-adjusting. The clutch master cylinder reservoir is
filled with hydraulic clutch fluid.
It is not necessary to regularly check clutch fluid unless
you suspect there is a leak in the system. Adding fluid
won’t correct a leak.
1. Remove the filler plug.
2. Check that the lubricant level is up to the bottom of
the filler plug hole.
A fluid loss in this system could indicate a problem.
Have the system inspected and repaired.
3. If the fluid level is good, install the plug and be sure
it is fully seated. If the fluid level is low, add more
fluid as described in the next steps.
6-21
When to Check and What to Use
Refer to the Maintenance
Schedule to determine how
often you should check the
fluid level in your clutch
master cylinder reservoir
and for the proper fluid.
See “Owner Checks
and Services” and
“Recommended Fluids
and Lubricants” in
the Index.
Rear Axle
When to Check and Change Lubricant
Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine how
often to check the lubricant and when to change it.
See “Scheduled Maintenance Services” in the Index.
Additional rear axle scheduled maintenance is required
when the vehicle is driven under the following conditions:
D Extreme loading (at or near GVWR) or trailer
towing, and
D operation above 45 mph (70 km/h) for extended
periods of time.
How to Check and Add Fluid
The proper fluid should be added if the level does not
reach the bottom of the diaphragm when it’s in place in
the reservoir. See the instructions on the reservoir cap.
Also, see “Engine Compartment Overview” in the
Index for more information on location.
6-22
Vehicles used in any of these conditions require the
rear axle lubricant be changed every 30,000 miles
(50 000 km). Fluid capacity is 4.12 quarts (3.9 L).
How to Check Lubricant
What to Use
Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine what
kind of lubricant to use. See “Recommended Fluids and
Lubricants” in the Index.
Engine Coolant
The cooling system in your vehicle is filled with
DEX-COOLR engine coolant. This coolant is designed
to remain in your vehicle for 5 years or 150,000 miles
(240 000 km), whichever occurs first, if you add only
DEX-COOLR extended life coolant.
The following explains your cooling system and how
to add coolant when it is low. If you have a problem
with engine overheating, see “Engine Overheating”
in the Index.
If the level is below the bottom of the filler plug hole,
you’ll need to add some lubricant. Add enough lubricant
to raise the level to the bottom of the filler plug hole.
6-23
A 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water and
DEX-COOLR coolant will:
D
D
D
D
D
Give freezing protection down to -34_F (-37_C).
Give boiling protection up to 265_F (129_C).
Protect against rust and corrosion.
Help keep the proper engine temperature.
Let the warning gages work as they should.
NOTICE:
When adding coolant, it is important that you
use only DEX-COOLR (silicate-free) coolant.
If coolant other than DEX-COOL is added to
the system, premature engine, heater core or
radiator corrosion may result. In addition, the
engine coolant will require change sooner -- at
30,000 miles (50 000 km) or 24 months,
whichever occurs first. Damage caused by the
use of coolant other than DEX-COOLR is not
covered by your new vehicle warranty.
6-24
What to Use
Use a mixture of one-half clean, drinkable water and
one-half DEX-COOLR coolant which won’t damage
aluminum parts. If you use this coolant mixture, you
don’t need to add anything else.
CAUTION:
Adding only plain water to your cooling system
can be dangerous. Plain water, or some other
liquid like alcohol, can boil before the proper
coolant mixture will. Your vehicle’s coolant
warning system is set for the proper coolant
mixture. With plain water or the wrong mixture,
your engine could get too hot but you wouldn’t
get the overheat warning. Your engine could
catch fire and you or others could be burned.
Use a 50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable water
and DEX-COOLR coolant.
NOTICE:
Checking Coolant
If you use an improper coolant mixture, your
engine could overheat and be badly damaged.
The repair cost wouldn’t be covered by your
warranty. Too much water in the mixture can
freeze and crack the engine, radiator, heater core
and other parts.
If you have to add coolant more than four times a year,
have your dealer check your cooling system.
NOTICE:
If you use the proper coolant, you don’t have to
add extra inhibitors or additives which claim to
improve the system. These can be harmful.
If your vehicle has a diesel engine, see “Checking
Coolant” in the Diesel Engine Supplement.
The coolant recovery tank is located on the passenger’s
side at the rear corner of the engine compartment.
See “Engine Compartment Overview” in the Index
for more information on location.
6-25
The vehicle must be on a level surface. When your
engine is cold, the coolant level should be at the COLD
mark, or a little higher. When your engine is warm, the
level should be up to the HOT mark, or a little higher.
Adding Coolant
If you need more coolant, add the proper DEX-COOLR
coolant mixture at the coolant recovery tank.
CAUTION:
Turning the radiator pressure cap when the
engine and radiator are hot can allow steam
and scalding liquids to blow out and burn you
badly. With the coolant recovery tank, you will
almost never have to add coolant at the radiator.
Never turn the radiator pressure cap -- even a
little -- when the engine and radiator are hot.
6-26
Add coolant mixture at the recovery tank, but be careful
not to spill it.
CAUTION:
You can be burned if you spill coolant on hot
engine parts. Coolant contains ethylene glycol,
and it will burn if the engine parts are hot
enough. Don’t spill coolant on a hot engine.
Occasionally check the coolant level in the radiator.
For information on how to add coolant to the radiator,
see “Cooling System” in the Index.
Radiator Pressure Cap
(Gasoline Engine)
The radiator pressure
cap is located on the
passenger’s side of the
engine compartment.
See “Engine Compartment Overview” in the Index for
more information on location.
NOTICE:
Power Steering Fluid
The power steering fluid
reservoir cap is located
at the front of the engine
compartment. See “Engine
Compartment Overview”
in the Index for more
information on location.
When to Check Power Steering Fluid
It is not necessary to regularly check power steering
fluid unless you suspect there is a leak in the system or
you hear an unusual noise. A fluid loss in this system
could indicate a problem. Have the system inspected
and repaired.
Your radiator cap is a 15 psi (105 kPa)
pressure-type cap and must be tightly installed to
prevent coolant loss and possible engine damage
from overheating. Be sure the arrows on the cap
line up with the overflow tube on the radiator
filler neck.
6-27
How to Check Power Steering Fluid
Windshield Washer Fluid
Turn the key off, let the engine compartment cool down,
wipe the cap and the top of the reservoir clean, then
unscrew the cap and wipe the dipstick with a clean rag.
Replace the cap and completely tighten it. Then remove
the cap again and look at the fluid level on the dipstick.
What to Use
The level should be at the FULL COLD mark.
If necessary, add only enough fluid to bring the
level up to the mark.
What to Use
To determine what kind of fluid to use, see
“Recommended Fluids and Lubricants” in the Index.
Always use the proper fluid. Failure to use the proper
fluid can cause leaks and damage hoses and seals.
6-28
When you need windshield washer fluid, be sure to read
the manufacturer’s instructions before use. If you will be
operating your vehicle in an area where the temperature
may fall below freezing, use a fluid that has sufficient
protection against freezing.
Adding Washer Fluid
The windshield washer fluid
reservoir cap is located on
the driver’s side of the
engine compartment.
See “Engine Compartment
Overview” in the Index
for more information
on location.
Open the cap labeled WASHER FLUID ONLY.
Add washer fluid until the tank is full.
Brakes
Brake Fluid
NOTICE:
D When using concentrated washer fluid,
D
D
D
follow the manufacturer’s instructions for
adding water.
Don’t mix water with ready-to-use washer
fluid. Water can cause the solution to freeze
and damage your washer fluid tank and
other parts of the washer system. Also,
water doesn’t clean as well as washer fluid.
Fill your washer fluid tank only
three-quarters full when it’s very cold.
This allows for expansion if freezing
occurs, which could damage the tank
if it is completely full.
Don’t use engine coolant (antifreeze) in
your windshield washer. It can damage
your washer system and paint.
Your brake master cylinder reservoir is filled with
DOT-3 brake fluid. See “Engine Compartment
Overview” in the Index for the location of the reservoir.
There are only two reasons why the brake fluid level in
the reservoir might go down. The first is that the brake
fluid goes down to an acceptable level during normal
brake lining wear. When new linings are put in, the fluid
level goes back up.
6-29
The other reason is that fluid is leaking out of the brake
system. If it is, you should have your brake system
fixed, since a leak means that sooner or later your
brakes won’t work well, or won’t work at all.
Checking Brake Fluid
So, it isn’t a good idea to “top off” your brake fluid.
Adding brake fluid won’t correct a leak. If you add fluid
when your linings are worn, then you’ll have too much
fluid when you get new brake linings. You should add
(or remove) brake fluid, as necessary, only when work is
done on the brake hydraulic system.
CAUTION:
If you have too much brake fluid, it can spill
on the engine. The fluid will burn if the engine
is hot enough. You or others could be burned,
and your vehicle could be damaged. Add brake
fluid only when work is done on the brake
hydraulic system. See “Checking Brake Fluid”
in this section.
Refer to the Maintenance Schedule to determine when to
check your brake fluid. See “Periodic Maintenance
Inspections” in the Index.
6-30
You can check the brake fluid without taking off the cap.
Just look at the brake fluid reservoir. The fluid level
should be above MIN. If it isn’t, have your brake
system checked to see if there is a leak.
After work is done on the brake hydraulic system,
make sure the level is above the MIN but not over
the MAX mark.
What to Add
When you do need brake fluid, use only DOT-3 brake
fluid. Refer to “Recommended Fluids and Lubricants”
in the Index. Use new brake fluid from a sealed
container only.
NOTICE:
D Using the wrong fluid can badly damage
Always clean the brake fluid reservoir cap and the area
around the cap before removing it. This will help keep
dirt from entering the reservoir.
CAUTION:
With the wrong kind of fluid in your brake
system, your brakes may not work well, or they
may not even work at all. This could cause a
crash. Always use the proper brake fluid.
D
brake system parts. For example, just a few
drops of mineral-based oil, such as engine
oil, in your brake system can damage brake
system parts so badly that they’ll have to
be replaced. Don’t let someone put in the
wrong kind of fluid.
If you spill brake fluid on your vehicle’s
painted surfaces, the paint finish can be
damaged. Be careful not to spill brake fluid
on your vehicle. If you do, wash it off
immediately. See “Appearance Care” in
the Index.
6-31
Brake Wear
Brake Pedal Travel
Your vehicle has four-wheel disc brakes without wear
indicators. If you ever hear a brake rubbing noise, have
the brake linings inspected.
See your dealer if the brake pedal does not return to
normal height, or if there is a rapid increase in pedal
travel. This could be a sign of brake trouble.
Brake Adjustment
NOTICE:
Continuing to drive with worn-out brake pads
could result in costly brake repair.
Some driving conditions or climates may cause a brake
squeal when the brakes are first applied or lightly
applied. This does not mean something is wrong
with your brakes.
Properly torqued wheel nuts are necessary to help
prevent brake pulsation. When tires are rotated, inspect
brake pads for wear and evenly tighten wheel nuts in the
proper sequence to GM torque specifications.
Brake linings should always be replaced as complete
axle sets.
See “Brake System Inspection” in Section 7 of this
manual under Part C “Periodic Maintenance Inspections.”
6-32
Every time you make a brake stop, your disc brakes
adjust for wear.
Replacing Brake System Parts
The braking system on a vehicle is complex. Its many
parts have to be of top quality and work well together if
the vehicle is to have really good braking. Your vehicle
was designed and tested with top-quality GM brake parts.
When you replace parts of your braking system -- for
example, when your brake linings wear down and you
have to have new ones put in -- be sure you get new
approved GM replacement parts. If you don’t, your
brakes may no longer work properly. For example, if
someone puts in brake linings that are wrong for your
vehicle, the balance between your front and rear brakes
can change -- for the worse. The braking performance
you’ve come to expect can change in many other ways if
someone puts in the wrong replacement brake parts.
Battery
Your new vehicle comes with a maintenance free
ACDelcoR battery. When it’s time for a new battery,
get one that has the replacement number shown on the
original battery’s label. We recommend an ACDelco
battery. See “Engine Compartment Overview” in the
Index for battery location.
WARNING: Battery posts, terminals and related
accessories contain lead and lead compounds, chemicals
known to the State of California to cause cancer and
reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.
Vehicle Storage
If you’re not going to drive your vehicle for 25 days or more,
remove the black, negative (-) cable from the battery.
This will help keep your battery from running down.
CAUTION:
Contact your dealer to learn how to prepare your vehicle
for longer storage periods.
Bulb Replacement
For any bulb changing procedure not listed in this
section, contact your GM dealership service department.
