MGS3520 Series
Layer 2 Management Switch
Version 4.10
Edition 1, 12/2015
Quick Start Guide
User’s Guide
Default Login Details
LAN IP Address
http://192.168.1.1
User Name
www.zyxel.com
Password
admin
1234
Copyright © 2015 ZyXEL Communications Corporation
IMPORTANT!
READ CAREFULLY BEFORE USE.
KEEP THIS GUIDE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.
This is a User’s Guide for a series of products. Not all products support all firmware features.
Screenshots and graphics in this book may differ slightly from your product due to differences in
your product firmware or your computer operating system. Every effort has been made to ensure
that the information in this manual is accurate.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide shows how to connect the Switch and access the Web Configurator.
• CLI Reference Guide
The CLI Reference Guide explains how to use the Command-Line Interface (CLI) and CLI
commands to configure the Switch.
Note: It is recommended you use the Web Configurator to configure the Switch.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Click the help icon in any screen for help in configuring that screen and supplementary
information.
• More Information
Go to support.zyxel.com to find other information on the Switch.
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2
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
User’s Guide .......................................................................................................................................18
Getting to Know Your Switch ...................................................................................................................19
Hardware Installation and Connection ....................................................................................................23
Hardware Overview .................................................................................................................................26
The Web Configurator .............................................................................................................................34
Initial Setup Example ..............................................................................................................................42
Tutorials ..................................................................................................................................................46
Technical Reference ..........................................................................................................................71
System Status and Port Statistics ...........................................................................................................72
Basic Setting ..........................................................................................................................................77
VLAN .....................................................................................................................................................100
Static MAC Forward Setup ....................................................................................................................120
Static Multicast Forward Setup ..............................................................................................................122
Filtering .................................................................................................................................................125
Spanning Tree Protocol .........................................................................................................................127
Bandwidth Control .................................................................................................................................146
Broadcast Storm Control .......................................................................................................................148
Mirroring ................................................................................................................................................150
Link Aggregation ...................................................................................................................................156
Port Authentication ................................................................................................................................163
Port Security ..........................................................................................................................................171
Range Profile ........................................................................................................................................174
Classifier ...............................................................................................................................................179
Policy Rule ............................................................................................................................................185
Queuing Method ....................................................................................................................................190
VLAN Stacking ......................................................................................................................................193
Multicast ................................................................................................................................................200
AAA .......................................................................................................................................................223
IP Source Guard ...................................................................................................................................236
Loop Guard ...........................................................................................................................................257
VLAN Mapping ......................................................................................................................................260
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ...................................................................................................................263
sFlow .....................................................................................................................................................267
PPPoE ...................................................................................................................................................271
Error Disable .........................................................................................................................................279
Private VLAN .........................................................................................................................................285
Green Ethernet ......................................................................................................................................287
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Contents Overview
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) ..................................................................................................289
Static Route ...........................................................................................................................................314
Differentiated Services ..........................................................................................................................317
DHCP ....................................................................................................................................................321
ARP Setup ............................................................................................................................................335
Maintenance ..........................................................................................................................................339
Access Control ......................................................................................................................................348
Diagnostic .............................................................................................................................................372
Syslog ...................................................................................................................................................374
Cluster Management .............................................................................................................................377
MAC Table .............................................................................................................................................384
ARP Table .............................................................................................................................................387
Path MTU Table ....................................................................................................................................389
Configure Clone ....................................................................................................................................390
Neighbor Table ......................................................................................................................................393
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................................395
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Contents Overview ..............................................................................................................................3
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................5
Part I: User’s Guide ......................................................................................... 18
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your Switch.............................................................................................................19
1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................19
1.1.1 Backbone Application ..............................................................................................................19
1.1.2 Bridging Example ....................................................................................................................20
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example ....................................................................................20
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples ..............................................................................21
1.1.5 IPv6 Support ............................................................................................................................22
1.2 Ways to Manage the Switch ..............................................................................................................22
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Switch ...............................................................................................22
Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and Connection .............................................................................................23
2.1 Installation Scenarios ........................................................................................................................23
2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure ........................................................................................................23
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack ........................................................................................................23
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements ................................................................................23
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch .......................................................................24
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack ...............................................................................................24
Chapter 3
Hardware Overview ............................................................................................................................26
3.1 Front Panel .......................................................................................................................................26
3.1.1 Console Port ............................................................................................................................27
3.1.2 Ethernet Ports .........................................................................................................................28
3.1.3 Transceiver Slots .....................................................................................................................28
3.1.4 Power Connector .....................................................................................................................30
3.1.5 Signal Slot ...............................................................................................................................31
3.2 LEDs ................................................................................................................................................33
Chapter 4
The Web Configurator ........................................................................................................................34
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4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................34
4.2 System Login
.................................................................................................................................34
4.3 The Web Configurator Layout .........................................................................................................35
4.3.1 Change Your Password
........................................................................................................39
4.4 Saving Your Configuration ................................................................................................................39
4.5 Switch Lockout ................................................................................................................................40
4.6 Resetting the Switch
......................................................................................................................40
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File .................................................................................................40
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator ..............................................................................................41
4.8 Help ..................................................................................................................................................41
Chapter 5
Initial Setup Example..........................................................................................................................42
5.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................42
5.1.1 Creating a VLAN ......................................................................................................................42
5.1.2 Setting Port VID .......................................................................................................................43
5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address ....................................................................................44
Chapter 6
Tutorials ...............................................................................................................................................46
6.1 How to Use DHCP Snooping on the Switch ......................................................................................46
6.2 How to Use DHCP Relay on the Switch ............................................................................................49
6.2.1 DHCP Relay Tutorial Introduction ............................................................................................49
6.2.2 Creating a VLAN ......................................................................................................................50
6.2.3 Configuring DHCPv4 Relay .....................................................................................................52
6.2.4 Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................53
6.3 How to Use PPPoE IA on the Switch ................................................................................................53
6.3.1 Configuring Switch A ...............................................................................................................54
6.3.2 Configuring Switch B ...............................................................................................................56
6.4 How to Use Error Disable and Recovery on the Switch ....................................................................59
6.5 How to Set Up a Guest VLAN ...........................................................................................................61
6.5.1 Creating a Guest VLAN ...........................................................................................................61
6.5.2 Enabling IEEE 802.1x Port Authentication ..............................................................................64
6.5.3 Enabling Guest VLAN ..............................................................................................................65
6.6 How to Do Port Isolation in a VLAN ..................................................................................................66
6.6.1 Creating a VLAN ......................................................................................................................67
6.6.2 Creating a Private VLAN Rule .................................................................................................69
Part II: Technical Reference............................................................................ 71
Chapter 7
System Status and Port Statistics.....................................................................................................72
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7.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................72
7.2 Port Status Summary
...................................................................................................................72
7.2.1 Status: Port Details
.............................................................................................................73
Chapter 8
Basic Setting ......................................................................................................................................77
8.1 System Information
8.2 General Setup
........................................................................................................................77
...............................................................................................................................79
8.3 Introduction to VLANs ......................................................................................................................80
8.4 Switch Setup
..................................................................................................................................81
8.5 IP Setup ...........................................................................................................................................83
8.5.1 Management IP Addresses .....................................................................................................83
8.6 Port Setup ........................................................................................................................................85
8.7 Interface Setup ..................................................................................................................................87
8.8 IPv6 ...................................................................................................................................................88
8.8.1 IPv6 Interface Status ...............................................................................................................89
8.8.2 IPv6 Configuration ...................................................................................................................91
8.8.3 IPv6 Global Setup ....................................................................................................................92
8.8.4 IPv6 Interface Setup ................................................................................................................92
8.8.5 IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup ...............................................................................................93
8.8.6 IPv6 Global Address Setup .....................................................................................................94
8.8.7 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup ...............................................................................................95
8.8.8 IPv6 Neighbor Setup ...............................................................................................................96
8.8.9 DHCPv6 Client Setup ..............................................................................................................98
Chapter 9
VLAN ..................................................................................................................................................100
9.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
.............................................................................100
9.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames ...........................................................................100
9.2 Automatic VLAN Registration .........................................................................................................101
9.2.1 GARP ....................................................................................................................................101
9.2.2 GVRP ....................................................................................................................................101
9.3 Port VLAN Trunking .......................................................................................................................102
9.4 Select the VLAN Type ....................................................................................................................102
9.5 Static VLAN .....................................................................................................................................102
9.5.1 VLAN Status .........................................................................................................................103
9.5.2 VLAN Details .........................................................................................................................103
9.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN
....................................................................................................104
9.5.4 Configure VLAN Port Settings
...........................................................................................106
9.6 Subnet Based VLANs ....................................................................................................................107
9.6.1 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN .........................................................................................108
9.7 Protocol Based VLANs ................................................................................................................... 110
9.7.1 Configuring Protocol Based VLAN ....................................................................................... 111
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9.7.2 Create an IP-based VLAN Example ...................................................................................... 112
9.8 MAC Based VLAN ........................................................................................................................... 113
9.9 VLAN MAC Learning ....................................................................................................................... 114
9.10 Port-based VLAN Setup
............................................................................................................ 116
9.10.1 Configure a Port-based VLAN ............................................................................................. 117
Chapter 10
Static MAC Forward Setup...............................................................................................................120
10.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................120
10.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
.........................................................................................120
Chapter 11
Static Multicast Forward Setup .......................................................................................................122
11.1 Static Multicast Forwarding Overview ...........................................................................................122
11.2 Configuring Static Multicast Forwarding ........................................................................................123
Chapter 12
Filtering..............................................................................................................................................125
12.1 Configure a Filtering Rule
...........................................................................................................125
Chapter 13
Spanning Tree Protocol....................................................................................................................127
13.1 STP/RSTP Overview ...................................................................................................................127
13.1.1 STP Terminology ................................................................................................................127
13.1.2 How STP Works .................................................................................................................128
13.1.3 STP Port States ..................................................................................................................128
13.1.4 Multiple RSTP ....................................................................................................................128
13.1.5 Multiple STP ........................................................................................................................129
13.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen .........................................................................................132
13.3 Spanning Tree Configuration .......................................................................................................132
13.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
13.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
...................................................................................133
........................................................................................136
13.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
13.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
13.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
.....................................................................137
........................................................................139
................................................................................140
13.8.1 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Port Configuration ...........................................................142
13.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status
..................................................................................144
Chapter 14
Bandwidth Control............................................................................................................................146
14.1 Bandwidth Control Overview .......................................................................................................146
14.2 Bandwidth Control Setup ..............................................................................................................146
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Table of Contents
Chapter 15
Broadcast Storm Control .................................................................................................................148
15.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup ....................................................................................................148
Chapter 16
Mirroring ............................................................................................................................................150
16.1 Port Mirroring Overview ...............................................................................................................150
16.2 Local Port Mirroring Screen ..........................................................................................................152
16.3 RMirror-Source Screen .................................................................................................................153
16.4 RMirror-Destination Screen ..........................................................................................................154
Chapter 17
Link Aggregation ..............................................................................................................................156
17.1 Link Aggregation Overview ..........................................................................................................156
17.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation ...........................................................................................................156
17.2.1 Link Aggregation ID ............................................................................................................157
17.3 Link Aggregation Status ...............................................................................................................157
17.4 Link Aggregation Setting ..............................................................................................................158
17.5 Link Aggregation Control Protocol
.............................................................................................160
17.6 Static Trunking Example ...............................................................................................................161
Chapter 18
Port Authentication ..........................................................................................................................163
18.1 Port Authentication Overview .......................................................................................................163
18.1.1 IEEE 802.1x Authentication .................................................................................................163
18.1.2 MAC Authentication .............................................................................................................164
18.2 Port Authentication Configuration .................................................................................................165
18.2.1 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
.........................................................................................165
18.2.2 Guest VLAN ........................................................................................................................167
18.2.3 Activate MAC Authentication ..............................................................................................169
Chapter 19
Port Security .....................................................................................................................................171
19.1 About Port Security .......................................................................................................................171
19.2 Port Security Setup .......................................................................................................................171
Chapter 20
Range Profile.....................................................................................................................................174
20.1 Range Profile Overview ...............................................................................................................174
20.2 Range Profile Screen ....................................................................................................................174
20.3 VLAN Range Profile ......................................................................................................................174
20.4 Port Range Profile ........................................................................................................................175
20.5 IP Address Range Profile ..............................................................................................................176
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20.6 Socket-Port Range Profile ............................................................................................................177
Chapter 21
Classifier............................................................................................................................................179
21.1 About the Classifier and QoS ........................................................................................................179
21.2 Configuring the Classifier .............................................................................................................179
21.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration ................................................................................182
21.4 Classifier Example ........................................................................................................................183
Chapter 22
Policy Rule ........................................................................................................................................185
22.1 Policy Rules Overview .................................................................................................................185
22.1.1 DiffServ ................................................................................................................................185
22.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ..............................................................................................185
22.2 Configuring Policy Rules ...............................................................................................................185
22.3 Viewing and Editing Policy Configuration ......................................................................................187
22.4 Policy Example ..............................................................................................................................188
Chapter 23
Queuing Method ...............................................................................................................................190
23.1 Queuing Method Overview ...........................................................................................................190
23.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing .......................................................................................................190
23.1.2 Weighted Fair Queuing ........................................................................................................190
23.1.3 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) .........................................................................191
23.2 Configuring Queuing .....................................................................................................................191
Chapter 24
VLAN Stacking ..................................................................................................................................193
24.1 VLAN Stacking Overview .............................................................................................................193
24.1.1 VLAN Stacking Example ......................................................................................................193
24.2 VLAN Stacking Port Roles ............................................................................................................194
24.3 VLAN Tag Format ..........................................................................................................................194
24.3.1 Frame Format ......................................................................................................................195
24.4 Configuring VLAN Stacking ...........................................................................................................195
24.4.1 Port-based Q-in-Q ...............................................................................................................197
24.4.2 Selective Q-in-Q .................................................................................................................198
Chapter 25
Multicast ............................................................................................................................................200
25.1 Multicast Overview .......................................................................................................................200
25.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses ........................................................................................................200
25.1.2 IGMP Filtering ......................................................................................................................200
25.1.3 IGMP Snooping ..................................................................................................................200
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25.1.4 IGMP Snooping and VLANs ................................................................................................201
25.1.5 MLD Snooping-proxy ...........................................................................................................201
25.1.6 MLD Messages ....................................................................................................................202
25.2 Multicast Setup ..............................................................................................................................202
25.3 IPv4 Multicast Status ....................................................................................................................202
25.3.1 IGMP Snooping ..................................................................................................................203
25.3.2 IGMP Snooping VLAN ........................................................................................................206
25.3.3 IGMP Filtering Profile .........................................................................................................207
25.4 IPv6 Multicast Status ....................................................................................................................208
25.4.1 MLD Snooping-proxy ...........................................................................................................209
25.4.2 MLD Snooping-proxy VLAN ................................................................................................209
25.4.3 MLD Snooping-proxy VLAN Port Role Setting .................................................................... 211
25.4.4 MLD Snooping-proxy Filtering .............................................................................................213
25.4.5 MLD Snooping-proxy Filtering Profile ..................................................................................215
25.5 MVR Overview .............................................................................................................................216
25.5.1 Types of MVR Ports .............................................................................................................216
25.5.2 MVR Modes .........................................................................................................................216
25.5.3 How MVR Works .................................................................................................................216
25.6 General MVR Configuration ..........................................................................................................217
25.6.1 MVR Group Configuration ..................................................................................................219
25.6.2 MVR Configuration Example ...............................................................................................221
Chapter 26
AAA ....................................................................................................................................................223
26.1 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) ....................................................................223
26.1.1 Local User Accounts ............................................................................................................223
26.1.2 RADIUS and TACACS+ ......................................................................................................224
26.2 AAA Screens .................................................................................................................................224
26.2.1 RADIUS Server Setup .......................................................................................................224
26.2.2 TACACS+ Server Setup
..................................................................................................226
26.2.3 AAA Setup ...........................................................................................................................228
26.2.4 Vendor Specific Attribute .....................................................................................................231
26.2.5 Tunnel Protocol Attribute .....................................................................................................232
26.3 Supported RADIUS Attributes .......................................................................................................232
26.3.1 Attributes Used for Authentication .......................................................................................233
26.3.2 Attributes Used for Accounting ............................................................................................233
Chapter 27
IP Source Guard................................................................................................................................236
27.1 IP Source Guard Overview ...........................................................................................................236
27.1.1 DHCP Snooping Overview ..................................................................................................236
27.1.2 ARP Inspection Overview ....................................................................................................238
27.2 IP Source Guard ...........................................................................................................................240
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27.3 IP Source Guard Static Binding .....................................................................................................240
27.4 DHCP Snooping ............................................................................................................................242
27.5 DHCP Snooping Configure ...........................................................................................................245
27.5.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure ..........................................................................................247
27.5.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure .......................................................................................248
27.5.3 DHCP Snooping VLAN Port Configure ................................................................................249
27.6 ARP Inspection Status ..................................................................................................................250
27.6.1 ARP Inspection VLAN Status ..............................................................................................251
27.6.2 ARP Inspection Log Status ..................................................................................................252
27.6.3 ARP Inspection Configure ...................................................................................................253
27.6.4 ARP Inspection Port Configure ............................................................................................254
27.6.5 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure .........................................................................................255
Chapter 28
Loop Guard .......................................................................................................................................257
28.1 Loop Guard Overview ..................................................................................................................257
28.2 Loop Guard Setup .........................................................................................................................259
Chapter 29
VLAN Mapping ..................................................................................................................................260
29.1 VLAN Mapping Overview .............................................................................................................260
29.1.1 VLAN Mapping Example .....................................................................................................260
29.2 Enabling VLAN Mapping ...............................................................................................................260
29.3 Configuring VLAN Mapping ...........................................................................................................261
Chapter 30
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling..............................................................................................................263
30.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Overview ..........................................................................................263
30.1.1 Layer-2 Protocol Tunneling Mode ........................................................................................264
30.2 Configuring Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ........................................................................................264
Chapter 31
sFlow..................................................................................................................................................267
31.1 sFlow Overview .............................................................................................................................267
31.2 sFlow Port Configuration ...............................................................................................................267
31.2.1 sFlow Collector Configuration ..............................................................................................269
Chapter 32
PPPoE ................................................................................................................................................271
32.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Overview ..........................................................................................271
32.1.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Tag Format ..............................................................................271
32.1.2 Sub-Option Format ..............................................................................................................271
32.1.3 Port State .............................................................................................................................272
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32.2 PPPoE Screen ..............................................................................................................................273
32.3 PPPoE Intermediate Agent ..........................................................................................................273
32.3.1 PPPoE IA Per-Port .............................................................................................................275
32.3.2 PPPoE IA Per-Port Per-VLAN ............................................................................................276
32.3.3 PPPoE IA for VLAN ............................................................................................................278
Chapter 33
Error Disable .....................................................................................................................................279
33.1 CPU Protection Overview .............................................................................................................279
33.2 Error-Disable Recovery Overview .................................................................................................279
33.3 Error Disable Screen .....................................................................................................................279
33.4 Error-Disable Status .....................................................................................................................280
33.5 CPU Protection Configuration ......................................................................................................281
33.6 Error-Disable Detect Configuration ..............................................................................................282
33.7 Error-Disable Recovery Configuration .........................................................................................283
Chapter 34
Private VLAN .....................................................................................................................................285
34.1 Private VLAN Overview ................................................................................................................285
34.2 Configuring Private VLAN .............................................................................................................285
Chapter 35
Green Ethernet..................................................................................................................................287
35.1 Green Ethernet Overview .............................................................................................................287
35.2 Configuring Green Ethernet ..........................................................................................................287
Chapter 36
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) ...........................................................................................289
36.1 LLDP Overview .............................................................................................................................289
36.2 LLDP-MED Overview ....................................................................................................................290
36.3 LLDP Screens ...............................................................................................................................291
36.4 LLDP Local Status ........................................................................................................................292
36.4.1 LLDP Local Port Status Detail ............................................................................................293
36.5 LLDP Remote Status ....................................................................................................................296
36.5.1 LLDP Remote Port Status Detail ........................................................................................297
36.6 LLDP Configuration ......................................................................................................................303
36.6.1 LLDP Configuration Basic TLV Setting ...............................................................................305
36.6.2 LLDP Configuration Org-specific TLV Setting .....................................................................306
36.7 LLDP-MED Configuration .............................................................................................................308
36.8 LLDP-MED Network Policy ..........................................................................................................309
36.9 LLDP-MED Location ....................................................................................................................310
Chapter 37
Static Route .......................................................................................................................................314
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37.1 Static Routing Overview ................................................................................................................314
37.2 Static Routing ................................................................................................................................314
37.3 IPv4 Static Route ..........................................................................................................................315
Chapter 38
Differentiated Services.....................................................................................................................317
38.1 DiffServ Overview ........................................................................................................................317
38.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ..............................................................................................317
38.1.2 DiffServ Network Example ..................................................................................................317
38.2 Activating DiffServ ........................................................................................................................318
38.3 DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1p Priority Settings
......................................................................................319
38.3.1 Configuring DSCP Settings .................................................................................................320
Chapter 39
DHCP..................................................................................................................................................321
39.1 DHCP Overview ...........................................................................................................................321
39.1.1 DHCP Modes ......................................................................................................................321
39.1.2 DHCP Configuration Options ...............................................................................................321
39.2 DHCP Configuration ......................................................................................................................321
39.3 DHCPv4 Status ............................................................................................................................322
39.4 DHCPv4 Relay .............................................................................................................................322
39.4.1 DHCPv4 Relay Agent Information .......................................................................................322
39.4.2 DHCPv4 Option 82 Profile ...................................................................................................323
39.4.3 Configuring DHCPv4 Global Relay ......................................................................................324
39.4.4 DHCPv4 Global Relay Port Configure ................................................................................325
39.4.5 Global DHCPv4 Relay Configuration Example ....................................................................326
39.4.6 Configuring DHCPv4 VLAN Settings
................................................................................327
39.4.7 DHCPv4 VLAN Port Configure ...........................................................................................328
39.4.8 Example: DHCPv4 Relay for Two VLANs ...........................................................................329
39.5 DHCPv6 Relay ..............................................................................................................................330
39.5.1 DHCPv6 Options Profile ......................................................................................................332
39.5.2 DHCPv6 Port Configure .....................................................................................................333
Chapter 40
ARP Setup .........................................................................................................................................335
40.1 ARP Overview ..............................................................................................................................335
40.2 ARP Setup ....................................................................................................................................337
40.2.1 ARP Learning .....................................................................................................................337
Chapter 41
Maintenance ......................................................................................................................................339
41.1 The Maintenance Screen ............................................................................................................339
41.2 Load Factory Default ....................................................................................................................340
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41.3 Save Configuration ........................................................................................................................340
41.4 Reboot System ..............................................................................................................................340
41.5 Firmware Upgrade
.....................................................................................................................342
41.6 Restore a Configuration File
......................................................................................................343
41.7 Backup a Configuration File
.......................................................................................................343
41.8 Tech-Support ................................................................................................................................344
41.9 FTP Command Line ......................................................................................................................345
41.9.1 Filename Conventions ........................................................................................................346
41.9.2 FTP Command Line Procedure ..........................................................................................346
41.9.3 GUI-based FTP Clients ........................................................................................................347
41.9.4 FTP Restrictions .................................................................................................................347
Chapter 42
Access Control .................................................................................................................................348
42.1 Access Control Overview
..........................................................................................................348
42.2 The Access Control Main Screen ..................................................................................................348
42.3 About SNMP
...............................................................................................................................348
42.3.1 SNMP v3 and Security ........................................................................................................349
42.3.2 Supported MIBs ..................................................................................................................350
42.3.3 SNMP Traps ........................................................................................................................350
42.3.4 Configuring SNMP ..............................................................................................................355
42.3.5 Configuring SNMP Trap Group
.........................................................................................357
42.3.6 Enabling/Disabling Sending of SNMP Traps on a Port ......................................................358
42.3.7 Configuring SNMP User
42.4 Setting Up Login Accounts
...................................................................................................359
........................................................................................................361
42.5 SSH Overview ...............................................................................................................................362
42.6 How SSH works ............................................................................................................................363
42.7 SSH Implementation on the Switch ...............................................................................................364
42.7.1 Requirements for Using SSH ...............................................................................................364
42.8 Introduction to HTTPS ...................................................................................................................364
42.9 HTTPS Example ...........................................................................................................................365
42.9.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages ..................................................................................365
42.9.2 Mozilla Firefox Warning Messages ......................................................................................367
42.9.3 The Main Screen .................................................................................................................368
42.10 Service Port Access Control
42.11 Remote Management
....................................................................................................369
.............................................................................................................370
Chapter 43
Diagnostic .........................................................................................................................................372
43.1 Diagnostic ....................................................................................................................................372
Chapter 44
Syslog ................................................................................................................................................374
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44.1 Syslog Overview ...........................................................................................................................374
44.2 Syslog Setup ................................................................................................................................374
44.3 Syslog Server Setup ....................................................................................................................375
Chapter 45
Cluster Management ........................................................................................................................377
45.1 Cluster Management Status Overview .........................................................................................377
45.2 Cluster Management Status .........................................................................................................378
45.2.1 Cluster Member Switch Management ................................................................................379
45.3 Clustering Management Configuration ........................................................................................381
Chapter 46
MAC Table .........................................................................................................................................384
46.1 MAC Table Overview ....................................................................................................................384
46.2 Viewing the MAC Table ................................................................................................................385
Chapter 47
ARP Table ..........................................................................................................................................387
47.1 ARP Table Overview ....................................................................................................................387
47.1.1 How ARP Works ..................................................................................................................387
47.2 The ARP Table Screen .................................................................................................................387
Chapter 48
Path MTU Table .................................................................................................................................389
48.1 Path MTU Overview ....................................................................................................................389
48.2 Viewing the Path MTU Table .........................................................................................................389
Chapter 49
Configure Clone................................................................................................................................390
49.1 Configure Clone ...........................................................................................................................390
Chapter 50
Neighbor Table ..................................................................................................................................393
50.1 IPv6 Neighbor Table Overview .....................................................................................................393
50.2 Viewing the IPv6 Neighbor Table ..................................................................................................393
Chapter 51
Troubleshooting................................................................................................................................395
51.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ....................................................................................395
51.2 Switch Access and Login ..............................................................................................................396
51.3 Switch Configuration .....................................................................................................................398
Appendix A Customer Support ........................................................................................................399
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Table of Contents
Appendix B Common Services ........................................................................................................405
Appendix C IPv6 ..............................................................................................................................409
Appendix D Legal Information .........................................................................................................417
Index ..................................................................................................................................................422
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P ART I
User’s Guide
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C HAPT ER
1
Getting to Know Your Switch
This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the Switch.
1.1 Introduction
The Switch is a layer-2 standalone Ethernet switch. The Switch has two or four GbE dual personality
interfaces with each interface comprising one mini-GBIC slot and one 100/1000 Mbps RJ-45 port,
with either port or slot active at a time.
This User’s Guide covers the following models: MGS3520-28, MGS3520-28F and MGS3520-50.
Table 1 Switch Comparison Table
PORT/SWITCH DETAILS
MG3520-28
MGS3520-28F
MGS3520-50
24 10/100/1000Base-T Ethernet ports
44 10/100/1000Base-T Ethernet ports
2 100BASE-FX/1000BASE-X SFP Slots
24 100BASE-FX/1000BASE-X SFP Slots
4 Dual Personality Interfaces
With its built-in web configurator, managing and configuring the Switch is easy. In addition, the
Switch can also be managed via Telnet, any terminal emulator program on the console port, or
third-party SNMP management.
This section shows a few examples of using the Switch in various network environments.
1.1.1 Backbone Application
The Switch is an ideal solution for small networks where rapid growth can be expected in the near
future. The Switch can be used standalone for a group of heavy traffic users. You can connect
computers and servers directly to the Switch’s port or connect other switches to the Switch.
In this example, all computers can share high-speed applications on the server. To expand the
network, simply add more networking devices such as switches, routers, computers, print servers
etc.
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
Figure 1 Backbone Application
1.1.2 Bridging Example
In this example, the Switch connects different company departments (RD and Sales) to the
corporate backbone. It can alleviate bandwidth contention and eliminate server and network
bottlenecks. All users that need high bandwidth can connect to high-speed department servers via
the Switch. You can provide a super-fast uplink connection by using a Gigabit Ethernet/mini-GBIC
port on the Switch.
Moreover, the Switch eases supervision and maintenance by allowing network managers to
centralize multiple servers at a single location.
Figure 2 Bridging Application
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example
The Switch is ideal for connecting two networks that need high bandwidth. In the following
example, use trunking to connect these two networks.
Switching to higher-speed LANs such as ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode) is not feasible for
most people due to the expense of replacing all existing Ethernet cables and adapter cards,
restructuring your network and complex maintenance. The Switch can provide the same bandwidth
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
as ATM at much lower cost while still being able to use existing adapters and switches. Moreover,
the current LAN structure can be retained as all ports can freely communicate with each other.
Figure 3 High Performance Switched Workgroup Application
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple logical
networks. Stations on a logical network belong to one group. A station can belong to more than one
group. With VLAN, a station cannot directly talk to or hear from stations that are not in the same
group(s) unless such traffic first goes through a router.
For more information on VLANs, refer to Chapter 9 on page 100.
1.1.4.1 Tag-based VLAN Example
Ports in the same VLAN group share the same frame broadcast domain thus increase network
performance through reduced broadcast traffic. VLAN groups can be modified at any time by
adding, moving or changing ports without any re-cabling.
Shared resources such as a server can be used by all ports in the same VLAN as the server. In the
following figure only ports that need access to the server need to be part of VLAN 1. Ports can
belong to other VLAN groups too.
Figure 4 Shared Server Using VLAN Example
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
1.1.5 IPv6 Support
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), is designed to enhance IP address size and features. The
increase in IPv6 address size to 128 bits (from the 32-bit IPv4 address) allows up to 3.4 x 1038 IP
addresses. At the time of writing, the Switch supports the following features.
• Static address assignment and stateless auto-configuration
• Neighbor Discovery Protocol (a protocol used to discover other IPv6 devices in a network)
• Remote Management using ping SNMP, telnet, HTTP and FTP services
• ICMPv6 to report errors encountered in packet processing and perform diagnostic functions, such
as "ping”
• IPv4/IPv6 dual stack; the Switch can run IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time
• DHCPv6 client and relay
• Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) snooping and proxy
For more information on IPv6, refer to the CLI Reference Guide.
1.2 Ways to Manage the Switch
Use any of the following methods to manage the Switch.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the Switch using a
(supported) web browser. See Chapter 4 on page 34.
• Command Line Interface. Line commands offer an alternative to the web configurator and in
some cases are necessary to configure advanced features. See the CLI Reference Guide.
• FTP. Use FTP for firmware upgrades and configuration backup/restore. See Section 41.9 on page
345.
• SNMP. The Switch can be monitored by an SNMP manager. See Section 42.3 on page 348.
• Cluster Management. Cluster Management allows you to manage multiple switches through one
switch, called the cluster manager. See Chapter 45 on page 377.
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Switch
Do the following things regularly to make the Switch more secure and to manage the Switch more
effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of different
types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an earlier
working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even crashes. If you
forget your password, you will have to reset the Switch to its factory default settings. If you
backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the Switch. You
could simply restore your last configuration.
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2
Hardware Installation and Connection
This chapter shows you how to install and connect the Switch.
2.1 Installation Scenarios
The Switch can be placed on a desktop or rack-mounted on a standard EIA rack. Use the rubber
feet in a desktop installation and the brackets in a rack-mounted installation.
Note: For proper ventilation, allow at least 4 inches (10 cm) of clearance at the front and
3.4 inches (8 cm) at the back of the Switch. This is especially important for
enclosed rack installations.
2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure
1
Make sure the Switch is clean and dry.
2
Set the Switch on a smooth, level surface strong enough to support the weight of the Switch and
the connected cables. Make sure there is a power outlet nearby.
3
Make sure there is enough clearance around the Switch to allow air circulation and the attachment
of cables and the power cord.
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
The Switch can be mounted on an EIA standard size, 19-inch rack or in a wiring closet with other
equipment. Follow the steps below to mount your Switch on a standard EIA rack using a rackmounting kit.
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements
• Two mounting brackets.
• Eight M3 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
• Four M5 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
Failure to use the proper screws may damage the unit.
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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
2.3.1.1 Precautions
• Make sure the rack will safely support the combined weight of all the equipment it contains.
• Make sure the position of the Switch does not make the rack unstable or top-heavy. Take all
necessary precautions to anchor the rack securely before installing the unit.
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch
1
Position a mounting bracket on one side of the Switch, lining up the four screw holes on the bracket
with the screw holes on the side of the Switch.
Figure 5 Attaching the Mounting Brackets
2
Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M3 flat head screws through the mounting bracket holes
into the Switch.
3
Repeat steps 1 and 2 to install the second mounting bracket on the other side of the Switch.
4
You may now mount the Switch on a rack. Proceed to the next section.
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
1
Position a mounting bracket (that is already attached to the Switch) on one side of the rack, lining
up the two screw holes on the bracket with the screw holes on the side of the rack.
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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
Figure 6 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
2
Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M5 flat head screws through the mounting bracket holes
into the rack.
3
Repeat steps 1 and 2 to attach the second mounting bracket on the other side of the rack.
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3
Hardware Overview
This chapter describes the front panel and rear panel of the Switch and shows you how to make the
hardware connections.
3.1 Front Panel
The following figure shows the front panel of the Switch.
Figure 7 MGS3520-28 Front Panel: AC/DC Model
Power Switch
Dual Personality Interfaces
LEDs
Power Connection
Console Port
Signal slot
Gigabit Ethernet Ports
Figure 8 MGS3520-28F Front Panel: AC/DC Model
Power Switch
Dual Personality Interfaces
LEDs
Power Connection
SFP Slots
Console Port
Signal slot
Figure 9 MGS3520-50 Front Panel: AC/DC Model
Dual Personality Interfaces
Power Switch
LEDs
Gigabit Ethernet Ports
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SFP slot
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Figure 10 MGS3520-50 Rear Panel: AC/DC Model
DC Power Connection
Console Port
AC Power Connection
Signal slot
The following table describes the port labels on the front panel.
Table 2 Front Panel Connections
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Power Switch
This is for DC model only. After you connect the DC power properly (see Section 3.1.4.2 on
page 30.), put the power switch in the ON position to turn on the Switch.
Power
Connection
Connect an appropriate power supply to this port.
RJ-45 Ethernet
Ports
Connect these ports to a computer, a hub, an Ethernet switch or router.
SFP Slots
Use transceivers in these slots for fiber-optic or copper connections to a computer, a hub, a
switch or router.
Four or Two
Dual Personality
Interfaces
Each interface has one 1000BASE-T RJ-45 port and one transceiver slot, with one port or
transceiver active at a time.
•
Four 10/100/1000 Mbps RJ-45 Ports:
Connect these ports to high-bandwidth backbone network Ethernet switches using
1000BASE-T compatible Category 5/5e/6 copper cables.
•
Four Transceiver Slots:
Use mini-GBIC or SFP transceivers in these slots for connections to backbone Ethernet
switches.
Console Port
The console port is for local configuration of the Switch.
Signal slot
Connect the signal input pins to signal output terminals on other pieces of equipment.
Connect the signal output pins to a signal input terminal on another piece of equipment.
3.1.1 Console Port
For local management, you can use a computer with terminal emulation software configured to the
following parameters:
• VT100
• Terminal emulation
• 9600 bps
• No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
• No flow control
Connect the male 9-pin end of the console cable to the console port of the Switch. Connect the
female end to a serial port (COM1, COM2 or other COM port) of your computer.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
3.1.2 Ethernet Ports
The Switch has 24 or 44 10/100/1000 Mbps auto-negotiating, auto-crossover Ethernet ports. In
10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet, the speed can be 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps and the
duplex mode can be half duplex or full duplex.
An auto-negotiating port can detect and adjust to the optimum Ethernet speed (10/100/1000
Mbps) and duplex mode (full duplex or half duplex) of the connected device.
An auto-crossover (auto-MDI/MDI-X) port automatically works with a straight-through or crossover
Ethernet cable.
The Switch has two or four 1000Base-T Ethernet ports, which are paired with a mini-GBIC slot to
create a dual personality interface. The Switch uses up to one connection for each mini-GBIC and
1000Base-T Ethernet pair. The mini-GBIC slots have priority over the Gigabit ports. This means that
if a mini-GBIC slot and the corresponding GbE port are connected at the same time, the GbE port
will be disabled.
When auto-negotiation is turned on, an Ethernet port negotiates with the peer automatically to
determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer Ethernet port does not support autonegotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by detecting the
signal on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switch’s auto-negotiation is turned off,
an Ethernet port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when making a connection, thus
requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer Ethernet port are the same in order to
connect.
3.1.2.1 Default Ethernet Negotiation Settings
The factory default negotiation settings for the Gigabit ports on the Switch are:
• Speed: Auto
• Duplex: Auto
• Flow control: Off
• Link Aggregation: Disabled
3.1.2.2 Auto-crossover
All ports are auto-crossover, that is auto-MDIX ports (Media Dependent Interface Crossover), so
you may use either a straight-through Ethernet cable or crossover Ethernet cable for all Gigabit port
connections. Auto-crossover ports automatically sense whether they need to function as crossover
or straight ports, so crossover cables can connect both computers and switches/hubs.
3.1.3 Transceiver Slots
These are slots for mini-GBIC (Gigabit Interface Converter) transceivers or 100 Mbps Small Formfactor Pluggable (SFP) transceivers. A transceiver is a single unit that houses a transmitter and a
receiver. The Switch does not come with transceivers. You must use transceivers that comply with
the SFP Transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA). See the SFF committee’s INF-8074i
specification Rev 1.0 for details.
You can change transceivers while the Switch is operating. You can use different transceivers to
connect to Ethernet switches with different types of fiber-optic or even copper cable connectors.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
To avoid possible eye injury, do not look into an operating fiber-optic
module’s connectors.
• Type: SFP connection interface
• Connection speed: 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps) or 1 Megabit per second (Mbps)
3.1.3.1 Transceiver Installation
Use the following steps to install a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1
Insert the transceiver into the slot with the exposed section of PCB board facing down.
2
Press the transceiver firmly until it clicks into place.
3
The Switch automatically detects the installed transceiver. Check the LEDs to verify that it is
functioning properly.
4
Close the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
5
Connect the fiber optic cables to the transceiver.
Figure 11 Transceiver Installation Example
Figure 12 Connecting the Fiber Optic Cables
3.1.3.2 Transceiver Removal
Use the following steps to remove a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1
Remove the fiber optic cables from the transceiver.
2
Open the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
3
Pull the transceiver out of the slot.
Figure 13 Removing the Fiber Optic Cables
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Figure 14 Opening the Transceiver’s Latch Example
Figure 15 Transceiver Removal Example
3.1.4 Power Connector
Make sure you are using the correct power source as shown on the panel and that no objects
obstruct the airflow of the fans.
Use the following procedures to connect the Switch to a power source after you have installed it.
Note: Check the power supply requirements on the panel, and make sure you are using
an appropriate power source.
Keep the power supply switch and the Switch’s power switch in the OFF
position until you come to the procedure for turning on the power.
Use only power wires of the required diameter for connecting the Switch to a power supply.
3.1.4.1 AC Power Connection
Connect the female end of the power cord to the power socket of your Switch. Connect the other
end of the cord to a power outlet.
3.1.4.2 DC Power Connection
The Switch uses a single ETB series terminal block plug with four pins which allows you to connect
up to two separate power supplies. If one power supply fails the system can operate on the
remaining power supply. Use two wires to connect to a single terminal pair, one wire for the positive
terminal and one wire for the negative terminal.
Note: The current rating of the power wires must be greater than 20 Amps. The power
supply to which the Switch connects must have a built-in circuit breaker or switch
to toggle the power.
Note: When installing the power wire, push it wire firmly into the terminal as deep as
possible and make sure that no exposed (bare) wire can be seen or touched.
Exposed power wire is dangerous. Use extreme care when connecting a
DC power source to the device.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
To connect a power supply:
1
Use a screwdriver to loosen the terminal block captive screws.
2
Connect one end of a power wire to the Switch’s RTN (return) pin and tighten the captive screw.
3
Connect the other end of the power wire to the positive terminal on the power supply.
4
Connect one end of a power wire to the Switch’s -48V (input) pin and tighten the captive screw.
5
Connect the other end of the power wire to the negative terminal on the power supply.
6
Insert the terminal block plug in the Switch’s terminal block header.
3.1.5 Signal Slot
The Signal slot (fitted with the signal connector) allows you to connect devices to the Switch, such
as sensors or other ZyXEL switches which support the external alarm feature. This feature is in
addition to the system alarm, which detects abnormal temperatures, and voltage levels on the
Switch.
Your Switch can respond to an external signal in four ways.
• The ALM LED shows an alert.
