VMware Tools User Guide - VMware Tools 10.2.0

VMware Tools User Guide
VMware Tools 10.2.0
VMware Tools User Guide
You can find the most up-to-date technical documentation on the VMware website at:
https://docs.vmware.com/
If you have comments about this documentation, submit your feedback to
docfeedback@vmware.com
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Copyright © 2018 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright and trademark information.
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Contents
About This Book
5
Updated Information
6
1 Introduction to VMware Tools 7
VMware Tools Service
7
VMware Tools Lifecycle Management
VMware Tools Device Drivers
VMware User Process
12
Using Open VM Tools
13
8
9
Operating System Specific Packages for Linux Guest Operating Systems
14
2 Installing VMware Tools 16
Disable Access Protection from the McAfee Antivirus Virus Scan Console
17
Automating VMware Tools Installation for Multiple Windows Virtual Machines
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Windows Virtual Machine
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Linux Virtual Machine
22
24
Manually Installing VMware Tools in a Mac OS X Virtual Machine
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Solaris Virtual Machine
18
26
27
3 Upgrading VMware Tools 29
Configure Virtual Machines to Automatically Upgrade VMware Tools
Manually upgrading VMware Tools in virtual machines
Performing an Automatic Upgrade of VMware Tools
30
31
32
4 Configuring VMware Tools Components 33
Configuring Network Interface Information
33
Exclude Specific File Systems from Quiesced Snapshots
Security Considerations for Configuring VMware Tools
Using the VMware Tools Configuration Utility
34
35
38
5 Configuring Customer Experience Improvement Program 49
Categories of Information That VMware Receives
49
Join the Customer Experience Improvement Program in the vSphere Web Client
49
6 Troubleshooting VMware Tools Components 50
Repair or Change Modules in Windows Virtual Machines
50
Starting the VMware User Process Manually If You Do Not Use a Session Manager
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7 Uninstalling VMware Tools 53
8 FAQs about VMware Tools 54
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About This Book
The VMware Tools Guide describes how to install, upgrade, and configure VMware Tools.
Intended Audience
This information is intended for anyone who wants to install, upgrade, and configure VMware Tools. The
information is written for system administrators who are familiar with virtualization.
VMware Technical Publications Glossary
VMware Technical Publications provides a glossary of terms that might be unfamiliar to you. For
definitions of terms as they are used in VMware technical documentation, go to
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
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Updated Information
This VMware Tools User Guide is updated with each release of the product or when necessary.
This table provides the update history of the VMware Tools User Guide.
Revision
Description
29 MAR 2018
n
Added a new topic Exclude Specific File Systems from Quiesced Snapshots
n
Updated topic Names of VMware Tools Features Used in Silent Installations to update NSX Network
Introspection driver.
12 DEC 2017
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Initial release.
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Introduction to VMware Tools
1
VMware Tools is a set of services and modules that enable several features in VMware products for
better management of, and seamless user interactions with, guests operating systems.
For example, VMware Tools has the ability to:
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Pass messages from the host operating system to the guest operating system.
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Customize guest operating systems as a part of the vCenter Server and other VMware products.
n
Run scripts that help automate guest operating system operations. The scripts run when the power
state of the virtual machine changes.
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Synchronize the time in the guest operating system with the time on the host operating system
VMware Tools Lifecycle Management provides a simplified and scalable approach for installation and
upgrade of VMware Tools. It includes a number of feature enhancements, driver-related enhancements,
and support for new guest operating systems. Run the latest version of VMware Tools or use open-vmtools distributed with the Linux OS distribution. Although a guest operating system can run without
VMware Tools, always run the latest version of VMware Tools in your guest operating systems to access
the latest features and updates. You can configure your virtual machine to automatically check for and
apply VMware Tools upgrades each time you power on your virtual machines. For information about
enabling automatic upgrade of VMware Tools on your virtual machines, see vSphere Virtual Machine
Administration Guide
This chapter includes the following topics:
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VMware Tools Service
n
VMware Tools Lifecycle Management
n
VMware Tools Device Drivers
n
VMware User Process
n
Using Open VM Tools
n
Operating System Specific Packages for Linux Guest Operating Systems
VMware Tools Service
The VMware Tools service starts when the guest operating system starts. The service passes information
between host and guest operating systems.
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This application runs in the background. It is called vmtoolsd.exe on Windows guest operating systems,
vmware-tools-daemon on Mac OS X guest operating systems, and vmtoolsd on Linux, FreeBSD, and
Solaris guest operating systems. The VMware Tools service performs the following tasks:
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Performs virtual machine power operations gracefully.
n
Runs VMware provided or user configured scripts in guest operating systems during various power
operations.
n
Runs applications, commands, and file-system operations in guest operating system to enhance
guest automation.
n
Authenticates guest user operations.
n
Collects network, disk, and memory usage information from the guest periodically.
n
Generates heartbeats from guest operating system to hosts so that VMware High Availability can
determine availability of guest operating systems.
n
Synchronizes clocks between guest operating system and hosts or client desktops.
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Quiesces guest file systems so that host can capture file-system-consistent guest snapshots.
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Runs pre-freeze-script.bat and post-thaw-script.bat while quiescing guest file systems.
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Customizes guest operating systems immediately after powering on virtual machines.
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Enables Shared Folders between host and guest file systems on VMware Workstation and
VMware Fusion.
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Enables copying and pasting of text, graphics, and files between guest operating systems and hosts
or client desktops.
VMware Tools Lifecycle Management
Starting with a major version 10.1.0, VMware tools added simplified and scalable approach for install and
upgrade of VMware Tools, reboot less upgrade for newer Linux Tools, support for OSP upgrades,
enhanced version reporting using UI and status reporting using API and UI. This version was released
with a number of feature enhancements, driver related enhancements and support for new guest
operating systems. With offline bundles and the integration with SCCM to distribute and upgrade VMware
Tools, VMware Tools 10.2.0 brings in several improvements to lifecycle management.
n
Offline bundles with VMware Tools VIB that can be installed on vSphere 5.5.x, 6.0.x and 6.5.x
releases using vSphere Update Manager.
n
Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) is used to manage the deployment of
Windows applications across an enterprise and can be used to deploy VMware Tools. For more
information, see Deploying VMware Tools using SCCM.
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Mapping of VMware Tools and Guest Operating System
In earlier versions, VMware Tools ISO images were shipped with the ESXi image. These ISO images are
deployed on ProductLocker partition of the ESXi. However, this approach poses a challenge due to
limited space in ProductLocker. In order to address this space limitation, only windows.iso , linux.iso
and winPreVista.iso are bundled with ESXi. Other ISO images are available for download from
https://myvmware.com and will not be shipped with ESXi in the tools-light vib. ISO images for few end of
life guest operating systems are frozen.
Table 1‑1. VMware Tools support for Guest Operating Systems
ISO Images
Supported Guest Operating System
Available Version
windows.iso
Windows Vista and later
10.2.0
linux.iso
Linux guest operating systems with glibc version 2.5
and later
10.2.0
darwin.iso
MAC OS versions 10.11 and later
10.2.0
solaris.iso
Solaris operating systems
10.2.0
Table 1‑2. VMware Tools support for frozen Guest Operating Systems
ISO images
Supported Guest Operating System
Version of VMware Tools
winPre2k.iso
Versions earlier than Windows 2000
7.7.0
netware.iso
Netware operating systems
8.1.0
winPreVista.iso
Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server
2003
10.0.12
linuxPreGLibc25.iso
Linux guest operating systems earlier than RHEL 5,
SLES 11, and other distributions with glibc version
earlier than 2.5
10.0.12
darwinPre15.iso
MAC OS versions earlier than 10.10.x
10.0.12
VMware Tools Device Drivers
Device drivers improve sound, graphics, networking, and storage performance. If you perform a custom
VMware Tools installation or reinstallation, you can choose which drivers to install.
The set of drivers that are installed when you install VMware Tools depends on the guest operating
system and the VMware product. For detailed information about the features or functionality that these
drivers enable, including configuration requirements, best practices, and performance, see the
documentation for your VMware product. The following device drivers can be included with VMware
Tools.
SVGA driver
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This virtual driver enables 32-bit displays, high display resolution, and
faster graphics performance. When you install VMware Tools, a virtual
SVGA driver replaces the default VGA driver, which allows for only 640 X
480 resolution and 16-color graphics.
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On Windows guest operating systems whose operating system is Windows
Vista or later, the VMware SVGA 3D (Microsoft - WDDM) driver is installed.
This driver provides the same base functionality as the SVGA driver, and it
adds Windows Aero support.
Paravirtual SCSI driver
When you create a virtual machine, if you specify that you want the virtual
machine to use a BusLogic adapter, the guest operating system uses the
SCSI driver that VMware Tools provides. A VMware Paravirtual SCSI driver
is included for use with Paravirtual SCSI devices. This driver for VMware
Paravirtual SCSI adapters enhances the performance of some virtualized
applications. Drivers for other storage adapters are either bundled with the
operating system, or they are available from third-party vendors.