Before you replace any bulbs, be sure that all the lamps
are off and the engine isn’t running. See “Replacement
Bulbs” in the Index for the proper types of bulbs to use.
Halogen Bulbs
CAUTION:
Halogen bulbs have pressurized gas inside and
can burst if you drop or scratch the bulb. You or
others could be injured. Be sure to read and
follow the instructions on the bulb package.
Batteries have acid that can burn you and gas
that can explode. You can be badly hurt if you
aren’t careful. See “Jump Starting” in the Index
for tips on working around a battery without
getting hurt.
6-33
3. Unplug and remove
the headlamp.
Headlamps
Sealed-Beam Headlamps
1. Remove the four
screws from the
headlamp retainer.
4. Plug in the new headlamp and put it in place.
5. Install the retainer to the headlamp and tighten
the screws.
2. Pull the headlamp out and remove the retainer.
6-34
Composite Headlamps
4. Turn the bulb
counterclockwise
and remove it.
5. Put the new bulb into the assembly and turn it
clockwise until it is tight.
6. Plug in the electrical connector.
1. Remove the two hex head pins at the
locations shown.
7. Put the headlamp lens assembly back into the
vehicle. Install and tighten the two hex head pins.
2. Pull out the headlamp lens assembly.
3. Unplug the electrical connector.
6-35
Front Turn Signal Lamps
(Sealed-Beam Headlamps)
4. Pull the socket out of the
lamp assembly.
1. Remove the two screws
at the inside edge of
the parking/turn signal
lamp assembly.
5. Push in gently on the bulb, turn it counterclockwise
and remove it from the socket.
2. Remove the lamp assembly by swinging it out from
the inside edge and sliding it out at the outside edge.
3. Squeeze the tab on the side of the lamp socket while
turning the socket counterclockwise.
6. Put the new bulb into the socket, gently press in on
the bulb and turn it clockwise until it is tight.
7. Put the socket back into the lamp assembly and turn
it clockwise until it locks.
8. Put the parking/turn signal lamp assembly back into
the vehicle and tighten the screws.
6-36
Front Turn Signal Lamps
(Composite Headlamps)
3. Pull the socket out of the
lamp assembly.
1. Remove the two screws
and take out the
parking/turn signal
lamp assembly.
4. Push in gently on the bulb, turn it counterclockwise
and remove it from the socket.
2. Squeeze the tab on the side of the lamp socket while
turning the socket counterclockwise.
5. Put the new bulb into the socket, gently press in on
the bulb and turn it clockwise until it is tight.
6. Put the socket back into the lamp assembly and turn
it clockwise until it locks.
7. Put the parking/turn signal lamp assembly back into
the vehicle and tighten the four screws.
6-37
Front Sidemarker Lamps
(Composite Headlamps)
3. Pull the bulb straight out
of the socket.
1. Remove the two screws
and pull out the
parking/turn signal
lamp assembly.
4. Put a new bulb into the socket and push it in until it
is tight.
2. Reach through the opening and turn the sidemarker
bulb socket counterclockwise and remove it.
5. Put the socket back into the sidemarker assembly
and turn it clockwise to tighten it.
6. Reinstall the parking/turn signal lamp assembly and
tighten the screws.
6-38
3. Slide the socket out of the lamp assembly.
Roof Marker Lamps
1. Remove the screws and lift off the lens.
2. Pull the bulb straight out of the socket.
3. Put a new bulb into the socket and push it in until
it is tight.
4. Push in gently on
the bulb, turn it
counterclockwise
and remove it from
the socket.
4. Reinstall the lens and tighten the screws.
Taillamps
1. Using your hands, peel the rubber seal away from
the lens.
2. Lift the lens off the
lamp assembly.
5. Put in a new bulb and, pushing in gently, turn it
clockwise until it is tight.
6. Put the socket back in the lamp assembly and
reinstall the lens and lens seal.
6-39
Windshield Wiper Blade Replacement
Windshield wiper blades should be inspected at least
twice a year for wear and cracking. See “Wiper Blade
Check” in the Index for more information.
Replacement blades come in different types and are
removed in different ways. For proper type and length,
see “Normal Maintenance Replacement Parts” in the
Index. Here’s how to remove the Shephard’s Hook type.
To replace the windshield wiper blade assembly, do
the following:
1. Lift the wiper arm and turn the blade until it is facing
away from the windshield.
2. Push the release lever and slide the wiper assembly
toward the driver’s side of the vehicle.
3. Install a new blade by reversing Steps 1 and 2.
6-40
Tires
Your new vehicle comes with high-quality tires made by
a leading tire manufacturer. If you ever have questions
about your tire warranty and where to obtain service, see
your GM Warranty booklet for details.
CAUTION: (Continued)
D Underinflated tires pose the same danger
CAUTION:
Poorly maintained and improperly used tires
are dangerous.
D Overloading your tires can cause
overheating as a result of too much friction.
You could have an air-out and a serious
accident. See “Loading Your Vehicle” in
the Index.
CAUTION: (Continued)
D
D
as overloaded tires. The resulting accident
could cause serious injury. Check all tires
frequently to maintain the recommended
pressure. Tire pressure should be checked
when your tires are cold.
Overinflated tires are more likely to be
cut, punctured or broken by a sudden
impact -- such as when you hit a pothole.
Keep tires at the recommended pressure.
Worn, old tires can cause accidents. If your
tread is badly worn, or if your tires have
been damaged, replace them.
6-41
Inflation -- Tire Pressure
The Certification/Tire label, which is on the rear edge of
the driver’s door, or on the incomplete vehicle document
in the cab, shows the correct inflation pressures for your
tires when they’re cold. “Cold” means your vehicle has
been sitting for at least three hours or driven no more
than 1 mile (1.6 km).
NOTICE:
Don’t let anyone tell you that underinflation or
overinflation is all right. It’s not. If your tires
don’t have enough air (underinflation), you can
get the following:
D Too much flexing
D Too much heat
D Tire overloading
D Bad wear
D Bad handling
D Bad fuel economy.
NOTICE: (Continued)
6-42
NOTICE: (Continued)
If your tires have too much air (overinflation),
you can get the following:
D Unusual wear
D Bad handling
D Rough ride
D Needless damage from road hazards.
When to Check
Check your tires once a month or more.
How to Check
Use a good quality pocket-type gage to check tire
pressure. You can’t tell if your tires are properly inflated
simply by looking at them. Radial tires may look
properly inflated even when they’re underinflated.
Be sure to put the valve caps back on the valve stems.
They help prevent leaks by keeping out dirt and moisture.
Tire Inspection and Rotation
Tires should be rotated every 6,000 to 8,000 miles
(10 000 to 13 000 km). Any time you notice unusual
wear, rotate your tires as soon as possible and check
wheel alignment. Also check for damaged tires or
wheels. See “When It’s Time for New Tires” and
“Wheel Replacement” later in this section for more
information. Also see “Dual Tire Operation” later
in this section.
The purpose of regular rotation is to achieve more
uniform wear for all tires on the vehicle. The first
rotation is the most important. See “Scheduled
Maintenance Services” in the Index for scheduled
rotation intervals.
If the tread design for your front tires is the same as
your dual rear tires, always use one of the correct
rotation patterns shown here when rotating your tires.
6-43
After the tires have been rotated, adjust the front and rear
inflation pressures as shown on the Certification/Tire
label. Make certain that all wheel nuts are properly
tightened. See “Wheel Nut Torque” in the Index.
CAUTION:
If the tread design for the front tires is different from the
dual rear tires, always use the correct rotation pattern
shown here when rotating your tires. The rear dual tires
are rotated as a pair, and the inside rear tires become the
outside rear tires.
When you install dual wheels, be sure the vent holes in
the inner and outer wheels on each side are lined up.
6-44
Rust or dirt on a wheel, or on the parts to which
it is fastened, can make wheel nuts become loose
after a time. The wheel could come off and cause
an accident. When you change a wheel, remove
any rust or dirt from places where the wheel
attaches to the vehicle. In an emergency,
you can use a cloth or a paper towel to do this;
but be sure to use a scraper or wire brush later,
if you need to, to get all the rust or dirt off.
See “Tightening the Wheel Nuts” in the Index.
When It’s Time for New Tires
One way to tell when it’s
time for new tires is to
check the treadwear
indicators, which will
appear when your tires have
only 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) or
less of tread remaining.
Some commercial truck
tires may not have
treadwear indicators.
You need a new tire if any of the following statements
are true:
Dual Tire Operation
When the vehicle is new, or whenever a wheel, wheel
bolt or wheel nut is replaced, check the wheel nut
torque after 100, 1,000 and 6,000 miles (160, 1 600 and
10 000 km) of driving. For proper torque, see “Wheel
Nut Torque” in the Index.
The outer tire on a dual wheel setup generally wears
faster than the inner tire. Your tires will wear more
evenly and last longer if you rotate the tires periodically.
If you’re going to be doing a lot of driving on
high-crown roads, you can reduce tire wear by adding
5 psi (35 kPa) to the tire pressure in the outer tires.
Be sure to return to the recommended pressures when no
longer driving under those conditions. See “Tightening
the Wheel Nuts”in the Index for more information.
D You can see the indicators at three or more places
D
D
D
D
around the tire.
You can see cord or fabric showing through the
tire’s rubber.
The tread or sidewall is cracked, cut or snagged deep
enough to show cord or fabric.
The tire has a bump, bulge or split.
The tire has a puncture, cut or other damage that
can’t be repaired well because of the size or location
of the damage.
CAUTION:
If you operate your vehicle with a tire that is
badly underinflated, the tire can overheat.
An overheated tire can lose air suddenly or
catch fire. You or others could be injured.
Be sure all tires (including the spare, if any)
are properly inflated.
6-45
Tightening the Wheel Nuts
All wheel nuts must be properly tightened.
With a torque wrench,
tighten the wheel
nuts firmly in a
crisscross sequence
using the proper
wheel nut torque.
CAUTION:
Incorrect wheel nuts or improperly tightened
wheel nuts can cause the wheel to become loose
and even come off. This could lead to an accident.
Be sure to use the correct wheel nuts. If you have
to replace them, be sure to get new GM original
equipment wheel nuts.
Tighten with a torque wrench to the
proper torque.
When the vehicle is new, or whenever a wheel, wheel bolt
or wheel nut is replaced on a dual wheel setup, check
the wheel nut torque after 100, 1,000 and 6,000 miles
(60, 1 600, 10 000 km) of driving. For proper torque
specifications, see “Wheel Nut Torque” in the Index.
6-46
CAUTION:
Rust or dirt on a wheel, or on the parts to which
it is fastened, can make the wheel nuts become
loose after a time. The wheel could come off and
cause an accident. When you change a wheel,
remove any rust or dirt from the places where the
wheel attaches to the vehicle. In an emergency,
you can use a cloth or paper towel to do this; but
be sure to use a scraper or wire brush later, if you
need to, to get all the rust or dirt off.
CAUTION:
Never use oil or grease on studs or nuts. If you
do, the wheel nuts might come loose and the
wheel could fall off, causing a serious accident.
NOTICE:
Improperly tightened wheel nuts can lead to
brake pulsation and rotor damage. To avoid
expensive brake repairs, evenly tighten the wheel
nuts in the proper sequence and to the proper
torque specifications.
6-47
Buying New Tires
To find out what kind and size of tires you need, look at
the Certification/Tire label.
The tires installed on your vehicle when it was new had
a Tire Performance Criteria Specification (TPC Spec)
number on each tire’s sidewall. When you get new tires,
get ones with that same TPC Spec number. That way
your vehicle will continue to have tires that are designed
to give proper endurance, handling, speed rating,
traction, ride and other things during normal service
on your vehicle. If your tires have an all-season tread
design, the TPC number will be followed by an “MS”
(for mud and snow).
If you ever replace your tires with those not having
a TPC Spec number, make sure they are the same
size, load range, speed rating and construction type
(bias, bias-belted or radial) as your original tires.
6-48
CAUTION:
Mixing tires could cause you to lose control while
driving. If you mix tires of different sizes or types
(radial and bias-belted tires), the vehicle may not
handle properly, and you could have a crash.
Using tires of different sizes may also cause
damage to your vehicle. Be sure to use the
same size and type tires on all wheels.
CAUTION:
If you use bias-ply tires on your vehicle, the
wheel rim flanges could develop cracks after
many miles of driving. A tire and/or wheel could
fail suddenly, causing a crash. Use only radial-ply
tires with the wheels on your vehicle.
Wheel Alignment and Tire Balance
The wheels on your vehicle were aligned and balanced
carefully at the factory to give you the longest tire life
and best overall performance.