• The Signal slot can send an external alarm on to another device. By daisy-chaining the signal
sensor cables from one Switch to another ZyXEL switch which supports this feature, the external
alarm alert (but not the system alarm) is received on each Switch.
• The Switch can be configured to send an SNMP trap to the SNMP server. See Section 42.3 on
page 348 for more information on using SNMP.
• The Switch can be configured to create an error log of the alarm. See Section 44.1 on page 374
for more information on using the system log.
3.1.5.1 Connect a Sensor to the Signal Slot
This section shows you how to connect an external sensor device to the Switch.
1
Use a connector to connect wires of the correct gauge (18 AWG or larger) to the sensor’s signal
output pins. Check the sensor’s documentation to identify its two signal output pins.
2
Connect these two wires to any one of the following pairs of signal input pins on the Switch’s Signal
connector--(4,5) (6,7) (8,9) (10,11). The pin numbers run from the right side of the connector to
the left.
2a
2b
2c
3
Connect each of the sensor’s two signal output wires to the Signal connector by depressing
the spring clip corresponding to the pin you are connecting to.
Insert the wire and release the spring clip.
Repeat the process for the sensor’s other signal output wire. A total of four sensors may be
connected to the Signal connector in this way using the remaining signal input pins.
Insert the alarm connector into the Signal slot.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Figure 16 Connecting a Sensor to the Signal Slot
Door Open
Sensor
Spring
Clip
Signal
Connector
11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
1
Signal
Output
Pins
Signal Input Pins
(Dry contact,
normal open only)
4
2
To connect an output devicel, repeat the previous steps but this time connect to either pins (1,2) or
(2,3) on the Signal connector.
You can also daisy-chain the external alarm to another ZyXEL Switch which supports the external
alarm feature. If daisy-chaining to a ZyXEL switch that is a different model, check your switch’s
documentation for the correct pin assignments.
1
Use wires of the correct gauge to connect either of the signal output pin pairs (1-normal close, 2common) or (2-common, 3-normal open) on the Signal connector to the input signal pin pairs of
an Signal connector on another ZyXEL Switch.
2
When daisy-chaining further Switches ensure that the signal output pins you use are the same as
those you used when connecting to the first switch, as shown in the diagram below.
Figure 17 Daisy-chaining an External Alarm Sensor to Other Switches of the Same Model
11 10
.........
3
2 1
11 10
.........
3
2 1
11 10
.........
3
2 1
Pin Assignments
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
3.2 LEDs
After you connect the power to the Switch, view the LEDs to ensure proper functioning of the
Switch and as an aid in troubleshooting.
Table 3 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
PWR
Green
On
The system is turned on.
Off
The system is off.
SYS
Green
On
The system is on and functioning properly.
Blinking
The system is rebooting and performing self-diagnostic tests.
Off
The power is off or the system is not ready/malfunctioning.
ALM
Red
On
A hardware failure is detected, or an external alarm is active.
Off
The system is functioning normally.
10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet Ports (MGS3520-28 & MGS3520-50)
1 ~ 24
Green
1 ~ 44
Amber
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 10 Mbps or 1000 Mbps
Ethernet network.
on
The link to a 10 Mbps or 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 100 Mbps Ethernet
network.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to an Ethernet network is down.
100/1000 Mbps SFP Slots (MGS3520-28F)
1 ~ 24
Green
Amber
On
The port has a successful 1000 Mbps connection.
Blinking
The port is receiving or transmitting data at 1000 Mbps.
On
The port has a successfule 100 Mbps connection.
Blinking
This port is receiving or transmitting data at 100 Mbps.
Off
This link is disconnected.
1000Base-T Ethernet Ports (in Dual Personality Interface)
LNK/ACT
Green
Amber
FDX
Amber
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 10 Mbps or a 1000 Mbps
Ethernet network.
On
The link to a 10 Mbps or a 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 100 Mbps Ethernet
network.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to an Ethernet network is down.
On
The Gigabit port is negotiating in full-duplex mode.
Off
The Gigabit port is negotiating in half-duplex mode.
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4
The Web Configurator
This section introduces the configuration and functions of the web configurator.
4.1 Introduction
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy Switch setup and
management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and later or Firefox 2.0 and later
versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by default in
Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScript (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
4.2 System Login
1
Start your web browser.
2
Type “http://” and the IP address of the Switch (for example, the default management IP address is
192.168.1.1) in the Location or Address field. Press [ENTER].
3
The login screen appears. The default username is admin and associated default password is
1234. The date and time display as shown if you have not configured a time server nor manually
entered a time and date in the General Setup screen.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Figure 18 Web Configurator: Login
4
Click OK to view the first web configurator screen.
4.3 The Web Configurator Layout
The Status screen is the first screen that displays when you access the web configurator. This guide
uses the MGS3520-28 screens as an example. The screens may vary slightly for different models.
The following figure shows the navigating components of a web configurator screen.
Figure 19 The Web Configurator Layout
B C DE
A
A - Click the menu items to open submenu links, and then click on a submenu link to open the
screen in the main window.
B, C, D, E - These are quick links which allow you to perform certain tasks no matter which screen
you are currently working in.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
B - Click this link to save your configuration into the Switch’s nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile
memory is saved in the configuration file from which the Switch booted from and it stays the same
even if the Switch’s power is turned off. See Section 41.3 on page 340 for information on saving
your settings to a specific configuration file.
C - Click this link to go to the status page of the Switch.
D - Click this link to log out of the web configurator.
E - Click this link to display web help pages. The help pages provide descriptions for all of the
configuration screens.
In the navigation panel, click a main link to reveal a list of submenu links.
Table 4 Navigation Panel Sub-links Overview
BASIC SETTING
ADVANCED
APPLICATION
IP APPLICATION
MANAGEMENT
The following table describes the links in the navigation panel.
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links
LINK
DESCRIPTION
Basic Settings
System Info
This link takes you to a screen that displays general system and hardware monitoring
information.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
General Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure general identification information
and time settings for the Switch.
Switch Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can set up global Switch parameters such as
VLAN type, MAC address learning, GARP and priority queues.
IP Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the management IP address,
subnet mask (necessary for Switch management) and DNS (domain name server).
Port Setup
This link takes you to screens where you can configure speed, flow control and priority
settings for individual Switch ports.
Interface Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure settings for individual interface
type and ID.
IPv6
This link takes you to a screen where you can view IPv6 status and configure IPv6
settings.
Advanced Application
VLAN
This link takes you to screens where you can configure port-based or 802.1Q VLAN
(depending on what you configured in the Switch Setup menu). You can also configure a
protocol based VLAN or a subnet based VLAN in these screens.
Static MAC
Forwarding
This link takes you to screens where you can configure static MAC addresses for a port.
These static MAC addresses do not age out.
Static Multicast
Forwarding
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static multicast MAC addresses
for port(s). These static multicast MAC addresses do not age out.
Filtering
This link takes you to a screen to set up filtering rules.
Spanning Tree
Protocol
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the RSTP/MRSTP/MSTP to prevent
network loops.
Bandwidth Control
This link takes you to screens where you can cap the maximum bandwidth allowed on a
port.
Broadcast Storm
Control
This link takes you to a screen to set up broadcast filters.
Mirroring
This link takes you to screens where you can copy traffic from one port or ports to
another port in order that you can examine the traffic from the first port without
interference.
Link Aggregation
This link takes you to screen where you can logically aggregate physical links to form one
logical, higher-bandwidth link.
Port
Authentication
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure IEEE 802.1x port authentication
as well as MAC authentication for clients communicating via the Switch.
Port Security
This link takes you to a screen where you can activate MAC address learning and set the
maximum number of MAC addresses to learn on a port.
Range Profile
This link takes you to screens where you can configure profiles for a range of VLANs, IP
addresses, ports and socket ports.
Classifier
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to group packets
based on the specified criteria.
Policy Rule
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to perform special
treatment on the grouped packets.
Queuing Method
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure queuing with associated queue
weights for each port.
VLAN Stacking
This link takes you to screens where you can activate and configure VLAN stacking.
Multicast
This link takes you to screen where you can configure various multicast features, IGMP
snooping and create multicast VLANs.
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Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
AAA
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure authentication, authorization and
accounting services via external servers. The external servers can be either RADIUS
(Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) or TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller
Access-Control System Plus).
IP Source Guard
This link takes you to screens where you can configure filtering of unauthorized DHCP and
ARP packets in your network.
Loop Guard
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure protection against network loops
that occur on the edge of your network.
VLAN Mapping
This link takes you to screens where you can configure VLAN mapping settings on the
Switch.
Layer 2 Protocol
Tunneling
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure L2PT (Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling)
settings on the Switch.
sFlow
This link takes you to screens where you can configure sFlow settings on the Switch.
PPPoE
This link takes you to screens where you can configure how the Switch gives a PPPoE
termination server additional subscriber information that the server can use to identify
and authenticate a PPPoE client.
Errdisable
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure CPU protection and error disable
recovery.
Private VLAN
This link takes you to a screen where you can block traffic between ports in a VLAN on the
Switch.
Green Ethernet
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure green Ethernet settings in EEE,
auto power down, and short reach for each port.
LLDP
This link takes you to screens where you can configure LLDP settings.
IP Application
Static Routing
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static routes. A static route
defines how the Switch should forward traffic by configuring the TCP/IP parameters
manually.
DiffServ
This link takes you to screens where you can enable DiffServ, and set DSCP-toIEEE802.1p mappings.
DHCP
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the DHCP settings.
ARP Setup
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the ARP learning settings for each
port.
Management
Maintenance
This link takes you to screens where you can perform firmware and configuration file
maintenance as well as reboot the system.
Access Control
This link takes you to screens where you can change the system login password and
configure SNMP and remote management.
Diagnostic
This link takes you to screens where you can view system logs and can test port(s).
Syslog
This link takes you to screens where you can setup system logs and a system log server.
Cluster
Management
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure clustering management and view
its status.
MAC Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC address and VLAN ID of a
device attached to a port. You can also view what kind of MAC address it is.
ARP Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC address – IP address
resolution table.
Path MTU Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the path MTU aging time, index,
destination address, MTU, and expire settings.
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Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
Configure Clone
This link takes you to a screen where you can copy attributes of one port to (an)other
port(s).
Neighbor Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the IPv6 neighbor table which includes
index, interface, neighbor address, MAC address, status and type.
4.3.1 Change Your Password
After you log in for the first time, it is recommended you change the default administrator
password. Click Management > Access Control > Logins to display the next screen.
Figure 20 Change Administrator Login Password
4.4 Saving Your Configuration
When you are done modifying the settings in a screen, click Apply to save your changes back to
the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the Switch’s power is turned
off.
Click the Save link in the upper right hand corner of the web configurator to save your
configuration to nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile memory refers to the Switch’s storage that
remains even if the Switch’s power is turned off.
Note: Use the Save link when you are done with a configuration session.
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4.5 Switch Lockout
You could block yourself (and all others) from using in-band-management (managing through the
data ports) if you do one of the following:
1
Delete the management VLAN (default is VLAN 1).
2
Delete all port-based VLANs with the CPU port as a member. The “CPU port” is the management
port of the Switch.
3
Filter all traffic to the CPU port.
4
Disable all ports.
5
Misconfigure the text configuration file.
6
Forget the password and/or IP address.
7
Prevent all services from accessing the Switch.
8
Change a service port number but forget it.
Note: Be careful not to lock yourself and others out of the Switch. If you do lock yourself
out, try using out-of-band management (via the management port) to configure
the Switch.
4.6 Resetting the Switch
If you lock yourself (and others) from the Switch or forget the administrator password, you will
need to reload the factory-default configuration file or reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File
Uploading the factory-default configuration file replaces the current configuration file with the
factory-default configuration file. This means that you will lose all previous configurations and the
speed of the console port will be reset to the default of 9600bps with 8 data bit, no parity, one stop
bit and flow control set to none. The password will also be reset to “1234” and the IP address to
192.168.1.1.
To upload the configuration file, do the following:
1
Connect to the console port using a computer with terminal emulation software. See Section 3.1 on
page 26 for details.
2
Disconnect and reconnect the Switch’s power to begin a session. When you reconnect the Switch’s
power, you will see the initial screen.
3
When you see the message “Press any key to enter Debug Mode within 3 seconds ...” press
any key to enter debug mode.
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4
Type atlc after the “Enter Debug Mode” message.
5
Wait for the “Starting XMODEM upload” message before activating XMODEM upload on your
terminal.
6
After a configuration file upload, type atgo to restart the Switch.
Figure 21 Resetting the Switch: Via the Console Port
Bootbase Version: V1.00 | 11/02/2011 11:09:37
RAM: Size = 65536 Kbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 65536K
OK
DRAM Test SUCCESS !
ZyNOS Version: V4.10(AATN.1)b11 | 07/21/2015 19:26:52
Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.
............................................................
Enter Debug Mode
ras> atlc
Starting XMODEM upload (CRC mode)....
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
Total 393216 bytes received.
Erasing..
................................................................
OK
ras> atgo
The Switch is now reinitialized with a default configuration file including the default password of
“1234”.
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator
Click Logout in a screen to exit the web configurator. You have to log in with your password again
after you log out. This is recommended after you finish a management session for security reasons.
Figure 22 Web Configurator: Logout Screen
4.8 Help
The web configurator’s online help has descriptions of individual screens and some supplementary
information. Click the Help link from a web configurator screen to view an online help description of
that screen.
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5
Initial Setup Example
This chapter shows how to set up the Switch for an example network.
5.1 Overview
The following lists the configuration steps for the initial setup:
• Create a VLAN
• Set port VLAN ID
• Configure the Switch IP management address.
5.1.1 Creating a VLAN
VLANs confine broadcast frames to the VLAN group in which the port(s) belongs. You can do this
with port-based VLAN or tagged static VLAN with fixed port members.
In this example, you want to configure port 1 as a member of VLAN 2.
Figure 23 Initial Setup Network Example: VLAN
1
Click Advanced Application > VLAN in the navigation panel and click the Static VLAN link.
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2
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE,
enter a descriptive name in the Name field
and enter 2 in the VLAN Group ID field for
the VLAN2 network.
Note: The VLAN Group ID field in this screen and the VID field in the IP Setup screen
refer to the same VLAN ID.
3
Since the VLAN2 network is connected to port 1 on the Switch, select Fixed to configure port 1 to
be a permanent member of the VLAN only.
4
To ensure that VLAN-unaware devices (such as computers and hubs) can receive frames properly,
clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending.
5
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
5.1.2 Setting Port VID
Use PVID to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that port so that the frames are
forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
In the example network, configure 2 as the port VID on port 1 so that any untagged frames
received on that port get sent to VLAN 2.
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Figure 24 Initial Setup Network Example: Port VID
1
Click Advanced Applications >
VLAN in the navigation panel. Then
click the VLAN Port Setting link.
2
Enter 2 in the PVID field for port 1
and click Apply to save your
changes back to the run-time
memory. Settings in the run-time
memory are lost when the Switch’s
power is turned off.
5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address
The default management IP address of the Switch is 192.168.1.1. You can configure another IP
address in a different subnet for management purposes. The following figure shows an example.
Figure 25 Initial Setup Example: Management IP Address
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1
Connect your computer to the Switch’s port which is not in VLAN 2.
2
Open your web browser and enter 192.168.1.1 (the default management IP address) in the address
bar to access the web configurator. See Section 4.2 on page 34 for more information.
3
Click Basic Setting > IP Setup in the
navigation panel.
4
Configure the related fields in the IP
Setup screen.
5
For the VLAN2 network, enter
192.168.2.1 as the IP address and
255.255.255.0 as the subnet mask.
6
In the VID field, enter the ID of the VLAN
group to which you want this
management IP address to belong. This is
the same as the VLAN ID you configure in
the Static VLAN screen.
7
Click Add to save your changes back to
the run-time memory. Settings in the
run-time memory are lost when the
Switch’s power is turned off.
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6
Tutorials
This chapter provides some examples of using the web configurator to set up and use the Switch.
The tutorials include:
• How to Use DHCP Snooping on the Switch
• How to Use DHCP Relay on the Switch
• How to Use PPPoE IA on the Switch
• How to Use Error Disable and Recovery on the Switch
• How to Set Up a Guest VLAN
• How to Do Port Isolation in a VLAN
6.1 How to Use DHCP Snooping on the Switch
You only want DHCP server A connected to port 5 to assign IP addresses to all devices in VLAN 100.
Create a VLAN containing ports 5, 6 and 7. Connect a computer (M) to the Switch’s port which is
not in VLAN 100.
M
VLAN 100
C
B
A
Note: For related information about DHCP snooping, see Section 27.1 on page 236.
The settings in this tutorial are as the following.
Table 6 Settings in this Tutorial
1
HOST
PORT
CONNECTED
VLAN
PVID
DHCP SNOOPING PORT
TRUSTED
DHCP Server (A)
5
1 and 100
100
Yes
DHCP Client (B)
6
1 and 100
100
No
DHCP Client (C)
7
1 and 100
100
No
Access the Switch through http://192.168.1.1. Log into the Switch by entering the username
(default: admin) and password (default: 1234).
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2
Go to Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN, and create a VLAN with ID of 100. Add
ports 5, 6 and 7 in the VLAN by selecting Fixed in the Control field as shown.
Deselect Tx Tagging because you don’t want outgoing traffic to contain this VLAN tag.
Click Add.
3
Go to Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting, and set the PVID of the ports 5, 6
and 7 to 100. This tags untagged incoming frames on ports 5, 6 and 7 with the tag 100.
4
Go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP snooping > Configure, activate and
specify VLAN 100 as the DHCP VLAN as shown. Click Apply.
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5
Click the Port link at the top right corner.
6
The DHCP Snooping Port Configure screen appears.
Select Trusted in the Server Trusted state field for port 5 because the DHCP server is connected
to port 5. Keep ports 6 and 7 Untrusted because they are connected to DHCP clients. Click Apply.
7
Go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP snooping > Configure > VLAN,
show VLAN 100 by entering 100 in the Start VID and End VID fields and click Apply. Then select
Yes in the Enabled field of the VLAN 100 entry shown at the bottom section of the screen.
If you want to add more information in the DHCP request packets such as source VLAN ID or
system name, you can also select the Option82 and Information fields in the entry. See Section
27.1.1.3 on page 238.
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8
Click Save at the top right corner of the web configurator to save
the configuration permanently.
9
Connect your DHCP server to port 5 and a computer (as DHCP client) to either port 6 or 7. The
computer should be able to get an IP address from the DHCP server. If you put the DHCP server on
port 6 or 7, the computer will not able to get an IP address.
10 To check if DHCP snooping works, go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard, you should
see an IP assignment with the type dhcp-snooping as shown.
You can also telnet or log into the Switch’s console. Use the command “show dhcp snooping
binding” to see the DHCP snooping binding table as shown next.
sysname# show dhcp snooping binding
MacAddress
IpAddress
----------------- --------------00:02:00:00:00:1c
10.10.1.16
Total number of bindings: 1
Lease
-----------6d23h59m20s
Type
------------dhcp-snooping
VLAN
---100
Port
----7
6.2 How to Use DHCP Relay on the Switch
This tutorial describes how to configure your Switch to forward DHCP client requests to a specific
DHCP server. The DHCP server can then assign a specific IP address based on the information in the
DHCP requests.
6.2.1 DHCP Relay Tutorial Introduction
In this example, you have configured your DHCP server (192.168.2.3) and want to have it assign a
specific IP address (say 172.16.1.18) and gateway information to DHCP client A based on the
system name, VLAN ID and port number in the DHCP request. Client A connects to the Switch’s
port 2 in VLAN 102.
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DHCP Server
192.168.2.3
Port 2
PVID=102
A
VLAN 102
172.16.1.18
6.2.2 Creating a VLAN
Follow the steps below to configure port 2 as a member of VLAN 102.
1
Access the web configurator through the Switch’s port which is not in VLAN 102.
2
Go to Basic Setting > Switch Setup and set the VLAN type to 802.1Q. Click Apply to save the
settings to the run-time memory.
3
Click Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN.
4
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a descriptive name (VALN 102 for example) in
the Name field and enter 102 in the VLAN Group ID field.
5
Select Fixed to configure port 2 to be a permanent member of this VLAN.
6
Clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending.
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7
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
8
Click the VLAN Status link in the Static VLAN screen and then the VLAN Port Setting link in the
VLAN Status screen.
9
Enter 102 in the PVID field for port 2 to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that
port so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
10 Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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11 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
6.2.3 Configuring DHCPv4 Relay
Follow the steps below to enable DHCPv4 relay on the Switch and allow the Switch to add relay
agent information (such as the VLAN ID) to DHCP requests.
1
Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 and then the Global link to open the DHCP Relay
screen.
2
Select the Active check box.
3
Enter the DHCP server’s IP address (192.168.2.3 in this example) in the Remote DHCP Server 1
field.
4
Select a pre-defined Option 82 Profile that includes the system name, VLAN ID and port number
in the client DHCP requests (default2 in this example).
5
Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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6
Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
7
The DHCP server can then assign a specific IP address based on the DHCP request.
6.2.4 Troubleshooting
Check the client A’s IP address. If it did not receive the IP address 172.16.1.18, make sure:
1
Client A is connected to the Switch’s port 2 in VLAN 102.
2
You configured the correct VLAN ID, port number and system name for DHCP relay on both the
DHCP server and the Switch.
3
You clicked the Save link on the Switch to have your settings take effect.
6.3 How to Use PPPoE IA on the Switch
You want to configure PPPoE Intermediate Agent on the Switch (A) to pass a subscriber’s
information to a PPPoE server (S). There is another switch (B) between switch A and server S.
Switch B is connected to switch A. In this way, PPPoE server S can identify subscriber C and may
apply different settings to it.
B
S
Port 12 - Trusted
A
Port 11 - Trusted
C
Port 5 - Untrusted
Port 12 - Trusted
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Note: For related information about PPPoE IA, see Section 32.3 on page 273.
The settings in this tutorial are as follows:
Table 7 Settings in this Tutorial
SWITCH PORT CONNECTED
VLAN
CIRCUIT-ID
REMOTE-ID
PPPOE IA PORT TRUSTED
A
Port 5 (to C)
1
userC
00134900000A
Untrusted
Port 12 (to B)
1
N/A
N/A
Trusted
Port 11 (to A)
1
N/A
N/A
Trusted
Port 12 (to S)
1
N/A
N/A
Trusted
B
6.3.1 Configuring Switch A
1
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent. Select Active then click Apply.
Click Port on the top of the screen.
2
Select Untrusted for port 5 and enter userC as Circuit-id and 00134900000A as Remote-id.
Select Trusted for port 12 and then leave the other fields empty. Click Apply.
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Then Click Intermediate Agent on the top of the screen.
3
The Intermediate Agent screen appears. Click VLAN on the top of the screen.
4
Enter 1 for both Start VID and End VID since both the Switch and PPPoE server are in VLAN 1 in
this example. Click Apply.
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5
Then select Yes to enable PPPoE IA in VLAN 1 and also select Circuit-id and Remote-id to allow
the Switch to add these two strings to frames tagged with VLAN 1 and pass to the PPPoE server.
Click Apply.
6.3.2 Configuring Switch B
The example uses another MGS3520-28/28F as switch B.
1
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent. Select Active then click Apply.
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Click Port on the top of the screen.
2
Select Trusted for ports 11 and 12 and then click Apply.
Then Click Intermediate Agent on the top of the screen.
3
The Intermediate Agent screen appears. Click VLAN on the top of the screen.
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4
Enter 1 for both Start VID and End VID. Click Apply.
5
Then select Yes to enable PPPoE IA in VLAN 1 and also select Circuit-id and Remote-id to allow
the Switch to add these two strings to frames tagged with VLAN 1 and pass to the PPPoE server.
Click Apply.
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The settings are completed now. If you miss some settings above, subscriber C could not
successfully receive an IP address assigned by the PPPoE Server. If this happens, make sure you
follow the steps exactly in this tutorial.
6.4 How to Use Error Disable and Recovery on the Switch
This tutorial shows you how to shut down a port when:
• there is a loop occurred
or
• too many ARP requests (over 100 packets per second) received on a port
You also want the Switch to wait for a period of time (10 minutes) before resuming the port
automatically, after the problem(s) are gone. Loop guard and Errdiable features are helpful for this
demand.
Note: Refer to Section 28.2 on page 259 and Section 33.3 on page 279 for more
information about Loop Guard and Errdiable.
To configure the settings:
1
First, click Advanced Application > Loop Guard. Select the Active option in the first section to
enable loop guard on the Switch. Then select the Active option of the first entry (port *) to enable
loop guard for all ports. Click Apply.
2
Click Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU Protection, select ARP as the reason, enter
100 as the rate limit (packets per second) for the first entry (port *) to apply the setting to all
ports. Then click Apply.
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3
Click Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect, select Active for cause ARP
and inactive-port as the mode. Then click Apply.
4
Click Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Recovery, select Active and Timer
Status for loopguard and ARP entries. Also enter 180 (180 seconds = 3 minutes) in the Interval
field for both entries. Then click Apply.
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6.5 How to Set Up a Guest VLAN
All ports on the Switch are in VLAN 1 by default. Say you enable IEEE 802.1x authentication on
ports 1 to 8. Clients that connect to these ports should provide the correct user name and password
in order to access the ports. You want to assign clients that connect to ports 1, 2 or 3 to a guest
VLAN (200 for example) before they can authenticate with the authentication server. In this guest
VLAN, clients can surf the Internet through the default gateway attached to port 10, but are not
allowed to access other network resources, such as the mail server or local data base.
VLAN 1
Guest VLAN 200
Ports 1, 2, 3 and 10
Internet
6.5.1 Creating a Guest VLAN
Follow the steps below to configure port 1, 2, 3 and 10 as a member of VLAN 200.
1
Access the web configurator through the Switch’s port which is not in VLAN 200.
2
Go to Basic Setting > Switch Setup and set the VLAN type to 802.1Q. Click Apply to save the
settings to the run-time memory.
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3
Click Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN.
4
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a descriptive name (VLAN 200 for example) in
the Name field and enter 200 in the VLAN Group ID field.
5
Select Fixed to configure ports 1, 2, 3 and 10 to be permanent members of this VLAN.
6
Clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending frames out
of these ports.
7
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
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8
Click the VLAN Status link in the Static VLAN screen and then the VLAN Port Setting link in the
VLAN Status screen.
9
Enter 200 in the PVID field for ports 1, 2, 3 and 10 to add a tag to incoming untagged frames
received on these ports so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
10 Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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11 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
6.5.2 Enabling IEEE 802.1x Port Authentication
Follow the steps below to enable port authentication to validate access to ports 1~8 to clients based
on a RADIUS server.
1
Click Advanced Application > Port Authentication and then the Click Here link for 802.1x.
2
Select the first Active checkbox to enable 802.1x authentication on the Switch.
Select the Active checkboxes for ports 1 to 8 to turn on 802.1x authentication on the selected
ports.
Click Apply.
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6.5.3 Enabling Guest VLAN
1
Click the Guest Vlan link in the 802.1x screen.
2
Select Active and enter the guest VLAN ID (200 in this example) on ports 1, 2 and 3. The Switch
puts unauthenticated clients in the specified guest VLAN.
Set Host-mode to Multi-Secure to have the Switch authenticate each client that connects to one
of these ports, and specify the maximum number of clients that the Switch will authenticate on
each of these port (5 in this example).
Click Apply.
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3
Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
Clients that attach to port 1, 2 or 3 and fail to authenticate with the RADIUS server now should be
in VLAN 200 and can access the Internet, but cannot communicate with devices in VLAN 1.
6.6 How to Do Port Isolation in a VLAN
You want to prevent communications between ports in a VLAN but still allow them to access the
Internet or network resources through the uplink port in the same VLAN. You use private VLAN to
do port isolation in a VLAN instead of assigning each port to a separate VLAN and creating a
different IP routing domain for each individual port.
Internet
In this example, you put ports 2 to 4 and 25 in VLAN 123 and create a private VLAN rule for VLAN
123 to block traffic between ports 2, 3 and 4.
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6.6.1 Creating a VLAN
Follow the steps below to configure port 2, 3, 4 and 25 as a member of VLAN 123.
1
Access the web configurator through the Switch’s port which is not in VLAN 123.
2
Go to Basic Setting > Switch Setup and set the VLAN type to 802.1Q. Click Apply to save the
settings to the run-time memory.
3
Click Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN.
4
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a descriptive name (VLAN 123 for example) in
the Name field and enter 123 in the VLAN Group ID field.
5
Select Fixed to configure ports 2, 3, 4 and 25 to be permanent members of this VLAN.
6
Clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending frames out
of these ports.
7
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
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8
Click the VLAN Status link in the Static VLAN screen and then the VLAN Port Setting link in the
VLAN Status screen.
9
Enter 123 in the PVID field for ports 2, 3, 4 and 25 to add a tag to incoming untagged frames
received on these ports so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
10 Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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11 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
6.6.2 Creating a Private VLAN Rule
Follow the steps below to configure private VLAN for VLAN 123.
1
Click Advanced Application > Private VLAN.
2
In the Private VLAN screen, select Active.
Enter a descriptive name (PrivateVLAN123 for example) in the Name field and enter 123 in the
VLAN ID field.
Click Add.
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3
Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
Ports 2, 3 and 4 in this VLAN will be added to the isolated port list automatically and cannot send
traffic to each other.
From port 2, 3, or 4, you should be able to access the device that attachs to port 25, such as a
server or default gateway.
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Technical Reference
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7
System Status and Port Statistics
This chapter describes the system status (web configurator home page) and port details screens.
7.1 Overview
The home screen of the web configurator displays a port statistical summary with links to each port
showing statistical details.
7.2 Port Status Summary
To view the port statistics, click Status in all web configurator screens to display the Status screen
as shown next.
Figure 26 Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This identifies the Ethernet port. Click a port number to display the Port Details screen
(refer to Figure 27 on page 74).
Name
This is the name you assigned to this port in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen.
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Table 8 Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M for
1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half). It also shows the cable type
(Copper or Fiber) for the combo ports.
This field displays Down if the port is not connected to any device.
State
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port (see
Section 13.1 on page 127 for more information).
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it displays
STOP.
LACP
This fields displays whether LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) has been enabled on
the port.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port.
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port.
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time
This field shows the total amount of time in hours, minutes and seconds the port has been
up.
Clear Counter
Enter a port number and then click Clear Counter to erase the recorded statistical
information for that port, or select Any to clear statistics for all ports.
7.2.1 Status: Port Details
Click a number in the Port column in the Status screen to display individual port statistics. Use this
screen to check status and detailed performance data about an individual port on the Switch.
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Figure 27 Status > Port Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9 Status: Port Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Info
Port NO.
This field displays the port number you are viewing.
Name
This field displays the name of the port.
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M for
1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half duplex). It also shows the cable
type (Copper or Fiber).
This field displays Down if the port is not connected to any device.
Status
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port (see
Section 13.1 on page 127 for more information).
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it displays
STOP.
LACP
This field shows if LACP is enabled on this port or not.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port
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Table 9 Status: Port Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time
This field shows the total amount of time the connection has been up.
Tx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets transmitted.
Unicast
This field shows the number of good unicast packets transmitted.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets transmitted.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets transmitted.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets transmitted.
Rx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets received.
Unicast
This field shows the number of good unicast packets received.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets received.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets received.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets received.
TX Collision
The following fields display information on collisions while transmitting.
Single
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission is inhibited by
exactly one collision.
Multiple
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission was inhibited by
more than one collision.
Excessive
This is a count of packets for which transmission failed due to excessive collisions. Excessive
collision is defined as the number of maximum collisions before the retransmission count is
reset.
Late
This is the number of times a late collision is detected, that is, after 512 bits of the packets
have already been transmitted.
Error Packet
RX CRC
The following fields display detailed information about packets received that were in error.
This field shows the number of packets received with CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check) error(s).
Length
This field shows the number of packets received with a length that was out of range.
Runt
This field shows the number of packets received that were too short (shorter than 64 octets),
including the ones with CRC errors.
Distribution
64
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64 octets
in length.
65-127
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
65 and 127 octets in length.
128-255
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
128 and 255 octets in length.
256-511
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
256 and 511 octets in length.
512-1023
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
512 and 1023 octets in length.
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Table 9 Status: Port Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
1024-1518
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
1024 and 1518 octets in length.
Giant
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
1519 octets and the maximum frame size.
The maximum frame size varies depending on your switch model.
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8
Basic Setting
This chapter describes how to configure the Basic Setting screens.
8.1 System Information
In the navigation panel, click Basic Setting > System Info to display the screen as shown. You
can check the firmware version number and monitor the Switch temperature, fan speeds and
voltage in this screen.
Figure 28 Basic Setting > System Info
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 Basic Setting > System Info
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the Switch for identification purposes.
Product Model
This field displays the model number of the Switch.
ZyNOS F/W
Version
This field displays the version number of the Switch 's current firmware including the date
created.
Ethernet
Address
This field refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) address of the Switch.
CPU Utilization
CPU utilization quantifies how busy the system is. Current (%) displays the current
percentage of CPU utilization.
Memory
Utilization
Memory utilization shows how much DRAM memory is available and in use. It also displays
the current percentage of memory utilization.
Name
This field displays the name of memory pool.
Total
This field displays the total number of bytes in this memory pool.
Used
This field displays the number of bytes being used in this memory pool.
Utilization
This field displays the percentage (%) of memory being used in this memory pool.
Hardware Monitor
Temperature
Unit
The Switch has temperature sensors that are capable of detecting and reporting if the
temperature rises above the threshold. You may choose the temperature unit (Centigrade or
Fahrenheit) in this field.
Temperature
BOARD, MAC and PHY refer to the location of the temperature sensors on the Switch
printed circuit board.
Current
This shows the current temperature at this sensor.
MAX
This field displays the maximum temperature measured at this sensor.
MIN
This field displays the minimum temperature measured at this sensor.
Threshold
This field displays the upper temperature limit at this sensor.
Status
This field displays Normal for temperatures below the threshold and Error for those above.
Fan Speed
(RPM)
A properly functioning fan is an essential component (along with a sufficiently ventilated,
cool operating environment) in order for the device to stay within the temperature threshold.
Each fan has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if the fan speed falls below
the threshold shown.
Current
This field displays this fan's current speed in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MAX
This field displays this fan's maximum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MIN
This field displays this fan's minimum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
"<41" is displayed for speeds too small to measure (under 2000 RPM).
Threshold
This field displays the minimum speed at which a normal fan should work.
Status
Normal indicates that this fan is functioning above the minimum speed. Error indicates that
this fan is functioning below the minimum speed.
Voltage(V)
The power supply for each voltage has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if
the voltage falls out of the tolerance range.
Current
This is the current voltage reading.
MAX
This field displays the maximum voltage measured at this point.
MIN
This field displays the minimum voltage measured at this point.
Threshold
This field displays the percentage tolerance of the voltage with which the Switch still works.
Status
Normal indicates that the voltage is within an acceptable operating range at this point;
otherwise Error is displayed.
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8.2 General Setup
Use this screen to configure general settings such as the system name and time. Click Basic
Setting > General Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 29 Basic Setting > General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 Basic Setting > General Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name consists of up to 64
printable characters; spaces are allowed.
Location
Enter the geographic location of your Switch. You can use up to 32 printable ASCII
characters; spaces are allowed.
Contact Person's
Name
Enter the name of the person in charge of this Switch. You can use up to 32 printable
ASCII characters; spaces are allowed.
Use Time Server
when Bootup
Enter the time service protocol that your timeserver uses. Not all time servers support all
protocols, so you may have to use trial and error to find a protocol that works. The main
differences between them are the time format.
When you select the Daytime (RFC 867) format, the Switch displays the day, month,
year and time with no time zone adjustment. When you use this format it is recommended
that you use a Daytime timeserver within your geographical time zone.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of seconds
since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
None is the default value. Enter the time manually. Each time you turn on the Switch, the
time and date will be reset to 1970-1-1 0:0.
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Table 11 Basic Setting > General Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time Server
Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your timeserver. You can enter up to three time
server addresses. The Switch tries to synchronize with the first server. If the
synchronization fails, then the Switch goes through the rest of the list in order.
The Switch attempts to connect to the timeserver for up to 60 seconds. If you specify a
timeserver that is unreachable, then this screen will appear locked for 60 seconds. Please
wait.
Current Time
This field displays the time you open this menu (or refresh the menu).
New Time
(hh:min:ss)
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format. The new time then appears in the
Current Time field after you click Apply.
Current Date
This field displays the date you open this menu.
New Date (yyyymm-dd)
Enter the new date in year, month and day format. The new date then appears in the
Current Date field after you click Apply.
Time Zone
Select the time difference between UTC (Universal Time Coordinated, formerly known as
GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and your time zone from the drop-down list box.
Daylight Saving
Time
Daylight saving is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries set their
clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.
Select this option if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected Daylight
Saving Time. The time is displayed in the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second Sunday of
March. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M.
local time. So in the United States you would select Second, Sunday, March and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March. All of the
time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at the same moment
(1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, March
and the last field depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select
2:00 because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected Daylight
Saving Time. The time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of November. Each
time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in
the United States you would select First, Sunday, November and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of October. All of the
time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1
A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, October
and the last field depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select
2:00 because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.3 Introduction to VLANs
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple logical
networks. Devices on a logical network belong to one group. A device can belong to more than one
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group. With VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from devices that are not in the same
group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
In MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and security among the
subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents one subscriber from accessing the network
resources of another on the same LAN, thus a user will not see the printers and hard disks of
another user in the same building.
VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller and more
manageable logical broadcast domain. In traditional switched environments, all broadcast packets
go to each and every individual port. With VLAN, all broadcasts are confined to a specific broadcast
domain.
Note: VLAN is unidirectional; it only governs outgoing traffic.
See Chapter 9 on page 100 for information on port-based and 802.1Q tagged VLANs.
8.4 Switch Setup
Click Basic Setting > Switch Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. The
VLAN setup screens change depending on whether you choose 802.1Q or Port Based in the VLAN
Type field in this screen. Refer to the chapter on VLAN.
Figure 30 Basic Setting > Switch Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Basic Setting > Switch Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Choose 802.1Q or Port Based. The VLAN Setup screen changes depending on whether
you choose 802.1Q VLAN type or Port Based VLAN type in this screen. See Chapter 9 on
page 100 for more information.
MAC Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing traffic broadcasts. For MAC address learning to
occur on a port, the port must be active.
Aging Time
Enter a time from 10 to 3000 seconds. This is how long all dynamically learned MAC
addresses remain in the MAC address table before they age out (and must be relearned).
ARP Aging Time
Aging Time
Enter a time from 60 to 1000000 seconds. This is how long dynamically learned ARP
entries remain in the ARP table before they age out (and must be relearned). The setting
here applies to ARP entries which are newly added in the ARP table after you click Apply.
GARP Timer: Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join message
using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All message terminates all
registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values. See the chapter on VLAN setup for more
background information.
Join Timer
Join Timer sets the duration of the Join Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each port
has a Join Period timer. The allowed Join Time range is between 100 and 65535
milliseconds; the default is 200 milliseconds. See the chapter on VLAN setup for more
background information.
Leave Timer
Leave Time sets the duration of the Leave Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each
port has a single Leave Period timer. Leave Time must be two times larger than Join
Timer; the default is 600 milliseconds.
Leave All Timer
Leave All Timer sets the duration of the Leave All Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds.
Each port has a single Leave All Period timer. Leave All Timer must be larger than Leave
Timer.
Priority Queue Assignment
IEEE 802.1p defines up to eight separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame that contains
bits to define class of service. Frames without an explicit priority tag are given the default priority of the
ingress port. Use the next fields to configure the priority level-to-physical queue mapping.
The Switch has eight physical queues that you can map to the 8 priority levels. On the Switch, traffic assigned
to higher index queues gets through faster while traffic in lower index queues is dropped if the network is
congested.
Priority Level (The following descriptions are based on the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d standard
(which incorporates the 802.1p).
Level 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration messages.
Level 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the variations in
delay).
Level 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to jitter.
Level 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA (Systems Network
Architecture) transactions.
Level 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would include important
business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Level 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk transfers that are
allowed but that should not affect other applications and users.
Level 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
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Table 12 Basic Setting > Switch Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
8.5 IP Setup
Use the IP Setup screen to configure the Switch IP address, default gateway device, the default
domain name server and the management VLAN ID. The default gateway specifies the IP address of
the default gateway (next hop) for outgoing traffic.
8.5.1 Management IP Addresses
The Switch needs an IP address for it to be managed over the network. The factory default in-band
IP address is 192.168.1.1. The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address.
The factory default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
You can configure up to 64 IP addresses which are used to access and manage the Switch from the
ports belonging to the pre-defined VLAN(s).
Note: You must configure a VLAN first.
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Figure 31 Basic Setting > IP Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 Basic Setting > IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Domain Name
Server
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP
address and vice versa. Enter a domain name server IP address in order to be able to
use a domain name instead of an IP address.
Default Management IP Address
DHCP Client
Select this option if you have a DHCP server that can assign the Switch an IP address,
subnet mask, a default gateway IP address and a domain name server IP address
automatically.
Static IP Address
Select this option if you don’t have a DHCP server or if you wish to assign static IP
address information to the Switch. You need to fill in the following fields when you
select this option.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
192.168.1.1.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
255.255.255.0.
Default Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation, for
example 192.168.1.254.
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Table 13 Basic Setting > IP Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number associated with the Switch IP address. This is the
VLAN ID of the CPU and is used for management only. The default is "1". All ports, by
default, are fixed members of this "management VLAN" in order to manage the device
from any port. If a port is not a member of this VLAN, then users on that port cannot
access the device. To access the Switch make sure the port that you are connected to is
a member of Management VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring the fields again.
Management IP Addresses
You can create up to 64 IP addresses, which are used to access and manage the Switch from the ports
belonging to the pre-defined VLAN(s). You must configure a VLAN first.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for managing the Switch by the members of the VLAN specified in
the VID field below.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
VID
Type the VLAN group identification number.
Default Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry to the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses
power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the
non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Default Gateway
This field displays the IP address of the default gateway.
Delete
Check the management IP addresses that you want to remove in the Delete column,
then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected check boxes in the Delete column.
8.6 Port Setup
Use this screen to configure Switch port settings. Click Basic Setting > Port Setup in the
navigation panel to display the configuration screen.
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Figure 32 Basic Setting > Port Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Basic Setting > Port Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the port index number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable a port. The factory default for all ports is enabled. A port must
be enabled for data transmission to occur.
Name
Enter a descriptive name that identifies this port. You can enter up to 64 alpha-numerical
characters.
Note: Due to space limitation, the port name may be truncated in some web configurator
screens.
Type
This field displays 10/100M for Fast Ethernet connections and 10/100/1000M for Gigabit
connections.
Speed/Duplex
Select the speed and the duplex mode of the Ethernet connection on this port. Choices are
Auto, 10M/Half Duplex, 10M/Full Duplex, 100M/Half Duplex, 100M/Full Duplex and
1000M/Full Duplex (Gigabit connections only).
Selecting Auto (auto-negotiation) allows one port to negotiate with a peer port automatically
to obtain the connection speed and duplex mode that both ends support. When autonegotiation is turned on, a port on the Switch negotiates with the peer automatically to
determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer port does not support autonegotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by
detecting the signal on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switch’s autonegotiation is turned off, a port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when
making a connection, thus requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer port are
the same in order to connect.
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Table 14 Basic Setting > Port Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Flow Control
A concentration of traffic on a port decreases port bandwidth and overflows buffer memory
causing packet discards and frame losses. Flow Control is used to regulate transmission of
signals to match the bandwidth of the receiving port.
The Switch uses IEEE802.3x flow control in full duplex mode and backpressure flow control in
half duplex mode.
IEEE802.3x flow control is used in full duplex mode to send a pause signal to the sending
port, causing it to temporarily stop sending signals when the receiving port memory buffers
fill.
Back Pressure flow control is typically used in half duplex mode to send a "collision" signal to
the sending port (mimicking a state of packet collision) causing the sending port to
temporarily stop sending signals and resend later. Select Flow Control to enable it.
802.1p
Priority
This priority value is added to incoming frames without a (802.1p) priority queue tag. See
Priority Queue Assignment in Table 12 on page 82 for more information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.7 Interface Setup
An IPv6 address is configured on a per-interface basis. The interface can be a physical interface (for
example, an Ethernet port) or a virtual interface (for example, a VLAN). The Switch supports the
VLAN interface type for IPv6 at the time of writing.
Use this screen to set IPv6 interfaces on which you can configure an IPv6 address to access and
manage the Switch. Click Basic Setting > Interface Setup in the navigation panel to display the
configuration screen.
Figure 33 Basic Setting > Interface Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 Basic Setting > Interface Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface Type
Select the type of IPv6 interface for which you want to configure. The Switch supports the
VLAN interface type for IPv6 at the time of writing.
Interface ID
Specify a unique identification number (from 1 to 4094) for the interface.
Note: To have IPv6 function properly, you should configure a static VLAN with the same ID
number in the Advanced Setup > VLAN screens.
Add
Click this to create a new entry.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This field displays the index number of an entry.
Interface Type
This field displays the type of interface.
Interface ID
This field displays the identification number of the interface.
Interface
This field displays the interface’s descriptive name which is generated automatically by the
Switch. The name is from a combination of the interface type and ID number.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
8.8 IPv6
Use this screen to view the IPv6 interface status and configure Switch’s management IPv6
addresses. See Appendix C on page 409 for more information about IPv6.
Click Basic Setting > IPv6 in the navigation panel to display the IPv6 status screen as shown
next.
Figure 34 Basic Setting > IPv6 Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Basic Setting > IPv6 Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of an IPv6 interface. Click on an index number to view
more interface details.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
Active
This field displays whether the IPv6 interface is activated or not.
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8.8.1 IPv6 Interface Status
Use this screen to view a specific IPv6 interface status and detailed information. Click an interface
index number in the Basic Setting > IPv6 screen. The following screen opens.
Figure 35 Basic Setting > IPv6 Interface Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 Basic Setting > IPv6 Interface Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Active
This field displays whether the IPv6 interface is activated or not.
MTU Size
This field displays the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size for IPv6 packets on this
interface.
ICMPv6 Rate
Limit Bucket
Size
This field displays the maximum number of ICMPv6 error messages which are allowed to
transmit in a given time interval. If the bucket is full, subsequent error messages are
suppressed.
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Table 17 Basic Setting > IPv6 Interface Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ICMPv6 Rate
Limit Error
Interval
This field displays the time period (in milliseconds) during which ICMPv6 error messages of
up to the bucket size can be transmitted. 0 means no limit.
Stateless
Address
Autoconfig
This field displays whether the Switch’s interface can automatically generate a link-local
address via stateless autoconfiguration.
Link Local
Address
This field displays the Switch’s link-local IP address and prefix generated by the interface. It
also shows whether the IP address is preferred, which means it is a valid address and can
be used as a sender or receiver address.
Global Unicast
Address(es)
This field displays the Switch’s global unicast address to identify this interface.
Joined Group
Address(es)
This field displays the IPv6 multicast addresses of groups the Switch’s interface joins.
ND DAD Active
This field displays whether Neighbor Discovery (ND) Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is
enabled on the interface.
Number of DAD
Attempts
This field displays the number of consecutive neighbor solicitations the Switch sends for this
interface.
NS-Interval
(millisecond)
This field displays the time interval (in milliseconds) at which neighbor solicitations are resent for this interface.
ND Reachable
Time
(millisecond)
This field displays how long (in milliseconds) a neighbor is considered reachable for this
interface.
DHCPv6 Client
Active
This field displays whether the Switch acts as a DHCPv6 client to get an IPv6 address from
a DHCPv6 server.
Identity
Association
An Identity Association (IA) is a collection of addresses assigned to a DHCP client, through
which the server and client can manage a set of related IP addresses. Each IA must be
associated with exactly one interface.
IA Type
The IA type is the type of address in the IA. Each IA holds one type of address. IA_NA
means an identity association for non-temporary addresses and IA_TA is an identity
association for temporary addresses.
IAID
Each IA consists of a unique IAID and associated IP information.
T1
This field displays the DHCPv6 T1 timer. After T1, the Switch sends the DHCPv6 server a
Renew message.
An IA_NA option contains the T1 and T2 fields, but an IA_TA option does not. The DHCPv6
server uses T1 and T2 to control the time at which the client contacts with the server to
extend the lifetimes on any addresses in the IA_NA before the lifetimes expire.
T2
This field displays the DHCPv6 T2 timer. If the time T2 is reached and the server does not
respond, the Switch sends a Rebind message to any available server.
State
This field displays the state of the TA. It shows
•
•
•
Active when the Switch obtains addresses from a DHCpv6 server and the TA is created.
Renew when the TA’s address lifetime expires and the Switch sends out a Renew
message.
Rebind when the Switch doesn’t receive a response from the original DHCPv6 server
and sends out a Rebind message to another DHCPv6 server.
SID
This field displays the DHCPv6 server’s unique ID.
Address
This field displays the Switch’s global address which is assigned by the DHCPv6 server.
Preferred
Lifetime
This field displays how long (in seconds) that the global address remains preferred.
Valid
Lifetime
This field displays how long (in seconds) that the global address is valid.
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Table 17 Basic Setting > IPv6 Interface Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DNS
This field displays the DNS server address assigned by the DHCPv6 server.
Domain List
This field displays the address record when the Switch queries the DNS server to resolve
domain names.
Restart DHCPv6
Client
Click Click Here to send a new DHCP request to the DHCPv6 server and update the IPv6
address and DNS information for this interface.
8.8.2 IPv6 Configuration
Use this screen to configure IPv6 settings on the Switch. Click the IPv6 Configuration link in the
Basic Setting > IPv6 screen. The following screen opens.
Figure 36 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Global Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the global IPv6 settings on the
Switch.
IPv6 Interface Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can enable an IPv6 interface on the Switch.
IPv6 Addressing
IPv6 Link-Local
Address Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the IPv6 link-local address for
an interface.
IPv6 Global
Address Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the IPv6 global address for an
interface.
IPv6 Neighbor
Discovery
IPv6 Neighbor
Discovery Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the IPv6 neighbor discovery
settings.
IPv6 Neighbor Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can create a static IPv6 neighbor entry in the
Switch’s IPv6 neighbor table.
DHCPv6 Client Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the Switch DHCP settings.
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8.8.3 IPv6 Global Setup
Use this screen to configure the global IPv6 settings. Click the link next to IPv6 Global Setup in
the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 37 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Hop Limit
Specify the maximum number of hops (from 1 to 255) in router advertisements. This
is the maximum number of hops on which an IPv6 packet is allowed to transmit before
it is discarded by an IPv6 router, which is similar to the TTL field in IPv4.
ICMPv6 Rate Limit
Bucket Size
Specify the maximum number of ICMPv6 error messages (from 1 to 200) which are
allowed to transmit in a given time interval. If the bucket is full, subsequent error
messages are suppressed.
ICMPv6 Rate Limit
Error Interval
Specify the time period (from 0 to 2147483647 milliseconds) during which ICMPv6
error messages of up to the bucket size can be transmitted. 0 means no limit.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
8.8.4 IPv6 Interface Setup
Use this screen to turn on or off an IPv6 interface and enable stateless autoconfiguration on it. Click
the link next to IPv6 Interface Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as
shown next.
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Figure 38 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Interface Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Interface Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
Active
Select this option to enable the interface.
Address Autoconfig
Select this option to allow the interface to automatically generate a link-local address
via stateless autoconfiguration.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
Active
This field displays whether the IPv6 interface is activated or not.
Address Autoconfig
This field displays whether stateless autoconfiguration is enabled on the interface.
8.8.5 IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup
A link-local address uniquely identifies a device on the local network (the LAN). It is similar to a
“private IP address” in IPv4. You can have the same link-local address on multiple interfaces on a
device. A link-local unicast address has a predefined prefix of fe80::/10.
Use this screen to configure the interface’s link-local address and default gateway. Click the link
next to IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen
as shown next.
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Figure 39 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
Link-Local Address
Manually configure a static IPv6 link-local address for the interface.
Default Gateway
Set the default gateway IPv6 address for the interface. When an interface cannot find
a routing information for a frame’s destination, it forwards the packet to the default
gateway.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
IPv6 Link-Local
Address
This is the static IPv6 link-local address for the interface.
IPv6 Default
Gateway
This is the default gateway IPv6 address for the interface.
8.8.6 IPv6 Global Address Setup
Use this screen to configure the interface’s IPv6 global address. Click the link next to IPv6 Global
Address Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 40 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Address Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Address Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
IPv6 Global Address
Manually configure a static IPv6 global address for the interface.
Prefix Length
Specify an IPv6 prefix length that specifies how many most significant bits (start from
the left) in the address compose the network address.
EUI-64
Select this option to have the interface ID be generated automatically using the EUI64 format.
Add
Click Add to create a new entry or update an existing one.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
IPv6 Global Address/
Prefix Length
This field displays the IPv6 global address and prefix length for the interface.
EUI-64
This shows whether the interface ID of the global address is generated using the EUI64 format.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click
Delete to remove the selected entry(ies) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
8.8.7 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup
Use this screen to configure neighbor discovery settings for each interface. Click the link next to
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as
shown next.
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Figure 41 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
DAD Attempts
The Switch uses Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) with neighbor solicitation and
advertisement messages to check whether an IPv6 address is already in use before
assigning it to an interface, such as the link-local address it creates through stateless
address autoconfiguration.
Specify the number of consecutive neighbor solicitations (from 0 to 600) the Switch
sends for this interface. Enter 0 to turn off DAD.
NS Interval
Specify the time interval (from 1000 to 3600000 milliseconds) at which neighbor
solicitations are re-sent for this interface.
Reachable Time
Specify how long (from 1000 to 3600000 milliseconds) a neighbor is considered
reachable for this interface.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
DAD Attempts
This field displays the number of consecutive neighbor solicitations the Switch sends
for this interface.
NS Interval
This field displays the time interval (in milliseconds) at which neighbor solicitations are
re-sent for this interface.
Reachable Time
This field displays how long (in milliseconds) a neighbor is considered reachable for
this interface.
8.8.8 IPv6 Neighbor Setup
Use this screen to create a static IPv6 neighbor entry in the Switch’s IPv6 neighbor table to store
the neighbor information permanently. Click the link next to IPv6 Neighbor Setup in the IPv6
Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 42 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface Type
Select the type of IPv6 interface for which you want to configure. The Switch supports
the VLAN interface type for IPv6 at the time of writing.
Interface ID
Specify a unique identification number (from 1 to 4094) for the interface.
Note: A static IPv6 neighbor entry displays in the Management > Neighbor Table
screen only when the interface ID is also created in the Basic Setup > Interface
Setup screen.
Note: To have IPv6 function properly, you should configure a static VLAN with the same
ID number in the Advanced Setup > VLAN screens.
Neighbor Address
Specify the IPv6 address of the neighboring device which can be reached through the
interface.
MAC
Specify the MAC address of the neighboring device which can be reached through the
interface.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
Neighbor Address
This field displays the IPv6 address of the neighboring device which can be reached
through the interface
MAC
This field displays the MAC address of the neighboring device which can be reached
through the interface.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click
Delete to remove the selected entry(ies) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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8.8.9 DHCPv6 Client Setup
Use this screen to configure the Switch’s DHCP settings when it is acting as a DHCPv6 client. Click
the link next to IPv6 Neighbor Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as
shown next.
Figure 43 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > DHCPv6 Client Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 25 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > DHCPv6 Client Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
IA Type
Select IA-NA to set the Switch to get a non-temporary IP address from the DHCPv6
server for this interface.
Optionally, you can also select Rapid-Commit to have the Switch send its DHCPv6
Solicit message with a Rapid Commit option to obtain information from the DHCPv6
server by a rapid two-message exchange. The Switch discards any Reply messages
that do not include a Rapid Commit option. The DHCPv6 server should also support the
Rapid Commit option to have it work well.
Options
Select DNS to have the Switch obtain DNS server IPv6 addresses and/or select
Domain-List to have the Switch obtain a list of domain names from the DHCP server.
Information Refresh
Minimum
Specify the time interval (from 600 to 4294967295 seconds) at which the Switch
exchanges other configuration information with a DHCPv6 server again.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
IA-NA
This field displays whether the Switch obtains a non-temporary IP address from the
DHCPv6 server.
Rapid-Commit
This field displays whether the Switch obtains information from the DHCPv6 server by
a rapid two-message exchange.
DNS
This field displays whether the Switch obtains DNS server IPv6 addresses from the
DHCPv6 server.
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Table 25 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > DHCPv6 Client Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Domain-List
This field displays whether the Switch obtains a list of domain names from the DHCP
server.
Information Refresh
Minimum
This field displays the time interval (in seconds) at which the Switch exchanges other
configuration information with a DHCPv6 server again.
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C HAPT ER
9
VLAN
The type of screen you see here depends on the VLAN Type you selected in the Switch Setup
screen. This chapter shows you how to configure 802.1Q tagged and port-based VLANs.
9.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
A tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the VLAN membership
of a frame across bridges - they are not confined to the switch on which they were created. The
VLANs can be created statically by hand or dynamically through GVRP. The VLAN ID associates a
frame with a specific VLAN and provides the information that switches need to process the frame
across the network. A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an untagged frame and contains two
bytes for the TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier, residing within the type/length field of the Ethernet
frame) and two bytes for the TCI (Tag Control Information, starting after the source address field of
the Ethernet frame).
The CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet switches. If
a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be forwarded as
it is to an untagged port. The remaining twelve bits define the VLAN ID, giving a possible maximum
number of 4,096 VLANs. Note that user priority and VLAN ID are independent of each other. A
frame with VID (VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a priority frame, meaning that only the priority
level is significant and the default VID of the ingress port is given as the VID of the frame. Of the
4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to identify priority frames and the value 4095 (FFF) is
reserved, so the maximum possible number of VLAN configurations is 4,094.
TPID
User Priority
CFI
VLAN ID
2 Bytes
3 Bits
1 Bit
12 bits
9.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames
Each port on the Switch is capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To forward a frame from
an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware switch, the Switch first decides where
to forward the frame and then strips off the VLAN tag. To forward a frame from an 802.1Q VLANunaware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch, the Switch first decides where to forward the
frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port's default VID. The default PVID is
VLAN 1 for all ports, but this can be changed.
A broadcast frame (or a multicast frame for a multicast group that is known by the system) is
duplicated only on ports that are members of the VID (except the ingress port itself), thus confining
the broadcast to a specific domain.
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9.2 Automatic VLAN Registration
GARP and GVRP are the protocols used to automatically register VLAN membership across switches.
9.2.1 GARP
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) allows network switches to register and de-register
attribute values with other GARP participants within a bridged LAN. GARP is a protocol that provides
a generic mechanism for protocols that serve a more specific application, for example, GVRP.
9.2.1.1 GARP Timers
Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join message
using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All message
terminates all registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values.
9.2.2 GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for switches to
register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network. Enable this function to permit VLAN
groups beyond the local Switch.
Please refer to the following table for common IEEE 802.1Q VLAN terminology.
Table 26 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology
VLAN PARAMETER TERM
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Permanent VLAN
This is a static VLAN created manually.
Dynamic VLAN
This is a VLAN configured by a GVRP registration/deregistration
process.
Registration Fixed
Fixed registration ports are permanent VLAN members.
Registration
Forbidden
Ports with registration forbidden are forbidden to join the
specified VLAN.
Normal Registration
Ports dynamically join a VLAN using GVRP.
Tagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN tag all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Untagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN don't tag all outgoing
frames transmitted.
Port VID
This is the VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames that this port
received.
Acceptable Frame
Type
You may choose to accept both tagged and untagged incoming
frames, just tagged incoming frames or just untagged incoming
frames on a port.
Ingress filtering
If set, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs that do not
have this port as a member.
VLAN Administrative
Control
VLAN Tag Control
VLAN Port
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9.3 Port VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on a port to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to pass
through that port. This is useful if you want to set up VLAN groups on end devices without having to
configure the same VLAN groups on intermediary devices.
The following figure describes VLAN Trunking. Suppose you want to create VLAN groups 1 and 2
(V1 and V2) on devices A and B. Without VLAN Trunking, you must configure VLAN groups 1 and
2 on all intermediary switches C, D and E; otherwise they will drop frames with unknown VLAN
group tags. However, with VLAN Trunking enabled on a port(s) in each intermediary switch you
only need to create VLAN groups in the end devices (A and B). C, D and E automatically allow
frames with VLAN group tags 1 and 2 (VLAN groups that are unknown to those switches) to pass
through their VLAN trunking port(s).
Figure 44 Port VLAN Trunking
9.4 Select the VLAN Type
Select a VLAN type in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen.
Figure 45 Switch Setup: Select VLAN Type
9.5 Static VLAN
Use a static VLAN to decide whether an incoming frame on a port should be
• sent to a VLAN group as normal depending on its VLAN tag.
• sent to a group whether it has a VLAN tag or not.
• blocked from a VLAN group regardless of its VLAN tag.
You can also tag all outgoing frames (that were previously untagged) from a port with the specified
VID.
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9.5.1 VLAN Status
See Section 9.1 on page 100 for more information on Static VLAN. Click Advanced Application >
VLAN from the navigation panel to display the VLAN Status screen as shown next.
Figure 46 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Search
by VID