For example, Windows Server 2008 defaults to LSI Logic SAS, which
provides the best performance for that operating system. In this case, the
LSI Logic SAS driver provided by the operating system is used.
VMware supplies a special SCSI driver for virtual machines that are
configured to use the BusLogic virtual SCSI adapter. Virtual machines do
not need this driver if they do not need to access any SCSI devices or if
they are configured to use the LSI Logic virtual SCSI adapter.
The driver is included as part of the VMware Tools package or comes
bundled with VMware ESX/ ESXi. It is available on the host as a floppy
image at /vmimages/floppies/vmscsi.flp. The driver can be used in
Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000.
VMXNet NIC drivers
The VMXNET and VMXNET3 networking drivers improve network
performance. The set of drivers that are used depends on how you
configure device settings for the virtual machine. Search the VMware
Knowledge Base for information on which guest operating systems support
these drivers.
When you install VMware Tools, a VMXNET NIC driver replaces the default
vlance driver.
Mouse driver
The virtual mouse driver improves mouse performance. This driver is
required if you use third-party tools such as Microsoft Terminal Services.
Audio driver
This sound driver is required for 64-bit Windows XP, 32-bit Windows Server
2003, 64-bit Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, and
Windows Vista guest operating systems.
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Guest Introspection
Driver
The two Guest Introspection drivers are the File Introspection driver and the
Network Introspection driver. You can install the two drivers separately.
When you install VMware Tools, by default, the Guest Introspection drivers
are not installed.
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File Introspection Driver: The File Introspection driver uses the
hypervisor to perform antivirus scans without a bulky agent. This
strategy avoids resource bottlenecks and optimizes memory use.
n
Network Introspection Driver: The Network Introspection driver
supports NSX for vSphere Activity Monitoring.
Memory control driver
This driver is required for memory ballooning and is recommended if you
use VMware vSphere. Excluding this driver hinders the memory
management capabilities of the virtual machine in a vSphere deployment.
Modules and drivers
that support making
automatic backups of
virtual machines
If the guest operating system is Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003, or
other newer Windows operating systems, a Volume Shadow Copy Services
(VSS) module is installed. For other, earlier Windows operating systems,
the Filesystem Sync driver is installed. These modules allow external thirdparty back up software that is integrated with vSphere to create applicationconsistent snapshots. During the snapshot process, certain processes are
paused and virtual machine disks are quiesced. The modules also support
quiescing snapshot on Linux OS
VMCI and VMCI
Sockets drivers
The Virtual Machine Communication Interface driver supports fast and
efficient communication between virtual machines and the hosts they run
on. Developers can write client-server applications to the VMCI Sock
(vsock) interface to make use of the VMCI virtual device.
VMware drivers for
Linux
The drivers for Linux are automatically installed during your operating
system installation, eliminating the need to separately install drivers after
OS installation. VMware actively maintains the source code for VMware
Paravirtual drivers, VMXNET, VMXNET3 and kernel modules, and any
Linux distributions creating new OS releases automatically include the
latest VMware drivers.
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VMware Tools User Guide
Do not delete or replace existing inbox drivers for Linux that are distributed
by your OS vendors. Deleting or replacing these drivers might cause
conflict with future updates to the drivers. Contact your OS vendor or OS
community for availability of specific updates to drivers.
See http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2073804 for information about availability,
maintenance, and support policy for inbox drivers for Linux.
VMHGFS driver
If you use Workstation or Fusion, you can install the Shared Folders
component. With Shared Folders, you can easily share files among virtual
machines and the host computer. The VMHGFS driver is a file system
redirector that allows file system redirection from the guest operating
system to the host file system. This driver is the client component of the
Shared Folders feature and provides an easy to use alternative to NFS and
CIFS file sharing that does not rely on the network. For Linux distributions
with kernel version 4.0.0 and later, a new FUSE based Shared Folders
client is used as a replacement for the kernel mode client.
VMware User Process
With the VMware user process, you can use such features as copy and paste, drag and drop with
VMware products that support these features.
In Linux, Solaris, Windows and FreeBSD guest operating systems, VMware Tools uses the VMware User
process executable file that implements fit-guest-to-window feature.
The user process starts automatically when you log in to a Windows guest operating system. On Linux,
the user process starts when you start a Desktop Environment session. The user process can also be
started manually.
The program file for this process is called vmtoolsd.exe on Windows guest operating systems and
vmtoolsd on Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems. In POSIX, it is vmtoolsd with -n
vmusr on command line interface. The user process supports the following tasks:
n
Enables copy and paste of text between guest operating system and the vSphere Web Client or the
Workstation, Fusion, or Player host operating system. For virtual machines that are used with
Workstation or Fusion, you can copy and paste files between the host operating system and
Windows, Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems.
n
On Linux, Solaris, Windows, and FreeBSD guest operating systems, grabs and releases the pointer if
the SVGA driver is not installed.
n
On Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems, fits the screen display resolution of the
guest to the screen resolution of the vSphere Web Client or the Workstation, Fusion, or Player host
operating system, if running in full screen mode. If running in normal (windowed) mode, fits the
screen resolution of the guest to the size of the window on the client or host.
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For virtual machines used with Workstation or Fusion, allows you to drag files between the host
operating system and Windows, Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems.
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Using Open VM Tools
Open VM Tools (open-vm-tools) is the open source implementation of VMware Tools for Linux guest
operating systems.
The open-vm-tools suite is bundled with some Linux operating systems and is installed as a part of the
OS, eliminating the need to separately install the suite on guest operating systems. All leading Linux
vendors support the open-vm-tools suite on vSphere, Workstation, and Fusion, and bundle open-vm-tools
with their product releases. For information about OS compatibility check for the open-vm-tools suite, see
the VMware Compatibility Guide at http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
Note Use of open-vm-tools with a OS distribution which is not listed under VMware Compatibility Guide
must be certified by VMware.
Bundling open-vm-tools with Linux OS releases reduces virtual machine downtime because all updates to
the open-vm-tools suite are included with the OS maintenance patches and updates. You do not have to
maintain separate maintenance cycles for open-vm-tools suite updates. This is also applicable for
VMware guest operating system drivers.
In some cases, open-vm-tools is installed by default when you install your guest operating systems. In
other cases, the open-vm-tools suite is not installed by default, unless specifically selected during
installation.
Follow the installation instructions provided by your OS vendor for your specific release or check the
partner Web site at http://partnerweb.vmware.com/GOSIG/home.html.
VMware fully supports open-vm-tools that are developed in collaboration with OS vendors and open
source communities and recommends using open-vm-tools that are redistributed by your OS vendors.
Open VM Tools Packages
For better managing guest operating systems, the open-vm-tools suite includes the following packages:
n
The core open-vm-tools package contains the core open-vm-tools user space utilities, application
programs, and libraries, including vmtoolsd, to help effectively manage communication between
your host and guest OSs. This package includes features as, synchronizing guest OS clocks with the
virtualization platform, transferring files between hosts and guests, sending heartbeat information
from guest OSs to the virtualization infrastructure to support vSphere High Availability (HA),
publishing resource utilization and networking information of the guest OSs to the virtualization
platform, and so on.
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The open-vm-tools-desktop package is optional and includes additional user programs and
libraries to improve the interactive functionality of desktop operations of your virtual machines. The
package enables you to resize a guest display to match its host console window or the VMware
Remote Console Window for vSphere. The package also allows you to copy and paste between host
and guest OSs, as well as to drag and drop between guests and a host for the VMware Workstation
and VMware Fusion products.
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The open-vm-tools-devel package contains libraries and additional documentation for developing
vmtoolsd plug-ins and applications.
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The open-vm-tools-debuginfo package contains the source code for open-vm-tools and binary
files. For the latest copy of the Open VM Tools source code, see the GitHub Web site at
https://github.com/vmware/open-vm-tools.
List of operating systems with open-vm-tools
n
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 and later releases
n
SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 and later releases
n
Ubuntu 14.04 and later releases
n
CentOS 7 and later releases
n
FreeBSD 10.3, 10.4 & 11.1
n
Debian 7.x and later releases
n
Oracle Linux 7 and later
n
Fedora 19 and later releases
n
openSUSE 11.x and later releases
Note To manually install open-vm-tools on a FreeBSD virtual machine, see FreeBSD 10.x and FreeBSD
11.x
.
Important If you use an open-vm-tools, the VMware Tools status is Guest Managed on the virtual
machine Summary tab. The status Guest Managed means that you cannot use the vCenter Server to
manage VMware Tools and you cannot use vSphere Update Manager to upgrade VMware Tools.
For information about the open-vm-tools support policy and availability, see the VMware knowledge base
article at http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2073803.
Operating System Specific Packages for Linux Guest
Operating Systems
For vSphere deployments, VMware provides operating system specific packages (OSPs) as a packaging
and distribution mechanism for VMware Tools. These VMware Tools OSPs are packaged using native
package formats and standards such as rpm and deb.
Note Operating System Specific Packages are not provided for new Linux operating systems that have
open-vm-tools. For information about compatibility support for guest operating system, see the VMware
Compatibility Guide.