Scheduled wheel alignment and wheel balancing are not
needed. However, if you notice unusual tire wear or
your vehicle pulling one way or the other, the alignment
may need to be reset. If you notice your vehicle
vibrating when driving on a smooth road, your wheels
may need to be rebalanced.
Wheel Replacement
Replace any wheel that is bent, cracked, or badly
rusted or corroded. If wheel nuts keep coming loose,
the wheel, wheel bolts and wheel nuts should be
replaced. If the wheel leaks air, replace it (except some
aluminum wheels, which can sometimes be repaired).
See your dealer if any of these conditions exist.
If you need to replace any of your wheels, wheel bolts
or wheel nuts, replace them only with new GM original
equipment parts. This way, you will be sure to have the
right wheel, wheel bolts and wheel nuts for your vehicle.
CAUTION:
Using the wrong replacement wheels, wheel bolts
or wheel nuts on your vehicle can be dangerous.
It could affect the braking and handling of your
vehicle, make your tires lose air and make you
lose control. You could have a collision in which
you or others could be injured. Always use
the correct wheel, wheel bolts and wheel nuts
for replacement.
Your dealer will know the kind of wheel you need.
Each new wheel should have the same load-carrying
capacity, diameter, width, offset and be mounted the
same way as the one it replaces.
6-49
Used Replacement Wheels
NOTICE:
The wrong wheel can also cause problems with
bearing life, brake cooling, speedometer or
odometer calibration, headlamp aim, bumper
height, vehicle ground clearance and tire or
tire chain clearance to the body and chassis.
Whenever a wheel, wheel bolt or wheel nut is replaced
on a dual wheel setup, check the wheel nut torque after
100, 1,000 and 6,000 miles (160, 1 600 and 10 000 km)
of driving. For proper torque, see “Wheel Nut Torque”
in the Index. See “Tightening the Wheel Nuts” in the
Index for more information.
6-50
CAUTION:
Putting a used wheel on your vehicle is
dangerous. You can’t know how it’s been used or
how far it’s been driven. It could fail suddenly
and cause an accident. If you have to replace a
wheel, use a new GM original equipment wheel.
Tire Chains
NOTICE:
Don’t use tire chains. They can damage your
vehicle because there’s not enough clearance.
Use another type of traction device only if its
manufacturer recommends it for use on your
vehicle and tire size combination and road
conditions. Follow that manufacturer’s
instructions. To help avoid damage to your
vehicle, drive slowly, readjust or remove the
device if it’s contacting your vehicle, and don’t
spin your wheels.
If you do find traction devices that will fit,
install them on the rear tires.
Don’t use chains on the tires of the front axle.
Tighten them as tightly as possible with the ends
securely fastened. Drive slowly and follow the
chain manufacturer’s instructions. If you can
hear the chains contacting your vehicle, stop and
retighten them. If the contact continues, slow down
until it stops. Driving too fast or spinning the
wheels with chains on will damage your vehicle.
Appearance Care
Remember, cleaning products can be hazardous. Some
are toxic. Others can burst into flame if you strike a
match or get them on a hot part of the vehicle. Some are
dangerous if you breathe their fumes in a closed space.
When you use anything from a container to clean your
vehicle, be sure to follow the manufacturer’s warnings
and instructions. And always open your doors or
windows when you’re cleaning the inside.
Never use these to clean your vehicle:
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Gasoline
Benzene
Naphtha
Carbon Tetrachloride
Acetone
Paint Thinner
Turpentine
Lacquer Thinner
Nail Polish Remover
They can all be hazardous -- some more than
others -- and they can all damage your vehicle, too.
6-51
Don’t use any of these unless this manual says you can.
In many uses, these will damage your vehicle:
D
D
D
D
Alcohol
Laundry Soap
Bleach
Reducing Agents
Cleaning the Inside of Your Vehicle
D Carefully scrape off any excess stain.
D Use a clean cloth or sponge, and change to a
clean area often. A soft brush may be used if
stains are stubborn.
D If a ring forms on fabric after spot cleaning, clean the
entire area immediately or it will set.
Using Multi-Purpose Interior Cleaner
on Fabric
Use a vacuum cleaner often to get rid of dust and loose
dirt. Wipe vinyl, leather, plastic and painted surfaces
with a clean, damp cloth.
1. Vacuum and brush the area to remove any loose dirt.
Cleaning of Fabric/Carpet
3. Mix powdered cleaner following the directions on
the container label to form thick suds.
Your dealer has two cleaners, Multi-Purpose Interior
Cleaner and Capture Non-Solvent Dry Spot and
Soil Remover for cleaning fabric and carpet. They will
clean normal spots and stains very well. You can get
GM-approved cleaning products from your dealer.
See “Appearance Care and Materials” in the Index.
Here are some cleaning tips:
D Always read the instructions on the cleaner label.
D Clean up stains as soon as you can -- before they set.
6-52
2. Always clean a whole trim panel or section.
Mask surrounding trim along stitch or welt lines.
4. Use suds only and apply with a clean sponge.
Don’t saturate the material and don’t rub it roughly.
5. As soon as you’ve cleaned the section, use a sponge
to remove the suds.
6. Wipe cleaned area with a clean, damp towel or cloth.
7. Wipe with a clean cloth and let dry.
Special Fabric Cleaning Problems
Cleaning Vinyl
Stains caused by such things as catsup, coffee (black),
egg, fruit, fruit juice, milk, soft drinks, vomit, urine and
blood can be removed as follows:
Use warm water and a clean cloth.
1. Carefully scrape off excess stain, then sponge the
soiled area with cool water.
D Things like tar, asphalt and shoe polish will stain if you
2. If a stain remains, follow the Multi-Purpose Interior
Cleaner instructions described earlier.
3. If an odor lingers after cleaning vomit or urine,
treat the area with a water/baking soda solution:
1 teaspoon (5 ml) of baking soda to 1 cup (250 ml)
of lukewarm water.
D Rub with a clean, damp cloth to remove dirt.
You may have to do it more than once.
don’t get them off quickly. Use a clean cloth and a
vinyl/leather cleaner. See your dealer for this product.
Cleaning the Top of the Instrument Panel
4. Let dry.
Use only mild soap and water to clean the top surfaces
of the instrument panel. Sprays containing silicones or
waxes may cause annoying reflections in the windshield
and even make it difficult to see through the windshield
under certain conditions.
Stains caused by candy, ice cream, mayonnaise, chili
sauce and unknown stains can be removed as follows:
Cleaning Interior Plastic Components
1. Carefully scrape off excess stain.
2. First, clean with cool water and allow to
dry completely.
Use only a mild soap and water solution on a soft
cloth or sponge. Commercial cleaners may affect the
surface finish.
3. If a stain remains, follow instructions for
Multi-Purpose Interior Cleaner.
6-53
Care of Safety Belts
Keep belts clean and dry.
CAUTION:
Do not bleach or dye safety belts. If you do, it
may severely weaken them. In a crash, they
might not be able to provide adequate protection.
Clean safety belts only with mild soap and
lukewarm water.
Cleaning Glass Surfaces
Cleaning the Outside of the
Windshield and Wiper Blades
If the windshield is not clear after using the windshield
washer, or if the wiper blade chatters when running, wax,
sap or other material may be on the blade or windshield.
Clean the outside of the windshield with GM Windshield
Cleaner, Bon AmiR Powder (non-scratching glass
cleaning powder), GM Part No. 1050011. The windshield
is clean if beads do not form when you rinse it
with water.
Grime from the windshield will stick to the wiper blades
and affect their performance. Clean the blade by wiping
vigorously with a cloth soaked in full-strength windshield
washer solvent. Then rinse the blade with water.
Glass should be cleaned often. GM Glass Cleaner or a
liquid household glass cleaner will remove normal
tobacco smoke and dust films on interior glass. See
“Appearance Care and Materials” in the Index.
Check the wiper blades and clean them as necessary;
replace blades that look worn.
Don’t use abrasive cleaners on glass, because they may
cause scratches. Avoid placing decals on the inside rear
window, since they may have to be scraped off later.
If abrasive cleaners are used on the inside of the rear
window, an electric defogger element may be damaged.
Any temporary license should not be attached across
the defogger grid.
Silicone grease on weatherstrips will make them last
longer, seal better, and not stick or squeak. Apply silicone
grease with a clean cloth at least every six months. During
very cold, damp weather more frequent application may be
required. See “Recommended Fluids and Lubricants” in
the Index.
6-54
Weatherstrips
Cleaning the Outside of Your Vehicle
Cleaning Exterior Lamps/Lenses
The paint finish on your vehicle provides beauty, depth
of color, gloss retention and durability.
Use only lukewarm or cold water, a soft cloth and a car
washing soap to clean exterior lamps and lenses. Follow
instructions under “Washing Your Vehicle.”
Washing Your Vehicle
The best way to preserve your vehicle’s finish is to
keep it clean by washing it often with lukewarm or
cold water.
Don’t wash your vehicle in the direct rays of the sun.
Use a car washing soap. Don’t use strong soaps or
chemical detergents. Be sure to rinse the vehicle well,
removing all soap residue completely. You can get
GM-approved cleaning products from your dealer.
See “Appearance Care and Materials” in the Index.
Don’t use cleaning agents that are petroleum based,
or that contain acid or abrasives. All cleaning agents
should be flushed promptly and not allowed to dry on
the surface, or they could stain. Dry the finish with a
soft, clean chamois or an all-cotton towel to avoid
surface scratches and water spotting.
High pressure car washes may cause water to enter
your vehicle.
Finish Care
Occasional waxing or mild polishing of your vehicle by
hand may be necessary to remove residue from the paint
finish. You can get GM-approved cleaning products
from your dealer. See “Appearance Care and Materials”
in the Index.
Your vehicle may have a “basecoat/clearcoat” paint
finish. The clearcoat gives more depth and gloss to the
colored basecoat. Always use waxes and polishes that
are non-abrasive and made for a basecoat/clearcoat
paint finish.
NOTICE:
Machine compounding or aggressive polishing on
a basecoat/clearcoat paint finish may dull the
finish or leave swirl marks.
6-55
Foreign materials such as calcium chloride and other
salts, ice melting agents, road oil and tar, tree sap, bird
droppings, chemicals from industrial chimneys, etc.,
can damage your vehicle’s finish if they remain on
painted surfaces. Wash the vehicle as soon as possible.
If necessary, use non-abrasive cleaners that are marked
safe for painted surfaces to remove foreign matter.
Exterior painted surfaces are subject to aging, weather
and chemical fallout that can take their toll over a period
of years. You can help to keep the paint finish looking
new by keeping your vehicle garaged or covered
whenever possible.
Protecting Exterior Bright Metal Parts
Bright metal parts should be cleaned regularly to keep
their luster. Washing with water is all that is usually
needed. However, you may use chrome polish on
chrome or stainless steel trim, if necessary.
Use special care with aluminum trim. To avoid
damaging protective trim, never use auto or chrome
polish, steam or caustic soap to clean aluminum.
A coating of wax, rubbed to high polish, is
recommended for all bright metal parts.
6-56
Cleaning Tires
To clean your tires, use a stiff brush with a tire cleaner.
NOTICE:
When applying a tire dressing always take care to
wipe off any overspray or splash from all painted
surfaces on the body or wheels of the vehicle.
Petroleum-based products may damage the paint
finish and tires.
Sheet Metal Damage
If your vehicle is damaged and requires sheet metal
repair or replacement, make sure the body repair shop
applies anti-corrosion material to the parts repaired or
replaced to restore corrosion protection.
Original manufacturer replacement parts will provide
the corrosion protection while maintaining the warranty.
Finish Damage
Chemical Paint Spotting
Any stone chips, fractures or deep scratches in the finish
should be repaired right away. Bare metal will corrode
quickly and may develop into a major repair expense.
Some weather and atmospheric conditions can create
a chemical fallout. Airborne pollutants can fall upon
and attack painted surfaces on your vehicle. This
damage can take two forms: blotchy, ringlet-shaped
discolorations, and small irregular dark spots etched
into the paint surface.
Minor chips and scratches can be repaired with touch-up
materials available from your dealer or other service
outlets. Larger areas of finish damage can be corrected
in your dealer’s body and paint shop.
Underbody Maintenance
Chemicals used for ice and snow removal and dust
control can collect on the underbody. If these are
not removed, accelerated corrosion (rust) can occur
on the underbody parts such as fuel lines, frame,
floor pan and exhaust system even though they have
corrosion protection.
Although no defect in the paint job causes this, GM will
repair, at no charge to the owner, the surfaces of new
vehicles damaged by this fallout condition within
12 months or 12,000 miles (20 000 km) of purchase,
whichever occurs first.