Enter an existing VLAN ID number(s) (separated by a comma) and click Search to display
only the specified VLAN(s) in the list below.
The Number of
VLAN
This is the number of VLANs configured on the Switch.
The Number of
Search Results
This is the number of VLANs that match the searching criteria and display in the list below.
Leave this field blank and click Search to display all VLANs configured on the Switch.
This field displays only when you use the Search button to look for certain VLANs.
Index
This is the VLAN index number. Click on an index number to view more VLAN details.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN screen.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a static VLAN
was set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch.
•
•
•
•
Change Pages
Dynamic - using GVRP
Static - manually added as a normal VLAN
RMirror - manually added as a remote port mirroring VLAN
MVR - added via Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR)
Click Previous or Next to show the previous/next screen if all status information cannot be
seen in one screen.
9.5.2 VLAN Details
Use this screen to view detailed port settings and status of the VLAN group. See Section 9.1 on
page 100 for more information on static VLAN. Click on an index number in the VLAN Status
screen to display VLAN details.
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Figure 47 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Status
Click this to go to the VLAN Status screen.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN screen.
Port Number
This column displays the ports that are participating in a VLAN. A tagged port is marked as
T, an untagged port is marked as U and ports not participating in a VLAN are marked as “–“.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a static VLAN
was set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch.
•
•
•
•
Dynamic - using GVRP
Static - manually added as a normal VLAN
RMirror - manually added as a remote port mirroring VLAN
MVR - added via Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR)
9.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN
Use this screen to configure and view 802.1Q VLAN parameters for the Switch. See Section 9.1 on
page 100 for more information on static VLAN. To configure a static VLAN, click Static VLAN in the
VLAN Status screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 48 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 29 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ACTIVE
Select this check box to activate the VLAN settings.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the VLAN group for identification purposes. This name consists
of up to 64 printable characters; spaces are allowed.
VLAN Group ID
Enter the VLAN ID for this static entry; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 29 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Control
Select Normal for the port to dynamically join this VLAN group using GVRP. This is the
default selection.
Select Fixed for the port to be a permanent member of this VLAN group.
Select Forbidden if you want to prohibit the port from joining this VLAN group.
Tagging
Select TX Tagging if you want the port to tag all outgoing frames transmitted with this
VLAN Group ID.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to start configuring the screen again.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group. Click the number to edit the VLAN
settings.
Active
This field indicates whether the VLAN settings are enabled (Yes) or disabled (No).
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
9.5.4 Configure VLAN Port Settings
Use the VLAN Port Setting screen to configure the static VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q) settings on a port.
See Section 9.1 on page 100 for more information on static VLAN. Click the VLAN Port Setting
link in the VLAN Status screen.
Figure 49 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for
switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network.
Select this check box to permit VLAN groups beyond the local Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Ingress Check
If this check box is selected for a port, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs that
do not include this port in its member set.
Clear this check box to disable ingress filtering.
PVID
A PVID (Port VLAN ID) is a tag that adds to incoming untagged frames received on a port
so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
Enter a number between 1and 4094 as the port VLAN ID.
GVRP
Select this check box to allow GVRP on this port.
Acceptable Frame
Type
Specify the type of frames allowed on a port. Choices are All, Tag Only and Untag Only.
Select All from the drop-down list box to accept all untagged or tagged frames on this
port. This is the default setting.
Select Tag Only to accept only tagged frames on this port. All untagged frames will be
dropped.
Select Untag Only to accept only untagged frames on this port. All tagged frames will be
dropped.
VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on ports connected to other switches or routers (but not ports
directly connected to end users) to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to
pass through the Switch.
Isolation
Select this to allows this port to communicate only with the CPU management port and
the ports on which the isolation feature is not enabled.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.6 Subnet Based VLANs
Subnet based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the source IP subnet you
specify. When a frame is received on a port, the Switch checks if a tag is added already and the IP
subnet it came from. The untagged packets from the same IP subnet are then placed in the same
subnet based VLAN. One advantage of using subnet based VLANs is that priority can be assigned to
traffic from the same IP subnet.
For example, an ISP (Internet Service Provider) may divide different types of services it provides to
customers into different IP subnets. Traffic for voice services is designated for IP subnet
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172.16.1.0/24, video for 192.168.1.0/24 and data for 10.1.1.0/24. The Switch can then be
configured to group incoming traffic based on the source IP subnet of incoming frames.
You can then configure a subnet based VLAN with priority 6 and VID of 100 for traffic received from
IP subnet 172.16.1.0/24 (voice services). You can also have a subnet based VLAN with priority 5
and VID of 200 for traffic received from IP subnet 192.168.1.0/24 (video services). Lastly, you can
configure VLAN with priority 3 and VID of 300 for traffic received from IP subnet 10.1.1.0/24 (data
services). All untagged incoming frames will be classified based on their source IP subnet and
prioritized accordingly. That is, video services receive the highest priority and data the lowest.
Figure 50 Subnet Based VLAN Application Example
Tagged Frames
Internet
Untagged
Frames
172.16.1.0/24
VID = 100
192.168.1.0/24
VID = 200
10.1.1.0/24
VID = 300
9.6.1 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN
Click Subnet Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to display the configuration screen as
shown.
Note: Subnet based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.
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Figure 51 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this subnet based VLANs on the Switch.
DHCP-Vlan
Override
When DHCP snooping is enabled DHCP clients can renew their IP address through the DHCP
VLAN or via another DHCP server on the subnet based VLAN.
Select this checkbox to force the DHCP clients in this IP subnet to obtain their IP addresses
through the DHCP VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Active
Check this box to activate the IP subnet VLAN you are creating or editing.
Name
Enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters to identify this subnet based VLAN.
IP
Enter the IP address of the subnet for which you want to configure this subnet based VLAN.
Mask-Bits
Enter the bit number of the subnet mask. To find the bit number, convert the subnet mask
to binary format and add all the 1’s together. Take “255.255.255.0” for example. 255
converts to eight 1s in binary. There are three 255s, so add three eights together and you
get the bit number (24).
VID
Enter the ID of a VLAN with which the untagged frames from the IP subnet specified in this
subnet based VLAN are tagged. This must be an existing VLAN which you defined in the
Advanced Applications > VLAN screens.
Priority
Select the priority level that the Switch assigns to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Table 31 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number identifying this subnet based VLAN. Click on any of these numbers
to edit an existing subnet based VLAN.
Active
This field shows whether the subnet based VLAN is active or not.
Name
This field shows the name the subnet based VLAN.
IP
This field shows the IP address of the subnet for this subnet based VLAN.
Mask-Bits
This field shows the subnet mask in bit number format for this subnet based VLAN.
VID
This field shows the VLAN ID of the frames which belong to this subnet based VLAN.
Priority
This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this subnet based
VLAN.
Delete
Click this to delete the subnet based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.7 Protocol Based VLANs
Protocol based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the protocol you
specify. When an upstream frame is received on a port (configured for a protocol based VLAN), the
Switch checks if a tag is added already and its protocol. The untagged packets of the same protocol
are then placed in the same protocol based VLAN. One advantage of using protocol based VLANs is
that priority can be assigned to traffic of the same protocol.
Note: Protocol based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.
For example, ports 1, 2, 3 and 4 belong to static VLAN 100, and ports 4, 5, 6, 7 belong to static
VLAN 120. You can configure a protocol based VLAN A with priority 3 for ARP traffic received on port
1, 2 and 3. You can also have a protocol based VLAN B with priority 2 for Apple Talk traffic received
on port 6 and 7. All upstream ARP traffic from port 1, 2 and 3 will be grouped together, and all
upstream Apple Talk traffic from port 6 and 7 will be in another group and have higher priority than
ARP traffic when they go through the uplink port to a backbone switch C.
Figure 52 Protocol Based VLAN Application Example
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9.7.1 Configuring Protocol Based VLAN
Click Protocol Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to display the configuration screen
as shown.
Figure 53 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Protocol Based VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Protocol Based VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this protocol based VLAN.
Port
Type a port number to be included in this protocol based VLAN.
This port must belong to a static VLAN in order to participate in a protocol based VLAN. See
Chapter 9 on page 100 for more details on setting up VLANs.
Name
Enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters to identify this protocol based VLAN.
Ethernet-type
Use the drop down list box to select a predefined protocol to be included in this protocol
based VLAN or select Others and type the protocol number in hexadecimal notation. For
example, the IP protocol in hexadecimal notation is 0800, and Novell IPX protocol is 8137.
Note: Protocols in the hexadecimal number range of 0x0000 to 0x05ff are not allowed to be
used for protocol based VLANs.
VID
Enter the ID of a VLAN to which the port belongs. This must be an existing VLAN which you
defined in the Advanced Applications > VLAN screens.
Priority
Select the priority level that the Switch will assign to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This is the index number identifying this protocol based VLAN. Click on any of these
numbers to edit an existing protocol based VLAN.
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Table 32 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Protocol Based VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field shows whether the protocol based VLAN is active or not.
Port
This field shows which port belongs to this protocol based VLAN.
Name
This field shows the name the protocol based VLAN.
Ethernet-type
This field shows which Ethernet protocol is part of this protocol based VLAN.
VID
This field shows the VLAN ID of the port.
Priority
This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this protocol based
VLAN.
Delete
Click this to delete the protocol based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.7.2 Create an IP-based VLAN Example
This example shows you how to create an IP VLAN which includes ports 1, 4 and 8. Follow these
steps using the screen below:
1
Activate this protocol based VLAN.
2
Type the port number you want to include in this protocol based VLAN. Type 1.
3
Give this protocol-based VLAN a descriptive name. Type IP-VLAN.
4
Select the protocol. Leave the default value IP.
5
Type the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN. In our example we already created a static VLAN with an ID
of 5. Type 5.
6
Leave the priority set to 0 and click Add.
Figure 54 Protocol Based VLAN Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
To add more ports to this protocol based VLAN.
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1
Click the index number of the protocol based VLAN entry. Click 1
2
Change the value in the Port field to the next port you want to add.
3
Click Add.
9.8 MAC Based VLAN
The MAC-based VLAN feature assigns incoming untagged packets to a VLAN and classifies the
traffic based on the source MAC address of the packet. When untagged packets arrive at the switch,
the source MAC address of the packet is looked up in a MAC to VLAN mapping table. If an entry is
found, the corresponding VLAN ID is assigned to the packet. The assigned VLAN ID is verified
against the VLAN table. If the VLAN is valid, ingress processing on the packet continues; otherwise,
the packet is dropped.
This feature allows users to change ports without having to reconfigure the VLAN. You can assign
priority to the MAC-based VLAN and define a MAC to VLAN mapping table by entering a specified
source MAC address in the MAC-based VLAN setup screen. You can also delete a MAC-based VLAN
entry in the same screen.
Click MAC Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to see the following screen.
Figure 55 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > MAC Based VLAN
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 33 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > MAC Based VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this MAC based VLAN.
Name
Type a name up to 32 alpha numeric characters for the MAC-based VLAN entry.
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Table 33 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > MAC Based VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
Type a MAC address that is bind to the MAC-based VLAN entry. This is the source MAC
address of the data packet that is looked up when untagged packets arrive at the
Switch.
Mask-Bits
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC
address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified source MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address
should match. Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can
be of any hexadecimal character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of
00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
VID
Type an ID (from 1 to 4094) for the VLAN ID that is associated with the MAC-based
VLAN entry.
Priority
Type a priority (0-7) for the MAC-based VLAN entry.The higher the numeric value you
assign, the higher the priority for this MAC-based VLAN entry.
Add
Click Add to save the new MAC-based VLAN entry.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the fields in the MAC-based VLAN entry.
Index
This field displays the index number of the MAC-based VLAN entry.
Active
This field shows whether the MAC-based VLAN is active or not.
Name
This field displays the name of the MAC-based VLAN entry.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address that is bind to the MAC-based VLAN entry.
Mask-Bits
This field shows the MAC mask in bit number format for this MAC-based VLAN.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of the MAC-based VLAN entry.
Priority
This field displays the priority level of the MAC-based VLAN entry.
Delete
Click this to delete the MAC-based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
9.9 VLAN MAC Learning
Use this screen to set the MAC address learning limit on per-port and per-VLAN basis. Click VLAN
MAC Learning in the VLAN Status screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 56 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN MAC Learning
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 34 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN MAC Learning
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the MAC address learning limit on the Switch.
Action when
MAC Limit
Number
reached
Specify the action the Switch takes when the the maximum number of MAC addresses which
a port can learn in a VLAN is reached.
Select Forward packets with new source MAC to allow the Switch to forward new
packets even when the packet’s MAC address is not learned.
Select Drop packets with new source MAC to have the Switch discard any packet whose
MAC address is not learmed.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Active
Select this option to activate this rule.
VID
Enter the identification number of the VLAN to which the port belongs.
Port
Select Any to apply the rule to all ports in the specified VLAN.
To specify a port, select the second choice and enter the number of the port to which this
rule is applied.
MAC Learning
Select this option to enable the MAC address learning limit in this rule.
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Table 34 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN MAC Learning (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Limit
Number
Use this field to limit the number of (dynamic) MAC addresses that may be learned on a port
in a specified VLAN. For example, if you set this field to "5" on port 2, then only the devices
with these five learned MAC addresses may access port 2 at any one time. A sixth device
would have to wait until one of the five learned MAC addresses aged out. MAC address aging
out time can be set in the Switch Setup screen. The valid range is from “0” to “16384”. If
you enter 0 here, the Switch automatically changes to use the maximum value (16384).
Note: You also set the MAC address learning limit in the Port Security screen. If you
configure two different limits, the Switch bases on the smaller one.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when is it deactivated.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN to which the port belongs.
Port
This field displays the number of the port to which this rule is applied.
MAC Learning
This field displays Y when the MAC address learning limit is enabled in this rule. Otherwise,
it displays N.
MAC Limit
Number
This is the maximum number of MAC addresses which a port can learn in a VLAN.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
9.10 Port-based VLAN Setup
Port-based VLANs are VLANs where the packet forwarding decision is based on the destination MAC
address and its associated port.
Port-based VLANs require allowed outgoing ports to be defined for each port. Therefore, if you wish
to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, for example, between conference rooms in a
hotel, you must define the egress (an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through which
a data packet leaves) for both ports.
Port-based VLANs are specific only to the Switch on which they were created.
Note: When you activate port-based VLAN, the Switch uses a default VLAN ID of 1. You
cannot change it.
Note: In screens (such as IP Setup and Filtering) that require a VID, you must enter 1
as the VID.
The port-based VLAN setup screen is shown next. The CPU management port forms a VLAN with all
Ethernet ports.
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9.10.1 Configure a Port-based VLAN
Select Port Based as the VLAN Type in the Switch Setup screen and then click VLAN from the
navigation panel to display the following screen. Select either All Connected or Port Isolated
from the drop-down list depending on your VLAN and VLAN security requirements. If VLAN
members need to communicate directly with each other, then select All Connected. Select Port
Isolated if you want to restrict users from communicating directly. Click Apply to save your
settings.
The following screen shows users on a port-based, all-connected VLAN configuration.
Figure 57 Advanced Application > VLAN > Port Based VLAN Setup (All Connected)
The following screen shows users on a port-based, port-isolated VLAN configuration.
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Figure 58 Advanced Application > VLAN: Port Based VLAN Setup (Port Isolation)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 Advanced Application > VLAN: Port Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Setting
Wizard
Choose All connected or Port isolation.
All connected means all ports can communicate with each other, that is, there are no virtual
LANs. All incoming and outgoing ports are selected. This option is the most flexible but also the
least secure.
Port isolation means that each port can only communicate with the CPU management port and
cannot communicate with each other. All incoming ports are selected while only the CPU
outgoing port is selected. This option is the most limiting but also the most secure.
After you make your selection, click Apply (top right of screen) to display the screens as
mentioned above. You can still customize these settings by adding/deleting incoming or outgoing
ports, but you must also click Apply at the bottom of the screen.
Incoming
These are the ingress ports; an ingress port is an incoming port, that is, a port through which a
data packet enters. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, you must
define the ingress port for both ports. The numbers in the top row denote the incoming port for
the corresponding port listed on the left (its outgoing port). CPU refers to the Switch
management port. By default it forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN
with a particular port then the Switch cannot be managed from that port.
Outgoing
These are the egress ports. An egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through which a
data packet leaves. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, you must
define the egress port for both ports. CPU refers to the Switch management port. By default it
forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN with a particular port then the
Switch cannot be managed from that port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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10
Static MAC Forward Setup
Use these screens to configure static MAC address forwarding.
10.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure forwarding rules based on MAC addresses of devices on
your network.
10.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
A static MAC address is an address that has been manually entered in the MAC address table. Static
MAC addresses do not age out. When you set up static MAC address rules, you are setting static
MAC addresses for a port. This may reduce the need for broadcasting.
Static MAC address forwarding together with port security allows only computers in the MAC
address table on a port to access the Switch. See Chapter 19 on page 171 for more information on
port security.
Click Advanced Applications > Static MAC Forwarding in the navigation panel to display the
configuration screen as shown.
Figure 59 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 36 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC address forwarding
rule.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.
Note: Static MAC addresses do not age out.
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number.
Port
Enter the port where the MAC address entered in the previous field will be automatically
forwarded.
Add
Click Add to save your rule to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this rule if it
is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
Click an index number to modify a static MAC address rule for a port.
Active
This field displays whether this static MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or not
(No). You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC
address-forwarding rule.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address that will be forwarded and the VLAN identification
number to which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Port
This field displays the port where the MAC address shown in the next field will be forwarded.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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11
Static Multicast Forward Setup
Use these screens to configure static multicast address forwarding.
11.1 Static Multicast Forwarding Overview
A multicast MAC address is the MAC address of a member of a multicast group. A static multicast
address is a multicast MAC address that has been manually entered in the multicast table. Static
multicast addresses do not age out. Static multicast forwarding allows you (the administrator) to
forward multicast frames to a member without the member having to join the group first.
If a multicast group has no members, then the switch will either flood the multicast frames to all
ports or drop them. You can configure this in the Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast
Setting screen (see Section 25.3.1 on page 203). Figure 60 shows such unknown multicast frames
flooded to all ports. With static multicast forwarding, you can forward these multicasts to port(s)
within a VLAN group. Figure 61 shows frames being forwarded to devices connected to port 3.
Figure 62 shows frames being forwarded to ports 2 and 3 within VLAN group 4.
Figure 60 No Static Multicast Forwarding
Figure 61 Static Multicast Forwarding to A Single Port
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Figure 62 Static Multicast Forwarding to Multiple Ports
11.2 Configuring Static Multicast Forwarding
Use this screen to configure rules to forward specific multicast frames, such as streaming or control
frames, to specific port(s).
Click Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding to display the configuration screen
as shown.
Figure 63 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this static multicast MAC
address forwarding rule. This is for identification only.
MAC Address
Enter a multicast MAC address which identifies the multicast group. The last binary bit of the
first octet pair in a multicast MAC address must be 1. For example, the first octet pair
00000001 is 01 and 00000011 is 03 in hexadecimal, so 01:00:5e:00:00:0A and
03:00:5e:00:00:27 are valid multicast MAC addresses.
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Table 37 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
You can forward frames with matching destination MAC address to port(s) within a VLAN
group. Enter the ID that identifies the VLAN group here. If you don’t have a specific target
VLAN, enter 1.
Port
Enter the port(s) where frames with destination MAC address that matched the entry above
are forwarded. You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (). For example, enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
Add
Click Add to save your rule to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this rule if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
Click an index number to modify a static multicast MAC address rule for port(s).
Active
This field displays whether a static multicast MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or
not (No). You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for a static multicast MAC
address-forwarding rule.
MAC Address
This field displays the multicast MAC address that identifies a multicast group.
VID
This field displays the ID number of a VLAN group to which frames containing the specified
multicast MAC address will be forwarded.
Port
This field displays the port(s) within a identified VLAN group to which frames containing the
specified multicast MAC address will be forwarded.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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Filtering
This chapter discusses MAC address port filtering.
12.1 Configure a Filtering Rule
Configure the Switch to filter traffic based on the traffic’s source, destination MAC addresses and/or
VLAN group (ID).
Click Advanced Application > Filtering in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown
next.
Figure 64 Advanced Application > Filtering
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 38 Advanced Application > FIltering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Make sure to select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule
without deleting it by deselecting this check box.
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this rule. This is for
identification only.
Action
Select Discard source to drop frames from the source MAC address (specified in the MAC
field). The Switch can still send frames to the MAC address.
Select Discard destination to drop frames to the destination MAC address (specified in the
MAC address). The Switch can still receive frames originating from the MAC address.
Select Discard source and Discard destination to block traffic to/from the MAC address
specified in the MAC field.
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Table 38 Advanced Application > FIltering (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC
Type a MAC address in a valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.
VID
Type the VLAN group identification number.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to change the settings.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purposes only.
MAC Address
This field displays the source/destination MAC address with the VLAN identification number to
which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the VLAN group identification number.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.
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13
Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch supports Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) as defined in the following standards.
• IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch also allows you to set up multiple STP configurations (or trees). Ports can then be
assigned to the trees.
13.1 STP/RSTP Overview
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. It allows a Switch to interact with other (R)STP-compliant switches in your network to
ensure that only one path exists between any two stations on the network.
The Switch uses IEEE 802.1w RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) that allows faster convergence
of the spanning tree than STP (while also being backwards compatible with STP-only aware
bridges). In RSTP, topology change information is directly propagated throughout the network from
the device that generates the topology change. In STP, a longer delay is required as the device that
causes a topology change first notifies the root bridge and then the root bridge notifies the
network. Both RSTP and STP flush unwanted learned addresses from the filtering database. In
RSTP, the port states are Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
Note: In this user’s guide, “STP” refers to both STP and RSTP.
13.1.1 STP Terminology
The root bridge is the base of the spanning tree.
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame onto a LAN through that port. The Switch supports both
the short and the long path cost methods. The original short path cost method uses a 16-bit value.
The long path cost method allows the Switch to use longer path length (32-bit values) for highspeed links. The default cost is assigned according to the speed of the link to which a port is
attached. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
Table 39 STP Path Costs
LINK SPEED
DEFAULT VALUE
(SHORT)
DEFAULT VALUE
(LONG)
ALLOWED RANGE
Path Cost
10Mbps
100
2,000,000
1 to 200,000,000
Path Cost
100Mbps
19
200,000
1 to 200,000,000
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Table 39 STP Path Costs
LINK SPEED
DEFAULT VALUE
(SHORT)
DEFAULT VALUE
(LONG)
ALLOWED RANGE
Path Cost
1Gbps
4
20,000
1 to 200,000,000
Path Cost
10Gbps
2
2,000
1 to 200,000,000
On each bridge, the bridge communicates with the root through the root port. The root port is the
port on this Switch with the lowest path cost to the root (the root path cost). If there is no root
port, then this Switch has been accepted as the root bridge of the spanning tree network.
For each LAN segment, a designated bridge is selected. This bridge has the lowest cost to the root
among the bridges connected to the LAN.
13.1.2 How STP Works
After a bridge determines the lowest cost-spanning tree with STP, it enables the root port and the
ports that are the designated ports for connected LANs, and disables all other ports that participate
in STP. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between enabled ports, eliminating any
possible network loops.
STP-aware switches exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the bridged
LAN topology changes, a new spanning tree is constructed.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs (Bridge
Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello BPDU after a
predefined interval (Max Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the root bridge is down. This
bridge then initiates negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to re-establish a
valid network topology.
13.1.3 STP Port States
STP assigns five port states to eliminate packet looping. A bridge port is not allowed to go directly
from blocking state to forwarding state so as to eliminate transient loops.
Table 40 STP Port States
PORT STATE
DESCRIPTION
Disabled
STP is disabled (default).
Blocking
Only configuration and management BPDUs are received and processed.
Listening
All BPDUs are received and processed.
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Learning
All BPDUs are received and processed. Information frames are submitted to the learning
process but not forwarded.
Forwarding
All BPDUs are received and processed. All information frames are received and forwarded.
13.1.4 Multiple RSTP
MRSTP (Multiple RSTP) is ZyXEL’s proprietary feature that is compatible with RSTP and STP. With
MRSTP, you can have more than one spanning tree on your Switch and assign port(s) to each tree.
Each spanning tree operates independently with its own bridge information.
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In the following example, there are two RSTP instances (MRSTP 1 and MRSTP2) on switch A.
Figure 65 MRSTP Network Example
To set up MRSTP, activate MRSTP on the Switch and specify which port(s) belong to which spanning
tree.
Note: Each port can belong to one STP tree only.
13.1.5 Multiple STP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s) is backwards compatible with STP/RSTP and
addresses the limitations of existing spanning tree protocols (STP and RSTP) in networks to include
the following features:
• One Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) that represents the entire network’s
connectivity.
• Grouping of multiple bridges (or switching devices) into regions that appear as one single bridge
on the network.
• A VLAN can be mapped to a specific Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTI allows
multiple VLANs to use the same spanning tree.
• Load-balancing is possible as traffic from different VLANs can use distinct paths in a region.
13.1.5.1 MSTP Network Example
The following figure shows a network example where two VLANs are configured on the two
switches. If the switches are using STP or RSTP, the link for VLAN 2 will be blocked as STP and RSTP
allow only one link in the network and block the redundant link.
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Figure 66 STP/RSTP Network Example
A
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
B
With MSTP, VLANs 1 and 2 are mapped to different spanning trees in the network. Thus traffic from
the two VLANs travel on different paths. The following figure shows the network example using
MSTP.
Figure 67 MSTP Network Example
A
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
B
13.1.5.2 MST Region
An MST region is a logical grouping of multiple network devices that appears as a single device to
the rest of the network. Each MSTP-enabled device can only belong to one MST region. When
BPDUs enter an MST region, external path cost (of paths outside this region) is increased by one.
Internal path cost (of paths within this region) is increased by one when BPDUs traverse the region.
Devices that belong to the same MST region are configured to have the same MSTP configuration
identification settings. These include the following parameters:
• Name of the MST region
• Revision level as the unique number for the MST region
• VLAN-to-MST Instance mapping
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13.1.5.3 MST Instance
An MST Instance (MSTI) is a spanning tree instance. VLANs can be configured to run on a specific
MSTI. Each created MSTI is identified by a unique number (known as an MST ID) known internally
to a region. Thus an MSTI does not span across MST regions.
The following figure shows an example where there are two MST regions. Regions 1 and 2 have 2
spanning tree instances.
Figure 68 MSTIs in Different Regions
13.1.5.4 Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST)
A CIST represents the connectivity of the entire network and it is equivalent to a spanning tree in
an STP/RSTP. The CIST is the default MST instance (MSTID 0). Any VLANs that are not members of
an MST instance are members of the CIST. In an MSTP-enabled network, there is only one CIST
that runs between MST regions and single spanning tree devices. A network may contain multiple
MST regions and other network segments running RSTP.
Figure 69 MSTP and Legacy RSTP Network Example
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13.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen
The Spanning Tree Protocol status screen changes depending on what standard you choose to
implement on your network. Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol to see the
screen as shown.
Figure 70 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol
This screen differs depending on which STP mode (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) you configure on the
Switch. This screen is described in detail in the section that follows the configuration section for
each STP mode. Click Configuration to activate one of the STP standards on the Switch.
13.3 Spanning Tree Configuration
Use the Spanning Tree Configuration screen to activate one of the STP modes on the Switch.
Click Configuration in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol.
Figure 71 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Spanning Tree
Mode
You can activate one of the STP modes on the Switch.
Type of Default
Path Cost
Select the default path cost method (Short or Long) you want the Switch to use in each
STP mode.
Select Rapid Spanning Tree, Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree or Multiple Spanning
Tree. See Section 13.1 on page 127 for background information on STP.
Note: If you select Long, all the switches in your network also need to use the long path
cost method. Otherwise, the spanning tree may not converge properly.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Use this screen to configure RSTP settings, see Section 13.1 on page 127 for more information on
RSTP. Click RSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.
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Figure 72 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the RSTP Status screen (see Figure 73 on page 136).
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP. Clear this checkbox to disable RSTP.
Note: You must also activate Rapid Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application >
Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable RSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port. The
switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all
switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become
the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time, Max Age
and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
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Table 42 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive
BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last
BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root
port is selected from among the switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range
is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for
conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP on this port.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding
state immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port
is configured as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge Protocol Data
Unit (BPDU).
Root Guard
Select this check box to enable root guard on this port in order to prevent the switch(es)
attached to the port from becoming the root bridge.
With root guard enabled, a port is blocked when the Switch receives a superior BPDU on
it. The Switch allows traffic to pass through this port again when the switch connected to
the port stops to send superior BPDUs.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in a
switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range is
between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the
media, the higher the cost - see Table 39 on page 127 for more information.
The default path cost value varies depending on the default path cost method you
selected.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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13.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 13.1 on page 127 for more information on RSTP.
Note: This screen is only available after you activate RSTP on the Switch.
Figure 73 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click RSTP to
edit RSTP settings on the Switch.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this
Switch. This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority plus the MAC
address. This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time (second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
listening to learning to forwarding). See Section 13.1.3 on page 128 for information on
port states.
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch
must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology Changed
Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
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13.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MRSTP, click MRSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol
screen. See Section 13.1 on page 127 for more information on MRSTP.
Figure 74 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the MRSTP Status screen (see Figure 73 on page 136).
Tree
This is a read-only index number of the STP trees.
Active
Select this check box to activate an STP tree. Clear this checkbox to disable an STP tree.
Note: You must also activate Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application
> Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable MRSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port. The
switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all
switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become
the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time, Max Age
and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
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Table 44 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive
BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last
BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root
port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range
is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for
conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise,
temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate STP on this port.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding
state immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port
is configured as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge Protocol Data
Unit (BPDU).
Root Guard
Select this check box to enable root guard on this port in order to prevent the switch(es)
attached to the port from becoming the root bridge.
With root guard enabled, a port is blocked when the Switch receives a superior BPDU on
it. The Switch allows traffic to pass through this port again when the switch connected to
the port stops to send superior BPDUs.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in
the Switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range
is between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended that you assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower
the media, the higher the cost - see Table 39 on page 127 for more information.
The default path cost value varies depending on the default path cost method you
selected.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration this port should participate in.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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13.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 13.1 on page 127 for more information on MRSTP.
Note: This screen is only available after you activate MRSTP on the Switch.
Figure 75 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MRSTP to
edit MRSTP settings on the Switch.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this Switch.
This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a configuration
message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
listening to learning to forwarding).
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology Changed
Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
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13.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MSTP, click MSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.
See Section 13.1.5 on page 129 for more information on MSTP.
Figure 76 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 46 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Click Port to display the MSTP Port Configuration screen (see Figure 77 on page 143).
Status
Click Status to display the MSTP Status screen (see Figure 78 on page 144).
Active
Select this check box to activate MSTP on the Switch. Clear this checkbox to disable MSTP
on the Switch.
Note: You must also activate Multiple Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application >
Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable MSTP on the Switch.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
MaxAge
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive
BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last
BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root
port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range
is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for
conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise,
temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds. As a general
rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Maximum hops
Enter the number of hops (between 1 and 255) in an MSTP region before the BPDU is
discarded and the port information is aged.
Configuration
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 characters) of an MST region.
Revision Number
Enter a number to identify a region’s configuration. Devices must have the same revision
number to belong to the same region.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance
Use this section to configure MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance) settings.
Instance
Enter the number you want to use to identify this MST instance on the Switch. The Switch
supports instance numbers 0-64.
Bridge Priority
Set the priority of the Switch for the specific spanning tree instance. The lower the
number, the more likely the Switch will be chosen as the root bridge within the spanning
tree instance.
Enter priority values between 0 and 61440 in increments of 4096 (thus valid values are
4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152,
53248, 57344 and 61440).
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Table 46 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Range
Enter the start of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or remove from the VLAN range
edit area in the Start field. Enter the end of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or
remove from the VLAN range edit area in the End field.
Next click:
•
•
•
Add - to add this range of VLAN(s) to be mapped to the MST instance.
Remove - to remove this range of VLAN(s) from being mapped to the MST instance.
Clear - to remove all VLAN(s) from being mapped to this MST instance.
Enabled VLAN(s)
This field displays which VLAN(s) are mapped to this MST instance.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to add this port to the MST instance.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in
the Switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range
is between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the
media, the higher the cost - see Table 39 on page 127 for more information.
The default path cost value varies depending on the default path cost method you
selected.
Add
Click Add to save this MST instance to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
this change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance
This field displays the ID of an MST instance.
VLAN
This field displays the VID (or VID ranges) to which the MST instance is mapped.
Active Port
This field display the ports configured to participate in the MST instance.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.8.1 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Port Configuration
To configure MSTP ports, click Port in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol >
MSTP screen.
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Figure 77 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding state
immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port is configured
as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge Protocol Data Unit
(BPDU).
Root
Guard
Select this check box to enable root guard on this port in order to prevent the switch(es) attached
to the port from becoming the root bridge.
With root guard enabled, a port is blocked when the Switch receives a superior BPDU on it. The
Switch allows traffic to pass through this port again when the switch connected to the port stops to
send superior BPDUs.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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13.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 13.1.5 on page 129 for more information on MSTP.
Note: This screen is only available after you activate MSTP on the Switch.
Figure 78 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 48 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MSTP to edit
MSTP settings on the Switch.
CST
This section describes the Common Spanning Tree settings.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this Switch.
This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
listening to learning to forwarding).
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
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Table 48 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Configuration
Name
This field displays the configuration name for this MST region.
Revision Number
This field displays the revision number for this MST region.
Configuration
Digest
A configuration digest is generated from the VLAN-MSTI mapping information.
Topology Changed
Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Instance:
These fields display the MSTI to VLAN mapping. In other words, which VLANs run on each
spanning tree instance.
Instance
This field displays the MSTI ID.
VLAN
This field displays which VLANs are mapped to an MSTI.
MSTI
Select the MST instance settings you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the MST instance. Our Bridge is this Switch. This Switch may
also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Internal Cost
This is the path cost from the root port in this MST instance to the regional root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the MST instance.
This field displays the 16-octet signature that is included in an MSTP BPDU. This field
displays the digest when MSTP is activated on the system.
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14
Bandwidth Control
This chapter shows you how you can cap the maximum bandwidth using the Bandwidth Control
screen.
14.1 Bandwidth Control Overview
Bandwidth control means defining a maximum allowable bandwidth for incoming and/or out-going
traffic flows on a port.
14.2 Bandwidth Control Setup
Click Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control in the navigation panel to bring up the screen
as shown next.
Figure 79 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control
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The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 49 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable bandwidth control on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate ingress rate limits on this port.
Ingress Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the incoming traffic
flow on a port.
Active
Select this check box to activate egress rate limits on this port.
Egress Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the out-going traffic
flow on a port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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15
Broadcast Storm Control
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the broadcast storm control feature.
15.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup
Broadcast storm control limits the number of broadcast, multicast and destination lookup failure
(DLF) packets the Switch receives per second on the ports. When the maximum number of
allowable broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets is reached per second, the subsequent packets
are discarded. Enable this feature to reduce broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets in your
network. You can specify limits for each packet type on each port.
Click Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown next.
Figure 80 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable traffic storm control on the Switch. Clear this check box to
disable this feature.
Errdisable
Select this option to turn on error disable for traffic storm control on the Switch. The Switch
shuts down a port when the maximum number of allowable broadcast, multicast and/or
DLF packets is reached on the port.
Click the Errdisable link to go to the Errdisable Recovery screen where you can set the
port to become active automatically after a specified time interval.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Broadcast (pkt/
s)
Select this option and specify how many broadcast packets the port receives per second.
Multicast (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many multicast packets the port receives per second.
DLF (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many destination lookup failure (DLF) packets the port
receives per second.
Shutdown
Select this option to allow the Switch to shut down the port when the specified number of
allowable broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets is reached.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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16
Mirroring
This chapter discusses port mirroring setup screens.
16.1 Port Mirroring Overview
Port mirroring allows you to copy a traffic flow to a monitor port (the port you copy the traffic to) in
order that you can examine the traffic from the monitor port without interference.
The Switch supports both local port mirroring and remote port mirroring.
Local Port Mirroring
In local port mirroring, the mirrored ports (through which traffic you copy passes) and the monitor
port are on the same device.
Mirrored port
Monitor port
Remote Port Mirroring
In remote port mirroring (RMirror), the mirroring ports and monitor port can be on different devices
in a network. You can use it to monitor multiple switches across your network. Traffic from the
source device’s mirrored port(s) is sent to a mirroring port for VLAN tagging and forwarded to other
switch(es) in the same remote port mirroring (RMirror) VLAN. Traffic are then carried over the
specified RMirror VLAN and sent to the destination device’s monitor port.
Note: If the Switch is not acting as a source or destination device in remote port
mirroring, you need to enable port VLAN trunking to allow traffic belonging to the
specific RMirror VLAN to pass through it. Alternatively, you can configure a VLAN
group for the mirrored traffic.
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Source
Destination
Intermediate
Monitor port
Mirroring port
Mirroried port
Remote Port Mirroring (RMirror) VLAN
Port Rules in Port Mirroring
The following table shows the rule for a port in remote port mirroring. For example, a port on the
source device can be a mirrored port in both RMirror VLAN 1 and RMirror VLAN 2. But when the port
is the source device’s mirrored port in RMirror VLAN 1, it cannot be the mirroring port or monitor
port in another RMirror VLAN.
Table 51 Port Rules between Different Remote Port Mirroring VLANs
RMirror VLAN 1
Source Mirrored Port
RMirror
VLAN 2
Source Mirroring
Port
Destination Monitor
Port
Source
Mirrored
Port
Y
N
N
Source
Mirroring
Port
N
N
N
Destination
Monitor Port
N
N
N
The following table shows the rule for a port used in both local port mirroring and remote port
mirroring. For example, the RMirror mirroring port on the source device can also be used as the
mirroring port in local port mirroring. But it cannot be the monitor port in local port mirroring.
Table 52 Port Rules between Remote and Local Port Mirroring
RMirror
Source Mirrored Port
Local
Port
Mirroring
Source Mirroring
Port
Destination Monitor
Port
Mirrored
Port
Y
N
N
Monitor
Port
N
N
N
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16.2 Local Port Mirroring Screen
Click Advanced Application > Mirroring in the navigation panel to display the Mirroring screen.
Use this screen to select a monitor port and specify the traffic flow to be copied to the monitor port.
Figure 81 Advanced Application > Mirroring
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 Advanced Application > Mirroring
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate port mirroring on the Switch. Clear this check box to disable the
feature.
Monitor
Port
The monitor port is the port you copy the traffic to in order to examine it in more detail without
interfering with the traffic flow on the original port(s). Type the port number of the monitor port.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Mirrored
Select this option to mirror the traffic on a port.
Direction
Specify the direction of the traffic to mirror by selecting from the drop-down list box. Choices are
Egress (outgoing), Ingress (incoming) and Both.
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Table 53 Advanced Application > Mirroring (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
16.3 RMirror-Source Screen
Use this screen to set the RMirror VLAN ID, configure the mirroring port and specify the traffic flow
to be copied when the Switch is the source device in remote port mirroring.
Click the RMirror-Source link in the Mirroring screen. The following screen opens.
Figure 82 Advanced Application > Mirroring > RMirror-Source
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 Advanced Application > Mirroring > RMirror-Source
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the rule. Clear this check box to disable it.
RMirror VLAN ID
Enter the ID number of the RMirror VLAN over which the mirrored traffic is forwarded.
Mirroring Port
Select the number of the port that adds the RMirror VLAN tag to all mirrored traffic and
forwards traffic to other switch(es) in the same RMirror VLAN.
802.1 Priority
Specify the priority of the mirrored traffic.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Mirrored
Select this option to mirror the traffic on a port.
Direction
Specify the direction of the traffic to mirror by selecting from the drop-down list box.
Choices are Egress (outgoing), Ingress (incoming) and Both.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
This field displays the ID number of RMirror VLAN over which the mirrored traffic is
forwarded.
Active
This field shows whether the rule is active or not.
802.1 Priority
This field displays the priority of the mirrored traffic.
Mirrored Port
Ingress
This field displays the number of port(s) on which the incoming traffic is mirrored.
Egress
This field displays the number of port(s) on which the outgoing traffic is mirrored.
Both
This field displays the number of port(s) on which the incoming and outgoing traffic is
mirrored.
Mirroring Port
This field displays the number of the mirroring port in this RMirror VLAN.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
16.4 RMirror-Destination Screen
Use this screen to specify the RMirror VLAN ID and configure the monitor port when the Switch is
the destination device in remote port mirroring.
Click the RMirror-Destination link in the Mirroring screen. The following screen opens.
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Figure 83 Advanced Application > Mirroring > RMirror-Destination
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 Advanced Application > Mirroring > RMirror-Destination
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the rule. Clear this check box to disable it.
RMirror VLAN ID
Enter the ID number of the RMirror VLAN over which the mirrored traffic is forwarded.
Monitor Port
Specify the port to which you copy the traffic in order to examine it in more detail
without interfering with the traffic flow on the original port(s).
Tagging
Select whether to add the RMirror VLAN tag to mirrored traffic on the monitor port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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17
Link Aggregation
This chapter shows you how to logically aggregate physical links to form one logical, higherbandwidth link.
17.1 Link Aggregation Overview
Link aggregation (trunking) is the grouping of physical ports into one logical higher-capacity link.
You may want to trunk ports if for example, it is cheaper to use multiple lower-speed links than to
under-utilize a high-speed, but more costly, single-port link.
However, the more ports you aggregate then the fewer available ports you have. A trunk group is
one logical link containing multiple ports.
The beginning port of each trunk group must be physically connected to form a trunk group.
The Switch supports both static and dynamic link aggregation.
Note: In a properly planned network, it is recommended to implement static link
aggregation only. This ensures increased network stability and control over the
trunk groups on your Switch.
See Section 17.6 on page 161 for a static port trunking example.
17.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation
The Switch adheres to the IEEE 802.3ad standard for static and dynamic (LACP) port trunking.
The Switch supports the link aggregation IEEE802.3ad standard. This standard describes the Link
Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), which is a protocol that dynamically creates and manages
trunk groups.
When you enable LACP link aggregation on a port, the port can automatically negotiate with the
ports at the remote end of a link to establish trunk groups. LACP also allows port redundancy, that
is, if an operational port fails, then one of the “standby” ports become operational without user
intervention. Please note that:
• You must connect all ports point-to-point to the same Ethernet switch and configure the ports for
LACP trunking.
• LACP only works on full-duplex links.
• All ports in the same trunk group must have the same media type, speed, duplex mode and flow
control settings.
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Configure trunk groups or LACP before you connect the Ethernet switch to avoid causing network
topology loops.
17.2.1 Link Aggregation ID
LACP aggregation ID consists of the following information1:
Table 56 Link Aggregation ID: Local Switch
SYSTEM PRIORITY
MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY PORT NUMBER
0000
00-00-00-00-00-00
0000
00
0000
Table 57 Link Aggregation ID: Peer Switch
SYSTEM PRIORITY
MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY PORT NUMBER
0000
00-00-00-00-00-00
0000
00
0000
17.3 Link Aggregation Status
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation in the navigation panel. The Link Aggregation
Status screen displays by default. See Section 17.1 on page 156 for more information.
Figure 84 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group ID
This field displays the group ID to identify a trunk group, that is, one logical link containing
multiple ports.
Enabled Port
These are the ports you have configured in the Link Aggregation screen to be in the trunk
group.
The port number(s) displays only when this trunk group is activated and there is a port
belonging to this group.
Synchronized
Ports
1.
These are the ports that are currently transmitting data as one logical link in this trunk
group.
Port Priority and Port Number are 0 as it is the aggregator ID for the trunk group, not the individual port.
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Table 58 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Aggregator ID
Link Aggregator ID consists of the following: system priority, MAC address, key, port priority
and port number. Refer to Section 17.2.1 on page 157 for more information on this field.
The ID displays only when there is a port belonging to this trunk group and LACP is also
enabled for this group.
Criteria
This shows the outgoing traffic distribution algorithm used in this trunk group. Packets from
the same source and/or to the same destination are sent over the same link within the
trunk.
src-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s source MAC address.
dst-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s destination MAC
address.
src-dst-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on a combination of the packet’s
source and destination MAC addresses.
src-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s source IP address.
dst-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s destination IP address.
src-dst-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on a combination of the packet’s
source and destination IP addresses.
Status
This field displays how these ports were added to the trunk group. It displays:
•
•
Static - if the ports are configured as static members of a trunk group.
LACP - if the ports are configured to join a trunk group via LACP.
17.4 Link Aggregation Setting
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting to display the
screen shown next. See Section 17.1 on page 156 for more information on link aggregation.
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Figure 85 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link
Aggregation
Setting
This is the only screen you need to configure to enable static link aggregation.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing multiple
ports.
Active
Select this option to activate a trunk group.
Criteria
Select the outgoing traffic distribution type. Packets from the same source and/or to the same
destination are sent over the same link within the trunk. By default, the Switch uses the srcdst-mac distribution type. If the Switch is behind a router, the packet’s destination or source
MAC address will be changed. In this case, set the Switch to distribute traffic based on its IP
address to make sure port trunking can work properly.
Select src-mac to distribute traffic based on the packet’s source MAC address.
Select dst-mac to distribute traffic based on the packet’s destination MAC address.
Select src-dst-mac to distribute traffic based on a combination of the packet’s source and
destination MAC addresses.
Select src-ip to distribute traffic based on the packet’s source IP address.
Select dst-ip to distribute traffic based on the packet’s destination IP address.
Select src-dst-ip to distribute traffic based on a combination of the packet’s source and
destination IP addresses.
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Table 59 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number.
Group
Select the trunk group to which a port belongs.
Note: When you enable the port security feature on the Switch and configure port security
settings for a port, you cannot include the port in an active trunk group.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
17.5 Link Aggregation Control Protocol
Click in the Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP to
display the screen shown next. See Section 17.2 on page 156 for more information on dynamic link
aggregation.
Figure 86 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 60 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP
LABEL
Link Aggregation
Control Protocol
DESCRIPTION
Note: Do not configure this screen unless you want to enable dynamic link aggregation.
Active
Select this checkbox to enable Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
System Priority
LACP system priority is a number between 1 and 65,535. The switch with the lowest
system priority (and lowest port number if system priority is the same) becomes the LACP
“server”. The LACP “server” controls the operation of LACP setup. Enter a number to set
the priority of an active port using Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). The smaller
the number, the higher the priority level.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing multiple
ports.
LACP Active
Select this option to enable LACP for a trunk.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
LACP Timeout
Timeout is the time interval between the individual port exchanges of LACP packets in
order to check that the peer port in the trunk group is still up. If a port does not respond
after three tries, then it is deemed to be “down” and is removed from the trunk. Set a
short timeout (one second) for busy trunked links to ensure that disabled ports are
removed from the trunk group as soon as possible.
Select either 1 second or 30 seconds.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
17.6 Static Trunking Example
This example shows you how to create a static port trunk group for ports 2-5.
1
Make your physical connections - make sure that the ports that you want to belong to the trunk
group are connected to the same destination. The following figure shows ports 2-5 on switch A
connected to switch B.
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Chapter 17 Link Aggregation
Figure 87 Trunking Example - Physical Connections
B
A
2
Configure static trunking - Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link
Aggregation Setting. In this screen activate trunk group T1, select the traffic distribution
algorithm used by this group and select the ports that should belong to this group as shown in the
figure below. Click Apply when you are done.
Figure 88 Trunking Example - Configuration Screen
EXAMPLE
Your trunk group 1 (T1) configuration is now complete.
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18
Port Authentication
This chapter describes the IEEE 802.1x and MAC authentication methods.
18.1 Port Authentication Overview
Port authentication is a way to validate access to ports on the Switch to clients based on an external
server (authentication server). The Switch supports the following methods for port authentication:
• IEEE 802.1x2 - An authentication server validates access to a port based on a username and
password provided by the user.
• MAC Authentication - An authentication server validates access to a port based on the MAC
address and password of the client.
Both types of authentication use the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC
2138, 2139) protocol to validate users. See Section 26.1.2 on page 224 for more information on
configuring your RADIUS server settings.
Note: If you enable IEEE 802.1x authentication and MAC authentication on the same
port, the Switch performs IEEE 802.1x authentication first. If a user fails to
authenticate via the IEEE 802.1x method, then access to the port is denied.
18.1.1 IEEE 802.1x Authentication
The following figure illustrates how a client connecting to an IEEE 802.1x authentication enabled
port goes through a validation process. The Switch prompts the client for login information in the
form of a user name and password after the client responds to its identity request. When the client
provides the login credentials, the Switch sends an authentication request to a RADIUS server. The
RADIUS server validates whether this client is allowed access to the port.
2.
At the time of writing, IEEE 802.1x is not supported by all operating systems. See your operating system documentation. If
your operating system does not support 802.1x, then you may need to install 802.1x client software.
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Figure 89 IEEE 802.1x Authentication Process
1
New Connection
2
Identity Request
3
4
Login Credentials
Authentication Request
5
6
Access Challenge
Challenge Request
7
8
Challenge Response
Access Request
9
Authentication Reply
Session Granted/Denied
18.1.2 MAC Authentication
MAC authentication works in a very similar way to IEEE 802.1x authentication. The main difference
is that the Switch does not prompt the client for login credentials. The login credentials are based
on the source MAC address of the client connecting to a port on the Switch along with a password
configured specifically for MAC authentication on the Switch.
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Figure 90 MAC Authentication Process
1
New Connection
2
Authentication Request
3
Authentication Reply
Session Granted/Denied
18.2 Port Authentication Configuration
To enable port authentication, first activate the port authentication method(s) you want to use
(both on the Switch and the port(s)), then configure the RADIUS server settings in the AAA >
Radius Server Setup screen.
To activate a port authentication method, click Advanced Application > Port Authentication in
the navigation panel. Select a port authentication method in the screen that appears.
Figure 91 Advanced Application > Port Authentication
18.2.1 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
Use this screen to activate IEEE 802.1x security. In the Port Authentication screen click 802.1x
to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 92 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit 802.1x authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable 802.1x authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each
port.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this checkbox to permit 802.1x authentication on this port. You must first allow
802.1x authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Max-Req
Specify the number of times the Switch tries to authenticate client(s) before sending
unresponsive ports to the Guest VLAN.
This is set to 2 by default. That is, the Switch attempts to authenticate a client twice. If the
client does not respond to the first authentication request, the Switch tries again. If the
client still does not respond to the second request, the Switch sends the client to the Guest
VLAN. The client needs to send a new request to be authenticated by the Switch again.
Reauth
Specify if a subscriber has to periodically re-enter his or her username and password to
stay connected to the port.
Reauth-period
Specify the length of time required to pass before a client has to re-enter his or her
username and password to stay connected to the port.
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Table 61 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Quiet-period
Specify the number of seconds the port remains in the HELD state and rejects further
authentication requests from the connected client after a failed authentication exchange.
Tx-period
Specify the number of seconds the Switch waits for client’s response before re-sending an
identity request to the client.
Supp-Timeout
Specify the number of seconds the Switch waits for client’s response to a challenge request
before sending another request.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
18.2.2 Guest VLAN
When 802.1x port authentication is enabled on the Switch and its ports, clients that do not have the
correct credentials are blocked from using the port(s). You can configure your Switch to have one
VLAN that acts as a guest VLAN. If you enable the guest VLAN (102 in the example) on a port (2 in
the example), the user (A in the example) that is not IEEE 802.1x capable or fails to enter the
correct username and password can still access the port, but traffic from the user is forwarded to
the guest VLAN. That is, unauthenticated users can have access to limited network resources in the
same guest VLAN, such as the Internet. The rights granted to the Guest VLAN depends on how the
network administrator configures switches or routers with the guest network feature.
Figure 93 Guest VLAN Example
VLAN 100
VLAN 102
Internet
2
A
Use this screen to enable and assign a guest VLAN to a port. In the Port Authentication >
802.1x screen click Guest Vlan to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 94 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 62 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this checkbox to enable the guest VLAN feature on this port.
Clients that fail authentication are placed in the guest VLAN and can receive limited
services.
Guest Vlan
A guest VLAN is a pre-configured VLAN on the Switch that allows non-authenticated users
to access limited network resources through the Switch. You must also enable IEEE 802.1x
authentication on the Switch and the associated ports. Enter the number that identifies the
guest VLAN.
Host-mode
Specify how the Switch authenticates users when more than one user connect to the port
(using a hub).
Make sure this is a VLAN recognized in your network.
Select Multi-Host to authenticate only the first user that connects to this port. If the first
user enters the correct credential, any other users are allowed to access the port without
authentication. If the first user fails to enter the correct credential, they are all put in the
guest VLAN. Once the first user who did authentication logs out or disconnects from the
port, rest of the users are blocked until a user does the authentication process again.
Select Multi-Secure to authenticate each user that connects to this port.
Multi-Secure
Num
If you set Host-mode to Multi-Secure, specify the maximum number of users (between
1 and 5) that the Switch will authenticate on this port.
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Table 62 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
18.2.3 Activate MAC Authentication
Use this screen to activate MAC authentication. In the Port Authentication screen click MAC
Authentication to display the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 95 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 63 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit MAC authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable MAC authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each
port.
Name Prefix
Type the prefix that is appended to all MAC addresses sent to the RADIUS server for
authentication. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.
If you leave this field blank, then only the MAC address of the client is forwarded to the
RADIUS server.
Password
Type the password the Switch sends along with the MAC address of a client for
authentication with the RADIUS server. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.
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Table 63 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Timeout
Specify the amount of time before the Switch allows a client MAC address that fails
authentication to try and authenticate again. Maximum time is 3000 seconds.
When a client fails MAC authentication, its MAC address is learned by the MAC address
table with a status of denied. The timeout period you specify here is the time the MAC
address entry stays in the MAC address table until it is cleared. If you specify 0 for the
timeout value, then this entry will not be deleted from the MAC address table.
Note: If the Aging Time in the Switch Setup screen is set to a lower value, then it
supersedes this setting. See Section 8.4 on page 81.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this checkbox to permit MAC authentication on this port. You must first allow MAC
authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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19
Port Security
This chapter shows you how to set up port security.
19.1 About Port Security
Port security allows only packets with dynamically learned MAC addresses and/or configured static
MAC addresses to pass through a port on the Switch. The Switch can learn up to 16K MAC
addresses in total with no limit on individual ports other than the sum cannot exceed 16K.
For maximum port security, enable this feature, disable MAC address learning and configure static
MAC address(es) for a port. It is not recommended you disable port security together with MAC
address learning as this will result in many broadcasts. By default, MAC address learning is still
enabled even though the port security is not activated.
19.2 Port Security Setup
Click Advanced Application > Port Security in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
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Figure 96 Advanced Application > Port Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 64 Advanced Application > Port Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port List
Enter the number of the port(s) (separated by a comma) on which you want to enable port
security and disable MAC address learning. After you click MAC freeze, all previously
learned MAC addresses on the specified port(s) will become static MAC addresses and
display in the Static MAC Forwarding screen.
MAC freeze
Click MAC freeze to have the Switch automatically select the Active check boxes and clear
the Address Learning check boxes only for the ports specified in the Port list.
Active
Select this option to enable port security on the Switch.
Errdisable
Select this option to turn on error disable for port security on the Switch. The Switch shuts
down a port when the maximum number of MAC addresses that may be learned on a port is
reached.
Click the Errdisable link to go to the Errdisable Recovery screen where you can set the
port to become active automatically after a specified time interval.
Port
This field displays a port number.
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Table 64 Advanced Application > Port Security (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some of the settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable the port security feature on this port. The Switch forwards
packets whose MAC address(es) is in the MAC address table on this port. Packets with no
matching MAC address(es) are dropped.
Clear this check box to disable the port security feature. The Switch forwards all packets on
this port.
Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing broadcast traffic. For MAC address learning to occur
on a port, the port itself must be active with address learning enabled.
Limited Number
of Learned MAC
Address
Use this field to limit the number of (dynamic) MAC addresses that may be learned on a
port. For example, if you set this field to "5" on port 2, then only the devices with these five
learned MAC addresses may access port 2 at any one time. A sixth device must wait until
one of the five learned MAC addresses ages out. MAC address aging out time can be set in
the Switch Setup screen. The valid range is from “0” to “16384”. “0” means this feature is
disabled.
Shutdown
Select this option to allow the Switch to shut down the port when the specified number of
MAC addresses that may be learned on a port is reached.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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20
Range Profile
This chapter shows you how to create range profiles.
20.1 Range Profile Overview
A profile represents a group of saved settings that you can use across any number of screens. A
range profile allows you to define a specific range of ports, IP addresses, VLANs or socket ports.
20.2 Range Profile Screen
The Range Profile screens allow you to access and configure profiles for a range of VLANs, IP
addresses, ports and socket ports. Click Advanced Application > Range Profile in the navigation
panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 97 Advanced Application > Range Profile
20.3 VLAN Range Profile
Use this screen to view, manage and create VLAN range profiles. In the Range Profile screen, click
VLAN Range to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 98 Advanced Application > Range Profile > VLAN Range
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 Advanced Application > Range Profile > VLAN Range
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this profile for identifying purposes.
VLAN-ID
Enter the first and last VLAN ID number to specify a range of VLANs.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this
change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This field displays the index number of the profile. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this profile.
VLAN-ID
This field displays the ID number of the VLANs in this profile.