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Using OSPs provides the following benefits:
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You can use the native update mechanisms of the guest operating system to download, install, and
manage VMware Tools.
n
You can upgrade to the latest version of VMware Tools without having to upgrade to the latest version
of vSphere.
n
Because VMware Tools OSPs follow the best practices and standards of the specific Linux operating
system, OSPs use standard mechanisms for determining dependencies among packages. These
mechanisms allow you to audit the packages on virtual machines with or without graphics
components.
n
You can use standard operating system tools to examine OSPs during VMware Tools installation.
This process allows you to easily determine which components to install and to verify the validity of
the packaging.
Important Use OSPs if you want to use native update mechanisms, rather than vCenter Server, to
manage updates for VMware Tools. If you use an OSP, the VMware Tools status is Guest Managed on
the virtual machine Summary tab. The status Guest Managed means that you cannot use the vCenter
Server to manage VMware Tools and you cannot use vSphere Update Manager to upgrade VMware
Tools.
For more information, go to the VMware Operating System Specific Packages Web site, at
https://www.vmware.com/download/packages.html. For more information on installing OSPs, see the
VMware Tools Installation Guide for Operating System Specific Packages for ESX/ESXi version 4.1 and
later at https://packages.vmware.com/tools/docs/manuals/osp-esx-41-install-guide.pdf and ESXi versions
5.x and 6.x at https://packages.vmware.com/tools/docs/manuals/osp-esxi-51-install-guide.pdf
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Installing VMware Tools
2
Installing VMware Tools is part of the process of creating a new virtual machine, and upgrading VMware
Tools is part of the process of keeping your virtual machine up to current standards. Although your guest
operating systems can run without VMware Tools, many VMware features are not available until you
install VMware Tools. When you install VMware Tools, the utilities in the suite enhance the performance of
the guest operating system in your virtual machine and improve the management of your virtual
machines.
For information about creating virtual machines, see the Virtual Machine Administration Guide.
The installers for VMware Tools are ISO image files. The CD-ROM in your guest operating system detects
the ISO image file. Each type of guest operating system, including Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X, has
an ISO image file. When you select the command to install or upgrade VMware Tools, the virtual
machine’s first virtual CD-ROM disk drive temporarily connects to the VMware Tools ISO file for your
guest operating system.
If you are using VMware Fusion, Player, or Workstation, you can use the Easy Install feature to install
VMware Tools as soon as the operating system is finished installing.
If you are using VMware Player or Workstation, the most recent versions of the ISO files are available on
http://my.vmware.com. When you select the command to install or upgrade VMware Tools, the VMware
product determines whether it has downloaded the most recent version of the ISO file for the specific
operating system. If the latest version has not been downloaded or if no VMware Tools ISO file for that
operating system has ever been downloaded, you are prompted to download the file.
n
VMware Tools installer from windows.iso automatically detects the windows version. It does not
proceed with installation on guest operating systems earlier than Windows Vista.
n
VMware Tools installer from winPreVista.iso does not proceed with the installation on Windows
Vista and later.
n
VMware Tools installer from linux.iso does not proceed with installation on Linux guest operating
system versions earlier than RHEL5, SLES 11, Ubuntu 10.04, and other Linux distributions with
glibc version earlier than 2.5.
n
VMware Tools installer from darwinPre15.iso does not proceed with installation on MAC OS X
guest operating systems versions 10.11 or later.
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n
VMware Tools installer from darwin.iso does not proceed with installation on MAC OS X guest
operating systems versions earlier than 10.11.
Note Users of the guest operating systems for which the necessary VMware Tools ISOs are not bundled
with ESXi, have to set up ProductLockerLocation with all the VMware Tools ISO images for managing
VMware Tools in these guest operating systems. Attempts to upgrade or install without setting up
ProductLockerLocation fails with missing ISO error. For more information, see the VMware Knowledge
base article at http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2129825.
The installation procedure varies, depending on the operating system. For information about installing or
upgrading VMware Tools on your guest operating systems, see the topic about upgrading virtual
machines in the Virtual Machine Administration Guide. For general instructions about installing VMware
Tools, see the VMware Knowledge base article at http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1014294.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
Disable Access Protection from the McAfee Antivirus Virus Scan Console
n
Automating VMware Tools Installation for Multiple Windows Virtual Machines
n
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Windows Virtual Machine
n
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Linux Virtual Machine
n
Manually Installing VMware Tools in a Mac OS X Virtual Machine
n
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Solaris Virtual Machine
Disable Access Protection from the McAfee Antivirus
Virus Scan Console
Access Protection has to be disabled in the McAfee Antivirus Scan Console before installing VMware
Tools in a Windows guest operating system. For more information, see the VMware Knowledge Base
article https://kb.vmware.com/kb/1009965
Prerequisites
n
Power on the virtual machine
n
Use McAfee Antivirus in Standard Mode
Procedure
1
Install VMware Tools before installing McAfee Antivirus on the Windows guest operating system.
Note McAfee Antivirus will, however, prevent VMware Tools upgrade if run in Maximum Protection
mode.
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VMware Tools User Guide
2
Disable Access Protection from the McAfee Antivirus Virus Scan Console when either installing or
upgrading VMware Tools.
a
Select Start > Programs > McAfee > Virus Scan Console.
b
Right-click the Access Protection icon in the Tasks window and select Disable from the pop-up
menu.
What to do next
n
Install VMware Tools.
n
Re-activate Access Protection when your VMware Tools upgrade or installation is complete.
Automating VMware Tools Installation for Multiple
Windows Virtual Machines
If you are installing VMware Tools in multiple virtual machines with Windows guest operating systems,
you can automate its installation and specify options for the components to include or exclude.
Prerequisites
n
Power on the virtual machine.
n
Log in to the guest operating system as an administrator.
n
If you plan to use the setup.exe command at the command line to run the VMware Tools installation,
edit the virtual machine settings to connect the virtual CD/DVD drive to the VMware Tools ISO image.
In VMware Workstation Pro and Workstation Player, the windows.iso file is on the host in the
directory where you installed Workstation Pro or Workstation Player.
n
If you plan to use MSI arguments to specify options regarding the silent installation, go to the
Windows Installer page on the MSDN Web site to familiarize yourself with the syntax. You can use
these arguments with the setup.exe command or place them in the vCenter Server dialog box for
automatic installations and upgrades.
n
To prevent some VMware Tools components from being installed, familiarize yourself with the
VMware Tools component names so that you can specify which components to exclude. See Names
of VMware Tools Features Used in Silent Installations.
n
If you are installing VMware Tools from a beta or release candidate of a VMware product, suppress
prompts about unsigned drivers. See Suppress Prompts About Unsigned Drivers on Windows
Operating Systems Before Vista and Add VMware as a Trusted Publisher to Suppress Driver
Prompts.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client inventory, select the host, cluster, or datacenter and click the Virtual
Machines tab.
2
Select the virtual machines, right-click and select Guest OS > Install VMware Tools.
3
Provide the installation or upgrade configuration information.
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Suppress Prompts About Unsigned Drivers on Windows Operating
Systems Before Vista
If you are installing a beta or RC version of VMware Tools in a Windows Server 2003 or earlier guest
operating system, you can use a computer properties setting to suppress prompts that interfere with
automatic installation of VMware Tools.
The version of VMware Tools included in a beta or release candidate version of a VMware product usually
has some drivers that are signed only by VMware. If you are installing one of these versions in many
virtual machines that run Windows Server 2003 or earlier guest operating systems, or if you plan to install
VMware Tools from the command line, you can suppress prompts about unsigned drivers. If you do not
suppress the prompts, during a VMware Tools installation, a message box appears several times and
requires you to click Continue Anyway to complete the installation.
Prerequisites
n
Power on the virtual machine.
n
Log in to the guest operating system as an administrator.
Procedure
1
In the Windows Server 2003 or earlier guest operating system, in the Start menu, right-click My
Computer and select Properties.
2
In the System Properties dialog box, click the Hardware tab and click Driver Signing.
3
In the Driver Signing Options dialog box, click Ignore, click OK, and click OK again.
When you run the VMware Tools installer, no prompts appear in the guest operating system.
What to do next
Install VMware Tools.
Add VMware as a Trusted Publisher to Suppress Driver Prompts
If you are installing a beta or RC version of VMware Tools in a Windows Vista or later guest operating
system, you can add a VMware certificate to suppress prompts that interfere with automatic installation of
VMware Tools.
The version of VMware Tools included in a beta or release candidate version of a VMware product usually
has some drivers that are signed only by VMware. If you are installing one of these versions in many
virtual machines that run Windows Vista or later guest operating systems, or if you plan to install VMware
Tools from the command line, add a VMware security certificate to the trusted publishers group. If you do
not add the VMware certificate, during a VMware Tools installation, a message box appears several times
and prompts you to install device software from VMware.
Prerequisites
n
Power on the virtual machine.
