basic concepts - Department of Higher Education

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Advanced MS-Office
Subject: Advanced MS-Office
Credits:4
SYLLABUS
Introduction to Computers
What is a Computer, Characteristics of Computer, History, Computer Generation Types. Basic Computer
Organization, Functional units of Computer, Memory System in Computer, Capacity of Primary Memory,
Secondary Storage, Input-Output Devices. Introduction, Definition, Functions.
Introduction to Ms-Office
Design Goals of MS-OFFICE, Components of MS-OFFICE: MS-Word, MS-Power Point, MS-Excel, and
MSAccess. What is word Processing, Advantages of Word Processing, Importance of Word Processing.
Introduction to Ms-word
Menus, Shortcut menus, Toolbars, Customizing tool bars, Files, Creating and opening documents, Saving
documents, Renaming documents, Working on multiple documents, Close a document, Text,Formatting
Paragraphs, Styles, Lists, Tables, Graphics Spelling And Grammar, Page Formatting ,Macros, Table Of
Contents, Web Designing, Mail Merge: Why Use the Mail Merge Feature, Creating the Data Source Document,
Beginning the Mail Merge Process ,Create the Data Source ,Using the Data Entry Form, Saving g the Data File
,Editing the Data File.
Introduction to Ms Power Point
AutoContent Wizard, Create a presentation from a template, Create a blank presentation, Open an existing
presentation, AutoLayout, Screen Screen, layout Views, Working with Slides, Adding Content, Working with
Text, Color Schemes, Graphics Slide Effects, Master Slides, Saving and Printing.
Introduction To Ms-Excel
Spreadsheet Basics,Customizing Excel,Modifying A Worksheet,Formatting
Functions,Sorting and Filling,Charts,Page Properties and Printing.
Cells,Formulas
and
Introductions to Ms-Access
Getting started, Blank Access database, Access database wizards, pages, and projects, Open an existing
database, Converting to Access 2000 Screen Layouts,Creating Tables, Datasheet Records,Table
Relationships,Sorting and Filtering ,Queries, Forms, Form Controls, List, Sub forms, Reports, Importing,.
Exporting, And Linking.
Introduction to Front Page
Page Properties, Text, Hyperlinks, Tables, Graphics and Pictures.
Suggested Reading:
Data Mining for Business Intelligence: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications in Microsoft Office
Excel with XLMiner By Galit Shmueli (Author), Nitin R. Patel (Author), Peter C. Bruce (Author)
Computer Fundamental, M.S. Office, Internet And Web Technology By Dinesh Maidasani (Author), Jai
Narayan Yadav (Author)
MS Office 2007 in a Nutshell By Sanjay Saxena (Author)
Windows 8 & Office 2010 For Dummies eBook Set By Andy Rathbone (Author)
MS-Office by Dr. S.S. Shrivastava
MS-Office 2007 Training Guide by S. Jain
BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTERS
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Let us begin with the word ‘compute’. It means ‘to calculate’. We all are familiar with
calculations in our day-to-day life. We apply mathematical operations like addition,
subtraction, multiplication, etc. and many other formulae for calculations. Simpler
calculations take less time. But complex calculations take much longer time. Another
factor is accuracy in calculations. So man explored with the idea to develop a machine,
which can perform this type of arithmetic calculation faster, and with full accuracy. This
gave birth to a device or machine called ‘computer’.
The computer we see today is quite different from the one made in the beginning. The
number of applications of a computer has increased, the speed and accuracy of
calculation has increased. You must appreciate the impact of computers in our day-to-day
life. Reservation of tickets in Air Lines and Railways, payment of telephone and
electricity bills, deposits and withdrawals of money from banks, business data processing,
medical diagnosis, weather forecasting, etc. are some of the areas where computer has
become extremely useful.
However, there is one limitation of the computer. Human beings do calculations on their
own. But computer is a dumb machine and it has to be given proper instructions to carry
out its calculation. This is why we should know how a computer works.
1.2 WHAT IS A COMPUTER?
Computer is an electronic device. As mentioned in the introduction it can do arithmetic
calculations faster. But as you will see later it does much more than that. It can be
compared to a magic box, which serves different purpose to different people. For a
common man computer is simply a calculator, which works automatic and quite fast. For
a person who knows much about it, computer is a machine capable of solving problems
and manipulating data. It accepts data, processes the data by doing some mathematical
and logical operations and gives us the desired output.
Therefore, we may define computer as a device that transforms data. Data can be
anything like marks obtained by you in various subjects. It can also be name, age, sex,
weight, height, etc. of all the students in your class or income, savings, investments, etc.,
of a country. Computer can be defined in terms of its functions. It can i) accept data ii)
store data, iii) process data as desired, and iv) retrieve the stored data as and when
required and v) print the result in desired format.
Fig. 1.1: Personal Computer
1.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER
Let us identify the major characteristics of computer. These can be discussed under the
headings of speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and memory.
1.3.1 Speed
As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that
we take hours to complete. Suppose you are asked to calculate the average monthly
income of one thousand persons in your neighborhood. For this you have to add income
from all sources for all persons on a day-to-day basis and find out the average for each
one of them. How long will it take for you to do this? One day, two days or one week?
Do you know your small computer can finish this work in few seconds? The weather
forecasting that you see every day on TV is the results of compilation and analysis of
huge amount of data on temperature, humidity, pressure, etc. of various places on
computers. It takes few minutes for the computer to process this huge amount of data and
give the result.
You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of
instructions and even more per second. Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in
terms of microsecond (10-6 part of a second) or nano-second (10-9 part of a second). From
this you can imagine how fast your computer performs work.
1.3.2 Accuracy
Suppose some one calculates faster but commits a lot of errors in computing. Such result
is useless. There is another aspect. Suppose you want to divide 15 by 7. You may work
out up to 2 decimal places and say the dividend is 2.14. I may calculate up to 4 decimal
places and say that the result is 2.1428. Some one else may go up to 9 decimal places and
say the result is 2.142857143. Hence, in addition to speed, the computer should have
accuracy or correctness in computing.
The degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with
the same accuracy. The accuracy level is determined on the basis of design of computer.
The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data.
1.3.3 Diligence
A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for
hours without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a
computer will perform every calculation with the same accuracy. Due to this capability it
overpowers human being in routine type of work.
1.3.4 Versatility
It means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use your
computer to prepare payroll slips. Next moment you may use it for inventory
management or to prepare electric bills.
1.3.5 Power of Remembering
Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information
can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends
entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or
retrieve these data.
1.3.6 No IQ
Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the
user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to
decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own
decision as you can.
1.3.7 No Feeling
It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not
get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users.
1.3.8 Storage
The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You can
also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be kept outside
your computer and can be carried to other computers.
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 1.1
1. What is a computer? Why is it known as data processor?
2. What are the important characteristics of computer?
1.4 HISTORY OF COMPUTER
History of computer could be traced back to the effort of man to count large numbers.
This process of counting of large numbers generated various systems of numeration like
Babylonian system of numeration, Greek system of numeration, Roman system of
numeration and Indian system of numeration. Out of these the Indian system of
numeration has been accepted universally. It is the basis of modern decimal system of
numeration (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Later you will know how the computer solves all
calculations based on decimal system. But you will be surprised to know that the
computer does not understand the decimal system and uses binary system of numeration
for processing.
We will briefly discuss some of the path-breaking inventions in the field of computing
devices.
1.4 .1 Calculating Machines
It took over generations for early man to build mechanical devices for counting large
numbers. The Egyptian and Chinese people developed the first calculating device called
ABACUS.
The word ABACUS means calculating board. It consisted of sticks in horizontal
positions on which were inserted sets of pebbles. A modern form of ABACUS is given in
Fig. 1.2. It has a number of horizontal bars each having ten beads. Horizontal bars
represent units, tens, hundreds, etc.
Fig. 1.2: Abacus Computer
1.4.2 Napier’s bones
English mathematician John Napier built a mechanical device for the purpose of
multiplication in 1617 A D. The device was known as Napier’s bones.
1.4.3 Slide Rule
English mathematician Edmund Gunter developed the slide rule. This machine could
perform operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It was widely
used in Europe in 16th century.
1.4.4 Pascal's Adding and Subtractory Machine
You might have heard the name of Blaise Pascal. He developed a machine at the age of
19 that could add and subtract. The machine consisted of wheels, gears and cylinders.
1.4.5 Leibniz’s Multiplication and Dividing Machine
The German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz built around 1673 a
mechanical device that could both multiply and divide.
1.4.6 Babbage’s Analytical Engine
It was in the year 1823 that a famous English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical
machine to do complex mathematical calculations. It was called difference engine. Later
he developed a general-purpose calculating machine called analytical engine. You should
know that Charles Babbage is called the father of computer.
1.4.7 Mechanical and Electrical Calculator
In the beginning of 19th century the mechanical calculator was developed to perform all
sorts of mathematical calculations. Up to the 1960s it was widely used. Later the rotating
part of mechanical calculator was replaced by electric motor. So it was called the
electrical calculator.
1.4.8 Modern Electronic Calculator
The electronic calculator used in 1960 s was run with electron tubes, which was quite
bulky. Later it was replaced with transistors and as a result the size of calculators became
too small.
The modern electronic calculator can compute all kinds of mathematical computations
and mathematical functions. It can also be used to store some data permanently. Some
calculators have in-built programs to perform some complicated calculations.
Fig. 1.3: Vacuum tube, transistor, IC
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 1.2
1. What is the first mathematical device built and when was it built?
2. Who is called the father of Computer Technology.
1.5 COMPUTER GENERATIONS
You know that the evolution of computer started from 16th century and resulted in the
form that we see today. The present day computer, however, has also undergone rapid
change during the last fifty years. This period, during which the evolution of computer
took place, can be divided into five distinct phases known as Generations of Computers.
Each phase is distinguished from others on the basis of the type of switching circuits
used.
1.5.1 First Generation Computers
First generation computers used Thermion valves. These computers were large in size and
writing programs on them was difficult. Some of the computers of this generation were:
ENIAC: It was the first electronic computer built in 1946 at University of Pennsylvania,
USA by John Eckert and John Mauchy. It was named Electronic Numerical Integrator
and Calculator (ENIAC). The ENIAC was 30 50 feet long, weighed 30 tons, contained
18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 registers, 10,000 capacitors and required 150,000 watts of
electricity. Today your favorite computer is many times as powerful as ENIAC, still size
is very small.
EDVAC: It stands for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer and was
developed in 1950. The concept of storing data and instructions inside the computer was
introduced here. This allowed much faster operation since the computer had rapid access
to both data and instructions. The other advantages of storing instruction was that
computer could do logical decision internally.
Other Important Computers of First Generation
EDSAC: It stands for Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer and was developed
by M.V. Wilkes at Cambridge University in 1949.
UNIVAC-1: Ecker and Mauchly produced it in 1951 by Universal Accounting Computer
setup.
Limitations of First Generation Computer
Followings are the major drawbacks of First generation computers.
1. The operating speed was quite slow.
2. Power consumption was very high.
3. It required large space for installation.
4. The programming capability was quite low.
1.5.2 Second Generation Computers
Around 1955 a device called Transistor replaced the bulky electric tubes in the first
generation computer. Transistors are smaller than electric tubes and have higher
operating speed. They have no filament and require no heating. Manufacturing cost was
also very low. Thus the size of the computer got reduced considerably.
It is in the second generation that the concept of Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory,
programming language and input and output units were developed. The programming
languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN were developed during this period. Some of the
computers of the Second Generation were
1. IBM 1620: Its size was smaller as compared to First Generation computers and
mostly used for scientific purpose.
2. IBM 1401: Its size was small to medium and used for business applications.
3. CDC 3600: Its size was large and is used for scientific purposes.
1.5.3 Third Generation Computers
The third generation computers were introduced in 1964. They used Integrated Circuits
(ICs). These ICs are popularly known as Chips. A single IC has many transistors,
registers and capacitors built on a single thin slice of silicon. So it is quite obvious that
the size of the computer got further reduced. Some of the computers developed during
this period were IBM-360, ICL-1900, IBM-370, and VAX-750. Higher level language
such as BASIC (Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed
during this period.
Computers of this generations were small in size, low cost, large memory and processing
speed is very high.
1.5.4 Fourth Generation Computers
The present day computers that you see today are the fourth generation computers that
started around 1975. It uses large scale Integrated Circuits (LSIC) built on a single
silicon chip called microprocessors. Due to the development of microprocessor it is
possible to place computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on single chip. These
computers are called microcomputers. Later very large scale Integrated Circuits (VLSIC)
replaced LSICs.
Thus the computer which was occupying a very large room in earlier days can now be
placed on a table. The personal computer (PC) that you see in your school is a Fourth
Generation Computer.
1.5.5 Fifth Generation Computer
The computers of 1990s are said to be Fifth Generation computers. The speed is
extremely high in fifth generation computer. Apart from this it can perform parallel
processing. The concept of Artificial intelligence has been introduced to allow the
computer to take its own decision. It is still in a developmental stage.
1.6 TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Now let us discuss the varieties of computers that we see today. Although they belong to
the fifth generation they can be divided into different categories depending upon the size,
efficiency, memory and number of users. Broadly they can be divided it to the following
categories.
1. Microcomputer: Microcomputer is at the lowest end of the computer range in
terms of speed and storage capacity. Its CPU is a microprocessor. The first
microcomputers were built of 8-bit microprocessor chips. The most common
application of personal computers (PC) is in this category. The PC supports a
number of input and output devices. An improvement of 8-bit chip is 16-bit and
32-bit chips. Examples of microcomputer are IBM PC, PC-AT .
2. Mini Computer: This is designed to support more than one user at a time. It
possesses large storage capacity and operates at a higher speed. The mini
computer is used in multi-user system in which various users can work at the
same time. This type of computer is generally used for processing large volume of
data in an organisation. They are also used as servers in Local Area Networks
(LAN).
3. Mainframes: These types of computers are generally 32-bit microprocessors.
They operate at very high speed, have very large storage capacity and can handle
the work load of many users. They are generally used in centralised databases.
They are also used as controlling nodes in Wide Area Networks (WAN). Example
of mainframes are DEC, ICL and IBM 3000 series.
4. Supercomputer: They are the fastest and most expensive machines. They have
high processing speed compared to other computers. They have also
multiprocessing technique. One of the ways in which supercomputers are built is
by interconnecting hundreds of microprocessors. Supercomputers are mainly
being used for whether forecasting, biomedical research, remote sensing, aircraft
design and other areas of science and technology. Examples of supercomputers
are CRAY YMP, CRAY2, NEC SX-3, CRAY XMP and PARAM from India.
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 3
1. Into how many generations the evolution of computer is divided?
2. What is VLSIC?
3. The personal computer that you see today is in which generation of computer?
1.7 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT
In this lesson we have discussed about the major characteristics of computer. The speed,
accuracy, memory and versatility are some of the features associated with a computer.
But the computer that we see today has not developed over night. It has taken centuries of
human effort to see the computer in its present form today. There are five generations of
computer. Over these generations the physical size of computer has decreased, but on the
other hand the processing speed of computer has improved tremendously. We also
discussed about the varieties of computers available today.
1.8 TERMINAL QUESTIONS
1. Why is computer known as data processor?
2. Explain in brief the various generations in computer technology?
3. Write a short note on Fifth Generation of computer. What makes it different from
Fourth generation computer?
4. Why did the size of computer get reduced in third generation computer?
5. Give short notes on the following
o (a) Versatility (b) Storage (c) Slide Rule (d) Babbage’s Analytical Engine
6. Distinguish between Microcomputer and Mainframe computer.
1.9 FEEDBACK TO IN-TEXT QUESTIONS
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 1
1. A computer is an electronic device, which is used to accept, store, retrieve and
process the data. It is called as data processor because it is mainly used for
processing data for producing meaningful information.
2. The characteristics of computer are speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and
storage.
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 2
1. Analytical engine, 1823.
2. Charles Babbage
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 3
1. Five generations
2. Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits
3. Fourth Generation
1.10 TERMINAL QUESTIONS
1. Explain various types of computers.
2. Explain in brief the various generations in computer technology.
3. Write a short note on Fifth Generation of computer. What makes it
different from Fourth Generation computer?
4. Why did the size of computer get reduced in Third Generation
computer?
COMPUTER ORGANISATION
2.1 INTRODUCTION
In the previous lesson we discussed about the evolution of computer. In this lesson we
will provide you with an overview of the basic design of a computer. You will know how
different parts of a computer are organized and how various operations are performed
between different parts to do a specific task. As you know from the previous lesson the
internal architecture of computer may differ from system to system, but the basic
organization remains the same for all computer systems.
2.2 BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS
A computer as shown in Fig. 2.1 performs basically five major operations or functions
irrespective of their size and make. These are 1) it accepts data or instructions by way of
input, 2) it stores data, 3) it can process data as required by the user, 4) it gives results in
the form of output, and 5) it controls all operations inside a computer. We discuss below
each of these operations.
1. Input: This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system.
You should know that computer is an electronic machine like any other machine, which
takes as inputs raw data and performs some processing giving out processed data.
Therefore, the input unit takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for
processing.
Fig. 2.1 Basic computer Operations
3. Storage: The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as
storage. Data has to be fed into the system before the actual processing starts. It is
because the processing speed of Central Processing Unit (CPU) is so fast that the
data has to be provided to CPU with the same speed. Therefore the data is first
stored in the storage unit for faster access and processing. This storage unit or the
primary storage of the computer system is designed to do the above functionality.
It provides space for storing data and instructions.
The storage unit performs the following major functions:
• All data and instructions are stored here before and after processing.
• Intermediate results of processing are also stored here.
3. Processing: The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is
called processing. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from
the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the
type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit.
4. Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful
information. Similarly the output produced by the computer after processing must also be
kept somewhere inside the computer before being given to you in human readable form.
Again the output is also stored inside the computer for further processing.
5. Control: The manner how instructions are executed and the above operations are
performed. Controlling of all operations like input, processing and output are performed
by control unit. It takes care of step-by-step processing of all operations in side the
computer.
2.3FUNCTIONAL UNITS
In order to carry out the operations mentioned in the previous section the computer
allocates the task between its various functional units. The computer system is divided
into three separate units for its operation. They are 1) arithmetic logical unit, 2) control
unit, and 3) central processing unit.
2.3.1 Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU)
After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit.
Arithmetic Logical Unit performs the actual processing of the data and instruction. The
major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when
required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further
processing or getting stored.
2.3.2 Control Unit (CU)
The next component of computer is the Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor
seeing that things are done in proper fashion. The control unit determines the sequence in
which computer programs and instructions are executed. Things like processing of
programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the instructions and issuing of
signals for other units of the computer to execute them. It also acts as a switchboard
operator when several users access the computer simultaneously. Thereby it coordinates
the activities of computer’s peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output.
Therefore it is the manager of all operations mentioned in the previous section.
2.3.3 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central processing
unit. You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system. It is just like brain that
takes all major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the
computer functions by activating and controlling the operations.
HARDWARE
SOFTWARE
Fig. 2.2: Computer Architecture
Personal Computer Configuration
Now let us identify the physical components that make the computer work. These are
1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
2. Computer Memory (RAM and ROM)
3. Data bus
4. Ports
5. Motherboard
6. Hard disk
7. Output Devices
8. Input Devices
All these components are inter-connected for the personal computer to work.
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 1
1. What are the five basic operations performed by the computer?
2. Define ALU, CU and CPU.
3. Choose the correct answer:
(a) The task of performing arithmetic and logical operations is called
(i) ALU (ii) editing (iii) storage (iv) output
(b) The ALU and CU jointly known as
(i) RAM (ii) ROM (iii) CPU (iv) none of the above
(c) The process of producing results from the data for getting useful information
(i) output (ii)input (iii) processing (iv) storage
2.4 MEMORY SYSTEM IN A COMPUTER
There are two kinds of computer memory: primary and secondary. Primary memory is
accessible directly by the processing unit. RAM is an example of primary memory. As
soon as the computer is switched off the contents of the primary memory is lost. You can
store and retrieve data much faster with primary memory compared to secondary
memory. Secondary memory such as floppy disks, magnetic disk, etc., is located outside
the computer. Primary memory is more expensive than secondary memory. Because of
this the size of primary memory is less than that of secondary memory. We will discuss
about secondary memory later on.
Computer memory is used to store two things: i) instructions to execute a program and ii)
data. When the computer is doing any job, the data that have to be processed are stored in
the primary memory. This data may come from an input device like keyboard or from a
secondary storage device like a floppy disk.
As program or the set of instructions is kept in primary memory, the computer is able to
follow instantly the set of instructions. For example, when you book ticket from railway
reservation counter, the computer has to follow the same steps: take the request, check
the availability of seats, calculate fare, wait for money to be paid, store the reservation
and get the ticket printed out. The programme containing these steps is kept in memory of
the computer and is followed for each request.
But inside the computer, the steps followed are quite different from what we see on the
monitor or screen. In computer’s memory both programs and data are stored in the binary
form. You have already been introduced with decimal number system, that is the
numbers 1 to 9 and 0. The binary system has only two values 0 and 1. These are called
bits. As human beings we all understand decimal system but the computer can only
understand binary system. It is because a large number of integrated circuits inside the
computer can be considered as switches, which can be made ON, or OFF. If a switch is
ON it is considered 1 and if it is OFF it is 0. A number of switches in different states will
give you a message like this: 110101.... 10. So the computer takes input in the form of 0
and 1 and gives output in the form 0 and 1 only. Is it not absurd if the computer gives
outputs as 0’s & 1’s only? But you do not have to worry about. Every number in binary
system can be converted to decimal system and vice versa; for example, 1010 meaning
decimal 10. Therefore it is the computer that takes information or data in decimal form
from you, convert it in to binary form, process it producing output in binary form and
again convert the output to decimal form.
The primary memory as you know in the computer is in the form of IC’s (Integrated
Circuits). These circuits are called Random Access Memory (RAM). Each of RAM’s
locations stores one byte of information. (One byte is equal to 8 bits). A bit is an acronym
for binary digit, which stands for one binary piece of information. This can be either 0 or
1. You will know more about RAM later. The Primary or internal storage section is made
up of several small storage locations (ICs) called cells. Each of these cells can store a
fixed number of bits called word length.
Each cell has a unique number assigned to it called the address of the cell and it is used to
identify the cells. The address starts at 0 and goes up to (N-1). You should know that the
memory is like a large cabinet containing as many drawers as there are addresses on
memory. Each drawer contains a word and the address is written on outside of the
drawer.
Capacity of Primary Memory
You know that each cell of memory contains one character or 1 byte of data. So the
capacity is defined in terms of byte or words. Thus 64 kilobyte (KB) memory is capable
of storing 64 1024 = 32,768 bytes. (1 kilobyte is 1024 bytes). A memory size ranges
from few kilobytes in small systems to several thousand kilobytes in large mainframe and
super computer. In your personal computer you will find memory capacity in the range of
64 KB, 4 MB, 8 MB and even 16 MB (MB = Million bytes).
The following terms related to memory of a computer are discussed below:
1. Random Access Memory (RAM): The primary storage is referred to as random
access memory (RAM) because it is possible to randomly select and use any
location of the memory directly store and retrieve data. It takes same time to any
address of the memory as the first address. It is also called read/write memory.
The storage of data and instructions inside the primary storage is temporary. It
disappears from RAM as soon as the power to the computer is switched off. The
memories, which loose their content on failure of power supply, are known as
volatile memories .So now we can say that RAM is volatile memory.
2. Read Only Memory (ROM): There is another memory in computer, which is
called Read Only Memory (ROM). Again it is the ICs inside the PC that form the
ROM. The storage of program and data in the ROM is permanent. The ROM
stores some standard processing programs supplied by the manufacturers to
operate the personal computer. The ROM can only be read by the CPU but it
cannot be changed. The basic input/output program is stored in the ROM that
examines and initializes various equipment attached to the PC when the switch is
made ON. The memories, which do not loose their content on failure of power
supply, are known as non-volatile memories. ROM is non-volatile memory.
3. PROM There is another type of primary memory in computer, which is called
Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM). You know that it is not possible to
modify or erase programs stored in ROM, but it is possible for you to store your
program in PROM chip. Once the programmes are written it cannot be changed
and remain intact even if power is switched off. Therefore programs or
instructions written in PROM or ROM cannot be erased or changed.
4. EPROM: This stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, which
over come the problem of PROM & ROM. EPROM chip can be programmed
time and again by erasing the information stored earlier in it. Information stored
in EPROM exposing the chip for some time ultraviolet light and it erases chip is
reprogrammed using a special programming facility. When the EPROM is in use
information can only be read.