Referenced
This field displays whether this profile is in use by a feature, such as classifier.
Delete
Check the profile(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
20.4 Port Range Profile
Use this screen to view, manage and create port range profiles. In the Range Profile screen, click
Port Range to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 99 Advanced Application > Range Profile > Port Range
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 66 Advanced Application > Range Profile > Port Range
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this profile for identifying purposes.
Port Number
Select the number of ports you want to include in this profile.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this
change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This field displays the index number of the profile. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this profile.
Port Number
This field displays the number of ports in this profile.
Referenced
This field displays whether this profile is in use by a feature, such as classifier.
Delete
Check the profile(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
20.5 IP Address Range Profile
Use this screen to view, manage and create IP address range profiles. In the Range Profile screen,
click IP Address Range to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 100 Advanced Application > Range Profile > IP Address Range
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 67 Advanced Application > Range Profile > IP Address Range
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this profile for identifying purposes.
Type
Select to specify the source or destination IP addresses.
IP Address
Enter the first and last IP address to specify a range of IP addresses.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this
change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This field displays the index number of the profile. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this profile.
Type
This field displays the type of the IP address(es) in this profile.
IP Address
This field displays the range of IP addresses defined in this profile.
Referenced
This field displays whether this profile is in use by a feature, such as classifier.
Delete
Check the profile(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
20.6 Socket-Port Range Profile
Use this screen to view, manage and create socket port range profiles. In the Range Profile
screen, click Socket-port Range to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 101 Advanced Application > Range Profile > Socket-port Range
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 Advanced Application > Range Profile > Socket-port Range
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this profile for identifying purposes.
Type
Select to specify the source or destination socket port numbers.
IP Address
Enter the first and last socket port numbers to specify a range of socket port numbers.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this
change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This field displays the index number of the profile. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this profile.
Type
This field displays the type of the socket ports in this profile.
Socket-Port
This field displays the range of socket ports defined in this profile.
Referenced
This field displays whether this profile is in use by a feature, such as classifier.
Delete
Check the profile(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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21
Classifier
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the packet classifier on the Switch.
21.1 About the Classifier and QoS
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and
the networking methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is
equally likely to be dropped when the network is congested. This can cause a reduction in network
performance and make the network inadequate for time-critical application such as video-ondemand.
A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source address,
destination address, source port number, destination port number or incoming port number. For
example, you can configure a classifier to select traffic from the same protocol port (such as Telnet)
to form a flow.
Configure QoS on the Switch to group and prioritize application traffic and fine-tune network
performance. Setting up QoS involves two separate steps:
1
Configure classifiers to sort traffic into different flows.
2
Configure policy rules to define actions to be performed for a classified traffic flow (refer to Chapter
22 on page 185 to configure policy rules).
21.2 Configuring the Classifier
Use the Classifier screen to define the classifiers. After you define the classifier, you can specify
actions (or policy) to act upon the traffic that matches the rules. To configure policy rules, refer to
Chapter 22 on page 185.
Click Advanced Application > Classifier in the navigation panel to display the configuration
screen as shown.
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Figure 102 Advanced Application > Classifier
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 69 Advanced Application > Classifier
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Layer 2
Specify the fields below to configure a layer-2 classifier.
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Table 69 Advanced Application > Classifier (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN
Select Any to classify traffic from any VLAN.
Select Single and specify a source VLAN ID in the field provided.
Select Range and choose a pre-defined VLAN range profile.
Priority
Select Any to classify traffic from any priority level or select the second option and specify a
priority level in the field provided.
Ethernet
Type
Select an Ethernet type or select Others and enter the Ethernet type number in hexadecimal
value. Refer to Table 71 on page 183 for information.
Source
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a source, select MAC/Mask to enter the source MAC address of the packet in valid
MAC address format (six hexadecimal character pairs) and type the mask for the specified MAC
address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address should match.
Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to 00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to
ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria. If you
leave the Mask field blank, the Switch automatically sets the mask to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
Port
Select Any to apply the rule to all ports.
Select Single and specify a port number to which the rule should be applied.
Select Range and choose a pre-defined port range profile to apply the rule to the ports defined in
the profile.
Destination
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a destination, select MAC/Mask to enter the destination MAC address of the packet in
valid MAC address format (six hexadecimal character pairs) and type the mask for the specified
MAC address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address should match.
Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to 00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to
ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria. If you
leave the Mask field blank, the Switch automatically sets the mask to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
Layer 3
Specify the fields below to configure a layer-3 classifier.
DSCP/ToS
Select DSCP and Any to classify traffic from any DSCP or select a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point)
number between 0 and 63 in the field provided.
Select ToS and Any to classify traffic from any ToS or select an IP Precedence (the first 3 bits of
of the 8-bit ToS field) value in the first field next to the ToS option and a Type of Service (the last
5 bits of the 8-bit ToS field) value in the second field.
IP
Protocol
Select an IP protocol type or select Other and enter the protocol number in decimal value. Refer
to Table 72 on page 183 for more information.
You may select Establish Only for TCP protocol type. This means that the Switch will pick out
the packets that are sent to establish TCP connections.
IPv6 Next
Header
Select an IPv6 protocol type or select Other and enter an 8-bit next header in the IPv6 packet.
The Next Header field is similar to the IPv4 Protocol field. The IPv6 protocol number ranges from
1 to 255.
You may select Establish Only for TCP protocol type. This means that the Switch will identify
packets that initiate or acknowledge (establish) TCP connections.
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Table 69 Advanced Application > Classifier (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source
IP
Address
Socket
Number
Select Prefix to enter a source IP address and specify the address prefix by entering the number
of ones in the subnet mask. Otherwise, select Range and choose a predefined source IP address
range profile.
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before you configure the socket
numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers.
Select Single and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number.
Select Range and choose a pre-defined socket port range profile.
Destination
IP
Address
Socket
Number
Select Prefix to enter a destination IP address and specify the address prefix by entering the
number of ones in the subnet mask. Otherwise, select Range and choose a predefined
destination IP address range profile.
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before you configure the socket
numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers.
Select Single and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number.
Select Range and choose a pre-defined socket port range profile.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the Switch’s
run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
21.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the bottom
of the Classifier screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index field.
Note: When two rules conflict with each other, a higher layer rule has priority over a lower
layer rule.
Figure 103 Advanced Application > Classifier: Summary Table
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 Classifier: Summary Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule
Usage
This field displays how many rules have been configured on the Switch.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purposes only.
Rule
This field displays a summary of the classifier rule’s settings.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
The following table shows some other common Ethernet types and the corresponding protocol
number.
Table 71 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Number
ETHERNET TYPE
PROTOCOL NUMBER
IP ETHII
0800
X.75 Internet
0801
NBS Internet
0802
ECMA Internet
0803
Chaosnet
0804
X.25 Level 3
0805
XNS Compat
0807
Banyan Systems
0BAD
BBN Simnet
5208
IBM SNA
80D5
AppleTalk AARP
80F3
Some of the most common IP ports are:
Table 72 Common IP Ports
PORT NUMBER
PORT NAME
21
FTP
23
Telnet
25
SMTP
53
DNS
80
HTTP
110
POP3
21.4 Classifier Example
The following screen shows an example of configuring a classifier that identifies all traffic from MAC
address 00:50:ba:ad:4f:81 on port 2.
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Figure 104 Classifier: Example
EXAMPLE
After you have configured a classifier, you can configure a policy to define action(s) on the classified
traffic flow. See Chapter 22 on page 185 for information on configuring a policy rule.
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22
Policy Rule
This chapter shows you how to configure policy rules.
22.1 Policy Rules Overview
A classifier distinguishes traffic into flows based on the configured criteria (refer to Chapter 21 on
page 179 for more information). A policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the requested
treatment in the network.
22.1.1 DiffServ
DiffServ (Differentiated Services) is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they
receive specific per-hop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on
the application types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs)
indicating the level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network
devices to handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to
negotiate paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have
to request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
22.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (TOS) field
in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field which can define
up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that non-DiffServ
compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
DSCP (6 bits)
Unused (2 bits)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet
gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic can be
marked for different kinds of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to the DSCP
values and the configured policies.
22.2 Configuring Policy Rules
You must first configure a classifier in the Classifier screen. Refer to Section 21.2 on page 179 for
more information.
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Click Advanced Applications > Policy Rule in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
Figure 105 Advanced Application > Policy Rule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 73 Advanced Application > Policy Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable the policy.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the active classifier(s) you configure in the Classifier screen.
Select the classifier(s) to which this policy rule applies. To select more than one classifier,
press [SHIFT] and select the choices at the same time.
Parameters
Set the fields below for this policy. You only have to set the field(s) that is related to the action(s) you
configure in the Action field.
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Table 73 Advanced Application > Policy Rule (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Egress Port
Type the number of an outgoing port.
Priority
Specify a priority level.
DSCP
Specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63.
TOS
Specify the type of service (TOS) priority level.
Rate Limit
Bandwidth
You can configure the desired bandwidth available to a traffic flow.
Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 1 and 1000000.
Action
Specify the action(s) the Switch takes on the associated classified traffic flow.
Forwarding
Select No change to forward the packets.
Select Discard the packet to drop the packets.
Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to retain the
frames that were marked to be dropped before.
Priority
Select No change to keep the priority setting of the frames.
Select Set the packet’s 802.1p priority and send the packet to priority queue to
replace the packet’s 802.1p priority field with the value you set in the Priority field. Then put
the packets in the designated queue.
Diffserv
Select No change to keep the TOS and/or DSCP fields in the packets.
Select Set the packet’s TOS field to set the TOS field with the value you configure in the
TOS field.
Select Set the Diffserv Codepoint field in the frame to set the DSCP field with the value
you configure in the DSCP field.
Outgoing
Select Send the packet to the egress port to send the packet to the egress port.
Rate Limit
Select Enable to activate bandwidth limitation on the traffic flow(s).
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power,
so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile
memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
22.3 Viewing and Editing Policy Configuration
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the bottom
of the Policy screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index field.
Figure 106 Advanced Application > Policy Rule: Summary Table
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 Policy: Summary Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule Usage
This field displays how many rules have been configured on the Switch.
Index
This field displays the policy index number. Click an index number to edit the policy.
Active
This field displays Yes when policy is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the name you have assigned to this policy.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the name(s) of the classifier to which this policy applies.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
22.4 Policy Example
The figure below shows an example Policy screen where you configure a policy to limit bandwidth
on a traffic flow classified using the Example classifier (refer to Section 21.4 on page 183).
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Figure 107 Policy Example
EXAMPLE
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23
Queuing Method
This chapter introduces the queuing methods supported.
23.1 Queuing Method Overview
Queuing is used to help solve performance degradation when there is network congestion. Use the
Queuing Method screen to configure queuing algorithms for outgoing traffic. See also Priority
Queue Assignment in Switch Setup and 802.1p Priority in Port Setup for related information.
Queuing algorithms allow switches to maintain separate queues for packets from each individual
source or flow and prevent a source from monopolizing the bandwidth.
23.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing
Strictly Priority Queuing (SPQ) services queues based on priority only. As traffic comes into the
Switch, traffic on the highest priority queue, Q7 is transmitted first. When that queue empties,
traffic on the next highest-priority queue, Q6 is transmitted until Q6 empties, and then traffic is
transmitted on Q5 and so on. If higher priority queues never empty, then traffic on lower priority
queues never gets sent. SP does not automatically adapt to changing network requirements.
23.1.2 Weighted Fair Queuing
Weighted Fair Queuing is used to guarantee each queue's minimum bandwidth based on its
bandwidth weight (the number you configure in the Weight field) when there is traffic congestion.
WFQ is activated only when a port has more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights
get more guaranteed bandwidth than queues with smaller weights. By default, the weight for Q0 is
1, for Q1 is 2, for Q2 is 3, and so on.
The weights range from 1 to 15 and the actual guaranteed bandwidth is calculated as follows:
2(Weight -1) x 10 KB
If the weight setting is 5, the actual quantum guaranteed to the associated queue would be as
follows:
24 x 10KB = 160 KB
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23.1.3 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR)
Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis and is activated only when a port has
more traffic than it can handle. A queue is a given an amount of bandwidth irrespective of the
incoming traffic on that port. This queue then moves to the back of the list. The next queue is given
an equal amount of bandwidth, and then moves to the end of the list; and so on, depending on the
number of queues being used. This works in a looping fashion until a queue is empty.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) uses the same algorithm as round robin scheduling, but
services queues based on their priority and queue weight (the number you configure in the queue
Weight field) rather than a fixed amount of bandwidth. WRR is activated only when a port has
more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights get more service than queues with
smaller weights. This queuing mechanism is highly efficient in that it divides any available
bandwidth across the different traffic queues and returns to queues that have not yet emptied.
23.2 Configuring Queuing
Click Advanced Application > Queuing Method in the navigation panel.
Figure 108 Advanced Application > Queuing Method
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 Advanced Application > Queuing Method
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This label shows the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Method
Select SPQ (Strictly Priority Queuing), WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing) or WRR (Weighted Round
Robin).
Strictly Priority services queues based on priority only. When the highest priority queue empties,
traffic on the next highest-priority queue begins. Q7 has the highest priority and Q0 the lowest.
Weighted Fair Queuing is used to guarantee each queue's minimum bandwidth based on their
bandwidth weight (the number you configure in the Weight field). Queues with larger weights
get more guaranteed bandwidth than queues with smaller weights.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis based on their queue
weight (the number you configure in the queue Weight field). Queues with larger weights get
more service than queues with smaller weights.
Weight
Q0-Q7
HybridSPQ
LowestQueue
When you select WFQ or WRR enter the queue weight here. Bandwidth is divided across the
different traffic queues according to their weights.
This field is applicable only when you select WFQ or WRR.
Select a queue (Q0 to Q7) to have the Switch use SPQ to service the subsequent queue(s) after
and including the specified queue. For example, if you select Q5, the Switch services traffic on
Q5, Q6 and Q7 using SPQ.
Select None to always use WFQ or WRR.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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24
VLAN Stacking
This chapter shows you how to configure VLAN stacking on your Switch. See the chapter on VLANs
for more background information on Virtual LAN.
24.1 VLAN Stacking Overview
A service provider can use VLAN stacking to allow it to distinguish multiple customers VLANs, even
those with the same (customer-assigned) VLAN ID, within its network.
Use VLAN stacking to add an outer VLAN tag to the inner IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames that enter the
network. By tagging the tagged frames (“double-tagged” frames), the service provider can manage
up to 4,094 VLAN groups with each group containing up to 4,094 customer VLANs. This allows a
service provider to provide different service, based on specific VLANs, for many different
customers.
A service provider’s customers may require a range of VLANs to handle multiple applications. A
service provider’s customers can assign their own inner VLAN tags on ports for these applications.
The service provider can assign an outer VLAN tag for each customer. Therefore, there is no VLAN
tag overlap among customers, so traffic from different customers is kept separate.
24.1.1 VLAN Stacking Example
In the following example figure, both A and B are Service Provider’s Network (SPN) customers with
VPN tunnels between their head offices and branch offices respectively. Both have an identical VLAN
tag for their VLAN group. The service provider can separate these two VLANs within its network by
adding tag 37 to distinguish customer A and tag 48 to distinguish customer B at edge device 1 and
then stripping those tags at edge device 2 as the data frames leave the network.
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Figure 109 VLAN Stacking Example
24.2 VLAN Stacking Port Roles
Each port can have three VLAN stacking “roles”, Normal, Access Port and Tunnel Port (the latter
is for Gigabit ports only).
• Select Normal for “regular” (non-VLAN stacking) IEEE 802.1Q frame switching.
• Select Access Port for ingress ports on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN
stacking example figure). The incoming frame is treated as "untagged", so a second VLAN tag
(outer VLAN tag) can be added.
Note: Static VLAN Tx Tagging MUST be disabled on a port where you choose Normal or
Access Port.
• Select Tunnel Port (available for Gigabit ports only) for egress ports at the edge of the service
provider's network. All VLANs belonging to a customer can be aggregated into a single service
provider's VLAN (using the outer VLAN tag defined by the Service Provider’s (SP) VLAN ID
(VID)).
Note: Static VLAN Tx Tagging MUST be enabled on a port where you choose Tunnel
Port.
24.3 VLAN Tag Format
A VLAN tag (service provider VLAN stacking or customer IEEE 802.1Q) consists of the following
three fields.
Table 76 VLAN Tag Format
Type
Priority
VID
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Type is a standard Ethernet type code identifying the frame and indicates that whether the frame
carries IEEE 802.1Q tag information. SP TPID (Service Provider Tag Protocol Identifier) is the
service provider VLAN stacking tag type. Many vendors use 0x8100 or 0x9100.
TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier) is the customer IEEE 802.1Q tag.
• If the VLAN stacking port role is Access Port, then the Switch adds the SP TPID tag to all
incoming frames on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN stacking example
figure).
• If the VLAN stacking port role is Tunnel Port, then the Switch only adds the SP TPID tag to all
incoming frames on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN stacking example
figure) that have an SP TPID different to the one configured on the Switch. (If an incoming
frame’s SP TPID is the same as the one configured on the Switch, then the Switch will not add
the tag.)
Priority refers to the IEEE 802.1p standard that allows the service provider to prioritize traffic
based on the class of service (CoS) the customer has paid for.
• On the Switch, configure priority level of the inner IEEE 802.1Q tag in the Port Setup screen.
• "0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
VID is the VLAN ID. SP VID is the VID for the second (service provider’s) VLAN tag.
24.3.1 Frame Format
The frame format for an untagged Ethernet frame, a single-tagged 802.1Q frame (customer) and a
“double-tagged” 802.1Q frame (service provider) is shown next.
Configure the fields as highlighted in the Switch VLAN Stacking screen.
Table 77 Single and Double Tagged 802.11Q Frame Format
DA
SA
SPTPID
DA
SA
Len/Etype
Data
FCS
Untagged
Ethernet frame
DA
SA
TPID
Priority
VID
Len/Etype
Data
FCS
IEEE 802.1Q
customer
tagged frame
Priority
VID
TPID
Priority
VID
Len/Etype
Data
FCS
Double-tagged
frame
Table 78 802.1Q Frame
DA
Destination Address
Priority
802.1p Priority
SA
Source Address
Len/Etype
Length and type of Ethernet frame
(SP)TPID
(Service Provider) Tag Protocol IDentifier
Data
Frame data
VID
VLAN ID
FCS
Frame Check Sequence
24.4 Configuring VLAN Stacking
Click Advanced Applications > VLAN Stacking to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 110 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 79 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this checkbox to enable VLAN stacking on the Switch.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Role
Select Normal to have the Switch ignore frames received (or transmitted) on this port with VLAN
stacking tags. Anything you configure in SPVID and Priority of the Port-based QinQ or the
Selective QinQ screen are ignored.
Select Access Port to have the Switch add the SP TPID tag to all incoming frames received on
this port. Select Access Port for ingress ports at the edge of the service provider's network.
Select Tunnel Port (available for Gigabit ports only) for egress ports at the edge of the service
provider's network. Select Tunnel Port to have the Switch add the Tunnel TPID tag to all
outgoing frames sent on this port.
In order to support VLAN stacking on a port, the port must be able to allow frames of 1526 Bytes
(1522 Bytes + 4 Bytes for the second tag) to pass through it.
Tunnel
TPID
TPID is a standard Ethernet type code identifying the frame and indicates whether the frame
carries IEEE 802.1Q tag information. Enter a four-digit hexadecimal number from 0000 to FFFF
that the Switch adds in the outer VLAN tag of the frames sent on the tunnel port(s). The Switch
also uses this to check if the received frames are double-tagged.
The value of this field is 0x8100 as defined in IEEE 802.1Q. If the Switch needs to communicate
with other vendors’ devices, they should use the same TPID.
Note: You can define up to four different tunnel TPIDs (including 8100) in this screen at a time.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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24.4.1 Port-based Q-in-Q
Port-based Q-in-Q lets the Switch treat all frames received on the same port as the same VLAN
flows and add the same outer VLAN tag to them, even they have different customer VLAN IDs.
Click Port-based QinQ in the Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking screen to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 111 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Port-based QinQ
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Port-based QinQ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
SPVID
SPVID is the service provider’s VLAN ID (the outer VLAN tag). Enter the service provider ID (from
1 to 4094) for frames received on this port. See Chapter 9 on page 100 for more background
information on VLAN ID.
Priority
Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the service provider’s priority level that adds to the
frames received on this port. You can also select copy-from-inner to use the existing customer
priority level carried in the frames.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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24.4.2 Selective Q-in-Q
Selective Q-in-Q is VLAN-based. It allows the Switch to add different outer VLAN tags to the
incoming frames received on one port according to their inner VLAN tags.
Note: Selective Q-in-Q rules are only applied to single-tagged frames received on the
access ports. If the incoming frames are untagged or single-tagged but received on
a tunnel port or cannot match any selective Q-in-Q rules, the Switch applies the
port-based Q-in-Q rules to them.
Click Selective QinQ in the Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking screen to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 112 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 81 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
CVID
Enter a customer VLAN ID (the inner VLAN tag) from 1 to 4094. This is the VLAN tag carried in the
packets from the subscribers.
SPVID
SPVID is the service provider’s VLAN ID (the outer VLAN tag). Enter the service provider ID (from
1 to 4094) for frames received on this port. See Chapter 9 on page 100 for more background
information on VLAN ID.
Priority
Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the service provider’s priority level that adds to the
frames received on this port. You can also select copy-from-inner to use the existing customer
priority level carried in the frames.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Table 81 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the number of the selective VLAN stacking rule.
Active
This shows whether this rule is activated or not.
Name
This is the descriptive name for this rule.
Port
This is the port number to which this rule is applied.
CVID
This is the customer VLAN ID in the incoming packets.
SPVID
This is the service provider’s VLAN ID that adds to the packets from the subscribers.
Priority
This is the service provider’s priority level in the packets.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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25
Multicast
This chapter shows you how to configure various multicast features.
25.1 Multicast Overview
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender to 1 recipient)
or Broadcast (1 sender to everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to just a group
of hosts on the network.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. Refer to RFC 1112, RFC 2236
and RFC 3376 for information on IGMP versions 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
25.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses
In IPv4, a multicast address allows a device to send packets to a specific group of hosts (multicast
group) in a different subnetwork. A multicast IP address represents a traffic receiving group, not
individual receiving devices. IP addresses in the Class D range (224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255) are
used for IP multicasting. Certain IP multicast numbers are reserved by IANA for special purposes
(see the IANA website for more information).
25.1.2 IGMP Filtering
With the IGMP filtering feature, you can control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a port can join.
This allows you to control the distribution of multicast services (such as content information
distribution) based on service plans and types of subscription.
You can set the Switch to filter the multicast group join reports on a per-port basis by configuring
an IGMP filtering profile and associating the profile to a port.
25.1.3 IGMP Snooping
The Switch can passively snoop on IGMP packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches
and IP multicast hosts to learn the IP multicast group membership. It checks IGMP packets passing
through it, picks out the group registration information, and configures multicasting accordingly.
IGMP snooping allows the Switch to learn multicast groups without you having to manually
configure them.
The Switch forwards multicast traffic destined for multicast groups (that it has learned from IGMP
snooping or that you have manually configured) to ports that are members of that group. IGMP
snooping generates no additional network traffic, allowing you to significantly reduce multicast
traffic passing through your Switch.
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25.1.4 IGMP Snooping and VLANs
The Switch can perform IGMP snooping on up to 16 VLANs. You can configure the Switch to
automatically learn multicast group membership of any VLANs. The Switch then performs IGMP
snooping on the first 16 VLANs that send IGMP packets. This is referred to as auto mode.
Alternatively, you can specify the VLANs that IGMP snooping should be performed on. This is
referred to as fixed mode. In fixed mode the Switch does not learn multicast group membership of
any VLANs other than those explicitly added as an IGMP snooping VLAN.
25.1.5 MLD Snooping-proxy
MLD snooping-proxy is a ZyXEL-proprietary feature. IPv6 MLD proxy allows only one upstream
interface on a switch, while MLD snooping-proxy supports more than one upstream port on a
switch. The upstream port in MLD snooping-proxy can report group changes to a connected
multicast router and forward MLD messages to other upstream ports. This helps especially when
you want to have a network that uses STP to provide backup links between switches and also
performs MLD snooping and proxy functions. MLD snooping-proxy, like MLD proxy, can minimize
MLD control messages and allow better network performance.
In MLD snooping-proxy, if one upstream port is learned via snooping, all other upstream ports on
the same device will be added to the same group. If one upstream port requests to leave a group,
all other upstream ports on the same device will also be removed from the group.
In the following MLD snooping-proxy example, all connected upstream ports (1 ~7) are treated as
one interface. The connection between ports 8 and 9 is blocked by STP to break the loop. If there is
one query from a router (X) or MLD Done or Report message from any upstream port, it will be
broadcast to all connected upstream ports.
X
1
Query
2
9
8
3
Report
7
4
6
5
Done
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25.1.6 MLD Messages
A multicast router or switch periodically sends general queries to MLD hosts to update the multicast
forwarding table. When an MLD host wants to join a multicast group, it sends an MLD Report
message for that address.
An MLD Done message is similar to an IGMP Leave message. When an MLD host wants to leave a
multicast group, it can send a Done message to the router or switch. If the leave mode is not set to
Immediate, the router or switch sends a group-specific query to the port on which the Done
message is received to determine if other devices connected to this port should remain in the
group.
25.2 Multicast Setup
Use this screen to configure IGMP for IPv4 or MLD for IPv6 and set up multicast VLANs. Click
Advanced Application > Multicast in the navigation panel.
Figure 113 Advanced Application > Multicast
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 82 Advanced Application > Multicast
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv4 Multicast
Click the link to open screens where you can configure IGMP snooping and IGMP filtering
for IPv4.
IPv6 Multicast
Click the link to open screens where you can configure MLD snooping-proxy and MLD
filtering for IPv6.
MVR
Click the link to open screens where you can create multicast VLANs.
25.3 IPv4 Multicast Status
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast to display the screen as shown. This
screen shows the IPv4 multicast group information. See Section 25.1 on page 200 for more
information on multicasting.
Figure 114 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 83 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
VID
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Port
This field displays the port number that belongs to the multicast group.
Multicast Group
This field displays IP multicast group addresses.
25.3.1 IGMP Snooping
Click the IGMP Snooping link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast
screen to display the screen as shown. See Section 25.1 on page 200 for more information on
multicasting.
Figure 115 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IGMP Snooping
Use these settings to configure IGMP Snooping.
Mode
The Switch supports IGMP version 1, IGMP version 2 and IGMP version 3.
Select the version of the IGMP packets that the Switch should use (Version2 or
Version3) to enable IGMP Snooping to forward group multicast traffic only to ports that
are members of that group. Otherwise, select Disable.
Querier
Select this option to allow the Switch to send IGMP General Query messages to the VLANs
with the multicast hosts attached.
Host Timeout
Specify the time (from 1 to 16 711 450) in seconds that elapses before the Switch
removes an IGMP group membership entry if it does not receive report messages from
the port.
802.1p
Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the priority in outgoing IGMP
control packets. Otherwise, select No-Change to not replace the priority.
IGMP Filtering
Select Active to enable IGMP filtering to control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a
port can join.
Note: If you enable IGMP filtering, you must create and assign IGMP filtering profiles for the
ports that you want to allow to join multicast groups.
Unknown
Multicast Frame
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives an unknown multicast frame.
Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all ports.
Reserved
Multicast Group
The IP address range of 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255 are reserved for multicasting on the
local network only. For example, 224.0.0.1 is for all hosts on a local network segment and
224.0.0.9 is used to send RIP routing information to all RIP v2 routers on the same
network segment. A multicast router will not forward a packet with the destination IP
address within this range to other networks. See the IANA web site for more information.
The layer-2 multicast MAC addresses used by Cisco layer-2 protocols,
01:00:0C:CC:CC:CC and 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CD, are also included in this group.
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives a frame with a reserved multicast
address. Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all
ports.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Immed. Leave
Select this option to set the Switch to remove this port from the multicast tree when an
IGMP version 2 leave message is received on this port.
Select this option if there is only one host connected to this port.
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Table 84 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Normal Leave
Enter an IGMP normal leave timeout value (from 200 to 6,348,800) in miliseconds. Select
this option to have the Switch use this timeout to update the forwarding table for the
port.
In normal leave mode, when the Switch receives an IGMP leave message from a host on
a port, the Switch waits for IGMP reports after the multicast router sends out an IGMP
Group-Specific Query (GSQ) message to determine whether other hosts connected to the
port should remain in the specific multicast group.
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing an
IGMP snooping membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received on this port
from a host.
Note: The timeout value for each IGMP report will be halved automatically by the Switch
because the robustness variable value (the number of query messages) is set to two
by default to cover the possibility of an IGMP GSQ being missed by IGMP host(s) or
an IGMP report being missed by the multicast router(s) due to network congestion.
Fast Leave
Enter an IGMP fast leave timeout value (from 200 to 6,348,800) in miliseconds. Select
this option to have the Switch use this timeout to update the forwarding table for the
port.
In fast leave mode, right after receiving an IGMP leave message from a host on a port,
the Switch sends out an IGMP Group-Specific Query (GSQ) message to determine
whether other hosts connected to the port should remain in the specific multicast group.
This helps speed up the leave process.
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing an
IGMP snooping membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received on this port
from a host.
Group Limited
Select this option to limit the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join.
Max Group Num.
Enter the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join. Once a port is registered
in the specified number of multicast groups, any new IGMP join report frame(s) is
dropped on this port.
Throttling
IGMP throttling controls how the Switch deals with the IGMP reports when the maximum
number of the IGMP groups a port can join is reached.
Select Deny to drop any new IGMP join report received on this port until an existing
multicast forwarding table entry is aged out.
Select Replace to replace an existing entry in the multicast forwarding table with the new
IGMP report(s) received on this port.
IGMP Filtering
Profile
Select the name of the IGMP filtering profile to use for this port. Otherwise, select
Default to prohibit the port from joining any multicast group.
You can create IGMP filtering profiles in the Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP
Filtering Profile screen.
IGMP Querier
Mode
The Switch treats an IGMP query port as being connected to an IGMP multicast router (or
server). The Switch forwards IGMP join or leave packets to an IGMP query port.
Select Auto to have the Switch use the port as an IGMP query port if the port receives
IGMP query packets.
Select Fixed to have the Switch always use the port as an IGMP query port. Select this
when you connect an IGMP multicast server to the port.
Select Edge to stop the Switch from using the port as an IGMP query port. The Switch will
not keep any record of an IGMP router being connected to this port. The Switch does not
forward IGMP join or leave packets to this port.
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Table 84 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
25.3.2 IGMP Snooping VLAN
Click Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast in the navigation panel. Click the
IGMP Snooping link and then the IGMP Snooping VLAN link to display the screen as shown. See
Section 25.1.4 on page 201 for more information on IGMP Snooping VLAN.
Figure 116 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping
VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 85 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping
VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
Select auto to have the Switch learn multicast group membership information of any
VLANs automatically.
Select fixed to have the Switch only learn multicast group membership information of the
VLAN(s) that you specify below.
In either auto or fixed mode, the Switch can learn up to 16 VLANs (including up to five
VLANs you configured in the MVR screen). For example, if you have configured one
multicast VLAN in the MVR screen, you can only specify up to 15 VLANs in this screen.
The Switch drops any IGMP control messages which do not belong to these 16 VLANs.
Note: You must also enable IGMP snooping in the IGMP Snooping screen first.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
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Table 85 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping
VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
Use this section of the screen to add VLANs upon which the Switch is to perform IGMP
snooping.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of the VLAN for identification purposes.
VID
Enter the ID of a static VLAN; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses
power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields.
Index
This is the number of the IGMP snooping VLAN entry in the table.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
Note: You cannot configure the same VLAN ID as in the MVR screen.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
25.3.3 IGMP Filtering Profile
An IGMP filtering profile specifies a range of multicast groups that clients connected to the Switch
are able to join. A profile contains a range of multicast IP addresses which you want clients to be
able to join. Profiles are assigned to ports (in the IGMP Snooping screen). Clients connected to
those ports are then able to join the multicast groups specified in the profile. Each port can be
assigned a single profile. A profile can be assigned to multiple ports.
Click Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast in the navigation panel. Click the
IGMP Snooping link and then the IGMP Filtering Profile link to display the screen as shown.
Figure 117 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Filtering
Profile
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 86 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Filtering
Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes.
To configure additional rule(s) for a profile that you have already added, enter the profile
name and specify a different IP multicast address range.
Start Address
Type the starting multicast IP address for a range of multicast IP addresses that you want
to belong to the IGMP filter profile.
End Address
Type the ending multicast IP address for a range of IP addresses that you want to belong
to the IGMP filter profile.
If you want to add a single multicast IP address, enter it in both the Start Address and
End Address fields.
Add
Click Add to save the profile to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile.
Start Address
This field displays the start of the multicast address range.
End Address
This field displays the end of the multicast address range.
Delete
To delete the profile(s) and all the accompanying rules, select the profile(s) that you want
to remove in the Delete Profile column, then click the Delete button.
To delete a rule(s) from a profile, select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete
Rule column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete Profile/Delete Rule check boxes.
25.4 IPv6 Multicast Status
Click Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast to display the screen as shown. This
screen shows the IPv6 multicast group information. See Section 25.1 on page 200 for more
information on multicasting.
Figure 118 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 87 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
VID
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Port
This field displays the port number that belongs to the multicast group.
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Table 87 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast Group
This field displays IP multicast group addresses.
Group Timeout
This field displays the time (in seconds) that elapses before the Switch removes a MLD
group membership entry if it does not receive report messages from the port.
25.4.1 MLD Snooping-proxy
Click the MLD Snooping-proxy link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast
screen to display the screen as shown. See Section 25.1 on page 200 for more information on
multicasting.
Figure 119 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 88 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MLD Snooping-proxy
Use these settings to configure MLD snooping-proxy.
Active
Select Active to enable MLD snooping-proxy on the Switch to minimize MLD control
messages and allow better network performance.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the priority in outgoing MLD
messages.
Unknown Multicast
Frame
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives an unknown multicast frame.
Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all ports. Select Drop to discard the
frame(s).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
25.4.2 MLD Snooping-proxy VLAN
Click the VLAN link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD
Snooping-proxy screen to display the screen as shown. See Section 25.1 on page 200 for more
information on multicasting.
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Figure 120 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 89 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN on which you want to enable MLD snooping-proxy
and configure related settings.
Upstream
Query Interval
Enter the amount of time (in miliseconds) between general query messages sent by
the router connected to the upstream port. This value should be exactly the same as
what’s configured in the connected multicast router.
This value is used to calculate the amount of time an MLD snooping membership
entry (learned only on the upstream port) can remain in the forwarding table.
When an MLD Report message is received, the Switch sets the timeout period of the
entry to be T = (QI*RV) + MRD, where T = Timeout, QI = Query Interval, RV =
Robustness Variable, and MRD = Maximum Response Delay.
Maximum Response
Delay
Enter the amount of time (in miliseconds) the router connected to the upstream port
waits for a response to an MLD general query message. This value should be exactly
the same as what’s configured in the connected multicast router.
This value is used to calculate the amount of time an MLD snooping membership
entry (learned only on the upstream port) can remain in the forwarding table.
When an MLD Report message is received, the Switch sets the timeout period of the
entry to be T = (QI*RV) + MRD, where T = Timeout, QI = Query Interval, RV =
Robustness Variable, and MRD = Maximum Response Delay.
When an MLD Done message is received, the Switch sets the entry’s lifetime to be the
product of Last Member Query Interval and Robustness Variable.
Robustness Variable
Enter the number of queries. A multicast address entry (learned only on an upstream
port by snooping) is removed from the forwarding table when there is no response to
the configured number of queries sent by the router connected to the upstream port.
This value should be exactly the same as what’s configured in the connected multicast
router.
This value is used to calculate the amount of time an MLD snooping membership
entry (learned only on the upstream port) can remain in the forwarding table.
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Table 89 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Last Member Query
Interval
Enter the amount of time (in miliseconds) between the MLD group-specific queries
sent by an upstream port when an MLD Done message is received. This value should
be exactly the same as what’s configured in the connected multicast router.
This value is used to calculate the amount of time an MLD snooping membership
entry (learned only on the upstream port) can remain in the forwarding table after a
Done message is received.
When an MLD Done message is received, the Switch sets the entry’s lifetime to be the
product of Last Member Query Interval and Robustness Variable.
Downstream
Query Interval
Enter the amount of time (in miliseconds) between general query messages sent by
the downstream port.
Maximum Response
Delay
Enter the maximum time (in miliseconds) that the Switch waits for a response to a
general query message sent by the downstream port.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of the MLD snooping-proxy VLAN entry in the table. Click on
an index number to view more details or change the settings.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
25.4.3 MLD Snooping-proxy VLAN Port Role Setting
Click the Port Role Setting link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast >
MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN screen to display the screen as shown. See Section 25.1 on page
200 for more information on multicasting.
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Figure 121 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Port Role
Setting
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 90 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Port Role
Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MLD Snooping-proxy
VLAN ID
Select the VLAN ID for which you want to configure a port’s MLD snooping-proxy
settings.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Port Role
A port on the Switch can be either a Downstream port or Upstream port in MLD. A
downstream port connects to MLD hosts and acts as a multicast router to send MLD
queries and listen to the MLD host’s Report and Done messages. An upstream port
connects to a multicast router and works as a host to send Report or Done messages
when receiving queries from a multicast router.
Otherwise, select None if the port is not joining a multicast group or does not belong
to this VLAN.
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Table 90 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Port Role
Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Leave Mode
Select the leave mode for the specified downstream port(s) in this VLAN.
This specifies whether the Switch removes an MLD snooping membership entry
(learned on a downstream port) immediately (Immediate) or wait for an MLD report
before the leave timeout (Normal) or fast leave timeout (Fast) when an MLD leave
message is received on this port from a host.
Leave Timeout
Enter the MLD snooping normal leave timeout (in milliseconds) the Switch uses to
update the forwarding table for the specified downstream port(s).
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an MLD report before removing
an MLD snooping membership entry (learned on a downstream port) when an MLD
Done message is received on this port from a host.
Fast Leave Timeout
Enter the fast leave timeout (in milliseconds) for the specified downstream port(s).
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an MLD report before removing
an MLD snooping membership entry (learned on a downstream port) when an MLD
Done message is received on this port from a host.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
25.4.4 MLD Snooping-proxy Filtering
Use this screen to configure the Switch’s MLD filtering settings. Click the Filtering link in the
Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy screen to
display the screen as shown.
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Figure 122 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 91 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable MLD filtering on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Group Limit
Select this option to limit the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join.
Max Group Num.
Enter the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join. Once a port is
registered in the specified number of multicast groups, any new MLD Report message
is dropped on this port.
Filtering Profile
Select the name of the MLD filtering profile to use for this port. Otherwise, select
Default to prohibit the port from joining any multicast group.
You can create MLD filtering profiles in the Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD
Snooping-proxy > Filtering > Filtering Profile screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
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25.4.5 MLD Snooping-proxy Filtering Profile
Use this screen to create an MLD filtering profile and set the range of the multicast address(es).
Click the Filtering Profile link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast >
MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 123 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering >
Filtering Profile
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 92 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering
Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes.
To configure additional rule(s) for a profile that you have already added, enter the profile
name and specify a different IP multicast address range.
Start Address
Type the starting multicast IPv6 address for a range of multicast IPv6 addresses that
you want to belong to the MLD filtering profile.
End Address
Type the ending multicast IPv6 address for a range of IPv6 addresses that you want to
belong to the MLD filtering profile.
If you want to add a single multicast IPv6 address, enter it in both the Start Address
and End Address fields.
Add
Click this to create a new entry.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile.
Start Address
This field displays the start of the multicast IPv6 address range.
End Address
This field displays the end of the multicast IPv6 address range.
Delete
Check the profile(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
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25.5 MVR Overview
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as Media-on-Demand (MoD))
that use multicast traffic across an Ethernet ring-based service provider network.
MVR allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different subscriber VLANs on the
network. While isolated in different subscriber VLANs, connected devices can subscribe to and
unsubscribe from the multicast stream in the multicast VLAN. This improves bandwidth utilization
with reduced multicast traffic in the subscriber VLANs and simplifies multicast group management.
MVR only responds to IGMP join and leave control messages from multicast groups that are
configured under MVR. Join and leave reports from other multicast groups are managed by IGMP
snooping.
The following figure shows a network example. The subscriber VLAN (1, 2 and 3) information is
hidden from the streaming media server, S. In addition, the multicast VLAN information is only
visible to the Switch and S.
Figure 124 MVR Network Example
VLAN 1
Multicast VLAN
S
VLAN 2
VLAN 3
25.5.1 Types of MVR Ports
In MVR, a source port is a port on the Switch that can send and receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN while a receiver port can only receive multicast traffic. Once configured, the Switch
maintains a forwarding table that matches the multicast stream to the associated multicast group.
25.5.2 MVR Modes
You can set your Switch to operate in either dynamic or compatible mode.
In dynamic mode, the Switch sends IGMP leave and join reports to the other multicast devices
(such as multicast routers or servers) in the multicast VLAN. This allows the multicast devices to
update the multicast forwarding table to forward or not forward multicast traffic to the receiver
ports.
In compatible mode, the Switch does not send any IGMP reports. In this case, you must manually
configure the forwarding settings on the multicast devices in the multicast VLAN.
25.5.3 How MVR Works
The following figure shows a multicast television example where a subscriber device (such as a
computer) in VLAN 1 receives multicast traffic from the streaming media server, S, via the Switch.
Multiple subscriber devices can connect through a port configured as the receiver on the Switch.
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When the subscriber selects a television channel, computer A sends an IGMP report to the Switch
to join the appropriate multicast group. If the IGMP report matches one of the configured MVR
multicast group addresses on the Switch, an entry is created in the forwarding table on the Switch.
This maps the subscriber VLAN to the list of forwarding destinations for the specified multicast
traffic.
When the subscriber changes the channel or turns off the computer, an IGMP leave message is sent
to the Switch to leave the multicast group. The Switch sends a query to VLAN 1 on the receiver port
(in this case, an uplink port on the Switch). If there is another subscriber device connected to this
port in the same subscriber VLAN, the receiving port will still be on the list of forwarding destination
for the multicast traffic. Otherwise, the Switch removes the receiver port from the forwarding table.
Figure 125 MVR Multicast Television Example
VLAN 1
Multicast VLAN
S
A
25.6 General MVR Configuration
Use the MVR screen to create multicast VLANs and select the receiver port(s) and a source port for
each multicast VLAN. Click Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR to display the screen as
shown next.
Note: You can create up to five multicast VLANs and up to 256 multicast rules on the
Switch.
Note: Your Switch automatically creates a static VLAN (with the same VID) when you
create a multicast VLAN in this screen.
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Figure 126 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 93 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable MVR to allow one single multicast VLAN to be shared
among different subscriber VLANs on the network.
Group Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Multicast VLAN
ID
Enter the VLAN ID (1 to 4094) of the multicast VLAN.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) with which the Switch replaces the priority in outgoing IGMP
control packets (belonging to this multicast VLAN).
Mode
Specify the MVR mode on the Switch. Choices are Dynamic and Compatible.
Select Dynamic to send IGMP reports to all MVR source ports in the multicast VLAN.
Select Compatible to set the Switch not to send IGMP reports.
Port
This field displays the port number on the Switch.
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Table 93 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Source Port
Select this option to set this port as the MVR source port that sends and receives multicast
traffic. All source ports must belong to a single multicast VLAN.
Receiver Port
Select this option to set this port as a receiver port that only receives multicast traffic.
None
Select this option to set the port not to participate in MVR. No MVR multicast traffic is sent
or received on this port.
Tagging
Select this checkbox if you want the port to tag the VLAN ID in all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Active
This field displays whether the multicast group is enabled or not.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Mode
This field displays the MVR mode.
Source Port
This field displays the source port number(s).
Receiver Port
This field displays the receiver port number(s).
802.1p
This field displays the priority level.
Delete
To delete a multicast VLAN(s), select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete
column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
25.6.1 MVR Group Configuration
All source ports and receiver ports belonging to a multicast group can receive multicast data sent to
this multicast group.
Configure MVR IP multicast group address(es) in the Group Configuration screen. Click Group
Configuration in the MVR screen.
Note: A port can belong to more than one multicast VLAN. However, IP multicast group
addresses in different multicast VLANs cannot overlap.
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Figure 127 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR: Group Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 94 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR: Group Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast
VLAN ID
Select a multicast VLAN ID (that you configured in the MVR screen) from the drop-down list
box.
Group Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Start Address
Enter the starting IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal notation.
Refer to Section 25.1.1 on page 200 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
End Address
Enter the ending IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal notation.
Enter the same IP address as the Start Address field if you want to configure only one IP
address for a multicast group.
Refer to Section 25.1.1 on page 200 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
MVLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Group Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Start Address
This field displays the starting IP address of the multicast group.
End Address
This field displays the ending IP address of the multicast group.
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
If you delete a multicast VLAN, all multicast groups in this VLAN will also be removed.
Cancel
Select Cancel to clear the checkbox(es) in the table.
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25.6.2 MVR Configuration Example
The following figure shows a network example where ports 1, 2 and 3 on the Switch belong to VLAN
1. In addition, port 7 belongs to the multicast group with VID 200 to receive multicast traffic (the
News and Movie channels) from the remote streaming media server, S. Computers A, B and C in
VLAN 1 are able to receive the traffic.
Figure 128 MVR Configuration Example
VLAN 1
A
B
Multicast VID 200
1
2
3
News: 224.1.4.10 ~ 224.1.4.50
Movie: 230.1.2.50 ~230.1.2.60
7
S
C
To configure the MVR settings on the Switch, create a multicast group in the MVR screen and set
the receiver and source ports.
Figure 129 MVR Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
To set the Switch to forward the multicast group traffic to the subscribers, configure multicast group
settings in the Group Configuration screen. The following figure shows an example where two
multicast groups (News and Movie) are configured for the multicast VLAN 200.
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Figure 130 MVR Group Configuration Example-1
EXAMPLE
Figure 131 MVR Group Configuration Example-2
EXAMPLE
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C HAPTER
26
AAA
This chapter describes how to configure authentication, authorization and accounting settings on
the Switch.
26.1 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)
Authentication is the process of determining who a user is and validating access to the Switch. The
Switch can authenticate users who try to log in based on user accounts configured on the Switch
itself. The Switch can also use an external authentication server to authenticate a large number of
users.
Authorization is the process of determining what a user is allowed to do. Different user accounts
may have higher or lower privilege levels associated with them. For example, user A may have the
right to create new login accounts on the Switch but user B cannot. The Switch can authorize users
based on user accounts configured on the Switch itself or it can use an external server to authorize
a large number of users.
Accounting is the process of recording what a user is doing. The Switch can use an external server
to track when users log in, log out, execute commands and so on. Accounting can also record
system related actions such as boot up and shut down times of the Switch.
The external servers that perform authentication, authorization and accounting functions are known
as AAA servers. The Switch supports RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service, see
Section 26.1.2 on page 224) and TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System
Plus, see Section 26.1.2 on page 224) as external authentication, authorization and accounting
servers.
Figure 132 AAA Server
Client
AAA Server
26.1.1 Local User Accounts
By storing user profiles locally on the Switch, your Switch is able to authenticate and authorize
users without interacting with a network AAA server. However, there is a limit on the number of
users you may authenticate in this way (See Chapter 42 on page 348).
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26.1.2 RADIUS and TACACS+
RADIUS and TACACS+ are security protocols used to authenticate users by means of an external
server instead of (or in addition to) an internal device user database that is limited to the memory
capacity of the device. In essence, RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication both allow you to validate
an unlimited number of users from a central location.
The following table describes some key differences between RADIUS and TACACS+.
Table 95 RADIUS vs TACACS+
RADIUS
TACACS+
Transport Protocol
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Encryption
Encrypts the password sent for
authentication.
All communication between the client (the
Switch) and the TACACS server is encrypted.
26.2 AAA Screens
The AAA screens allow you to enable authentication, authorization, accounting or all of them on the
Switch. First, configure your authentication and accounting server settings (RADIUS, TACACS+ or
both) and then set up the authentication priority, activate authorization and configure accounting
settings.
Click Advanced Application > AAA in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 133 Advanced Application > AAA
26.2.1 RADIUS Server Setup
Use this screen to configure your RADIUS server settings. See Section 26.1.2 on page 224 for more
information on RADIUS servers and Section 26.3 on page 232 for RADIUS attributes utilized by the
authentication and accounting features on the Switch. Click on the RADIUS Server Setup link in
the AAA screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 134 Advanced Application > AAA > RADIUS Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 96 Advanced Application > AAA > RADIUS Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Server
Use this section to configure your RADIUS authentication settings.
Mode
This field only applies if you configure multiple RADIUS servers.
Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured RADIUS
server, if the RADIUS server does not respond then the Switch tries to authenticate with the
second RADIUS server.
Select round-robin to alternate between the RADIUS servers that it sends authentication
requests to.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication request
response from the RADIUS server.
If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two RADIUS
servers then the timeout value is divided between the two RADIUS servers. For example, if
you set the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch waits for a response from the first
RADIUS server for 15 seconds and then tries the second RADIUS server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external RADIUS server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port
The default port of a RADIUS server for authentication is 1812. You need not change this
value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external RADIUS server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This key must
be the same on the external RADIUS server and the Switch.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you
type.
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Table 96 Advanced Application > AAA > RADIUS Server Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS server entry from the Switch. This
entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Accounting
Server
Use this section to configure your RADIUS accounting server settings.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting request
response from the RADIUS accounting server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS accounting server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external RADIUS accounting server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port
The default port of a RADIUS accounting server for accounting is 1813. You need not change
this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external RADIUS accounting server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network.
This key must be the same on the external RADIUS accounting server and the Switch.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you
type.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS accounting server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
26.2.2 TACACS+ Server Setup
Use this screen to configure your TACACS+ server settings. See Section 26.1.2 on page 224 for
more information on TACACS+ servers. Click on the TACACS+ Server Setup link in the
Authentication and Accounting screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 135 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 97 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Server
Use this section to configure your TACACS+ authentication settings.
Mode
This field is only valid if you configure multiple TACACS+ servers.
Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured TACACS+
server, if the TACACS+ server does not respond then the Switch tries to authenticate with the
second TACACS+ server.
Select round-robin to alternate between the TACACS+ servers that it sends authentication
requests to.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication request
response from the TACACS+ server.
If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two TACACS+
servers then the timeout value is divided between the two TACACS+ servers. For example, if
you set the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch waits for a response from the first
TACACS+ server for 15 seconds and then tries the second TACACS+ server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external TACACS+ server in dotted decimal notation.
TCP Port
The default port of a TACACS+ server for authentication is 49. You need not change this
value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external TACACS+ server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This key
must be the same on the external TACACS+ server and the Switch.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you
type.
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Table 97 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ server entry from the Switch. This
entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Accounting
Server
Use this section to configure your TACACS+ accounting settings.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting request
response from the TACACS+ server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ accounting server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external TACACS+ accounting server in dotted decimal notation.
TCP Port
The default port of a TACACS+ accounting server is 49. You need not change this value
unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external TACACS+ accounting server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network.
This key must be the same on the external TACACS+ accounting server and the Switch.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you
type.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ accounting server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
26.2.3 AAA Setup
Use this screen to configure authentication, authorization and accounting settings on the Switch.
Click on the AAA Setup link in the AAA screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 136 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 98 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Use this section to specify the methods used to authenticate users accessing the Switch.
Privilege Enable
These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third) to
authenticate access privilege level for administrator accounts (users for Switch
management).
Configure the access privilege of accounts via commands (see the Ethernet Switch CLI
Reference Guide) for local authentication. The TACACS+ and RADIUS are external
servers. Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate the access privilege
level of administrators. The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them
(first Method 1, then Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in
the Method 1 field. If you want the Switch to check other sources for access privilege level
specify them in Method 2 and Method 3 fields.
Select local to have the Switch check the access privilege configured for local
authentication.
Select radius or tacacs+ to have the Switch check the access privilege via the external
servers.
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Table 98 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Login
These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third) to
authenticate administrator accounts (users for Switch management).
Configure the local user accounts in the Access Control > Logins screen. The TACACS+
and RADIUS are external servers. Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set
up the corresponding database correctly first.
You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate administrator accounts.
The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them (first Method 1, then
Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in the Method 1 field. If
you want the Switch to check other sources for administrator accounts, specify them in
Method 2 and Method 3 fields.
Select local to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured in the Access
Control > Logins screen.
Select radius to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via the
RADIUS Server.
Select tacacs+ to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via the
TACACS+ Server.
Authorization
Use this section to configure authorization settings on the Switch.
Type
Set whether the Switch provides the following services to a user.
•
•
Exec: Allow an administrator which logs in the Switch through Telnet or SSH to have
different access privilege level assigned via the external server.
Dot1x: Allow an IEEE 802.1x client to have different bandwidth limit or VLAN ID
assigned via the external server.
Active
Select this to activate authorization for a specified event types.
Method
Select whether you want to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for authorization of specific types of
events.
RADIUS is the only method for IEEE 802.1x authorization.
Accounting
Use this section to configure accounting settings on the Switch.
Update Period
This is the amount of time in minutes before the Switch sends an update to the accounting
server. This is only valid if you select the start-stop option for the Exec or Dot1x entries.
Type
The Switch supports the following types of events to be sent to the accounting server(s):
•
•
•
•
System - Configure the Switch to send information when the following system events
occur: system boots up, system shuts down, system accounting is enabled, system
accounting is disabled
Exec - Configure the Switch to send information when an administrator logs in and logs
out via the console port, telnet or SSH.
Dot1x - Configure the Switch to send information when an IEEE 802.1x client begins a
session (authenticates via the Switch), ends a session as well as interim updates of a
session.
Commands - Configure the Switch to send information when commands of specified
privilege level and higher are executed on the Switch.
Active
Select this to activate accounting for a specified event types.
Broadcast
Select this to have the Switch send accounting information to all configured accounting
servers at the same time.
If you don’t select this and you have two accounting servers set up, then the Switch sends
information to the first accounting server and if it doesn’t get a response from the
accounting server then it tries the second accounting server.
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Table 98 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
The Switch supports two modes of recording login events. Select:
•
•
Method
start-stop - to have the Switch send information to the accounting server when a user
begins a session, during a user’s session (if it lasts past the Update Period), and when
a user ends a session.
stop-only - to have the Switch send information to the accounting server only when a
user ends a session.
Select whether you want to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for accounting of specific types of
events.
TACACS+ is the only method for recording Commands type of event.
Privilege
This field is only configurable for Commands type of event. Select the threshold command
privilege level for which the Switch should send accounting information. The Switch will
send accounting information when commands at the level you specify and higher are
executed on the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
26.2.4 Vendor Specific Attribute
RFC 2865 standard specifies a method for sending vendor-specific information between a RADIUS
server and a network access device (for example, the Switch). A company can create Vendor
Specific Attributes (VSAs) to expand the functionality of a RADIUS server.
The Switch supports VSAs that allow you to perform the following actions based on user
authentication:
• Limit bandwidth on incoming or outgoing traffic for the port the user connects to.
• Assign account privilege levels (see the CLI Reference Guide for more information on account
privilege levels) for the authenticated user.
The VSAs are composed of the following:
• Vendor-ID: An identification number assigned to the company by the IANA (Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority). ZyXEL’s vendor ID is 890.
• Vendor-Type: A vendor specified attribute, identifying the setting you want to modify.
• Vendor-data: A value you want to assign to the setting.
Note: Refer to the documentation that comes with your RADIUS server on how to
configure VSAs for users authenticating via the RADIUS server.
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The following table describes the VSAs supported on the Switch. Note that these attributes only
work when you enable authorization (see Section 26.2.3 on page 228).
Table 99 Supported VSAs
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
Ingress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890
Vendor-Type = 1
Vendor-data = ingress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
Egress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890
Vendor-Type = 2
Vendor-data = egress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
Privilege Assignment
Vendor-ID = 890
Vendor-Type = 3
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
or
Vendor-ID = 9 (CISCO)
Vendor-Type = 1 (CISCO-AVPAIR)
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
where
N is a privilege level (from 0 to 14).
Note: If you set the privilege level of a login account differently on the RADIUS server(s)
and the Switch, the user is assigned a privilege level from the database (RADIUS
or local) the Switch uses first for user authentication.
26.2.5 Tunnel Protocol Attribute
You can configure tunnel protocol attributes on the RADIUS server (refer to your RADIUS server
documentation) to assign a port on the Switch to a VLAN based on IEEE 802.1x authentication. The
port VLAN settings are fixed and untagged. This will also set the port’s VID. The following table
describes the values you need to configure. Note that these attributes only work when you enable
authorization (see Section 26.2.3 on page 228).
Table 100 Supported Tunnel Protocol Attribute
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
VLAN Assignment
Tunnel-Type = VLAN(13)
Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802(6)
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = VLAN ID
Note: You must also create a VLAN with the specified VID on the Switch.
Note: The bolded values in this table are fixed values as defined in RFC 3580.
26.3 Supported RADIUS Attributes
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) attributes are data used to define specific
authentication, and accounting elements in a user profile, which is stored on the RADIUS server.
This section lists the RADIUS attributes supported by the Switch.
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Refer to RFC 2865 for more information about RADIUS attributes used for authentication. Refer to
RFC 2866 and RFC 2869 for RADIUS attributes used for accounting.
This section lists the attributes used by authentication and accounting functions on the Switch. In
cases where the attribute has a specific format associated with it, the format is specified.
26.3.1 Attributes Used for Authentication
The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when
performing authentication.
26.3.1.1 Attributes Used for Authenticating Privilege Access
User-Name
- the format of the User-Name attribute is $enab#$, where # is the privilege level (1-14)
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
26.3.1.2 Attributes Used to Login Users
User-Name
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
26.3.1.3 Attributes Used by the IEEE 802.1x Authentication
User-Name
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Port
NAS-Port-Type
- This value is set to Ethernet(15) on the Switch.
Calling-Station-Id
Frame-MTU
EAP-Message
State
Message-Authenticator
26.3.2 Attributes Used for Accounting
The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when
performing authentication.
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26.3.2.1 Attributes Used for Accounting System Events
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Identifier
Acct-Status-Type
Acct-Session-ID
- The format of Acct-Session-Id is date+time+8-digit sequential number, for example,
2007041917210300000001. (date: 2007/04/19, time: 17:21:03, serial number: 00000001)
Acct-Delay-Time
26.3.2.2 Attributes Used for Accounting Exec Events
The attributes are listed in the following table along with the time that they are sent (the difference
between Console and Telnet/SSH Exec events is that the Telnet/SSH events utilize the CallingStation-Id attribute):
Table 101 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name