This applies only to materials manufactured and sold by
General Motors. Bodies, body conversions or equipment
not made or sold by General Motors are not covered.
At least every spring, flush these materials from the
underbody with plain water. Clean any areas where mud
and other debris can collect. Dirt packed in closed areas
of the frame should be loosened before being flushed.
Your dealer or an underbody car washing system can
do this for you.
6-57
GM Vehicle Care/Appearance Materials
PART NUMBER
994954
1050172
1050173
1050174
1050214
1050427
SIZE
23 in. x 25 in.
16 oz. (0.473 L)
16 oz. (0.473 L)
16 oz. (0.473 L)
32 oz. (0.946 L)
23 oz. (0.680 L)
1052918**
8 oz. (0.237 L)
DESCRIPTION
Polishing Cloth – Wax Treated
Tar and Road Oil Remover
Chrome Cleaner and Polish
White Sidewall Tire Cleaner
Vinyl Cleaner
Glass Cleaner
t Protectant
Armor All
Multi-Purpose
Interior Cleaner
1052929
16 oz. (0.473 L)
Wheel Cleaner
1052930
8 oz. (0.237 L)
Capture Dry Spot Remover
12345721
2.5 sq. ft.
Synthetic Chamois
12345725
12 oz. (0.354 L)
Silicone Tire Shine
12377964*
16 oz. (0.473 L)
Finish Enhancer
12377966*
16 oz. (0.473 L)
Cleaner Wax
12377984*
16 oz. (0.473 L)
Surface Cleaner
See your General Motors Parts Department for these products.
See “Recommended Fluids and Lubricants” in the Index.
1052925
6-58
16 oz. (0.473 L)
USAGE
Exterior polishing cloth
Removes tar, road oil and asphalt
Use on chrome, stainless steel, nickel, copper and brass
Removes soil and black marks from whitewalls
Cleans vinyl tops, upholstery and convertible tops
Removes dirt, grime, smoke and fingerprints
Protects leather, wood, acrylics, Plexiglas , plastic,
rubber and vinyl
Cleans carpets, seats, interior trim, door panels
and floor mats
Spray on and rinse with water
Attracts, absorbs and removes soils on fabric
Shines vehicle without scratching
Spray on tire shine
Removes dust, fingerprints and surface contaminants
Removes light scratches and oxidation and protects finish
Removes contaminants, blemishes and swirl marks
* For exterior use only.
** Not recommended for use on instrument panels.
t
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
Service Parts Identification Label
You’ll find this label on the inside of the glove box.
It’s very helpful if you ever need to order parts.
On this label is:
This is the legal identifier for your vehicle. It appears
on a plate in the front corner of the instrument panel,
on the driver’s side. You can see it if you look through
the windshield from outside your vehicle. The VIN also
appears on the Vehicle Certification and Service Parts
labels and the certificates of title and registration.
Engine Identification
The 8th character in your VIN is the engine code. This
code will help you identify your engine, specifications
and replacement parts.
D
D
D
D
your VIN,
the model designation,
paint information and
a list of all production options and special equipment.
Be sure that this label is not removed from the vehicle.
Electrical System
Add-On Electrical Equipment
NOTICE:
Don’t add anything electrical to your vehicle
unless you check with your dealer first. Some
electrical equipment can damage your vehicle
and the damage wouldn’t be covered by your
warranty. Some add-on electrical equipment
can keep other components from working as
they should.
6-59
Headlamps
Fuses and Circuit Breakers
The headlamp wiring is protected by an internal circuit
breaker. An electrical overload will cause the lamps
to go on and off, or in some cases to remain off.
If this happens, have your headlamp wiring checked
right away.
The wiring circuits in your vehicle are protected from
short circuits by a combination of fuses, circuit breakers
and fusible thermal links. This greatly reduces the
chance of fires caused by electrical problems.
Windshield Wipers
The windshield wiper motor is protected by a circuit
breaker and a fuse. If the motor overheats due to heavy
snow, etc., the wiper will stop until the motor cools.
If the overload is caused by some electrical problem
and not snow, etc., be sure to get it fixed.
Power Windows and Other Power Options
Circuit breakers protect the power windows and other
power accessories. When the current load is too heavy,
the circuit breaker opens and closes, protecting the
circuit until the problem is fixed or goes away.
6-60
Look at the silver-colored band inside the fuse. If the
band is broken or melted, replace the fuse. Be sure you
replace a bad fuse with a new one of the identical size
and rating.
If you ever have a problem on the road and don’t have
a spare fuse, you can borrow one that has the same
amperage. Just pick some feature of your vehicle that
you can get along without -- like the radio or cigarette
lighter -- and use its fuse, if it is the correct amperage.
Replace it as soon as you can.
Instrument Panel Fuse Block
The fuse block access door
is on the driver’s side edge
of the instrument panel.
Pull off the cover to
access the fuse block.
You can remove fuses with a fuse extractor which is
mounted to the fuse block access door. To remove fuses
if you don’t have a fuse extractor, hold the end of the
fuse between your thumb and index finger and pull
straight out.
You may have spare fuses located behind the fuse block
access door. These can be used to replace a bad fuse.
However, make sure it is of the correct amperage.
Fuse/Circuit
Breaker
1
2
3
Usage
Stop/TCC Switch, Buzzer, CHMSL,
Hazard Lamps, Stoplamps
Not Used
Courtesy Lamps, Cargo Lamp,
Glove Box Lamp, Dome/Reading
Lamps, Vanity Mirrors
6-61
Fuse/Circuit
Breaker
4
Usage
Instrument Cluster, DRL Relay,
Lamp Switch, Keyless Entry, Low
Coolant Module, Illuminated Entry
Module, DRAC (Diesel Engine)
16
17
Front and Rear Turn Signals,
Back-Up Lamps
Radio (Ignition)
Crank
18
4WAL/VCM, ABS, Cruise Control
License Lamp, Parking Lamps,
Taillamps, Roof Marker
Lamps, Front Sidemarkers,
Door Switch Illumination,
Headlamp Switch Illumination
19
Radio (Battery)
20
PRNDL, Automatic Transmission,
Speedometer, Check Gages
Warning Light
21
Security/Steering
22
Not Used
23
Not Used
24
TP2 Relay (Gasoline Engine)
A
Power Door Lock, Keyless
Entry Module
Power Windows
6
Cruise Control
7
Auxiliary Power Outlet
8
10
Not Used
11
Wiper Motor, Washer Pump
12
A/C, A/C Blower,
High Blower Relay
Power Amp, Cigarette Lighter,
Door Lock Relay
B
6-62
Cluster, Comfort Controls,
Instrument Switches, Radio
Illumination, Chime Module
DRL Relay
Not Used
13
Usage
15
5
9
Fuse/Circuit
Breaker
14
Underhood Fuse/Relay Center
The underhood fuse/relay center is located in the rear of
the engine compartment near the brake fluid reservoir.
See “Engine Compartment Overview” in the Index for
more information on location. Move the retainer clips
for the cover to access the fuse block.
You can remove fuses with a fuse extractor which is
mounted to the interior fuse block. To remove fuses
if you don’t have a fuse extractor, hold the end of the
fuse between your thumb and index finger and pull
straight out.
Name
Usage
Starter Relay
Starter
A/C Relay
Air Conditioning
Fuel Pump Relay Fuel Pump
Brake
Lamp Relay
Brake Lamp
Blank
Not Used
6-63
Name
Usage
Name
Usage
Horn Relay
Horn
ENG-1
ECM-B
Fuel Pump, PCM/VCM
RR DEFOG
Not Used
IGN-E
A/C Compressor Relay,
Dual Tanks
Blank
Not Used
Ignition Switch, EGR, Canister
Purge, EVRV Idle Coast
Solenoid, MAF, Heated O2,
Fuel Heater (Diesel Engine),
Water Sensor (Diesel Engine),
Boost Solenoid (Diesel Engine),
EPR (Diesel Engine)
Blank
Not Used
HTD ST-RR
Not Used
Blank
Not Used
Blank
Not Used
HORN
Horn, Underhood Lamps
Diode
Not Used
AUX FAN
Not Used
LIGHTING
Headlamp and Panel Dimmer
Switch, Fog and Courtesy Fuses
ECM-1
Injectors, PCM/VCM, Fuel
Solenoid (Diesel Engine) Fuel
Control Module (Diesel Engine)
BATT
Battery, Fuse Block Busbar
IGN A
Ignition Switch
HTD ST-FR
Not Used
IGN B
Ignition Switch
Blank
Not Used
ABS
Anti-Lock Brake Module
Blank
Not Used
BLOWER
High Blower Relay
A/C
Air Conditioning
STOP/HAZ
Stoplamps
PTO
PTO Relay
HEATED
SEATS
Not Used
6-64
Replacement Bulbs
Exterior Lamps
Quantity
Number
Sealed Beam Headlamps
2
H6054
Composite Low-Beam
Headlamps
2
9006
Composite High-Beam
Headlamps
2
9005
Front Marker Lamp
2
194
Front Parking and Turn Lamp
4
2357NA
Rear Parking Lamp
2
3057
Rear Stop and Turn Lamp
2
3057
Back-up Lamp
2
3156
Roof Marker Lamp
5
194
Interior Lamps
Quantity
Number
Dome Lamps
2
211-2
Reading Lamps
2
211-2
Door Courtesy Lamps
2
194
Instrument Panel
Compartment Lamp
1
194
For service information on other bulbs, contact your
dealer’s service department.
6-65
Capacities and Specifications
Cooling System Capacity
All capacities are approximate. When adding, be sure
to fill to the appropriate level or as recommended in
this manual.
After refill, the level must be rechecked. See “Cooling
System” in the Index.
Please refer to “Recommended Fluids and Lubricants”
in the Index for more information.
Engine
“VORTEC” 8100
Type
VIN
Code
Spark Plug
Gap
V8
G
0.060 inches
(1.52 mm)
Wheels and Tires
Description
Torque
Front
5 bolts (5/8 in.)
175 lb-ft (240 N·m)
Rear
10 bolts (5/8 in.) 175 lb-ft (240 N·m)
Tire Pressure
See the Certification/Tire label on
the rear edge of the driver’s door
or the incomplete vehicle document
in the cab.
VIN
Quantity
G
28.5 quarts (27.0 L)
“VORTEC” 8100
Crankcase Capacity
After refill, the level must be rechecked. Add enough
engine oil so that the fluid is within the proper operating
range. See “Engine Oil” in the Index.
Engine
Model
6-66
Engine
“VORTEC” 8100
VIN
Quantity with
Filter[
G
6.6 quarts (6.3 L)
[Oil filter should be changed at every oil change.
Fuel Tank Capacity
Type
Quantity
Front Tank
22 U.S. gallons (79 L)
Rear Tank
18 U.S. gallons (68 L)
Normal Maintenance
Replacement Parts
Replacement part numbers listed in this section are
based on the latest information available at the time of
printing, and are subject to change. If a part listed in this
manual is not the same as the part used in your vehicle
when it was built, or if you have any questions, please
contact your GM truck dealer.
These specifications are for information only. If you
have any questions, see the service manual for the
chassis or refer to the body manufacturer’s publications.
VIN Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G
Oil Filter* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PF454
Air Cleaner Filter* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1300C[[
Spark Plugs*** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TJ14R-P15
Fuel Filter* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GF626
Wiper Blades** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22154886
Wiper Blade Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trico
Wiper Blade Length . . . . . . 18 inches (45.0 cm)
*ACDelcoR part number
**GM part number
***Denso part number
[[A1301C high-capacity air cleaner filter.
6-67
Section 7 Maintenance Schedule
This section covers the maintenance required for your vehicle. Your vehicle needs these services to retain its safety,
dependability and emission control performance.
7-2
7-4
7-9
7-31
Introduction
Part A: Scheduled Maintenance Services
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
7-45
7-50
7-52
7-55
Part B: Owner Checks and Services
Part C: Periodic Maintenance Inspections
Part D: Recommended Fluids and Lubricants
Part E: Maintenance Record
7-
7-1
Introduction
Your Vehicle and the Environment
Proper vehicle maintenance not only helps to keep your
vehicle in good working condition, but also helps the
environment. All recommended maintenance procedures
are important. Improper vehicle maintenance can even
affect the quality of the air we breathe. Improper fluid
levels or the wrong tire inflation can increase the level
of emissions from your vehicle. To help protect our
environment, and to keep your vehicle in good
condition, please maintain your vehicle properly.
Maintenance Requirements
Have you purchased the GM Protection Plan? The Plan
supplements your new vehicle warranties. See your
Warranty and Owner Assistance booklet or your dealer
for details.