5. Cache Memory: The speed of CPU is extremely high compared to the access
time of main memory. Therefore the performance of CPU decreases due to the
slow speed of main memory. To decrease the mismatch in operating speed, a
small memory chip is attached between CPU and Main memory whose access
time is very close to the processing speed of CPU. It is called CACHE memory.
CACHE memories are accessed much faster than conventional RAM. It is used to
store programs or data currently being executed or temporary data frequently used
by the CPU. So each memory makes main memory to be faster and larger than it
really is. It is also very expensive to have bigger size of cache memory and its
size is normally kept small.
6. Registers: The CPU processes data and instructions with high speed, there is also
movement of data between various units of computer. It is necessary to transfer
the processed data with high speed. So the computer uses a number of special
memory units called registers. They are not part of the main memory but they
store data or information temporarily and pass it on as directed by the control unit.
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 2
1. Distinguish between bit and byte.
2. Define volatile and non-volatile memory.
3. Write True or False:
(a) There are two kinds of computer memory primary and secondary.
(b) The computer takes inputs in the form of 0 and 1.
(c) The storage of program and data in the RAM is permanent.
(d) PROM is secondary memory.
(e) The memories which do not loose their content on failure of power
supply are known as non-volatile memories.
2.5 SECONDARY STORAGE
You are now clear that the operating speed of primary memory or main memory should
be as fast as possible to cope up with the CPU speed. These high-speed storage devices
are very expensive and hence the cost per bit of storage is also very high. Again the
storage capacity of the main memory is also very limited. Often it is necessary to store
hundreds of millions of bytes of data for the CPU to process. Therefore additional
memory is required in all the computer systems. This memory is called auxiliary memory
or secondary storage.
In this type of memory the cost per bit of storage is low. However, the operating speed is
slower than that of the primary storage. Huge volume of data are stored here on
permanent basis and transferred to the primary storage as and when required. Most
widely used secondary storage devices are magnetic tapes and magnetic disk.
1. Magnetic Tape: Magnetic tapes are used for large computers like mainframe
computers where large volume of data is stored for a longer time. In PC also you
can use tapes in the form of cassettes. The cost of storing data in tapes is
inexpensive. Tapes consist of magnetic materials that store data permanently. It
can be 12.5 mm to 25 mm wide plastic film-type and 500 meter to 1200 meter
long which is coated with magnetic material. The deck is connected to the central
processor and information is fed into or read from the tape through the processor.
It similar to cassette tape recorder.
Fig. 2.3 Magnetic Tape
Advantages of Magnetic Tape:
• Compact: A 10-inch diameter reel of tape is 2400 feet long and is able to hold
800, 1600 or 6250 characters in each inch of its length. The maximum capacity of
such tape is 180 million characters. Thus data are stored much more compactly on
tape.
•
Economical: The cost of storing characters is very less as compared to other
storage devices.
• Fast: Copying of data is easier and fast.
• Long term Storage and Re-usability: Magnetic tapes can be used for long term
storage and a tape can be used repeatedly with out loss of data.
2. Magnetic Disk: You might have seen the gramophone record, which is circular
like a disk and coated with magnetic material. Magnetic disks used in computer
are made on the same principle. It rotates with very high speed inside the
computer drive. Data is stored on both the surface of the disk. Magnetic disks are
most popular for direct access storage device. Each disk consists of a number of
invisible concentric circles called tracks. Information is recorded on tracks of a
disk surface in the form of tiny magnetic spots. The presence of a magnetic spot
represents one bit and its absence represents zero bit. The information stored in a
disk can be read many times without affecting the stored data. So the reading
operation is non-destructive. But if you want to write a new data, then the existing
data is erased from the disk and new data is recorded.
3. Floppy Disk: It is similar to magnetic disk discussed above. They are 5.25 inch or
3.5 inch in diameter. They come in single or double density and recorded on one
or both surface of the diskette. The capacity of a 5.25-inch floppy is 1.2 mega
bytes whereas for 3.5 inch floppy it is 1.44 mega bytes. It is cheaper than any
other storage devices and is portable. The floppy is a low cost device particularly
suitable for personal computer system.
Fig. 2.5 Floppy Disk
4. Optical Disk:
With every new application and software there is greater demand for memory capacity. It
is the necessity to store large volume of data that has led to the development of optical
disk storage medium. Optical disks can be divided into the following categories:
1. Compact Disk/ Read Only Memory (CD-ROM): CD-ROM disks are made of
reflective metals. CD-ROM is written during the process of manufacturing by
high power laser beam. Here the storage density is very high, storage cost is very
low and access time is relatively fast. Each disk is approximately 4 1/2 inches in
diameter and can hold over 600 MB of data. As the CD-ROM can be read only
we cannot write or make changes into the data contained in it.
2. Write Once, Read Many (WORM): The inconvenience that we can not write any
thing in to a CD-ROM is avoided in WORM. A WORM allows the user to write
data permanently on to the disk. Once the data is written it can never be erased
without physically damaging the disk. Here data can be recorded from keyboard,
video scanner, OCR equipment and other devices. The advantage of WORM is
that it can store vast amount of data amounting to gigabytes (109 bytes). Any
document in a WORM can be accessed very fast, say less than 30 seconds.
3. Erasable Optical Disk: These are optical disks where data can be written, erased
and re-written. This also applies a laser beam to write and re-write the data. These
disks may be used as alternatives to traditional disks. Erasable optical disks are
based on a technology known as magnetic optical (MO). To write a data bit on to
the erasable optical disk the MO drive's laser beam heats a tiny, precisely defined
point on the disk's surface and magnetizes it.
2.6 INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES
A computer is only useful when it is able to communicate with the external environment.
When you work with the computer you feed your data and instructions through some
devices to the computer. These devices are called Input devices. Similarly computer after
processing, gives output through other devices called output devices.
For a particular application one form of device is more desirable compared to others. We
will discuss various types of I/O devices that are used for different types of applications.
They are also known as peripheral devices because they surround the CPU and make a
communication between computer and the outer world.
2.6.1 Input Devices
Input devices are necessary to convert our information or data in to a form which can be
understood by the computer. A good input device should provide timely, accurate and
useful data to the main memory of the computer for processing followings are the most
useful input devices.
1. Keyboard: - This is the standard input device attached to all computers. The
layout of keyboard is just like the traditional typewriter of the type QWERTY. It
also contains some extra command keys and function keys. It contains a total of
101 to 104 keys. A typical keyboard used in a computer is shown in Fig. 2.6. You
have to press correct combination of keys to input data. The computer can
recognise the electrical signals corresponding to the correct key combination and
processing is done accordingly.
Fig. 2.6 Keyboard and Mouse
2. Mouse: - Mouse is an input device shown in Fig. 2.7 that is used with your
personal computer. It rolls on a small ball and has two or three buttons on the top.
When you roll the mouse across a flat surface the screen censors the mouse in the
direction of mouse movement. The cursor moves very fast with mouse giving you
more freedom to work in any direction. It is easier and faster to move through a
mouse.
3. Scanner: The keyboard can input only text through keys provided in it. If we
want to input a picture the keyboard cannot do that. Scanner is an optical device
that can input any graphical matter and display it back. The common optical
scanner devices are Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR), Optical Mark
Reader (OMR) and Optical Character Reader (OCR).
o Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR): - This is widely used by
banks to process large volumes of cheques and drafts. Cheques are put
inside the MICR. As they enter the reading unit the cheques pass through
the magnetic field which causes the read head to recognise the character of
the cheques.
Optical Mark Reader (OMR): This technique is used when students
have appeared in objective type tests and they had to mark their answer by
darkening a square or circular space by pencil. These answer sheets are
directly fed to a computer for grading where OMR is used.
o Optical Character Recognition (OCR): - This technique unites the
direct reading of any printed character. Suppose you have a set of hand
written characters on a piece of paper. You put it inside the scanner of the
computer. This pattern is compared with a site of patterns stored inside the
computer. Whichever pattern is matched is called a character read.
Patterns that cannot be identified are rejected. OCRs are expensive though
better the MICR.
o
2.6.2 Output Devices
1. Visual Display Unit: The most popular input/output device is the Visual Display
Unit (VDU). It is also called the monitor. A Keyboard is used to input data and
Monitor is used to display the input data and to receive massages from the
computer. A monitor has its own box which is separated from the main computer
system and is connected to the computer by cable. In some systems it is compact
with the system unit. It can be color or monochrome.
2. Terminals: It is a very popular interactive input-output unit. It can be divided into
two types: hard copy terminals and soft copy terminals. A hard copy terminal
provides a printout on paper whereas soft copy terminals provide visual copy on
monitor. A terminal when connected to a CPU sends instructions directly to the
computer. Terminals are also classified as dumb terminals or intelligent terminals
depending upon the work situation.
3. Printer: It is an important output device which can be used to get a printed copy
of the processed text or result on paper. There are different types of printers that
are designed for different types of applications. Depending on their speed and
approach of printing, printers are classified as impact and non-impact printers.
Impact printers use the familiar typewriter approach of hammering a typeface
against the paper and inked ribbon. Dot-matrix printers are of this type. Nonimpact printers do not hit or impact a ribbon to print. They use electro-static
chemicals and ink-jet technologies. Laser printers and Ink-jet printers are of this
type. This type of printers can produce color printing and elaborate graphics.
Fig. 2.8 Laser Printer
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 3
1. Distinguish between impact and non-impact printers.
2. Define soft copy and hard copy terminals.
3. Write True or False:
(a) Secondary memory is called Auxiliary memory.
(b) The magnetic tapes and magnetic disk are primary memories.
(c) A CD-ROM is read only memory.
(d) Mouse is an output device.
(e) Printer is an important output device.
2.7 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT
In this lesson we discussed five basic operations that a computer performs. These are
input, storage, processing, output and control. A computer accepts data as input, stores it,
processes it as the user requires and provides the output in a desired format. The storage
unit of a computer is divided into two parts: primary storage and secondary storage. We
have discussed the devices used for these two types of storage and their usefulness.
2.8 TERMINAL QUESTIONS
1. What are the five basic operations performed by any computer system?
2. Draw a block diagram to illustrate the basic organization of computer system and
explain the function of various units.
3. What is input device? How does it differ from output device?
4. Differentiate between RAM and ROM. Also distinguish between PROM and
EPROM.
5. What is cache memory? How is it different from primary memory?
6. Write short notes on (a) Control Unit (b) Random Access Memory (RAM)
2.9 FEEDBACK TO IN-TEXT QUESTIONS
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 1
1. The five basic operations that a computer performs are input, storage, processing,
output and control.
2. ALU: Arithmetic Logic Unit
CU: Control Unit
CPU: Central Processing Unit
3. (a) i (b) iii (c) i
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 2
1. A bit is an acronym for binary digit, which stands for one binary piece of
information. This can be either 0 or 1. A byte is equal to 8 bits.
2. The memories which are erased if there is a power failure are known as volatile
memories. RAM is an example of volatile memory. The memories, which do not
loose their content on failure of power supply, are known as non-volatile
memories. ROM is non-volatile memory.
3. (a) T(b) T(c) F(d) F(e) T
IN-TEXT QUESTIONS 3
1. Impact printers use the familiar typewriter approach of hammering a typeface
against the paper and inked ribbon. Non-impact printers do not hit or impact a
ribbon to print. They use electro-static chemicals and ink-jet technologies.
2. A hard copy terminal provides a printout on paper whereas soft copy terminals
provide visual copy on monitor.
3. (a) T(b) F(c) T (d) F (e) T
Operating System
3.1 INTRODUCTION
When the computer starts, it starts the operating system that takes the control of the
machine. An Operating System is a set of programs that help in controlling and managing
the Hardware and the Software resources of a computer system. A good operating system
should have the following features;
1. Help in the loading of programs and data from external sources into the internal
memory before they are executed.
2. Help programs to perform input/output operations, such as;
o Print or display the result of a program on the printer or the screen.
o Store the output data or programs written on the computer in storage
device.
o Communicate the message from the system to the user through the VDU.
o Accept input from the user through the keyboard or mouse.
Computer software can be divided into two main categories: application
software and system software. " an Application software consists of the
programs for performing tasks particular to the machine's utilization.
Examples of application software include spreadsheets, database systems,
desktop publishing systems, program development software, and games."
Application software is generally what we think of when someone speaks
of computer programs. This software is designed to solve a particular
problem for users.
On the other hand, System Software is more transparent and less noticed
by the typical computer user. This software "provides a general
programming environment in which programmers can create specific
applications to suit their needs. This environment provides new functions
that are not available at the hardware level and performs tasks related to
executing the application program”. System software acts as an interface
between the hardware of the computer and the application software that
users need to run on the computer. The diagram below illustrates the
relationship between application software and system software.
Figure3.1 Conceptual view of a computer system
The central processing unit ( CPU) is located on chips inside the system unit. The CPU is
the brain of the computer. This is the place where the computer interprets and processes
information.
The operating system is the first component of the systems programs that interests us
here. Systems programs are programs written for direct execution on computer hardware
in order to make the power of the computer fully and efficiently accessible to applications
programmers and other computer users. Systems programming is different from
application programming because the requires an intimate knowledge of the computer
hardware as well as the end users’ needs. Moreover, systems programs are often large
and more complex than application programs, although that is not always the case. Since
systems programs provide the foundation upon which application programs are built, it is
most important that systems programs are reliable, efficient and correct.
3.2 Definition
In a computer system the hardware provides the basic computing resources. The
applications programs define the way in which these resources are used to solve the
computing problems of the users. The operating system controls and coordinates the use
of the hardware among the various systems programs and application programs for the
various users.
The basic resources of a computer system are provided by its hardware, software and
data. The operating system provides the means for the proper use of these resources in the
operation of the computer system. It simply provides an environment within which other
programs can do useful work.
We can view an operating system as a resource allocator. A computer system has many
resources ( hardware and software) that may be required to solve a problem: CPU time,
memory space, file storage space, input/output devices etc.
The operating system acts as the manager of these resources and allocates them to
specific programs and users as necessary for their tasks. Since there may be many,
possibly conflicting, requests for resources, the operating system must decide which
requests are allocated resources to operate the computer system fairly and efficiently. An
operating system is a control program. This program controls the execution of user
programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer.
Operating systems exist because they are a reasonable way to solve the problem of
creating a usable computing system. The fundamental goal of a computer system is to
execute user programs and solve user problems.
The primary goal of an operating system is a convenience for the user. Operating systems
exit because they are supposed to make it easier to compute with an operating system
than without an operating system. This is particularly clear when you look at operating
system for small personal computers.
A secondary goal is the efficient operation of an computer system. This goal is
particularly important for large, shared multi-user systems. Operating systems can solve
this goal. It is known that sometimes these two goals, convenience and efficiency, are
contradictory.
While there is no universally agreed upon definition of the concept of an operating
system, we offer the following as a reasonable starting point:
A computer’s operating system (OS) is a group of programs designed to serve two basic
purposes:
1. To control the allocation and use of the computing system’s resources
among the various users and tasks, and.
2. To provide an interface between the computer hardware and the
programmer that simplifies and makes feasible the creation, coding,
debugging, and maintenance of application programs.
Specifically, we can imagine that an effective operating system should accomplish all of
the following:
o Facilitate creation and modification of program and data files through an
editor program,
o Provide access to compilers to translate programs from high-level
languages to machine language,
o Provide a loader program to move the complied program code to the
computer’s memory for execution,
o Provide routines that handle the intricate details of I/O programming,
o Assure that when there are several active processes in the computer, each
will get fair and non interfering access to the central processing unit for
execution,
o Take care of storage and device allocation,
o Provide for long term storage of user information in the form of files, and
o Permit system resources to be shared among users when appropriate, and
be protected from unauthorized or mischievous intervention as necessary.
Though systems programs such as editor and translators and the various utility programs
(such as sort and file transfer program) are not usually considered part of the operating
system, the operating system is responsible for providing access to these system
resources.
MICROSOFT OFFICE OVERVIEW
Microsoft Office 2000 is the most efficient suite of applications for
document creation, communication and business information analysis. For
many functions, the business platform has evolved from paper to the Web.
Microsoft Office 2000 extends desktop productivity to the web,
streamlining the way you work and making it easier to share, access and
analyze information so you get better results. Office 2000 offers a
multitude of new features. Of particular importance for this release are the
features that affect the entire suite. These Office-wide, or shared features
hold the key to the new realm of functionality enabled by Office 2000.
Office 2000 offers a new Web-productivity work style that integrates core
productivity tools with the Web to streamline the process of sharing
information and working with others. It makes it easier to use an
organization's intranet to access vital business information and provides
innovative analysis tools that help users make better, timelier business
decisions. Office 2000 delivers new levels of resiliency and intelligence,
enabling users and organizations to get up and running quickly, stay
working and achieve great results with fewer resources.
DESIGN GOALS OF MS-OFFICE:
1. A COMMON USER INTERFACE:
•
While learning one application of the suite you get to learn
the operational basics of the other applications, while
maintaining some uniqueness in the applications.
•
Consistency in MS-Office applications is in the form of :
i. Tool –Bars
ii. Menus
iii. Dialog Boxes
iv. Customizable features and operational features are
similar too.
2. QUICK ACCESS TO OTHER APPLICATIONS
•
The MS-Office provides the Microsoft Office Short cut Bar
,which is used for the following:
i. Create a new file based on templates and wizards
ii. Opening existing files and automatically launching
the related applications
iii. Add tasks, make appointments, record tasks and add
contacts and journal entries.
iv. Create a new Outlook Message.
v. Switch between and launch Microsoft Office
Applications.
3. SHARING DATA ACROSS APPLICATIONS
•
Microsoft Office Provides several means of sharing data
between applications:
•
i. Copying – copies the data from the source
application to the target applications using the
clipboard.
ii. Linking-links the data from the source document to
the target document and saves with the source
document.
iii. Embedding- embeds the data from the source
document to the target document and saves with the
source document.
Microsoft Office extends the data sharing beyond
application integration by providing workgroup integration
with the Microsoft Outlook.
Users can mail documents, spreadsheets, presentations and
data files from within the source applications.
4. PROVIDING A COMMON LANGUAGE:
•
Providing the common language has been a more
challenging goal from Microsoft Office. It provides a
common macro programming language for all the
applications –Visual Basic for the Applications.
COMPONENTS OF MICTROSOFT OFFICE:
•
MS-WORD
•
MS-EXCEL
•
MS-POWER-POINT
•
MS-ACCESS
MS-WORD:
Ms-word is a powerful word processor that allows you to create :
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Memos
Fax coversheets
Web pages
Reports
Mailing labels
Brochures
Tables
And many other professional and business applications.
Ms-word provides easy graphics handling, calculation of the data
tables , ability to create a mailing list, list sorting and efficient file
management.
Major enhancements of the Word are as follows:
a) AUTOS SUMMARIZE FEATURE – automatically summarizes
the key points in the document. Word determines the most
important sentences and gives a custom summary based on the
analysis.
b) AUTO COMPLETE FEATURE- automatically offers suggestions
to complete the word or the phrase that has been typed partially.
To accept suggestions ,press the Enter Key and the Word
automatically replaces the partially typed word with the complete
word.
Word automatically completes the current date, a day of the week,
a month other than the current one, your name and the company
name and the AutoText entries.
c) AUTOMATIC GRAMMAR CHECKING-marks the incorrect
grammar with a green wavy line as you type.
d) LETTER WIZARD –helps you format and enter the key
information for the letters to ensure that they are consistent and
professional.
It lets you write quickly and easily and also to add to your letter.
e) OFFICE ASSISTANT – uses IntelliSense natural-language
technology. The assistant anticipates the kind of help you require
and suggests the Help topics on the work that you are doing. This
office assistant provides the visual examples and the step –by –step
instructions for the specific tasks.
f) SMART SPELLING FEATURE•
Recognizes your name, your organization’s
name and the professional names of varying
ethnicity.
•
Recognizes your writing pattern and does not
mark some patterns as errors in the document.
•
Ignores the Internet and the file addresses as
error in the spellings.
g) NATURAL LANGUAGE grammar checker- offers improved
syntactical analysis , better rewrite suggestions and user friendly
grammar styles.
h) The Spelling and the grammar checking combination facility –
eliminates the separate dialog boxes and provides the interface that
lets you proofread the document online.
i) HYPERLINKS FEATURES- links to the Microsoft Outlook,
HTML or the other files on any internal and external Web site or
file server.
MS-PowerPoint
MS-PowerPoint is a powerful presentation software, used to create
• Professional quality presentations.
•
These can be reproduced on the
o
Transparency,
o Paper,
o 35mm slide,
o Photo print ,
o On screen presentations
•
This allows you to easily publish presentations on the Internet.
FEATURES OF MS-POWER POINT:
a) POWER POINT CENTRAL- connect you with the
resources like the templates , sounds and the animation
clips on the CD-ROM and the sites on the Internet.
b) SLIDE FINDER- allows the previewing and the insertion
of slides from the other presentations.
c) QUICK START TUTORIAL – helps to introduce the
features of Power Point.
d) GRAPHS-improved charting module for the Power Point
has the following features:
i. ADDITIONAL CHART TYPES- MSPOWER POINT gives new chart types such
as bubble, pie of pie and the bar of pie . It
also offers additional 3-D and 2-D chart
types such as cylinder, pyramid and cone.
ii. CHART DATA TABLES-enhances the
chart by adding explanatory details by
attaching the data table that contains the
numbers represented diagrammatically.
iii. ROTATED TEXTS ON THE CHART
AXES-to display all the necessary data
proportionately for easier viewing, the fonts
can be scaled and the text rotated along the
chart axes.
iv. PICTURE, TEXT AND GRADIENT
FILLS- to graphically represent data, you
can fill the chart elements such as the bars,
areas and the surfaces with texture, imported
pictures or gradient fills.
e) MULTIPLE UNDO FEATURE-displays an Undo List on
the standard tool bar from which you can select the change
you want to reverse.
f) ACTIVE WEB service is used – shared by all Microsoft
Office programs- to browse rich webs of the presentations
and documents on the local computer, any server, an
Intranet or the Web.
g) Power Point has a set of built in buttons for the actions such
as Forward, Back, Home, Help, Information, sound and
Movie. By clicking on any of these buttons another
program can be started.
h) CD-Audio tracks can be played during the presentation.
i) AUTO CONTENT WIZARD- guides user to pick from the
set of pre-built templates. It also provides ideas and the
starter text for the presentations.
j) Summary slide-is used to create a summary slide based on
the titles of the slides created.
k) OFFICE ART is a drawing tool shared by Microsoft Office
programs and provides:
i. AutoShapes-includes six new auto shapes.
ii. Bezier Curves-used to draw exact curves
with point positions.
iii. Transparent Background- inserts a bit
map as a part of design of the slides.
l) ANIMATION EFFECTS AND MULTIMEDIA
capabilities includei. Custom Animation-an easier way to define
and preview animated effects.
ii. Voice narration-to add a presenters voice to
the self-running documentation.
iii. Music tracks- to add background music and
the sound effects to the presentations.
iv. Animated templates- animation effects can
be added to the slide master and will be
automatically added when the slides are
created.
MS-EXCEL:
MS-Excel is a spreadsheet package. When you start excel, a blank
workbook appears in the document window. The workbook is the main
document using excel for storing and manipulating the data.
A workbook has individual worksheets each of consisting of data. Each
work sheet is made up of 256 columns and 65,536 rows.
The FEATURES OF EXCEL:
a) The multiple Undo feature can Undo up to the last 16 actions.
b) When you quit Microsoft Excel with multiple files open, you
get a YES to ALL option. You can choose this option to save
all the files before exiting, instead of being prompted to close
each open file.
c) Conditional Formats dynamically apply a different font style ,
pattern and the border to the cells whose values fall outside or
with in the limit specified by you.. this lets you quickly spot
areas of interest without reading through tables of values.
d) The Hyperlinks Feature helps you to create hyperlinks that
connect to other office files on the system, your network. A
hyperlink can be text in the cell , a graphic or you can write a
formula that creates a hyperlink.
e) The Web Queries features allow you to create and run the
queries to retrieve data available on the World Wide Web.
f) The Internet assistant wizard steps you through the process
of saving the worksheet data and the charts in the HTML
format. You can save the data and the chart as a complete new
Web Page or add them to an existing Web Page.
g) The new Share Workbook feature lets multiple users open a
workbook
on
the
network
and
edit
the
document
simultaneously.
h) CellTips and the ScrollTips automatically display the
comments added to cell.
i) The worksheet has expanded to include 65,536 rows and you
can type up to 32,000 characters in a cell.
j) Natural Language formulas allow you to create formulas that
use row and the column headers instead of the range
references.
k) The Auditing and the Validation facility allow you to circle
the invalid data and to see at a glance all the entries that don’t
meet your validation rules.
l) The enhanced Get External Data features enable you to query
Access and the other databases either on the system or a
network or the Internet or intranet resources.