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n
Log in to the guest operating system as an administrator.
n
Obtain a copy of the certmgr.exe application and copy it to the guest operating system on which
you plan to install VMware Tools. The certmgr.exe application is included in the Windows SDK
Note This is applicable only for Beta or RC version of VMware Tools.
Procedure
1
2
Use the certificate export wizard to create a VMware certificate file.
a
Locate a signed VMware file, such as a VMware .exe or .sys file.
b
Right-click the file and select Properties.
c
Click the Digital Signatures tab and select View Certificate.
d
Click the Details tab and click Copy to File.
e
Follow the prompts and name the exported certificate vmware.cer.
Copy the exported VMware certificate to the guest operating system on which you plan to install
VMware Tools.
3
In the guest operating system, run the certmgr.exe command to add the VMware certificate to the
trusted publishers group.
certmgr.exe -add vmware.cer -c -s -r localMachine TrustedPublisher
When you run the VMware Tools installer, no prompts appear in the guest operating system.
What to do next
Install VMware Tools.
Names of VMware Tools Features Used in Silent Installations
In Windows virtual machines, when running an automatic installation or running an installation of VMware
Tools using the command line, you can specify which VMware Tools components to install.
Because VMware Tools contains so many components, if you do not want to install particular
components, you specify which ones to exclude rather than which ones to include. The syntax is
ADDLOCAL=ALL REMOVE=component. The valid values for VMware Tools components are listed in the
following table.
Component names are case-sensitive. Not all components are installed on all operating systems.
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Table 2‑1. VMware Tools Component Values
Valid Component Values
Drivers
Description
Audio
Audio driver for 64-bit operating systems and Windows Vista and later
systems.
BootCamp
Driver for Mac BootCamp support.
MemCtl
VMware memory control driver. Use this driver if you plan to use this
virtual machine in a vSphere environment. Excluding this feature
hinders the memory management capabilities of the virtual machine
running in a vSphere environment.
Mouse
VMware mouse driver. Excluding this feature decreases mouse
performance in your virtual machine.
PVSCSI
Driver for VMware Paravirtual SCSI adapters, which enhance the
performance of some virtualized applications.
SVGA
VMware SVGA driver. Excluding this feature limits the display
capabilities of your virtual machine.
Sync
Filesystem Sync driver, which enables backup applications to create
application-consistent snapshots. This driver ensures that no I/O is
written during snapshot creation. This driver is used if the guest
operating system is earlier than Windows Server 2003. Newer
operating systems use the VSS driver.
ThinPrint
Driver that enables printers added to the host operating system to
appear in the list of available printers in the virtual machine. This
virtual printing feature does not require any additional printer drivers to
be installed in the virtual machine.
Note VMware Tools does not support ThinPrint features for vSphere
5.5 and later
VMCI
Virtual Machine Communication Interface driver. This driver allows
virtual machines to communicate with the hosts on which they run
without using the network. Developers can write client-server
applications to the VMCI Sock (vsock) interface to make use of the
VMCI virtual device.
Hgfs
VMware shared folders driver. Use this driver if you plan to use this
virtual machine with VMware Workstation, Player, or Fusion. Excluding
this feature prevents you from sharing a folder between your virtual
machine and the host system.
VMXNet
VMware VMXnet networking driver.
VMXNet3
Next-generation VMware VMXnet networking driver for virtual
machines that use virtual hardware version 7 and higher. For more
information, see the VMware Knowledge Base article 1001805.
VMXNET 3 adds several new features, such as multiqueue support
(also known as Receive Side Scaling in Windows), IPv6 offloads, and
MSI/MSI-X interrupt delivery. VMXNET 3 is not related to VMXNET or
VMXNET 2. Receive Side Scaling is enabled by default.
Virtual hardware version 7 corresponds to ESX/ESXi 4.x compatibility.
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Table 2‑1. VMware Tools Component Values (Continued)
Valid Component Values
Description
FileIntrospection
NSX File Introspection driver, vsepflt.sys. The first of the two guest
introspection drivers. You can install it separately, without installing the
NSX Network Introspection driver.
NetworkIntrospectio
n
Toolbox
NSX Network Introspection driver, vnetflt.sys. The second of the
two guest introspection drivers. VMware Tools 10.2.5 supports
vnetWFP driver for Windows 7 and later.
VSS
Driver for creating automatic backups. This driver is used if the guest
operating system is Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003, or other
newer operating system. Linux and older Windows operating systems
use the Filesystem Sync driver.
Perfmon
Driver for WMI performance logging.
Important One way to determine the component values to use is to run the interactive VMware Tools
installer with full logging turned on, select the components that you want installed, and then search the
log files for the ADDLOCAL and REMOVE properties. The log files show the names used by the program.
The following command runs the interactive installer with full logging turned on:
Setup.exe /s /v"/qn /l*v ""%TEMP%\vmmsi.log"""
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Windows Virtual
Machine
Guest operating system Windows 2000 and earlier, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista,
and later support VMware Tools.
Prerequisites
n
Power on the virtual machine.
n
Verify that the guest operating system is running.
n
For vSphere virtual machines, determine whether you have the latest version of VMware Tools. In the
vSphere Client inventory, select the virtual machine and click the Summary tab.
n
For Workstation Player, Fusion, and Workstation Pro virtual machines, if you connected the virtual
machine’s virtual CD/DVD drive to an ISO image file when you installed the operating system, change
the setting so that the virtual CD/DVD drive is configured to autodetect a physical drive.
The autodetect setting enables the virtual machine's first virtual CD/DVD drive to detect and connect
to the VMware Tools ISO file for a VMware Tools installation. This ISO file looks like a physical CD to
your guest operating system. Use the virtual machine settings editor to set the CD/DVD drive to
autodetect a physical drive.
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n
Log in as an administrator unless you are using an older Windows operating system. Any user can
install VMware Tools in a Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows ME guest operating system. For
operating systems later than these, you must log in as an administrator.
n
If you use vSphere and plan to install the Guest Introspection Thin Agent driver, see the system
requirements listed in the vShield Quick Start Guide. The vShield component is not installed by
default. You must perform a custom installation and include that component.
Procedure
1
2
Select the menu command to mount the VMware Tools virtual disk on the guest operating system.
VMware Product
Action
vSphere Client (HTML5)
Right-click the virtual machine and select Guest OS > Install (or Upgrade) Tools
vSphere Client
Inventory > Virtual Machine > Guest > Install/Upgrade VMware
vSphere Web Client
Right-click the virtual machine and select Guest OS > Install (or Upgrade)
VMware Tools
Fusion
Virtual Machine > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
Workstation Pro
VM > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
Workstation Player
Player > Manage > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
If you are using vCenter Server and are performing an upgrade or reinstallation, in the
Install/Upgrade VMware Tools dialog box, select Interactive Tools Installation or Interactive
Tools Upgrade and click OK.
The process starts by mounting the VMware Tools virtual disc on the guest operating system.
3
If you are installing VMware Tools for the first time, click OK on the Install VMware Tools information
page.
If autorun is enabled for the CD-ROM drive on the guest operating system, the VMware Tools
installation wizard starts.
If autorun is not enabled, to manually launch the wizard, click Start > Run and enter D:\setup.exe,
where D: is your first virtual CD-ROM drive. Use D:\setup64.exe for 64-bit Windows guest
operating system.
4
Follow the on-screen prompts.
If you use vSphere, to install nondefault components, such as the Guest Introspection Thin Agent
driver, select the Custom setup.
5
If the New Hardware wizard appears, follow the prompts and accept the defaults.
Note If you are installing a beta or RC version of VMware Tools and you see a warning that a
package or driver is not signed, click Install Anyway to complete the installation.
6
When prompted, reboot the virtual machine.
If you are using vCenter Server, the VMware Tools label on the Summary tab changes to OK.
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What to do next
If you upgraded VMware Tools as part of a vSphere upgrade, next determine whether to upgrade the
virtual machines in your environment. To review and compare the hardware available for different
compatibility levels, see the vSphere Virtual Machine Administration documentation.
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Linux Virtual
Machine
For Linux virtual machines, you manually install VMware Tools from the command line. For later Linux
distributions, use the integrated open-vm-tools version.
Prerequisites
For more information on OS compatibility for open-vm-tools, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at
https://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility/search.php.
n
Power on the virtual machine.
n
Verify that the guest operating system is running.
n
Because the VMware Tools installer is written in Perl, verify that Perl is installed in the guest operating
system.
n
For vSphere virtual machines, determine whether you have the latest version of VMware Tools. In the
vSphere Client inventory, select the virtual machine and click the Summary tab.
Procedure
1
Select the menu command to mount the VMware Tools virtual disk on the guest operating system.
VMware Product
Action
vSphere Client (HTML5)
Right-click the virtual machine and select Guest OS > Install (or Upgrade) Tools
vSphere Client
Inventory > Virtual Machine > Guest > Install/Upgrade VMware
vSphere Web Client
Right-click the virtual machine and select Guest OS > Install (or Upgrade)
VMware Tools
Fusion
Virtual Machine > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
Workstation Pro
VM > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
Workstation Player
Player > Manage > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
2
In the virtual machine, open a terminal window.