7-2
Maintenance intervals, checks, inspections and
recommended fluids and lubricants as prescribed in this
manual are necessary to keep your vehicle in good
working condition. Any damage caused by failure to
follow recommended maintenance may not be covered
by warranty.
How This Section is Organized
This maintenance schedule is divided into five parts:
“Part A: Scheduled Maintenance Services” shows
what to have done and how often. Some of these
services can be complex, so unless you are technically
qualified and have the necessary equipment, you should
let your dealer’s service department or another qualified
service center do these jobs.
CAUTION:
Performing maintenance work on a vehicle can
be dangerous. In trying to do some jobs, you can
be seriously injured. Do your own maintenance
work only if you have the required know-how
and the proper tools and equipment for the job.
If you have any doubt, have a qualified
technician do the work.
“Part B: Owner Checks and Services” tells you
what should be checked and when. It also explains
what you can easily do to help keep your vehicle in
good condition.
“Part C: Periodic Maintenance Inspections” explains
important inspections that your dealer’s service
department or another qualified service center
should perform.
“Part D: Recommended Fluids and Lubricants” lists
some recommended products necessary to help keep
your vehicle properly maintained. These products, or
their equivalents, should be used whether you do the
work yourself or have it done.
“Part E: Maintenance Record” is a place for
you to record and keep track of the maintenance
performed on your vehicle. Keep your maintenance
receipts. They may be needed to qualify your vehicle
for warranty repairs.
If you want to get the service information, see “Service
and Owner Publications” in the Index.
7-3
Part A: Scheduled
Maintenance Services
Using Your Maintenance Schedule
We at General Motors want to help you keep your
vehicle in good working condition. But we don’t know
exactly how you’ll drive it. You may drive very short
distances only a few times a week. Or you may drive
long distances all the time in very hot, dusty weather.
You may use your vehicle in making deliveries.
Or you may drive it to work, to do errands or in
many other ways.
Because of all the different ways people use their
vehicles, maintenance needs vary. You may need more
frequent checks and replacements. So please read the
following and note how you drive. If you have any
questions on how to keep your vehicle in good
condition, see your dealer.
This part tells you the maintenance services you should
have done and when you should schedule them. If you
go to your dealer for your service needs, you’ll know
that GM-trained and supported service people will
perform the work using genuine GM parts.
7-4
The proper fluids and lubricants to use are listed in
Part D. Make sure whoever services your vehicle
uses these. All parts should be replaced and all
necessary repairs done before you or anyone else
drives the vehicle.
These schedules are for vehicles that:
D carry passengers and cargo within recommended
limits. You will find these limits on your vehicle’s
Certification/Tire label. See “Loading Your Vehicle”
in the Index.
D are driven on reasonable road surfaces within legal
driving limits.
D use the recommended fuel. See “Fuel” in the Index.
Selecting the Right Schedule
First you’ll need to decide which of the two schedules is
right for your vehicle. Here’s how to decide which
schedule to follow:
Scheduled Maintenance
Short Trip/City Definition
Follow the Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance if
any one of these conditions is true for your vehicle:
D Most trips are less than 5 to 10 miles (8 to 16 km).
This is particularly important when outside
temperatures are below freezing.
D Most trips include extensive idling (such as frequent
driving in stop-and-go traffic).
D You operate your vehicle in dusty areas or
off-road frequently.
D You frequently tow a trailer.
D If the vehicle is used for delivery service, police, taxi
or other commercial application.
One of the reasons you should follow this schedule
if you operate your vehicle under any of these conditions
is that these conditions cause engine oil to break
down sooner.
Short Trip/City Intervals
Every 3,000 Miles (5 000 km): Engine Oil and Filter
Change (or 3 months, whichever occurs first). Chassis
Lubrication (or 3 months, whichever occurs first).
Rear Axle Fluid Check.
Every 6,000 Miles (10 000 km): Tire Rotation.
Every 15,000 Miles (25 000 km): Shields and
Underhood Insulation Inspection. Diesel Engine
Only: Thermostatically Controlled Engine Cooling
Fan Check (or every 12 months, whichever occurs
first). Diesel Engine Only: Air Intake System
Inspection. Front Wheel Bearing Repack
(or at each brake relining, whichever occurs first).
Every 24,000 Miles (40 000 km): Diesel Engine Only:
Fuel Cap Replacement, if driving in dusty conditions.
(Continued)
7-5
Scheduled Maintenance
Short Trip/City Intervals
Every 30,000 Miles (50 000 km): Rear Axle Fluid
Change with Extreme Overload, Trailer Towing or
High Speed Use. Fuel Filter Replacement.
Every 50,000 Miles (83 000 km): Automatic
Transmission Service.
Every 60,000 Miles (100 000 km): Engine Accessory
Drive Belt Inspection. If Equipped: Exhaust Gas
Recirculation System Inspection. Gasoline Engine
Only: Evaporative Control System Inspection.
Diesel Engine Only: Crankcase Depression Regulator
Valve (CDRV) System Check.
7-6
Short Trip/City Intervals
Every 100,000 Miles (166 000 km): Gasoline Engine
Only: Spark Plug Wire Inspection. Gasoline Engine
Only: Spark Plug Replacement. Gasoline Engine
Only: Automatic Transmission Service (normal
conditions). Gasoline Engine Only: Positive
Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) Valve Inspection.
Every 150,000 Miles (240 000 km): Cooling System
Service (or every 60 months, whichever occurs first).
These intervals only summarize maintenance services.
Be sure to follow the complete scheduled maintenance
on the following pages.
Scheduled Maintenance
Long Trip/Highway Definition
Follow this scheduled maintenance only if none of the
conditions from the Short Trip/City Scheduled
Maintenance are true. Do not use this schedule if the
vehicle is used for trailer towing, driven in a dusty area
or used off paved roads. Use the Short Trip/City
schedule for these conditions.
Driving a vehicle with a fully warmed engine under
highway conditions causes engine oil to break
down slower.
Long Trip/Highway Intervals
Every 7,500 Miles (12 500 km): Engine Oil and Filter
Change (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
Chassis Lubrication (or every 12 months, whichever
occurs first). Rear Axle Fluid Check. Tire Rotation.
Every 15,000 Miles (25 000 km): Shields and
Underhood Insulation Inspection. Diesel Engine
Only: Thermostatically Controlled Engine Cooling
Fan Check (or every 12 months, whichever
occurs first). Diesel Engine Only: Air Intake
System Inspection.
Every 30,000 Miles (50 000 km): Rear Axle
Fluid Change with High Speed Use. Fuel Filter
Replacement. Front Wheel Bearing Repack
(or at each brake relining, whichever occurs first).
(Continued)
7-7
Scheduled Maintenance
Long Trip/Highway Intervals
Every 50,000 Miles (83 000 km): Automatic
Transmission Service.
Every 60,000 Miles (100 000 km): Engine Accessory
Drive Belt Inspection. If Equipped: Exhaust Gas
Recirculation System Inspection. Gasoline Engine
Only: Evaporative Control System Inspection.
Diesel Engine Only: Crankcase Depression Regulator
Valve (CDRV) System Check.
Long Trip/Highway Intervals
Every 100,000 Miles (166 000 km): Gasoline Engine
Only: Spark Plug Wire Inspection. Gasoline Engine
Only: Spark Plug Replacement. Gasoline Engine
Only: Automatic Transmission Service (normal
conditions). Gasoline Engine Only: Positive
Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) Valve Inspection.
Every 150,000 Miles (240 000 km): Cooling System
Service (or every 60 months, whichever occurs first).
These intervals only summarize maintenance services.
Be sure to follow the complete scheduled maintenance
on the following pages.
7-8
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
The services shown in this schedule up to 100,000 miles
(166 000 km) should be performed after 100,000 miles
(166 000 km) at the same intervals. The services shown
at 150,000 miles (240 000 km) should be performed at
the same interval after 150,000 miles (240 000 km).
See “Owner Checks and Services” and “Periodic
Maintenance Inspections” following.
Footnotes
[ The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the
# Lubricate the front suspension, kingpin bushings,
steering linkage, transmission shift linkage, parking
brake cable guides, rear driveline center splines and
brake pedal springs. Ball joints and kingpin bushings
should not be lubricated unless their temperature is
10_F (-12_C) or higher, or they could be damaged.
+ A good time to check your brakes is during tire
rotation. See “Brake System Inspection” under
“Periodic Maintenance Inspections” in Part C
of this schedule.
California Air Resources Board has determined that the
failure to perform this maintenance item will not nullify
the emission warranty or limit recall liability prior to
the completion of the vehicle’s useful life. We, however,
urge that all recommended maintenance services be
performed at the indicated intervals and the
maintenance be recorded.
7-9
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
3,000 Miles (5 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
6,000 Miles (10 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
9,000 Miles (15 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
7-10
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
12,000 Miles (20 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
15,000 Miles (25 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Clean and repack the front wheel bearings (or at each brake relining,
whichever occurs first).
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable
only to vehicles sold in the United States.
(Continued)
7-11
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
15,000 Miles (25 000 km) (Continued)
Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect all hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
j
j
18,000 Miles (30 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-12
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
21,000 Miles (35 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
24,000 Miles (40 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
j Diesel Engine Only: Replace fuel filler cap if driving in dusty conditions.
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
An Emission Control Service.
7-13
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
27,000 Miles (45 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
30,000 Miles (50 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed. Change axle fluid if the
vehicle is driven in extreme overload, trailer towing and/or high-speed
(above 40 mph or 70 km/h) conditions for extended periods of time.
Clean and repack the front wheel bearings (or at each brake relining,
whichever occurs first).
Replace fuel filter.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote[.)
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable
only to vehicles sold in the United States.
j
j
7-14
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
j Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
j
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect all hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
33,000 Miles (55 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
7-15
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
36,000 Miles (60 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
39,000 Miles (65 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
7-16
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
42,000 Miles (70 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
45,000 Miles (75 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Clean and repack the front wheel bearings
(or at each brake relining, whichever occurs first).
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable
only to vehicles sold in the United States.
(Continued)
7-17
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
45,000 Miles (75 000 km) (Continued)
Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect all hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
j
j
48,000 Miles (80 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
j Diesel Engine Only: Replace fuel filler cap if driving in dusty conditions.
An Emission Control Service.
7-18
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
50,000 Miles (83 000 km)
j Change automatic transmission fluid and filter. Manual transmission fluid
doesn’t require change.
51,000 Miles (85 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
54,000 Miles (90 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-19
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
57,000 Miles (95 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
60,000 Miles (100 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed. Change axle fluid if the
j
j
vehicle is driven in extreme overload, trailer towing and/or high-speed
(above 40 mph or 70 km/h) conditions for extended periods of time.
Clean and repack the front wheel bearings (or at each brake relining,
whichever occurs first).
Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable
only to vehicles sold in the United States.
7-20
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
j Inspect engine accessory drive belt.
An Emission Control Service.
j Replace fuel filter.
j
j
j
j
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote[.)
If Equipped: Conduct Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system
inspection as described in the service manual.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote [.)
Gasoline Engine Only: Conduct evaporative control system inspection. Check
all fuel and vapor lines and hoses for proper hook-up, routing and condition.
Check that the purge valve works properly (if equipped). Replace as needed.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote [.)
Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
(Continued)
7-21
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
60,000 Miles (100 000 km) (Continued)
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect all hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
Diesel Engine Only: Check the crankcase depression regulator valve
system for any worn, plugged or collapsed hoses. See service manual.
An Emission Control Service.
j
j
63,000 Miles (105 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
7-22
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
66,000 Miles (110 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
69,000 Miles (115 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
7-23
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
72,000 Miles (120 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
j Diesel Engine Only: Replace fuel filler cap if driving in dusty conditions.
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
An Emission Control Service.
75,000 Miles (125 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Clean and repack the front wheel bearings
(or at each brake relining, whichever occurs first).
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable only
to vehicles sold in the United States.
7-24
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
j Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
j
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect all hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
78,000 Miles (130 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-25
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
81,000 Miles (135 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
84,000 Miles (140 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
87,000 Miles (145 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
7-26
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
90,000 Miles (150 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed. Change axle fluid if the
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
vehicle is driven in extreme overload, trailer towing and/or high-speed
(above 40 mph or 70 km/h) conditions for extended periods of time.
Clean and repack the front wheel bearings
(or at each brake relining, whichever occurs first).
Replace fuel filter.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote[.)
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable only
to vehicles sold in the United States.
j
j
(Continued)
7-27
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
90,000 Miles (150 000 km) (Continued)
Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect all hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
j
j
93,000 Miles (155 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
7-28
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
96,000 Miles (160 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
j Diesel Engine Only: Replace fuel filler cap if driving in dusty conditions.