Microsoft Access :
Ms-Access is the relational database application in the Microsoft Office Professional.
With Access, you can perform the following tasks:
a) Organize data into manageable related units.
b) Enter, modify and locate data.
c) Extract subsets of data based on the specific criteria.
d) Create custom forms and reports.
e) Automate common database tasks.
f) Graph data relationships.
The major enhancements of Access are as follows:
•
The Publish to the Web Wizard-converts your Access information to a
dynamic Internet or intranet site including query pages.
•
The Outlook Journal –helps you to track when a database file was
opened or closed, or when an object was printed.
•
A new Hyperlink data type is supported to allow insertion of links to
other objects, documents, or Internet performance.
•
Improved design features include the ability to create forms with
multiple tabs.
•
Lightweight Forms and Reports- load without loading Visual Basic for
Applications, leading to faster performance.
•
User-Level Security Wizard- creates a secured copy of the database.
•
The Visual basic code for the objects has been updated with the
methods, properties and other language elements.
•
Data interpretation is as follows:
DATA RANGE FOR
INTERPRETATION
ABBRAVIATED YEAR
FORMAT
1/1/00 through 13/31/29
1/1/2000 through
12/31/2029
1/1/30 through 12/31/99
1/1/1930 through
12/31/1999
•
The multiple pages button allows you to select the number of pages to
preview.
•
The Performance Analyzer analyses database objects and suggest ways
to make them fast.
INTRODUCTION WORD PROCESSING
1 WORD PROCESSING
Let us consider an office scene. Many letters are typed in the office. The officer dictates a
letter. The typist first types a draft copy of the letter. The officer goes through it to check
mistakes regarding spelling errors, missing words, etc. and suggests corrections. The
typist changes the letter as suggested by the officer. This is a simple example of word
processing.
There are many software packages to do the job of word processing. Some of them work
in DOS environment. Example are WordStar, Word Perfect and Professional Write. But
in these days working in WINDOWS is becoming more and more popular. So let us
consider software for word processing which works in WINDOWS. Our choice is MSWORD because it is the most popular software in these days.
MS-WORD is a part of the bigger package called MS OFFICE, which can do much more
than word processing. In fact when you open up MS OFFICE you will find four main
components in it. They are MS-WORD (for word processing), MS EXCEL (for
spreadsheet), MS ACCESS (for database management) and MS POWERPOINT (for
presentation purposes). However, we will limit ourselves to MS-WORD only in this
lesson.
2
WHAT IS WORD-PROCESSING?
Word Processor is a Software package that enables you to create, edit, print and save
documents for future retrieval and reference. Creating a document involves typing by
using a keyboard and saving it. Editing a document involves correcting the spelling
mistakes, if any, deleting or moving words sentences or paragraphs.
(a)
Advantages of Word Processing
One of the main advantages of a word processor over a conventional typewriter is that a
word processor enables you to make changes to a document without retyping the entire
document.
(b)
Features of Word Processing
Most Word Processor available today allows more than just creating and editing
documents. They have wide range of other tools and functions, which are used in
formatting the documents. The following are the main features of a Word Processor
i)
Text is typing into the computer, which allows alterations to be made
easily.
ii)
Words and sentences can be inserted, amended or deleted.
iii)
Paragraphs or text can be copied /moved throughout the document.
iv)
Margins and page length can be adjusted as desired.
v)
Spelling can be checked and modified through the spell check facility.
vi)
Multiple document/files can be merged.
vii)
Multiple copies of letters can be generated with different addresses
through
the mail-merge facility.
(c)
Some Common Word Processing Packages
The followings are examples of some popular word processor available
•
Softword
•
WordStar
3
•
Word perfect
•
Microsoft word
IMPORTANT FEATURES OF MS-WORD
Ms-Word not only supports word processing features but also DTP features. Some of the
important features of Ms-Word are listed below:
i)
Using word you can create the document and edit them later, as and when
required, by adding more text, modifying the existing text, deleting/moving some
part of it.
ii)
Changing the size of the margins can reformat complete document or part of text.
iii)
Font size and type of fonts can also be changed. Page numbers and Header and
Footer can be included.
iv)
Spelling can be checked and correction can be made automatically in the entire
document. Word count and other statistics can be generated.
v)
Text can be formatted in columnar style as we see in the newspaper. Text boxes
can be made.
vi)
Tables can be made and included in the text.
vii)
Word also allows the user to mix the graphical pictures with the text. Graphical
pictures can either be created in word itself or can be imported from outside like
from Clip Art Gallery.
viii)
Word also provides the mail-merge facility.
ix)
Word also has the facility of macros. Macros can be either attached to some
function/special keys or to a tool bar or to a menu.
x)
It also provides online help of any option.
1
GETTING STARTED WITH MS-WORD
We have already told you that for working in Ms-Word you should
be familiar with WINDOWS. If you have not covered WINDOWS
so far then read that first and then go through MS-WORD. By now
you must be aware of the fact that a software package is improved
from time to time. These improvements are sold in the market as
new versions of the same software. Thus you will find many
versions of MS-WORD being used in different offices. In this
lesson we will cover the version MS-WORD 97, which is latest in
the market and contain many improvements over the older
versions. However, you do not have to worry if you have an older
version such as WORD 6.0 or WORD 95. All the commands
available in these older versions are also available in WORD 97
and they are compatible.
While working in MS-WORD you have to work with a mouse.
Also one can work, to some extent, through the keyboard. The use
of mouse is simpler as it is fully menu driven. In MS-WORD every
command is available in the form of ‘icons’.
You can go inside MS-WORD by the following way
1. Take the mouse pointer to START button on the task bar. Click the left mouse
button. The monitor will show like as follows:
icons
START button
TASK BAR
click here
Fig. 1
clock
Screen Layout
Menus
When you begin to explore Word 2000, you will notice a significant change in the menu
structure if you are familiar with previous versions of Word. The menus in Word 2000
display only the commands you have recently used. To view all options in each menu,
you must click the double arrows at the bottom of the menu. The images below show the
Format menu collapsed (left) and expanded (right) after the double arrows at the bottom
of the menu were clicked:
Follow the steps below to display menus similar to previous versions of Word with all the
choices listed initially:
Select View|Toolbars|Customize from the menu bar.
Click on the Options tab.
Uncheck the Menus show recently used commands first check box.
Shortcut Menus
These features allow you to access various Word commands faster than using the options
on the menu bar. View shortcut menus by right-clicking with the mouse. The options on
this menu will vary depending on the element that was right-clicked. For example, the
shortcut menu below is produced by right-clicking on a bulleted list.
Actions such as "Decrease Indent" and "Increase Indent" are only applicable to lists and
therefore only appear on the list shortcut menu. The shortcut menus are helpful because
they only display the options that can be applied to the item that was right-clicked and,
therefore, prevent searching through the many menu options.
Toolbars
Many toolbars displaying shortcut buttons are also available to make editing and
formatting quicker and easier. Select View|Toolbars from the menu bar to select the
toolbars. The toolbars that are already displayed on the screen are checked. Add a toolbar
simply by clicking on the name.
Customizing Toolbars
There may be certain actions on a toolbar that you do not use and there may also be
commands that you execute often but that are not located on any toolbar. Word toolbars
can be customized so these commands can be added and deleted.
Select View|Toolbars|Customize and click the Commands tab.
By highlighting the command categories in the Categories box, the choices will change in the
Commands box to the right.
Select the command you would like to add to the toolbar by selecting it in the Commands box.
Drag the command with the mouse to the desired location on the toolbar and release the mouse
button.
Remove a button from the toolbar by clicking and dragging the button off the toolbar.
2. FILES
Creating and Opening Documents
There are several ways to create new documents, open existing documents, and save
documents in Word:
Create a New Document
Click the New Document button on the menu bar.
Choose File|New from the menu bar.
Press CTRL+N (depress the CTRL key while pressing "N") on the keyboard.
Open an Existing Document
Click the Open File button on the menu bar.
Choose File|Open from the menu bar.
Press CTRL+O on the keyboard.
Each method will show the Open dialog box. Choose the file and click the Open
button.
Save a Document
Click the Save button on the menu bar.
Select File|Save from the menu bar.
Press CTRL+S on the keyboard.
Renaming Documents
To rename a Word document while using the program, select File|Open and find the file
you want to rename. Right-click on the document name with the mouse and select
Rename from the shortcut menu. Type the new name for the file and press the ENTER
key.
Working on Multiple Documents
Several documents can be opened simultaneously if you are typing or editing multiple
documents at once. All open documents are listed under the Window menu as shown
below. The current document has a checkmark beside the file name. Select another name
to view another open document or click the button on the Windows taskbar at the bottom
of the screen.
Close a Document
Close the current document by selecting File|Close or click the Close icon if it's visible
on the Standard Toolbar.
3. TEXT
Typing and Inserting Text
To enter text, just start typing! The text will appear where the blinking cursor is located.
Move the cursor by using the arrow buttons on the keyboard or positioning the mouse
and clicking the left button. The keyboard shortcuts listed below are also helpful when
moving through the text of a document:
Move Action
Keystroke
Beginning of the line
HOME
End of the line
END
Top of the document
CTRL+HOME
End of the document
CTRL+END
Selecting Text
To change any attributes of text it must be highlighted first. Select the text by dragging
the mouse over the desired text while keeping the left mouse button depressed, or hold
down the SHIFT key on the keyboard while using the arrow buttons to highlight the text.
The following table contains shortcuts for selecting a portion of the text:
Selection
Technique
Whole word
Double-click within the word
Whole paragraph
Triple-click within the paragraph
Several words or
lines
Drag the mouse over the words, or hold down SHIFT while using the
arrow keys
Entire document
Choose Edit|Select All from the menu bar, or press CTRL+A
Deselect the text by clicking anywhere outside of the selection on the page or press an
arrow key on the keyboard.
Deleting Text
Use the BACKSPACE and DELETE keys on the keyboard to delete text. Backspace
will delete text to the left of the cursor and Delete will erase text to the right. To delete a
large selection of text, highlight it using any of the methods outlined above and press the
DELETE key.
Formatting Text
The formatting toolbar is the easiest way to change many attributes of text. If the toolbar
as shown below isn't displayed on the screen, select View|Toolbars and choose
Formatting.
Style Menu - Styles are explained in detail later in this tutorial.
Font Face - Click the arrowhead to the right of the font name box to view the list of fonts
available. Scroll down to the font you want and select it by clicking on the name once
with the mouse. A serif font (one with "feet" circled in the illustration below) is
recommended for paragraphs of text that will be printed on paper as they are most
readable. The following graphic demonstrates the difference between serif (Times New
Roman on the left) and sans-serif ("no feet", Arial on the right) fonts.
Font Size - Click on the white part of the font size box to enter a value for the font size or
click the arrowhead to the right of the box to view a list of font sizes available. Select a
size by clicking on it once. A font size of 10 or 12 is best for paragraphs of text.
Font Style - Use these buttons to bold, italicize, and underline text.
Alignment - Text can be aligned to the left, center, or right side of the page or it can be
justified across the page.
Numbered and Bulleted Lists - Lists are explained in detail later in this tutorial.
Increase/Decrease Indent - Change the indentation of a paragraph in relation to the side
of the page.
Outside Border - Add a border around a text selection.
Highlight Color - Use this option to change the color behind a text selection. The color
shown on the button is the last color used. To select a different color, click the arrowhead
next to the image on the button.
Text Color - This option changes the color of the text. The color shown on the button is
the last color chosen. Click the arrowhead next to the button image to select another
color.
The Font dialog box allows you to choose from a larger selection of formatting options.
Select Format|Font from the menu bar to access the box.
Format Painter
A handy feature for formatting text is the Format Painter located on the standard
toolbar. For example, if you have formatting a paragraph heading with a certain font face,
size, and style and you want to format another heading the same way, you do not need to
manually add each attribute to the new headline. Instead, use the Format Painter by
following these steps:
Place the cursor within the text that contains the formatting you want to copy.
Click the Format Painter button in the standard toolbar. Notice that your pointer now
has a paintbrush beside it.
Highlight the text you want to add the same format to with the mouse and release the
mouse button.
To add the formatting to multiple selections of text, double-click the Format Painter
button instead of clicking once. The format painter then stays active until you press the
ESC key to turn it off.
Undo
Feel free to experiment with various text styles. You can always undo your last action by
clicking the Undo button on the standard toolbar or selecting Edit|Undo... from the menu
bar. Click the Redo button on the standard toolbar or select Edit|Redo... to erase the
undo action.
1. FORMATTING PARAGRAPHS
Paragraph Attributes
Format a paragraph by placing the cursor within the paragraph and selecting
Format|Paragraph from the menu bar.
Moving (Cutting) Text
Highlight the text that will be moved and select Edit|Cut from the menu bar, click the
Cut button on the standard tool bar, or press CTRL+X at once. This will move the text to
a clipboard.
To move a small amount of text a short distance, the drag-and-drop method may be
quicker. Highlight the text you want to move, click the selection with the mouse, drag the
selection to the new location, and release the mouse button.
Copying Text
To copy text, choose Edit|Copy, click the Copy button on the standard toolbar, or press
CTRL+C to copy the text to the clipboard.
Paste Text
To paste cut or copied text, move the cursor to the location you want to move the text to
and select Edit|Paste from the menu bar, click the Paste button on the standard toolbar,
or press CTRL+V.
The Clipboard
The last 12 elements that were cut or copied are placed onto Word's clipboard. You can
view the elements on the clipboard by selecting View|Toolbars|Clipboard from the
menu bar.
Place the mouse arrow over each element in the clipboard to view the contents of each
item and click on an element to add its contents to the document. Click Paste All to add
all of the items to the document at once. Click the Clear Clipboard button (the icon with
an "X" over the clipboard image) to clear the contents of the clipboard.
Columns
To quickly place text in a column format, click the Columns button on the standard
toolbar and select the number of columns by dragging the mouse over the diagram.
For more column options, select Format|Columns from the menu bar. The Columns
dialog box allows you to choose the properties of the columns. Select the number and
width of the columns from the dialog box.
Drop Caps
A drop cap is a large letter that begins a paragraph and drops through several lines of text
as shown below.
Add a drop cap to a paragraph by following these steps:
Place the cursor within the paragraph whose first letter will be dropped.
Select Format|Drop Cap from the menu bar.
The Drop Cap dialog box allows you to select the position of the drop cap, the font, the
number of lines to drop, and the distance from the body text.
Click OK when all selections have been made.
To modify a drop cap, select Format|Drop Cap again to change the attributes, or click
on the letter and use the handles to move and resize the letter.
2. SPELLING AND GRAMMAR
AutoCorrect
Word automatically corrects many commonly misspelled words and punctuation marks
with the AutoCorrect feature. To view the list of words that are automatically corrected,
select Tools|AutoCorrect. This may be a hidden feature so click the double arrows at the
bottom of the Tools menu listing if the AutoCorrect choice is not listed.
Many options including the accidental capitalization of the first two letters of a word and
capitalization of the first word of the sentence can be automatically corrected from this
page. If there are words you often misspell, enter the wrong and correct spellings in the
Replace and With fields.
Spelling and Grammar Check
Word will automatically check for spelling and grammar errors as you type unless you
turn this feature off. Spelling errors are noted in the document with a red underline.
Grammar errors are indicated by a green underline. To disable this feature, select
Tools|Options from the menu bar and click the Spelling and Grammar tab on the
dialog box. Uncheck "Check spelling as you type" and "Check grammar as you
type", and click OK.
To use the spelling and grammar checker, follow these steps:
Select Tools|Spelling and Grammar from the menu bar.
The Spelling and Grammar dialog box will notify you of the first mistake in the
document and misspelled words will be highlighted in red.
If the word is spelled correctly, click the Ignore button or click the Ignore All button if
the word appears more than once in the document.
If the word is spelled incorrectly, choose one of the suggested spellings in the
Suggestions box and click the Change button or Change All button to correct all
occurrences of the word in the document. If the correct spelling is not suggested, enter
the correct spelling in the Not In Dictionary box and click the Change button.
If the word is spelled correctly and will appear in many documents you type (such as
your name), click the Add button to add the word to the dictionary so it will no longer
appear as a misspelled word.
As long as the Check Grammar box is checked in the Spelling and Grammar dialog box,
Word will check the grammar of the document in addition to the spelling. If you do not want the
grammar checked, remove the checkmark from this box. Otherwise, follow these steps for
correcting grammar:
If Word finds a grammar mistake, it will be shown in the box as the spelling errors. The
mistake is highlighted in green text.
Several suggestions may be given in the Suggestions box. Select the correction that best
applies and click Change.
If no correction is needed (Word is often wrong more than it is right), click the Ignore
button.
Synonyms
Word 2000 has a new feature for finding synonyms. Simply right-click on the word and
select Synonyms from the shortcut menu. From the list of suggested words, highlight the
word you would like to use or click Thesaurus... for more options.
Thesaurus
To use the thesaurus, select Tools|Language|Thesaurus from the menu bar or select it
from the Synonyms shortcut menu as detailed above.
A list of meanings and synonyms are given on the windows. Double-click on the words
in the Meanings box or click the Look Up button to view similar words. Double-click
words in the Replace with Synonym box to view synonyms of those words. Highlight
the word you would like to add and click the Replace button.
The use of styles in Word will allow you to quickly format a document with a consistent
and professional look. Paragraph and character styles can be saved for use in many
documents.
Applying a Style
Place the cursor in the paragraph where the style will be applied.
Click the Style drop-down menu on the Formatting toolbar and select a style by clicking
on it.
To apply the same style to multiple paragraphs, double click the Format Painter button
on the standard toolbar and click in all the paragraphs that the style should be applied
to. Press the ESC key to disable the Format Painter.
Apply a Style from the Style Dialog Box
Choose from a larger selection of styles from the Style dialog box.
Click in the paragraph you want to add a style to.
Select Format|Style... from the menu bar.
From the List drop-down menu, choose All styles to view all the styles available.
The styles are displayed in the Styles list. Preview each style by clicking once on the
name. Paragraph styles are preceded by the paragraph symbol ( ) and character styles are
preceded by an "a" icon ( ). A pointer arrow is located next to the current style. Highlight
the style you want to apply to the paragraph and click Apply.
Create a New Style from a Model
To create a style from text that is already formatted in a document, follow these steps:
Place the cursor in the paragraph you would like to set as a new style.
Click the Style box on the formatting toolbar so the style name is highlighted.
Delete the text in the field and type the name of the new style.
Press the ENTER key to save the new style.
Create a Simple Style from the Style Dialog Box
Select Format|Style... from the menu bar and click the New button on the Style dialog
box to access the New Style dialog box.
Type the name for the new style in the Name field.
Select "Paragraph" or "Character" from the Style type drop-down menu.
Click the Format button at the bottom of the window and choose the paragraph element
that will be formatted for the style. Continue to make changes from the options from the
Format button menu, making changes to the dialog boxes for each element you choose.
Click OK to set the style and close the New Style dialog box.
Click Apply on the Style dialog box to apply the new style to the current paragraph.
Modify or Rename a Style
An existing style can be changed from the Style dialog box.
Select Format|Style... from the menu bar.
Highlight the style from the Styles list that you want to modify and click the Modify
button.
Use the same methods to modify the style from the Modify Style dialog box that were
used for the New Style box.
To only rename the style, type a new name in the Name field.
Click OK when you are finished making modifications.
Click Apply to update the style in the document.
Delete a Style
Preset styles created by Word cannot be deleted, but to delete a style you have made,
follow these steps:
Select Format|Style... from the menu bar
Highlight the style from the Styles list that you want to delete.
Click the Delete button.
You will be asked if you really want to delete the style. Click Yes.
Click Close on the dialog box.
1.LISTS
To create a bulleted or numbered list, use the list features provided by Word.
Bulleted and Numbered Lists
Click the Bulleted List button
or Numbered List button
on the formatting
toolbar.
Type the first entry and press ENTER. This will create a new bullet or number on the
next line. If you want to start a new line without adding another bullet or number, hold
down the SHIFT key while pressing ENTER.
Continue to typing entries and press ENTER twice when you are finished typing to end
the list.
Use the Increase Indent
and Decrease Indent
to create lists of multiple levels.
buttons on the formatting toolbar
NOTE: You can also type the text first, highlight the section, and press the Bulleted List
or Numbered List buttons to add the bullets or numbers.
Nested Lists
To create a nested list, such as a numbered list inside of a bulleted list, follow these steps:
Type the list and increase the indentation of the items that will make up the nested list by clicking
the Increase Indent button for each item.
Highlight the items and click the Numbered List button on the formatting toolbar.
Formatting Lists
The bullet image and numbering format can be changed by using the Bullets and
Numbering dialog box.
Highlight the entire list to change all the bullets or numbers, or
Place the cursor on one line within the list to change a single bullet.
Access the dialog box by selecting Format|Bullets and Numbering from the menu bar
or by right-clicking within the list and selecting Bullets and Numbering from the
shortcut menu.
Select the list style from one of the seven choices given, or click the Picture... button to
choose a different icon. Click the Numbered tab to choose a numbered list style.
Click OK when finished.
2. GRAPHICS
Adding Clip Art
To add a clip art image from the Microsoft library to a document, follow these steps:
Select Insert|Picture|Clip Art from the menu bar.
To find an image, click in the white box following Search for clips. Delete the words "Type one
or more words. . ." and enter keywords describing the image you want to use.
- OR Click one of the category icons.
Click once on the image you want to add to the document and the following popup menu will
appear:
Insert Clip to add the image to the document.
Preview Clip to view the image full-size before adding it to the document. Drag
the bottom, right corner of the preview window to resize the image and click the
"x" close button to end the preview.
Add Clip to Favorites will add the selected image to your favorites directory
that can be chosen from the Insert ClipArt dialog box.
Find Similar Clips will retrieve images similar to the one you have chosen.
Continue selecting images to add to the document and click the Close button in the top,
right corner of the Insert ClipArt window to stop adding clip art to the
document.
Add An Image from a File
Follow these steps to add a photo or graphic from an existing file:
Select Insert|Picture|From File on the menu bar.
Click the down arrow button on the right of the Look in: window to find the image on
your computer.
Highlight the file name from the list and click the Insert button.
Editing A Graphic
Activate the image you wish to edit by clicking on it once with the mouse. Nine handles
will appear around the graphic. Click and drag these handles to resize the image. The
handles on the corners will resize proportionally while the handles on the straight lines
will stretch the image. More picture effects can be changed using the Picture toolbar. The
Picture toolbar should appear when you click on the image. Otherwise, select
View|Toolbars|Picture from the menu bar to activate it.
Insert Picture will display the image selection window and allows you to change
the image.
Image Control allows to to make the image grayscale, black and white, or a
watermark.
More/Less Contrast modifies the contrast between the colors of the image.
More/Less Brightness will darken or brighten the image.
Click Crop and drag the handles on the activated image to delete outer portions of the
image.
Line Style will add a variety of borders to the graphic.
Text Wrapping will modify the way the document text wraps around the graphic.
Format Picture displays all the image properties in a separate window.
Reset Picture will delete all the modifications made to the image.
Auto Shapes
The AutoShapes toolbar will allow you to draw many different geometrical shapes,
arrows, flow chart symbols, stars, and banners on the document. Activate the AutoShapes
toolbar by selecting Insert|Picture|AutoShapes or View|Toolbars|AutoShapes from the
menu bar, or clicking the AutoShapes button on the Drawing toolbar. Click each button
on the toolbar to view the options for drawing the shape.
Lines - After clicking the Lines button on the AutoShapes toolbar, draw a straight line,
arrow, or double-ended arrow from the first row of options by clicking the respective
button. Click in the document where you would like the line to begin and click again
where it should end. To draw a curved line or freeform shape, select curved lines from
the menu (first and second buttons of second row), click in the document where the line
should appear, and click the mouse every time a curve should begin. End creating the
graphic by clicking on the starting end or pressing the ESC key. To scribble, click the
last button in the second row, click the mouse in the document and hold down the left
button while you draw the design. Let go of the mouse button to stop drawing.
Basic Shapes - Click the Basic Shapes button on the AutoShapes toolbar to select from
many two- and three-dimensional shapes, icons, braces, and brackets. Use the drag-anddrop method to draw the shape in the document. When the shape has been made, it can be
resized using the open box handles and other adjustments specific to each shape can be
modified using the yellow diamond handles.
Block Arrows - Select Block Arrows to choose from many types of two- and threedimensional arrows. Drag-and-drop the arrow in the document and use the open box and
yellow diamond handles to adjust the arrowheads. Each AutoShape can also be rotated by
first clicking the Free Rotate button on the drawing toolbar . Click and drag the green
handles around the image to rotate it. The tree image below was created from an arrow
rotated 90 degrees.