NAS-Identifier



NAS-IP-Address



Service-Type



Acct-Status-Type



Acct-Delay-Time



Acct-Session-Id



Acct-Authentic





Acct-Session-Time
Acct-Terminate-Cause

Table 102 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Telnet/SSH
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name



NAS-Identifier



NAS-IP-Address



Service-Type



Calling-Station-Id



Acct-Status-Type



Acct-Delay-Time



Acct-Session-Id



Acct-Authentic





Acct-Session-Time
Acct-Terminate-Cause

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26.3.2.3 Attributes Used for Accounting IEEE 802.1x Events
The attributes are listed in the following table along with the time of the session they are sent:
Table 103 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name



NAS-IP-Address



NAS-Port



Class



Called-Station-Id



Calling-Station-Id



NAS-Identifier



NAS-Port-Type



Acct-Status-Type



Acct-Delay-Time

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Acct-Session-Id
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Acct-Output-Octets
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Acct-Output-Packets
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Acct-Terminate-Cause
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27
IP Source Guard
Use IP source guard to filter unauthorized DHCP and ARP packets in your network.
27.1 IP Source Guard Overview
IP source guard uses a binding table to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized DHCP and
ARP packets in your network. A binding contains these key attributes:
• MAC address
• VLAN ID
• IP address
• Port number
When the Switch receives a DHCP or ARP packet, it looks up the appropriate MAC address, VLAN ID,
IP address, and port number in the binding table. If there is a binding, the Switch forwards the
packet. If there is not a binding, the Switch discards the packet.
The Switch builds the binding table by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic bindings) and from
information provided manually by administrators (static bindings).
IP source guard consists of the following features:
• Static bindings. Use this to create static bindings in the binding table.
• DHCP snooping. Use this to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the
binding table dynamically.
• ARP inspection. Use this to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network.
If you want to use dynamic bindings to filter unauthorized ARP packets (typical implementation),
you have to enable DHCP snooping before you enable ARP inspection.
27.1.1 DHCP Snooping Overview
Use DHCP snooping to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the binding
table dynamically. This can prevent clients from getting IP addresses from unauthorized DHCP
servers.
27.1.1.1 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for DHCP snooping. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for ARP inspection. You can also specify the maximum
number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or untrusted) can receive each second.
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Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches. The Switch discards DHCP packets
from trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high. The Switch learns
dynamic bindings from trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and there are
no trusted ports.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers. The Switch discards DHCP packets from untrusted
ports in the following situations:
• The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).
• The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the current
bindings.
• The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and source port do not
match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
27.1.1.2 DHCP Snooping Database
The Switch stores the binding table in volatile memory. If the Switch restarts, it loads static
bindings from permanent memory but loses the dynamic bindings, in which case the devices in the
network have to send DHCP requests again. As a result, it is recommended you configure the DHCP
snooping database.
The DHCP snooping database maintains the dynamic bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP
inspection in a file on an external TFTP server. If you set up the DHCP snooping database, the
Switch can reload the dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database after the Switch
restarts.
You can configure the name and location of the file on the external TFTP server. The file has the
following format:
Figure 137 DHCP Snooping Database File Format
<initial-checksum>
TYPE DHCP-SNOOPING
VERSION 1
BEGIN
<binding-1> <checksum-1>
<binding-2> <checksum-1-2>
...
...
<binding-n> <checksum-1-2-..-n>
END
The <initial-checksum> helps distinguish between the bindings in the latest update and the
bindings from previous updates. Each binding consists of 72 bytes, a space, and another checksum
that is used to validate the binding when it is read. If the calculated checksum is not equal to the
checksum in the file, that binding and all others after it are ignored.
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27.1.1.3 DHCP Relay Option 82 Information
The Switch can add information to DHCP requests that it does not discard. This provides the DHCP
server more information about the source of the requests. The Switch can add the following
information:
• Slot ID (1 byte), port ID (1 byte), and source VLAN ID (2 bytes)
• System name (up to 32 bytes)
This information is stored in an Agent Information field in the option 82 field of the DHCP headers of
client DHCP request frames. See Chapter 39 on page 321 for more information about DHCP relay
option 82.
When the DHCP server responds, the Switch removes the information in the Agent Information field
before forwarding the response to the original source.
You can configure this setting for each source VLAN. This setting is independent of the DHCP relay
settings (Chapter 39 on page 321).
27.1.1.4 Configuring DHCP Snooping
Follow these steps to configure DHCP snooping on the Switch.
1
Enable DHCP snooping on the Switch.
2
Enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN, and configure DHCP relay option 82.
3
Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of DHCP packets that
each port can receive per second.
4
Configure static bindings.
27.1.2 ARP Inspection Overview
Use ARP inspection to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network. This can prevent many kinds
of man-in-the-middle attacks, such as the one in the following example.
Figure 138 Example: Man-in-the-middle Attack
A
B
X
In this example, computer B tries to establish a connection with computer A. Computer X is in the
same broadcast domain as computer A and intercepts the ARP request for computer A. Then,
computer X does the following things:
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• It pretends to be computer A and responds to computer B.
• It pretends to be computer B and sends a message to computer A.
As a result, all the communication between computer A and computer B passes through computer
X. Computer X can read and alter the information passed between them.
27.1.2.1 ARP Inspection and MAC Address Filters
When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet, it automatically creates a MAC address
filter to block traffic from the source MAC address and source VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP
packet. You can configure how long the MAC address filter remains in the Switch.
These MAC address filters are different than regular MAC address filters (Chapter 12 on page 125).
• They are stored only in volatile memory.
• They do not use the same space in memory that regular MAC address filters use.
• They appear only in the ARP Inspection screens and commands, not in the MAC Address
Filter screens and commands.
27.1.2.2 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for ARP inspection. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for DHCP snooping. You can also specify the maximum
rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on untrusted ports.
The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.
The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:
• The sender’s information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high.
27.1.2.3 Syslog
The Switch can send syslog messages to the specified syslog server (Chapter 44 on page 374)
when it forwards or discards ARP packets. The Switch can consolidate log messages and send log
messages in batches to make this mechanism more efficient.
27.1.2.4 Configuring ARP Inspection
Follow these steps to configure ARP inspection on the Switch.
1
Configure DHCP snooping. See Section 27.1.1.4 on page 238.
Note: It is recommended you enable DHCP snooping at least one day before you enable
ARP inspection so that the Switch has enough time to build the binding table.
2
Enable ARP inspection on each VLAN.
3
Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of ARP packets that each
port can receive per second.
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27.2 IP Source Guard
Use this screen to look at the current bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Bindings are
used by DHCP snooping and ARP inspection to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized
packets in the network. The Switch learns the bindings by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic
bindings) and from information provided manually by administrators (static bindings). To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard.
Figure 139 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 104 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
Lease
This field displays how many days, hours, minutes, and seconds the binding is valid; for
example, 2d3h4m5s means the binding is still valid for 2 days, 3 hours, 4 minutes and 5
seconds. This field displays infinity if the binding is always valid (for example, a static
binding).
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.
dhcp-snooping: This binding was learned by snooping DHCP packets.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to
all ports.
27.3 IP Source Guard Static Binding
Use this screen to manage static bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Static bindings
are uniquely identified by the MAC address and VLAN ID. Each MAC address and VLAN ID can only
be in one static binding. If you try to create a static binding with the same MAC address and VLAN
ID as an existing static binding, the new static binding replaces the original one. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > Static Binding.
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Figure 140 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > Static Binding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 105 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > Static Binding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ARP Freeze
ARP Freeze allows you to automatically create static bindings from the current ARP entries
(either dynamically learned or static ARP entries) until the Switch’s binding table is full.
Note: The ARP learning mode should be set to ARP-Request in the IP Application > ARP
Setup > ARP Learning screen before you use the ARP Freeze feature.
Condition
All - Select this and click ARP Freeze to have the Switch automatically add all the current
ARP entries to the static bindings table.
Port List - Select this and enter the number of the port(s) (separated by a comma). ARP
entries learned on the specified port(s) are added to the static bindings table after you click
ARP Freeze.
VLAN List - Select this and enter the ID number of the VLAN(s) (separated by a comma).
ARP entries for the specified VLAN(s) are added to the static bindings table after you click
ARP Freeze.
Static Binding
MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
Enter the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
VLAN
Enter the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
Specify the port(s) in the binding. If this binding has one port, select the first radio button
and enter the port number in the field to the right. If this binding applies to all ports, select
Any.
Add
Click this to create the specified static binding or to update an existing one.
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Table 105 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > Static Binding (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected static binding or, if not
applicable, to clear the fields above.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
Lease
This field displays how long the binding is valid.
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.
VLAN
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to
all ports.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove and then click Delete to remove the selected
entry(ies) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
27.4 DHCP Snooping
Use this screen to look at various statistics about the DHCP snooping database. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping.
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Figure 141 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 106 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Database Status
This section displays the current settings for the DHCP snooping database. You can
configure them in the DHCP Snooping Configure screen. See Section 27.5 on page
245.
Agent URL
This field displays the location of the DHCP snooping database.
Write delay timer
This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific
update in the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Abort timer
This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP
snooping database after the current bindings change.
This section displays information about the current update and the next update of the
DHCP snooping database.
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Table 106 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Agent running
This field displays the status of the current update or access of the DHCP snooping
database.
none: The Switch is not accessing the DHCP snooping database.
read: The Switch is loading dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database.
write: The Switch is updating the DHCP snooping database.
Delay timer expiry
This field displays how much longer (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete the
current update before it gives up. It displays Not Running if the Switch is not
updating the DHCP snooping database right now.
Abort timer expiry
This field displays when (in seconds) the Switch is going to update the DHCP
snooping database again. It displays Not Running if the current bindings have not
changed since the last update.
This section displays information about the last time the Switch updated the DHCP
snooping database.
Last succeeded time
This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
successfully.
Last failed time
This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
unsuccessfully.
Last failed reason
This field displays the reason the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
unsuccessfully.
This section displays historical information about the number of times the Switch
successfully or unsuccessfully read or updated the DHCP snooping database.
Total attempts
This field displays the number of times the Switch has tried to access the DHCP
snooping database for any reason.
Startup failures
This field displays the number of times the Switch could not create or read the DHCP
snooping database when the Switch started up or a new URL is configured for the
DHCP snooping database.
Successful transfers
This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from or updated the
bindings in the DHCP snooping database successfully.
Failed transfers
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read bindings from
or update the bindings in the DHCP snooping database.
Successful reads
This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from the DHCP
snooping database successfully.
Failed reads
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read bindings from
the DHCP snooping database.
Successful writes
This field displays the number of times the Switch updated the bindings in the DHCP
snooping database successfully.
Failed writes
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to update the bindings
in the DHCP snooping database.
Database detail
First successful access This field displays the first time the Switch accessed the DHCP snooping database for
any reason.
Last ignored bindings
counters
This section displays the number of times and the reasons the Switch ignored
bindings the last time it read bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can clear
these counters by restarting the Switch or using CLI commands. See the Ethernet
Switch CLI Reference Guide.
Binding collisions
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the Switch
already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
Invalid interfaces
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the port
number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
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Table 106 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Parse failures
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the Switch was
unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding database.
Expired leases
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the lease time
had already expired.
Unsupported vlans
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the VLAN ID
does not exist anymore.
Last ignored time
This field displays the last time the Switch ignored any bindings for any reason from
the DHCP binding database.
Total ignored bindings
counters
This section displays the reasons the Switch has ignored bindings any time it read
bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can clear these counters by restarting
the Switch or using CLI commands. See the Ethernet Switch CLI Reference Guide.
Binding collisions
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the Switch
already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
Invalid interfaces
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the port
number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
Parse failures
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the Switch
was unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding database.
Expired leases
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the lease
time had already expired.
Unsupported vlans
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the VLAN
ID does not exist anymore.
27.5 DHCP Snooping Configure
Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch (not on specific VLAN), specify the VLAN
where the default DHCP server is located, and configure the DHCP snooping database. The DHCP
snooping database stores the current bindings on a secure, external TFTP server so that they are
still available after a restart. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard
> DHCP Snooping > Configure.
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Figure 142 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 107 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch. You still have to enable DHCP
snooping on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and there are
no trusted ports.
DHCP Vlan
Select Disable if you do not want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to a specific
VLAN.
Select the second option and specify a VLAN ID if you want the Switch to forward DHCP
packets to DHCP servers on a specific VLAN.
Note: You have to enable DHCP snooping on the DHCP VLAN too.
You can enable Option82 in the DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure screen (Section
27.5.2 on page 248) to help the DHCP servers distinguish between DHCP requests from
different VLAN.
Database
If Timeout interval is greater than Write delay interval, it is possible that the next
update is scheduled to occur before the current update has finished successfully or
timed out. In this case, the Switch waits to start the next update until it completes the
current one.
Agent URL
Enter the location of the DHCP snooping database. The location should be expressed
like this: tftp://{domain name or IP address}/directory, if applicable/file
name; for example, tftp://192.168.10.1/database.txt.
Timeout interval
Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific update in
the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Write delay
interval
Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP snooping
database the first time the current bindings change after an update. Once the next
update is scheduled, additional changes in current bindings are automatically included
in the next update.
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Table 107 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping Configure (continued)
LABEL
Renew DHCP
Snooping URL
DESCRIPTION
Enter the location of a DHCP snooping database, and click Renew if you want the
Switch to load it. You can use this to load dynamic bindings from a different DHCP
snooping database than the one specified in Agent URL.
When the Switch loads dynamic bindings from a DHCP snooping database, it does not
discard the current dynamic bindings first. If there is a conflict, the Switch keeps the
dynamic binding in volatile memory and updates the Binding collisions counter in the
DHCP Snooping screen (Section 27.4 on page 242).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
27.5.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure
Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for DHCP snooping.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and there are
no trusted ports.
You can also specify the maximum number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or untrusted)
can receive each second. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard >
DHCP Snooping > Configure > Port.
Figure 143 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping Port Configure
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 108 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping Port Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all
of the ports.
Server Trusted
state
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches, and the Switch discards
DHCP packets from trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers, and the Switch discards DHCP packets from
untrusted ports in the following situations:
•
•
•
•
The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).
The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the
current bindings.
The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and source
port do not match any of the current bindings.
The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
Rate (pps)
Specify the maximum number for DHCP packets (1-2048) that the Switch receives from each
port each second. The Switch discards any additional DHCP packets. Enter 0 to disable this
limit, which is recommended for trusted ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
27.5.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN and to specify whether or not the Switch
adds DHCP relay agent option 82 information (Chapter 39 on page 321) to DHCP requests that the
Switch relays to a DHCP server for each VLAN. To open this screen, click Advanced Application >
IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping > Configure > VLAN.
Figure 144 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 109 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the
* VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled
Select Yes to enable DHCP snooping on the VLAN. You still have to enable DHCP snooping on
the Switch and specify trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and there are no
trusted ports.
Option 82
Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports in the specified
VLAN(s). The Switch adds the information (such as slot number, port number, VLAN ID and/or
system name) specified in the profile to DHCP requests that it broadcasts to the DHCP VLAN, if
specified, or VLAN.
You can specify the DHCP VLAN in the DHCP Snooping Configure screen (see Section 27.5
on page 245) and the DHCP option 82 profile in IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 >
Option 82 Profile (see Section 39.4.2 on page 323).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
27.5.3 DHCP Snooping VLAN Port Configure
Use this screen to apply a different DHCP option 82 profile to certain ports in a VLAN. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP
Snooping > Configure > VLAN > Port.
Figure 145 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping > Configure > VLAN > Port
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 110 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping > Configure > VLAN > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN you want to configure here.
Port
Enter the number of port(s) to which you want to apply the specified DHCP option 82
profile.
You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-). For
example, enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
Option 82 Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the specified
port(s) in this VLAN. The Switch adds the information (such as slot number, port
number, VLAN ID and/or system name) specified in the profile to DHCP requests that it
broadcasts to the DHCP VLAN, if specified, or VLAN. You can specify the DHCP VLAN in
the DHCP Snooping Configure screen (see Section 27.5 on page 245).
The profile you select here has priority over the one you select in the DHCP Snooping
> Configure > VLAN screen.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected entry or, if not applicable,
to clear the fields above.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each entry. Click an index number to change
the settings.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the port(s) belongs.
Port
This field displays the port(s) to which the Switch applies the settings.
Profile Name
This field displays the DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the port(s).
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the
Delete button to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
27.6 ARP Inspection Status
Use this screen to look at the current list of MAC address filters that were created because the
Switch identified an unauthorized ARP packet. When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP
packet, it automatically creates a MAC address filter to block traffic from the source MAC address
and source VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP packet. To open this screen, click Advanced
Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection.
Figure 146 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 111 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Total number
of filters
This field displays the current number of MAC address filters that were created because the
Switch identified unauthorized ARP packets.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each MAC address filter.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the MAC address filter.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the MAC address filter.
Port
This field displays the source port of the discarded ARP packet.
Expiry (sec)
This field displays how long (in seconds) the MAC address filter remains in the Switch. You
can also delete the record manually (Delete).
Reason
This field displays the reason the ARP packet was discarded.
MAC+VLAN: The MAC address and VLAN ID were not in the binding table.
IP: The MAC address and VLAN ID were in the binding table, but the IP address was not
valid.
Port: The MAC address, VLAN ID, and IP address were in the binding table, but the port
number was not valid.
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
27.6.1 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
Use this screen to look at various statistics about ARP packets in each VLAN. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection > VLAN Status.
Figure 147 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 112 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
range
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to look at in the section below.
Enabled VLAN
Select this to look at all the VLANs on which ARP inspection is enabled in the section below.
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Table 112 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Selected VLAN
Select this to look at all the VLANs in a specific range in the section below. Then, enter the
lowest VLAN ID (Start VID) and the highest VLAN ID (End VID) you want to look at.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above.
Received
This field displays the total number of ARP packets received from the VLAN since the Switch
last restarted.
Request
This field displays the total number of ARP Request packets received from the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
Reply
This field displays the total number of ARP Reply packets received from the VLAN since the
Switch last restarted.
Forwarded
This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch forwarded for the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
Dropped
This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch discarded for the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
27.6.2 ARP Inspection Log Status
Use this screen to look at log messages that were generated by ARP packets and that have not
been sent to the syslog server yet. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source
Guard > ARP Inspection > Log Status.
Figure 148 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Log Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 113 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Log Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clearing log status table
Click Apply to remove all the log messages that were generated by ARP packets
and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet.
Total number of logs
This field displays the number of log messages that were generated by ARP
packets and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet. If one or more log
messages are dropped due to unavailable buffer, there is an entry called overflow
with the current number of dropped log messages.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each log message.
Port
This field displays the source port of the ARP packet.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID of the ARP packet.
Sender Mac
This field displays the source MAC address of the ARP packet.
Sender IP
This field displays the source IP address of the ARP packet.
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Table 113 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Log Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Num Pkts
This field displays the number of ARP packets that were consolidated into this log
message. The Switch consolidates identical log messages generated by ARP
packets in the log consolidation interval into one log message. You can configure
this interval in the ARP Inspection Configure screen. See Section 27.6.3 on
page 253.
Reason
This field displays the reason the log message was generated.
dhcp deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a dynamic binding
with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
static deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a static binding with
the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
deny: An ARP packet was discarded because there were no bindings with the same
MAC address and VLAN ID.
dhcp permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a dynamic
binding.
static permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a static binding.
In the ARP Inspection VLAN Configure screen, you can configure the Switch to
generate log messages when ARP packets are discarded or forwarded based on the
VLAN ID of the ARP packet. See Section 27.6.5 on page 255.
Time
This field displays when the log message was generated.
27.6.3 ARP Inspection Configure
Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You can also configure the length of time
the Switch stores records of discarded ARP packets and global settings for the ARP inspection log.
To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection >
Configure.
Figure 149 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Configure
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 114 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You still have to enable ARP
inspection on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Filter Aging Time
Filter aging time
This setting has no effect on existing MAC address filters.
Enter how long (1-2147483647 seconds) the MAC address filter remains in the Switch
after the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet. The Switch automatically
deletes the MAC address filter afterwards. Type 0 if you want the MAC address filter to
be permanent.
Log Profile
Log buffer size
Enter the maximum number (1-1024) of log messages that were generated by ARP
packets and have not been sent to the syslog server yet. Make sure this number is
appropriate for the specified Syslog rate and Log interval.
If the number of log messages in the Switch exceeds this number, the Switch stops
recording log messages and simply starts counting the number of entries that were
dropped due to unavailable buffer. Click Clearing log status table in the ARP
Inspection Log Status screen to clear the log and reset this counter. See Section
27.6.2 on page 252.
Syslog rate
Type the maximum number of syslog messages the Switch can send to the syslog
server in one batch. This number is expressed as a rate because the batch frequency is
determined by the Log Interval. You must configure the syslog server (Chapter 44 on
page 374) to use this. Enter 0 if you do not want the Switch to send log messages
generated by ARP packets to the syslog server.
The relationship between Syslog rate and Log interval is illustrated in the following
examples:
•
•
Log interval
4 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 1: the Switch
sends 4 syslog messages every second.
6 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 2: the Switch
sends 5 syslog messages every 2 seconds.
Type how often (1-86400 seconds) the Switch sends a batch of syslog messages to the
syslog server. Enter 0 if you want the Switch to send syslog messages immediately. See
Syslog rate for an example of the relationship between Syslog rate and Log
interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
27.6.4 ARP Inspection Port Configure
Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for ARP inspection. You can
also specify the maximum rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on each untrusted port. To
open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection >
Configure > Port.
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Figure 150 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Port Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 115 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection Port Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all
of the ports.
Trusted State
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.
The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:
•
•
The sender’s information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current bindings.
The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high. You can specify the maximum rate at
which ARP packets can arrive on untrusted ports.
Limit
Rate and Burst Interval settings have no effect on trusted ports.
Rate (pps)
Specify the maximum rate (1-2048 packets per second) at which the Switch receives ARP
packets from each port. The Switch discards any additional ARP packets. Enter 0 to disable
this limit.
Burst interval
(seconds)
The burst interval is the length of time over which the rate of ARP packets is monitored for
each port. For example, if the Rate is 15 pps and the burst interval is 1 second, then the
Switch accepts a maximum of 15 ARP packets in every one-second interval. If the burst
interval is 5 seconds, then the Switch accepts a maximum of 75 ARP packets in every fivesecond interval.
Enter the length (1-15 seconds) of the burst interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
27.6.5 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on each VLAN and to specify when the Switch generates
log messages for receiving ARP packets from each VLAN. To open this screen, click Advanced
Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection > Configure > VLAN.
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Figure 151 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 116 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the *
VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled
Select Yes to enable ARP inspection on the VLAN. Select No to disable ARP inspection on the
VLAN.
Log
Specify when the Switch generates log messages for receiving ARP packets from the VLAN.
None: The Switch does not generate any log messages when it receives an ARP packet from the
VLAN.
Deny: The Switch generates log messages when it discards an ARP packet from the VLAN.
Permit: The Switch generates log messages when it forwards an ARP packet from the VLAN.
All: The Switch generates log messages every time it receives an ARP packet from the VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
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Loop Guard
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to guard against loops on the edge of your
network.
28.1 Loop Guard Overview
Loop guard allows you to configure the Switch to shut down a port if it detects that packets sent out
on that port loop back to the Switch. While you can use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to prevent
loops in the core of your network. STP cannot prevent loops that occur on the edge of your
network.
Figure 152 Loop Guard vs STP
STP
Loop Guard
Loop guard is designed to handle loop problems on the edge of your network. This can occur when
a port is connected to a Switch that is in a loop state. Loop state occurs as a result of human error.
It happens when two ports on a switch are connected with the same cable. When a switch in loop
state sends out broadcast messages the messages loop back to the switch and are re-broadcast
again and again causing a broadcast storm.
If a switch (not in loop state) connects to a switch in loop state, then it will be affected by the
switch in loop state in the following way:
• It will receive broadcast messages sent out from the switch in loop state.
• It will receive its own broadcast messages that it sends out as they loop back. It will then rebroadcast those messages again.
The following figure shows port N on switch A connected to switch B. Switch B is in loop state.
When broadcast or multicast packets leave port N and reach switch B, they are sent back to port N
on A as they are rebroadcast from B.
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Figure 153 Switch in Loop State
B
A
N
The loop guard feature checks to see if a loop guard enabled port is connected to a switch in loop
state. This is accomplished by periodically sending a probe packet and seeing if the packet returns
on the same port. If this is the case, the Switch will shut down the port connected to the switch in
loop state.
The following figure shows a loop guard enabled port N on switch A sending a probe packet P to
switch B. Since switch B is in loop state, the probe packet P returns to port N on A. The Switch
then shuts down port N to ensure that the rest of the network is not affected by the switch in loop
state.
Figure 154 Loop Guard - Probe Packet
B
A
P
P
N
The Switch also shuts down port N if the probe packet returns to switch A on any other port. In
other words loop guard also protects against standard network loops. The following figure
illustrates three switches forming a loop. A sample path of the loop guard probe packet is also
shown. In this example, the probe packet is sent from port N and returns on another port. As long
as loop guard is enabled on port N. The Switch will shut down port N if it detects that the probe
packet has returned to the Switch.
Figure 155 Loop Guard - Network Loop
N
P
P
P
A
Note: After resolving the loop problem on your network you can re-activate the disabled
port via the web configurator (see Section 8.6 on page 85) or via commands (see
the Ethernet Switch CLI Reference Guide).
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28.2 Loop Guard Setup
Click Advanced Application > Loop Guard in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
Note: The loop guard feature can not be enabled on the ports that have Spanning Tree
Protocol (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) enabled.
Figure 156 Advanced Application > Loop Guard
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 117 Advanced Application > Loop Guard
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable loop guard on the Switch.
The Switch generates syslog, internal log messages as well as SNMP traps when it shuts down
a port via the loop guard feature.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable the loop guard feature on this port. The Switch sends probe
packets from this port to check if the Switch it is connected to is in loop state. If the Switch
that this port is connected is in loop state the Switch will shut down this port.
Clear this check box to disable the loop guard feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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VLAN Mapping
This chapter shows you how to configure VLAN mapping on the Switch.
29.1 VLAN Mapping Overview
With VLAN mapping enabled, the Switch can map the VLAN ID and priority level of packets received
from a private network to those used in the service provider’s network.
The Switch checks incoming traffic from the switch ports (non-management ports) against the
VLAN mapping table first, the MAC learning table and then the VLAN table before forwarding them
through the Gigabit uplink port. When VLAN mapping is enabled and incoming tagged packets do
not match any entry in the VLAN mapping table, the Switch forwards the tagged packet according
to its VLAN tag. If the incoming packets are untagged, the Switch adds a PVID based on the VLAN
setting.
Note: You can not enable VLAN mapping and VLAN stacking at the same time.
29.1.1 VLAN Mapping Example
In the following example figure, packets that carry VLAN ID 12 and are received on port 3 match a
pre-configured VLAN mapping rule. The Switch translates the VLAN ID from 12 into 123 before
forwarding the packets. Any packets carrying a VLAN tag other than 12 (such as 10) and received
on port 3 will be forwarded in the individual VLAN network respectively (such as VLAN 10).
Figure 157 VLAN mapping example
123
10
12
Service Provider
Network
Port 3
10
29.2 Enabling VLAN Mapping
Click Advanced Application and then VLAN Mapping in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.
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Figure 158 Advanced Application > VLAN Mapping
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 118 Advanced Application > VLAN Mapping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable VLAN mapping on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable the VLAN mapping feature on this port. Clear this check box to
disable the VLAN mapping feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
29.3 Configuring VLAN Mapping
Click the VLAN Mapping Configure link in the VLAN Mapping screen to display the screen as
shown. Use this screen to enable and edit the VLAN mapping rule(s).
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Figure 159 Advanced Application > VLAN Mapping > VLAN Mapping Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 119 Advanced Application > VLAN Mapping > VLAN Mapping Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Port
Type a port to be included in this rule.
VID
Enter a VLAN ID from 1 to 4094. This is the VLAN tag carried in the packets and will be
translated into the VID you specified in the Translated VID field.
Translated VID
Enter a VLAN ID (from 1 to 4094) into which the customer VID carried in the packets will be
translated.
Priority
Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the priority level that replaces the customer
priority level in the tagged packets or adds to the untagged packets.
Direction
Specify the direction of the traffic to which the rule is applied. Choices are Egress
(outgoing), Ingress (incoming) and Both.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power,
so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile
memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This is the number of the VLAN mapping entry in the table.
Active
This shows whether this entry is activated or not.
Name
This is the descriptive name for this rule.
Port
This is the port number to which this rule is applied.
VID
This is the customer VLAN ID in the incoming packets.
Translated VID
This is the VLAN ID that replaces the customer VLAN ID in the tagged packets.
Priority
This is the priority level that replaces the customer priority level in the tagged packets.
Direction
This is the direction of the traffic to which the rule is applied.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
This chapter shows you how to configure layer-2 protocol tunneling on the Switch.
30.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Overview
Layer-2 protocol tunneling (L2PT) is used on the service provider's edge devices. L2PT allows edge
switches (1 and 2 in the following figure) to tunnel layer-2 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), CDP
(Cisco Discovery Protocol) and VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) packets between customer switches
(A, B and C in the following figure) connected through the service provider’s network. The edge
switch encapsulates layer-2 protocol packets with a specific MAC address before sending them
across the service provider’s network to other edge switches.
Figure 160 Layer-2 Protocol Tunneling Network Scenario
A
CDP
C
Service Provider's
Network
STP
1
STP
2
CDP
VTP
VTP
B
In the following example, if you enable L2PT for STP, you can have switches A, B, C and D in the
same spanning tree, even though switch A is not directly connected to switches B, C and D.
Topology change information can be propagated throughout the service provider’s network.
To emulate a point-to-point topology between two customer switches at different sites, such as A
and B, you can enable protocol tunneling on edge switches 1 and 2 for PAgP (Port Aggregation
Protocol), LACP or UDLD (UniDirectional Link Detection).
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Figure 161 L2PT Network Example
B
A
STP
STP
STP
1
D
Service Provider's
Network
2
C
30.1.1 Layer-2 Protocol Tunneling Mode
Each port can have two layer-2 protocol tunneling modes, Access and Tunnel.
• The Access port is an ingress port on the service provider's edge device (1 or 2 in Figure 161 on
page 264) and connected to a customer switch (A or B). Incoming layer-2 protocol packets
received on an access port are encapsulated and forwarded to the tunnel ports.
• The Tunnel port is an egress port at the edge of the service provider's network and connected to
another service provider’s switch. Incoming encapsulated layer-2 protocol packets received on a
tunnel port are decapsulated and sent to an access port.
30.2 Configuring Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
Click Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.
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Figure 162 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 120 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable layer-2 protocol tunneling on the Switch.
Destination
MAC Address
Specify an MAC address with which the Switch uses to encapsulate the layer-2 protocol
packets by replacing the destination MAC address in the packets.
Note: The MAC address can be either a unicast MAC address or multicast MAC address. If
you use a unicast MAC address, make sure the MAC address does not exist in the
address table of a switch on the service provider’s network.
Note: All the edge switches in the service provider’s network should be set to use the same
MAC address for encapsulation.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
CDP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) packets so that
other Cisco devices can be discovered through the service provider’s network.
STP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) packets so that
STP can run properly across the service provider’s network and spanning trees can be set up
based on bridge information from all (local and remote) networks.
VTP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) packets so that all
customer switches can use consistent VLAN configuration through the service provider’s
network.
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Table 120 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Point to Point
The Switch supports PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol), LACP (Link Aggregation Control
Protocol) and UDLD (UniDirectional Link Detection) tunneling for a point-to-point topology.
Both PAgP and UDLD are Cisco’s proprietary data link layer protocols. PAgP is similar to
LACP and used to set up a logical aggregation of Ethernet ports automatically. UDLD is to
determine the link’s physical status and detect a unidirectional link.
PAGP
Select this option to have the Switch send PAgP packets to a peer to automatically negotiate
and build a logical port aggregation.
LACP
Select this option to have the Switch send LACP packets to a peer to dynamically creates
and manages trunk groups.
UDLD
Select this option to have the Switch send UDLD packets to a peer’s port it connected to
monitor the physical status of a link.
Mode
Select Access to have the Switch encapsulate the incoming layer-2 protocol packets and
forward them to the tunnel port(s). Select Access for ingress ports at the edge of the
service provider's network.
Note: You can enable L2PT services for STP, LACP, VTP, CDP, UDLD, and PAGP on the
access port(s) only.
Select Tunnel for egress ports at the edge of the service provider's network. The Switch
decapsulates the encapsulated layer-2 protocol packets received on a tunnel port by
changing the destination MAC address to the original one, and then forward them to an
access port. If the service(s) is not enabled on an access port, the protocol packets are
dropped.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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sFlow
This chapter shows you how to configure sFlow to have the Switch monitor traffic in a network and
send information to an sFlow collector for analysis.
31.1 sFlow Overview
sFlow (RFC 3176) is a standard technology for monitoring switched networks. An sFlow agent
embedded on a switch or router gets sample data and packet statistics from traffic forwarded
through its ports. The sFlow agent then creates sFlow data and sends it to an sFlow collector. The
sFlow collector is a server that collects and analyzes sFlow datagram. An sFlow datagram includes
packet header, input and output interface, sampling process parameters and forwarding
information.
sFlow minimizes impact on CPU load of the Switch as it analyzes sample data only. sFlow can
continuously monitor network traffic and create reports for network performance analysis and
troubleshooting. For example, you can use it to know which IP address or which type of traffic
caused network congestion.
Figure 163 sFlow Application
sFlow Agent
sFlow Collector
31.2 sFlow Port Configuration
Click Advanced Application > sFlow in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 164 Advanced Application > sFlow
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 121 Advanced Application > sFlow
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable the sFlow agent on the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this to allow the Switch to monitor traffic on this port and generate and send sFlow
datagram to the specified collector.
Sample-rate
Enter a number (N) from 256 to 65535. The Switch captures every one out of N packets for
this port and creates sFlow datagram.
poll-interval
Specify a time interval (from 20 to 120 in seconds) the Switch waits before sending the
sFlow datagram and packet counters for this port to the collector.
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Table 121 Advanced Application > sFlow (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Collector
Address
Enter the IP address of the sFlow collector.
Note: You must have the sFlow collector already configured in the sFlow > Collector screen.
The sFlow collector does not need to be in the same subnet as the Switch, but it must
be accessible from the Switch.
Note: Configure UDP port 6343 (the default) on a NAT router to allow port forwarding if the
collector is behind a NAT router. Configure a firewall rule for UDP port 6343 (the default)
to allow incoming traffic if the collector is behind a firewall.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
31.2.1 sFlow Collector Configuration
Click the Collector link in the sFlow screen to display the screen as shown. You can configure up
to four sFlow collectors in this screen. You may want to configure more than one collector if the
traffic load to be monitored is more than one collector can manage.
Figure 165 Advanced Application > sFlow > Collector
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 122 Advanced Application > sFlow > Collector
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Collector
Address
Enter the IP address of the sFlow collector.
UDP Port
Enter a UDP port number the Switch uses to send sFlow datagram to the collector. If you change
the port here, make sure you change it on the collector, too. The default port is 6343.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
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Table 122 Advanced Application > sFlow > Collector (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of this entry.
Collector
Address
This field displays IP address of the sFlow collector.
UDP Port
This field displays port number the Switch uses to send sFlow datagram to the collector.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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32
PPPoE
This chapter describes how the Switch gives a PPPoE termination server additional information that
the server can use to identify and authenticate a PPPoE client.
32.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Overview
A PPPoE Intermediate Agent (PPPoE IA) is deployed between a PPPoE server and PPPoE clients. It
helps the PPPoE server identify and authenticate clients by adding subscriber line specific
information to PPPoE discovery packets from clients on a per-port or per-port-per-VLAN basis
before forwarding them to the PPPoE server.
PPPoE Client
PPPoE Server
PPPoE IA
32.1.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Tag Format
If the PPPoE Intermediate Agent is enabled, the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to PADI (PPPoE
Active Discovery Initialization) and PADR (PPPoE Active Discovery Request) packets from PPPoE
clients. This tag is defined in RFC 2516 and has the following format for this feature.
Table 123 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Vendor-specific Tag Format
Tag_Type
Tag_Len
Value
i1
i2
(0x0105)
The Tag_Type is 0x0105 for vendor-specific tags, as defined in RFC 2516. The Tag_Len indicates the
length of Value, i1 and i2. The Value is the 32-bit number 0x00000DE9, which stands for the “ADSL
Forum” IANA entry. i1 and i2 are PPPoE intermediate agent sub-options, which contain additional
information about the PPPoE client.
32.1.2 Sub-Option Format
There are two types of sub-option: “Agent Circuit ID Sub-option” and “Agent Remote ID Suboption”. They have the following formats.
Table 124 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: User-defined String
SubOpt
Length
Value
0x01
N
String
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(63 bytes)
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Table 125 PPPoE IA Remote ID Sub-option Format
SubOpt
Length
Value
0x02
N
MAC Address or String
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(63 bytes)
The 1 in the first field identifies this as an Agent Circuit ID sub-option and 2 identifies this as an
Agent Remote ID sub-option. The next field specifies the length of the field. The Switch takes the
Circuit ID string you manually configure for a VLAN on a port as the highest priority and the Circuit
ID string for a port as the second priority. In addition, the Switch puts the PPPoE client’s MAC
address into the Agent Remote ID Sub-option if you do not specify any user-defined string.
32.1.2.1 Flexible Circuit ID Syntax with Identifier String and Variables
If you do not configure a Circuit ID string for a VLAN on a specific port or for a specific port, the
Switch adds the user-defined identifier string and variables into the Agent Circuit ID Sub-option.
The variables can be the slot ID of the PPPoE client, the port number of the PPPoE client and/or the
VLAN ID on the PPPoE packet.
The identifier-string, slot ID, port number and VLAN ID are separated from each other by a pound
key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,), forward slash (/) or space. An Agent Circuit ID Suboption example is “Switch/07/0123” and indicates the PPPoE packets come from a PPPoE client
which is connected to the Switch’s port 7 and belong to VLAN 123.
Table 126 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: Using Identifier String and Variables
SubOpt
Length
0x01
N
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
Value
Identifier
String
delimiter
Slot ID
delimiter
Port No
delimiter
VLAN ID
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(2 byte)
(1 byte)
(4 bytes)
(53 byte)
32.1.2.2 WT-101 Default Circuit ID Syntax
If you do not configure a Circuit ID string for a specific VLAN on a port or for a specific port, and
disable the flexible Circuit ID syntax in the PPPoE > Intermediate Agent screen, the Switch
automatically generates a Circuit ID string according to the default Circuit ID syntax which is
defined in the DSL Forum Working Text (WT)-101. The default access node identifier is the host
name of the PPPoE intermediate agent and the eth indicates “Ethernet”.
Table 127 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: Defined in WT-101
SubOpt
Length
0x01
N
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
Value
Access
Node
Identifier
Space
eth
Space
(1
byte)
(3
byte)
(1
byte)
(20 byte)
Slot
ID
(1
byte)
/
Port No
:
(1
byte)
(2
byte)
(1
byte)
VLAN
ID
(4
bytes)
32.1.3 Port State
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for the PPPoE intermediate agent. This
setting is independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for DHCP snooping or ARP inspection. You
can also specify the agent sub-options (circuit ID and remote ID) that the Switch adds to PADI and
PADR packets from PPPoE clients.
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Trusted ports are connected to PPPoE servers.
• If a PADO (PPPoE Active Discovery Offer), PADS (PPPoE Active Discovery Session-confirmation),
or PADT (PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate) packet is sent from a PPPoE server and received on
a trusted port, the Switch forwards it to all other ports.
• If a PADI or PADR packet is sent from a PPPoE client but received on a trusted port, the Switch
forwards it to other trusted port(s).
Note: The Switch will drop all PPPoE discovery packets if you enable the PPPoE
intermediate agent and there are no trusted ports.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers.
• If a PADI, PADR, or PADT packet is sent from a PPPoE client and received on an untrusted port,
the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to the packet and then forwards it to the trusted port(s).
• The Switch discards PADO and PADS packets which are sent from a PPPoE server but received on
an untrusted port.
32.2 PPPoE Screen
Use this screen to configure the PPPoE Intermediate Agent on the Switch.
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Click Click Here to go to the Intermediate Agent screen.
Figure 166 Advanced Application > PPPoE Intermediate Agent
32.3 PPPoE Intermediate Agent
Use this screen to configure the Switch to give a PPPoE termination server additional subscriber
information that the server can use to identify and authenticate a PPPoE client.
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent in the navigation panel to display
the screen as shown.
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Figure 167 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 128 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable the PPPoE intermediate agent globally on the Switch.
access-nodeidentifier
Enter up to 20 ASCII characters to identify the PPPoE intermediate agent. Hyphens (-) and
spaces are also allowed. The default is the Switch’s host name.
circuit-id
Use this section to configure the Circuit ID field in the PADI and PADR packets.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific port or for a specific VLAN on a port has priority
over this.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific port (in the Advanced Application > PPPoE >
Intermediate Agent > Port screen) or for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced
Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has priority over
this. That means, if you also want to configure PPPoE IA Per-Port or Per-Port Per-VLAN
setting, leave the fields here empty and configure circuit-id and remote-id in the Per-Port or
Per-Port Per-VLAN screen.
Active
Select this option to have the Switch add the user-defined identifier string and variables
(specified in the option field) to PADI or PADR packets from PPPoE clients.
If you leave this option unselected and do not configure any Circuit ID string (using CLI
commands) on the Switch, the Switch will use the string specified in the access-nodeidentifier field.
hostname
Select this option to have the Switch add the Switch’s host name to PADI or PADR packets
from PPPoE clients.
identifierstring
Specify a string that the Switch adds in the Agent Circuit ID sub-option. You can enter up to
53 ASCII characters. Spaces are allowed.
option
Select the variables that you want the Switch to generate and add in the Agent Circuit ID
sub-option. The variable options include s, p, v, sp, sv, pv and spv which indicate slot,
port, vlan or combinations of slot-port, slot-VLAN, port-VLAN and slot-port-VLAN
respectively. The Switch enters a zero into the PADI and PADR packets for the slot value.
delimiter
Select a delimiter to separate the identifier-string, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN ID
from each other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,),
forward slash (/) or space.
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Table 128 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
32.3.1 PPPoE IA Per-Port
Use this screen to specify whether individual ports are trusted or untrusted ports and have the
Switch add extra information to PPPoE discovery packets from PPPoE clients on a per-port basis.
Note: The Switch will drop all PPPoE packets if you enable the PPPoE Intermediate Agent
on the Switch and there are no trusted ports.
Click the Port link in the Intermediate Agent screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 168 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 129 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 129 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Trusted
State
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
Trusted ports are uplink ports connected to PPPoE servers.
•
•
If a PADO (PPPoE Active Discovery Offer), PADS (PPPoE Active Discovery Sessionconfirmation), or PADT (PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate) packet is sent from a PPPoE
server and received on a trusted port, the Switch forwards it to all other ports.
If a PADI or PADR packet is sent from a PPPoE client but received on a trusted port, the
Switch forwards it to other trusted port(s).
Untrusted ports are downlink ports connected to subscribers.
•
•
Circuit-id
If a PADI, PADR, or PADT packet is sent from a PPPoE client and received on an
untrusted port, the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to the packet and then forwards it
to the trusted port(s).
The Switch discards PADO and PADS packets which are sent from a PPPoE server but
received on an untrusted port.
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Circuit ID
sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets received on this port. Spaces are allowed.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced Application >
PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has the highest priority.
Remote-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Remote ID
sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets received on this port. Spaces are allowed.
If you do not specify a string here or in the Remote-id field for a VLAN on a port, the
Switch automatically uses the PPPoE client’s MAC address.
The Remote ID you configure for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced Application >
PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has the highest priority.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
32.3.2 PPPoE IA Per-Port Per-VLAN
Use this screen to configure PPPoE IA settings that apply to a specific VLAN on a port.
Click the VLAN link in the Intermediate Agent > Port screen to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 169 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 130 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show Port
Enter a port number to show the PPPoE Intermediate Agent settings for the specified
VLAN(s) on the port.
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to configure in the section below.
Start VID
End VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
Apply
Click Apply to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
Port
This field displays the port number specified above.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure
the * VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all VLANs. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a VLAN-by-VLAN basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the VLANs as soon as you make them.
Circuit-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Circuit ID
sub-option for this VLAN on the specified port. Spaces are allowed.
Remote-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Remote ID
sub-option for this VLAN on the specified port. Spaces are allowed.
The Circuit ID you configure here has the highest priority.
If you do not specify a string here or in the Remote-id field for a specific port, the Switch
automatically uses the PPPoE client’s MAC address.
The Remote ID you configure here has the highest priority.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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32.3.3 PPPoE IA for VLAN
Use this screen to set whether the PPPoE Intermediate Agent is enabled on a VLAN and whether the
Switch appends the Circuit ID and/or Remote ID to PPPoE discovery packets from a specific VLAN.
Click the VLAN link in the Intermediate Agent screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 170 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 131 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to configure in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
Apply
Click Apply to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the
* VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all VLANs. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a VLAN-by-VLAN basis.
Enabled
Select this option to turn on the PPPoE Intermediate Agent on a VLAN.
Circuit-id
Select this option to make the Circuit ID settings for a specific VLAN take effect.
Remote-id
Select this option to make the Remote ID settings for a specific VLAN take effect.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the VLANs as soon as you make them.
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33
Error Disable
This chapter shows you how to configure the rate limit for control packets on a port, and set the
Switch to take an action (such as to shut down a port or stop sending packets) on a port when the
Switch detects a pre-configured error. It also shows you how to configure the Switch to
automatically undo the action after the error is gone.
33.1 CPU Protection Overview
Switches exchange protocol control packets in a network to get the latest networking information.
If a switch receives large numbers of control packets, such as ARP, BPDU or IGMP packets, which
are to be processed by the CPU, the CPU may become overloaded and be unable to handle regular
tasks properly.
The CPU protection feature allows you to limit the rate of ARP, BPDU and IGMP packets to be
delivered to the CPU on a port. This enhances the CPU efficiency and protects against potential DoS
attacks or errors from other network(s). You then can choose to drop control packets that exceed
the specified rate limit or disable a port on which the packets are received.