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
An Emission Control Service.
99,000 Miles (165 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 3 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
7-29
Short Trip/City Scheduled Maintenance
100,000 Miles (166 000 km)
j Gasoline Engine Only: Inspect spark plug wires.
An Emission Control Service.
j Gasoline Engine Only: Replace spark plugs.
An Emission Control Service.
j Change automatic transmission fluid and filter. Manual transmission fluid
doesn’t require change.
j Gasoline Engine Only: Inspect Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) valve.
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
An Emission Control Service.
150,000 Miles (240 000 km)
j Drain, flush and refill cooling system (or every 60 months since last service,
whichever occurs first). See “Engine Coolant” in the Index for what to use.
Inspect hoses. Clean radiator, condenser, pressure cap and neck.
Pressure test cooling system and pressure cap.
An Emission Control Service.
7-30
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
The services shown in this schedule up to 100,000 miles
(166 000 km) should be performed after 100,000 miles
(166 000 km) at the same intervals. The services shown
at 150,000 miles (240 000 km) should be performed at
the same interval after 150,000 miles (240 000 km).
See “Owner Checks and Services” and “Periodic
Maintenance Inspections” following.
Footnotes
[ The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the
# Lubricate the front suspension, kingpin bushings,
steering linkage, transmission shift linkage, parking
brake cable guides, rear driveline center splines and
brake pedal springs. Ball joints and kingpin bushings
should not be lubricated unless their temperature is
10_F (-12_C) or higher, or they could be damaged.
+ A good time to check your brakes is during tire
rotation. See “Brake System Inspection” under
“Periodic Maintenance Inspections” in Part C
of this schedule.
California Air Resources Board has determined that the
failure to perform this maintenance item will not nullify
the emission warranty or limit recall liability prior to
the completion of the vehicle’s useful life. We, however,
urge that all recommended maintenance services be
performed at the indicated intervals and the
maintenance be recorded.
7-31
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
7,500 Miles (12 500 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
15,000 Miles (25 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
j
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable
only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-32
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
j Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
j
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
22,500 Miles (37 500 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-33
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
30,000 Miles (50 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed. Change axle fluid if the
vehicle is driven in high-speed (above 40 mph or 70 km/h) conditions for
extended periods of time.
Clean and repack the front wheel bearings
(or at each brake relining, whichever occurs first).
Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
Replace fuel filter.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote [.)
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable only
to vehicles sold in the United States.
j
j
j
7-34
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
j Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
j
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
37,500 Miles (62 500 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-35
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
45,000 Miles (75 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
j
j
j
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable only
to vehicles sold in the United States.
Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
7-36
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
50,000 Miles (83 000 km)
j Change automatic transmission fluid and filter. Manual transmission fluid
doesn’t require change.
52,500 Miles (87 500 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-37
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
60,000 Miles (100 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed. Change axle fluid if the
vehicle is driven in high-speed (above 40 mph or 70 km/h) conditions for
extended periods of time.
Clean and repack the front wheel bearings (or at each brake relining,
whichever occurs first).
Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
Inspect engine accessory drive belt.
An Emission Control Service.
Replace fuel filter.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote[.)
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable only
to vehicles sold in the United States.
j
j
j
j
7-38
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
j If Equipped: Inspect Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system as described in
j
j
j
j
the service manual.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote [.)
Gasoline Engine Only: Inspect Evaporative Control System. Check all fuel
and vapor lines and hoses for proper hook-up, routing and condition.
Check that the purge valve works properly, if equipped. Replace as needed.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote [.)
Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
Diesel Engine Only: Check the crankcase depression regulator valve system
for any worn, plugged or collapsed hoses. See service manual.
An Emission Control Service.
7-39
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
67,500 Miles (112 500 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
75,000 Miles (125 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
j
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable only
to vehicles sold in the United States.
Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-40
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
j Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
j
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
82,500 Miles (137 500 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-41
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
90,000 Miles (150 000 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed. Change axle fluid if the
vehicle is driven in high-speed (above 40 mph or 70 km/h) conditions for
extended periods of time.
Clean and repack the front wheel bearings
(or at each brake relining, whichever occurs first).
Replace fuel filter.
An Emission Control Service. (See footnote [.)
j Inspect shields and underhood insulation for damage or looseness. Adjust or
replace as required. This is a Noise Emission Control Service. Applicable only
to vehicles sold in the United States.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
j
j
7-42
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
j Diesel Engine Only: Check the air intake system installation to assure that
j
gaskets are properly sealed and that all hose connections, fasteners and other
components are tight. Also check to be sure that the air cleaner housing is
properly seated and the cover fits tightly. Tighten connections and fasteners or
replace damaged parts as necessary. This is a Noise Emission Control Service.
Applicable only to vehicles sold in the United States.
Diesel Engine Only: If your engine has a thermostatically controlled cooling
fan, inspect hoses and ducts for proper hook-up (or every 12 months,
whichever occurs first). Be sure the valve works properly. This is a Noise
Emission Control Service. Applicable only to vehicles sold in the
United States.
97,500 Miles (162 500 km)
j Change engine oil and filter (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
An Emission Control Service.
j Lubricate chassis components (or every 12 months, whichever occurs first).
(See footnote #.)
j Check rear axle fluid level and add fluid as needed.
j Rotate tires. See “Tire Inspection and Rotation” in the Index for proper
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
rotation pattern and additional information. (See footnote +.)
7-43
Long Trip/Highway Scheduled Maintenance
100,000 Miles (166 000 km)
j Gasoline Engine Only: Inspect spark plug wires.
An Emission Control Service.
j Gasoline Engine Only: Replace spark plugs.
An Emission Control Service.
j Change automatic transmission fluid and filter. Manual transmission fluid
doesn’t require change.
j Gasoline Engine Only: Inspect Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) valve.
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
DATE
ACTUAL
MILEAGE
SERVICED BY:
An Emission Control Service.
150,000 Miles (240 000 km)
j Drain, flush and refill cooling system (or every 60 months since last service,
whichever occurs first). See “Engine Coolant” in the Index for what to use.
Inspect hoses. Clean radiator, condenser, pressure cap and neck.
Pressure test the cooling system and pressure cap.
An Emission Control Service.
7-44
Part B: Owner Checks and Services
Listed in this part are owner checks and services which
should be performed at the intervals specified to help
ensure the safety, dependability and emission control
performance of your vehicle.
Be sure any necessary repairs are completed at once.
Whenever any fluids or lubricants are added to your
vehicle, make sure they are the proper ones, as
shown in Part D.
At the First 100, 1,000 and 6,000 Miles
(160, 1 600 and 10 000 km)
Check dual wheel nut torque. For proper torque, see
“Wheel Nut Torque” and “Tightening the Wheel Nuts”
in the Index.
At Each Fuel Fill
It is important for you or a service station attendant to
perform these underhood checks at each fuel fill.
Engine Oil Level Check
Engine Coolant Level Check
Check the engine coolant level and add DEX-COOLR
coolant mixture if necessary. See “Engine Coolant” in
the Index for further details.
Windshield Washer Fluid Level Check
Check the windshield washer fluid level in the
windshield washer tank and add the proper fluid if
necessary. See “Windshield Washer Fluid” in the
Index for further details.
At Least Once a Month
Tire Inflation Check
Make sure tires are inflated to the correct pressures.
Don’t forget to check your spare tire. See “Tires” in
the Index for further details.
Cassette Deck Service
Clean cassette deck. Cleaning should be done every
50 hours of tape play. See “Audio Systems” in the
Index for further details.
Check the engine oil level and add the proper oil if
necessary. See “Engine Oil” in the Index for
further details.
7-45
At Least Twice a Year
Restraint System Check
Make sure the safety belt reminder light and all your
belts, buckles, latch plates, retractors and anchorages are
working properly. Look for any other loose or damaged
safety belt system parts. If you see anything that might
keep a safety belt system from doing its job, have it
repaired. Have any torn or frayed safety belts replaced.
Wiper Blade Check
Inspect wiper blades for wear or cracking. Replace blade
inserts that appear worn or damaged or that streak or
miss areas of the windshield. Also see “Wiper Blades,
Cleaning” in the Index.
Spare Tire Check
At least twice a year, after the monthly inflation check
of the spare tire determines that the spare is inflated to
the correct tire inflation pressure, make sure that the
spare tire is stored securely.
7-46
Engine Air Cleaner Filter Restriction
Indicator Check
Your vehicle has an indicator located on the air cleaner
in the engine compartment that lets you know when the
air cleaner filter is dirty and needs to be changed. Check
indicator at least twice a year or when your engine oil is
changed, whichever occurs first. See “Air Cleaner” in
the Index for more information. Inspect your air cleaner
filter restriction indicator more often if the vehicle is
used in dusty areas or under off road conditions.
Weatherstrip Lubrication
Silicone grease on weatherstrips will make them last
longer, seal better, and not stick or squeak. Apply
silicone grease with a clean cloth. During very cold,
damp weather more frequent application may be
required. See “Recommended Fluids and Lubricants”
in the Index.
Manual Transmission Check
Check the transmission fluid level; add if needed. See
“Manual Transmission Fluid” in the Index. Check for
leaks. A fluid leak is the only reason for fluid loss. Have
the system inspected and repaired if needed.
Automatic Transmission Check
Check the transmission fluid level; add if needed. See
“Automatic Transmission Fluid” in the Index. A fluid
loss may indicate a problem. Check the system and
repair if needed.
Hydraulic Clutch System Check
Check the fluid level in the clutch reservoir. See
“Hydraulic Clutch Fluid” in the Index. A fluid loss in
this system could indicate a problem. Have the system
inspected and repaired at once.
At Least Once a Year
Key Lock Cylinders Service
Lubricate the key lock cylinders with the lubricant
specified in Part D.
Body Lubrication Service
Lubricate all body hood and body door hinges, latches,
locks and folding seat hardware. Part D tells you what to
use. More frequent lubrication may be required when
exposed to a corrosive environment.
Starter Switch Check
CAUTION:
When you are doing this check, the vehicle could
move suddenly. If it does, you or others could be
injured. Follow the steps below.
1. Before you start, be sure you have enough room
around the vehicle.
2. Firmly apply both the parking brake and the regular
brake. See “Parking Brake” in the Index if necessary.
NOTE: Do not use the accelerator pedal, and be
ready to turn off the engine immediately if it starts.
3. On automatic transmission vehicles, try to start the
engine in each gear. The starter should work only in
PARK (P) or NEUTRAL (N). If the starter works in
any other position, your vehicle needs service.
On manual transmission vehicles, put the shift lever
in NEUTRAL (N), push the clutch down halfway
and try to start the engine. The starter should work
only when the clutch is pushed down all the way to
the floor. If the starter works when the clutch isn’t
pushed all the way down, your vehicle needs service.
7-47
Automatic Transmission Shift Lock Control
System Check
CAUTION:
When you are doing this check, the vehicle could
move suddenly. If it does, you or others could be
injured. Follow the steps below.
1. Before you start, be sure you have enough
room around the vehicle. It should be parked on a
level surface.
2. Firmly apply the parking brake. See “Parking Brake”
in the Index if necessary.
NOTE: Be ready to apply the regular brake
immediately if the vehicle begins to move.
3. With the engine off, turn the key to the RUN
position, but don’t start the engine. Without applying
the regular brake, try to move the shift lever out of
PARK (P) with normal effort. If the shift lever
moves out of PARK (P), your vehicle needs service.
7-48
Ignition Transmission Lock Check
While parked, and with the parking brake set, try to turn
the ignition key to LOCK in each shift lever position.
D With an automatic transmission, the key should turn
to LOCK only when the shift lever is in PARK (P).
D With a manual transmission, the key should turn to
LOCK only when you press the key release button.
On all vehicles, the key should come out only in LOCK.
Parking Brake and Automatic Transmission
PARK (P) Mechanism Check
CAUTION:
When you are doing this check, your vehicle
could begin to move. You or others could be
injured and property could be damaged. Make
sure there is room in front of your vehicle in case
it begins to roll. Be ready to apply the regular
brake at once should the vehicle begin to move.
Park on a fairly steep hill, with the vehicle facing
downhill. Keeping your foot on the regular brake,
set the parking brake.
D To check the parking brake’s holding ability:
With the engine running and transmission in
NEUTRAL (N), slowly remove foot pressure from
the regular brake pedal. Do this until the vehicle is
held by the parking brake only.
D To check the PARK (P) mechanism’s holding
ability: With the engine running, shift to PARK (P).
Then release the parking brake followed by the
regular brake.