Flow Chart - Choose from the flow chart menu to add flow chart elements to the
document and use the line menu to draw connections between the elements.
Stars and Banners - Click the button to select stars, bursts, banners, and scrolls.
Call Outs - Select from the speech and thought bubbles, and line call outs. Enter the
call out text in the text box that is made.
More AutoShapes - Click this button to choose from a list of clip art categories.
Each of the submenus on the AutoShapes toolbar can become a separate toolbar. Just
click and drag the gray bar across the top of the submenus off of the toolbar and it will
become a separate floating toolbar.
3. PAGE FORMATTING
Page Margins
The page margins of the document can be changed using the rulers on the page and the
Page Setup window. The ruler method is discussed first:
Move the mouse over the area where the white ruler changes to gray.
When the cursor becomes a double-ended arrow, click with the mouse and drag the
margin indicator to the desired location.
Release the mouse when the margin is set.
The margins can also be changed using the Page Setup dialog box:
Select File|Page Setup and choose the Margins tab in the dialog box.
Enter margin values in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes. The Preview window
will reflect the changes.
If the document has Headers and/or Footers, the distance this text appears from the edge
of the page can be changed.
Click OK when finished.
Page Size and Orientation
Change the orientation page within the Page Setup dialog box.
Select File|Page Setup and choose the Paper Size tab.
Select the proper paper size from the drop-down menu.
Change the orientation from Portrait or Landscape by checking the corresponding radio
button.
Headers and Footers
A header is text that is added to the top margin of every page such as a document title or
page number and a footer is text added to the bottom margin. Follow these steps to add
or edit headers and footers in the document:
Select View|Header and Footer from the menu bar. The Header and Footer toolbar will
appear and the top of the page will be highlighted as shown below.
Type the heading in the Header box. You may use many of the standard text formatting
options such as font face, size, bold, italics, etc.
Click the Insert AutoText button to view a list of quick options available.
Use the other options on the toolbar to add page numbers, the current date and time.
To edit the footer, click the Switch Between Header and Footer button on the toolbar.
When you are finished adding headers and footers, click the Close button on the toolbar.
Page Numbers
Follow these instructions for another way to add page numbers to a document.
Select Insert|Page Numbers from the menu bar and the following dialog box will appear.
Select the position of the page numbers by choosing "Top of page" or "Bottom of page"
from the Position drop-down menu.
Select the alignment of the page numbers in the Alignment drop-down menu.
If you do not want the page number to show on the first page (if it is a title page, for
example), uncheck the Show number of first page box.
Click OK when finished.
Print Preview and Printing
Preview your document by clicking the Print Preview button on the standard toolbar or
by selecting File|Print Preview. When the document is ready to print, click the Print
button from the Print Preview screen or select File|Print.
1. TABLES
Tables are used to display data and there are several ways to build them in Word. Begin
by placing the cursor where you want the table to appear in the document and choose one
of the following methods.
Insert a Table
There are two ways to add a table to the document using the Insert feature:
Click the Insert Table button on the standard toolbar. Drag the mouse along the grid, highlighting
the number of rows and columns for the table.
Or, select Table|Insert|Table from the menu bar. Select the number of rows and columns for the
table and click OK.
Draw the Table
A table can also be drawn onto the document:
Draw the table by selecting Table|Draw Table from the menu bar. The cursor is now the
image of a pencil and the Tables and Borders toolbar has appeared.
Draw the cells of the table with the mouse. If you make a mistake, click the Eraser
button and drag the mouse over the area to be deleted.
To draw more cells, click on the Draw Table button
.
Inserting Rows and Columns
Once the table is drawn, insert additional rows by placing the cursor in the row you want
to be adjacent to. Select Table|Insert|Rows Above or Rows Below. Or, select an entire
row and right-click with the mouse. Choose Insert Rows from the shortcut menu.
Much like inserting a row, add a new column by placing the cursor in a cell adjacent to
where the new column will be added. Select Table|Insert|Columns to the Left or
Columns to the Right. Or, select the column, right-click with the mouse, and select
Insert Columns.
Moving and Resizing a Table
A four-sided moving arrow and open box resizing handle will appear on the corners of
the table if the mouse is placed over the table. Click and drag the four-ended arrow to
move the table and release the mouse button when the table is positioned where you want
it. Click and drag the open box handle to resize the table. Change the column widths and
row heights by clicking the cell dividers and dragging them with the mouse.
Tables and Borders Toolbar
The Tables and Borders toolbar allows you to add border styles, shading, text effects,
alignment, and more options to your table. Access the toolbar by clicking Table|Draw
Table or View|Toolbars|Tables and Borders.
You will need to highlight the cells of the table you want to format. Click and drag the
mouse over the cells, or use the following shortcuts:
Selection
Menu Method
Mouse Method
One cell
Table|Select|Cell
Click the bottom, left corner of the cell when a black
arrow appears
One row
Table|Select|Row
Click outside the table to the left of the row
One column
Table|Select|Column
Click outside the table above the column when a black
arrow appears
Several rows
(none)
Click outside the table to the left of the row and drag the
mouse down
Several
columns
(none)
Click outside the table above the column
Entire table
Table|Select|Table
Triple-click to the left of the table
Table Properties
Use the Table Properties dialog box to modify the alignment of the table with the body
text and the text within the table. Access the box by selecting Tables|Table Properties.
Size - Check the Preferred width box and enter a value if the table should be an exact
width.
Alignment - Highlight the illustration that represents the alignment of the table in
relation to the text of the document.
Text wrapping - Highlight "None" if the table should appear on a separate line from the
text or choose "Around" if the text should wrap around the table.
Borders and Shading - Select from a number of border styles, colors, and widths. Click
the Shading tab to change the background color and pattern.
Options - Click the Options button on the Table Properties window. To change the
spacing between the document text and the table borders under Default cell margins.
Check the Allow spacing between cells box and enter a value to add space between the
table cells.
2. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Word will automatically create a Table of Contents page if a document is designed using
Heading and Paragraph styles (see the Styles section). Follow the steps on this page to
create a Table of Contents.
Mark Table of Contents Entries
Highlight a heading that you would like to appear in the Table of Contents (TOC).
Press ALT+SHIFT+O and the Mark Table of Contents Entry box will appear.
Entry - Rename the entry if you would like a different heading to appear in the TOC.
Table identifier - Select "C".
Level - Choose "1" for first-level heading, "2" for second-level heading, etc.
Click the Mark button.
The document will be toggled to "reveal codes" view and notice the TOC field code. To
hide all codes click the Show/Hide codes button on the standard toolbar.
Select another heading to add to the TOC, or click the Close button on the Mark Table
of Contents Entry dialog box.
Generate a Table of Contents
After you have marked all the headings for your TOC, follow these steps to generate the
Table of Contents.
Place the cursor where you would like the TOC to appear in the document.
Select Insert|Index and Tables from the menu bar.
Customize the appearance of the TOC from the Table of Contents tab. You may choose
a preset design from the Formats drop-down menu. A preview of each design will be
shown in the Print Preview window.
Check the Show page numbers box if you would like page numbers to show on the
TOC. Check the Right align page numbers box if the page numbers should appear on
the right side, then select the Tab leader between the heading and the page number.
Uncheck the box if the page numbers should appear right next to the heading.
Click OK.
MACROS
Macros are advanced features that can speed up editing or formatting you may perform
often in a Word document. They record sequences of menu selections that you choose so
that a series of actions can be completed in one step.
Recording A Macro
To record a macro, follow these steps:
Click Tools|Macro|Record New Macro on the menu bar.
Name the macro in the Macro name field. This name cannot contain spaces and or begin
with a number.
From the Store macro in drop-down box, select the document you would like the macro
to be associated with or choose "All Documents" be able to use the macro in any
document.
Enter a description of the macro in the Description field. This is for your reference only
so you remember what the macro does.
Click OK to begin recording.
Select options from the drop-down menus and Word will record the options you choose
from the dialog boxes, such as changing the margins on the Page Setup window. Select
only options that modify the document. Word will not record toggle actions such as
View|Toolbars that have no effect on the document itself.
The recording toolbar will allow you to stop, pause, and resume recording.
Click the Stop button the recording toolbar. The macro is now saved.
Running A Macro
To run an existing macro, follow these steps.
Select Tools|Macro|Macros from the menu bar.
From the Macros window, highlight the Macro name in the list and click Run.
If the macro is long and you want to stop it while it is running, press BREAK (hold
CTRL and press PAUSE).
Mail Merge
Creating the Data Source for Merges
Description
This lesson begins with a brief discussion of why you would want to use the mail merge feature in
Microsoft Word 2000. However, the bulk of the lesson addresses creating the data source document,
entering information using the "Data Form" dialog box, how to locate records to edit and delete
them, and how to sort information in the data source. You will also look briefly at working with the
data in the main document window as a table.
Why Use the Mail Merge Feature
If you need to send similar (or identical) letters to a group of people, or need to create a list of people
who will receive a newsletter or flier, you will probably want to use the mail merge feature. You
might be sending out thank you letters for people who helped with a workshop or meeting;
composing "rejection" letters at the end of a search process; creating a file of people who will
receive monthly mailings during the course of a project; or printing name tags for a conference.
Basically, to merge you need to create a data source document and a related form, called the mail
merge main document. The main document can be a letter, envelope, mailing label, or another type
of document which references the data source. The last step is to combine or merge these two
documents into a new document. Even if you are sending a similar letter to a unique list of people
who you will not need to contact again, it is faster to use the mail merge feature. The alternative—to
write one letter, print it, change the address, print the second letter, and so forth—is a rather time
consuming task. Also, most offices and professionals have a clientele list that is used many times
throughout the year, or from one year to the next. This certainly is a job for the mail merge feature.
Comments on the Information Used in a Data Source File
The information used in a merge—the names and addresses used to produce the form letter or the
mailing labels—is stored in a document called the data source. The term data source comes from
database type of software, like dBase, Access, or Paradox. Data means information. The data source
is made up of records—a group of related information, like information about one person. Each
record, in turn, is made up of fields, like a person's name, address, and phone number.
The first row in a data source is called the header row.The header row is made up of a list of field
names. Word provides a list of commonly used field names; you can add or remove names from that
list to develop the header row for your data source.
For most of the exercises in this three-part workshop, we will tell you what fields and field names to
use, so everyone will be working with the same data source. This is the data source structure you
will use with this lesson series:
FirstName
First and last names must be separate so you can sort by last name and use the first
name by itself in the salutation.
LastName
Company
This field can be blank.
Address1
Mailing address.
City
State
We will be using the two letter state abbreviation.
PostalCode
This could be a 5 digit zip code, but where possible, start collecting the zip+4 codes
in your own files. At some point you may be required by the United States Postal
Service to use the zip+4 on your mailings.
WorkPhone
Subject
This will be a field in which you enter a 'keyword," appropriate to your area of
work. With this field you can store all the contacts in one file, since sometimes you
mail to everyone, but other times target those people who might be interested in a
special topic.
In the exercises that follow, you will create a data source with these nine fields. However, when you
create your own applications, you need to decide how you are going to use the data in order to have
the fields (or pieces of information) you need. For example, in this lesson series, you will use just
one phone field. However, in your own applications, you may need to have a work phone number, a
home phone number, and perhaps a fax number or a cellular phone number. As another example, if
the data lists members of an organization and will be used for many years, you may want to add a
year-joined field. Yet another example might be a committee field, if your list has people helping
with a project and they are on different committees.
Since most data source files are used to print mailing labels or form letters, normally all files will
have a name, address, city, state, and zip code (called a PostalCode by Word). Again, there is no rule
on what fields or how many fields you may use.
Setting View Options
Before you begin the mail merge process, it is a good idea to look at your view options. These
options control what types of information you will view within your main document. Under the
TOOLS menu, select Options and then select the View tab.
If the Field Codes box is checked, click on it to uncheck that selection. By leaving this unchecked,
the field codes wil not be displayed in your document and then you cannot inadvertently change a
field name. This code also must be hidden to view your merged data properly.
The second item to look at is the Field Shading. This option should be set to always. When this
option is selected, the merge fields easy to recognize because they are shaded in gray.
Creating The Data Source Document
Beginning The Mail Merge Process
To begin the merge process,
1. Open a new document, or have your insertion point at the top of an empty document.
2. Select TOOLS on the menu bar, then choose Mail Merge to bring up the "Mail Merge
Helper" dialog box. There are three sections in this dialog box—Main Document, Data
Source, and Merge the Data with the Document.
3. To create the data source, click on the [Create] button. A drop-down list appears with four
options: Form Letters, Mailing Labels, Envelopes and Catalog.
4. Select the type of main document you eventually intend to create. You may change your
selection later if you plan to use the data source for more than one type of merged document.
5. Select [Active Window] to use the current screen.
Create The Data Source
The next step is to identify or create the data source. Click on the [Get Data] button in the Mail
Merge Helper and, for now, choose Create Data Source. If you already have a data source, you can
open it, or you can use data from address book entries (ex. Outlook).
In the "Create Data Source" dialog box, the "Field Names in Header Row" window lists commonly
used field names. Remember, each field is a category of information. If you do not want to use the
default field names, you may either delete listed fields or add new ones.
To remove a field from the given listing, highlight the field name and click on [Remove Field
Name].
To add a field not in the default listing, type the new field name in the "Field Name" window and
click on [Add Field Name]. Field names must be one word. When you add a new field name it is
placed at the end of the list. To reposition it in the list, highlight the field name, then click the up and
down arrows you see at the right of the field names list.
Exercise 1
Click the [New] button on the standard toolbar or select FILE, New and choose Blank
Document to get a new document window. Select TOOLS, Mail Merge, and click once on
the [Create] button. Choose Form Letters from the drop-down list and click on [Active
Window] to work with the existing blank screen. Now click on [Get Data] and choose
Create Data Source.
The "Create Data Source" dialog box appears. Add and remove fields from the field name list
provided so that your list contains only the following field names. For example, the first
listed field is "Title." Highlight that in the list of fields, and then click [Remove Field]. Go
down to "JobTitle" and highlight that field, and again click [Remove Field]. Continue
deleting until you have this listing:
FirstName
LastName
Company
Address1
City
State
PostalCode
WorkPhone
Subject
To add the last field, type in the field name in the "Field Name" window and then click on
[Add Field Name]. NOTE: Field names must be less than 40 characters, cannot contain
spaces or begin with a number. No two fields may have the same name nor may they contain
characters that you cannot put in a filename, such as periods, commas, slashes, backslashes
or colons. If you enter an invalid character, the [Add Field Name] button will remain
inoperable until the error is corrected.
Click on the [OK] button. The "Save As" dialog box immediately appears. Name the file
"2001 contacts" and click [Save]. This file will be saved with the default extension ".doc."
The default folder that will be used is My Documents. It is okay to use this folder or place
your files in any folder area of your choice.
The next screen gives you the option of entering data or working on the main document form.
Click on [Edit Data Source] so that you can view the "Data Form" dialog box while you
read the next section.
Using the Data Entry Form
Immediately after you save the header list you prepared in the "Create Data Source" dialog box, you
may choose [Edit Data Source] to enter data. The "Data Form" dialog box that opens is essentially
an attempt to make your word processor look more like a database program. Using this data entry
form, it is easy to remember what data goes where.
You will see the field names at the left of the window. Type in each piece of data in the appropriate
window. You can press <Enter> or <Tab> to go to the next field. If you make a mistake, use your
normal keystrokes to correct it, or drag the field with the mouse to select it, and type over the
incorrect data.
If you press <Enter> after typing the information for the last field in one record, a blank data entry
form appears. You can also click on the [Add New] button to go to a blank form.
The United States Post Office (USPS) is getting increasingly fussy about how addresses are
displayed on envelopes and mailing labels, because of automatic scanners. For example, they do not
want any punctuation marks and they want all uppercase letters. However, since we want to create a
letter as one of the forms, we cannot capitalize all letters as we type. In Lesson 2, you will learn an
easy way to capitalize all letters on envelopes and labels. We are using USPS approved
abbreviations for street designators; a complete list of these will be posted separately.
Exercise 2
Using the "Data Form" dialog box, type in these records. If you press <Enter> to go from
field to field, Word will go to a new form screen after the last field.
Record 1
FirstName Mary
LastName Peterson
Company Kodak Fruit and Vegetables
Address1 715 N Park Ave
City
Tucson
State
AZ
PostalCode 85719-5037
WorkPhone 520-654-9001
Subject nutrition
Record 2
FirstName Harry
LastName Crenshaw
Company
Address1 2306 Wayside Dr
City
Bryan
State
TX
PostalCode 77802-2450
WorkPhone 409-845-3001
Subject international
Record 3
FirstName Mary Lou
LastName Adams
Company Pickett Elementary School
Address1 PO Box 183
City
Hinesburg
State
VT
PostalCode 05461-0183
WorkPhone 802-709-9888
Subject nutrition
Record 4
FirstName Harold
LastName Little
Company
Address1 3200 MacCorkle Ave
City
Charleston
State
WV
PostalCode 25304-1200
Workphone 304-229-6345
Subject cattle
Record 5
FirstName Sam
LastName Gonzales
Company Palm Shadows Advertising
Address1 800 N First Ave
City
Phoenix
State
AZ
PostalCode 85040-8807
WorkPhone 602-988-9112
Subject finances
Record 6
FirstName Carol
LastName Adams
Company
Address1 HC 1 Box 122
City
Ashland
State
KS
PostalCode 67831-9709
WorkPhone XXX-988-9112
Subject finances
(You are missing the area code for the phone so put
XXX here for now and later you will find this code
and replace it with the correct area code.)
Record 7
FirstName Rebecca
LastName Littleton
Company
Address1 709 S 6 St
City
Fargo
State
ND
PostalCode 58102-3254
WorkPhone 701-237-9002
Subject drug ed
Continue adding more names to your data source file until you have at least 10 records.
Saving the Data File
When you are through entering data, click on the [OK] button in the "Data Form" dialog box. The
insertion point will be blinking on the blank screen of the mail merge main document. You can
verify this if you look at the filename on the title bar. Since we haven't done anything with this
document yet, it will have the name Document1 (or some other number) if you were working in
Word before starting this lesson.
The data source document you created has not been closed and saved, even though you don't see it
on screen at the moment. The file you saved earlier contained field names only-no data! Remember
to save the file often while you are entering data so that the new records are saved. To save both the
main document AND the data source now, hold down the <Shift> key, click on FILE, Save All.
The first message from Word is: "Documentx is a mail merge main document that is attached to a
data source 2001 contacts.doc that has not been saved. Do you want to save 2001 contacts.doc?"
Click [Yes]. Next, the "Save As" dialog box opens, asking for a name for the main document. If you
had already created a main document yet, you could click [Cancel]. If you had already created the
main document, you would name the file and click [Save].
Exercise 3
Click on the [OK] button in the "Data Form" dialog box. Now hold down the <Shift> key
and choose FILE, Save All and click [Yes] when Word asks you if you want to save "2001
contacts.doc." Next click [Cancel] to avoid saving the empty mail merge main document at
this time.
If you had closed the file instead of choosing FILE, Save All, you would have seen the same
question about saving the file and should have completed the same steps.
Editing the Data File
After the data is saved, the insertion point will be blinking on the blank mail merge main document
screen. You will see the mail merge toolbar above the document area. You can quickly return to edit
the data source document by clicking on the [Edit Data Source] button
bar.
near the far right of that
It is typical that you will want to edit data some other time to add more records,
delete records, or make changes. There are several ways to access the data source
document to do that.
To access the data in the "Data Form" display from a new or existing document
choose TOOLS, Mail Merge. You will again select the type of main document to
create and then choose [Get Data]. This time, instead of creating a data source,
you will choose Open Data Source and select the data source file from the list of
filenames displayed.
If you wanted to go directly to editing the data, you would click [Cancel] to avoid
editing the main document and return to the "Mail Merge Helper" dialog box.
Clicking [Edit] in the Data Source section will open the "Data Form" dialog box.
Exercise 4
on the mail merge toolbar, so
Click on the [Edit Data Source] button
that you can take a better look at the "Data Form" dialog box as you read
the next section.
Scrolling Through the Data Source File
There are four buttons at the bottom of the "Data Form" display to move through
your records.
t
t th
t
t th
i
t
d
d
h l
d
By clicking on the [Next] and [Previous] buttons you can scroll through your file
to look for individual records. You can click in a particular field, selecting it to
delete it or use normal editing procedures to make changes. You may also enter a
specific record number in the window that appears between the record buttons to
go directly to a record.
Deleting Records
To delete a record when it is displayed in the "Data Form," click on the [Delete]
button.
Exercise 5
Scroll through the data to find one of the records you added yourself. Use
the [Delete] button to remove the record from the data file. Click [OK] to
close the "Data Form" window. Save the changes to the data source by
holding down the <Shift> key and choosing FILE, Save All. Click on
[Yes] to save "2001 contacts.doc" and click [Cancel] to avoid naming the
empty main document.
Click [Edit Data Source] again.
Adding Records
At any point when you are working with your data file in the "Data Form," click on
the [Add New] button to get a blank display for a record.
Searching the Data Source File
Field" window,
The search for the designated string of characters will begin with the selected
record and proceed to the last record, so you may want to go to the first record in
the data file before beginning the search. (If you don't start at the first record, Word
will eventually ask you if you want to continue the search at the beginning.) Type
in a word or series of characters to search for in the "Find What" window, select
the field to search in the "In Field" window, and then click the [Find First] button.
Word finds the first occurrence of the phrase in your file and displays the record in
the "Data Form" dialog box. If that is not the record you want, click [Find Next].
Keep repeating this process until you get a "finished" message.
Exercise 6
The "Data Form" dialog box should still be on the screen. Click the [First]
button to go to the entry for Mary Peterson. Click on the [Find] button
and look for the name Little (no punctuation after it) in the LastName field.
Where does Word stop? Click on [Find Next] and repeat the search until
you get a "finished" message. Close this search.
Click on [First] to return to the first record. Click [Find] and this time look
for XXX in the WorkPhone field to find the incomplete phone number.
Close the Find window and replace the XXX in the data record with the
area code of 913. This is another way you can use FIND in a data file—to
find a record that has incomplete information.
Leave the "Data Form" window open on your screen.
Viewing the Data Source in a Table
If you click on the [View Source] button
you can view all the
data in the data source in a table format. This is also how the data document will
look if you open the file using the FILE, Open command. You can add, delete or
edit the data directly in the table. Also, since the data source is the open document,
you can use the FILE, Save command to save changes when you are working in
the table view of the data source document.
The table column widths are based on the width of the field name in the header
record—the first record at the top of the table. As a result, the data might be
wrapped within the cells and therefore, hard to read. You can select Table, Table
Properties and adjust the column and row height and width. If you don't have too
many columns, you can also click on Table, AutoFit AutoFit to Contents.
The main disadvantage of working with a table layout for your data occurs in
situations where you have many fields. It gets harder to read the data if your table
columns become too narrow. The data will still work correctly with form letters
and mailing labels; it is just hard to work with it on the screen to enter and edit
data.
If you are familiar with the table feature and you only have a few fields (like 6 to 8)
in each record, you can use this table format for editing, adding and deleting data if
you wish. The database toolbar is displayed when you are viewing the data table. It
contains buttons that will help you make changes to the data. You can return from
the data source (table) display to the "Data Form" window by clicking on the [Data
Form] button
in the database toolbar.
Exercise 7
Click on the [View Source] button in the "Data Form" dialog box. The
insertion point will be blinking in the first column of the last record in the
table. Notice the file name on the Title bar at the very top of the screen. It
should be "2001 contacts.doc."
Click on the [Add New Record] button
on the database toolbar and
enter information for another person into the row that was added at the end
of the table.
on the standard toolbar and then close the file.
Click the [Save] button
The insertion point will now be blinking in the empty mail merge main
document window. How do you like entering data directly into the table?
Adding Fields While Viewing the Data Source
Occasionally after you have created a data source, you might want to add, remove
or rename fields. To add a field, you must display the data source in the document
window. You can either open the data source document using the FILE, Open
command, or choose [View Source] from the "Data Form" dialog box. When the
data table is visible, click the [Manage Fields]
button on the database toolbar
(it is the second one from the left). The "Manage Fields" dialog box permits you to
add, delete or rename fields. Click [OK] when you are finished.
If you add new fields, you can enter data into the fields either directly into the data
source table, or by returning to the "Data Form" dialog box.
Sorting the Data Source File
Records in the data source file are initially stored in the order that you enter them.
Depending on how you want to use the data, you will want to sort the file by
different fields to rearrange the records. The data file will print form letters or
mailing labels in the order that the records appear in your data file.
Quick Sort in the Data Source (Table) Display
If you are working in the data source (table display) you may quickly sort by any
single field by placing the insertion point in a column and clicking on the [Sort
or the [Sort Descending]
buttons in the database toolbar. This
Ascending]
works well for smaller files, when you only want to sort by one field. As a file gets
larger, you may often need to sort by multiple fields.