33.2 Error-Disable Recovery Overview
Some features, such as loop guard or CPU protection, allow the Switch to shut down a port or
discard specific packets on a port when an error is detected on the port. For example, if the Switch
detects that packets sent out the port(s) loop back to the Switch, the Switch can shut down the
port(s) automatically. After that, you need to enable the port(s) or allow the packets on a port
manually via the web configurator or the commands. With error-disable recovery, you can set the
disabled port(s) to become active or start receiving the packets again after the time interval you
specify.
33.3 Error Disable Screen
Use this screen to configure error disable related settings. Click Advanced Application >
Errdisable in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
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Figure 171
Advanced Application > Errdisable
33.4 Error-Disable Status
Use this screen to view whether the Switch detected that control packets exceeded the rate limit
configured for a port or a port is disabled according to the feature requirements and what action
you configure, and related information. Click the Click here link next to Errdisable Status in the
Advanced Application > Errdisable screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 172 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 132 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Inactive-reason
mode reset
Port List
Enter the number of the port(s) (separated by a comma) on which you want to reset
inactive-reason status.
Cause
Select the cause of inactive-reason mode you want to reset here.
Reset
Press to reset the specified port(s) to handle ARP, BPDU or IGMP packets instead of ignoring
them, if the port(s) is in inactive-reason mode.
Errdisable
Status
Port
This is the number of the port on which you want to configure Errdisable Status.
Cause
This displays the type of the control packet received on the port or the feature enabled on
the port and causing the Switch to take the specified action.
Active
This field displays whether the control packets (ARP, BPDU, and/or IGMP) on the port is
being detected or not. It also shows whether loop guard, anti-arp scanning, BPDU guard or
ZULD is enabled on the port.
Mode
This field shows the action that the Switch takes for the cause.
•
•
•
inactive-port - The Switch disables the port.
inactive-reason - The Switch drops all the specified control packets (such as BPDU) on
the port.
rate-limitation - The Switch drops the additional control packets the port(s) has to
handle in every one second.
Rate
This field displays how many control packets this port can receive or transmit per second. It
can be adjusted in CPU Protection. 0 means no rate limit.
Status
This field displays the errdisable status
•
•
Forwarding: The Switch is forwarding packets. Rate-limitation mode is always in
Forwarding status.
Err-disable: The Switch disables the port on which the control packets are received
(inactive-port) or drops specified control packets on the port (inactive-reason)
Recovery
Time Left
This field displays the time (seconds) left before the port(s) becomes active of Errdisable
Recovery.
Total
Dropped
This field displays the total packet number dropped by this port where the packet rate
exceeds the rate of mode rate-limitation.
33.5 CPU Protection Configuration
Use this screen to limit the maximum number of control packets (ARP, BPDU and/or IGMP) that the
Switch can receive or transmit on a port. Click the Click Here link next to CPU protection in the
Advanced Application > Errdisable screen to display the screen as shown.
Note: After you configure this screen, make sure you also enable error detection for the
specific control packets in the Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable
Detect screen.
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Figure 173 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 133 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reason
Select the type of control packet you want to configure here.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Rate Limit (pkt/
s)
Enter a number from 0 to 256 to specify how many control packets this port can receive or
transmit per second.
0 means no rate limit.
You can configure the action that the Switch takes when the limit is exceeded. See Section
33.6 on page 282 for detailed information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
33.6 Error-Disable Detect Configuration
Use screen to have the Switch detect whether the control packets exceed the rate limit configured
for a port and configure the action to take once the limit is exceeded. Click the Click Here link next
to Errdisable Detect link in the Advanced Application > Errdisable screen to display the
screen as shown.
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Figure 174 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 134 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cause
This field displays the types of control packet that may cause CPU overload.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all entries. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each entry if necessary.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the entries as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this option to have the Switch detect if the configured rate limit for a specific control
packet is exceeded and take the action selected below.
Mode
Select the action that the Switch takes when the number of control packets exceed the rate
limit on a port, set in the Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection screen.
•
•
•
inactive-port - The Switch disables the port on which the control packets are received.
inactive-reason - The Switch drops all the specified control packets on the port.
rate-limitation - The Switch drops the additional control packets the port has to handle
in every one second.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
33.7 Error-Disable Recovery Configuration
Use this screen to configure the Switch to automatically undo an action after the error is gone. Click
the Click Here link next to Errdisable Recovery in the Advanced Application > Errdisable
screen to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 175 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Recovery
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 135 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Recovery
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to turn on the error-disable recovery function on the Switch.
Reason
This field displays the supported features that allow the Switch to shut down a port or
discard packets on a port according to the feature requirements and what action you
configure.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all entries. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each entry if necessary.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the entries as soon as you make them.
Timer Status
Select this option to allow the Switch to wait for the specified time interval to activate a port
or allow specific packets on a port, after the error was gone. Deselect this option to turn off
this rule.
Interval
Enter the number of seconds (from 30 to 2592000) for the time interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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34
Private VLAN
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to prevent communications between ports in a
VLAN.
34.1 Private VLAN Overview
Private VLAN allows you to do port isolation within a VLAN in a simple way. If you enable a private
VLAN rule for a VLAN on the Switch, the Switch automatically adds all ports (except the uplink
port(s)) in this VLAN to the isolated port list and blocks traffic between the isolated ports. The
uplink ports (25 to 28 on the MGS3520-28(F) or 45 to 50 on the MGS3520-50) are always in the
promiscuous port list. A promiscuous port can communicate with any port in the same VLAN. An
isolated port can communicate with the promiscuous port(s) only.
Note: You can have up to one private VLAN rule for each VLAN.
In the following example, ports 1, 2, 3 and 25 belong to VLAN 123. You configure and enable
private VLAN for VLAN 123 on the Switch. Then ports 1, 2 and/or 3 cannot send traffic to each
other, but they all can talk to the uplink port 25.
Figure 176 Private VLAN Example
2
3
25
VLAN 123
Isolated ports: 1 ~ 3
Promiscuous port: 25
Note: Make sure you keep at least one port in the promiscuous port list for a VLAN with
private VLAN enabled. Otherwise, this VLAN is blocked from the whole network.
34.2 Configuring Private VLAN
Click Advanced Application > Private VLAN in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
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Chapter 34 Private VLAN
Figure 177 Advanced Application > Private VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 136 Advanced Application > Private VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to enable private VLAN in a VLAN.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
VLAN ID
Enter a VLAN ID from 1 to 4094. This is the VLAN to which this rule applies.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the Switch’s
run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of the rule.
Active
This shows whether this rule is activated or not.
Name
This is the descriptive name for this rule.
VLAN
This is the VLAN to which this rule is applied.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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35
Green Ethernet
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to reduce the power consumed by switch ports.
35.1 Green Ethernet Overview
Green Ethernet reduces switch port power consumption in the following ways.
IEEE 802.3az Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE)
If EEE is enabled, both sides of a link support EEE and there is no traffic, the port enters Low Power
Idle (LPI) mode. LPI mode turns off some functions of the physical layer (becomes quiet) to save
power. Periodically the port transmits a REFRESH signal to allow the link partner to keep the link
alive. When there is traffic to be sent, a WAKE signal is sent to the link partner to return the link to
active mode.
Auto Power Down
Auto Power Down turns off almost all functions of the port’s physical layer functions when the link
is down, so the port only uses power to check for a link up pulse from the link partner. After the link
up pulse is detected, the port wakes up from Auto Power Down and operates normally.
Short Reach
Traditional Ethernet transmits all data with enough power to reach the maximum cable length.
Shorter cables lose less power, so Short Reach saves power by adjusting the transmit power of
each port according to the length of cable attached to that port.
35.2 Configuring Green Ethernet
Click Advanced Application > Green Ethernet in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
Note: EEE, Auto Power Down and Short Reach are not supported on an uplink port.
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Figure 178 Advanced Application > Green Ethernet
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 137 Advanced Application > Green Ethernet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
EEE
Select this to activate Energy Efficient Ethernet globally.
Auto Power
Down
Select this to activate Auto Power Down globally.
Short Reach
Select this to activate Short Reach globally.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
EEE
Select this to activate Energy Efficient Ethernet on this port.
Auto Power
Down
Select this to activate Auto Power Down on this port.
Short Reach
Select this to activate Short Reach on this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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36
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)
36.1 LLDP Overview
The LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) is a layer 2 protocol. It allows a network device to
advertise its identity and capabilities on the local network. It also allows the device to maintain and
store information from adjacent devices which are directly connected to the network device. This
helps an administrator discover network changes and perform necessary network reconfiguration
and management. The device information is encapsulated in the LLDPDUs (LLDP data units) in the
form of TLV (Type, Length, Value). Device information carried in the received LLDPDUs is stored in
the standard MIB.
The Switch supports these basic management TLVs.
• End of LLDPDU (mandatory)
• Chassis ID (mandatory)
• Port ID (mandatory)
• Time to Live (mandatory)
• Port Description (optional)
• System Name (optional)
• System Description (optional)
• System Capabilities (optional)
• Management Address (optional)
The Switch also supports the IEEE 802.1 and IEEE 802.3 organizationally-specific TLVs.
IEEE 802.1 specific TLVs:
• Port VLAN ID TLV (optional)
• Port and Protocol VLAN ID TLV (optional)
IEEE 802.3 specific TLVs:
• MAC/PHY Configuration/Status TLV (optional)
• Power via MDI TLV (optional, for PoE models only)
• Link Aggregation TLV (optional)
• Maximum Frame Size TLV (optional)
The optional TLVs are inserted between the Time To Live TLV and the End of LLDPDU TLV.
The next figure demonstrates that the network devices Switches and Routers (S and R) transmit
and receive device information via LLDPDU and the network manager can query the information
using Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
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Figure 179 LLDP Overview
36.2 LLDP-MED Overview
LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol for Media Endpoint Devices) is an extension to the
standard LLDP developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) TR-41.4
subcommittee which defines the enhanced discovery capabilities, such as VoIP applications, to
enable network administrators manage their network topology application more efficiently. Unlike
the traditional LLDP, which has some limitations when handling multiple application devices, the
LLDP-MED offers display of accurate physical topology, interoperability of devices, and easy trouble
shooting for misconfigured IP addresses. There are three classes of endpoint devices that the LLDPMED supports:
Class I: IP Communications Controllers or other communication related servers
Class II: Voice Gateways, Conference Bridges or Media Servers
Class III: IP-Phones, PC-based Softphones, End user Communication Appliances supporting IP
Media
The following figure shows that with the LLDP-MED, network connectivity devices (NCD) like
Switches and Routers will transmit LLDP TLV to endpoint device (ED) like IP Phone first (1), to get
its device type and capabilities information, then it will receive that information in LLDP-MED TLV
back from endpoint devices (2), after that the network connectivity devices will transmit LLDP-MED
TLV (3) to provision the endpoint device to such that the endpoint device’s network policy and
location identification information is updated. Since LLDPDU updates status and configuration
information periodically, network managers may check the result of provision via remote status.
The remote status is updated by receiving LLDP-MED TLVs from endpoint devices.
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Figure 180 LLDP-MED Overview
36.3 LLDP Screens
Click Advanced Application > LLDP in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 181 Advanced Application > LLDP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 138 Advanced Application > LLDP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LLDP
LLDP Local
Status
Click here to show a screen with the Switch’s LLDP information.
LLDP Remote
Status
Click here to show a screen with LLDP information from the neighboring devices.
LLDP
Configuration
Click here to show a screen to configure LLDP parameters.
LLDP-MED
LLDP-MED
Configuration
Click here to show a screen to configure LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol for
Media Endpoint Devices) parameters.
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Table 138 Advanced Application > LLDP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LLDP-MED
Network Policy
Click here to show a screen to configure LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol for
Media Endpoint Devices) network policy parameters.
LLDP-MED
Location
Click here to show a screen to configure LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol for
Media Endpoint Devices) location parameters.
36.4 LLDP Local Status
This screen displays a summary of LLDP status on this Switch. Click Advanced Application >
LLDP > LLDP Local Status to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 182 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 139 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Basic TLV
Chassis ID TLV
This displays the chassis ID of the local Switch, that is the Switch you’re configuring. The
chassis ID is identified by the chassis ID subtype.
Chassis ID Subtype - this displays how the chassis of the Switch is identified.
Chassis ID - This displays the chassis ID of the local Switch.
System Name
TLV
This shows the host name of the Switch.
System
Description TLV
This shows the firmware version of the Switch.
System
Capabilities
TLV
This shows the System Capabilities enabled and supported on the local Switch.
Management
Address TLV
The Management Address TLV identifies an address associated with the local LLDP agent
that may be used to reach higher layer entities to assist discovery by network
management. The TLV may also include the system interface number and an object
identifier (OID) that are associated with this management address
•
•
System Capabilities Supported - Bridge
System Capabilities Enabled - Bridge
This field displays the Management Address settings on the specified port(s).
•
•
•
•
LLDP Port
Information
Management Address Subtype - ipv4 / all-802
Interface Number Subtype - unknown
Interface Number - 0 (not supported)
Object Identifier - 0 (not supported)
This displays the local port information.
Local Port
This displays the number of the Switch port which receives the LLDPDU from the remote
device. Click a port number to view the detailed LLDP status on this port at LLDP Local
Port Status Detail screen.
Port ID
Subtype
This indicates how the port ID field is identified.
Port ID
This is an alpha-numeric string that contains the specific identifier for the port from
which this LLDPDU was transmitted.
Port
Description
This shows the port description that the Switch will advertise from this port.
36.4.1 LLDP Local Port Status Detail
This screen displays detailed LLDP status for each port on this Switch. Click Advanced Application
> LLDP > LLDP Local Status and then, click a port number, for example 1 in the local port column
to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 183 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status > LLDP Local Port Status Detail
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 140 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status > LLDP Local Port Status Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Basic TLV
These are the Basic TLV flags
Port ID TLV
The port ID TLV identifies the specific port that transmitted the LLDP frame.
•
•
Port
Description TLV
Port ID Subtype: This shows how the port is identified.
Port ID: This is the ID of the port.
This displays the local port description.
Dot1 TLV
Port VLAN ID
TLV
This displays the VLAN ID sent by the IEEE 802.1 Port VLAN ID TLV.
Port-Protocol
VLAN ID TLV
This displays the IEEE 802.1 Port Protocol VLAN ID TLVs, which indicates whether the
VLAN is enabled and supported.
Dot3 TLV
MAC PHY
Configuration &
Status TLV
The MAC/PHY Configuration/Status TLV advertises the bit-rate and duplex capability of
the sending 802.3 node. It also advertises the current duplex and bit-rating of the
sending node. Lastly, it advertises whether these setting were the result of autonegotiation during link initiation or manual override.
•
•
•
•
Link
Aggregation
TLV
AN Supported - Displays if the port supports or does not support auto-negotiation.
AN Enabled - The current auto-negotiation status of the port.
AN Advertised Capability - The auto-negotiation capabilities of the port.
Oper MAU Type - The current Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) type of the port
The Link Aggregation TLV indicates whether the link is capable of being aggregated,
whether the link is currently in an aggregation, and if in an aggregation, the port
identification of the aggregation.
• Aggregation Capability — The current aggregation capability of the port.
• Aggregation Status — The current aggregation status of the port.
• Aggregation Port ID — The aggregation ID of the current port.
Max Frame
Size TLV
MED TLV
This displays the maximum supported frame size in octets.
LLDP Media Endpoint Discovery (MED) is an extension of LLDP that provides additional
capabilities to support media endpoint devices. MED enables advertisement and
discovery of network policies, device location discovery to allow creation of location
databases, and information for troubleshooting.
Capabilities
TLV
This field displays which LLDP-MED TLV are capable to transmit on the Switch.
Device Type
TLV
This is the LLDP-MED device class. The ZyXEL Switch device type is:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Network Policy
Location
Extend Power via MDI PSE
Extend Power via MDI PD
Inventory Management
Network Connectivity
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Table 140 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status > LLDP Local Port Status Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Network Policy
TLV
This displays a network policy for the specified application.
Location
Identification
TLV
This shows the location information of a caller by its ELIN (Emergency Location Identifier
Number) or the IETF Geopriv Civic Address based Location Configuration Information
(Civic Address LCI).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Voice
Voice-Signaling
Guest-Voice
Guest-Voice-Signaling
Softphone-Voice
Video-Conferencing
Streaming-Video
Video-Signaling
Civic LCI - IETF Geopriv Civic Address based Location Configuration Information
ELIN - (Emergency Location Identifier Number)
Coordinate-based LCI - latitude, longitude and altitude coordinates of the location
Configuration Information (LCI)
36.5 LLDP Remote Status
This screen displays a summary of LLDP status for each LLDP connection to a neighboring Switch.
Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status (Click Here) to display the screen
as shown next.
Figure 184 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 141 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
The index number shows the number of remote devices that are connected to the
Switch. Click on an index number to view the detailed LLDP status for this remote device
in the LLDP Remote Port Status Detail screen.
Local Port
This is the number of the Switch’s port that received LLDPDU from the remote device.
Chassis ID
This displays the chassis ID of the remote device associated with the transmitting LLDP
agent. The chassis ID is identified by the chassis ID subtype. For example, the MAC
address of the remote device.
Port ID
This is an alpha-numeric string that contains the specific identifier for the port from
which this LLDPDU was transmitted. The port ID is identified by the port ID subtype.
Port Description
This displays a description for the port from which this LLDPDU was transmitted.
System Name
This displays the system name of the remote device.
Management
Address
This displays the management address of the remote device. It could be the MAC
address or IP address. You can click on the IP address hyperlink directly.
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36.5.1 LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
This screen displays detailed LLDP status of the remote device conencted to the Switch. Click
Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status (Click Here) and then click an index
number, for example 1, in the Index column in the LLDP Remote Status screen to display the
screen as shown next.
Figure 185 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
(Basic TLV)
The following table describes the labels in Basic TLV part of the screen.
Table 142 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
(Basic TLV)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local Port
This displays the number of the Switch’s port to which the remote device is connected.
Basic TLV
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Table 142 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
(Basic TLV)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Chassis ID TLV
•
•
Chassis ID Subtype - this displays how the chassis of the remote device is identified.
Chassis ID - this displays the chassis ID of the remote device. The chassis ID is
identified by the chassis ID subtype.
Port ID TLV
•
•
Port ID Subtype - this displays how the port of the remote device is identified.
Port ID - this displays the port ID of the remote device. The port ID is identified by
the port ID subtype.
Time To Live
TLV
This displays the time-to-live (TTL) multiplier of LLDP frames. The device information on
the neighboring devices ages out and is discarded when its corresponding TTL expires.
The TTL value is to multiply the TTL multiplier by the LLDP frames transmitting interval.
Port
Description TLV
This displays the remote port description.
System Name
TLV
This displays the system name of the remote device.
System
Description TLV
This displays the system description of the remote device.
System
Capabilities
TLV
This displays whether the system capabilities are enabled and supported on the remote
device.
•
•
Management
Address TLV
System Capabilities Supported
System Capabilities Enabled
This displays the following management address parameters of the remote device.
•
•
•
•
•
Management Address Subtype
Management Address
Interface Number Subtype
Interface Number
Object Identifier
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Figure 186 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail>
(Dot 1 and Dot3 TLV)
The following table describes the labels in the Dot1 and Dot3 parts of the screen.
Table 143 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
(Dot1 and Dot3 TLV)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dot1 TLV
Port VLAN ID
TLV
This displays the VLAN ID of this port on the remote device.
Port-Protocol
VLAN ID TLV
This displays the IEEE 802.1 Port Protocol VLAN ID TLV, which indicates whether the
VLAN ID and whether it is enabled and supported on the port of remote Switch which
sent the LLDPDU.
•
•
•
Port-Protocol VLAN ID
Port-Protocol VLAN ID Supported
Port-Protocol VLAN ID Enabled
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Table 143 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
(Dot1 and Dot3 TLV)
LABEL
Vlan Name TLV
DESCRIPTION
This shows the VLAN ID and name for remote device port.
•
•
Protocol
Identity TLV
VLAN ID
VLAN Name
The Protocol Identity TLV allows the Switch to advertise the particular protocols that are
accessible through its port.
Dot3 TLV
MAC PHY
Configuration &
Status TLV
The MAC/PHY Configuration/Status TLV advertises the bit-rate and duplex capability of
the sending 802.3 node. It also advertises the current duplex and bit-rating of the
sending node. Lastly, it advertises whether these setting were the result of autonegotiation during link initiation or manual override.
•
•
•
•
Link
Aggregation
TLV
AN Supported - Displays if the port supports or does not support auto-negotiation.
AN Enabled - The current auto-negotiation status of the port.
AN Advertised Capability - The auto-negotiation capabilities of the port.
Oper MAU Type - The current Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) type of the port
The Link Aggregation TLV indicates whether the link is capable of being aggregated,
whether the link is currently in an aggregation, and if in an aggregation, the port
identification of the aggregation.
• Aggregation Capability — The current aggregation capability of the port.
• Aggregation Status — The current aggregation status of the port.
• Aggregation Port ID — The aggregation ID of the current port.
Power Via MDI
TLV
The Power Via MDI TLV allows network management to advertise and discover the MDI
power support capabilities of the sending port on the remote device.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Max Frame
Size TLV
Port Class
MDI Supported
MDI Enabled
Pair Controlable
PSE Power Pairs
Power Class
This displays the maximum supported frame size in octets.
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Figure 187 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
(MED TLV)
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The following table describes the labels in the MED TLV part of the screen.
Table 144 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
(MED TLV)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MED TLV
LLDP Media Endpoint Discovery (MED) is an extension of LLDP that provides additional
capabilities to support media endpoint devices. MED enables advertisement and
discovery of network policies, device location discovery to allow creation of location
databases, and information for troubleshooting.
Capabilities
TLV
This displays the MED capabilities the remote port supports.
Device Type
TLV
LLDP-MED endpoint device classes:
Network Policy
TLV
This displays a network policy for the specified application.
Location
Identification
TLV
This shows the location information of a caller by its:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Network Policy
Location
Extend Power via MDI PSE
Extend Power via MDI PD
Inventory Management
Endpoint Class I
Endpoint Class II
Endpoint Class III
Network Connectivity
Voice
Voice-Signaling
Guest-Voice
Guest-Voice-Signaling
Softphone-Voice
Video-Conferencing
Streaming-Video
Video-Signaling
Coordinate-base LCI - latitude and longitude coordinates of the Location
Configuration Information (LCI)
Civic LCI - IETF Geopriv Civic Address based Location Configuration Information
ELIN - (Emergency Location Identifier Number)
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Table 144 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
(MED TLV)
LABEL
Inventory TLV
DESCRIPTION
The majority of IP Phones lack support of management protocols such as SNMP, so
LLDP-MED inventory TLVs are used to provide their inventory information to the Network
Connectivity Devices such as the Switch. The Inventory TLV may contain the following
information.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended
Power via MDI
TLV
Hardware Revision
Software Revision
Firmware Revision
Model Name
Manufacturer
Serial Number
Asset ID
Extended Power Via MDI Discovery enables detailed power information to be advertised
by Media Endpoints, such as IP phones and Network Connectivity Devices such as the
Switch.
•
•
•
•
Power Type - whether it is currently operating from primary power or is on backup
power (backup power may indicate to the Endpoint Device that it should move to a
power conservation mode).
Power Source - whether or not the Endpoint is currently operating from an external
power source.
Power Priority - the Endpoint Device’s power priority (which the Network Connectivity
Device may use to prioritize which devices will remain in service during power
shortages)
Power Value - power requirement, in fractions of Watts, in current configuration
36.6 LLDP Configuration
Use this screen to configure global LLDP settings on the Switch. Click Advanced Application >
LLDP > LLDP Configuration (Click Here) to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 188 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 145 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select to enable LLDP on the Switch. It is enabled by default.
Transmit Interval
Enter how many seconds the Switch waits before sending LLDP packets.
Transmit Hold
Enter the time-to-live (TTL) multiplier of LLDP frames. The device information on the
neighboring devices ages out and is discarded when its corresponding TTL expires. The
TTL value is to multiply the TTL multiplier by the LLDP packets transmitting interval.
Transmit Delay
Enter the delay (in seconds) between successive LLDPDU transmissions initiated by
value or status changes in the Switch MIB.
Reinitialize Delay
Enter the number of seconds for LLDP to wait before initializing on a port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Port
This displays the Switch’s port number. * means all ports.
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Table 145 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Admin Status
Select whether LLDP transmission and/or reception is allowed on this port.
•
•
•
•
Disable - not allowed
Tx-Only - transmit only
Rx-Only - receive only
Tx-Rx - transmit and receive
Notification
Select whether LLDP notification is enabled on this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
36.6.1 LLDP Configuration Basic TLV Setting
Use this screen to configure Basic TLV settings. Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP
Configuration (Click Here) > Basic TLV Setting to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 189 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration> Basic TLV Setting
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 146 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration > Basic TLV Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This displays the Switch’s port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Management
Address
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of Management Address TLVs
on the port(s).
Port Description
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of Port Description TLVs on the
port(s).
System
Capabilities
Select the check box(es) to enable or to disable the sending of System Capabilities TLVs
on the port(s).
System
Description
Select the check box(es) to enable or to disable the sending of System Description TLVs
on the port(s).
System Name
Select the check box(es) to enable or to disable the sending of System Name TLVs on the
port(s).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
36.6.2 LLDP Configuration Org-specific TLV Setting
Use this screen to configure organization-specific TLV settings. Click Advanced Application >
LLDP > LLDP Configuration (Click Here) > Org-specific TLV Setting to display the screen as
shown next.
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Figure 190 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration> Org-specific TLV Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 147 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration > Org-specific TLV Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This displays the Switch’s port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Dot1 TLV
Port-Protocol
VLAN ID
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.1 Port and Protocol
VLAN ID TLVs on the port(s).
Port VLAN ID
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.1 Port VLAN ID
TLVs on the port(s). All check boxes in this column are enabled by default.
Dot3 TLV
Link
Aggregation
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.3 Link Aggregation
TLVs on the port(s).
MAC/PHY
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.3 MAC/PHY
Configuration/Status TLVs on the port(s). All check boxes in this column are enabled by
default.
Max Frame
Size
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.3 Max Frame Size
TLVs on the port(s).
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Table 147 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration > Org-specific TLV Setting
LABEL
Power Via MDI
DESCRIPTION
Note: For PoE models only. The Power Via MDI TLV allows network management to
advertise and discover the MDI power support capabilities of the sending port on the
remote device.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Port Class
MDI Supported
MDI Enabled
Pair Controlable
PSE Power Pairs
Power Class
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
36.7 LLDP-MED Configuration
Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Configuration to display the screen as shown
next.
Figure 191 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Configuration
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 148 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This displays the Switch’s port number. Select * to configure all ports simultaneously.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Notification
Topology
Change
Select to enable LLDP-MED topology change traps on this port.
MED TLV Setting
Location
Select to enable transmitting LLDP-MED location TLV.
Network Policy
Select to enable transmitting LLDP-MED Network Policy TLV.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
36.8 LLDP-MED Network Policy
Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Network Policy (Click Here) to display the
screen as shown next.
Figure 192 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Network Policy
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 149 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Network Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Enter the port number to set up the LLDP-MED network policy.
Application Type
Select the type of application used in the network policy.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tag
voice
voice-signaling
guest-voice
guest-voice-signaling
softphone-voice
video-conferencing
streaming-video
video-signaling
Select to tag or untag in the network policy.
•
•
tagged
untagged
VLAN
Enter the VLAN ID number. It should be from 1 to 4094. For priority tagged frames, enter
“0”.
DSCP
Enter the DSCP value of the network policy. The value is defined from 0 through 63 with
the 0 representing use of the default DSCP value.
Priority
Enter the priority value for the network policy.
Add
Click Add after finish entering the network policy information. A summary table will list
all the Switch you’ve added.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin entering the information afresh.
Index
This field displays the of index number of the network policy. Click an index number to
edit the rule.
Port
This field displays the port number of the network policy.
Application Type
This field displays the application type of the network policy.
Tag
This field displays the Tag Status of the network policy.
VLAN
This field displays the VLANID of the network policy.
Priority
This field displays the priority value of the network policy.
DSCP
This field displays the DSCP value of the network policy.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected check boxes.
36.9 LLDP-MED Location
Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location (Click Here) to display the screen
as shown next.
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Figure 193 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 150 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Enter the port number you want to set up the location within the LLDP-MED network.
Location
Coordinates
The LLDP-MED uses geographical coordinates and Civic Address to set the location
information of the remote device. Geographical based coordinates includes latitude,
longitude, altitude and datum. Civic Address includes Country, State, County, City, Street
and other related information.
Latitude
Enter the latitude information. The value should be from 0º to 90º. The negative value
represents the South.
•
•
Longitude
north
south
Enter the longitude information. The value should be from 0º to 180º. The negative
value represents the West.
•
•
west
east
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Table 150 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location
LABEL
Altitude
DESCRIPTION
Enter the altitude information. The value should be from -2097151 to 2097151 in meters
or in floors.
•
•
Datum
Select the appropriate geodetic datum used by GPS.
•
•
•
Civic Address
meters
floor
WGS84
NAD83-NAVD88
NAD83-MLLW
Enter the Civic Address by providing information such as Country, State, County, City,
Street, Number, ZIP code and other additional information. Enter at least two field in this
configuration including the Country. The valid length of the Country field is 2 characters
and all other fields are up to 32 characters.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ELIN Number
Country
State
County
City
Division
Neighbor
Street
Leading-Street-Direction
Street-Suffix
Trailing-Street-Suffix
House-Number
House-Number-Suffix
Landmark
Additional-Location
Name
Zip-Code
Building
Unit
Floor
Room-Number
Place-Type
Postal-Community-Name
Post-Office-Box
Additional-Code
Enter a numerical digit string, corresponding to the ELIN identifier which is used during
emergency call setup to a traditional CAMA or ISDN trunk-based PSAP. The valid length is
from 10 to 25 characters.
Add
Click Add after finish entering the location information.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin entering the location information afresh.
Index
This lists the index number of the location configuration. Click an index number to view
or edit the location.
Port
This lists the port number of the location configuration.
Location
Coordinates
This field displays the location configuration information based on geographical
coordinates that includes longitude, latitude, altitude and datum.
Civic Address
This field displays the Civic Address for the remote device using information such as
Country, State, County, City, Street, Number, ZIP code and additional information.
ELIN Number
This field shows the Emergency Location Identification Number (ELIN), which is used to
identify endpoint devices when they issue emergency call services. The valid length is
form 10 to 25 characters.
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Table 150 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in
the table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the locations that you want to remove, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected check boxes.
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37
Static Route
This chapter shows you how to configure static routes.
37.1 Static Routing Overview
The Switch uses IP for communication with management computers, for example using HTTP,
Telnet, SSH, or SNMP. Use IP static routes to have the Switch respond to remote management
stations that are not reachable through the default gateway. The Switch can also use static routes
to send data to a server or device that is not reachable through the default gateway, for example
when sending SNMP traps or using ping to test IP connectivity.
This figure shows a Telnet session coming in from network N1. The Switch sends reply traffic to
default gateway R1 which routes it back to the manager’s computer. The Switch needs a static
route to tell it to use router R2 to send traffic to an SNMP trap server on network N2.
Figure 194 Static Routing Overview
N1
N2
SNMP
Telnet
R1
R2
37.2 Static Routing
Click IP Application > Static Routing in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 195 IP Application > Static Routing
To enable IPv4 static route, configure the static route settings in the IP Application > Static
Routing > IPv4 Static Route screen.
37.3 IPv4 Static Route
Click IP Application > Static Routing > IPv4 Static Route in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 196 IP Application > Static Routing > IPv4 Static Route
The following table describes the related labels you use to create a static route.
Table 151 IP Application > Static Routing > IPv4 Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 10 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask for this destination. Routing is always based on network number. If
you need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the
subnet mask field to force the network number to be identical to the host ID.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your Switch
that will forward the packet to the destination. The gateway must be a router on the same
segment as your Switch.
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Table 151 IP Application > Static Routing > IPv4 Static Route (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Metric
The metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses hop
count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected networks.
Enter a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need not be precise,
but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Add
Click Add to insert a new static route to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the route. Click a number to edit the static route
entry.
Active
This field displays Yes when the static route is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purposes
only.
Destination
Address
This field displays the IP network address of the final destination.
Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask for this destination.
Gateway
Address
This field displays the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of
your Switch that will forward the packet to the destination.
Metric
This field displays the cost of transmission for routing purposes.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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38
Differentiated Services
This chapter shows you how to configure Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on the Switch.
38.1 DiffServ Overview
Quality of Service (QoS) is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the
flow are given the same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different priorities to
different packet types.
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific per-hop
treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application types
and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the level of
service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to handle the
packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate paths or remember
state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to request a particular service
or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
38.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (ToS) field in
the IP header. The DS field contains a 6-bit DSCP field which can define up to 64 service levels and
the remaining 2 bits are defined as currently unused (CU). The following figure illustrates the DS
field.
Figure 197 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP (6 bits)
CU (2 bits)
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that non-DiffServ
compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
The DSCP value determines the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet gets as it is forwarded
across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule different kinds of traffic can be marked for
different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to the DSCP values and
the configured policies.
38.1.2 DiffServ Network Example
The following figure depicts a DiffServ network consisting of a group of directly connected DiffServcompliant network devices. The boundary node (A in Figure 198) in a DiffServ network classifies
(marks with a DSCP value) the incoming packets into different traffic flows (Platinum, Gold,
Silver, Bronze) based on the configured marking rules. A network administrator can then apply
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various traffic policies to the traffic flows. An example traffic policy, is to give higher drop
precedence to one traffic flow over others. In our example, packets in the Bronze traffic flow are
more likely to be dropped when congestion occurs than the packets in the Platinum traffic flow as
they move across the DiffServ network.
Figure 198 DiffServ Network
A
P G S B
S G P P
S G P P
P - Platinum
G - Gold
S - Silver
B - Bronze
S
B
B
38.2 Activating DiffServ
Activate DiffServ to apply marking rules or IEEE 802.1p priority mapping on the selected port(s).
Click IP Application > DiffServ in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 199 IP Application > DiffServ
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 152 IP Application > DiffServ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable DiffServ on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select Active to enable DiffServ on the port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
38.3 DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1p Priority Settings
You can configure the DSCP to IEEE 802.1p mapping to allow the Switch to prioritize all traffic
based on the incoming DSCP value according to the DiffServ to IEEE 802.1p mapping table.
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The following table shows the default DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mapping.
Table 153 Default DSCP-IEEE 802.1p Mapping
DSCP VALUE
0–7
8 – 15
16 – 23
24 – 31
32 – 39
40 – 47
48 – 55
56 – 63
IEEE 802.1p
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
38.3.1 Configuring DSCP Settings
To change the DSCP-IEEE 802.1p mapping click the DSCP Setting link in the DiffServ screen to
display the screen as shown next.
Figure 200 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 154 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
0 … 63
This is the DSCP classification identification number.
To set the IEEE 802.1p priority mapping, select the priority level from the drop-down list box.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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39
DHCP
This chapter shows you how to configure the DHCP feature.
39.1 DHCP Overview
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual computers
to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the Switch as a DHCP
server or a DHCP relay agent. When configured as a server, the Switch provides the TCP/IP
configuration for the clients. If you configure the Switch as a relay agent, then the Switch forwards
DHCP requests to DHCP server on your network. If you don’t configure the Switch as a DHCP server
or relay agent then you must have a DHCP server in the broadcast domain of the client computers
or else the client computers must be configured manually.
39.1.1 DHCP Modes
If there is already a DHCP server on your network, then you can configure the Switch as a DHCP
relay agent. When the Switch receives a request from a computer on your network, it contacts the
DHCP server for the necessary IP information, and then relays the assigned information back to the
computer.
39.1.2 DHCP Configuration Options
The DHCP configuration on the Switch is divided into Global and VLAN screens. The screen you
should use for configuration depends on the DHCP services you want to offer the DHCP clients on
your network. Choose the configuration screen based on the following criteria:
• Global: The Switch forwards all DHCP requests to the same DHCP server.
• VLAN: The Switch is configured on a VLAN by VLAN basis. The Switch can be configured to relay
DHCP requests to different DHCP servers for clients in different VLAN.
39.2 DHCP Configuration
Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. Click the link
next to DHCPv4 to open screens where you can enable and configure DHCPv4 relay settings and
create option 82 profiles. Click the link next to DHCPv6 to open a screen where you can configure
DHCPv6 relay settings.
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Figure 201 IP Application > DHCP
39.3 DHCPv4 Status
Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 in the navigation panel. The DHCP Status screen
displays.
Figure 202 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 155 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Relay Status
This section displays configuration settings related to the Switch’s DHCP relay mode.
Relay Mode
This field displays:
•
•
•
None: if the Switch is not configured as a DHCP relay agent.
Global: if the Switch is configured as a DHCP relay agent only.
VLAN: followed by a VLAN ID or multiple VLAN IDs if it is configured as a relay agent for
specific VLAN(s).
39.4 DHCPv4 Relay
Configure DHCP relay on the Switch if the DHCP clients and the DHCP server are not in the same
broadcast domain. During the initial IP address leasing, the Switch helps to relay network
information (such as the IP address and subnet mask) between a DHCP client and a DHCP server.
Once the DHCP client obtains an IP address and can connect to the network, network information
renewal is done between the DHCP client and the DHCP server without the help of the Switch.
The Switch can be configured as a global DHCP relay. This means that the Switch forwards all DHCP
requests from all domains to the same DHCP server. You can also configure the Switch to relay
DHCP information based on the VLAN membership of the DHCP clients.
39.4.1 DHCPv4 Relay Agent Information
The Switch can add information about the source of client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP
server by adding Relay Agent Information. This helps provide authentication about the source of
the requests. The DHCP server can then provide an IP address based on this information. Please
refer to RFC 3046 for more details.
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The DHCP Relay Agent Information feature adds an Agent Information field to the Option 82
field. The Option 82 field is in the DHCP headers of client DHCP request frames that the Switch
relays to a DHCP server.
Relay Agent Information can include the System Name of the Switch if you select this option.
You can change the System Name in Basic Settings > General Setup.
The following describes the DHCP relay information that the Switch sends to the DHCP server:
Table 156 Relay Agent Information
FIELD LABELS
DESCRIPTION
Slot ID
(1 byte) This value is always 0 for stand-alone switches.
Port ID
(1 byte) This is the port that the DHCP client is connected to.
VLAN ID
(2 bytes) This is the VLAN that the port belongs to.
Information
(up to 64 bytes) This optional, read-only field is set according to system name set in Basic
Settings > General Setup.
39.4.2 DHCPv4 Option 82 Profile
Use this screen to create DHCPv4 option 82 profiles. Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 in
the navigation panel and click the Option 82 Profile link to display the screen as shown.
Figure 203 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Option 82 Profile
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 157 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Option 82 Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes. You can use up to 32
ASCII characters. Spaces are allowed.
Circuit-ID
Use this section to configure the Circuit ID sub-option to include information that is specific
to the relay agent (the Switch).
Enable
Select this option to have the Switch add the Circuit ID sub-option to client DHCP requests
that it relays to a DHCP server.
slot-port
Select this option to have the Switch add the number of port that the DHCP client is
connected to.
vlan
Select this option to have the Switch add the ID of VLAN which the port belongs to.
hostname
This is the system name you configure in the Basic Setting > General Setup screen.
Select this option for the Switch to add the system name to the client DHCP requests that it
relays to a DHCP server.
string
Remote-ID
Enter a string of up to 64 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the client DHCP
requests. Spaces are allowed.
Use this section to configure the Remote ID sub-option to include information that identifies
the relay agent (the Switch).
Enable
Select this option to have the Switch append the Remote ID sub-option to the option 82 field
of DHCP requests.
mac
Select this option to have the Switch add its MAC address to the client DHCP requests that it
relays to a DHCP server.
string
Enter a string of up to 64 ASCII characters for the remote ID information in this field.
Spaces are allowed.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if
it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile. Click the name to change the settings.
Circuit-ID
Enable
This field displays whether the Circuit ID sub-option is added to client DHCP requests.
Field
This field displays the information that is included in the Circuit ID sub-option.
Remote-ID
Enable
This field displays whether the Remote ID sub-option is added to client DHCP requests.
Field
This field displays the information that is included in the Remote ID sub-option.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.
39.4.3 Configuring DHCPv4 Global Relay
Configure global DHCP relay in the DHCP Relay screen. Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4
in the navigation panel and click the Global link to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 204 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 158 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable DHCP relay.
Remote DHCP
Server 1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Option 82
Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCPv4 option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports. The Switch
adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the profile to DHCP
requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
39.4.4 DHCPv4 Global Relay Port Configure
Use this screen to apply a different DHCP option 82 profile to certain ports on the Switch. To open
this screen, click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global > Port.
Figure 205 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global > Port
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 159 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Enter the number of port(s) to which you want to apply the specified DHCP option 82
profile.
You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-). For
example, enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
Option 82
Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the specified port(s).
The Switch adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the
profile to DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
The profile you select here has priority over the one you select in the DHCP > DHCPv4 >
Global screen.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected entry or, if not applicable, to
clear the fields above.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each entry. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Port
This field displays the port(s) to which the Switch applies the settings.
Profile Name
This field displays the DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the port(s).
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes in the Delete column.
39.4.5 Global DHCPv4 Relay Configuration Example
The follow figure shows a network example where the Switch is used to relay DHCP requests for the
VLAN1 and VLAN2 domains. There is only one DHCP server that services the DHCP clients in both
domains.
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Figure 206 Global DHCP Relay Network Example
DHCP Server:
192.168.1.100
VLAN2
VLAN1
Configure the DHCP Relay screen as shown. Make sure you select a DHCP option 82 profile
(default1 in this example) to set the Switch to send additional information (such as the VLAN ID)
together with the DHCP requests to the DHCP server. This allows the DHCP server to assign the
appropriate IP address according to the VLAN ID.
Figure 207 DHCP Relay Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
39.4.6 Configuring DHCPv4 VLAN Settings
Use this screen to configure your DHCP settings based on the VLAN domain of the DHCP clients.
Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 in the navigation panel, then click the VLAN link In the
DHCP Status screen that displays.
Note: You must set up a management IP address for each VLAN that you want to
configure DHCP settings for on the Switch. See Section 8.5 on page 83 for
information on how to set up management IP addresses for VLANs.
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Figure 208 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 160 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN to which these DHCP settings apply.
Remote DHCP
Server 1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Option 82
Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports in this VLAN.
The Switch adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the
profile to DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group to which this DHCP settings apply.
Type
This field displays the DHCP mode (Relay).
DHCP Status
For DHCP relay configuration, this field displays the first remote DHCP server IP address.
Delete
Select the configuration entries you want to remove in the Delete column and click the
Delete button to remove them.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
39.4.7 DHCPv4 VLAN Port Configure
Use this screen to apply a different DHCP option 82 profile to certain ports in a VLAN. To open this
screen, click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN > Port.
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Figure 209 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 161 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN you want to configure here.
Port
Enter the number of port(s) to which you want to apply the specified DHCP option 82
profile.
You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-). For
example, enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
Option 82
Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the specified port(s)
in this VLAN. The Switch adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option
specified in the profile to DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
The profile you select here has priority over the one you select in the DHCP > DHCPv4 >
VLAN screen.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected entry or, if not applicable, to
clear the fields above.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each entry. Click an index number to change the
settings.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the port(s) belongs.
Port
This field displays the port(s) to which the Switch applies the settings.
Profile Name
This field displays the DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the specified port(s)
in this VLAN.
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes in the Delete column.
39.4.8 Example: DHCPv4 Relay for Two VLANs
The following example displays two VLANs (VIDs 1 and 2) for a campus network. Two DHCP servers
are installed to serve each VLAN. The system is set up to forward DHCP requests from the
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dormitory rooms (VLAN 1) to the DHCP server with an IP address of 192.168.1.100. Requests from
the academic buildings (VLAN 2) are sent to the other DHCP server with an IP address of
172.16.10.100.
Figure 210 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs
DHCP: 192.168.1.100
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
DHCP: 172.16.10.100
For the example network, configure the VLAN Setting screen as shown.
Figure 211 DHCPv4 Relay for Two VLANs Configuration Example
39.5 DHCPv6 Relay
A DHCPv6 relay agent is on the same network as the DHCPv6 clients and helps forward messages
between the DHCPv6 server and clients. When a client cannot use its link-local address and a wellknown multicast address to locate a DHCPv6 server on its network, it then needs a DHCPv6 relay
agent to send a message to a DHCPv6 server that is not attached to the same network.
The DHCPv6 relay agent can add the remote identification (remote-ID) option and the interface-ID
option to the Relay-Forward DHCPv6 messages. The remote-ID option carries a user-defined string,
such as the system name. The interface-ID option provides slot number, port information and the
VLAN ID to the DHCPv6 server. The remote-ID option (if any) is stripped from the Relay-Reply
messages before the relay agent sends the packets to the clients. The DHCPv6 server copies the
interface-ID option from the Relay-Forward message into the Relay-Reply message and sends it to
the relay agent. The interface-ID should not change even after the relay agent restarts.
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Use this screen to configure DHCPv6 relay settings for a specific VLAN on the Switch. Click IP
Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 212 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 162 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN you want to configure here.
Helper Address
Enter the remote DHCPv6 server address for the specified VLAN.
Options Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCPv6 options profile that the Switch applies to all ports in this VLAN.
The Switch adds the interface-ID sub-option, remote-ID sub-option and/or subscriber-ID
sub-option specified in the profile to DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID number. Click the VLAN ID to change the settings.
Helper Address
This field displays the IPv6 address of the remote DHCPv6 server for this VLAN.
Profile Name
This field displays the DHCPv6 options profile that the Switch applies to the port(s) in this
VLAN.
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes in the Delete column.
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39.5.1 DHCPv6 Options Profile
Use this screen to create DHCPv6 options profiles. Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 in the
navigation panel and click the Options Profile link to display the screen as shown.
Figure 213 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 > Options Profile
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 163 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 > Options Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes. You can use up to 32
ASCII characters. Spaces are allowed.
Option 18
Select Enable to have the Switch add the interface-ID option in the DHCPv6 requests from
the clients before the Switch forwards them to a DHCPv6 server.
Interface ID
Enter a string of up to 64 printable characters to be carried in the interface-ID option.
Option 37
Remote ID
Select Enable to have the Switch add the remote-ID option in the DHCPv6 requests from
the clients before the Switch forwards them to a DHCPv6 server.
Select mac to have the Switch add its MAC address to the client DHCPv6 requests that it
relays to a DHCP server.
Enter a string of up to 64 printable characters to be carried in the remote-ID option.
Option 38
Subscriber-ID
Select Enable to have the Switch add the Subscriber-ID option to client DHCPv6 requests
that it relays to a DHCPv6 server.
Select slot-port to have the Switch add the number of port that the DHCPv6 client is
connected to.
Enter a string of up to 64 printable characters to be carried in the subscriber-ID option.
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Table 163 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 > Options Profile (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if
it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile. Click the name to change the settings.
Option18
This field displays whether the Interface-ID option is added to client DHCP requests.
Option37
This field displays the information that is included in the Remote-ID option.
Option38
This field displays the information that is included in the Subscriber-ID option.
Referenced
This field displays whether this profile is in use by a feature, such as DHCPv6 relay.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.
39.5.2 DHCPv6 Port Configure
Use this screen to apply a different DHCPv6 options profile to certain ports in a VLAN. To open this
screen, click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 > Port.
Figure 214 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 164 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN you want to configure here.
Port
Enter the number of port(s) to which you want to apply the specified DHCPv6 options
profile.
You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-). For
example, enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
Options Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCPv6 options profile that the Switch applies to the specified port(s)
in this VLAN.
The profile you select here has priority over the one you select in the DHCP > DHCPv6
screen.
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Table 164 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 > Port (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected entry or, if not applicable, to
clear the fields above.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each entry. Click an index number to change the
settings.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the port(s) belongs.
Port
This field displays the port(s) to which the Switch applies the settings.
Profile Name
This field displays the DHCPv6 options profile that the Switch applies to the specified
port(s) in this VLAN.
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes in the Delete column.
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40
ARP Setup
40.1 ARP Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP
address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC address, on
the local area network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are 48 bits long. The
ARP table maintains an association between each MAC address and its corresponding IP address.
40.1.0.1 How ARP Works
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network arrives at the Switch,