3
Run the mount command with no arguments to determine whether your Linux distribution
automatically mounted the VMware Tools virtual CD-ROM image.
If the CD-ROM device is mounted, the CD-ROM device and its mount point are listed in a manner
similar to the following output:
/dev/cdrom on /mnt/cdrom type iso9660 (ro,nosuid,nodev)
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4
If the VMware Tools virtual CD-ROM image is not mounted, mount the CD-ROM drive.
a
If a mount point directory does not already exist, create it.
mkdir /mnt/cdrom
Some Linux distributions use different mount point names. For example, on some distributions
the mount point is /media/VMware Tools rather than /mnt/cdrom. Modify the command to
reflect the conventions that your distribution uses.
b
Mount the CD-ROM drive.
mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
Some Linux distributions use different device names or organize the /dev directory differently. If
your CD-ROM drive is not /dev/cdrom or if the mount point for a CD-ROM is not /mnt/cdrom,
modify the command to reflect the conventions that your distribution uses.
5
Change to a working directory, for example, /tmp.
cd /tmp
6
(Optional) Delete any previous vmware-tools-distrib directory before you install VMware Tools.
The location of this directory depends on where you placed it during the previous installation. Often
this directory is placed in /tmp/vmware-tools-distrib.
7
List the contents of the mount point directory and note the file name of the VMware Tools tar installer.
ls mount-point
8
Uncompress the installer.
tar zxpf /mnt/cdrom/VMwareTools-x.x.x-yyyy.tar.gz
The value x.x.x is the product version number, and yyyy is the build number of the product release.
9
If necessary, unmount the CD-ROM image.
umount /dev/cdrom
If your Linux distribution automatically mounted the CD-ROM, you do not need to unmount the image.
10 Run the installer and configure VMware Tools as a root user
cd vmware-tools-distrib
sudo ./vmware-install.pl
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Usually, the vmware-config-tools.pl configuration file runs after the installer file finishes running.
If you attempt to install a tar installation over an RPM installation, or the reverse, the installer detects
the previous installation and must convert the installer database format before continuing.
Note For newer Linux distributions, users are prompted to choose the integrated open-vm-tools.
11 Follow the prompts to accept the default values, if appropriate for your configuration.
12 Follow the instructions at the end of the script.
Depending on the features you use, these instructions can include restarting the X session, restarting
networking, logging in again, and starting the VMware User process. You can alternatively reboot the
guest operating system to accomplish all these tasks.
If you are using vCenter Server, the VMware Tools label on the Summary tab changes to OK.
What to do next
If you upgraded VMware Tools as part of a vSphere upgrade, next determine whether to upgrade the
virtual machines in your environment. To review and compare the hardware available for different
compatibility levels, see the vSphere Virtual Machine Administration documentation.
Manually Installing VMware Tools in a Mac OS X Virtual
Machine
For Mac OS X virtual machines you install or upgrade VMware Tools using an installer assistant.
If you use VMware Fusion or ESXi on a computer with an Apple label, you can create Mac OS X Server
(10.5 or later) virtual machines and install VMware Tools.
Prerequisites
n
Power on the virtual machine.
n
Verify that the guest operating system is running.
Procedure
1
2
Select the menu command to mount and open the VMware Tools virtual disc on the guest operating
system.
VMware Product
Menu Command
vSphere Client
Inventory > Virtual Machine > Guest > Install/Upgrade VMware Tools and
select Interactive Tools Installation or Interactive Tools Upgrade
vSphere Web Client
Right-click the virtual machine in the vCenter inventory and select All vCenter
Actions > Guest OS > Install/Upgrade VMware Tools
Fusion
Virtual Machine > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
Open Install VMware Tools on the VMware Tools virtual disc, follow the prompts in the installer
assistant, and click OK.
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The virtual machine restarts to have VMware Tools take effect.
Manually Installing VMware Tools on a Solaris Virtual
Machine
For Solaris virtual machines, you manually install or upgrade VMware Tools by using the command line.
Prerequisites
n
Power on the virtual machine.
n
Verify that the guest operating system is running.
n
Because the VMware Tools installer is written in Perl, verify that Perl is installed in the guest operating
system.
n
For vSphere virtual machines, determine whether you have the latest version of VMware Tools. In the
vSphere Client inventory, select the virtual machine and click the Summary tab.
Procedure
1
Select the menu command to mount the VMware Tools virtual disk on the guest operating system.
VMware Product
Action
vSphere Client (HTML5)
Right-click the virtual machine and select Guest OS > Install (or Upgrade) Tools
vSphere Client
Inventory > Virtual Machine > Guest > Install/Upgrade VMware
vSphere Web Client
Right-click the virtual machine and select Guest OS > Install (or Upgrade)
VMware Tools
Fusion
Virtual Machine > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
Workstation Pro
VM > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
Workstation Player
Player > Manage > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
2
In the virtual machine, log in to the guest operating system as root and open a terminal window.
3
If the Solaris volume manager does not mount the CD-ROM under /cdrom/vmwaretools, restart the
volume manager.
/etc/init.d/volmgt stop
/etc/init.d/volmgt start
4
Change to a working directory, for example, /tmp.
cd /tmp
5
Extract VMware Tools.
gunzip -c /cdrom/vmwaretools/vmware-solaris-tools.tar.gz | tar xf -
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6
Run the installer and configure VMware Tools.
cd vmware-tools-distrib
./vmware-install.pl
Usually, the vmware-config-tools.pl configuration file runs after the installer file finishes running.
7
Follow the prompts to accept the default values, if appropriate for your configuration.
8
Follow the instructions at the end of the script.
Depending on the features you use, these instructions can include restarting the X session, restarting
networking, logging in again, and starting the VMware User process. You can alternatively reboot the
guest operating system to accomplish all these tasks.
If you are using vCenter Server, the VMware Tools label on the Summary tab changes to OK.
What to do next
If you upgraded VMware Tools as part of a vSphere upgrade, next determine whether to upgrade the
virtual machines in your environment. To review and compare the hardware available for different
compatibility levels, see the vSphere Virtual Machine Administration documentation.
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Upgrading VMware Tools
3
You can upgrade VMware Tools manually, or you can configure virtual machines to check for and install
newer versions of VMware Tools.
The guest operating system checks the version of VMware Tools when you power on a virtual machine.
The status bar of your virtual machine displays a message when a new version is available.
For vSphere virtual machines,
A newer version of Tools is available for this VM
is displayed when the installed version of VMware Tools is out of date.
In Windows virtual machines, you can set VMware Tools to notify you when an upgrade is available. If this
notification option is enabled, the VMware Tools icon in the Windows taskbar includes a yellow caution
icon when a VMware Tools upgrade is available.
To install a VMware Tools upgrade, you can use the same procedure that you used for installing VMware
Tools the first time. Upgrading VMware Tools means installing a new version.
For Windows and Linux guest operating systems, you can configure the virtual machine to automatically
upgrade VMware Tools. Although the version check is performed when you power on the virtual machine,
on Windows guest operating systems, the automatic upgrade occurs when you power off or restart the
virtual machine. The status bar displays the message Installing VMware Tools ... when an
upgrade is in progress. The procedure is mentioned below.
Note When you upgrade VMware Tools on Linux guest operating systems, new network modules are
available but are not used until you either reboot the guest operating system, or stop networking, unload
and re-load the VMware networking kernel modules, and then restart networking. This behavior means
that even if VMware Tools is set to automatically upgrade, you must reboot or re-load network modules to
make new features available.
This strategy avoids network interruptions and allows you to work with VMware Tools over SSH.
Upgrading VMware Tools on Windows guest operation systems automatically installs the WDDM graphics
drivers. The WDDM graphics driver allows the sleep mode available in guest OS power settings to adjust
the sleep options. For example, you can use the sleep mode setting Change when the computer sleeps
to configure your guest OS to automatically go to sleep mode after a certain time or prevent your guest
OS from automatically switching to sleep mode after being idle for some time.
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For vSphere virtual machines, you can use one of the following processes to upgrade multiple virtual
machines at the same time.
n
Log in to vCenter Server, select a host or cluster, and on the Virtual Machines tab specify the virtual
machines on which to perform a VMware Tools upgrade.
n
Use Update Manager to perform an orchestrated upgrade of virtual machines at the folder or
datacenter level.
Some features in a particular release of a VMware product might depend on installing or upgrading to the
version of VMware Tools included in that release. Upgrading to the latest version of VMware Tools is not
always necessary. Newer versions of VMware Tools are compatible with several host versions. To avoid
unnecessary upgrades, evaluate whether the added features and capabilities are necessary for your
environment.
Table 3‑1. Virtual Machine Compatibility Options
Compatibility
Description
ESXi 6.5 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 13) is compatible with ESXi 6.5.
ESXi 6.0 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 11) is compatible with ESXi 6.0 and later.
ESXi 5.5 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 10) is compatible with ESXi 5.5 and later.