Sorting by More than One Field
You may sort by up to three fields if you use the [Query Options] button in the
"Mail Merge Helper" dialog box.
If you do not have a mail merge main document and data source file open, you
must do that first. Choose TOOLS, Mail Merge. Click on [Create] and select a
document type, then click on [Get Data] and select Open Data Source.
If you are already in a mail merge main document, select TOOLS, Mail Merge
from the menu bar or click on the [Mail Merge Helper] button
. Click on the
[Query Options] button
in the Mail Merge Helper dialog box.
The "Query Options" dialog box two tabs: Filter Records and Sort Records.
The "Sort Records" Dialog Box
To sort the data source file, click the Sort Records tab. You can sort by up to three
fields. If you only want to sort by one field, like PostalCode, click on the "Sort by"
window and choose that field from the drop down list. Check the button on the
right to choose between ascending and descending sorts. If you want to sort the
records so that names are listed alphabetically within zip codes, click on the first
"Then by" window and pick "LastName" from the field list. Click [OK] to
perform the sort.
Word will store new records in the sort order you established until you close the
file or until you change the sort order. When you want to start over with a
completely new sort, click the [Clear All] button.
Exercise 8 In this exercise you will go through the steps to sort the file
by last name then first name, which is another common order for a mailing
list.
If the cursor is blinking on the blank, mail merge main document window,
where you left it after Exercise 7, click on the [Mail Merge Helper] button
on the mail merge toolbar.
If it isn't, open a blank document and choose TOOLS, Mail Merge, click
[Create] and select a main document type. Then click on[Get Data], Open
Data Source, and open "2001 contacts.doc".
Complete these steps:
1. Click on [Query Options] in the "Mail Merge Helper" dialog box.
2. Click on the Sort Records tab.
3. Click in the "Sort By" window and select LastName.
4. Now click in the "Then By" window and select FirstName.
5. Make sure the sort order is Ascending for both criteria.
6. Click on [OK] to perform the sort.
7. To see the results, click on [Edit] in the Data Source section of the "Mail
Merge Helper" dialog box and open "2001 contacts.doc." Scroll through the
records to see the results of the sort.
8. Now add another person to the list of contacts, using the "Data Form."
When you click [OK] the "Data Form" dialog box will close. Open it again
on the database toolbar. Scroll
by clicking the [Data Form] button
through the entries. The new entry should have been inserted in the same,
last name/first name order.
Save this version of "2001 contacts."
This sort remains associated with the data source for the current session only. If
you exit Word and come back to the same file to add more records later, they will
not be added in the correct order. You will have to sort the file again.
Printing the Data File
If you want a printed list of all the records in the data source document, click on
[View Source] while you are in the "Data Form." When the data table is displayed
button
in the main document window, choose FILE, Print or click the [Print]
on the standard toolbar.
Exercise 9Click the [Data Form] button on the Database toolbar and then
click [View Source] in the "Data Form" dialog box. Click the [Print] button
on the standard toolbar to print a table listing of your data.
Close the "2001 contacts"document.
Command Review
TOOLS, Mail Merge
One way to begin creating a data source document
or mail merge main document
A way to save data entered into the data source
document
The mail merge feature is useful when you need to create multiple copies of similar
(or identical) documents for many people, like a thank you letter for volunteers.
The first step is to create a data source document. A list of common field names is
provided. This list can be edited to remove unneeded fields or add fields if you
want. The data source can have as many fields as necessary for your project. You
may determine the field names and their order. The "Data Form" dialog box makes
entering information easy. After closing the "Data Form," the related mail merge
main document will be open in the document screen, even if it is empty. Click on
the [Data Form] button on the Database toolbar to get back into the form for
editing or deleting records, or adding more records. Use the [Find] button on the
"Data Form" display to look for a specific entry in a given field, in a larger file.
Choose Query Options from the "Mail Merge Helper" dialog box to sort and
reorder your data file. A data source file created from the "Mail Merge Helper" will
<SHIFT> FILE, Save All
be stored as a table. You may choose to view and edit the data source while in the
document table layout, if you wish.
More Exercises and Questions
10. Name some ways you might use the merge feature in your work.
11. What is the first thing you need to do to begin a merge data file?
12. How many fields must you have in a data file?
13. What is the purpose of the "Data Form" display?
14. How do you sort data in a data source document?
15. Use the FILE, Open command to open the "2001 contacts" document source
file as a table and save it as "practice." Now close the file. Open a new, blank
document and select TOOLS, Mail Merge. Choose any type of main document,
then click [Get Data] and open the practice.doc data source. Go to the [Query
Options] and sort the data source records so they are sorted by state, then by last
name. Then go to the "Data Form" dialog box and scroll through the practice file to
see if the records are in the correct order. If you were working with a multi-state
project, would this type of sort be useful?
16. Still using the "practice" file, practice using the [Find] button in the "Data
Form window" to find one of the people in your data file.
17. Still using the "practice" file in the "Data Form" windows, click on [View
Source]. Your file should still be sorted by state, then by last name. With your
cursor anywhere in the last name column, click on the [Sort Ascending] button in
the Database toolbar. Now sort the file so that PostalCodes are listed in descending
order.
18. While viewing the practice data source as a table, try adding a new field for
home phone numbers. While still in the table, add phone numbers to each record
INTRODUCTION TO MS-POWER POINT
Microsoft PowerPoint is a software product used to perform computer-based presentations. There
are various circumstances in which a presentation is made: teaching a class, introducing a product
to sell, explaining an organizational structure, etc. When performing a presentation, there are two
main kinds of presentation you can deliver: before an audience or not. The preparation and the
actual delivery of each are quite different. Before getting into the details of each, we will first take a
look at the software and analyze what it has to offer a presentation.
Open Power Point and you will be prompted by a dialog box with four choices. Each of
these options is explained on this page. If Power Point is already open or this box does
not appear, select File|New from the menu bar.
1 . GETTING STARTED
AutoContent Wizard
The AutoContent Wizard provides templates and ideas for a variety of presentation types.
Page through the wizard by clicking the Next button on the bottom of each page after
making necessary choices.
Design Template
Power Point provides many templates with different backgrounds and text formatting to
begin your presentation. Preview each design by highlighting the template name on the
list. Press OK after you have chosen the design.
Blank Presentation
Select Blank Presentation to build the presentation from scratch with no preset graphics
or formatting.
Open an Existing Presentation
Select this option to open a Power Point presentation that already exists. Select the folder
the file is located in from the Look in: drop-down menu and highlight the file on the list.
Click Open to open the presentation.
AutoLayout
After selecting the presentation type, you will be prompted to choose the layout of the
new slide. These layouts include bulleted lists, graphs, and/or images. Click on each
thumbnail image and a description will be printed in the message box. Highlight the
layout you want and click OK.
2.
POWER POINT SCREEN
Screen Layout
The Power Point screen layout in Normal View:
Views
Power Point gives you four screen layouts for constructing your presentation in
addition to the Slide Show. You can select the page view by clicking the buttons just
above the formatting toolbar and the bottom of the page.
Normal View
This screen is split into three sections showing
the presentation outline on the left, the slide in
the main window, and notes at the bottom.
Slide View
The slide view displays each slide on the
screen and is helpful for adding images,
formatting text, and adding background styles.
Outline View
The presentation outline is displayed on the
majority of the screen with small windows for
the slide and notes. This view is recommended
for editing text.
Slide Sorter View
A small image of each slide is displayed in
Slide Sorter view. Slides can easily be ordered
and sorted from this screen.
Click the Slide Show button to view the full-screen slide show.
3. WORKING WITH SLIDES
Insert a New Slide
Follow these steps to insert a new slide into the presentation:
In the Outline window, select the slide you want the new slide to appear after by
clicking the slide's number.
Select Insert|New Slide from the menu bar or click the new slide button on the
standard toolbar.
Choose the page layout from the window and press OK.
Applying a Design Template
To add a design template or changing the existing one, selection Format|Design
Template from the menu bar. Select the template and click Apply.
Changing Slide Layouts
To change the layout template of the slide select Format|Slide Layout from the menu
bar. Select one of the layout thumbnail images and click Apply.
Reordering Slides
To reorder a slide in Slide Sorter View, simply click on the slide you wish to move and
drag it to the new location. In Normal or Outline View, click the slide icon
beside
the number of the slide you want to move and drag the icon to a new location.
Hide Slides
If you do not want a slide to appear during the slide show, but do not want to delete the
slide as it may be used later, the slide can be hidden by selecting Slide Show|Hide Slide
from the menu bar. To add the slide back to the slide show, select Slide Show|Hide Slide
again.
Create a Custom Slide Show
The Custom Slide Show feature allows you to select the slides you want to display in the
slide show if not all the slides should be used.
Select Slide Show|Custom Slide Show from the menu bar.
Click the New... button in the Custom Shows window.
In the Define Custom Show window, type a name for the slide in the Slide show
name field.
Add slides to the custom show by highlighting them in the Slides in presentation
window and clicking the Add >> button. Those slides will then appear in the
Slides in custom show window.
To remove slides from the custom show, highlight their names in the Slides in
custom show window and click the Remove button.
To reorder slides in the custom show, highlight the slide that should be moved
and click the up and down arrows to change its order in the show.
Click OK when finished.
Click the Show button on the Custom Shows window to preview the custom slide
show and click Close to exit.
Edit a Custom Slide Show
Select Slide Show|Custom Slide Show from the menu bar.
Edit the show by highlighting the name in the Custom shows box and clicking
the Edit... button.
To delete a show, highlight the name and click Remove.
Create a copy of a show by clicking the Copy button. The copy can then be
renamed by clicking the Edit... button.
Click the Show button to preview the custom slide show and click Close to exit.
1.ADDING CONTENT
Bulleted Lists on Design Templates
Bulleted lists allow you to clearly display the main points of your presentation on slides.
The text boxes on design templates already include bulleted lists. Click the place holder
on the slide to begin adding text and press the ENTER key to return to the next line and
add a new bulleted item. To go to the next line without adding another bullet, hold down
the SHIFT key while pressing ENTER.
Bulleted List from a Text Box
If you are not creating a bulleted list from an existing placeholder on a design template,
or if you would like to add an additional bulleted list, follow these steps to create a new
list:
In slide view, create a text box by selecting Insert|Text Box from the menu bar.
"Draw" the text box on the slide by holding down the left mouse button while you
move the mouse until the box is the size you want it.
Choose Format|Bullets and Numbering from the menu bar.
Change the Size of the bullet by changing the percentage in relation to the text.
Choose a color for the bullet from the Color menu. Click More Colors for a
larger selection.
Select one of the seven bullet types shown and click OK.
- OR Click the Picture button to view the Picture Bullet window. Select one of the
bullets and click OK.
- OR Click the Character button to select any character from the fonts on the
computer. Select a symbol font such as Wingdings or Webdings from the Bullets
from drop-down menu for the best selection of icons. Click on the characters in
the grid to see them larger. Click OK when you have chosen the bullet you want
to use.
Click OK on the Bullets and Numbering window and use the same methods
described in the "Bulleted Lists on Design Templates" to enter text into the
bulleted list.
Bulleted Lists and New Slides from an Outline
In Normal or Outline view, text can easily be entered in the outline window and new
slides are automatically added. Follow the steps below to become familiar with adding
slide content in outline view:
Next to the Slide 1 icon, type the title of the slide. The text you type beside the
slide icons will be the large-type titles on each slide.
Press ENTER to type the next line. This will automatically create a new slide. To
create a bulleted list for the first slide, press the TAB key or click the demote
button on the More Buttons menu accessible by clicking the "triple arrow"
button at the end of the formatting toolbar .
- OR Press ALT+SHIFT+Right Arrow to demote the selection to a bulleted list item.
Continue entering text for the bulleted list, pressing ENTER at the end of each
line to create a new bullet.
Create a multilevel list by executing the demote action again to create a bulleted
sublist. Press the promote button on the More Buttons menu or press
ALT+SHIFT+Left Arrow to return to the original list.
Create a new slide by executing the promote action until a new slide icon
appears.
Continue creating new slides and bulleted lists by using the demote and promote
actions until the presentation is completed. Use the formatting instructions below
to format the lists.
If there is more than one bulleted list on the slide, the lists will be designated by numbers
enclosed in black boxes. The example below shows the slide created from the outline on
the left. The bulleted list on the left side of the slide is labeled list "1" on the outline and
the list on the right is labeled list "2". When typing the outline, begin typing in the new
list by pressing CTRL+ENTER. In this example, CTRL+ENTER was pressed after
typing "Access".
Numbered List
Follow these steps to create a numbered list:
Create a text box.
With the text box selected, choose Format|Bullets and Numbering from the
menu bar.
Click the Numbered tab at the top of the Bullets and Numbering window.
Change the size of the numbers by changing the percentage in relation to the text.
Choose a color for the numbers from the Color menu. Click More Colors for a
larger selection.
Change the Start at value if the numbers should not begin with 1.
Select one of the the seven list types shown and click OK.
Resizing a Text Box
Select a text box by clicking on it with the mouse. A border with nine handles will appear
around the text box. The four handles on the corners will resize the length and the width
of the box at once while the handles on the sides will resize only in one direction. Click
one of the handles and drag it with the mouse. Release the mouse button when it is the
size you want it to be. Move the text box by clicking and dragging the thick, dotted
border with the mouse.
Text Box Properties
Change the colors, borders, and backgrounds of a text box from the Format AutoShape
dialog box.
Activate the textbox by clicking on it and select Format|Colors and Lines from
the menu bar.
Under the Colors and Lines tab, select a Fill color that will fill the background
of the text box. Check the Semitransparent box if you want the slide background
to show through the color.
Select a Line color that will surround the box as well as a Style or Weight for the
thickness of the line and a Dashed property if the line should not be solid.
Click the Text Box tab.
Change the Text anchor point to reposition the text within the text box.
Set Internal margins to the distance the text should be to the text box edges.
Click OK to add the changes to the text box.
Delete a Text Box
To delete a text box from a template, simply click the border of the text box and press the
DELETE key on the keyboard.
Adding Notes
From Normal View, notes can be added to the slide. These notes will not be seen on your
presentation, but they can be printed out on paper along with the slide the notes refer to
by selecting Print What: Notes Pages on the Print menu.
2. WORKING WITH TEXT
Adding Text
If the slide layout includes text boxes, simply click on the text box to add text. To add a
text box to the slide, select Insert|Text Box from the menu bar and draw the text box
with the mouse. Set text editing options by selecting Tools|Options from the menu bar
and clicking the Edit tab.
Formatting Text
Select the text that will be formatted by highlighting the text either on the outline or on
the slide. Choose Format|Font from the menu bar or right-click on the highlighted
selection and select Font from the popup shortcut menu or. Select a font face, size, style,
effect, and color from the Font dialog box. Click the Preview button to see how the
changes will appear on the slide before making a decision.
Replace Fonts
Design templates have a preset font that you may want to change or you may want to
change the font used on for the entire presentation for a number of reasons. This can be
accomplished quickly using the Replace Fonts feature. Select Format|Replace Font
from the menu bar. Choose the font you want to Replace from the first drop-down menu
and the font it should be replaced With from the second menu, and click the Replace
button.
Line Spacing
Change the amount of space between lines in a text box by selecting Format|Line
Spacing from the menu bar.
Line spacing - Select the amount of vertical space between lines. A value of "1"
is equal to single spacing and "2" is double spacing. Values between and above
these numbers are valid as well.
Before paragraph and After paragraph - This value will determine the amount
of vertical space before and after each paragraph in a text box.
Change Case
Change the case of the characters in a paragraph by selecting Format|Change Case from
the menu bar without having to retype the text.
Sentence case - Capitalizes the first letter of the first word in each sentence.
Lowercase and Uppercase - Changes the case of all the letters.
Title case - Capitalizes the first letter of every word and reduces the rest to
lowercase.
Toggle case - The opposite of Title case, it makes the first letter of every word
lowercase and capitalizes the remaining letters.
Spell Check
Correct the spelling in the presentation by selecting Tools|Spelling from the menu bar or
by pressing the F7 key on the keyboard.
The spell checker will prompt you to make corrections of the first word that is
spelled wrong.
If the word is spelled correctly, click Ignore or Ignore All if the same word
appears several times during the presentation. If this word will appear in many
presentations (such as your name), click Add to add the word to the dictionary
and you won't be prompted by a misspelling again.
If the word is spelled wrong, highlight one of the the Suggestions or type your
own revision in the Change to box. Click Change to correct this occurrence of
the word or Change All to correct all occurrences of the word in the presentation.
Click Close to abort the spelling check early.
When the spell checker has read through the entire presentation, you will be
prompted by a window telling you that the spelling check is complete. Click OK.
Spelling Options
Select Tools|Options from the menu bar and click the Spelling and Style tab.
Check spelling as you type - If this box is checked, Power Point will check the
spelling of every word as you type. Misspelled words will be underlined with
wavy red lines.
Hide spelling errors in this document - Check this box to remove the wavy red
lines from words that are spelled wrong.
Always suggest corrections - If this box is checked, suggestions for misspelled
words will appear when you activate the spell checker.
Ignore words in UPPERCASE - Power Point recommends that you don't type
slide titles in all uppercase letters so it will treat words like this and other alluppercase acronyms as misspelled. Check this box to ignore this suggestion and
acronyms that are typically typed in all caps.
Ignore words with numbers - Check to ignore words that are combinations of
letters and numbers.
1. COLOR SCHEME
The colors of predesigned slide templates can be changed and a color scheme can be
added to blank presentations. This page explains how to add color schemes and
background images to slides.
Color Schemes
Select Format|Slide Color Scheme from the menu bar.
Click one of the preset color scheme thumbnail images in the Color schemes box.
Click the Preview button to see how the scheme will appear on the slide.
To make changes to the color scheme, click the Custom tab on the dialog box.
Change the colors of the slide elements by selecting the color swatch beside the
name of the element and clicking the Change color button.
Highlight one of the colors from the Text and Line Color window or select the
Custom tab to view more color choices and click OK when finished.
When you have finished all color formatting, click Apply to All to apply the color
scheme to all the slides in the presentation or Apply to add the scheme only to the
current slide.
Backgrounds
Follow these steps to add background colors and patterns to a slide:
Select Format|Background from the menu bar.
Select a color from the drop-down menu below the Background fill preview or
choose More Colors... for a larger selection.
Select Fill Effects from the drop-down menu to add gradients, texture, patterns,
or a picture to the background.
Gradient tab
Select One color if the color chosen will fade into the background and
select the color from the Color 1 drop-down menu. Choose Two colors if
the gradient will use two colors and select those colors from the Color 1
and Color 2 drop-down menus. Preset provides a selection of color
combinations. Select one from the Preset colors drop-down menu.
Select the type of gradient from Shading styles.
Click one of the four Variants of the styles chosen.
Texture tab
From the Texture window, select a repeating background by scrolling through the
thumbnail images or click Other Texture... to select an image from a file.
Pattern tab
Select a two-tone pattern by clicking one of the pattern swatches and selecting the
Foreground and Background colors.
Picture tab
Click the Select Picture button to choose a picture from a file. After the picture is
selected, a preview and description will be shown in this window.
Click OK to apply the changes made from the Fill Effects windows.
Click Apply to All to add the changes to every slide or Apply to make changes
only to the current Slide.
2. GRAPHICS
The Drawing Toolbar provides many commands for creating and editing graphics. The
toolbar is located at the bottom of the Power Point screen or it can be activated by
selecting View|Toolbars|Drawing from the menu bar.
Menu Grouping - Images can be grouped together so they become one image
and can be moved together or the same formatting changes can be applied
to both at once. Select all the images that will be grouped by holding down
the SHIFT key and clicking once on each image. Then select Group from
the Draw menu. The images can be ungrouped by selecting Ungroup
from the same menu. The rectangles in the image to the left are separate
images with their own sets of handles and they are grouped together in the
image to the right:
Order - The order of overlapping images can be changed using this
feature. In the example of two rectangles below, the green rectangle is
selected and the Send Backward command was used to move the image
below the blue rectangle. Send Backward and Bring Forward will move
elements by one layer. Send to Back and Bring to Front move the elements
to the back or top of a series of several overlapping graphics.
Nudge - Use the nudge actions to move an object slightly in one direction.
Align or Distribute - Select a group of objects and choose one of the the
commands from the Align or Distribute menu to change the position of the
objects in relation to one another.
Rotate or Flip - Rotate an object 90 degrees or flip the object over its xor y-axis.
Select objects - Deactivate all drawing functions.
Free rotate - This button will place green handles on certain objects so they can
be arbitrarily rotated. Click and drag the handles to rotate the objects.
AutoShapes menu - Click the small down arrow to the right of the "AutoShapes"
text to select a shape.
Line and Arrow - Click and drag the mouse on the slide to add lines. Hold down
the SHIFT key to draw a straight line. Use the end points of the completed line to
stretch and reposition the line.
Rectangle and Oval - Click and drag the mouse on the slide to add rectangles and
ovals. Hold down the SHIFT key to add squares and circles.
Text box - Click to draw a text box on the slide.
Word art - Click to add WordArt.
Picture - Click to add a clip art image to the slide.
Fill color - Choose a fill color for rectangles, ovals, and clip art.
Line color - Select a border color for shapes and pictures.
Font color - Highlight text on the slide and click the small down arrow next to the
Font color icon to select a color.
Line style - Highlight a line or arrow that has been drawn and click this button to
select a thickness or style for the line.
Dash style - Highlight a line or arrow and select a dash style.
Arrow style - Change the arrow head style for an existing arrow or change a line
to an arrow.
Shadow - Select a text box to add shadow to text or choose any other object on
the slide to add a drop shadow.
3D - Add a three-dimensional effect to text and other objects.
Adding Clip Art
To add a clip art image to a slide, follow these steps:
Select Insert|Picture|Clip Art from the menu bar or click the Picture button on
the Drawing toolbar..
To find an image, click in the white box following Search for clips and enter
keywords describing the image you want to find.
- OR Click one of the category icons.
Click once on the image to want to add to the slide and a selection bar will appear.
Click once on the image you want to add to the slide and the following popup
menu will appear:
Insert Clip to add the image to the slide.
Preview Clip to view the image full-size before adding it to the slide.
Drag the bottom, right corner of the preview window to resize the image
and click the "x" close button to end the preview.
Add Clip to Favorites will add the selected image to your favorites
directory that can be chosen from the Insert ClipArt dialog box.
Find Similar Clips will retrieve images similar to the one you have
chosen.
Click the Close button in the top, right corner of the Insert Clip window to stop
adding clip art to the slide.
Add An Image from a File
To add a photo or graphic from a file:
Select Insert|Picture|From File from the menu bar.
Click the down arrow button on the right side of the Look in: window to find the
image on your computer.
Highlight the file name from the list and click the Insert button.
Editing A Graphic
Activate the image you wish to edit by clicking on it once with the mouse. Several
handles will appear around the graphic. Click and drag these handles to resize the image.
The handles on the corners will resize proportionally while the handles on the straight
lines will stretch the image. More picture effects can be changed using the Picture
toolbar.
Auto Shapes
The AutoShapes toolbar allows you to draw a number of geometrical shapes, arrows,
flow chart elements, stars, and other graphics on a slide. Activate the AutoShapes toolbar
by selecting Insert|Picture|AutoShapes or View|Toolbars|AutoShapes from the menu
bar. Click the buttons on the toolbar to view the options for drawing each shape.
Lines - After clicking the Lines button on the AutoShapes toolbar, draw a straight
line, arrow, or double-ended arrow from the first row of options by clicking the
respective button. Click in the slide where you would like the line to begin and
click again where it should end. To draw a curved line or freeform shape, select
curved lines from the menu (first and second buttons of second row), click in the
slide where the line should appear, and click the mouse every time a curve should
begin. End creating the graphic by clicking on the starting end or pressing the
ESC key. To scribble, click the last button in the second row, click the mouse in
the slide and hold down the left button while you draw the design. Let go of the
mouse button to stop drawing.
Connectors - Draw these lines to connect flow chart elements.
Basic Shapes - Click the Basic Shapes button on the AutoShapes toolbar to select
from many two- and three-dimensional shapes, icons, braces, and brackets. Use
the drag-and-drop method to draw the shape in the slide. When the shape has been
made, it can be resized using the open box handles and other adjustments specific
to each shape can be modified using the yellow diamond handles.
Block Arrows - Select Block Arrows to choose from many types of two- and
three-dimensional arrows. Drag-and-drop the arrow in the slide and use the open
box and yellow diamond handles to adjust the arrowheads. Each AutoShape can
also be rotated by first clicking the Free Rotate button on the drawing toolbar .