the Switch looks in the ARP Table and if it finds the address, it sends it to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the devices on the LAN.
The Switch fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender address fields, and puts the known IP
address of the target in the target IP address field. In addition, the Switch puts all ones in the
target MAC field (FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The replying device (which is
either the IP address of the device being sought or the router that knows the way) replaces the
broadcast address with the target's MAC address, swaps the sender and target pairs, and unicasts
the answer directly back to the requesting machine. ARP updates the ARP Table for future reference
and then sends the packet to the MAC address that replied.
40.1.0.2 ARP Learning Mode
The Switch supports three ARP learning modes: ARP-Reply, Gratuitous-ARP, and ARP-Request.
ARP-Reply
The Switch in ARP-Reply learning mode updates the ARP table only with the ARP replies to the ARP
requests sent by the Switch. This can help prevent ARP spoofing.
In the following example, the Switch does not have IP address and MAC address mapping
information for hosts A and B in its ARP table, and host A wants to ping host B. Host A sends an
ARP request to the Switch and then sends an ICMP request after getting the ARP reply from the
Switch. The Switch finds no matched entry for host B in the ARP table and broadcasts the ARP
request to all the devices on the LAN. When the Switch receives the ARP reply from host B, it
updates its ARP table and also forwards host A’s ICMP request to host B. After the Switch gets the
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ICMP reply from host B, it sends out an ARP request to get host A’s MAC address and updates the
ARP table with host A’s ARP reply. The Switch then can forward host B’s ICMP reply to host A.
B
A
ARP Request
ARP Reply
ICMP Request
ARP Request
ARP Reply
ICMP Request
ICMP Reply
ARP Request
ARP Reply
ICMP Reply
Gratuitous-ARP
A gratuitous ARP is an ARP request in which both the source and destination IP address fields are
set to the IP address of the device that sends this request and the destination MAC address field is
set to the broadcast address. There will be no reply to a gratuitous ARP request.
A device may send a gratuitous ARP packet to detect IP collisions. If a device restarts or its MAC
address is changed, it can also use gratuitous ARP to inform other devices in the same network to
update their ARP table with the new mapping information.
In Gratuitous-ARP learning mode, the Switch updates its ARP table with either an ARP reply or a
gratuitous ARP request.
ARP-Request
When the Switch is in ARP-Request learning mode, it updates the ARP table with both ARP replies,
gratuitous ARP requests and ARP requests.
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Therefore in the following example, the Switch can learn host A’s MAC address from the ARP
request sent by host A. The Switch then forwards host B’s ICMP reply to host A right after getting
host B’s MAC address and ICMP reply.
B
A
ARP Request
ARP Reply
ICMP Request
ARP Request
ARP Reply
ICMP Request
ICMP Reply
ICMP Reply
40.2 ARP Setup
Click IP Application > ARP Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. Click
the link next to ARP Learning to open a screen where you can set the ARP learning mode for each
port.
Figure 215 IP Application > ARP Setup
40.2.1 ARP Learning
Use this screen to configure each port’s ARP learning mode. Click the link next to ARP Learning in
the IP Application > ARP Setup screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 216 IP Application > ARP Setup > ARP Learning
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 165 IP Application > ARP Setup > ARP Learning
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
ARP Learning
Mode
Select the ARP learning mode the Switch uses on the port.
Select ARP-Reply to have the Switch update the ARP table only with the ARP replies to the
ARP requests sent by the Switch.
Select Gratuitous-ARP to have the Switch update its ARP table with either an ARP reply or
a gratuitous ARP request.
Select ARP-Request to have the Switch update the ARP table with both ARP replies,
gratuitous ARP requests and ARP requests.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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41
Maintenance
This chapter explains how to configure the screens that let you maintain the firmware and
configuration files.
41.1 The Maintenance Screen
Use this screen to manage firmware and your configuration files. Click Management >
Maintenance in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
Figure 217 Management > Maintenance
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 166 Management > Maintenance
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
This field displays which configuration (Configuration 1 or Configuration 2) is currently
operating on the Switch.
Firmware
Upgrade
Click Click Here to go to the Firmware Upgrade screen.
Restore
Configuration
Click Click Here to go to the Restore Configuration screen.
Backup
Configuration
Click Click Here to go to the Backup Configuration screen.
Load Factory
Default
Click Click Here to reset the configuration to the factory default settings.
Save
Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Reboot
System
Click Click Here to go to the Reboot System screen.
Tech-Support
Click Click Here to see the Tech-Support screen. You can set CPU and memory thresholds
for log reports and download related log reports for issue analysis. Log reports include CPU
history and utilization, crash and memory.
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41.2 Load Factory Default
Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
1
2
In the Maintenance screen, click the Click Here button next to Load Factory Default to clear all
Switch configuration information you configured and return to the factory defaults.
Click OK to reset all Switch configurations to the factory defaults.
Figure 218 Load Factory Default: Start
3
In the web configurator, click the Save button in the top of the screen to make the changes take
effect. If you want to access the Switch web configurator again, you may need to change the IP
address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default Switch IP address
(192.168.1.1).
41.3 Save Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings permanently to Configuration 1 on the
Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Alternatively, click Save on the top right-hand corner in any screen to save the configuration
changes to the current configuration.
Note: Clicking the Apply or Add button does NOT save the changes permanently. All
unsaved changes are erased after you reboot the Switch.
41.4 Reboot System
Reboot System allows you to restart the Switch without physically turning the power off. It also
allows you to load configuration one (Config 1) or configuration two (Config 2) when you reboot.
You can restart the Switch immediately or set the Switch to restart at a specific time.
Click Management > Maintenance > Reboot System to view the screen as shown next.
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Figure 219 Management > Maintenance > Reboot System
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 167 Management > Maintenance > Reboot System
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reboot Scheduled in
This displays the number of days, hours, minutes and/or seconds remaining before the
Switch restarts. It also shows the date and time at which the Switch is scheduled to
restart automatically.
Reboot Reason
This shows the reason for the restart.
Boot Image
This displays which firmware (1 or 2) should load when the Switch restarts and which
firmware is currently in use on the Switch (1 or 2).
Configuration File
This displays which configuration file (1 or 2) should load when the Switch restarts and
which configuration file is currently in use on the Switch (1 or 2).
Refresh
Click Refresh to update the time information in the Reboot Scheduled in field.
Cancel
Click Cancel to disable the scheduled restart and reset the screen to its default
settings.
Reboot System
Select Immediately to have the Switch restart right after you click Apply.
Select Delayed (in 24 days) to schedule a time for the restart to happen.
•
•
Select in to specify how many hours and minutes remain for the restart.
Select at to configure a specific time of the day, at which the Switch restarts. You
can also specify a date within 24 days of today’s date.
Reason
Enter a description for the restart.
Configuration File
Select the configuration files you want the Switch to use when it restarts.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power.
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41.5 Firmware Upgrade
Use the following screen to upgrade your Switch to the latest firmware. The Switch supports dual
firmware images, Firmware 1 and Firmware 2. Use this screen to specify which image is updated
when firmware is uploaded using the web configurator and to specify which image is loaded when
the Switch starts up.
Make sure you have downloaded (and unzipped) the correct model firmware and version to your
computer before uploading to the device.
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong
model firmware may damage your device.
Click Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade to view the screen as shown next.
Figure 220 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
Type the path and file name of the firmware file you wish to upload to the Switch in the File Path
text box or click Browse to locate it. Select the Rebooting check box if you want to reboot the
Switch and apply the new firmware immediately. (Firmware upgrades are only applied after a
reboot). Click Upgrade to load the new firmware.
After the firmware upgrade process is complete, see the System Info screen to verify your current
firmware version number.
Table 168 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This is the name of the Switch that you’re configuring.
Version
The Switch has two firmware sets, Firmware 1 and Firmware 2, residing in flash.
•
•
•
Running shows the version number (and model code) and MM/DD/YYYY creation
date of the firmware currently in use on the Switch (Firmware 1 or Firmware 2).
The firmware information is also displayed at System Information in Basic Settings.
Firmware 1 shows its version number (and model code) and MM/DD/YYYY
creation date.
Firmware 2 shows its version number (and model code) and MM/DD/YYYY
creation date.
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Table 168 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Boot Image
This displays which firmware is currently in use on the Switch (Firmware 1 or
Firmware 2).
Config Boot Image
Select which firmware (Firmware 1 or Firmware 2) should load, click Apply and
reboot the Switch to see changes, you will also see changes in the Current Boot
Image field above as well.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Firmware
Choose to upload the new firmware to (Firmware) 1 or (Firmware) 2.
File Path
Type the path and file name of the firmware file you wish to upload to the Switch in the
File Path text box or click Browse to locate it.
Upgrade
Click Upgrade to load the new firmware. Firmware upgrades are only applied after a
reboot. To reboot, go to Management > Maintenance > Reboot System and click
Config 1 or Config 2 (Config 1 and Config 2 are the configuration files you want the
Switch to use when it restarts).
41.6 Restore a Configuration File
Restore a previously saved configuration from your computer to the Switch using the Restore
Configuration screen.
Figure 221 Management > Maintenance > Restore Configuration
Type the path and file name of the configuration file you wish to restore in the File Path text box or
click Browse to locate it. After you have specified the file, click Restore. "config" is the name of
the configuration file on the Switch, so your backup configuration file is automatically renamed
when you restore using this screen.
41.7 Backup a Configuration File
Backing up your Switch configurations allows you to create various “snap shots” of your device from
which you may restore at a later date.
Back up your current Switch configuration to a computer using the Backup Configuration screen.
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Figure 222 Management > Maintenance > Backup Configuration
Follow the steps below to back up the current Switch configuration to your computer in this screen.
1
Click Backup.
2
Click Save to display the Save As screen.
3
If the current configuration file is open and/or downloaded to your computer automatically, you can
click File > Save As to save the file to a specific place.
If a dialog box pops up asking whether you want to open or save the file, click Save or Save File to
download it to the default downloads folder on your computer. If a Save As screen displays after
you click Save or Save File, choose a location to save the file on your computer from the Save in
drop-down list box and type a descriptive name for it in the File name list box. Click Save to save
the configuration file to your computer.
41.8 Tech-Support
The Tech-Support feature is a log enhancement tool that logs useful information such as CPU
utilization history, memory and Mbuf (Memory Buffer) log and crash reports for issue analysis by
customer support should you have difficulty with your Switch. The Tech Support menu eases your
effort in obtaining reports and it is also available in CLI command by typing “Show tech-support”
command.
Click Management > Maintenance > Tech-Support to see the following screen.
Figure 223 Management > Maintenance > Tech-Support
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You may need WordPad or similar software to see the log report correctly. The table below describes
the fields in the above screen.
Table 169 Management > Maintenance > Tech-Support
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
CPU Loading
Type a number ranging from 50 to 100 in the CPU threshold box, and type another
number ranging from 5 to 60 in the seconds box then click Apply.
For example, 80 for CPU threshold and 5 for seconds means a log will be created
when CPU utilization reaches over 80% and lasts for 5 seconds.
The log report holds 7 days of CPU log data and is stored in volatile memory (RAM).
The data is lost if the Switch is turned off or in event of power outage. After 7 days,
the logs wrap around and new ones and replace the earliest ones.
The higher the CPU threshold number, the fewer logs will be created, and the less
data technical support will have to analyze and vice versa.
Mbuf Usage
Type a number ranging from 50 to 100 in the Mbuf (Memory Buffer) threshold box.
The Mbuf log report is stored in flash (permanent) memory.
For example, Mbuf 50 means a log will be created when the Mbuf utilization is over
50%.
The higher the Mbuf threshold number, the fewer logs will be created, and the less
data technical support will have to analyze and vice versa.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
All
Click Download to see all the log report and system status. This log report is stored
in flash memory. If the All log report is too large, you can download the log reports
separately below.
Crash Dump
Click Download to see the crash log report. The log will include information of the
last crash and is stored in flash memory.
CPU Loading History
Click Download to see the CPU loading history log report. The 7-days log is stored in
RAM and you will need to save it, otherwise it will be lost when the Switch is
shutdown or during power outage.
Memory Usage
Click Download to see the memory usage log report. This log report is stored in
flash memory.
Mbuf Usage
Click Download to see the Mbuf usage log report. The log includes Mbuf over
threshold information. This log report is stored in flash memory.
ROM File
Click Download to see the Read Only Memory (ROM) log report. This report is
stored in flash memory.
41.9 FTP Command Line
This section shows some examples of uploading to or downloading files from the Switch using FTP
commands. First, understand the filename conventions.
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41.9.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (also known as the romfile or ROM) contains the factory default settings in the
screens such as password, Switch setup, IP Setup, and so on. Once you have customized the
Switch’s settings, they can be saved back to your computer under a filename of your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the system
firmware and has a “bin” filename extension.
Table 170 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL
NAME
EXTERNAL
NAME
Configuration File
config
*.cfg
This is the configuration filename on the Switch.
Uploading the config file replaces the specified
configuration file system, including your Switch
configurations, system-related data (including the
default password), the error log and the trace log.
Firmware
ras-0
*.bin
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS firmware on the
Switch. ras-0 is image 1; ras-1 is image 2.
ras-1
DESCRIPTION
You can store up to two images, or firmware files of the same device model, on the Switch. Only
one image is used at a time.
• Run the boot image <1|2> command to specify which image is updated when firmware is loaded
using the web configurator and to specify which image is loaded when the Switch starts up.
• You can also use FTP commands to upload firmware to any image.
The Switch supports dual firmware images, ras-0 and ras-1. You can switch from one to the other
by using the boot image <index> command, where <index> is 1 (ras-0) or 2 (ras-1). See the CLI
Reference Guide for more information about using commands. The system does not reboot after it
switches from one image to the other.
41.9.1.1 Example FTP Commands
ftp> put firmware.bin ras-0
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file "firmware.bin" to the Switch.
ftp> get config config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to a file called “config.cfg” on your
computer.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the source,
you will need to rename them as the Switch only recognizes “config”, “ras-0”, and “ras-1”. Be sure
you keep unaltered copies of all files for later use.
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong
model firmware may damage your device.
41.9.2 FTP Command Line Procedure
1
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
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2
Enter open, followed by a space and the IP address of your Switch.
3
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5
Enter bin to set transfer mode to binary.
6
Use put to transfer files from the computer to the Switch, for example, put firmware.bin ras-0
transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the Switch and renames it to “ras-0”.
Similarly, put config.cfg config transfers the configuration file on your computer (config.cfg) to
the Switch and renames it to “config”. Likewise get config config.cfg transfers the configuration
file on the Switch to your computer and renames it to “config.cfg”. See Table 170 on page 346 for
more information on filename conventions.
7
Enter quit to exit the ftp prompt.
41.9.3 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP clients.
General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server for
anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or service
administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode. Configuration and
firmware files should be transferred in binary mode.
Initial Remote
Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
41.9.4 FTP Restrictions
FTP will not work when:
• FTP service is disabled in the Service Access Control screen.
• The IP address(es) in the Remote Management screen does not match the client IP address. If
it does not match, the Switch will disconnect the FTP session immediately.
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C HAPTER
42
Access Control
This chapter describes how to control access to the Switch.
42.1 Access Control Overview
A console port and FTP are allowed one session each, Telnet and SSH share nine sessions, up to five
Web sessions (five different user names and passwords) and/or limitless SNMP access control
sessions are allowed.
Table 171 Access Control Overview
Console Port
SSH
Telnet
One session
Share up to nine
sessions
FTP
Web
SNMP
One session
Up to five accounts
No limit
A console port access control session and Telnet access control session cannot coexist when multilogin is disabled. See the CLI Reference Guide for more information on disabling multi-login.
42.2 The Access Control Main Screen
Click Management > Access Control in the navigation panel to display the main screen as
shown.
Figure 224 Management > Access Control
42.3 About SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol used to manage and
monitor TCP/IP-based devices. SNMP is used to exchange management information between the
network management system (NMS) and a network element (NE). A manager station can manage
and monitor the Switch through the network via SNMP version one (SNMPv1), SNMP version 2c or
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SNMP version 3. The next figure illustrates an SNMP management operation. SNMP is only available
if TCP/IP is configured.
Figure 225 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main components: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed switch (the Switch). An
agent translates the local management information from the managed switch into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators perform
network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor managed
devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a switch. Examples of variables include number of packets
received, node port status and so on. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection of
managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of accessing
these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol operations:
Table 172 SNMP Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Get
Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
GetNext
Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an agent.
In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an agent, it
initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
Set
Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
Trap
Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
42.3.1 SNMP v3 and Security
SNMP v3 enhances security for SNMP management. SNMP managers can be required to
authenticate with agents before conducting SNMP management sessions.
Security can be further enhanced by encrypting the SNMP messages sent from the managers.
Encryption protects the contents of the SNMP messages. When the contents of the SNMP messages
are encrypted, only the intended recipients can read them.
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42.3.2 Supported MIBs
MIBs let administrators collect statistics and monitor status and performance.
The Switch supports the following MIBs:
• SNMP MIB II (RFC 1213)
• RFC 1157 SNMP v1
• RFC 1493 Bridge MIBs
• RFC 1643 Ethernet MIBs
• RFC 1155 SMI
• RFC 2674 SNMPv2, SNMPv2c
• RFC 1757 RMON
• SNMPv2, SNMPv2c or later version, compliant with RFC 2011 SNMPv2 MIB for IP, RFC 2012
SNMPv2 MIB for TCP, RFC 2013 SNMPv2 MIB for UDP
42.3.3 SNMP Traps
The Switch sends traps to an SNMP manager when an event occurs. The following tables outline the
SNMP traps by category.
An OID (Object ID) that begins with “1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15” is defined in private MIBs. Otherwise,
it is a standard MIB OID.
Table 173 SNMP System Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
coldstart
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
This trap is sent when the Switch is
turned on.
warmstart
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
This trap is sent when the Switch
restarts.
fanspeed
zyHwMonitorFanSpeedOut
OfRange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.1
This trap is sent when the fan speed goes
above or below the normal operating
range.
zyHwMonitorFANSpeedOut
OfRangeRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.6
This trap is sent when the fan speed is
recovered from the out of range to
normal operating range.
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Table 173 SNMP System Traps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
poe
zyPoePowerPortOverload
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.1
(For PoE
models only)
This trap is sent when the port is turned
off to supply power due to overloading.
zyPoePowerPortShortCircuit 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.2
This trap is sent when the port is turned
off to supply power due to short circuit.
zyPoePowerPortOverSyste
mBudget
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.3
This trap is sent when the port is turned
off to supply power because the
requested power exceeds the total PoE
power budget on the Switch.
zyPoePowerPortOverloadRe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.5
covered
This trap is sent when the port is turned
on to recover from an overloaded state.
zyPoePowerPortShortCircuit 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.6
Recovered
This trap is sent when the port is turned
on to recover from a short circuit.
zyPoePowerPortOverSyste
mBudgetRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.7
This trap is sent when the port is turned
on to recover from an over system
budget.
zyHwMonitorTemperatureO
utOfRange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.2
This trap is sent when the temperature
goes above or below the normal
operating range.
zyHwMonitorTemperatureO
utOfRangeRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.7
This trap is sent when the temperature is
recovered from the out of range to
normal operating range.
zyHwMonitorPowerSupplyV
oltageOutOfRange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.3
This trap is sent when the voltage goes
above or below the normal operating
range.
temperature
voltage
reset
timesync
zyHwMonitorPowerSupplyV 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.8
oltageOutOfRangeRecovere
d
This trap is sent when the power supply
voltage is recovered from the out of
range to normal operating range.
zySysMgmtUncontrolledSys 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.49.2.1
temReset
This trap is sent when the Switch
automatically resets.
zySysMgmtControlledSyste
mReset
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.49.2.2
This trap is sent when the Switch resets
by an administrator through a
management interface.
zySysMgmtBootImageInco
nsistence
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.49.2.3
This trap is sent when the index number
of image which is loaded when the Switch
starts up is different from what is
specified via the CLI.
RebootEvent
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.1.1.2
This trap is sent when the Switch reboots
by an administrator through a
management interface.
zyDateTimeTrapTimeServer 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.82.3.1
NotReachable
This trap is sent when the Switch’s date
and time is not manually entered or the
specified time server is not reachable.
zyDateTimeTrapTimeServer 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.82.3.2
NotReachableRecovered
This trap is sent when the Switch’s real
time clock is up to date.
intrusionlock
zyPortIntrusionLock
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.61.3.2
This trap is sent when intrusion lock
occurs on a port.
loopguard
zyLoopGuardLoopDetect
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.45.2.1
This trap is sent when loopguard shuts
down a port.
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Table 173 SNMP System Traps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
errdisable
zyErrdisableDetect
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.24.4.1
This trap is sent when an error is
detected on a port, such as a loop occurs
or the rate limit for specific control
packets is exceeded.
zyErrdisableRecovery
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.24.4.2
This trap is sent when the Switch ceases
the action taken on a port, such as
shutting down the port or discarding
packets on the port, after the specified
recovery interval.
Table 174 SNMP InterfaceTraps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
linkup
linkUp
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
This trap is sent when the Ethernet
link is up.
linkdown
linkDown
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
This trap is sent when the Ethernet
link is down.
autonegotiation
zyPortAutonegotiationFailed
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.61.3.1
This trap is sent when an Ethernet
interface fails to auto-negotiate with
the peer Ethernet interface.
zyPortAutonegotiationFailedRe
covered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.61.3.3
This trap is sent when an Ethernet
interface recovers from failing to
auto-negotiate with the peer
Ethernet interface.
lldpRemTablesChange
1.0.8802.1.1.2.0.0.1
The trap is sent when entries in the
remote database have any updates.
lldp
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
(LLDP), defined as IEEE 802.1ab,
enables LAN devices that support
LLDP to exchange their configured
settings. This helps eliminate
configuration mismatch issues.
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Table 174 SNMP InterfaceTraps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
transceiver-ddm
zyTransceiverDdmiTemperatur
eOutOfRange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.1
This trap is sent when the
transceiver temperature is above or
below the normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiTxPowerOut
OfRange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.2
This trap is sent when the
transmitted optical power is above
or below the normal operating
range.
zyTransceiverDdmiRxPowerOut 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.3
OfRange
This trap is sent when the received
optical power is above or below the
normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiVoltageOut
OfRange
This trap is sent when the
transceiver supply voltage is above
or below the normal operating
range.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.4
zyTransceiverDdmiTxBiasOutOf 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.5
Range
This trap is sent when the
transmitter laser bias current is
above or below the normal
operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiTemperatur
eOutOfRangeRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.6
This trap is sent when the
transceiver temperature is
recovered from the out of normal
operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiTxPowerOut
OfRangeRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.7
This trap is sent when the
transmitted optical power is
recovered from the out of normal
operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiRxPowerOut 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.8
OfRangeRecovered
This trap is sent when the received
optical power is recovered from the
out of normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiVoltageOut
OfRangeRecovered
This trap is sent when the
transceiver supply voltage is
recovered from the out of normal
operating range.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.9
zyTransceiverDdmiTxBiasOutOf 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.10
RangeRecovered
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This trap is sent when the
transmitter laser bias current is
recovered from the out of normal
operating range.
Chapter 42 Access Control
Table 175 AAA Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
authentication
authenticationFailure
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
This trap is sent when authentication
fails due to incorrect user name and/
or password.
zyAaaAuthenticationFailure
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.8.3.1
This trap is sent when authentication
fails due to incorrect user name and/
or password.
zyRadiusServerAuthenticationSe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.71.2.1
rverNotReachable
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the RADIUS
authentication server.
zyTacacsServerAuthenticationSe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.83.2.1
rverUnreachable
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the TACACS+
authentication server.
zyRadiusServerAuthenticationSe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.71.2.3
rverNotReachableRecovered
This trap is sent when there is a
response message from the
previously unreachable RADIUS
authentication server.
zyTacacsServerAuthenticationSe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.83.2.3
rverUnreachableRecovered
This trap is sent when there is a
response message from the
previously unreachable TACACS+
authentication server.
authorization
zyAaaAuthorizationFailure
This trap is sent when management
connection authorization failed.
accounting
zyRadiusServerAccountingServe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.71.2.2
rNotReachable
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the RADIUS
accounting server.
zyTacacsServerAccountingServe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.83.2.2
rUnreachable
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the TACACS+
accounting server.
zyRadiusServerAccountingServe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.71.2.4
rNotReachableRecovered
This trap is sent when there is a
response message from the
previously unreachable RADIUS
accounting server.
zyTacacsServerAccountingServe 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.83.2.4
rUnreachableRecovered
This trap is sent when there is a
response message from the
previously unreachable TACACS+
accounting server.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.8.3.2
Table 176 SNMP IP Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
ping
pingProbeFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.1
This trap is sent when a single ping probe fails.
pingTestFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.2
This trap is sent when a ping test (consisting of a
series of ping probes) fails.
pingTestCompleted
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.3
This trap is sent when a ping test is completed.
traceroute
traceRouteTestFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.2
This trap is sent when a traceroute test fails.
traceRouteTestCompleted
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.3
This trap is sent when a traceroute test is completed.
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Table 177 SNMP Switch Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
stp
STPNewRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
This trap is sent when the STP root switch changes.
zyMrstpNewRoot
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15
.3.52.3.1
This trap is sent when the MRSTP root switch
changes.
zyMstpNewRoot
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15
.3.53.3.1
This trap is sent when the MSTP root switch changes.
STPTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
This trap is sent when the STP topology changes.
zyMrstpTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15
.3.52.3.2
This trap is sent when the MRSTP topology changes.
zyMstpTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15
.3.53.3.2
This trap is sent when the MSTP root switch changes.
zyMacForwardingTableFull
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15
.3.48.2.1
This trap is sent when more than 99% of the MAC
table is used.
zyMacForwardingTableFullReco 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15
vered
.3.48.2.2
This trap is sent when the MAC address switching
table has become normal from full.
RmonRisingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
This trap is sent when a variable goes over the RMON
"rising" threshold.
RmonFallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
This trap is sent when the variable falls below the
RMON "falling" threshold.
dot1agCfmFaultAlarm
1.3.111.2.802.1.1.8.
0.1
The trap is sent when the Switch detects a
connectivity fault.
mactable
rmon
cfm
DESCRIPTION
42.3.4 Configuring SNMP
Click Management > Access Control > SNMP to view the screen as shown. Use this screen to
configure your SNMP settings.
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Figure 226 Management > Access Control > SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 178 Management > Access Control > SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General Setting
Use this section to specify the SNMP version and community (password) values.
Version
Select the SNMP version for the Switch. The SNMP version on the Switch must match the
version on the SNMP manager. Choose SNMP version 2c (v2c), SNMP version 3 (v3) or
both (v3v2c).
Note: SNMP version 2c is backwards compatible with SNMP version 1.
Get Community
Enter the Get Community string, which is the password for the incoming Get- and
GetNext- requests from the management station.
The Get Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Set Community
Enter the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set- requests from the
management station.
The Set Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Trap Community
Enter the Trap Community string, which is the password sent with each trap to the
SNMP manager.
The Trap Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Trap Destination
Use this section to configure where to send SNMP traps from the Switch.
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Table 178 Management > Access Control > SNMP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Version
Specify the version of the SNMP trap messages.
IP
Enter the IP addresses of up to four managers to send your SNMP traps to.
Port
Enter the port number upon which the manager listens for SNMP traps.
Username
Enter the username to be sent to the SNMP manager along with the SNMP v3 trap.
Note: This username must match an existing account on the Switch (configured in the
Management > Access Control > SNMP > User screen).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
42.3.5 Configuring SNMP Trap Group
Click Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group to view the screen as shown. Use
the Trap Group screen to specify the types of SNMP traps that should be sent to each SNMP
manager.
Figure 227 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 179 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trap Destination
IP
Select one of your configured trap destination IP addresses. These are the IP addresses of
the SNMP managers. You must first configure a trap destination IP address in the SNMP
Setting screen.
Use the rest of the screen to select which traps the Switch sends to that SNMP manager.
Type
Select the categories of SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP manager.
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Table 179 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Options
Select the individual SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP station. See
Section 42.3.3 on page 350 for individual trap descriptions.
The traps are grouped by category. Selecting a category automatically selects all of the
category’s traps. Clear the check boxes for individual traps that you do not want the Switch
to send to the SNMP station. Clearing a category’s check box automatically clears all of the
category’s trap check boxes (the Switch only sends traps from selected categories).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
42.3.6 Enabling/Disabling Sending of SNMP Traps on a Port
From the SNMP > Trap Group screen, click Port to view the screen as shown. Use this screen to
set whether a trap received on the port(s) would be sent to the SNMP manager.
Figure 228 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 180 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Option
Select the trap type you want to configure here.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some of the settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 180 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the sending of SNMP traps on this port. The Switch sends
the related traps received on this port to the SNMP manager.
Clear this check box to disable the sending of SNMP traps on this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
42.3.7 Configuring SNMP User
From the SNMP screen, click User to view the screen as shown. Use the User screen to create
SNMP users for authentication with managers using SNMP v3 and associate them to SNMP groups.
An SNMP user is an SNMP manager.
Figure 229 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 181 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User
LABEL
User
Information
Username
DESCRIPTION
Note: Use the username and password of the login accounts you specify in this screen to
create accounts on the SNMP v3 manager.
Specify the username of a login account on the Switch.
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Table 181 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select whether you want to implement authentication and/or encryption for SNMP
communication from this user. Choose:
•
•
•
noauth -to use the username as the password string to send to the SNMP manager.
This is equivalent to the Get, Set and Trap Community in SNMP v2c. This is the lowest
security level.
auth - to implement an authentication algorithm for SNMP messages sent by this user.
priv - to implement authentication and encryption for SNMP messages sent by this
user. This is the highest security level.
Note: The settings on the SNMP manager must be set at the same security level or higher
than the security level settings on the Switch.
Authentication
Password
Select an authentication algorithm. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure Hash
Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate SNMP data. SHA authentication is
generally considered stronger than MD5, but is slower.
Enter the password of up to 32 ASCII characters for SNMP user authentication.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Privacy
Specify the encryption method for SNMP communication from this user. You can choose one
of the following:
•
•
Password
DES - Data Encryption Standard is a widely used (but breakable) method of data
encryption. It applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
AES - Advanced Encryption Standard is another method for data encryption that also
uses a secret key. AES applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data.
Enter the password of up to 32 ASCII characters for encrypting SNMP packets.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Group
SNMP v3 adopts the concept of View-based Access Control Model (VACM) group. SNMP
managers in one group are assigned common access rights to MIBs. Specify in which SNMP
group this user is.
admin - Members of this group can perform all types of system configuration, including the
management of administrator accounts.
readwrite - Members of this group have read and write rights, meaning that the user can
create and edit the MIBs on the Switch, except the user account and AAA configuration.
readonly - Members of this group have read rights only, meaning the user can collect
information from the Switch.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power,
so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile
memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is a read-only number identifying a login account on the Switch. Click on an index
number to view more details and edit an existing account.
Username
This field displays the username of a login account on the Switch.
Security
Level
This field displays whether you want to implement authentication and/or encryption for
SNMP communication with this user.
Authenticati
on
This field displays the authentication algorithm used for SNMP communication with this
user.
Privacy
This field displays the encryption method used for SNMP communication with this user.
Group
This field displays the SNMP group to which this user belongs.
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Table 181 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
42.4 Setting Up Login Accounts
Up to five people (one administrator and four non-administrators) may access the Switch via web
configurator at any one time.
• An administrator is someone who can both view and configure Switch changes. The username for
the Administrator is always admin. The default administrator password is 1234.
Note: It is highly recommended that you change the default administrator password
(1234).
• A non-administrator (username is something other than admin) is someone who can view but
not configure Switch settings.
Click Management > Access Control > Logins to view the screen as shown next.
Figure 230 Management > Access Control > Logins
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 182 Management > Access Control > Logins
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Administrator
This is the default administrator account with the “admin” user name. You cannot change the default
administrator user name. Only the administrator has read/write access.
Old Password
Type the existing system password (1234 is the default password when shipped).
New Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to
confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation
Edit Logins
You may configure passwords for up to four users. These users have read-only access. You can give users
higher privileges via the CLI. For more information on assigning privileges see the Ethernet Switch CLI
Reference Guide.
User Name
Set a user name (up to 32 ASCII characters long).
Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to
confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation
Privilege
Type the privilege level for this user. At the time of writing, users may have a privilege
level of 0, 3, 13, or 14 representing different configuration rights as shown below.
•
•
•
•
0 - Display basic system information.
3 - Display configuration or status.
13 - Configure features except for login accounts, SNMP user accounts, the
authentication method sequence and authorization settings, multiple logins,
administrator and enable passwords, and configuration information display.
14 - Configure login accounts, SNMP user accounts, the authentication method
sequence and authorization settings, multiple logins, and administrator and enable
passwords, and display configuration information.
Users can run command lines if the session’s privilege level is greater than or equal to
the command’s privilege level. The session privilege initially comes from the privilege
of the login account. For example, if the user has a privilege of 5, he/she can run
commands that requires privilege level of 5 or less but not more.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
42.5 SSH Overview
Unlike Telnet or FTP, which transmit data in clear text, SSH (Secure Shell) is a secure
communication protocol that combines authentication and data encryption to provide secure
encrypted communication between two hosts over an unsecured network.
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Figure 231 SSH Communication Example
42.6 How SSH works
The following table summarizes how a secure connection is established between two remote hosts.
Figure 232 How SSH Works
1
Host Identification
The SSH client sends a connection request to the SSH server. The server identifies itself with a host
key. The client encrypts a randomly generated session key with the host key and server key and
sends the result back to the server.
The client automatically saves any new server public keys. In subsequent connections, the server
public key is checked against the saved version on the client computer.
2
Encryption Method
Once the identification is verified, both the client and server must agree on the type of encryption
method to use.
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3
Authentication and Data Transmission
After the identification is verified and data encryption activated, a secure tunnel is established
between the client and the server. The client then sends its authentication information (user name
and password) to the server to log in to the server.
42.7 SSH Implementation on the Switch
Your Switch supports SSH version 2 using RSA authentication and three encryption methods (DES,
3DES and Blowfish). The SSH server is implemented on the Switch for remote management and file
transfer on port 22. Only one SSH connection is allowed at a time.
42.7.1 Requirements for Using SSH
You must install an SSH client program on a client computer (Windows or Linux operating system)
that is used to connect to the Switch over SSH.
42.8 Introduction to HTTPS
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a web protocol
that encrypts and decrypts web pages. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is an application-level protocol
that enables secure transactions of data by ensuring confidentiality (an unauthorized party cannot
read the transferred data), authentication (one party can identify the other party) and data
integrity (you know if data has been changed).
It relies upon certificates, public keys, and private keys.
HTTPS on the Switch is used so that you may securely access the Switch using the web
configurator. The SSL protocol specifies that the SSL server (the Switch) must always authenticate
itself to the SSL client (the computer which requests the HTTPS connection with the Switch),
whereas the SSL client only should authenticate itself when the SSL server requires it to do so.
Authenticating client certificates is optional and if selected means the SSL-client must send the
Switch a certificate. You must apply for a certificate for the browser from a CA that is a trusted CA
on the Switch.
Please refer to the following figure.
1
HTTPS connection requests from an SSL-aware web browser go to port 443 (by default) on the
Switch’s WS (web server).
2
HTTP connection requests from a web browser go to port 80 (by default) on the Switch’s WS (web
server).
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Figure 233 HTTPS Implementation
Note: If you disable HTTP in the Service Access Control screen, then the Switch blocks
all HTTP connection attempts.
42.9 HTTPS Example
If you haven’t changed the default HTTPS port on the Switch, then in your browser enter “https://
Switch IP Address/” as the web site address where “Switch IP Address” is the IP address or domain
name of the Switch you wish to access.
42.9.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages
42.9.1.1 Internet Explorer 6
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a Windows dialog box pops up asking if you
trust the server certificate.
You see the following Security Alert screen in Internet Explorer. Select Yes to proceed to the web
configurator login screen; if you select No, then web configurator access is blocked.
Figure 234 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer 6)
example
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42.9.1.2 Internet Explorer 7 or 8
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a screen with the message "There is a
problem with this website's security certificate." may display. If that is the case, click Continue to
this website (not recommended) to proceed to the web configurator login screen.
Figure 235 Security Certificate Warning (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)
After you log in, you will see the red address bar with the message Certificate Error. Click on
Certificate Error next to the address bar and click View certificates.
Figure 236 Certificate Error (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)
EXAMPLE
Click Install Certificate... and follow the on-screen instructions to install the certificate in your
browser.
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Figure 237 Certificate (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)
42.9.2 Mozilla Firefox Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a This Connection is Unstructed screen
may display. If that is the case, click I Understand the Risks and then the Add Exception...
button.
Figure 238 Security Alert (Mozilla Firefox)
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Confirm the HTTPS server URL matches. Click Confirm Security Exception to proceed to the web
configurator login screen.
Figure 239 Security Alert (Mozilla Firefox)
EXAMPLE
42.9.3 The Main Screen
After you accept the certificate and enter the login username and password, the Switch main screen
appears. The lock displayed in the bottom right of the browser status bar or next to the website
address denotes a secure connection.
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Figure 240 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection
EXAMPLE
42.10 Service Port Access Control
Service Access Control allows you to decide what services you may use to access the Switch. You
may also change the default service port and configure “trusted computer(s)” for each service in
the Remote Management screen (discussed later). Click Management > Access Control >
Service Access Control to view the screen as shown.
Figure 241 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 183 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Services
Services you may use to access the Switch are listed here.
Active
Select this option for the corresponding services that you want to allow to access the Switch.
Service Port
For Telnet, SSH, FTP, HTTP or HTTPS services, you may change the default service port by
typing the new port number in the Server Port field. If you change the default port number
then you will have to let people (who wish to use the service) know the new port number for
that service.
Timeout
Type how many minutes (from 1 to 255) a management session can be left idle before the
session times out. After it times out you have to log in with your password again. Very long idle
timeouts may have security risks.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
42.11 Remote Management
Click Management > Access Control > Remote Management to view the screen as shown
next.
You can specify a group of one or more “trusted computers” from which an administrator may use a
service to manage the Switch. Click Access Control to return to the Access Control screen.
Figure 242 Management > Access Control > Remote Management
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 184 Management > Access Control > Remote Management
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Entry
This is the client set index number. A “client set” is a group of one or more “trusted
computers” from which an administrator may use a service to manage the Switch.
Active
Select this check box to activate this secured client set. Clear the check box if you wish to
temporarily disable the set without deleting it.
Start Address
Configure the IP address range of trusted computers from which you can manage this
Switch.
End Address
The Switch checks if the client IP address of a computer requesting a service or protocol
matches the range set here. The Switch immediately disconnects the session if it does not
match.
Telnet/FTP/
HTTP/ICMP/
SNMP/SSH/
HTTPS
Select services that may be used for managing the Switch from the specified trusted
computers.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Diagnostic
This chapter explains the Diagnostic screen. You can use this screen to help you identify problems
43.1 Diagnostic
Click Management > Diagnostic in the navigation panel to open this screen. Use this screen to
check system logs, ping IP addresses or perform port tests.
Figure 243 Management > Diagnostic
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 185 Management > Diagnostic
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Log
Click Display to display a log of events in the multi-line text box.
Click Clear to empty the text box and reset the syslog entry.
Ping Test
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Table 185 Management > Diagnostic (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv4
Select this option if you want to ping an IPv4 address, and select vlan to specify the ID
number of the VLAN to which the Switch is to send ping requests. Otherwise, select - to
send ping requests to all VLANs on the Switch.
IPv6
Select this option if you want to ping an IPv6 address. You can also select vlan and
specify the ID number of the VLAN to which the Switch is to send ping requests.
Otherwise, select - to send ping requests to all VLANs on the Switch.
IP Address
Type the IP address of a device that you want to ping in order to test a connection.
Click Ping to have the Switch ping the IP address.
Ethernet Port Test
Enter a port number and click Port Test to perform an internal loopback test.
Cable Diagnostics
Enter a port number and click Diagnose to perform a physical wire-pair test of the
Ethernet connections on the specified port(s). The following fields display when you
diagnose a port.
Port
This is the number of the physical Ethernet port on the Switch.
Channel
An Ethernet cable usually has four pairs of wires. A 10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX port only
use and test two pairs, while a 1000BASE-T port requires all four pairs.
This displays the descriptive name of the wire-pair in the cable.
Pair status
Ok: The physical connection between the wire-pair is okay.
Open: There is no physical connection (an open circuit detected) between the wire-pair.
Short: There is an short circuit detected between the wire-pair.
Unknown: The Switch failed to run cable diagnostics on the cable connected this port.
Unsupported: The port is a fiber port or it is not active.
Cable length
This displays the total length of the Ethernet cable that is connected to the port when the
Pair status is Ok and the Switch chipset supports this feature.
This shows N/A if the Pair status is Open or Short. Check the Distance to fault.
This shows Unsupported if the Switch chipset does not support to show the cable
length.
Distance to
fault
This displays the distance between the port and the location where the cable is open or
shorted.
This shows N/A if the Pair status is Ok.
This shows Unsupported if the Switch chipset does not support to show the distance.
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44
Syslog
This chapter explains the syslog screens.
44.1 Syslog Overview
The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an IP network to
syslog servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled device can generate a syslog
message and send it to a syslog server.
Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and system log related
information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a facility and severity level. The syslog
facility identifies a file in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for
details. The following table describes the syslog severity levels.
Table 186 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
0
Emergency: The system is unusable.
1
Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2
Critical: The system condition is critical.
3
Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4
Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
5
Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
6
Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7
Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.
44.2 Syslog Setup
Click Management > Syslog in the navigation panel to display this screen. The syslog feature
sends logs to an external syslog server. Use this screen to configure the device’s system logging
settings.
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Figure 244 Management > Syslog
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 187 Management > Syslog
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Syslog
Select Active to turn on syslog (system logging) and then configure the syslog setting
Logging Type
This column displays the names of the categories of logs that the device can generate.
Active
Select this option to set the device to generate logs for the corresponding category.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Privilege
Select a command privilege level. The Switch will only generate logs for commands that have
a privilege level greater than or equal to the specified privilege level.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
44.3 Syslog Server Setup
Click Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup to view the screen as shown next. Use this
screen to configure a list of external syslog servers.
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Figure 245 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 188 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to have the device send logs to this syslog server. Clear the check
box if you want to create a syslog server entry but not have the device send logs to it (you
can edit the entry later).
Server Address
Enter the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level
Select the severity level(s) of the logs that you want the device to send to this syslog
server. The lower the number, the more critical the logs are.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of a syslog server entry. Click this number to edit the entry.
Active
This field displays Yes if the device is to send logs to the syslog server. No displays if the
device is not to send logs to the syslog server.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this syslog
server.
Delete
Select an entry’s Delete check box and click Delete to remove the entry.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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45
Cluster Management
This chapter introduces cluster management.
45.1 Cluster Management Status Overview
Cluster Management allows you to manage switches through one Switch, called the cluster
manager. The switches must be directly connected and be in the same VLAN group so as to be able
to communicate with one another.
Table 189 ZyXEL Clustering Management Specifications
Maximum number of cluster
members
24
Cluster Member Models
Must be compatible with ZyXEL cluster management
implementation.
Cluster Manager
The switch through which you manage the cluster
member switches.
Cluster Members
The switches being managed by the cluster manager
switch.
In the following example, switch A in the basement is the cluster manager and the other switches
on the upper floors of the building are cluster members.
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Figure 246 Clustering Application Example
45.2 Cluster Management Status
Click Management > Cluster Management in the navigation panel to display the following
screen.
Note: A cluster can only have one manager.
Figure 247 Management > Cluster Management: Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 190 Management > Cluster Management: Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This field displays the role of this Switch within the cluster.
Manager
Member (you see this if you access this screen in the cluster member switch directly and
not via the cluster manager)
None (neither a manager nor a member of a cluster)
Manager
This field displays the cluster manager switch’s hardware MAC address.
The Number of
Member
This field displays the number of switches that make up this cluster. The following fields
describe the cluster member switches.
Index
You can manage cluster member switches via the cluster manager switch. Each number in
the Index column is a hyperlink leading to the cluster member switch’s web configurator
(see Figure 248 on page 380).
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This field displays the model name.
Status
This field displays:
Online (the cluster member switch is accessible)
Error (for example the cluster member switch password was changed or the switch was set
as the manager and so left the member list, etc.)
Offline (the switch is disconnected - Offline shows approximately 1.5 minutes after the link
between cluster member and manager goes down)
45.2.1 Cluster Member Switch Management
Go to the Clustering Management Status screen of the cluster manager switch and then select
an Index hyperlink from the list of members to go to that cluster member switch's web
configurator home page. This cluster member web configurator home page and the home page that
you'd see if you accessed it directly are different.
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Figure 248 Cluster Management: Cluster Member Web Configurator Screen
example
example
45.2.1.1 Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
You can use FTP to upload firmware to a cluster member switch through the cluster manager switch
as shown in the following example.
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Figure 249 Example: Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
C:\>ftp 192.168.1.1
Connected to 192.168.1.1.
220 Switch FTP version 1.0 ready at Thu Jan 1 00:58:46 1970
User (192.168.0.1:(none)): admin
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> ls
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for LIST
--w--w--w1 owner
group
3082906 Jul 01 12:00 ras-0
--w--w--w1 owner
group
3082906 Jul 01 12:00 ras-1
-rw-rw-rw1 owner
group
8388608 Jul 01 12:00 config
226 File sent OK
ftp: 297 bytes received in 0.00Seconds 297000.00Kbytes/sec.
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put 410AABB0C0.bin ras-0
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras-0
226 File received OK
ftp: 262144 bytes sent in 0.63Seconds 415.44Kbytes/sec.
ftp>
The following table explains some of the FTP parameters.
Table 191 FTP Upload to Cluster Member Example
FTP PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
User
Enter “admin”.
Password
The web configurator password default is 1234.
ls
Enter this command to list the name of cluster member switch’s firmware and
configuration file.
410AABB0C0.bin
This is the name of the firmware file you want to upload to the cluster member
switch.
ras-0
This is the cluster member switch’s firmware name as seen in the cluster
manager switch.
config
This is the cluster member switch’s configuration file name as seen in the
cluster manager switch.
45.3 Clustering Management Configuration
Use this screen to configure clustering management. Click Management > Cluster Management
> Configuration to display the next screen.
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Figure 250 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 192 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clustering
Manager
Active
Select Active to have this Switch become the cluster manager switch. A cluster can only have
one manager. Other (directly connected) switches that are set to be cluster managers will not
be visible in the Clustering Candidates list. If a switch that was previously a cluster member
is later set to become a cluster manager, then its Status is displayed as Error in the Cluster
Management Status screen and a warning icon (
) appears in the member summary list
below.
Name
Type a name to identify the Clustering Manager. You may use up to 32 printable characters
(spaces are allowed).
VID
This is the VLAN ID and is only applicable if the Switch is set to 802.1Q VLAN. All switches
must be directly connected and in the same VLAN group to belong to the same cluster.
Switches that are not in the same VLAN group are not visible in the Clustering Candidates
list. This field is ignored if the Clustering Manager is using Port-based VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
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Table 192 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration (continued)
LABEL
Cancel
Clustering
Candidate
DESCRIPTION
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
The following fields relate to the switches that are potential cluster members.
List
A list of suitable candidates found by auto-discovery is shown here. The switches must be
directly connected. Directly connected switches that are set to be cluster managers will not be
visible in the Clustering Candidate list. Switches that are not in the same management
VLAN group will not be visible in the Clustering Candidate list.
Password
Each cluster member’s password is its web configurator password. Select a member in the
Clustering Candidate list and then enter its web configurator password. If that switch
administrator changes the web configurator password afterwards, then it cannot be managed
from the Cluster Manager. Its Status is displayed as Error in the Cluster Management
Status screen and a warning icon (
) appears in the member summary list below.
If multiple devices have the same password then hold [SHIFT] and click those switches to
select them. Then enter their common web configurator password.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Refresh
Click Refresh to perform auto-discovery again to list potential cluster members.
The next summary table shows the information for the clustering members configured.
Index
This is the index number of a cluster member switch.
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This is the cluster member switch’s model name.
Remove
Select this checkbox and then click the Remove button to remove a cluster member switch