ESXi 5.1 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 9) is compatible with ESXi 5.1 and later.
ESXi 5.0 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 8) is compatible with ESXi 5.0 and 5.1.
ESX/ESXi 4.x and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 7) is compatible with ESX/ ESXi 4.x, ESXi 5.0, and ESXi
5.1.
ESX/ESXi 3.5 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 4) is compatible with ESX/ESX 3.5. ESX/ESX 4.x, and
ESXi 5.1. It is also compatible with VMware Server 1.0 and later. You cannot create a virtual
machine with ESX/ESXi 3.5 compatibility on ESXi 5.0.
For more information, see the documentation for your specific VMware product.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
Configure Virtual Machines to Automatically Upgrade VMware Tools
n
Manually upgrading VMware Tools in virtual machines
n
Performing an Automatic Upgrade of VMware Tools
Configure Virtual Machines to Automatically Upgrade
VMware Tools
You can configure virtual machines to automatically update VMware Tools.
Note Automatic VMware Tools upgrade is not supported for virtual machines with Solaris or NetWare
guest operating systems.
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Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machines have a version of VMware Tools shipped with ESX/ESXi 3.5 or later
installed.
n
Verify that the virtual machines are hosted on ESX/ESXi 3.5 or later and vCenter Server 3.5 or later.
n
Verify that the virtual machines are running a Linux or Windows guest OS that ESX/ESXi 3.5 or later
and vCenter Server 3.5 or later support.
Procedure
1
Right-click the virtual machine and click Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and select VMware Tools.
3
Select Check and upgrade VMware Tools before each power on.
4
Click OK to save your changes and close the dialog box.
The next time the virtual machine is powered on, it checks the ESX/ESXi host for a newer version of
VMware Tools. If one is available, it is installed and the guest operating system is restarted (if required).
Manually upgrading VMware Tools in virtual machines
You can upgrade VMware Tools in one or more virtual machines by using the vSphere Web Client.
Procedure
1
Start the vSphere Web Client and log in to the vCenter Server.
2
Select the virtual machines.
a
Select a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host.
b
Click the VMs tab.
3
Power on the virtual machines to upgrade.
4
Right-click your selections.
5
Select Guest OS > Install/Upgrade VMware Tools and click OK.
6
Select Interactive Upgrade or Automatic Upgrade and click Upgrade.
7
If you chose the interactive upgrade for a virtual machine with a Linux guest operating system, reboot
the operating system by running the reboot command from a command-line prompt so that you can
use the new network modules.
Note This upgrade procedure is not applicable for operating systems that are installed with OSPs or
Open VM Tools
VMware Tools are upgraded.
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Performing an Automatic Upgrade of VMware Tools
When you start an automatic upgrade of VMware Tools, you do not need to perform any operations in the
guest operating system that is running on the virtual machine. The automatic upgrade uninstalls the
previous version of VMware Tools, installs the latest version that is available for your ESXi host.
Automatic VMware Tools upgrade is supported only for virtual machines with Windows guest operating
system.
Prerequisites
The following requirements are for each virtual machine in the upgrade:
n
Power on the virtual machine.
n
Verify that the guest operating system is running.
Procedure
1
Select Automatic Tools Upgrade.
2
(Optional) In the Advanced Options text box, enter advanced options for the guest operating
system.
Option
Action
Microsoft Windows Guest Operating
Systems
Enter /s /v "/qn" /l "Microsoft_Windows_location\filename.log" to
Linux Guest Operating Systems
n
perform a silent upgrade of VMware Tools and create a log file in the specified
location on the guest operating system.
Enter --default to perform the default behavior. Perform a silent upgrade of
VMware Tools. Install tools bin, lib and doc files in the default /usr
directory.
n
Enter --prefix=binary_location,lib_location,doc_location to
perform a silent upgrade of VMware Tools and install the binary, library, and
document files in the specified locations.
3
Click OK.
The VMware Tools label on the Summary tab changes to OK.
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Configuring VMware Tools
Components
4
VMware Tools provides drivers and services that enhance the performance of virtual machines and make
several vSphere features easy to use. When VMware Tools is installed, you can configure many of these
utilities and change their characteristics.
You can use one of the following methods to configure VMware Tools.
n
The command-line configuration utility in the guest operating system. You can modify VMware Tools
settings, shrink virtual disks, and connect and disconnect virtual devices.
n
Custom scripts.
n
Menu commands and dialog boxes.
For information about installing and configuring VMware Tools in other VMware products, see the
documentation for your product. For information about VMware Tools in hosts that are provisioned with
vSphere Auto Deploy, see VMware Knowledge Base article http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2004018.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
Configuring Network Interface Information
n
Exclude Specific File Systems from Quiesced Snapshots
n
Security Considerations for Configuring VMware Tools
n
Using the VMware Tools Configuration Utility
Configuring Network Interface Information
You can exclude network interfaces from GuestInfo and set primary and low priority network interfaces.
The configuration option is added to the tools.conffile.
Exclude specific interfaces from GuestInfo
To exclude specific interfaces from GuestInfo, set the option exclude-nics to a comma separated list of
network interfaces.
Example
[guestinfo]
exclude-nics=docker*,veth*
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The configuration will exclude all interfaces with the names matching the patterns docker* and veth*
from GuestInfo.
Set primary and low priority interfaces
The options primary-nicsand low-priority-nics accept a list of comma separated patterns for
interface names which are considered as primary or low priority network interfaces. This will cause the
interface information to be put on top of the list for primary interfaces, and to the bottom for low priority
interfaces.
Example
[guestinfo]
primary-nics=eth1
The configuration ensures that the IP address for eth1 will be sorted on top of the list of IP addresses.
Example
[guestinfo]
primary-nics=eth*
This configuration ensures that any address in the interfaces matching eth* is sorted on top of the list of
IP addresses.
Example
[guestinfo]
low-priority-nics=eth*
This configuration ensures that any address in the interfaces matching eth* is sorted at the bottom of the
list of IP addresses.
Note After the limit of the number of interfaces to be reported is reached, low priority interfaces are the
first to be skipped.
Exclude Specific File Systems from Quiesced Snapshots
On the Linux guest operating systems, the configuration setting excludedFileSystems allows file
systems to be excluded from a quiesced snapshot operation. This setting, if specified, is listed in the
section of vmbackup of the tools.conf file.
The value of excludedFileSystems is a comma-separated list of glob-style patterns specifying the file
systems to be excluded from quiesced snapshots. The patterns may use '*' (wildcard) to represent any
string of characters and '?" (joker) to represent any single character. Note that the characters represented
by these patters, '*' and '?" may include any characters, including '/'
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Procedure
1
Open the tools.conf file from /etc/vmware-tools/tools.conf in your Linux guest operating
system.
2
Add a vmbackup section in the file, if it does not exist.
[vmbackup]
3
In the vmbackup section, set excludedFileSystems to the preferred list of patterns.
excludedFileSystems = <list of patterns>
For example, this setting excludes the file system mounted at /fs1 from a quiesced snapshot operation.
[vmbackup]
excludedFileSystems = /fs1
As another example, this setting excludes all the file systems whose mount points start with /fs or /dev
from a quiesced snapshot operation.
[vmbackup]
excludedFileSystems = /fs*,/dev/*
Security Considerations for Configuring VMware Tools
Some VMware Tools settings might expose security risks. For example, VMware Tools enables you to
connect virtual devices such as serial and parallel ports to virtual machines. A connected device might be
a potential channel of attack. To harden a virtual machine and reduce security risks as much as possible,
disable the VMware Tools features that might be vulnerable to security threats.
For complete information about securely deploying VMware vSphere in a production environment,
including security recommendations for hosts, virtual machines, management components, and a
networking infrastructure, see the vSphere Hardening Guide. VMware Tools settings relate only to the
virtual machine aspect of a deployment.
Virtual machines are encapsulated in a small number of files. Of these, the configuration file (.vmx file)
governs the performance of the virtual hardware and other settings. You can use several methods to see
and modify the configuration settings:
n
Use the vSphere Web Client to edit virtual machine settings. In the vSphere Web Client, editing these
configuration parameters is an advanced option in the virtual machine Edit Settings dialog box.
n
Use the vSphere Host Client to edit virtual machine settings. In the vSphere Host Client, editing these
configuration parameters is an advanced option in the virtual machine Edit Settings dialog box.
n
Use a vSphere API-based tool, such as Power CLI, to view and modify .vmx parameters.
After you edit a setting, the change does not take effect until you restart the virtual machine.
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You can eliminate several potential threats by setting parameters appropriately in the corresponding
VMware Tools parameters to set in the virtual machine's .vmx file. The defaults for many of these
parameters are already set to protect virtual machines from these threats.