Click and drag the green handles around the image to rotate it. The tree image
below was created from an arrow rotated 90 degrees.
Flow Chart - Choose from the flow chart menu to add flow chart elements to the
slide and use the line menu to draw connections between the elements.
Stars and Banners - Click the button to select stars, bursts, banners, and scrolls.
Call Outs - Select from the speech and thought bubbles, and line call outs. Enter
the call out text in the text box that is made.
More AutoShapes - Click the More button to choose from a list of clip art
categories.
Each of the submenus on the AutoShapes toolbar can become a separate toolbar. Just
click and drag the gray bar across the top of the submenus off of the toolbar and it will
become a separate floating toolbar.
WordArt
Add headlines in striking colors and shapes to your presentation using Word Art.
Select Insert|Picture|WordArt from the menu bar or click the Word Art button
on the Drawing toolbar.
Choose a Word Art style from the listing and click OK.
Enter the text in the Edit WordArt Text box and choose the font, size, and style
for the text. Click OK.
Use the white box handles around the word art to resize it on the slide.
Drag the yellow diamond handle to change the shape of the text. To revert back to
no shape, double-click the diamond.
3.SLIDE EFFECTS
Action Buttons
Use the action button toolbar to add functioning buttons to slides in a presentation.
Select Slide Show|Action Buttons from the menu bar. Click the bar across the
top of the button menu and drag it off the menu so it becomes a floating toolbar.
Click one of the button faces and draw the button on the slide using the mouse.
The Action Settings menu will then appear.
Set the actions under either the Mouse Click or Mouse Over tabs. Actions
specified for Mouse Click will execute when the button is clicked on the slide
while actions for Mouse Over will occur when the mouse pointer hovers over the
button.
Select an action for the button by choosing a Hyperlink to destination.
If you want a sound to be played when the button is clicked, check the Play
sound box and choose a sound from the drop-down menu.
Click OK when finished.
The button on the slide can be resized using the white box handles and the depth
of the button can be changed by dragging the yellow diamond.
Slide Animation
Several animations for slide objects are available through the drop-down menus on the
menu bar. First, select the text box or graphic that will be animated. Select Slide
Show|Preset Animation and choose from one of the options. To select a different
animation or turn the animation off, select the appropriate choice from the same menu.
For more options, follow the procedure below:
Select Slide Show|Custom Animation from the menu bar.
Select the object on the slide that will be animated from the Check to animate
slide objects list.
Under the Effects tab, select the animation type (or select "No Effect" to turn an
animation off) and direction from the drop-down menus and select a sound if you
wish.
Select an After animation effect if the text should change colors after the
animation executes.
Color palette - Select one of the color swatches or click More Colors for
a larger selection. The text will change to the selected color when the
mouse is clicked during the slide show.
Don't Dim - This option erases all After Animation effects.
Hide After Animation - Text will be immediately erased after the
animation is completed.
Hide on Next Mouse click - The text will be erased when the mouse is
clicked.
Choose the style of displaying the text under the Introduce text section. The
drop-down menu provides options for displaying the characters for each bulleted
item. Select "All at once" for the text to appear immediately, "by Word" for the
text to appear one word at a time, or "by Letter" for a typewriter effect that
displays one letter at a time.
Click the Order & Timing tab to alter the order that the objects appear on the
slide. Highlight the object in the Animation order box and click the Move
arrows to move the object's position within the animation sequence. Under Start
animation, choose "On mouse click" to activate the animation by clicking the
mouse or "Automatically" for the animation to execute after a set number of
seconds.
Click the Preview button at any time to preview the animation on the slide and
click OK when finished.
Animation Preview
Select Slide Show|Animation Preview from the menu bar to view the Animation
Preview window. Click anywhere within this window with the mouse to preview the
animations that have been set. To hide the window, click the x close button in the top,
right corner.
Slide Transitions
Add transition effects when changing slides by following these steps:
Select Slide Show|Slide Transition from the menu bar.
From the Effect section, choose a transition from the drop-down menu and notice
the preview after the transition is selected. Select a speed for the transition as
well.
Under Advance, check "On mouse click" for the slide transition to occur by
clicking the mouse or using keystrokes or check "Automatically after" and a
number of seconds if the transition should occur automatically.
Select a Sound if necessary and check the Loop until next sound if it should
keep repeating until the next sound is played.
Click Apply to All if the transition effects should be added to every slide or
Apply if the effects should be added only to the current slide.
Slide Show Options
Select Tools|Options and click the View tab to choose from several more slide show
options.
Popup menu on right mouse click - Check this box if you want to be able to
access the shortcut menu during a presentation.
Show popup menu button - Check this box to activate the menu button that
appears in the bottom, left corner of the screen during a presentation.
End with black slide - Insert a blank, black slide to the end of the presentation.
1.MASTER SLIDES
Slide Master
Change the style of all slides in the presentation by changing the properties on the Slide
Master. Each Design Template has its own Slide Master that can be altered. If you create
slides from scratch, a consistent style can be added to the presentation by formatting the
Slide Master.
Select View|Master|Slide Master from the menu bar.
Format the master slide just as you would format a regular slide by formatting
text, formatting lists, adding background patterns and effects, and setting footers.
Click the Close button on the Master toolbar to quit editing the master slide and
return to the presentation.
Headers and Footers
Add the date and time, slide numbers, and other footer text to the master slide from the
Header and Footer window.
Select View|Header and Footer... from the menu bar.
Check the Date and time box to add this feature to the slide. Select Update
automatically to always display the current date and time or click Fixed and
enter a date that will not change in the text field provided.
Check the Slide number box to add this feature to the slides.
Click the Footer box and add other text to the footer area of the slide.
Check the Don't show on title slide box to hide these features on the title slide of
the presentation.
Click the Notes and Handouts tab to make the same changes to notes and
handouts pages.
Click Apply to All to add the changes to every slide or Apply to add only to the
current slide.
Slide Numbers
To add the slide numbers in a fixed position on the slide, use the Header and Footer
window detailed above. The slide number can otherwise be added anywhere on the slide
by placing the cursor where the slide number should appear and selecting Insert|Slide
Number from the menu bar. The text of the slide number can the formatting just as
regular text style is changed.
Date and Time
A date and/or time can also be added using the Header and Footer window or anywhere
else on the slide. Place the cursor where the date and time should appear on the slide and
select Insert|Date and Time from the menu bar. Select a format from the Available
formats box and click Update automatically if this feature should always be updated to
reflect the current date and time. Click OK to finish.
2 .SAVING AND PRINTING
Save as Web Page
Presentations can be saved by selecting File|Save from the menu bar. However, if you
want to post Power Point presentations on the Internet, you may want to save them as
web pages so students and other visitors to your web site can view the presentation even
if they do not have Power Point installed on their computers. Select File|Save As Web
Page from the menu bar. Choose your web page directory on the network from the Look
in: drop-down menu and name the file in the File name: box. Click Save to save the
presentation in web format.
Page Setup
Select File|Page Setup from the menu bar to access options for printing the presentation
slides. Select the format the printed slides will be used for from the Slides sized for dropdown menu or enter a specific print size using the Width and Height boxes. Select the
page orientation for the slides and for other print material from the presentation in the
Orientation section.
Print
Select File|Print from the menu bar to print the presentation.
Print range - Select All to print all the slides in the presentation, Current
slide to print only the current slide, or enter slide numbers in the Slides
field to print only certain slides.
Copies - Enter the number of copies of each slide specified in Print range
and check the Collate box if necessary.
Print What Slides prints a full-page slide on each page.
Handouts prints as many slides as you designate on each page.
Notes Page prints one slide with that slide's notes on each page
Outline view prints the outline of the presentation
Click OK to print.
3. TIPS
Design Tips
Use contrasting colors for the text and the background so the text will be easy to read.
Use font size large enough to be seen from the back of the room where the presentation
will be held. A font size of 24-point or larger is recommended.
Use short phrases and sentences to convey your message.
Use simple slide transitions. Too many different transitions will distract your audience
from the subject of the presentation.
Avoid cluttering the slides with too much text or graphics. Your audience should hear
what you have to say and not be distracted by a busy screen.
Keep text simple and easy to read by not using many different text effects such as bold,
italics, underlining, larger font size for emphasis within a sentence, or a different font all
on the same slide.
Presentation Basics
Begin the slide show by clicking the Slide Show button on the bottom of the screen.
Move to the next slide by pressing the SPACE BAR, ENTER, PAGE DOWN, or right
arrow keys or by clicking the left mouse button.
Go back to the previous slide by pressing BACKSPACE, PAGE UP, or the left arrow
key.
To end the slideshow before it is complete press ESC on the keyboard.
A pen tool is available for drawing on the screen with the mouse. Press CTRL+P or click
the right mouse button at any time and a popup window will appear. Choose Pen and the
pointer will change to a pen that allows you to draw freehand on the screen using the
mouse. Press the E key to erase all pen strokes. Press CTRL+A to disable the pen feature
and revert the pen back to a pointer arrow.
If you would like to use the pen to draw on a blank screen during a presentation, press the
B or W keys, or select Screen/Black Screen from the popup menu and the screen will
turn black. Press B or W again or choose Next from the popup menu to return to the
presentation when you are finished drawing.
To hide the pointer and button from the screen press the A key.
Be sure to preview the slide show using a projector if one will be used during the
presentation. The projector may cut off words or graphics that are close to the edge of the
screen.
INTRODUCTION TO MS-EXCEL
Microsoft Excel is a member of the spreadsheet family of software. Spreadsheet
software is used to store information in columns and rows, which can then be organized
and/or processed. Spreadsheets are designed to work well with numbers but often include
text. Sometimes text in a spreadsheet is called a label, because it is labeling columns and
rows of numbers. Numbers are called values sometimes, and can include numbers for
counts or measurements, dates, times, and calculations from numbers. Spreadsheets can
help organize information, like alphabetizing a list of names or other text or reordering
records according to a numeric field. However, spreadsheets are more often used for
calculating, such as totaling a column of numbers or generating a more sophisticated
formula to calculate some statistical measure on a list of numbers.
Spreadsheets and databases are in competition and have similar features. Yet the way
they work in the background is different. When you work in a spreadsheet, you view the
data you are entering as a section. In a database, you only see the data you are entering-you have to request a report or different display to see more of the information. Other
differences are: (1) databases are more often used for applications with long textual
entries, (2) very large applications (thousands of entries) are more often handled in
databases; and (3) spreadsheets are easier to learn to use and get calculations from than a
database program. This latter reason is why many researchers and students prefer
spreadsheets for keeping track of their data over databases.
It is impossible to give a complete listing of applications that can be done in spreadsheets,
but they include budgeting displays, checkbook registers, enrollment records, inventories,
coded surveys, field and laboratory research data, and financial and accounting
applications.
The capacities of Excel are as follows. You can have 256 columns of information. You
can have up to 16,384 rows. That comes out to over 4,194,000,000 cells of information
and that's only on the first sheet!!! You can have 16 sheets of information in one
workbook, and the number of sheets can be increased, if needed. Excel refers to each file
as a workbook, because there can be multiple sheets (pages) in one file.
You will want to load Excel at this time to continue this first lesson. Double-click on the
Excel icon to start the program.
1
Spreadsheet Basic
Excel allows you to create spreadsheets much like paper ledgers that can perform
automatic calculations. Each Excel file is a workbook that can hold many worksheets.
The worksheet is a grid of columns (designated by letters) and rows (designated by
numbers). The letters and numbers of the columns and rows (called labels) are displayed
in gray buttons across the top and left side of the worksheet. The intersection of a column
and a row is called a cell. Each cell on the spreadsheet has a cell address that is the
column letter and the row number. Cells can contain either text, numbers, or
mathematical formulas.
Microsoft Excel 2000 Screen Elements
Adding and Renaming Worksheets
The worksheets in a workbook are accessible by clicking the worksheet tabs just above
the status bar. By default, three worksheets are included in each workbook. To add a
sheet, select Insert|Worksheet from the menu bar. To rename the worksheet tab, rightclick on the tab with the mouse and select Rename from the shortcut menu. Type the
new name and press the ENTER key.
The Standard Toolbar
This toolbar is located just below the menu bar at the top of the screen and
allows you to quickly access basic Excel commands.
New - Select File|New from the menu bar, press CTRL+N, or click the
New button to create a new workbook.
Open - Click File|Open from the menu bar, press CTRL+O, or click the
Open folder button to open an existing workbook.
Save - The first time you save a workbook, select File|Save As and name
the file. After the file is named click File|Save, CTRL+S, or the Save
button on the standard toolbar.
Print - Click the Print button to print the worksheet.
Print Preview - This feature will allow you to preview the worksheet
before it prints.
Spell Check - Use the spell checker to correct spelling errors on the
worksheet.
Cut, Copy, Paste, and Format Painter - These actions are explained in
the Modifying A Worksheet section.
Undo and Redo - Click the backward Undo arrow to cancel the last
action you performed, whether it be entering data into a cell, formatting a
cell, entering a function, etc. Click the forward Redo arrow to cancel the
undo action.
Insert Hyperlink - To insert a hyperlink to a web site on the Internet, type
the text into a cell you want to be the link that can be clicked with the
mouse. Then, click the Insert Hyperlink button and enter the web address
you want the text to link to and click OK.
Autosum, Function Wizard, and Sorting - These features are discussed
in detail in the Functions tutorial.
Zoom - To change the size that the worksheet appears on the screen,
choose a different percentage from the Zoom menu.
2. Customizing Excel
Menus
Unlike previous versions of Excel, the menus in Excel 2000 initially list only the
commands you have recently used. To view all options in each menu, click the
double arrows at the bottom of the menu. If you would like to revert to the way
older versions of Excel displayed menu options, follow these steps:
Select View|Toolbars|Customize from the menu bar.
Click on the Options tab.
Uncheck the Menus show recently used commands first check box.
Toolbars
Many toolbars displaying shortcut buttons are available. Select View|Toolbars from the
menu bar to select more toolbars.
Customize Toolbars
Customizing toolbars allows you to delete certain shortcut buttons from a toolbar if you
do not use them and add the shortcut buttons for commands you use often.
Select View|Toolbars|Customize and select the Commands tab.
By clicking on the command categories in the Categories box, the commands
will change in the Commands box to the right.
Select the command you would like to add to the toolbar by selecting it from the
Commands box.
Drag the command with the mouse to the desired location on the toolbar and
release the mouse button. The shortcut button should now appear on the toolbar.
Remove buttons from the toolbars by reversing these steps. Highlight the button
on the toolbar, drag it off the toolbar with the mouse, and release the mouse
button.
Recording A Macro
Macros can speed up any common editing sequence you may execute in an Excel
spreadsheet. In this example we will make a simple macro that will set all the margins on
the page to one inch.
Click Tools|Macro|Record New Macro from the menu bar.
Name the macro in the Macro name field. The name cannot contain spaces and
must not begin with a number.
If you would like to assign a shortcut key to the macro for easy use, enter the
letter under Shortcut key. Enter a lower case letter to make a CTRL+number
shortcut and enter an upper case letter to assign a CTRL+SHIFT+number shortcut
key. If you select a shortcut key that Excel already uses, your macro will
overwrite that function.
Select an option from the Store macro in drop-down menu.
Enter a description of the macro in the Description field. This is for your
reference only so you remember what the macro does.
Click OK when you are ready to start recording.
Select options from the drop down menus and Excel will record the options you
choose from the dialog boxes, such as changing the margins on the Page Setup
window. Select File|Page Setup and change all the margins to 1". Press OK.
Replace this step with whatever commands you want your macro to execute.
Select only options that modify the worksheet. Toggle actions such as
View|Toolbars that have no effect on the worksheet will not be recorded.
Click the Stop button the recording toolbar. The macro is now saved.
Running A Macro
To run a macro you have created, select Tools|Macro|Macros from the menu bar.
From the Macros window, highlight the Macro name in the list and click Run.
If the macro is long and you want to stop it while it is running, press BREAK
(hold CTRL and press PAUSE).
3.Modifying a Spread Sheet
Moving Through Cells
Use the mouse to select a cell you want to begin adding data to and use the keyboard
strokes listed in the table below to move through the cells of a worksheet.
Movement
Key stroke
One cell up
One cell down
One cell left
One cell right
Top of the worksheet (cell A1)
End of the worksheet (last cell
containing data)
End of the row
End of the column
Any cell
up arrow key
down arrow key or ENTER
left arrow key
right arrow key or TAB
CTRL+HOME
CTRL+END
CTRL+right arrow key
CTRL+down arrow key
File|Go To menu bar command
Adding Worksheets, Rows, and Columns
Worksheets - Add a worksheet to a workbook by selecting Insert|Worksheet
from the menu bar.
Row - To add a row to a worksheet, select Insert|Rows from the menu bar, or
highlight the row by clicking on the row label, right-click with the mouse, and
choose Insert.
Column - Add a column by selecting Insert|Columns from the menu bar, or
highlight the column by click on the column label, right-click with the mouse, and
choose Insert.
Resizing Rows and Columns
There are two ways to resize rows and columns.
Resize a row by dragging the line below the label of the row you would like to
resize. Resize a column in a similar manner by dragging the line to the right of
the label corresponding to the column you want to resize.
- OR Click the row or column label and select Format|Row|Height or
Format|Column|Width from the menu bar to enter a numerical value for the
height of the row or width of the column.
Selecting Cells
Before a cell can be modified or formatted, it must first be selected (highlighted). Refer
to the table below for selecting groups of cells.
Cells to select
One cell
Entire row
Entire column
Entire
worksheet
Cluster of cells
Mouse action
click once in the cell
click the row label
click the column label
click the whole sheet button
drag mouse over the cells or hold down the SHIFT key while
using the arrow keys
To activate the contents of a cell, double-click on the cell or click once and press F2.
Moving and Copying Cells
Moving Cells
To cut cell contents that will be moved to another cell select Edit|Cut
from the menu bar or click the Cut button on the standard toolbar.
Copying Cells
To copy the cell contents, select Edit|Copy from the menu bar or click the
Copy button on the standard toolbar.
Pasting Cut and Copied Cells
Highlight the cell you want to paste the cut or copied content into and
select Edit|Paste from the menu bar or click the Paste button on the
standard toolbar.
Drag and Drop
If you are moving the cell contents only a short distance, the drag-anddrop method may be easier. Simply drag the highlighted border of the
selected cell to the destination cell with the mouse.
Freeze Panes
If you have a large worksheet with column and row headings, those headings will
disappear as the worksheet is scrolled. By using the Freeze Panes feature, the headings
can be visible at all times.
Click the label of the row below the row that should remain frozen at the top of
the worksheet.
Select Window|Freeze Panes from the menu bar.
To remove the frozen panes, select Window|Unfreeze Panes.
Freeze panes has been added to row 1 in the image above. Notice that the row
numbers skip from 1 to 6. As the worksheet is scrolled, row 1 will remain
stationary while the remaining rows will move.
4. Formatting cells
Formatting Toolbar
The contents of a highlighted cell can be formatted in many ways. Font and cell attributes
can be added from shortcut buttons on the formatting bar. If this toolbar is not already
visible on the screen, select View|Toolbars|Formatting from the menu bar.
Format Cells Dialog Box
For a complete list of formatting options, right-click on the highlighted cells and choose
Format Cells from the shortcut menu or select Format|Cells from the menu bar.
Number tab - The data type can be selected from the options on this tab. Select
General if the cell contains text and number, or another numerical category if the
cell is a number that will be included in functions or formulas.
Alignment tab - These options allow you to change the position and alignment of
the data with the cell.
Font tab - All of the font attributes are displayed in this tab including font face,
size, style, and effects.
Border and Pattern tabs - These tabs allow you to add borders, shading, and
background colors to a cell.
Dates and Times
If you enter the date "January 1, 2001" into a cell on the worksheet, Excel will
automatically recognize the text as a date and change the format to "1-Jan-01". To change
the date format, select the Number tab from the Format Cells window. Select "Date"
from the Category box and choose the format for the date from the Type box. If the field
is a time, select "Time" from the Category box and select the type in the right box. Date
and time combinations are also listed. Press OK when finished.
Styles
The use of styles in Excel allow you to quickly format your worksheet, provide
consistency, and create a professional look. Select the Styles drop-down box from the
formatting toolbar (it can be added by customizing the toolbar). Excel provides several
preset styles:
Comma - Adds commas to the number and two digits beyond a decimal point.
Comma [0] - Comma style that rounds to a whole number.
Currency - Formats the number as currency with a dollar sign, commas, and two
digits beyond the decimal point.
Currency [0] - Currency style that rounds to a whole number.
Normal - Reverts any changes to general number format.
Percent - Changes the number to a percent and adds a percent sign.
Style Dialog Box
Create your own styles from the Style Dialog Box.
Highlight the cell(s) you want to add a style to.
Select Format|Style... from the menu bar.
Modify the attributes by clicking the Modify button.
Check all the items under Style includes that the style should format.
Click Add to preview the formatting changes on the worksheet.
Highlight the style you want to apply to the paragraph and click Apply.
Create a New Style
Select the cell on the worksheet containing the formatting you would like to set as
a new style.
Click the Style box on the Formatting toolbar so the style name is highlighted.
Delete the text in the Style box and type the name of the new style.
Press ENTER when finished.
Format Painter
A handy feature on the standard toolbar for formatting text is the Format Painter. If you
have formatted a cell with a certain font style, date format, border, and other formatting
options, and you want to format another cell or group of cells the same way, place the
cursor within the cell containing the formatting you want to copy. Click the Format
Painter button in the standard toolbar (notice that your pointer now has a paintbrush
beside it). Highlight the cells you want to add the same formatting to.
To copy the formatting to many groups of cells, double-click the Format Painter button.
The format painter remains active until you press the ESC key to turn it off.
AutoFormat
Excel has many preset table formatting options. Add these styles by following these
steps:
Highlight the cells that will be formatted.
Select Format|AutoFormat from the menu bar.
On the AutoFormat dialog box, select the format you want to apply to the table by
clicking on it with the mouse. Use the scroll bar to view all of the formats
available.
Click the Options... button to select the elements that the formatting will apply to.
Click OK when finished.
1. Formulas and functions
The distinguishing feature of a spreadsheet program such as Excel is that it allows you to
create mathematical formulas and execute functions. Otherwise, it is not much more than
a large table for displaying text. This page will show you how to create these
calculations.
Formulas
Formulas are entered in the worksheet cell and must begin with an equal sign "=". The
formula then includes the addresses of the cells whose values will be manipulated with
appropriate operands placed in between. After the formula is typed into the cell, the
calculation executes immediately and the formula itself is visible in the formula bar. See
the example below to view the formula for calculating the sub total for a number of
textbooks. The formula multiplies the quantity and price of each textbook and adds the
subtotal for each book.
Linking Worksheets
You may want to use the value from a cell in another worksheet within the same
workbook in a formula. For example, the value of cell A1 in the current worksheet and
cell A2 in the second worksheet can be added using the format "sheetname!celladdress".
The formula for this example would be "=A1+Sheet2!A2" where the value of cell A1 in
the current worksheet is added to the value of cell A2 in the worksheet named "Sheet2".
Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Referencing
Calling cells by just their column and row labels (such as "A1") is called relative
referencing. When a formula contains relative referencing and it is copied from one cell
to another, Excel does not create an exact copy of the formula. It will change cell
addresses relative to the row and column they are moved to. For example, if a simple
addition formula in cell C1 "=(A1+B1)" is copied to cell C2, the formula would change
to "=(A2+B2)" to reflect the new row. To prevent this change, cells must be called by
absolute referencing and this is accomplished by placing dollar signs "$" within the cell
addresses in the formula. Continuing the previous example, the formula in cell C1 would
read "=($A$1+$B$1)" if the value of cell C2 should be the sum of cells A1 and B1. Both
the column and row of both cells are absolute and will not change when copied. Mixed
referencing can also be used where only the row OR column fixed. For example, in the
formula "=(A$1+$B2)", the row of cell A1 is fixed and the column of cell B2 is fixed.
Basic Functions
Functions can be a more efficient way of performing mathematical operations than
formulas. For example, if you wanted to add the values of cells D1 through D10, you
would type the formula "=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10". A shorter way
would be to use the SUM function and simply type "=SUM(D1:D10)". Several other
functions and examples are given in the table below:
Function Example
Description
SUM
=SUM(A1:100)
finds the sum of cells A1 through A100
AVERAGE =AVERAGE(B1:B10) finds the average of cells B1 through B10
returns the highest number from cells C1
MAX
=MAX(C1:C100)
through C100
returns the lowest number from cells D1
MIN
=MIN(D1:D100)
through D100
finds the square root of the value in cell
SQRT
=SQRT(D10)
D10
returns the current date (leave the
TODAY
=TODAY()
parentheses empty)
Function Wizard
View all functions available in Excel by using the Function Wizard.