from the cluster.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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46
MAC Table
This chapter introduces the MAC Table screen.
46.1 MAC Table Overview
The MAC Table screen (a MAC table is also known as a filtering database) shows how frames are
forwarded or filtered across the Switch’s ports. It shows what device MAC address, belonging to
what VLAN group (if any) is forwarded to which port(s) and whether the MAC address is dynamic
(learned by the Switch) or static (manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
The Switch uses the MAC table to determine how to forward frames. See the following figure.
1
The Switch examines a received frame and learns the port on which this source MAC address came.
2
The Switch checks to see if the frame's destination MAC address matches a source MAC address
already learned in the MAC table.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, then it forwards the frame to
that port.
• If the Switch has not already learned the port for this MAC address, then the frame is flooded to
all ports. Too much port flooding leads to network congestion.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, but the destination port is the
same as the port it came in on, then it filters the frame.
Figure 251 MAC Table Flowchart
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Chapter 46 MAC Table
46.2 Viewing the MAC Table
Click Management > MAC Table in the navigation panel to display the following screen.
Figure 252 Management > MAC Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 193 Management > MAC Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Condition
Select one of the buttons and click Search to only display the data which matches the
criteria you specified.
Select All to display any entry in the MAC table of the Switch.
Select Static to display the MAC entries manually configured on the Switch.
Select MAC and enter a MAC address in the field provided to display a specified MAC entry.
Select VID and enter a VLAN ID in the field provided to display the MAC entries belonging to
the specified VLAN.
Select Port and enter a port number in the field provided to display the MAC addresses
which are forwarded on the specified port.
Sort by
Define how the Switch displays and arranges the data in the summary table below.
Select MAC to display and arrange the data according to MAC address.
Select VID to display and arrange the data according to VLAN group.
Select PORT to display and arrange the data according to port number.
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Table 193 Management > MAC Table (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Transfer Type
Select Dynamic to MAC forwarding and click the Transfer button to change all
dynamically learned MAC address entries in the summary table below into static entries.
They also display in the Static MAC Forwarding screen.
Select Dynamic to MAC filtering and click the Transfer button to change all dynamically
learned MAC address entries in the summary table below into MAC filtering entries. These
entries will then display only in the Filtering screen and the default filtering action is
Discard source.
Cancel
Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Index
This is the incoming frame index number.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device from which this incoming frame came.
VID
This is the VLAN group to which this frame belongs.
Port
This is the port where the above MAC address is forwarded.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static
(manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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47
ARP Table
This chapter introduces ARP Table.
47.1 ARP Table Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP
address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC address, on
the local area network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are 48 bits long. The
ARP Table maintains an association between each MAC address and its corresponding IP address.
47.1.1 How ARP Works
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network arrives at the Switch,
the Switch's ARP program looks in the ARP Table and, if it finds the address, sends it to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the devices on the LAN.
The Switch fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender address fields, and puts the known IP
address of the target in the target IP address field. In addition, the Switch puts all ones in the
target MAC field (FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The replying device (which is
either the IP address of the device being sought or the router that knows the way) replaces the
broadcast address with the target's MAC address, swaps the sender and target pairs, and unicasts
the answer directly back to the requesting machine. ARP updates the ARP Table for future reference
and then sends the packet to the MAC address that replied.
47.2 The ARP Table Screen
Click Management > ARP Table in the navigation panel to open the following screen. Use the ARP
table to view IP-to-MAC address mapping(s) and remove specific dynamic ARP entries.
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Figure 253 Management > ARP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 194 Management > ARP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Condition
Specify how you want the Switch to remove ARP entries when you click Flush.
Select All to remove all of the dynamic entries from the ARP table.
Select IP Address and enter an IP address to remove the dynamic entries learned with the
specified IP address.
Select Port and enter a port number to remove the dynamic entries learned on the specified
port.
Flush
Click Flush to remove the ARP entries according to the condition you specified.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the ARP table entry number.
IP Address
This is the learned IP address of a device connected to a Switch port with the corresponding
MAC address below.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device with the corresponding IP address above.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the device belongs.
Port
This field displays the port to which the device connects. CPU means this learned IP address
is the Switch’s management IP address.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (manually
entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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48
Path MTU Table
48.1 Path MTU Overview
This chapter introduces the IPv6 Path MTU table.
The largest size (in bytes) of a packet that can be transferred over a data link is called the
maximum transmission unit (MTU). The Switch uses Path MTU Discovery to discover Path MTU
(PMTU), that is, the minimum link MTU of all the links in a path to the destination. If the Switch
receives an ICMPv6 Packet Too Big error message after sending a packet, it fragments the next
packet according to the suggested MTU in the error message.
48.2 Viewing the Path MTU Table
Use this screen to view IPv6 path MTU information on the Switch. Click Management > Path MTU
Table in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 254 Management > Path MTU Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 195 Management > Path MTU Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Path MTU
aging time
This field displays how long an entry remains in the Path MTU table before it ages out and
needs to be relearned.
Index
This field displays the index number of each entry in the table.
Destination
Address
This field displays the destination IPv6 address of each path/entry.
MTU
This field displays the maximum transmission unit of the links in the path.
Expire
This field displays how long (in minutes) an entry can still remain in the Path MTU table before
it ages out and needs to be relearned.
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49
Configure Clone
This chapter shows you how you can copy the settings of one port onto other ports.
49.1 Configure Clone
Cloning allows you to copy the basic and advanced settings from a source port to a destination port
or ports. Click Management > Configure Clone to open the following screen.
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Chapter 49 Configure Clone
Figure 255 Management > Configure Clone
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 196 Management > Configure Clone
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source/
Destination
Enter the source port under the Source label. This port’s attributes are copied.
Port
Enter the destination port or ports under the Destination label. These are the ports which
are going to have the same attributes as the source port. You can enter individual ports
separated by a comma or a range of ports by using a dash.
Example:
•
•
Basic Setting
2, 4, 6 indicates that ports 2, 4 and 6 are the destination ports.
2-6 indicates that ports 2 through 6 are the destination ports.
Select which port settings (you configured in the Basic Setting menus) should be copied to
the destination port(s).
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Table 196 Management > Configure Clone (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Advanced
Application
Select which port settings (you configured in the Advanced Application menus) should be
copied to the destination ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Neighbor Table
50.1 IPv6 Neighbor Table Overview
This chapter introduces the IPv6 neighbor table.
An IPv6 host is required to have a neighbor table. If there is an address to be resolved or verified,
the Switch sends out a neighbor solicitation message. When the Switch receives a neighbor
advertisement in response, it stores the neighbor’s link-layer address in the neighbor table. You can
also manually create a static IPv6 neighbor entry using the Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6
Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Setup screen.
When the Switch needs to send a packet, it first consults other table to determine the next hop.
Once the next hop IPv6 address is known, the Switch looks into the neighbor table to get the linklayer address and sends the packet when the neighbor is reachable. If the Switch cannot find an
entry in the neighbor table or the state for the neighbor is not reachable, it starts the address
resolution process. This helps reduce the number of IPv6 solicitation and advertisement messages.
50.2 Viewing the IPv6 Neighbor Table
Use this screen to view IPv6 neighbor information on the Switch. Click Management > Neighbor
Table in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 256 Management > Neighbor Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 197 Management > Neighbor Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of each entry in the table.
Interface
This field displays the ID number of the IPv6 interface on which the IPv6 address is created or
through which the neighboring device can be reached.
Neighbor
Address
This field displays the IPv6 address of the Switch or a neighboring device.
MAC
This field displays the MAC address of the IPv6 interface on which the IPv6 address is
configured or the MAC address of the neighboring device.
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Table 197 Management > Neighbor Table (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This field displays whether the neighbor IPv6 interface is reachable. In IPv6, “reachable”
means an IPv6 packet can be correctly forwarded to a neighbor node (host or router) and the
neighbor can successfully receive and handle the packet. The available options in this field
are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Type
reachable (R): The interface of the neighboring device is reachable. (The Switch has
received a response to the initial request.)
stale (S): The last reachable time has expired and the Switch is waiting for a response to
another initial request. The field displays this also when the Switch receives an
unrequested response from the neighbor’s interface.
delay (D): The neighboring interface is no longer known to be reachable, and traffic has
been sent to the neighbor recently. The Switch delays sending request packets for a short
to give upper-layer protocols a chance to determine reachability.
probe (P): The Switch is sending request packets and waiting for the neighbor’s response.
invalid (IV): The neighbor address is with an invalid IPv6 address.
unknown (?): The status of the neighboring interface can not be determined for some
reason.
incomplete (I): Address resolution is in progress and the link-layer address of the neighbor
has not yet been determined. The interface of the neighboring device did not give a
complete response.
This field displays the type of an address mapping to a neighbor interface. The available
options in this field are:
•
•
•
•
other (O): none of the following type.
local (L): A Switch interface is using the address.
dynamic (D): The IP address to MAC address can be successfully resolved using IPv6
Neighbor Discovery protocol. Is it similar as IPv4 ARP (Address Resolution protocol).
static (S): The interface address is statically configured.
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51
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential
problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• Switch Access and Login
• Switch Configuration
51.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
The Switch does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1
Make sure the Switch is turned on (in DC models or if the DC power supply is connected in AC/DC
models).
2
Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the Switch.
3
Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the Switch and plugged in to an appropriate
power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
4
Turn the Switch off and on (in DC models or if the DC power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
5
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch (in AC models or if the AC
power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
6
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
The ALM LED is on.
1
Turn the Switch off and on (in DC models or if the DC power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
2
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch (in AC models or if the AC
power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
3
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
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One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 3.2 on page 33.
2
Check the hardware connections. See Section 3.1 on page 26.
3
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
4
Turn the Switch off and on (in DC models or if the DC power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
5
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch (in AC models or if the AC
power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
6
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
51.2 Switch Access and Login
I forgot the IP address for the Switch.
1
The default management IP address is 192.168.1.1.
2
Use the console port to log in to the Switch.
3
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page
40.
I forgot the username and/or password.
1
The default username is admin and the default password is 1234.
2
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page
40.
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1
Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default management IP address is 192.168.1.1.
• If you changed the IP address, use the new IP address.
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• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting suggestions for I
forgot the IP address for the Switch.
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See Section
3.2 on page 33.
3
Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScripts and Java
enabled.
4
Make sure your computer is in the same subnet as the Switch. (If you know that there are routers
between your computer and the Switch, skip this step.)
5
Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the Switch with the default IP address.
See Section 4.6 on page 40.
6
If the problem continues, contact the vendor, or try one of the advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Try to access the Switch using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access the Switch,
check the remote management settings to find out why the Switch does not respond to HTTP.
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the Switch.
1
Make sure you have entered the user name and password correctly. The default user name is
admin, and the default password is 1234. These fields are case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps
Lock] is not on.
2
You may have exceeded the maximum number of concurrent Telnet sessions. Close other Telnet
session(s) or try connecting again later.
Check that you have enabled logins for HTTP or Telnet. If you have configured a secured client IP
address, your computer’s IP address must match it. Refer to the chapter on access control for
details.
3
Disconnect and re-connect the cord to the Switch.
4
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page
40.
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
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I cannot see some of Advanced Application submenus at the bottom of the navigation
panel.
The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels. Adjust the value in your computer and
then you should see the rest of Advanced Application submenus at the bottom of the navigation
panel.
There is unauthorized access to my Switch via telnet, HTTP and SSH.
Click the Display button in the System Log field in the Management > Diagnostic screen to
check for unauthorized access to your Switch. To avoid unauthorized access, configure the secured
client setting in the Management > Access Control > Remote Management screen for telnet,
HTTP and SSH (see Section 42.11 on page 370). Computers not belonging to the secured client set
cannot get permission to access the Switch.
51.3 Switch Configuration
I lost my configuration settings after I restart the Switch.
Make sure you save your configuration into the Switch’s
nonvolatile memory each time you make changes. Click Save
at the top right corner of the web configurator to save the
configuration permanently. See also Section 41.3 on page 340 for more information about how to
save your configuration.
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A PPENDIX
A
Customer Support
In the event of problems that cannot be solved by using this manual, you should contact your
vendor. If you cannot contact your vendor, then contact a ZyXEL office for the region in which you
bought the device.
See http://www.zyxel.com/homepage.shtml and also
http://www.zyxel.com/about_zyxel/zyxel_worldwide.shtml for the latest information.
Please have the following information ready when you contact an office.
Required Information
• Product model and serial number.
• Warranty Information.
• Date that you received your device.
• Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
Corporate Headquarters (Worldwide)
Taiwan
• ZyXEL Communications Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com
Asia
China
• ZyXEL Communications (Shanghai) Corp.
ZyXEL Communications (Beijing) Corp.
ZyXEL Communications (Tianjin) Corp.
• http://www.zyxel.cn
India
• ZyXEL Technology India Pvt Ltd
• http://www.zyxel.in
Kazakhstan
• ZyXEL Kazakhstan
• http://www.zyxel.kz
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Appendix A Customer Support
Korea
• ZyXEL Korea Corp.
• http://www.zyxel.kr
Malaysia
• ZyXEL Malaysia Sdn Bhd.
• http://www.zyxel.com.my
Pakistan
• ZyXEL Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd.
• http://www.zyxel.com.pk
Philippines
• ZyXEL Philippines
• http://www.zyxel.com.ph
Singapore
• ZyXEL Singapore Pte Ltd.
• http://www.zyxel.com.sg
Taiwan
• ZyXEL Communications Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/tw/zh/
Thailand
• ZyXEL Thailand Co., Ltd
• http://www.zyxel.co.th
Vietnam
• ZyXEL Communications Corporation-Vietnam Office
• http://www.zyxel.com/vn/vi
Europe
Austria
• ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH
• http://www.zyxel.de
Belarus
• ZyXEL BY
• http://www.zyxel.by
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Appendix A Customer Support
Belgium
• ZyXEL Communications B.V.
• http://www.zyxel.com/be/nl/
• http://www.zyxel.com/be/fr/
Bulgaria
• ZyXEL България
• http://www.zyxel.com/bg/bg/
Czech Republic
• ZyXEL Communications Czech s.r.o
• http://www.zyxel.cz
Denmark
• ZyXEL Communications A/S
• http://www.zyxel.dk
Estonia
• ZyXEL Estonia
• http://www.zyxel.com/ee/et/
Finland
• ZyXEL Communications
• http://www.zyxel.fi
France
• ZyXEL France
• http://www.zyxel.fr
Germany
• ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH
• http://www.zyxel.de
Hungary
• ZyXEL Hungary & SEE
• http://www.zyxel.hu
Italy
• ZyXEL Communications Italy
• http://www.zyxel.it/
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Latvia
• ZyXEL Latvia
• http://www.zyxel.com/lv/lv/homepage.shtml
Lithuania
• ZyXEL Lithuania
• http://www.zyxel.com/lt/lt/homepage.shtml
Netherlands
• ZyXEL Benelux
• http://www.zyxel.nl
Norway
• ZyXEL Communications
• http://www.zyxel.no
Poland
• ZyXEL Communications Poland
• http://www.zyxel.pl
Romania
• ZyXEL Romania
• http://www.zyxel.com/ro/ro
Russia
• ZyXEL Russia
• http://www.zyxel.ru
Slovakia
• ZyXEL Communications Czech s.r.o. organizacna zlozka
• http://www.zyxel.sk
Spain
• ZyXEL Communications ES Ltd
• http://www.zyxel.es
Sweden
• ZyXEL Communications
• http://www.zyxel.se
Switzerland
• Studerus AG
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• http://www.zyxel.ch/
Turkey
• ZyXEL Turkey A.S.
• http://www.zyxel.com.tr
UK
• ZyXEL Communications UK Ltd.
• http://www.zyxel.co.uk
Ukraine
• ZyXEL Ukraine
• http://www.ua.zyxel.com
Latin America
Argentina
• ZyXEL Communication Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/ec/es/
Brazil
• ZyXEL Communications Brasil Ltda.
• https://www.zyxel.com/br/pt/
Ecuador
• ZyXEL Communication Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/ec/es/
Middle East
Israel
• ZyXEL Communication Corporation
• http://il.zyxel.com/homepage.shtml
Middle East
• ZyXEL Communication Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/me/en/
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North America
USA
• ZyXEL Communications, Inc. - North America Headquarters
• http://www.zyxel.com/us/en/
Oceania
Australia
• ZyXEL Communications Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/au/en/
Africa
South Africa
• Nology (Pty) Ltd.
• http://www.zyxel.co.za
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A PPENDIX
B
Common Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated protocols and port
numbers. For a comprehensive list of port numbers, ICMP type/code numbers and services, visit
the IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) web site.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or create a
different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/UDP, then the service
uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is User-Defined, the Port(s) is the IP
protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further information
about port numbers.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service or the situations
in which this service is used.
Table 198 Commonly Used Services
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH (IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM/New-ICQ
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service. It is also
used as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP
7648
UDP
24032
A popular videoconferencing solution from
White Pines Software.
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that matches
web names (for example www.zyxel.com) to IP
numbers.
ESP (IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security
Protocol) tunneling protocol uses this service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related command
that can be used to find out if a user is logged
on.
FTP
TCP
20
TCP
21
File Transfer Program, a program to enable fast
transfer of files, including large files that may
not be possible by e-mail.
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
H.323
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Appendix B Common Services
Table 198 Commonly Used Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/server
protocol for the world wide web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often used in
e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is often
used for diagnostic or routing purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IGMP (MULTICAST)
User-Defined
2
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is used when
sending packets to a specific group of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm is used
for key distribution and management.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat program.
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service uses
this protocol.
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/server
distributed file service that provides
transparent file sharing for network
environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is the
delivery mechanism for the USENET
newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that sends
out ICMP echo requests to test whether or not
a remote host is reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client
computer get e-mail from a POP3 server
through a temporary connection (TCP/IP or
other).
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables
secure transfer of data over public networks.
This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL (GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that enables real
time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media control)
Protocol (RTSP) is a remote control for
multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP
TCP
115
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
406
Appendix B Common Services
Table 198 Commonly Used Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the messageexchange standard for the Internet. SMTP
enables you to move messages from one email server to another.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an interface to
access data on many different types of
database systems, including mainframes,
midrange systems, UNIX systems and network
servers.
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a
UNIX server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal Access
Controller Access Control System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation
protocol common on the Internet and in UNIX
environments. It operates over TCP/IP
networks. Its primary function is to allow users
to log into remote host systems.
TFTP
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet file
transfer protocol similar to FTP, but uses the
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) rather than TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol).
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
Another videoconferencing solution.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
407
Appendix B Common Services
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
408
A PPENDIX
C
IPv6
Overview
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), is designed to enhance IP address size and features. The
increase in IPv6 address size to 128 bits (from the 32-bit IPv4 address) allows up to 3.4 x 1038 IP
addresses.
IPv6 Addressing
The 128-bit IPv6 address is written as eight 16-bit hexadecimal blocks separated by colons (:). This
is an example IPv6 address 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000.
IPv6 addresses can be abbreviated in two ways:
• Leading zeros in a block can be omitted. So 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000 can
be written as 2001:db8:1a2b:15:0:0:1a2f:0.
• Any number of consecutive blocks of zeros can be replaced by a double colon. A double colon can
only appear once in an IPv6 address. So 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f:0000:0000:0015 can be
written as 2001:0db8::1a2f:0000:0000:0015, 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f::0015,
2001:db8::1a2f:0:0:15 or 2001:db8:0:0:1a2f::15.
Prefix and Prefix Length
Similar to an IPv4 subnet mask, IPv6 uses an address prefix to represent the network address. An
IPv6 prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (start from the left) in the address
compose the network address. The prefix length is written as “/x” where x is a number. For
example,
2001:db8:1a2b:15::1a2f:0/32
means that the first 32 bits (2001:db8) is the subnet prefix.
Link-local Address
A link-local address uniquely identifies a device on the local network (the LAN). It is similar to a
“private IP address” in IPv4. You can have the same link-local address on multiple interfaces on a
device. A link-local unicast address has a predefined prefix of fe80::/10. The link-local unicast
address format is as follows.
Table 199 Link-local Unicast Address Format
1111 1110 10
0
Interface ID
10 bits
54 bits
64 bits
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
409
Appendix C IPv6
Global Address
A global address uniquely identifies a device on the Internet. It is similar to a “public IP address” in
IPv4. A global unicast address starts with a 2 or 3.
Unspecified Address
An unspecified address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 or ::) is used as the source address when a device does
not have its own address. It is similar to “0.0.0.0” in IPv4.
Loopback Address
A loopback address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1) allows a host to send packets to itself. It is similar to
“127.0.0.1” in IPv4.
Multicast Address
In IPv6, multicast addresses provide the same functionality as IPv4 broadcast addresses.
Broadcasting is not supported in IPv6. A multicast address allows a host to send packets to all hosts
in a multicast group.
Multicast scope allows you to determine the size of the multicast group. A multicast address has a
predefined prefix of ff00::/8. The following table describes some of the predefined multicast
addresses.
Table 200 Predefined Multicast Address
MULTICAST ADDRESS
DESCRIPTION
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
All hosts on a local node.
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local node.
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
All hosts on a local connected link.
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local connected link.
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local site.
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:3
All DHCP severs on a local site.
The following table describes the multicast addresses which are reserved and can not be assigned
to a multicast group.
Table 201 Reserved Multicast Address
MULTICAST ADDRESS
FF00:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF03:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF04:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF06:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF07:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF08:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF09:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
410
Appendix C IPv6
Table 201 Reserved Multicast Address (continued)
MULTICAST ADDRESS
FF0A:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0B:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0C:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0D:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0F:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
Subnet Masking
Both an IPv6 address and IPv6 subnet mask compose of 128-bit binary digits, which are divided
into eight 16-bit blocks and written in hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal uses four bits for each
character (1 ~ 10, A ~ F). Each block’s 16 bits are then represented by four hexadecimal
characters. For example, FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FC00:0000:0000:0000.
Interface ID
In IPv6, an interface ID is a 64-bit identifier. It identifies a physical interface (for example, an
Ethernet port) or a virtual interface (for example, the management IP address for a VLAN). One
interface should have a unique interface ID.
EUI-64
The EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier) defined by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers) is an interface ID format designed to adapt with IPv6. It is derived from the 48-bit (6byte) Ethernet MAC address as shown next. EUI-64 inserts the hex digits fffe between the third and
fourth bytes of the MAC address and complements the seventh bit of the first byte of the MAC
address. See the following example.
Table 202
MAC
00
: 13
: 49
: 12
: 34
: 56
: 13
: 49
: FF
: FE
: 12
: 34
Table 203
EUI-64
02
: 56
Stateless Autoconfiguration
With stateless autoconfiguration in IPv6, addresses can be uniquely and automatically generated.
Unlike DHCPv6 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version six) which is used in IPv6 stateful
autoconfiguration, the owner and status of addresses don’t need to be maintained by a DHCP
server. Every IPv6 device is able to generate its own and unique IP address automatically when
IPv6 is initiated on its interface. It combines the prefix and the interface ID (generated from its own
Ethernet MAC address, see Interface ID and EUI-64) to form a complete IPv6 address.
When IPv6 is enabled on a device, its interface automatically generates a link-local address
(beginning with fe80).
When the interface is connected to a network with a router and the Switch is set to automatically
obtain an IPv6 network prefix from the router for the interface, it generates 3another address which
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
411
Appendix C IPv6
combines its interface ID and global and subnet information advertised from the router. This is a
routable global IP address.
DHCPv6
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6, RFC 3315) is a server-client protocol
that allows a DHCP server to assign and pass IPv6 network addresses, prefixes and other
configuration information to DHCP clients. DHCPv6 servers and clients exchange DHCP messages
using UDP.
Each DHCP client and server has a unique DHCP Unique IDentifier (DUID), which is used for
identification when they are exchanging DHCPv6 messages. The DUID is generated from the MAC
address, time, vendor assigned ID and/or the vendor's private enterprise number registered with
the IANA. It should not change over time even after you reboot the device.
Identity Association
An Identity Association (IA) is a collection of addresses assigned to a DHCP client, through which
the server and client can manage a set of related IP addresses. Each IA must be associated with
exactly one interface. The DHCP client uses the IA assigned to an interface to obtain configuration
from a DHCP server for that interface. Each IA consists of a unique IAID and associated IP
information.
The IA type is the type of address in the IA. Each IA holds one type of address. IA_NA means an
identity association for non-temporary addresses and IA_TA is an identity association for temporary
addresses. An IA_NA option contains the T1 and T2 fields, but an IA_TA option does not. The
DHCPv6 server uses T1 and T2 to control the time at which the client contacts with the server to
extend the lifetimes on any addresses in the IA_NA before the lifetimes expire. After T1, the client
sends the server (S1) (from which the addresses in the IA_NA were obtained) a Renew message. If
the time T2 is reached and the server does not respond, the client sends a Rebind message to any
available server (S2). For an IA_TA, the client may send a Renew or Rebind message at the client's
discretion.
T2
T1
Renew Renew
to S1
to S1
Renew Renew
to S1
to S1
Renew
to S1
Renew
to S1
Rebind
to S2
Rebind
to S2
DHCP Relay Agent
A DHCP relay agent is on the same network as the DHCP clients and helps forward messages
between the DHCP server and clients. When a client cannot use its link-local address and a wellknown multicast address to locate a DHCP server on its network, it then needs a DHCP relay agent
to send a message to a DHCP server that is not attached to the same network.
The DHCP relay agent can add the remote identification (remote-ID) option and the interface-ID
option to the Relay-Forward DHCPv6 messages. The remote-ID option carries a user-defined string,
3.
In IPv6, all network interfaces can be associated with several addresses.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
412
Appendix C IPv6
such as the system name. The interface-ID option provides slot number, port information and the
VLAN ID to the DHCPv6 server. The remote-ID option (if any) is stripped from the Relay-Reply
messages before the relay agent sends the packets to the clients. The DHCP server copies the
interface-ID option from the Relay-Forward message into the Relay-Reply message and sends it to
the relay agent. The interface-ID should not change even after the relay agent restarts.
Prefix Delegation
Prefix delegation enables an IPv6 router to use the IPv6 prefix (network address) received from the
ISP (or a connected uplink router) for its LAN. The Switch uses the received IPv6 prefix (for
example, 2001:db2::/48) to generate its LAN IP address. Through sending Router Advertisements
(RAs) regularly by multicast, the Switch passes the IPv6 prefix information to its LAN hosts. The
hosts then can use the prefix to generate their IPv6 addresses.
ICMPv6
Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6 or ICMP for IPv6) is defined in RFC 4443.
ICMPv6 has a preceding Next Header value of 58, which is different from the value used to identify
ICMP for IPv4. ICMPv6 is an integral part of IPv6. IPv6 nodes use ICMPv6 to report errors
encountered in packet processing and perform other diagnostic functions, such as "ping".
Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a protocol used to discover other IPv6 devices and track
neighbor’s reachability in a network. An IPv6 device uses the following ICMPv6 messages types:
• Neighbor solicitation: A request from a host to determine a neighbor’s link-layer address (MAC
address) and detect if the neighbor is still reachable. A neighbor being “reachable” means it
responds to a neighbor solicitation message (from the host) with a neighbor advertisement
message.
• Neighbor advertisement: A response from a node to announce its link-layer address.
• Router solicitation: A request from a host to locate a router that can act as the default router and
forward packets.
• Router advertisement: A response to a router solicitation or a periodical multicast advertisement
from a router to advertise its presence and other parameters.
IPv6 Cache
An IPv6 host is required to have a neighbor cache, destination cache, prefix list and default router
list. The Switch maintains and updates its IPv6 caches constantly using the information from
response messages. In IPv6, the Switch configures a link-local address automatically, and then
sends a neighbor solicitation message to check if the address is unique. If there is an address to be
resolved or verified, the Switch also sends out a neighbor solicitation message. When the Switch
receives a neighbor advertisement in response, it stores the neighbor’s link-layer address in the
neighbor cache. When the Switch uses a router solicitation message to query for a router and
receives a router advertisement message, it adds the router’s information to the neighbor cache,
prefix list and destination cache. The Switch creates an entry in the default router list cache if the
router can be used as a default router.
When the Switch needs to send a packet, it first consults the destination cache to determine the
next hop. If there is no matching entry in the destination cache, the Switch uses the prefix list to
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Appendix C IPv6
determine whether the destination address is on-link and can be reached directly without passing
through a router. If the address is onlink, the address is considered as the next hop. Otherwise, the
Switch determines the next-hop from the default router list or routing table. Once the next hop IP
address is known, the Switch looks into the neighbor cache to get the link-layer address and sends
the packet when the neighbor is reachable. If the Switch cannot find an entry in the neighbor cache
or the state for the neighbor is not reachable, it starts the address resolution process. This helps
reduce the number of IPv6 solicitation and advertisement messages.
Example - Enabling IPv6 on Windows XP/2003/Vista
By default, Windows XP and Windows 2003 support IPv6. This example shows you how to use the
ipv6 install command on Windows XP/2003 to enable IPv6. This also displays how to use the
ipconfig command to see auto-generated IP addresses.
C:\>ipv6 install
Installing...
Succeeded.
C:\>ipconfig
Windows IP Configuration
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific
IP Address. . . . .
Subnet Mask . . . .
IP Address. . . . .
Default Gateway . .
DNS
. .
. .
. .
. .
Suffix
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
10.1.1.46
255.255.255.0
fe80::2d0:59ff:feb8:103c%4
10.1.1.254
IPv6 is installed and enabled by default in Windows Vista. Use the ipconfig command to check
your automatic configured IPv6 address as well. You should see at least one IPv6 address available
for the interface on your computer.
Example - Enabling DHCPv6 on Windows XP
Windows XP does not support DHCPv6. If your network uses DHCPv6 for IP address assignment,
you have to additionally install a DHCPv6 client software on your Windows XP. (Note: If you use
static IP addresses or Router Advertisement for IPv6 address assignment in your network, ignore
this section.)
This example uses Dibbler as the DHCPv6 client. To enable DHCPv6 client on your computer:
1
Install Dibbler and select the DHCPv6 client option on your computer.
2
After the installation is complete, select Start > All Programs > Dibbler-DHCPv6 > Client
Install as service.
3
Select Start > Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Services.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix C IPv6
4
Double click Dibbler - a DHCPv6 client.
5
Click Start and then OK.
6
Now your computer can obtain an IPv6 address from a DHCPv6 server.
Example - Enabling IPv6 on Windows 7
Windows 7 supports IPv6 by default. DHCPv6 is also enabled when you enable IPv6 on a Windows 7
computer.
To enable IPv6 in Windows 7:
1
Select Control Panel > Network and Sharing Center > Local Area Connection.
2
Select the Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) checkbox to enable it.
3
Click OK to save the change.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix C IPv6
4
Click Close to exit the Local Area Connection Status screen.
5
Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
6
Use the ipconfig command to check your dynamic IPv6 address. This example shows a global
address (2001:b021:2d::1000) obtained from a DHCP server.
C:\>ipconfig
Windows IP Configuration
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific DNS
IPv6 Address. . . . . .
Link-local IPv6 Address
IPv4 Address. . . . . .
Subnet Mask . . . . . .
Default Gateway . . . .
Suffix
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
:
2001:b021:2d::1000
fe80::25d8:dcab:c80a:5189%11
172.16.100.61
255.255.255.0
fe80::213:49ff:feaa:7125%11
172.16.100.254
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
416
A PPENDIX
D
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, translated into
any language, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or software described herein. Neither does it
convey any license under its patent rights nor the patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any
products described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Regulatory Notice and Statement
United States of America
The following information applies if you use the product within USA area.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) EMC Statement
•
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) This device may not cause harmful interference.
(2) This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operations.
• Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the
equipment.
• This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a
commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a
residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own
expense.
Canada
The following information applies if you use the product within Canada area
Industry Canada ICES statement
CAN ICES-3 (A)/NMB-3(A)
European Union
The following information applies if you use the product within the European Union.
CE EMC statement
This is Class A Product. In domestic environment this product may cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to take
adequate measures.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
417
Appendix D Legal Information
List of National Codes
COUNTRY
ISO 3166 2 LETTER CODE
COUNTRY
ISO 3166 2 LETTER CODE
Austria
AT
Liechtenstein
LI
Belgium
BE
Lithuania
LT
Bulgaria
BG
Luxembourg
LU
Croatia
HR
Malta
MT
Cyprus
CY
Netherlands
NL
Czech Republic
CR
Norway
NO
Denmark
DK
Poland
PL
Estonia
EE
Portugal
PT
Finland
FI
Romania
RO
France
FR
Serbia
RS
Germany
DE
Slovakia
SK
Greece
GR
Slovenia
SI
Hungary
HU
Spain
ES
Iceland
IS
Sweden
SE
Ireland
IE
Switzerland
CH
Italy
IT
Turkey
TR
Latvia
LV
United Kingdom
GB
Safety Warnings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Do not use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming pool.
Do not expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
Do not store things on the device.
Do not install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
Do not open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to dangerous high voltage points or other risks. Only
qualified service personnel should service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
Do not remove the plug and connect it to a power outlet by itself; always attach the plug to the power adaptor first before connecting
it to a power outlet.
Do not allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor
or cord.
Please use the provided or designated connection cables/power cables/ adaptors. Connect it to the right supply voltage (for example,
110V AC in North America or 230V AC in Europe). If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, it might cause electrocution. Remove it
from the device and the power source, repairing the power adapter or cord is prohibited. Contact your local vendor to order a new one.
Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Caution: Risk of explosion if battery is replaced by an incorrect type, dispose of used batteries according to the instruction. Dispose
them at the applicable collection point for the recycling of electrical and electronic device. For detailed information about recycling of
this product, please contact your local city office, your household waste disposal service or the store where you purchased the product.
Use ONLY power wires of the appropriate wire gauge for your device. Connect it to a power supply of the correct voltage.
Fuse Warning! Replace a fuse only with a fuse of the same type and rating.
The POE (Power over Ethernet) devices that supply or receive power and their connected Ethernet cables must all be completely
indoors.
Do not obstruct the device ventillation slots as insufficient airflow may harm your device.
The following warning statements apply, where the disconnect device is not incorporated in the device or where the plug on the power
supply cord is intended to serve as the disconnect device,
- For permanently connected devices, a readily accessible disconnect device shall be incorporated external to the device;
•
•
- For pluggable devices, the socket-outlet shall be installed near the device and shall be easily accessible.
This device must be grounded. Never defeat the ground conductor or operate the device in the absence of a suitably installed ground
conductor. Contact the appropriate electrical inspection authority or an electrician if you are uncertain that suitable grounding is
available.
When connecting or disconnecting power to hot-pluggable power supplies, if offered with your system, observe the following
guidelines:
- Install the power supply before connecting the power cable to the power supply.
- Unplug the power cable before removing the power supply.
- If the system has multiple sources of power, disconnect power from the system by unplugging all power cables from the power
supply.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
418
Appendix D Legal Information
Environment Statment
European Union - Disposal and Recycling Information
The symbol below means that according to local regulations your product and/or its battery shall be disposed of separately from domestic
waste. If this product is end of life, take it to a recycling station designated by local authorities. At the time of disposal, the separate
collection of your product and/or its battery will help save natural resources and ensure that the environment is sustainable development.
Die folgende Symbol bedeutet, dass Ihr Produkt und/oder seine Batterie gemäß den örtlichen Bestimmungen getrennt vom Hausmüll
entsorgt werden muss. Wenden Sie sich an eine Recyclingstation, wenn dieses Produkt das Ende seiner Lebensdauer erreicht hat. Zum
Zeitpunkt der Entsorgung wird die getrennte Sammlung von Produkt und/oder seiner Batterie dazu beitragen, natürliche Ressourcen zu
sparen und die Umwelt und die menschliche Gesundheit zu schützen.
El símbolo de abajo indica que según las regulaciones locales, su producto y/o su batería deberán depositarse como basura separada de la
doméstica. Cuando este producto alcance el final de su vida útil, llévelo a un punto limpio. Cuando llegue el momento de desechar el
producto, la recogida por separado éste y/o su batería ayudará a salvar los recursos naturales y a proteger la salud humana y
medioambiental.
Le symbole ci-dessous signifie que selon les réglementations locales votre produit et/ou sa batterie doivent être éliminés séparément des
ordures ménagères. Lorsque ce produit atteint sa fin de vie, amenez-le à un centre de recyclage. Au moment de la mise au rebut, la
collecte séparée de votre produit et/ou de sa batterie aidera à économiser les ressources naturelles et protéger l'environnement et la
santé humaine.
Il simbolo sotto significa che secondo i regolamenti locali il vostro prodotto e/o batteria deve essere smaltito separatamente dai rifiuti
domestici. Quando questo prodotto raggiunge la fine della vita di servizio portarlo a una stazione di riciclaggio. Al momento dello
smaltimento, la raccolta separata del vostro prodotto e/o della sua batteria aiuta a risparmiare risorse naturali e a proteggere l'ambiente
e la salute umana.
Symbolen innebär att enligt lokal lagstiftning ska produkten och/eller dess batteri kastas separat från hushållsavfallet. När den här
produkten når slutet av sin livslängd ska du ta den till en återvinningsstation. Vid tiden för kasseringen bidrar du till en bättre miljö och
mänsklig hälsa genom att göra dig av med den på ett återvinningsställe.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
419
Appendix D Legal Information
Environmental Product Declaration
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
420
Appendix D Legal Information
台灣
警告使用者:
這是甲類的資訊產品,在居住的環境中使用時,可能會造成射頻干擾,在這種情況下,使用者會被要求採取某些適當的對策。」
安全警告
為了您的安全,請先閱讀以下警告及指示 :
• 請勿將此產品接近水、火焰或放置在高溫的環境。
• 避免設備接觸
任何液體 - 切勿讓設備接觸水、雨水、高濕度、污水腐蝕性的液體或其他水份。
灰塵及污物 - 切勿接觸灰塵、污物、沙土、食物或其他不合適的材料。
• 雷雨天氣時,不要安裝,使用或維修此設備。有遭受電擊的風險。
• 切勿重摔或撞擊設備,並勿使用不正確的電源變壓器。
• 若接上不正確的電源變壓器會有爆炸的風險。。
• 請勿隨意更換產品內的電池。
• 如果更換不正確之電池型式,會有爆炸的風險,請依製造商說明書處理使用過之電池。
• 請將廢電池丟棄在適當的電器或電子設備回收處。
• 請勿將設備解體。
• 請勿阻礙設備的散熱孔,空氣對流不足將會造成設備損害。
• 請插在正確的電壓供給插座 ( 如 : 北美 / 台灣電壓 110V AC,歐洲是 230V AC)。
• 假若電源變壓器或電源變壓器的纜線損壞,請從插座拔除,若您還繼續插電使用,會有觸電死亡的風險。
• 請勿試圖修理電源變壓器或電源變壓器的纜線,若有毀損,請直接聯絡您購買的店家,購買一個新的電源變壓器。
• 請勿將此設備安裝於室外,此設備僅適合放置於室內。
• 請勿隨一般垃圾丟棄。
• 請參閱產品背貼上的設備額定功率。
• 請參考產品型錄或是彩盒上的作業溫度。
• 設備必須接地,接地導線不允許被破壞或沒有適當安裝接地導線,如果不確定接地方式是否符合要求可聯繫相應的電氣檢驗機構檢驗。
• 如果您提供的系統中有提供熱插拔電源,連接或斷開電源請遵循以下指導原則
- 先連接電源線至設備連,再連接電源。
- 先斷開電源再拔除連接至設備的電源線。
- 如果系統有多個電源,需拔除所有連接至電源的電源線再關閉設備電源。
• 產品沒有斷電裝置或者採用電源線的插頭視為斷電裝置的一部分,以下警語將適用 :
- 對永久連接之設備, 在設備外部須安裝可觸及之斷電裝置;
- 對插接式之設備, 插座必須接近安裝之地點而且是易於觸及的。
Viewing Certifications
Go to http://www.zyxel.com to view this product’s documentation and certifications.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects in material or workmanship for a specific
period (the Warranty Period) from the date of purchase. The Warranty Period varies by region. Check with your vendor and/or the
authorized ZyXEL local distributor for details about the Warranty Period of this product. During the warranty period, and upon proof of
purchase, should the product have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or
replace the defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it shall deem necessary to
restore the product or components to proper operating condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally
equivalent product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty shall not apply if the product has
been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other
warranties, express or implied, including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact your vendor. You may also refer to the warranty policy for the region in which you bought
the device at http://www.zyxel.com/web/support_warranty_info.php.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at
www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) and ZON (ZyXEL One Network)are registered trademarks of ZyXEL Communications, Inc.
Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Open Source Licenses
This product contains in part some free software distributed under GPL license terms and/or GPL like licenses. Open source licenses are
provided with the firmware package. You can download the latest firmware at www.zyxel.com. To obtain the source code covered under
those Licenses, please contact support@zyxel.com.tw to get it.
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
421
Index
Index
and RADIUS 224
setup 228
Numbers
authorization
privilege levels 231
setup 228
802.1P priority 87
auto-crossover 28
A
automatic VLAN registration 101
access control
limitations 348
login account 361
remote management 370
service port 369
SNMP 348
B
back up, configuration file 343
basic settings 77
accounting
setup 228
basic setup tutorial 46
binding 236
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 335, 387, 390,
391
binding table 236
building 236
administrator password 362
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) 128
age 141
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) 128
aggregator ID 158, 160
aging time 82
applications
backbone 19
bridging 20
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN 21
switched workgroup 20
C
CDP 265
certifications
viewing 421
ARP
how it works 335, 387
learning mode 335
overview 335
setup 337
table 387
CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) 100
changing the password 39
Cisco Discovery Protocol, see CDP
CIST 131
CIST (Common and Internal Spanning Tree) 129
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) 387
Class of Service (CoS) 317
ARP inspection 236, 238
and MAC filter 239
configuring 239
syslog messages 239
trusted ports 239
classifier 179, 182
and QoS 179
editing 182
example 183
overview 179
setup 179, 182
viewing 182
ARP-Reply 335
ARP-Request 336
authentication
CLI
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
422
Index
Reference Guide 2
modes 321
relay agent 321
relay example 329
setup 321, 327
cloning a port See port cloning 391
cluster management 377
and switch passwords 383
cluster manager 377, 382
cluster member 377, 383
cluster member firmware upgrade 380
network example 377
setup 381
specification 377
status 378
switch models 377
VID 382
web configurator 379
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) 321
DHCP relay option 82 238
DHCP snooping 46, 236
configuring 238
DHCP relay option 82 238
trusted ports 237
untrusted ports 237
DHCP snooping database 237
DHCPv6 relay 330
interface-ID 330
remote-ID 330
cluster manager 377
cluster member 377
Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) 129
Common and Internal Spanning Tree, See
CIST 131
configuration 316
change running config 340
file names 346
diagnostics 372
Ethernet port test 373
ping 372
system log 372
Differentiated Service (DiffServ) 317
configuration file 40
backup 343
restore 40, 343
saving 340
DiffServ 317
activate 318
DS field 317
DSCP 317
network example 317
PHB 317
configuration, saving 39
disclaimer 417
console port 27
contact information 399
documentation
related 2
copying port settings, See port cloning 391
double-tagged frames 193
copyright 417
DS (Differentiated Services) 317
CPU management port 116
DSCP
service level 317
what it does 317
CPU protection
configuration 281
overview 279
DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) 317
current date 80
dual firmware images 342
current time 80
dynamic link aggregation 156
customer support 399
E
D
egress port 119
daylight saving time 80
errdisable status 281
default Ethernet settings 28
Error Disable 59
DHCP 321
configuration options 321
error disable
control packets 281
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
423
Index
status 280
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) 80
error disable detect 282
gratuitous ARP 336
error disable recovery
configuration 283
overview 279
green Ethernet 287
and uplink port 287
auto power down 287
EEE 287
short reach 287
Ethernet broadcast address 335, 387
Ethernet port test 373
Guide
CLI Reference 2
Quick Start 2
external authentication server 224
GVRP 101, 107
and port assignment 107
F
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) 101
fan speed 78
FCC interference statement 417
file transfer using FTP
command example 346
H
filename convention, configuration 346
hardware installation 23
filtering 125
rules 125
hardware monitor 78
hardware overview 26
filtering database, MAC table 384
hello time 141
firmware 78
upgrade 342, 380
hops 141
HTTPS 364
certificates 364
implementation 364
public keys, private keys 364
flow control 87
back pressure 87
IEEE802.3x 87
forwarding
delay 141
HTTPS example 365
frames
tagged 107
untagged 107
I
front panel 26
FTP 345
file transfer procedure 346
restrictions over WAN 347
IEEE 802.1p, priority 82
IEEE 802.1x
activate 165, 169, 226
reauthentication 166
IEEE 802.1x, port authentication 163
G
IEEE 802.3az 287
GARP 101
IGMP
version 200
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) 101
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) 200
GARP terminology 101
IGMP filtering 200
profile 207
profiles 204
GARP timer 82, 101
general setup 79
IGMP leave timeout
fast 205
getting help 41
Gigabit ports 28
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
424
Index
mormal 205
configuration 264
encapsulation 263
LACP 263
MAC address 263
mode 264
overview 263
PAgP 263
point to point 263
STP 263
tunnel port 264
UDLD 263
VTP 263
IGMP snooping 200
MVR 216
IGMP throttling 205
ingress port 119
installation
desktop 23
precautions 24
rack-mounting 23
transceivers 29
installation scenarios 23
Internet Protocol version 6, see IPv6
IP address 84
LACP 156, 266
system priority 161
timeout 161
IP interface 83
Layer 2 protocol tunneling, see L2PT
IP setup 83
LEDs 33
IP source guard 236
ARP inspection 236, 238
DHCP snooping 236
static bindings 236
limit MAC address learning 173
introduction 19
Link Aggregate Control Protocol (LACP) 156
link aggregation 156
dynamic 156
ID information 157
setup 158, 160
status 157
traffic distribution algorithm 158
traffic distribution type 159
IP subnet mask 84
IPv6 22, 409
addressing 409
EUI-64 411
global address 410
interface ID 411
link-local address 409
Neighbor Discovery Protocol 22, 409
neighbor table 393
ping 22, 409
prefix 409
prefix length 409
stateless autoconfiguration 411
unspecified address 410
Link Layer Discovery Protocol 289
LLDP 289
Basic TLV 305
global settings 303
local port status 293
organization-specific TLV 306
status of remote device 297
TLV 289
LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) 289
IPv6 interface 87
LLDP-MED 290
classes of endpoint devices 290
example 290
IPv6 multicast
208
status 208
local port mirroring 150
IPv6 neighbor table 393
lockout 40
log 372
login 34
password 39
L
login account
Administrator 361
non-administrator 361
L2PT 263
access port 264
CDP 263
login accounts 361
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
425
Index
configuring via web configurator 361
multiple 361
number of 361
hops 141
maximum transmission unit 389
MDIX (Media Dependent Interface Crossover) 28
login password 362
Metric 316
loop guard 257
how it works 258
port shut down 258
probe packet 258
MIB
and SNMP 349
supported MIBs 350
MIB (Management Information Base) 349
loop guard, vs STP 257
mirroring ports 150
MLD filtering profile 215
MLD snooping-proxy 209
filtering 213
filtering profile 215
port role 211
VLAN ID 210
M
MAC (Media Access Control) 78
MAC address 78, 387
maximum number per port 173
monitor port 152
MAC address learning 82, 120, 173
specify limit 173
mounting brackets 24
MAC authentication 164
aging time 170
MST region 130
MST Instance, See MSTI 131
MSTI 131
MST ID 131
MAC filter
and ARP inspection 239
MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance) 129
MAC freeze 172
MSTP 127, 129
bridge ID 144, 145
configuration 140, 142
configuration digest 145
forwarding delay 141
Hello Time 144
hello time 141
Max Age 144
max age 141
max hops 141
MST region 130
network example 129
path cost 142
port priority 142
revision level 141
MAC table 384
display criteria 385
how it works 384
sorting criteria 385
transfer type 386
viewing 385
MAC-based VLAN 113
maintenance 339
configuration backup 343
current configuration 339
firmware 342
main screen 339
restoring configuration 343
Management Information Base (MIB) 349
MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) 127
management port 119
MTU 389
managing the device
good habits 22
using FTP. See FTP. 22
using Telnet. See command interface. 22
using the command interface. See command
interface. 22
MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) 81
multicast 200
802.1 priority 204
and IGMP 200
IGMP throttling 205
IP addresses 200
overview 200
setup 202, 203, 204
man-in-the-middle attacks 238
max
age 141
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
426
Index
multicast group 207
Port Aggregation Protocol, see PAgP
multicast VLAN 219
port authentication 163
and RADIUS 224
IEEE802.1x 165, 169, 226
MAC authentication 164
Multiple Spanning Tree Instance, See MSTI 129
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol 128
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, See MSTP. 127
port based VLAN type 82
Multiple STP 128
port cloning 390, 391
advanced settings 390, 391
basic settings 390, 391
Multiple STP, see MSTP 129
MVR 216
configuration 217
group configuration 219
network example 216
port details 73
port isolation 119
MVR (Multicast VLAN Registration) 216
port mirroring 150, 152
direction 152, 154
egress 152, 154
ingress 152, 154
N
port redundancy 156
port security 171
address learning 173
limit MAC address learning 173
MAC address learning 171
overview 171
setup 171, 259, 264
network applications 19
network management system (NMS) 348
NTP (RFC-1305) 79
port setup 85
O
port status 72
port VLAN trunking 102
other documentation 2
port-based VLAN 116
all connected 119
port isolation 119
settings wizard 119
P
ports
“standby” 156
diagnostics 373
mirroring 150
speed/duplex 86
PAGP 266
password 39
administrator 362
Path MTU 389
power connector 30
Path MTU Discovery 389
power module
current rating 30
power wire 30
PHB (Per-Hop Behavior) 317
ping, test connection 372
policy 186, 188
and classifier 186
and DiffServ 185
configuration 186
example 188
overview 185
rules 185
viewing 187
priority level 82
policy configuration 188
priority, queue assignment 82
power status 78
power voltage 78
power wires 30
PPPoE IA 53
trusted ports 273
untrusted ports 273
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
427
Index
private VLAN 285
configuration 285
isolated port 285
overview 285
promiscuous port 285
related documentation 2
remote management 370
service 371
trusted computers 371
remote port mirroring 150
product registration 421
resetting 40, 340
to factory default settings 340
protocol based VLAN 110, 111
and IEEE 802.1Q tagging 110
example 112
hexadecimal notation for protocols 109, 111
isolate traffic 110
priority 109, 111
restoring configuration 40, 343
RFC 3164 374
RMirror 150
monitor port 153
reflector port 153
source 153
PVID 100, 107
PVID (Priority Frame) 100
Round Robin Scheduling 191
RSTP 127
Q
S
QoS
and classifier 179
save configuration 39, 340
queue weight 191
service access control 369
service port 370
queuing 190
SPQ 191
WRR 191
sFlow 267
collector 269
configuration 267
datagram 267
overview 267
poll interval 268
sample rate 268
UDP port 269
queuing method 190, 192
Quick Start Guide 2
R
sFlow agent 267
rack-mounting 23
sFlow collector 267
RADIUS 224
advantages 224
and authentication 224
Network example 223
server 224
settings 224
setup 224
Simple Network Management Protocol, see
SNMP 348
Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) 28
SNMP 348
agent 349
and MIB 349
and security 349
authentication 360
communities 356
management model 349
manager 349
MIB 350
network components 349
object variables 349
protocol operations 349
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, See RSTP. 127
reboot
load configuration 340
reboot system 340
Reference Guide, CLI 2
reflector port 150
registration
product 421
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
428
Index
security 360
setup 355, 357
users 359
version 3 349
versions supported 348
path cost 127, 135, 138
port priority 135, 138
port state 128
root port 128
status 136, 139, 144
terminology 127
vs loop guard 257
SNMP traps 350
setup 357
supported 350, 351, 352, 355
subnet based VLAN 108
Spanning Tree Protocol, See STP. 127
subnet based VLANs 107
and DHCP VLAN 109
and priority 108
configuration 108
SPQ (Strict Priority Queuing) 191
SSH
encryption methods 364
how it works 363
implementation 364
switch lockout 40
switch reset 40
SSH (Secure Shell) Secure Shell, See SSH 362
switch setup 81
SSL (Secure Socket Layer) 364
syslog 239, 374
protocol 374
server setup 375
settings 374
setup 374
severity levels 374
standby ports 156
static bindings 236
static MAC address 120
static MAC forwarding 120
static multicast address 122
system information 77
static multicast forwarding 122
system log 372
Static route
Setup 315
system reboot 340
static routes 316
static trunking example 161
T
Static VLAN 104
static VLAN
control 106
tagging 106
TACACS+ 224
setup 226
TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller AccessControl System Plus) 223
status 72
link aggregation 157
port 72
port details 73
power 78
STP 136, 139, 144
VLAN 103
tagged VLAN 100
Tech-Support 344
log enhancement 344
temperature indicator 78
terminal emulation 27
STP 127, 265
bridge ID 136, 139
bridge priority 134, 137
configuration 133, 137, 140
designated bridge 128
forwarding delay 135, 138
Hello BPDU 128
Hello Time 134, 136, 137, 139
how it works 128
Max Age 135, 136, 138, 139
time
current 80
time zone 80
Time (RFC-868) 79
time server 79
time service protocol 79
format 79
trademarks 421
transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA) 28
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
429
Index
transceivers 28
installation 29
removal 29
port number 104
port settings 106
port-based VLAN 116
port-based, all connected 119
port-based, isolation 119
port-based, wizard 119
static VLAN 104
status 103, 104
tagged 100
trunking 102, 107
type 82, 102
traps
destination 356
trunk group 156
trunking 156
example 161
trusted ports
ARP inspection 239
DHCP snooping 237
PPPoE IA 273
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) 80
VLAN ID 85
Tunnel Protocol Attribute, and RADIUS 232
VLAN mapping 260
activating 260
configuration 261
example 260
priority level 260
tagged 260
traffic flow 260
untagged 260
VLAN ID 260
tutorials 46
DHCP snooping 46
Error Disable 59
PPPoE IA 53
Type of Service (ToS) 317
U
VLAN stacking 193, 195
configuration 195
example 193
frame format 195
port roles 194, 196
port-based Q-in-Q 197
priority 195
selective Q-in-Q 198
UDLD 266
UniDirectional Link Detection, see UDLD
untrusted ports
ARP inspection 239
DHCP snooping 237
PPPoE IA 273
user profiles 223
VLAN Trunking Protocol, see VTP
VLAN, protocol based, See protocol based VLAN
VLAN, subnet based, See subnet based VLANs 107
V
VSA 231
VT100 27
Vendor Specific Attribute See VSA
VTP 265
ventilation 23
VID 100, 103, 104, 195
number of possible VIDs 100
priority frame 100
W
VID (VLAN Identifier) 100
warranty 421
note 421
VLAN 80, 100
acceptable frame type 107
automatic registration 101
ID 100
ingress filtering 107
introduction 80
number of VLANs 103
web configurator 34
getting help 41
layout 35
login 34
logout 41
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
430
Index
navigation panel 36
weight, queuing 191
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) 191
WRR (Weighted Round Robin Scheduling) 191
Z
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) 346
MGS3520 Series User’s Guide
431
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