Threats Associated with Unprivileged User Accounts
Copy and paste
By default, the ability to copy and paste text, graphics, and files is disabled,
as is the ability to drag and drop files. When this option is enabled, you can
copy and paste rich text, and depending on the VMware product, graphics
and files from your clipboard to the guest operating system in a virtual
machine. That is, when the console window of a virtual machine gains
focus, nonprivileged users and processes running in the virtual machine
can access the clipboard on the computer where the console window is
running. To avoid risks associated with this feature, retain the
following .vmx settings, which disable copying and pasting:
isolation.tools.copy.disable = "TRUE"
isolation.tools.paste.disable = "TRUE"
Threats Associated with Virtual Devices
Connecting and
modifying devices
By default, the ability to connect and disconnect devices is disabled. When
this feature is enabled, users and processes without root or administrator
privileges can connect devices such as network adapters and CD-ROM
drives, and they can modify device settings. That is, a user can connect a
disconnected CD-ROM drive and access sensitive information on the
media that is in the drive. A user can also disconnect a network adapter to
isolate the virtual machine from its network, which is a denial of service. To
avoid risks associated with this feature, retain the following .vmx settings,
which disable the ability to connect and disconnect devices or to modify
device settings:
isolation.device.connectable.disable = "TRUE"
isolation.device.edit.disable = "TRUE"
Threats Associated with Virtual Machine Information Flow
VMX file size
By default the configuration file is limited to a size of 1 MB because
uncontrolled size for the file can lead to a denial of service if the datastore
runs out of disk space. Informational messages are sometimes sent from
the virtual machine to the .vmx file. These setinfo messages define virtual
machine characteristics or identifiers by writing name-value pairs to the file.
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You might need to increase the size of the file if large amounts of custom
information must be stored in the file. The property name is
tools.setInfo.sizeLimit, and you specify the value in kilobytes. Retain
the following .vmx setting:
tools.setInfo.sizeLimit = "1048576"
Sending performance
counters into PerfMon
You can integrate virtual machine performance counters for CPU and
memory into PerfMon for Linux and Microsoft Windows guest operating
systems. This provides detailed information about the physical host
available to the guest operating system. A malicious user could potentially
use this information to perform further attacks on the host. By default this
feature is disabled. Retain the following .vmx setting to prevent host
information from being sent to the virtual machine:
tools.guestlib.enableHostInfo = "FALSE"
This setting blocks some but not all metrics. If you set this property to
FALSE, the following metrics are blocked:
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GUESTLIB_HOST_CPU_NUM_CORES
n
GUESTLIB_HOST_CPU_USED_MS
n
GUESTLIB_HOST_MEM_SWAPPED_MB
n
GUESTLIB_HOST_MEM_SHARED_MB
n
GUESTLIB_HOST_MEM_USED_MB
n
GUESTLIB_HOST_MEM_PHYS_MB
n
GUESTLIB_HOST_MEM_PHYS_FREE_MB
n
GUESTLIB_HOST_MEM_KERN_OVHD_MB
n
GUESTLIB_HOST_MEM_MAPPED_MB
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GUESTLIB_HOST_MEM_UNMAPPED_MB
n
Features not exposed
in vSphere that could
cause vulnerabilities
Because VMware virtual machines run in many VMware products in
addition to vSphere, some virtual machine parameters do not apply in a
vSphere environment. Although these features do not appear in vSphere
user interfaces, disabling them reduces the number of vectors through
which a guest operating system could access a host. Use the
following .vmx setting to disable these features:
isolation.tools.unity.push.update.disable = "TRUE"
isolation.tools.ghi.launchmenu.change = "TRUE"
isolation.tools.ghi.autologon.disable = "TRUE"
isolation.tools.hgfsServerSet.disable = "TRUE"
isolation.tools.memSchedFakeSampleStats.disable = "TRUE"
isolation.tools.getCreds.disable = "TRUE"
Using the VMware Tools Configuration Utility
The VMware Tools configuration utility is a command-line interface that you can use in the guest
operating system to modify VMware Tools settings, shrink virtual disks, and connect and disconnect
virtual devices.
The VMware Tools configuration utility provides a command-line interface for functionality that was
previously available only in the VMware Tools control panel. The name of this program depends on the
guest operating system.
Table 4‑1. VMware Tools Configuration Utilities for Guest Operating Systems
Guest Operating System
Utility
Windows
VMwareToolboxCmd.exe
Mac OS X
vmware-tools-cli
Because the VMware Tools installer does not modify any PATH
environment variables on Mac OS X operating systems, you
must type ./ before the command.
Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris
vmware-toolbox-cmd
Use the utility's help command to display complete usage information and syntax.
The VMware Tools configuration utility is included in the following VMware products:
n
VMware vSphere 4.1 and later
n
VMware Workstation 7.0 and later
n
VMware Fusion 3.0 and later
n
VMware Player 3.0 and later
n
VMware ACE 2.6 and later
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Configuring Time Synchronization Between Guest and Host
Operating Systems
When you enable periodic time synchronization, VMware Tools sets the time of the guest operating
system to be the same as the time of the host.
After time synchronization occurs, VMware Tools checks once every minute to determine whether the
clocks on the guest and host operating systems still match. If not, the clock on the guest operating system
is synchronized to match the clock on the host.
If the clock on the guest operating system falls behind the clock on the host, VMware Tools moves the
clock on the guest forward to match the clock on the host. If the clock on the guest operating system is
ahead of the clock on the host, VMware Tools causes the clock on the guest to run more slowly until the
clocks are synchronized.
Native time synchronization software, such as Network Time Protocol (NTP) for Linux and the Mac OS X,
or Microsoft Windows Time Service (Win32Time) for Windows, is typically more accurate than VMware
Tools periodic time synchronization. Use only one form of periodic time synchronization in your guests. If
you are using native time synchronization software, disable VMware Tools periodic time synchronization.
Regardless of whether you turn on VMware Tools periodic time synchronization, time synchronization
occurs after certain operations:
n
When you start the VMware Tools daemon, such as during a reboot or power on operation
n
When you resume a virtual machine from a suspend operation
n
After you revert to a snapshot
n
After you shrink a disk
When the operating system starts or restarts, and when you first turn on periodic time synchronization, if
the time.synchronize.tools.startup.backward parameter is not enabled in the .vmx file, the guest
clock is set to forward. For other events, synchronization is forward in time.
To disable time synchronization completely, you must edit the configuration file (.vmx file) of the virtual
machine and set several synchronization properties to FALSE.
Prerequisites
n
Disable other periodic time synchronization mechanisms. For example, some guests might have NTP
or Win32Time clock synchronization turned on by default.
n
If you plan to script the commands used in this procedure and need to know what the exit codes are,
see Exit Codes for the VMware Tools Configuration Utility.
Note Mac OS X guest operating systems use NTP and do not become out of sync with the host. For
Mac OS X guest operating systems, there is no need to turn on VMware Tools time synchronization.
Procedure
1
Open a command prompt or terminal in the guest operating system.
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2
3
Change to the VMware Tools installation directory.
Operating System
Default Path
Windows
C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools
Linux and Solaris
/usr/sbin
FreeBSD
/usr/local/sbin
Mac OS X
/Library/Application Support/VMware Tools
Type the command to determine whether time synchronization is enabled.
utility-name timesync status
For utility-name use the guest-specific program name.
4
Operating System
Program Name
Windows
VMwareToolboxCmd.exe
Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD
vmware-toolbox-cmd
MAC OS X
vmware-tools-cli
Type the command to enable or disable periodic time synchronization.
utility-name timesync subcommand
For subcommand, use enable or disable.
The VMware Tools service enables or disables periodic time synchronization, as you specified. Disabling
periodic time synchronization does not disable all VMware Tools time synchronization.
What to do next
If you need to keep a fictitious time in a virtual machine, such that the clock in the guest operating system
is never synchronized with that on the host, disable time synchronization completely for the guest
operating system.
Disabling Time Synchronization
A virtual machine occasionally synchronizes time with the host even if you do not turn on periodic time
synchronization. To completely disable time synchronization, you must set some properties in the virtual
machine configuration file.
Prerequisites
Power off the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Open the configuration (.vmx) file of the virtual machine in a text editor.
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2
Add lines for the time synchronization properties and set the properties to FALSE.
tools.syncTime = "FALSE"
time.synchronize.continue = "FALSE"
time.synchronize.restore = "FALSE"
time.synchronize.resume.disk = "FALSE"
time.synchronize.shrink = "FALSE"
time.synchronize.tools.startup = "FALSE"
3
Save and close the file.
What to do next
Power on the virtual machine.
Use Device Connect or Disconnect
You can connect and disconnect removable devices such as floppy drives, DVD/CD-ROM drives, ISO
images, USB devices, sound adapters, and network adapters.
n
Some devices cannot be shared between the host and guest operating systems or between two
guest operating systems. For example, only one virtual machine or the host can access the physical
CD-ROM drive at any one time.
n
The controls for connecting and disconnecting devices might not be available, depending on whether
your system administrator has enabled them.
You can run the configuration utility to connect and disconnect virtual devices. For security reasons, this
ability is disabled by default. To connect or disconnect devices, you must first change the settings in the
configuration file.
Prerequisites
If you plan to script commands to connect or disconnect a virtual device, and for the exit codes are, see
Exit Codes for the VMware Tools Configuration Utility.