Underbody Flushing Service
At least every spring, use plain water to flush any
corrosive materials from the underbody. Take care to
clean thoroughly any areas where mud and other debris
can collect.
7-49
Part C: Periodic
Maintenance Inspections
Listed in this part are inspections and services which
should be performed at least twice a year (for instance,
each spring and fall). You should let your dealer’s
service department or other qualified service center
do these jobs. Make sure any necessary repairs are
completed at once.
Proper procedures to perform these services may be
found in a service manual. See “Service and Owner
Publications” in the Index.
Steering and Suspension Inspection
Inspect the front and rear suspension and steering
system for damaged, loose or missing parts, signs of
wear or lack of lubrication. Inspect the power steering
lines and hoses for proper hook-up, binding, leaks,
cracks, chafing, etc.
7-50
Exhaust System Inspection
Inspect the complete exhaust system. Inspect the body
near the exhaust system. Look for broken, damaged,
missing or out-of-position parts as well as open seams,
holes, loose connections or other conditions which could
cause a heat build-up in the floor pan or could let
exhaust fumes into the vehicle. See “Engine Exhaust” in
the Index.
Engine Cooling System Inspection
Inspect the hoses and have them replaced if they are
cracked, swollen or deteriorated. Inspect all pipes,
fittings and clamps; replace as needed. Clean the
outside of the radiator and air conditioning condenser.
To help ensure proper operation, a pressure test of the
cooling system and pressure cap is recommended at
least once a year.
Throttle System Inspection
(Gasoline Engine)
Inspect the throttle system for interference or binding,
and for damaged or missing parts. Replace parts as
needed. Replace any components that have high effort
or excessive wear. Do not lubricate accelerator and
cruise control cables.
Brake System Inspection
Inspect the complete system. Inspect brake lines and
hoses for proper hook-up, binding, leaks, cracks,
chafing, etc. Inspect disc brake pads for wear and rotors
for surface condition. Inspect other brake parts,
including calipers, parking brake, etc. Check parking
brake adjustment. You may need to have your brakes
inspected more often if your driving habits or conditions
result in frequent braking.
7-51
Part D: Recommended Fluids
and Lubricants
NOTE: Fluids and lubricants identified below by
name, part number or specification may be obtained
from your dealer.
USAGE
USAGE
FLUID/LUBRICANT
Engine Oil
(Diesel Engine)
Engine oil with the letters CH-4
or CG-4 is best for your vehicle.
The CH-4 or CG-4 designation
may appear either alone, or in
combination with other API
designations, such as API
CH-4/SJ, CG-4/SH or
CH-4/CG-4/SJ. These letters show
American Petroleum Institute
(API) levels of quality. To
determine the preferred viscosity
for your vehicle’s diesel engine,
see “Engine Oil” in the Index.
Engine Coolant
50/50 mixture of clean, drinkable
water and use only GM
GoodwrenchR DEX-COOLR or
HavolineR DEX-COOLR
Coolant. See “Engine Coolant” in
the Index.
FLUID/LUBRICANT
Engine Oil
Engine oil with the American
(Gasoline Engine) Petroleum Institute Certified for
Gasoline Engines starburst symbol
of the proper viscosity. To
determine the preferred viscosity
for your vehicle’s engine, see
“Engine Oil” in the Index.
7-52
USAGE
Hydraulic
Brake System
Windshield
Washer Solvent
FLUID/LUBRICANT
Delco Supreme 11R Brake Fluid
(GM Part No. 12377967 or
equivalent DOT-3 brake fluid).
GM OptikleenR Washer
Solvent (GM Part No. 1051515)
or equivalent.
Hydraulic
Clutch System
Hydraulic Clutch Fluid (GM Part
No. 12345347 or equivalent
DOT-3 brake fluid).
Parking Brake
Cable Guides
Chassis Lubricant (GM Part
No. 12377985 or equivalent)
or lubricant meeting requirements
of NLGI # 2, Category LB
or GC-LB.
Power
Steering System
GM Power Steering Fluid (GM
Part No. 1052884 - 1 pint,
1050017 - 1 quart, or equivalent).
USAGE
FLUID/LUBRICANT
Manual
Transmission
GM Goodwrench Synthetic
Manual Transmission Fluid
(GM Part No. 12346190 - 1 qt.) or
equivalent SAE 75W-85 GL-4
gear oil.
Automatic
Transmission
DEXRONR-III Automatic
Transmission Fluid.
Key Lock
Cylinders
Multi-Purpose Lubricant,
SuperlubeR (GM Part
No. 12346241 or equivalent).
Floor Shift
Linkage
Chassis
Lubrication
LubriplateR Lubricant Aerosol
(GM Part No. 12346293 or
equivalent) or lubricant meeting
requirements of NLGI # 2
Category LB or GC-LB.
Chassis Lubricant (GM Part
No. 12377985 or equivalent) or
lubricant meeting requirements
of NLGI # 2, Category LB
or GC-LB.
7-53
USAGE
FLUID/LUBRICANT
USAGE
FLUID/LUBRICANT
Front
Wheel Bearings
Wheel bearing lubricant meeting
requirements of NLGI # 2,
Category GC or GC-LB (GM Part
No. 1051344 or equivalent).
Hood and
Door Hinges
Multi-Purpose Lubricant,
SuperlubeR (GM Part
No. 12346241 or equivalent).
Rear Axle
SAE 75W-140 Synthetic Axle
Lubricant (GM Part No. 12346140
or equivalent).
Body Door
Hinge Pins
and Folding
Seat Hinge
Multi-Purpose Lubricant,
SuperlubeR (GM Part
No. 12346241 or equivalent).
Rear Driveline
Center Splines
Chassis Lubricant (GM Part
No. 12377985 or equivalent) or
lubricant meeting requirements
of NLGI # 2, Category LB
or GC-LB.
Weatherstrip
Conditioning
Dielectric Silicone Grease (GM
Part No. 12345579 or equivalent).
Weatherstrip
Squeaks
Synthetic Grease with Teflon,
SuperlubeR (GM Part
No. 12371287 or equivalent).
Hood Latch
Assembly,
Secondary Latch,
Pivots, Spring
Anchor and
Release Pawl
7-54
LubriplateR Lubricant Aerosol
(GM Part No. 12346293 or
equivalent) or lubricant meeting
requirements of NLGI # 2,
Category LB or GC-LB.
Part E: Maintenance Record
After the scheduled services are performed, record the date, odometer reading and who performed the service in the
boxes provided after the maintenance interval. Any additional information from “Owner Checks and Services” or
“Periodic Maintenance” can be added on the following record pages. Also, you should retain all maintenance receipts.
Your owner information portfolio is a convenient place to store them.
Maintenance Record
DATE
ODOMETER
READING
SERVICED BY
MAINTENANCE PERFORMED
7-55
Maintenance Record
DATE
7-56
ODOMETER
READING
SERVICED BY
MAINTENANCE PERFORMED
Maintenance Record
DATE
ODOMETER
READING
SERVICED BY
MAINTENANCE PERFORMED
7-57
Maintenance Record
DATE
7-58
ODOMETER
READING
SERVICED BY
MAINTENANCE PERFORMED
Section 8 Customer Assistance Information
Here you will find out how to contact Chevrolet if you need assistance. This section also tells you how to obtain
service publications and how to report any safety defects.
8-2
8-4
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
Customer Satisfaction Procedure
Customer Assistance for Text Telephone
(TTY) Users
Customer Assistance Offices
GM Mobility Program for Persons
with Disabilities
Chevrolet Roadside Assistance Program
Canadian Roadside Assistance
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
Courtesy Transportation
Warranty Information
Reporting Safety Defects to the United
States Government
Reporting Safety Defects to the
Canadian Government
Reporting Safety Defects to General Motors
8-
8-1
Customer Satisfaction Procedure
Your satisfaction and goodwill are important to your
dealer and to Chevrolet. Normally, any concerns with
the sales transaction or the operation of your vehicle
will be resolved by your dealer’s sales or service
departments. Sometimes, however, despite the best
intentions of all concerned, misunderstandings can
occur. If your concern has not been resolved to your
satisfaction, the following steps should be taken:
STEP ONE -- Discuss your concern with a member
of dealership management. Normally, concerns can
be quickly resolved at that level. If the matter has
already been reviewed with the sales, service or parts
manager, contact the owner of the dealership or the
general manager.
8-2
STEP TWO -- If after contacting a member of
dealership management, it appears your concern cannot be
resolved by the dealership without further help, contact
the Chevrolet Customer Assistance Center by
calling 1-800-222-1020. In Canada, contact GM of Canada
Customer Communication Centre in Oshawa by calling
1-800-263-3777 (English) or 1-800-263-7854 (French).
We encourage you to call the toll-free number in order
to give your inquiry prompt attention. Please have the
following information available to give the Customer
Assistance Representative:
D Vehicle Identification Number (This is available
from the vehicle registration or title, or the plate
at the top left of the instrument panel and visible
through the windshield.)
When contacting Chevrolet, please remember that
your concern will likely be resolved at a dealer’s facility.
That is why we suggest you follow Step One first if
you have a concern.
STEP THREE -- Both General Motors and your dealer
are committed to making sure you are completely
satisfied with your new vehicle. However, if you
continue to remain unsatisfied after following the
procedure outlined in Steps One and Two, you should
file with the GM/BBB Auto Line Program to enforce
any additional rights you may have. Canadian owners
refer to your Warranty and Owner Assistance
Information booklet for information on the Canadian
Motor Vehicle Arbitration Plan (CAMVAP).
D Dealership name and location
D Vehicle delivery date and present mileage
8-3
The BBB Auto Line Program is an out of court program
administered by the Council of Better Business Bureaus
to settle automotive disputes regarding vehicle repairs or
the interpretation of the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.
Although you may be required to resort to this informal
dispute resolution program prior to filing a court action,
use of the program is free of charge and your case will
generally be heard within 40 days. If you do not agree
with the decision given in your case, you may reject it and
proceed with any other venue for relief available to you.
You may contact the BBB using the toll-free telephone
number or write them at the following address:
BBB Auto Line
Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc.
4200 Wilson Boulevard
Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1804
Telephone: 1-800-955-5100
This program is available in all 50 states and the District
of Columbia. Eligibility is limited by vehicle age,
mileage and other factors. General Motors reserves the
right to change eligibility limitations and/or discontinue
its participation in this program.
8-4
Customer Assistance for Text
Telephone (TTY) Users
To assist customers who are deaf, hard of hearing, or
speech-impaired and who use Text Telephones (TTYs),
Chevrolet has TTY equipment available at its Customer
Assistance Center. Any TTY user can communicate
with Chevrolet by dialing: 1-800-833-CHEV (2438).
(TTY users in Canada can dial 1-800-263-3830.)
Customer Assistance Offices
Chevrolet encourages customers to call the toll-free
number for assistance. If a U.S. customer wishes to write
to Chevrolet, the letter should be addressed to Chevrolet’s
Customer Assistance Center.
United States
Chevrolet Motor Division
Chevrolet Customer Assistance Center
P.O. Box 33170
Detroit, MI 48232-5170
1-800-222-1020
1-800-833-2438 (For Text Telephone devices (TTYs))
Roadside Assistance: 1-800-CHEV-USA (243-8872)
From:
Puerto Rico:
1-800-496-9992 (English)
1-800-496-9993 (Spanish)
U.S. Virgin Islands:
1-800-496-9994
Fax Number: 313-381-0022
Canada
General Motors of Canada Limited
Customer Communication Centre, 163-005
1908 Colonel Sam Drive
Oshawa, Ontario L1H 8P7
1-800-263-3777 (English)
1-800-263-7854 (French)
1-800-263-3830 (For Text Telephone devices (TTYs))
Roadside Assistance: 1-800-268-6800
Mexico, Central America and Caribbean
Islands/Countries (Except Puerto Rico and
U.S. Virgin Islands)
General Motors de Mexico, S. de R.L. de C.V.
Customer Assistance Center
Paseo de la Reforma # 2740
Col. Lomas de Bezares
C.P. 11910, Mexico, D.F.
01-800-508-0000
Long Distance: 011-52 - 53 29 0 800
GM Mobility Program for Persons
with Disabilities
This program, available to
qualified applicants, can
reimburse you up to $1,000
toward aftermarket driver
or passenger adaptive
equipment you may require
for your vehicle (hand
controls, wheelchair/scooter
lifts, etc.).
This program can also provide you with free resource
information, such as area driver assessment centers and
mobility equipment installers. The program is available
for a limited period of time from the date of vehicle
purchase/lease. See your dealer for more details or call
the GM Mobility Assistance Center at 1-800-323-9935.