Activate the cell where the function will be placed and click the Function
Wizard button on the standard toolbar.
From the Paste Function dialog box, browse through the functions by clicking in
the Function category menu on the left and select the function from the
Function name choices on the right. As each function name is highlighted a
description and example of use is provided below the two boxes.
Click OK to select a function.
The next window allows you to choose the cells that will be included in the
function. In the example below, cells B4 and C4 were automatically selected for
the sum function by Excel. The cell values {2, 3} are located to the right of the
Number 1 field where the cell addresses are listed. If another set of cells, such as
B5 and C5, needed to be added to the function, those cells would be added in the
format "B5:C5" to the Number 2 field.
Click OK when all the cells for the function have been selected.
Autosum
Use the Autosum function to add the contents of a cluster of adjacent cells.
Select the cell that the sum will appear in that is outside the cluster of cells whose
values will be added. Cell C2 was used in this example.
Click the Autosum button (Greek letter sigma) on the standard toolbar.
Highlight the group of cells that will be summed (cells A2 through B2 in this
example).
Press the ENTER key on the keyboard or click the green check mark button on
the formula bar .
6. Sorting AND Filling
Basic Sorts
To execute a basic descending or ascending sort based on one column, highlight the cells
that will be sorted and click the Sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A)
button on the standard toolbar.
Complex Sorts
To sort by multiple columns, follow these steps:
Highlight the cells, rows, or columns that will be sorted.
Select Data|Sort from the menu bar.
From the Sort dialog box, select the first column for sorting from the Sort By
drop-down menu and choose either ascending or descending.
Select the second column and, if necessary, the third sort column from the Then
By drop-down menus.
If the cells you highlighted included the text headings in the first row, mark My
list has...Header row and the first row will remain at the top of the worksheet.
Click the Options button for special non-alphabetic or numeric sorts such as
months of the year and days of the week.
Click OK to execute the sort.
Autofill
The Autofill feature allows you to quickly fill cells with repetitive or sequential data such
as chronological dates or numbers, and repeated text.
Type the beginning number or date of an incrementing series or the text that will
be repeated into a cell.
Select the handle at the bottom, right corner of the cell with the left mouse button
and drag it down as many cells as you want to fill.
Release the mouse button.
If you want to autofill a column with cells displaying the same number or date you must
enter identical data to two adjacent cells in a column. Highlight the two cells and drag the
handle of the selection with the mouse.
Alternating Text and Numbers with Autofill
The Autofill feature can also be used for alternating text or numbers. For example, to
make a repeating list of the days of the week, type the seven days into seven adjacent
cells in a column. Highlight the seven cells and drag down with the mouse.
Autofilling Functions
Autofill can also be used to copy functions. In the example below, column A and column
B each contain lists of numbers and column C contains the sums of columns A and B for
each row. The function in cell C2 would be "=SUM(A2:B2)". This function can then be
copied to the remaining cells of column C by activating cell C2 and dragging the handle
down to fill in the remaining cells. The autofill feature will automatically update the row
numbers as shown below if the cells are reference relatively.
Charts
Chart Wizard
The Chart Wizard brings you through the process of creating a chart by displaying a
series of dialog boxes.
Enter the data into the worksheet and highlight all the cells that will be included
in the chart including headers.
Click the Chart Wizard button on the standard toolbar to view the first Chart
Wizard dialog box.
Chart Type - Choose the Chart type and the Chart subtype if necessary. Click
Next.
Chart Source Data - Select the data range (if different from the area highlighted
in step 1) and click Next.
Chart Options - Enter the name of the chart and titles for the X- and Y-axes.
Other options for the axes, grid lines, legend, data labels, and data table can be
changed by clicking on the tabs. Press Next to move to the next set of options.
Chart Location - Click As new sheet if the chart should be placed on a new,
blank worksheet or select As object in if the chart should be embedded in an
existing sheet and select the worksheet from the drop-down menu.
Click Finish to create the chart.
Resizing the Chart
To resize the chart, click on its border and drag any of the nine black handles to change
the size. Handles on the corners will resize the chart proportionally while handles along
the lines will stretch the chart.
Moving the Chart
Select the border of the chart, hold down the left mouse button, and drag the chart to a
new location. Elements within the chart such as the title and labels may also be moved
within the chart. Click on the element to activate it, and use the mouse to drag the
element to move it.
Chart Formatting Toolbar
Chart Objects List - To select an object on the chart to format, click the
object on the chart or select the object from the Chart Objects List and
click the Format button. A window containing the properties of that
object will then appear to make formatting changes.
Chart Type - Click the arrowhead on the chart type button to select a
different type of chart.
Legend Toggle - Show or hide the chart legend by clicking this toggle
button.
Data Table view - Display the data table instead of the chart by clicking
the Data Table toggle button.
Display Data by Column or Row - Charts the data by columns or rows
according to the data sheet.
Angle Text - Select the category or value axis and click the Angle
Downward or Angle Upward button to angle the the selected by +/- 45
degrees.
Copying the Chart to Microsoft Word
A finished chart can be copied into a Microsoft Word document. Select the chart and
click Copy. Open the destination document in Word and click Paste.
1. Paper properties and printing
Page Breaks
To set page breaks within the worksheet, select the row you want to appear just below the
page break by clicking the row's label. Then choose Insert|Page Break from the menu
bar. You may need to click the double down arrow at the bottom of the menu list to view
this option.
Page Setup
Select File|Page Setup from the menu bar to format the page, set margins, and add
headers and footers.
Page
Select the Orientation under the Page tab in the Page Setup window to make the
page Landscape or Portrait. The size of the worksheet on the page can also be
formatting under Scaling. To force a worksheet to print only one page wide so all
the columns appear on the same page, select Fit to 1 page(s) wide.
Margins
Change the top, bottom, left, and right margins under the Margins tab. Enter
values in the header and footer fields to indicate how far from the edge of the
page this text should appear. Check the boxes for centering horizontally or
vertically on the page.
Header/Footer
Add preset headers and footers to the page by clicking the drop-down menus
under the Header/Footer tab.
To modify a preset header or footer, or to make your own, click the Custom
Header and Custom Footer buttons. A new window will open allowing you to
enter text in the left, center, or right on the page.
Format Text - Click this button after highlighting the text to change the font,
size, and style.
Page Number - Insert the page number of each page.
Total Number of Pages - Use this feature along with the page number to create
strings such as "page 1 of 15".
Date - Add the current date.
Time - Add the current time.
File Name - Add the name of the workbook file.
Tab Name - Add the name of the worksheet's tab.
Sheet
Check Gridlines if you want the gridlines dividing the cells to be printed on the
page. If the worksheet is several pages long and only the first page includes titles
for the columns, select Rows to repeat at top to choose a title row that will be
printed at the top of each page.
Print Preview
Select File|Print Preview from the menu bar to view how the worksheet will
print. Click the Next and Previous buttons at the top of the window to display
the pages and click the Zoom button to view the pages closer. Make page layout
modifications needed by clicking the Page Setup button. Click Close to return
to the worksheet or Print to continue printing.
Print
To print the worksheet, select File|Print from the menu bar.
Print Range - Select either all pages or a range of pages to print.
Print What - Select selection of cells highlighted on the worksheet, the active
worksheet, or all the worksheets in the entire workbook.
Copies - Choose the number of copies that should be printed. Check the Collate
box if the pages should remain in order.
Click OK to print.
MS-ACCESS
INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE
All of us are familiar with the term data. In fact, unknowingly we come across data in our
day-to-day life everyday. The age of a person, price of potato, number of students in a
school, pin code of a city, etc. are some examples of data. In our life we have to
remember so much of data. But it is easier for us to remember all information for a few
individuals. For example, you may be in a position to tell accurately the age, height,
complexion, income, educational qualification, residential address, etc. of your close
friends. But it is too difficult for you to memorize all these information for a large
number of individuals. Let us consider the example of University. Every year
about one-lakh students take admission in NU. If you are asked to memorize records of
date of birth, subjects offered and postal address of all these students, it will not be
possible for you.
To deal with such problems we construct a database. We arrange all information about
students in a tabular form. We keep all the records so that if I am asked, ‘How many
students are there in Economics?’ I am in a position to answer.
1. Getting Started with Ms- Access
What is a database?
A database is a collection of data which is organized in a manner that can be easily
retrieved. They consist of fields, records, and files, much like a telephone book. A field is
a single piece of information (your last name is one field); a record is one complete set of
fields (your entry in the telephone book is a record); and a file is a collection of records
(the entire telephone book). When you look at the phone book for someone's telephone
number, you are the "search engine" for the telephone book database. The only difference
is that the search engine included with database programs is probably a little faster than
you are at retrieving information.
Let us begin with the concept ‘database’ and its management. Database is a collection of
information in a structured way. We can say that it is a collection of a group of facts.
Your personal address book is a database of names you like to keep track of, such as
personal friends and members of your family.
What is a Relational Database?
A relational database is a single database spread across multiple tables. Think of a
database as a file cabinet and each drawer of the file cabinet is a table.
Example. All of the employee information is kept in
the first drawer; all of the vendor information is kept
in the second drawer; and all of the purchase orders
are kept in the third drawer. To connect each of these
drawers (which is what makes it "relational"), a set
piece of data from one drawer has to be present in one
of the other drawers.
For instance, a purchase order will have a vendor
name, address, & phone number on it, along with the
items purchased, purchase price, and any discounts. If
the vendor name is the "set" piece of data, it is entered
in the purchase order table, but the address & phone
number are retrieved from the vendor table instead of
having to re-type that information each time it is needed in the purchase order table.
Let us at an example closer to our understanding, look into our example of information
on students in NU. A sample of 5 students is presented in the table below (see, Fig 1). We
have given 6 items of information on every student, namely, Roll No, Name, Date of
birth, Sex, Postal address and Subjects offered by the student.
Fig. 1 contains required details about each student. There are six pieces of information on
each student. They are Roll No, Name, Date of birth, Sex, Address and Subjects. Each
piece of information in database is called a Field. We can define field as the smallest
unit in a database. Each field represents one and only one characteristic of an event or
item. Thus there are six fields in this database.
ROLL NO
NAME
DATE OF
BIRTH
SEX
ADDRESS
SUBJECTS
9721001
Subrat Das
21.05.1980
M
9721002
Aditya Bhoi
12.06.1981
M
9732012
Madhu Jain
03.01.1979
F
A31, Pilani,
Rajasthan
9724004
Ahmad Ali
M
9715023
C. Suresh
12A, Sheikh
Sarai-I, New
Delhi
96, Malviya
Nagar, Bhopal
23.11.1979
07.09.1980
M
C36, Sector 2,
Bhubaneswar
Orissa
At/Po. Burla,
Sambal Pur
Pol Sc, Eco,
History, Eng,
Hindi
Phy, Chem,
Biology,
Eng, Hindi
Pol Sc, Eco,
History, Eng,
Hindi
Phy, Chem,
Biology,
Eng, Hindi
Pol Sc, Eco,
History, Eng,
Hindi
Fig. 1
If you take a close look at all these fields, they are not of the same type. Date of birth is
date type whereas Name is character type. In database there can be five categories of
fields. They are:
• Numeric
• Character
• Logic
• Memo
• Date
When Should I Use Access to Store Data?
Databases, like Access, are used to store large quantities of information. The information
can be viewed, sorted, manipulated, retrieved, and printed in various ways. The database
gives you the flexibility to obtain this data in multiple formats. If the information you
need to store is vast, interrelated, and you need to retrieve it fast & accurately, Access is
probably the way to go.
A Few Terms
These words are used often in Access so you will want to become familiar with them
before using the program and this tutorial.
A database is a collection of related information.
An object is a competition in the database such as a table, query, form, or macro.
A table is a grouping of related data organized in fields (columns) and records
(rows) on a datasheet. By using a common field in two tables, the data can be
combined. Many tables can be stored in a single database.
A field is a column on a datasheet and defines a data type for a set of values in a
table. For a mailing list table might include fields for first name, last name,
address, city, state, zip code, and telephone number.
A record in a row on a datasheet and is a set of values defined by fields. In a
mailing list table, each record would contain the data for one person as specified
by the intersecting fields.
Design View provides the tools for creating fields in a table.
Datasheet View allows you to update, edit, and delete in formation from a table.
Getting Started
After opening Access, you will be presented with the window shown below. Select one of
the first two options if you are creating a new database, or the third if you want to edit an
existing database. All three choices are explained in detail below.
Blank Access database
Unlike Word documents, Excel worksheets, and Power Point presentations, you
must save an Access database before you start working on it. After selecting
"Blank Access database", you will first be prompted to specify a location and
name for the database.
Find the folder where the database should reside in the Save in drop-down menu.
Type the name of the database in the File name line and click the Create button.
Access database wizards, pages, and projects
Access' wizards and layout are existing database structures that only need data input.
Select a database type and click OK. Name the database on the next screen.
Open an existing database
If the database was opened recently on the computer, it will be listed on the main
window. Highlight the database name and click OK. Otherwise, highlight "More Files..."
in the list and click OK. From the subsequent window, click the "Look In:" drop-down
menu to find the folder where the database is located, highlight the database name in the
listing and click OK.
Converting to Access 2000
Before opening an existing file that was created in a previous version of Access, it must
first be converted to Access 2000 format. Convert a database by following these steps:
Open Access and select Tools|Database Utilities|Convert Database|To Current
Access Database Version from the menu bar.
Select the database that should be converted and click the Convert button.
The new version will be a completely separate database and the old one will
remain intact so you must then name the new version of the database.
2.Screen Layout
Database Window
The Database Window organizes all of the objects in the database. The default tables
listing provides links for creating tables and will list all of the tables in the database when
they have been added.
Design View
Design View customizes the fields in the database so that data can be entered.
Datasheet View
The datasheet allows you to enter data into the database
3. Creating Tables
Introduction to Tables
Tables are grids that store information in a database similar to the way an Excel
worksheet stores information in a workbook. Access provides three ways to create a table
for which there are icons in the Database Window. Double-click on the icons to create a
table.
the Database Window
Create table in Design view will allow you to create the fields of the table. This
is the most common way of creating a table and is explained in detail below.
Create table using wizard will step you through the creation of a table.
Create table by entering data will give you a blank datasheet with unlabelled
columns that looks much like an Excel worksheet. Enter data into the cells and
click the Save button. You will be prompted to add a primary key field. After the
table is saved, the empty cells of the datasheet are trimmed. The fields are given
generic names such as "Field1", "Field2", etc. To rename them with more
descriptive titles that reflect the content of the fields, select Format|Rename
Column from the menu bar or highlight the column, right-click on it with the
mouse, and select Rename Column from the shortcut menu.
The Table Wizard
Microsoft Access is filled with wizards, step-by-step dialog boxes that allow
you to create objects or fields on a database. Like the Database Wizard,
Microsoft Access provides the Table Wizard used to easily create a table. It
allows you to add fields that are necessary for a particular table. The fields
have been configured in the general sense so you can use them in your
database. Of course you can modify any field that was created using the wizard. To use the
Table Wizard, on the main menu, you can click Insert -> Table. Alternatively, on the Database
Window, when in the Tables section, you can click the New button. These two actions would
display the New Table dialog box from where you would select Table Wizard. If you are using
Microsoft Access 2000 and later, from the Tables section of the Database Window, you can
double-click
Create
Table
By
Using
Wizard
In the Table Wizard, the tables are organized in two primary categories: Business and Personal.
To select one of those categories, you can click its radio button. Each main category is made of
various sample tables. To select a sample table, you can click its name in the Sample Tables
list. In the middle, the Sample Fields list, the fields associated with the selected sample table
are displaying. From that list, you can select the desired field(s). Once a field has been selected,
it displays in the Fields In My New Table list. You can then select a different table to mix
fields from as many tables as desired. The 4 buttons between the Sample Fields list and the
Fields In My New Table list allow you to add or subtract fields. To help with selection and deselection, the wizard provides four buttons:
Button Role
Used to select one field
Used to select all fields from the sample table
Used to deselect one field
Used to deselect all fields
During field selection, if you select a field, its corresponding name appears in the right list. If
you select a field of the same name more than once, for example, if you select Address twice,
the 2nd Address would be called Address1. Sometimes that will be what you want, and
sometimes it will be by mistake. If then you make a mistake when selecting fields, you can
double-click the unwanted field in the Fields In My New Table list and that field will be
removed.
After making your choices, you can keep the names provided by Microsoft Access into your
table, or you can rename any field to suit your needs. To rename a field, first select it in the
Fields In My New Table list. Then, click the Rename Field button. In the Rename Field dialog
box, type the desired name and click OK:
If you try providing a name for a field that already exists, you would receive an error:
Create a Table in Design View
Design View will allow you to define the fields in the table before adding any data to the
datasheet. The window is divided into two parts: a top pane for entering the field name,
data type, and an option description of the field, and a bottom pane for specifying field
properties.
Field Name - This is the name of the field and should represent the contents of
the field such as "Name", "Address", "Final Grade", etc. The name can not exceed
64 characters in length and may include spaces.
Data Type is the type of value that will be entered into the fields.
Text - The default type, text type allows any combination of letters and
numbers up to a maximum of 255 characters per field record.
Memo - A text type that stores up to 64,000 characters.
Number - Any number can be stored.
Date/Time - A date, time, or combination of both.
Currency - Monetary values that can be set up to automatically include a
dollar sign ($) and correct decimal and comma positions.
AutoNumber - When a new record is created, Access will automatically
assign a unique integer to the record in this field. From the General
options, select Increment if the numbers should be assigned in order or
random if any random number should be chosen. Since every record in a
datasheet must include at least one field that distinguishes it from all
others, this is a useful data type to use if the existing data will not produce
such values.
Yes/No - Use this option for True/False, Yes/No, On/Off, or other values
that must be only one of two.
OLE Object - An OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) object is a sound,
picture, or other object such as a Word document or Excel spreadsheet that
is created in another program. Use this data type to embed an OLE object
or link to the object in the database.
Hyperlink - A hyperlink will link to an Internet or Intranet site, or another
location in the database. The data consists of up to four parts each
separated by the pound sign (#):
DisplayText#Address#SubAddress#ScreenTip. The Address is the only
required part of the string. Examples:
Home Page#http://www.raiunuversity.edu#
#c:\My Documents\database.mdb#MyTable
Description (optional) - Enter a brief description of what the contents of the field
are.
Field Properties - Select any pertinent properties for the field from the bottom
pane.
Field Properties
Properties for each field are set from the bottom pane of the Design View window.
Field Size is used to set the number of characters needed in a text or number field.
The default field size for the text type is 50 characters. If the records in the field
will only have two or three characters, you can change the size of the field to save
disk space or prevent entry errors by limiting the number of characters allowed.
Likewise, if the field will require more than 50 characters, enter a number up to
255. The field size is set in exact characters for Text type, but options are give for
numbers:
Byte - Positive integers between 1 and 255
Integer - Positive and negative integers between -32,768 and 32,768
Long Integer (default) - Larger positive and negative integers between -2
billion and 2 billion.
Single - Single-precision floating-point number
Double - Double-precision floating-point number
Decimal - Allows for Precision and Scale property control
Format conforms the data in the field to the same format when it is entered into
the datasheet. For text and memo fields, this property has two parts that are
separated by a semicolon. The first part of the property is used to apply to the
field and the second applies to empty fields.
Text and memo format.
Text Format
Format Datasheet Entry
Display
@@@-@@@@
1234567
123-4567
@@@-@@@&
123456
123-456
<
HELLO
hello
>
hello
HELLO
@\!
Hello
Hello!
@;"No Data Entered" Hello
@;"No Data Entered" (blank)
Explanation
@ indicates a
required
character or space
& indicates an
optional
character or space
< converts
characters to
lowercase
> converts
characters to
uppercase
\ adds characters to
the end
Hello
No Data Entered
Number format. Select one of the preset options from the drop down menu or
construct a custom format using symbols explained below:
Number Format
Format Datasheet Entry Display
Explanation
123,456.78 0 is a placeholder that displays a
###,##0.00 123456.78
digit or 0 if there is none.
# is a placeholder that displays a
$0.00
$###,##0.00 0
digit or nothing if there is none.
% multiplies the number by 100 and
.123
12.3%
###.00%
added a percent sign
Currency format. This formatting consists of four parts separated by semicolons:
format for positive numbers; format for negative numbers; format for zero values;
format for Null values.
Currency Format
Format
Explanation
$##0.00;($##0.00)[Red];$0.00;"none" Positive values will be normal currency
format, negative numbers will be red in
parentheses, zero is entered for zero
values, and "none" will be written for
Null values.
Date format. In the table below, the value "1/1/01" is entered into the datasheet,
and the following values are displayed as a result of the different assigned
formats.
Date Format
Format
Display
Explanation
dddd","mmmm d","yyyy Monday, January 1, 2001 dddd, mmmm, and yyyy
print the full day name,
month name, and year
ddd, mmm, and yy print
ddd","mmm ". " d", '"yy Mon, Jan. 1, '01
the first three day letters,
first three month letters,
and last two year digits
Today is Monday
"Today is " dddd
12:00:00 AM
"n" is used for minutes to
h:n:s: AM/PM
avoid confusion with
months
Yes/No fields are displayed as check boxes by default on the datasheet. To change
the formatting of these fields, first click the Lookup tab and change the Display
Control to a text box. Go back to the General tab choices to make formatting
changes. The formatting is designated in three sections separated by semicolons.
The first section does not contain anything but the semicolon must be included.
The second section specifies formatting for Yes values and the third for No
values.
Yes/No Format
Format
;"Yes"[green];"No"[red]
Explanation
Prints "Yes" in green or "No" in red
Default Value - There may be cases where the value of a field will usually be the
same for all records. In this case, a changeable default value can be set to prevent
typing the same thing numerous times. Set the Default Value property.
Primary Key
Every record in a table must have a primary key that differentiates it from every other
record in the table. In some cases, it is only necessary to designate an existing field as the
primary key if you are certain that every record in the table will have a different value for
that particular field. A social security number is an example of a record whose values will
only appear once in a database table.
Designate the primary key field by right-clicking on the record and selection Primary
Key from the shortcut menu or select Edit|Primary Key from the menu bar. The primary
key field will be noted with a key image to the left. To remove a primary key, repeat one
of these steps.
If none of the existing fields in the table will produce unique values for every record, a
separate field must be added. Access will prompt you to create this type of field at the
beginning of the table the first time you save the table and a primary key field has not
been assigned. The field is named "ID" and the data type is "autonumber". Since this
extra field serves no purpose to you as the user, the autonumber type automatically
updates whenever a record is added so there is no extra work on your part. You may also
choose to hide this column in the datasheet as explained on a later page in this tutorial.
Indexes
Creating indexes allows Access to query and sort records faster. To set an indexed field,
select a field that is commonly searched and change the Indexed property to Yes
(Duplicates OK) if multiple entries of the same data value are allowed or Yes (No
Duplicates) to prevent duplicates.
Field Validation Rules
Validation Rules specify requirements (change word) for the data entered in the
worksheet. A customized message can be displayed to the user when data that violates
the rule setting is entered. Click the expression builder ("...") button at the end of the
Validation Rule box to write the validation rule. Examples of field validation rules
include <> 0 to not allow zero values in the record, and ??? to only all data strings three
characters in length.
Input Masks
An input mask controls the value of a record and sets it in a specific format. They are
similar to the Format property, but instead display the format on the datasheet before the
data is entered. For example, a telephone number field can formatted with an input mask
to accept ten digits that are automatically formatted as "(555) 123-4567". The blank field
would look like (___) ___-____. An an input mask to a field by following these steps:
In design view, place the cursor in the field that the input mask will be applied to.
Click in the white space following Input Mask under the General tab.
Click the "..." button to use the wizard or enter the mask, (@@@) @@@@@@@, into the field provided. The following symbols can be used to create an
input mask from scratch:
Input Mask Symbols
Symbol
Explanation
Letter or digit
A
A digit 0 through 9 without a + or - sign and with blanks displayed as
0
zeros
Same as 0 with blanks displayed as spaces
9
Same as 9 with +/- signs
#
Letter
?
Letter A through Z
L
C or & Character or space
Convert letters to lower case
<
Convert letters to upper case
>
4. Datasheet Records
Adding Records
Add new records to the table in datasheet view by typing in the record beside the asterisk
(*) that marks the new record. You can also click the new record button at the bottom of
the datasheet to skip to the last empty record.
Editing Records
To edit records, simply place the cursor in the record that is to be edited and make the
necessary changes. Use the arrow keys to move through the record grid. The previous,
next, first, and last record buttons at the bottom of the datasheet are helpful in
maneuvering through the datasheet.