Text telephone (TTY) users, call 1-800-833-9935.
GM of Canada also has a Mobility Program.
Call 1-800-GM-DRIVE (463-7483) for details.
When calling from outside Canada, please dial
1-905-644-3063. All TTY users call 1-800-263-3830.
8-5
Chevrolet Roadside Assistance Program
If your problem cannot be resolved over the phone,
our advisors have access to a nationwide network of dealer
recommended service providers. Roadside membership
is free; however some services may incur costs.
Roadside offers two levels of service to the customer,
Basic Care and Courtesy Care:
D Toll-free number, 1-800-CHEV-USA (243-8872),
text telephone (TTY) users, call 1-888-889-2438
D Free towing for warranty repairs
D Basic over-the-phone technical advice
D Available dealer services at reasonable costs
To enhance Chevrolet’s strong commitment to customer
satisfaction, Chevrolet is excited to announce the
establishment of the Chevrolet Roadside Assistance
Center. As the owner of a 2001 Chevrolet, membership
in Roadside Assistance is free.
Roadside Assistance is available 24 hours a day,
365 days a year, by calling 1-800-CHEV-USA (243-8872).
This toll-free number will provide you over-the-phone
roadside assistance with minor mechanical problems.
8-6
(i.e., wrecker services, locksmith/key service,
glass repair, etc.)
ROADSIDE Courtesy Care PROVIDES:
D Roadside Basic Care services (as outlined previously)
Plus:
D FREE Non-Warranty Towing (to the closest dealer
from a legal roadway)
D FREE Locksmith/Key Service (when keys are lost
on the road or locked inside)
D FREE Flat Tire Service (spare installed on the road)
D FREE Jump Start (at home or on the road)
D FREE Fuel Delivery ($5 of fuel delivered on the road)
Chevrolet offers Courtesy Transportation for customers
needing warranty service. Courtesy Transportation will
be offered in conjunction with the coverage provided by
the Bumper-to-Bumper New Vehicle Limited Warranty
to eligible purchasers of 2001 Chevrolet passenger cars
and light duty trucks. (Please see your selling dealer
for details.)
Courtesy Care is available to retail and retail lease
customers operating 2001 and newer Chevrolet vehicles
for a period of 3 years/36,000 miles (60 000 km),
whichever occurs first. All Courtesy Care services must
be pre-arranged by Chevrolet Roadside or dealer
service management.
Basic Care and Courtesy Care are not part of or
included in the coverage provided by the New Vehicle
Limited Warranty. Chevrolet reserves the right to
modify or discontinue Basic Care and Courtesy Care
at any time.
For prompt assistance when calling, please have the
following available to give to the advisor:
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
License plate number
Vehicle color
Vehicle location
Telephone number where you can be reached
Vehicle mileage
Description of problem
Canadian Roadside Assistance
Vehicles purchased in Canada have an extensive
Roadside Assistance program accessible from anywhere
in Canada or the United States. Please refer to the
separate brochure provided by the dealer or call
1-800-268-6800 for emergency services.
The Roadside Assistance Center uses companies
that will provide you with quality and priority service.
When roadside services are required, our advisors will
explain any payment obligations that may be incurred
for utilizing outside services.
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Courtesy Transportation
Chevrolet has always exemplified quality and value
in its offering of motor vehicles. To enhance your
ownership experience, we and our participating dealers
are proud to offer Courtesy Transportation, a customer
support program for new vehicles.
The Courtesy Transportation program is offered to
retail purchase/lease customers in conjunction with
the Bumper-to-Bumper coverage provided by the
New Vehicle Limited Warranty. Several transportation
options are available when warranty repairs are
required. This will reduce your inconvenience during
warranty repairs.
Plan Ahead When Possible
When your vehicle requires warranty service, you
should contact your dealer and request an appointment.
By scheduling a service appointment and advising your
service consultant of your transportation needs, your
dealer can help minimize your inconvenience. If your
vehicle cannot be scheduled into the service department
immediately, keep driving it until it can be scheduled for
service, unless, of course, the problem is safety-related.
If it is, please call your dealership, let them know this,
and ask for instructions.
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If the dealer requests that you simply drop the vehicle
off for service, you are urged to do so as early in the
work day as possible to allow for same day repair.
Transportation Options
Warranty service can generally be completed while
you wait. However, if you are unable to wait Chevrolet
helps minimize your inconvenience by providing several
transportation options. Depending on the circumstances,
your dealer can offer you one of the following:
Shuttle Service
Participating dealers can provide you with shuttle service
to get you to your destination with minimal interruption of
your daily schedule. This includes a one way shuttle ride to
a destination up to 10 miles from the dealership.
Public Transportation or Fuel Reimbursement
If your vehicle requires overnight warranty repairs,
reimbursement up to $30 per day (five days maximum)
may be available for the use of public transportation
such as taxi or bus. In addition, should you
arrange transportation through a friend or relative,
reimbursement for reasonable fuel expenses up to
$10 per day (five day maximum) may be available.
Claim amounts should reflect actual costs and be
supported by original receipts.
Courtesy Rental Vehicle
When your vehicle is unavailable due to overnight
warranty repairs, your dealer may arrange to provide
you with a courtesy rental vehicle or reimburse you
for a rental vehicle you obtained, at actual cost, up to
a maximum of $30.00 per day supported by receipts.
This requires that you sign and complete a rental
agreement and meet state, local and rental vehicle
provider requirements. Requirements vary and may
include minimum age requirements, insurance coverage,
credit card, etc. You are responsible for fuel usage
charges and may also be responsible for taxes, levies,
usage fees, excessive mileage or rental usage beyond the
completion of the repair.
Courtesy Transportation is available only at
participating dealers and all program options, such as
shuttle service, may not be available at every dealer.
Please contact your dealer for specific information about
availability. All Courtesy Transportation arrangements
will be administered by appropriate dealer personnel.
Canadian Vehicles: For warranty repairs during the
Complete Vehicle Coverage period of the General
Motors of Canada New Vehicle Limited Warranty,
alternative transportation may be available under the
Courtesy Transportation Program. Please consult your
dealer for details.
Generally it is not possible to provide a like-vehicle as
a courtesy rental.
General Motors reserves the right to unilaterally modify,
change or discontinue Courtesy Transportation at any time
and to resolve all questions of claim eligibility pursuant to the
terms and conditions described herein at its sole discretion.
Additional Program Information
Warranty Information
Courtesy Transportation is available during the
Bumper-to-Bumper warranty coverage period,
but it is not part of the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.
A separate booklet entitled “Warranty and Owner
Assistance Information” furnished with each new
vehicle provides detailed warranty coverage information.
Your vehicle comes with a separate warranty booklet
that contains detailed warranty information.
8-9
REPORTING SAFETY
DEFECTS TO THE UNITED
STATES GOVERNMENT
If you believe that your vehicle has a defect which could
cause a crash or could cause injury or death, you should
immediately inform the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration (NHTSA), in addition to
notifying General Motors.
If NHTSA receives similar complaints, it may open an
investigation, and if it finds that a safety defect exists in
a group of vehicles, it may order a recall and remedy
campaign. However, NHTSA cannot become involved
in individual problems between you, your dealer or
General Motors.
To contact NHTSA, you may either call the Auto Safety
Hotline toll-free at 1-800-424-9393 (or 366-0123 in the
Washington, D.C. area) or write to:
NHTSA, U.S. Department of Transportation
Washington, D.C. 20590
You can also obtain other information about motor
vehicle safety from the hotline.
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REPORTING SAFETY DEFECTS TO
THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT
If you live in Canada, and you believe that your vehicle
has a safety defect, you should immediately notify
Transport Canada, in addition to notifying General
Motors of Canada Limited. You may write to:
Transport Canada
330 Sparks Street
Tower C
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N5
REPORTING SAFETY DEFECTS
TO GENERAL MOTORS
In addition to notifying NHTSA (or Transport Canada)
in a situation like this, we certainly hope you’ll notify
us. Please call us at 1-800-222-1020, or write:
In Canada, please call us at 1-800-263-3777 (English)
or 1-800-263-7854 (French). Or, write:
General Motors of Canada Limited
Customer Communication Centre, 163-005
1908 Colonel Sam Drive
Oshawa, Ontario L1H 8P7
Chevrolet Motor Division
Chevrolet Customer Assistance Center
P.O. Box 33170
Detroit, MI 48232-5170
8-11
2001 CHEVROLET SERVICE PUBLICATIONS ORDERING INFORMATION
The following publications covering the operation and servicing of your vehicle can be purchased by filling out
the Service Publication Order Form in this book and mailing it in with your check, money order,
or credit card information to Helm, Incorporated (address below.)
CURRENT PUBLICATIONS FOR 2001 CHEVROLET
SERVICE MANUALS
Service Manuals have the diagnosis and repair information
on engines, transmission, axle, suspension, brakes,
electrical, steering, body, etc.
RETAIL SELL PRICE: $120.00
OWNER’S INFORMATION
Owner publications are written directly for Owners and
intended to provide basic operational information about the
vehicle. The owner’s manual will include the Maintenance
Schedule for all models.
TRANSMISSION, TRANSAXLE, TRANSFER CASE
UNIT REPAIR MANUAL
This manual provides information on unit repair service
procedures, adjustments and specifications for the
2001 GM transmissions, transaxles and transfer cases.
RETAIL SELL PRICE: $50.00
In-Portfolio: Includes a Portfolio, Owner’s Manual and
Warranty Booklet.
RETAIL SELL PRICE: $20.00
SERVICE BULLETINS
Service Bulletins give technical service information needed
to knowledgeably service General Motors cars and trucks.
Each bulletin contains instructions to assist in the
diagnosis and service of your vehicle.
PLEASE COMPLETE THE ORDER FORM SHOWN ON
THE FOLLOWING PAGE AND MAIL TO:
Helm, Incorporated S P.O. Box 07130 S Detroit, MI 48207
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Without Portfolio: Owner’s Manual only.
RETAIL SELL PRICE: $15.00
CURRENT & PAST MODEL ORDER FORMS
Service Publications are available for current and past
model GM vehicles. To request an order form, please
specify year and model name of the vehicle.
OR ORDER TOLL FREE: 1-800-551-4123
Monday-Friday 8:00 AM – 6:00 PM Eastern Time
Visit Helm, Inc. on the World Wide Web at: www.helminc.com
For Credit Card Orders Only (VISA–MasterCard–Discover)
ORDER TOLL FREE
(NOTE: For Credit Card Holders Only)
1-800-551-4123
(Monday-Friday 8:00 AM – 6:00 PM EST)
FAX Orders Only 1-313-865-5927
2
0
0
1
PUBLICATION FORM
NUMBER
Orders will be mailed within 10 days of receipt. Please allow adequate time for postal
service. If further information is needed, write to the address shown below or call
1-800-551-4123. Material cannot be returned for credit without packing slip with return
information within 30 days of delivery. On returns, a re-stocking fee may be applied
against the original order.
ITEM DESCRIPTION
VEHICLE MODEL
NAME
YEAR
QTY.
PRICE
EACH*
Service Manual
Car & Light Truck
Transmission Unit Repair
2001
$120.00
2001
$50.00
Owner’s Manual In Portfolio
2001
$20.00
Owner’s Manual Without Portfolio
2001
$15.00
TOTAL
PRICE
G
M
S
H
I
P
T
O
NOTE: Dealers and Companies please provide dealer or company name, and also the
name of the person to whose attention the shipment should be sent.
Mail completed order form to:
HELM, INCORPORATED S P.O. Box 07130 S Detroit, MI 48207
For purchases outside U.S.A. please write to the above address for quotation.
(CUSTOMER’S NAME)
(ATTENTION)
(STREET ADDRESS—NO P.O. BOX NUMBERS)
(CITY)
(STATE)
DAYTIME TELEPHONE NO.
(ZIP CODE)
(
)
AREA CODE
GM-CHE-ORD99
*(Prices are subject to change without notice and without incurring
obligation. Allow ample time for delivery.)
P
A
Y
M
E
N
T
Check or Money
Order payable to
Helm, Inc. (USA funds
only — do not send cash.)
TOTAL MATERIAL
Michigan Purchasers
add 6% sales tax
U.S. Order Processing
MasterCard
VISA
$6.00
Canadian Postage
GRAND TOTAL
Discover
Account
Number:
Expiration
Date mo/yr:
Check here if your billing address
is different from your shipping
address shown.
CUSTOMER SIGNATURE
Note to Canadian Customers: All listed prices are quoted in U.S. funds. Canadian residents
are to make checks payable in U.S. funds.
8-13