Deleting Records
Delete a record on a datasheet by placing the cursor in any field of the record row and
select Edit|Delete Record from the menu bar or click the Delete Record button on the
datasheet toolbar.
Adding and Deleting Columns
Although it is best to add new fields (displayed as columns in the datasheet) in design
view because more options are available, they can also be quickly added in datasheet
view. Highlight the column that the new column should appear to the left of by clicking
its label at the top of the datasheet and select Insert|Column from the menu bar.
Placing the cursor in the column and selecting Edit|Delete Column from the menu bar can
delete entire columns.
Resizing Rows and Columns
Dragging the gray sizing line between row labels up and down with the mouse can
change the height of rows on a datasheet. By changing the height on one row, the height
of all rows in the datasheet will be changed to the new value.
Column width can be changed in a similar way by dragging the sizing line between
columns. Double click on the line to have the column automatically fit to the longest
value of the column. Unlike rows, columns on a datasheet can be different widths.
Selecting Format|Row Height or Format|Column Width can assign more exact values
from the menu bar.
Freezing Columns
Similar to freezing panes in Excel, columns on an Access table can be frozen. This is
helpful if the datasheet has many columns and relevant data would otherwise not appear
on the screen at the same time. Freeze a column by placing the cursor in any record in the
column and select Format|Freeze Columns from the menu bar. Select the same option
to unfreeze a single column or select Format|Unfreeze All Columns.
Hiding Columns
Columns can also be hidden from view on the datasheet although they will not be deleted
from the database. To hide a column, place the cursor in any record in the column or
highlight multiple adjacent columns by clicking and dragging the mouse along the
column headers, and select Format|Hide Columns from the menu bar.
To show columns that have been hidden, select Format|Unhide Columns from the menu
bar. A window displaying all of the fields in the table will be listed with check boxes
beside each field name. Check the boxes beside all fields that should be visible on the
data table and click the Close button.
Finding Data in a Table
Data in a datasheet can be quickly located by using the Find command.
Open the table in datasheet view.
Place the cursor in any record in the field that you want to search and select
Edit|Find... from the menu bar.
Enter the value criteria in the Find What: box.
From the Look In: drop-down menu, define the area of the search by selecting
the entire table or just the field in the table you placed your cursor in during step
2.
Select the matching criteria from Match: to and click the More >> button for
additional search parameters.
When all of the search criteria is set, click the Find Next button. If more than one
record meets the criteria, keep clicking Find Next until you reach the correct
record.
Replace
The replace function allows you to quickly replace a single occurrence of data with a new
value or to replace all occurrences in the entire table.
Select Edit|Replace... from the menu bar (or click the Replace tab if the Find
window is already open).
Follow the steps described in the Find procedure for searching for the data that
should be replaced and type the new value of the data in the Replace With: box.
Click the Find Next button to step through occurrences of the data in the table
and click the Replace button to make single replacements. Click Replace All to
change all occurrences of the data in one step.
Check Spelling and AutoCorrect
The spell checker can be used to flag spelling errors in text and menu fields in a
datasheet. Select Tools|Spelling from the menu bar to activate the spell checker and
make corrections just as you would using Word or Excel. The AutoCorrect feature can
automatically correct common spelling errors such as two INitial CApitals, capitalizing
the first letter of the first word of a sentence, and anything you define. Select
Tools|AutoCorrect to set these features.
Print a Datasheet
Datasheets can be printed by clicking the Print button on the toolbar or select File|Print
to set more printing options.
1.Table Relationships
To prevent the duplication of information in a database by repeating fields in more than
one table, table relationships can be established to link fields of tables together. Follow
the steps below to set up a relational database:
Click the Relationships button on the toolbar.
From the Show Table window (click the Show Table button on the toolbar to
make it appear), double click on the names of the tables you would like to include
in the relationships. When you have finished adding tables, click Close.
To link fields in two different tables, click and drag a field from one table to the
corresponding field on the other table and release the mouse button. The Edit
Relationships window will appear. From this window, select different fields if
necessary and select an option from Enforce Referential Integrity if necessary.
These options give Access permission to automatically make changes to
referential tables if a key record in one of the tables is deleted. Check the Enforce
Referential Integrity box to ensure that the relationships are valid and that the
data is not accidentally deleted when data is added, edited, or deleted. Click
Create to create the link.
A line now connects the two fields in the Relationships window.
The datasheet of a relational table will provide expand and collapse indicators to
view sub datasheets containing matching information from the other table. In the
example below, the student address database and student grade database were
related and the two can be shown simultaneously using the expand feature. To
expand or collapse all sub datasheets at once, select
Format|Subdatasheet|Expand All or Collapse All from the toolbar.
2. Sorting and Filtering
Sorting and filtering allow you to view records in a table in a different way either by
reordering all of the records in the table or view only those records in a table that meet
certain criteria that you specify.
Sorting
You may want to view the records in a table in a different order than they appear such as
sorting by a date or in alphabetical order, for example. Follow these steps to execute a
simple sort of records in a table based on the values of one field:
In table view, place the cursor in the column that you want to sort by.
Select Records|Sort|Sort Ascending or Records|Sort|Sort Descending from the
menu bar or click the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending buttons on the toolbar.
To sort by more than one column (such as sorting by date and then sorting records with
the same date alphabetically), highlight the columns by clicking and dragging the mouse
over the field labels and select one of the sort methods stated above.
Filter by Selection
This feature will filter records that contain identical data values in a given field such as
filtering out all of the records that have the value "Smith" in a name field. To Filter by
Selection, place the cursor in the field that you want to filter the other records by and
click the Filter by Selection button on the toolbar or select Records|Filter|Filter By
Selection from the menu bar. In the example below, the cursor is placed in the City field
of the second record that displays the value "Ft. Myers" so the filtered table will show
only the records where the city is Ft. Myers.
Filter by Form
If the table is large, it may be difficult to find the record that contains the value you
would like to filter by so using Filter by Form may be advantageous instead. This method
creates a blank version of the table with drop-down menus for each field that each
contains the values found in the records of that field. Under the default Look for tab of
the Filter by Form window, click in the field to enter the filter criteria. To specify an
alternate criteria if records may contain one of two specified values, click the Or tab at
the bottom of the window and select another criteria from the drop-down menu. More Or
tabs will appear after one criteria is set to allow you to add more alternate criteria for the
filter. After you have selected all of the criteria you want to filter, click the Apply Filter
on the toolbar.
button
The following methods can be used to select records based on the record selected by that
do not have exactly the same value. Type these formats into the field where the dropdown menu appears instead of selecting an absolute value.
Filter by Form
Format
Explanation
Like "*Street" Selects all records that end with "Street"
<="G"
Selects all records that begin with the letters A through G
>1/1/00
Selects all dates since 1/1/00
<> 0
Selects all records not equal to zero
Saving A Filter
The filtered contents of a table can be saved as a query by selecting File|Save As Query
from the menu bar. Enter a name for the query and click OK. The query is now saved
within the database.
Remove a Filter
To view all records in a table again, click the depressed Apply Filter toggle button on the
toolbar.
Queries
Introduction to Queries
Queries select records from one or more tables in a database so they can be viewed,
analyzed, and sorted on a common datasheet. The resulting collection of records, called a
dynaset (short for dynamic subset), is saved as a database object and can therefore be
easily used in the future. The query will be updated whenever the original tables are
updated. Types of queries are select queries that extract data from tables based on
specified values, find duplicate queries that display records with duplicate values for one
or more of the specified fields, and find unmatched queries display records from one
table that do not have corresponding values in a second table.
Create a Query in Design View
Follow these steps to create a new query in Design View:
From the Queries page on the Database Window, click the New button.
Select Design View and click OK.
Select tables and existing queries from the Tables and Queries tabs and click the
Add button to add each one to the new query.
Click Close when all of the tables and queries have been selected.
Add fields from the tables to the new query by double-clicking the field name in
the table boxes or selecting the field from the Field: and Table: drop down menus
on the query form. Specify sort orders if necessary.
Enter the criteria for the query in the Criteria: field. The following table provides
examples for some of the wildcard symbols and arithmetic operators that may be
used. The Expression Builder
expressions.
can also be used to assist in writing the
Query Wildcards and Expression Operators
Wildcard /
Operator
? Street
Explanation
The question mark is a wildcard that takes the place of a
single letter.
The asterisk is the wildcard that represents a number of
43th *
characters.
Value less than 100
<100
Value greater than or equal to 1
>=1
Not equal to (all states besides Florida)
<>"FL"
Between 1 and 10 Numbers between 1 and 10
Finds records with no value
Is Null
or all records that have a value
Is Not Null
All words beginning with "a"
Like "a*"
All numbers greater than 0 and less than 10
>0 And <=10
"Bob" Or "Jane" Values are Bob or Jane
After you have selected all of the fields and tables, click the Run button on the
toolbar.
Save the query by clicking the Save button.
Query Wizard
Access' Query Wizard will easily assist you to begin creating a select query.
Click the Create query by using wizard icon in the database window to have
Access step you through the process of creating a query.
From the first window, select fields that will be included in the query by first
selecting the table from the drop-down Tables/Queries menu. Select the fields by
clicking the > button to move the field from the Available Fields list to Selected
Fields. Click the double arrow button >> to move all of the fields to Selected
Fields. Select another table or query to choose from more fields and repeat the
process of moving them to the Selected Fields box. Click Next> when all of the
fields have been selected.
On the next window, enter the name for the query and click Finish.
Find Duplicates Query
This query will filter out records in a single table that contain duplicate values in a field.
Click the New button on the Queries database window, select Find Duplicates
Query Wizard from the New Query window and click OK.
Select the table or query that the find duplicates query will be applied to from the
list provided and click Next >.
Select the fields that may contain duplicate values by highlighting the names in
the Available fields list and clicking the > button to individually move the fields
to the Duplicate-value fields list or >> to move all of the fields. Click Next >
when all fields have been selected.
Select the fields that should appear in the new query along with the fields selected
on the previous screen and click Next >.
Name the new query and click Finish.
Delete a Query
To delete a table from the query, click the table's title bar and press the Delete key on the
keyboard.
1. Forms
Forms are used as an alternative way to enter data into a database table.
Create Form by Using Wizard
To create a form using the assistance of the wizard, follow these steps:
Click the Create form by using wizard option on the database window.
From the Tables/Queries drop-down menu, select the table or query whose
datasheet the form will modify. Then, select the fields that will be included on the
form by highlighting each one the Available Fields window and clicking the
single right arrow button > to move the field to the Selected Fields window. To
move all of the fields to Select Fields, click the double right arrow button >>. If
you make a mistake and would like to remove a field or all of the fields from the
Selected Fields window, click the left arrow < or left double arrow << buttons.
After the proper fields have been selected, click the Next > button to move on to
the next screen.
On the second screen, select the layout of the form.
Columnar - A single record is displayed at one time with labels and form
fields listed side-by-side in columns
Justified - A single record is displayed with labels and form fields are
listed across the screen
Tabular - Multiple records are listed on the page at a time with fields in
columns and records in rows
Datasheet - Multiple records are displayed in Datasheet View
Click the Next > button to move on to the next screen.
Select a visual style for the form from the next set of options and click Next>.
On the final screen, name the form in the space provided. Select "Open the form
to view or enter information" to open the form in Form View or "Modify the
form's design" to open it in Design View. Click Finish to create the form.
Create Form in Design View
To create a form from scratch without the wizard, follow these steps:
Click the New button on the form database window.
Select "Design View" and choose the table or query the form will be associated
with the form from the drop-down menu.
Select View|Toolbox from the menu bar to view the floating toolbar with
additional options.
Add controls to the form by clicking and dragging the field names from the Field
List floating window. Access creates a text box for the value and label for the
field name when this action is accomplished. To add controls for all of the fields
in the Field List, double-click the Field List window's title bar and drag all of the
highlighted fields to the form.
Adding Records Using A Form
Input data into the table by filling out the fields of the form. Press the Tab key to move
from field to field and create a new record by clicking Tab after the last field of the last
record. A new record can also be created at any time by clicking the New Record button
at the bottom of the form window. Records are automatically saved as they are entered
so no additional manual saving needs to be executed.
Editing Forms
The follow points may be helpful when modifying forms in Design View.
Grid lines - By default, a series of lines and dots underlay the form in Design
View so form elements can be easily aligned. To toggle this feature on and off
select View|Grid from the menu bar.
Snap to Grid - Select Format|Snap to Grid to align form objects with the grid to
allow easy alignment of form objects or uncheck this feature to allow objects to
float freely between the grid lines and dots.
Resizing Objects - Form objects can be resized by clicking and dragging the
handles on the edges and corners of the element with the mouse.
Change form object type - To easily change the type of form object without
having to create a new one, right click on the object with the mouse and select
Change To and select an available object type from the list.
Label/object alignment - Each form object and its corresponding label are
bounded and will move together when either one is moved with the mouse.
However, to change the position of the object and label in relation to each other
(to move the label closer to a text box, for example), click and drag the large
handle at the top, left corner of the object or label.
Tab order - Alter the tab order of the objects on the form by selecting View|Tab
Order... from the menu bar. Click the gray box before the row you would like to
change in the tab order, drag it to a new location, and release the mouse button.
Form Appearance - Change the background color of the form by clicking the
Fill/Back Color button on the formatting toolbar and click one of the color
swatches on the palette. Change the color of individual form objects by
highlighting one and selecting a color from the Font/Fore Color palette on the
formatting toolbar. The font and size, font effect, font alignment, border around
each object, the border width, and a special effect can also be modified using the
formatting toolbar:
Page Header and Footer - Headers and footers added to a form will only appear
when it is printed. Access these sections by selecting View|Page Header/Footer
on the menu bar. Page numbers can also be added to these sections by selecting
Insert|Page Numbers. A date and time can be added from Insert|Date and
Time.... Select View|Page Header/Footer again to hide these sections from view
in Design View.
2.Form Controls
List and Combo Boxes
If there are small, finite number of values for a certain field on a form, using combo or
list boxes may be a quicker and easier way of entering data. These two control types
differ in the number of values they display. List values are all displayed while the combo
box values are not displayed until the arrow button is clicked to open it as shown in these
examples:
Combo Box
Academic 3
List Box
Academic 3
Ben Hill Griffin III Hall
Reed Hall
By using a combo or list box, the name of the academic building does not need to be
typed for every record. Instead, it simply needs to be selected from the list. Follow these
steps to add a list or combo box to a form:
Open the form in Design View.
Select View|Toolbox to view the toolbox and make sure the "Control Wizards"
button is pressed in.
Click the list or combo box tool button and draw the outline on the form. The
combo box wizard dialog box will appear.
Select the source type for the list or combo box values and click Next >.
Depending on your choice in the first dialog box, the next options will vary. If
you chose to look up values from a table or query, the following box will be
displayed. Select the table or query from which the values of the combo box will
come from. Click Next > and choose fields from the table or query that was
selected. Click Next > to proceed.
On the next dialog box, set the width of the combo box by clicking and dragging
the right edge of the column. Click Next >.
The next dialog box allows tells Access what to do with the value that is selected.
Choose "Remember the value for later use" to use the value in a macro or
procedure (the value is discarded when the form is closed), or select the field that
the value should be stored in. Click Next > to proceed to the final screen.
Type the name that will appear on the box's label and click Finish.
Check Boxes and Option Buttons
Use check boxes and option buttons to display yes/no, true/false, or on/off values. Only
one value from a group of option buttons can be selected while any or all values from a
check box group can be chosen. Typically, these controls should be used when five or
less options are available. Combo boxes or lists should be used for long lists of options.
To add a checkbox or option group:
Click the Option Group tool on the toolbox and draw the area where the group
will be placed on the form with the mouse. The option group wizard dialog box
will appear.
On the first window, enter labels for the options and click the tab key to enter
additional labels. Click Next > when finished typing labels.
On the next window, select a default value if there is any and click Next >.
Select values for the options and click Next >.
Choose what should be done with the value and click Next >.
Choose the type and style of the option group and click Next >.
Type the caption for the option group and click Finish.
Command Buttons
In this example, a command button beside each record is used to open another form.
Open the form in Design View and ensure that the Control Wizard button on the
toolbox is pressed in.
Click the command button icon on the toolbox and draw the button on the form.
The Command Button Wizard will then appear.
On the first dialog window, action categories are displayed in the left list while
the right list displays the actions in each category. Select an action for the
command button and click Next >.
The next few pages of options will vary based on the action you selected.
Continue selecting options for the command button.
Choose the appearance of the button by entering caption text or selecting a
picture. Check the Show All Pictures box to view the full list of available images.
Click Next >.
Enter a name for the command button and click Finish to create the button.
3. Sub Forms
What Is A Subform?
A subform is a form that is placed in a parent form, called the main form. Subforms are
particularly useful to display data from tables and queries that have one-to-many
relationships. For example, in the sample below, data on the main form is drawn from an
item information table while the subform contains all of the orders for that item. The item
record is the "one" part of this one-to-many relationship while the orders are the "many"
side of the relationship since many orders can be placed for the one item.
The remainder of this page explains three methods for creating subforms and they assume
that the data tables and/or queries have already been created.
Create a Form and Subform at Once
Use this method if neither form has already been created. A main form and subform can
be created automatically using the form wizard if table relationships are set properly or
if a query involving multiple tables is selected. For example, a relationship can be set
between a table containing customer information and one listing customer orders so the
orders for each customer are displayed together using a main form and subform. Follow
these steps to create a subform within a form:
Double-click Create form by using wizard on the database window.
From the Tables/Queries drop-down menu, select the first table or query from
which the main form will display its data. Select the fields that should appear on
the form by highlighting the field names in the Available Fields list on the left
and clicking the single arrow > button or click the double arrows >> to choose all
of the fields.
From the same window, select another table or query from the Tables/Queries
drop-down menu and choose the fields that should appear on the form. Click Next
to continue after all fields have been selected.
Choose an arrangement for the forms by selecting form with subform(s) if the
forms should appear on the same page or Linked forms if there are many controls
on the main form and a subform will not fit. Click Next to proceed to the next
page of options.
Select a tabular or datasheet layout for the form and click Next.
Select a style for the form and click Next.
Enter the names for the main form and subform. Click Finish to create the forms.
New records can be added to both tables or queries at once by using the new
combination form.
Subform Wizard
If the main form or both forms already exist, the Subform Wizard can be used to combine
the forms. Follow these steps to use the Subform Wizard:
Open the main form in Design View and make sure the Control Wizard button
on the toolbox is pressed in.
Click the Subform/Subreport icon on the toolbox and draw the outline of the
subform on the main form. The Subform Wizard dialog box will appear when the
mouse button is released.
If the subform has not been created yet, select "Use existing Tables and Queries".
Otherwise, select the existing form that will become the subform. Click Next to
continue.
The next dialog window will display table relationships assumed by Access.
Select one of these relationships or define your own and click Next.
On the final dialog box, enter the name of the subform and click Finish.
Drag-and-Drop Method
Use this method to create subforms from two forms that already exist. Make sure that the
table relationships have already been set before proceeding with these steps.
Open the main form in Design View and select Window|Tile Vertically to
display both the database window and the form side-by-side.
Drag the form icon beside the name of the subform onto the detail section of the
main form design.
4. More On Forms
Multiple-Page Forms Using Tabs
Tab controls allow you to easily create multi-page forms. Create a tab control by
following these steps:
Click the Tab Control icon on the toolbox and draw the control on the form.
Add new controls to each tab page the same way that controls are added to regular
form pages and click the tabs to change pages. Existing form controls cannot be
added to the tab page by dragging and dropping. Instead, right-click on the control
and select Cut from the shortcut menu. Then right-click on the tab control and
select Paste. The controls can then be repositioned on the tab control.
Add new tabs or delete tabs by right-clicking in the tab area and choosing
Insert Page or Delete Page from the shortcut menu.
Reorder the tabs by right-clicking on the tab control and selecting Page
Order.
Rename tabs by double-clicking on a tab and changing the Name property
under the Other tab.
Conditional Formatting
Special formatting that depends on the control's value can be added to text boxes, lists,
and combo boxes. A default value can set along with up to three conditional formats. To
add conditional formatting to a control element, follow these steps:
Select the control that the formatting should be applied to and select
Format|Conditional Formatting from the menu bar.
Under Condition 1, select one of the following condition types:
Field Value Is applies formatting based upon the value of the control.
Select a comparison type from the second drop-down menu and enter a
value in the final text box.
Expression Is applies formatting if the expression is true. Enter a value in
the text box and the formatting will be added if the value matches the
expression.
Field Has Focus will apply the formatting as soon as the field has focus.
Add additional conditions by clicking the Add >> button and delete conditions by
clicking Delete... and checking the conditions to erase.
Password Text Fields
To modify a text box so each character appears as an asterisk as the user types in the
information, select the text field in Design View and click Properties. Under the Data
tab, click in the Input Mask field and then click the button [...] that appears. Choose
"Password" from the list of input masks and click Finish. Although the user will only see
asterisks for each character that is typed, the actual characters will be saved in the
database.
Change Control Type
If you decide the type of a control needs to be changed, this can be done without deleting
the existing control and creating a new one although not every control type can be
converted and those that can have a limited number of types they can be converted to. To
change the control type, select the control on the form in Design View and choose
Format|Change To from the menu bar. Select one of the control types that is not grayed
out.
Multiple Primary Keys
To select two fields for the composite primary key, move the mouse over the gray
column next to the field names and note that it becomes an arrow. Click the mouse, hold
it down, and drag it over all fields that should be primary keys and release the button.
With the multiple fields highlighted, click the primary key button.
1. Reports
Reports will organize and group the information in a table or query and provide a way to
print the data in a database.
Using the Wizard
Create a report using Access' wizard by following these steps:
Double-click the "Create report by using wizard" option on the Reports Database
Window.
Select the information source for the report by selecting a table or query from the
Tables/Queries drop-down menu. Then, select the fields that should be displayed
in the report by transferring them from the Available Fields menu to the Selected
Fields window using the single right arrow button > to move fields one at a time
or the double arrow button >> to move all of the fields at once. Click the Next >
button to move to the next screen.
Select fields from the list that the records should be grouped by and click the right
arrow button > to add those fields to the diagram. Use the Priority buttons to
change the order of the grouped fields if more than one field is selected. Click
Next > to continue.
If the records should be sorted, identify a sort order here. Select the first field that
records should be sorted by and click the A-Z sort button to choose from
ascending or descending order. Click Next > to continue.
Select a layout and page orientation for the report and click Next >.
Select a color and graphics style for the report and click Next >.
On the final screen, name the report and select to open it in either Print Preview or
Design View mode. Click the Finish button to create the report.
Create in Design View
To create a report from scratch, select Design View from the Reports Database Window.
Click the New button on the Reports Database Window. Highlight "Design View"
and choose the data source of the report from the drop-down menu and click OK.
You will be presented with a blank grid with a Field Box and form element
toolbar that looks similar to the Design View for forms. Design the report in much
the same way you would create a form. For example, double-click the title bar of
the Field Box to add all of the fields to the report at once. Then, use the handles
on the elements to resize them, move them to different locations, and modify the
look of the report by using options on the formatting toolbar. Click the Print View
button at the top, left corner of the screen to preview the report.
Printing Reports
Select File|Page Setup to modify the page margins, size, orientation, and column setup.
After all changes have been made, print the report by selecting File|Print from the menu
bar or click the Print button on the toolbar.
1. Importing, Exporting, Linking
Importing
Importing objects from another database will create a complete copy of a table, query, or
any other database object that you select. Import a database object by following these
steps:
Open the destination database.
Select File|Get External|Import from the menu bar.
Choose the database the object is located in a click the Import button.
From the Import Objects window, click on the object tabs to find the object you
want to import into the database. Click the Options >> button to view more
options. Under Import Tables, select "Definition and Data" if the entire table
should be copied or "Definition Only" if the table structure should be copied but
not the data. Under Import Queries, select "As Tables" if the queries should
appear as regular tables in the destination database. Highlight the object name,
and click OK.
The new object will now appear with the existing objects in the database.
Exporting
The effect of importing can also be achieved using the opposite method of exporting.
Open the database containing an object that will be copied (exported) to another
database.
Find the object in the Database Window and highlight it. Then, select
File|Export... from the menu bar.
Select the destination database from the window and click Save.
You will be prompted to name the new object and may also be given other
options, such as whether to copy the structure or data and structure of a table.
Click OK to complete the export procedure.
Linking
Unlike importing, linking objects from another database will create a link to an object in
another database while not copying the table to the current database. Create a link by
following these steps:
Open the destination database.
Select File|Get External|Link Tables... from the menu bar.
Choose the database that the table is located in and click the Link
button.
A window listing the tables in the database will then appear.
Highlight the table or tables that should be linked and click OK. A
link to the table will appear in the Database Window as a small
table icon preceded by a small right arrow.
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