Procedure
1
Configure the virtual machine to allow devices to connect or disconnect.
a
Edit the configuration (.vmx) file of the virtual machine with a text editor.
b
If the following properties are not listed in the file, add them and set them to FALSE.
isolation.device.connectable.disable = "FALSE"
isolation.device.edit.disable = "FALSE"
c
2
Save and close the file.
Open a command prompt or terminal in the guest operating system.
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3
4
Change to the VMware Tools installation directory.
Operating System
Default Path
Windows
C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools
Linux and Solaris
/usr/sbin
FreeBSD
/usr/local/sbin
Mac OS X
/Library/Application Support/VMware Tools
Type utility-name device list to list available devices.
For utility-name, use the guest-specific application name.
5
Operating System
Utility Name
Windows
VMwareToolboxCmd.exe
Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD
vmware-toolbox-cmd
Mac OS X
vmware-tools-cli
(Optional) Type the command to determine whether a device is connected.
utility-name device status device-name
For device-name, use one of the names displayed when you used the list subcommand.
6
Type the command to connect or disconnect the device.
utility-name device device-name subcommand
Option
Action
device-name
Use one of the names displayed when you used the list subcommand.
subcommand
Use enable or disable.
The device is connected or disconnected, as you specified.
Using Custom VMware Tools Scripts
You can associate custom scripts with power operations.
When VMware Tools is installed, one or more default scripts run on the guest whenever you change the
power state of the virtual machine. You change the power state by using menu commands or by clicking
the Suspend, Resume, Power On, and Power Off buttons. For example, when you power off a virtual
machine, by default the poweroff-vm-default script runs.
Default VMware Tools Scripts
VMware Tools includes one or more default scripts for each power state. The default script behavior
depends in part on the guest operating system.
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Microsoft Windows Guest Operating Systems
On most Microsoft Windows guest operating systems, the default script that runs when you suspend a
virtual machine releases the IP address of the virtual machine. The default script that runs when you
resume a virtual machine renews the IP address of the virtual machine. This behavior affects only virtual
machines configured to use DHCP.
On Windows guest operating systems, the default scripts are located in the Program
Files\VMware\VMware Tools folder.
Note You cannot run scripts on NetWare, Windows NT, Me, Windows 98, and Windows 95 guest
operating systems.
Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, and Free BSD Guest Operating Systems
On most Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems, the default script that runs
when you suspend a virtual machine stops networking for the virtual machine. The default script that runs
when you resume a virtual machine starts networking for the virtual machine.
On Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems, the default scripts are located in
the /etc/vmware-tools directory. On Mac OS X operating systems the default scripts are located in
the /Library/Application Support/VMware Tools directory.
Table 4‑2. Default VMware Tools Scripts
Script Name
Description
poweroff-vm-default
Runs when the virtual machine is being powered off or reset.
Has no effect on networking for the virtual machine.
poweron-vm-default
Runs when the virtual machine is being powered on rather than
resumed.
Also runs after virtual machine restarts.
Has no effect on networking for the virtual machine.
resume-vm-default
Runs when the virtual machine is resumed after it was
suspended.
On Windows guest operating systems, if the virtual machine is
configured to use DHCP, this script renews the IP address of the
virtual machine.
On Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating
systems, this script starts networking for the virtual machine.
suspend-vm-default
Runs when the virtual machine is being suspended.
On Windows guest operating systems, if the virtual machine is
configured to use DHCP, this script releases the IP address of
the virtual machine.
On Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD , this script stops
networking for the virtual machine.
For information about how to configure power operations, see the documentation for the VMware product
you are using.
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Use Custom VMware Tools Scripts in Windows Guests
On Windows guest operating systems, you can write scripts to automate guest operating system
operations when you change the power state of a virtual machine.
For Windows guest operating systems, you can write new scripts or modify default scripts, save them with
new names, and configure VMware Tools to use your custom script instead of the default script.
Scripts are run by the VMware Tools service, or daemon (vmtoolsd). Because vmtoolsd is run as
System on Windows, the scripts are run in a separate session from the session of the logged-in user. The
VMware Tools daemon does not detect desktop sessions, which means that it cannot display graphical
applications. Do not attempt to use custom scripts to display graphical applications.
Note You cannot run scripts on NetWare, Windows NT, Me, Windows 98, and Windows 95 guest
operating systems.
Prerequisites
n
Familiarize yourself with the default VMware Tools scripts. See Default VMware Tools Scripts.
n
If you plan to script commands and need to know what the exit codes are, see Exit Codes for the
VMware Tools Configuration Utility.
Procedure
1
Write a new script or modify default scripts and save them as .bat files with new names.
The default scripts for power-on and power-off operations are placeholders only. These scripts are
located in the Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools directory.
The scripts for suspend and resume operations contain a line that releases or renews the IP address
for the virtual machine. You must add this line first when you write custom scripts for these
operations.
Default Script
suspend
resume
Required IP Address Line
@%SYSTEMROOT%\system32\ipconfig /release
@%SYSTEMROOT%\system32\ipconfig /renew
2
Open a command prompt in the guest operating system.
3
Change directories to the VMware Tools installation directory.
The default installation directory is C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools.
4
Type the command to enable the script.
VMwareToolboxCmd.exe script script-name enable
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5
Type the command to use the custom script that you created.
VMwareToolboxCmd.exe script script-name set script-path
For script-path, use the full path to the file, such as C:\Temp\poweron-my-vm.bat.
6
Type the command to verify that the custom script that you specified is now being used.
VMwareToolboxCmd.exe script script-name current
The VMware Tools service runs the script whenever the specified power operation occurs.
Using Custom Scripts in Operating Systems Other Than Windows
On Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems, you can write scripts to automate
guest operating system operations when you change the power state of a virtual machine.
For Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD guests, you can write scripts and place them in a certain
directory, and then VMware Tools runs your scripts in addition to the default scripts. For power-on and
resume operations, the default scripts run before the custom scripts. For suspend and power-off, the
default scripts run after the custom scripts. This way, VMware Tools stops services only after the custom
scripts finish their work, and restores the same services before the custom scripts attempt to use the
services.)
Scripts are run by the VMware Tools service, or daemon (vmtoolsd). Because vmtoolsd is run as root
on Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD, the scripts are run in a separate session from the session of the loggedin user. The VMware Tools daemon does not detect desktop sessions, which means that it cannot display
graphical applications. Do not attempt to use custom scripts to display graphical applications.
Prerequisites
n
Familiarize yourself with the default VMware Tools scripts. See Default VMware Tools Scripts.
n
On Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems, if you plan to test, edit, or
disable the running of a script, log in as root.
n
If you plan to script commands and need to know what the exit codes are, see Exit Codes for the
VMware Tools Configuration Utility.
Procedure
1
Log in to the guest operating system as root.
2
Write the custom scripts and place them in the correct directory, as instructed by the comments in the
default script files for each power operation.
Guest Operating System
Directory
Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD
/etc/vmware-tools
Mac OS X
/Library/Application Support/VMware Tools
Do not make changes to the default scripts.
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The VMware Tools service runs the script whenever the specified power operation occurs.
Disable a VMware Tools Script
Default scripts for suspending and resuming a virtual machine are written to work together. If you disable
the script for one of these actions, you must also disable the script for the other action.
Note You cannot run scripts on NetWare, Windows NT, Me, Windows 98, and Windows 95 guest
operating systems.
Prerequisites
On Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems, to test, edit, or disable the running of a script,
log in as root.
Procedure
1
Open a command prompt or terminal in the guest operating system.
2
Change to the VMware Tools installation directory.
3
Operating System
Default Path
Windows
C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools
Linux and Solaris
/usr/sbin
FreeBSD
/usr/local/sbin
Mac OS X
/Library/Application Support/VMware Tools
Type the command to disable the script.
utility-name script script-name disable
Option
Action
utility-name On Windows
Use VMwareToolboxCmd.exe.
utility-name On Linux, Solaris, and
FreeBSD
Use vmware-toolbox-cmd.
utility-name On MAC OS
Use vmware-tools-cli.
script-name
Use power, resume, suspend, or shutdown.
4
(Optional) If you disabled the script for suspending a virtual machine, repeat this procedure for
resuming the virtual machine.
5
(Optional) If you disabled the script for resuming a virtual machine, also disable the script for
suspending the virtual machine.
Retrieving Status Information About the Virtual Machine
You can view information about host time and CPU speed. For virtual machines hosted in a vSphere
environment, you can view additional information about memory and CPU reservations and limits.
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Prerequisites
n
Determine the status information to display. See Subcommands for the stat Command.
n
If you plan to script commands and need to know what the exit codes are, see Exit Codes for the
VMware Tools Configuration Utility.
Procedure
1
Open a command prompt or terminal in the guest operating system.
2
Change to the VMware Tools installation directory.
3
Operating System
Default Path
Windows
C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware Tools
Linux and Solaris
/usr/sbin
FreeBSD
/usr/local/sbin
Mac OS X
/Library/Application Support/VMware Tools
Type the command to display the status information.
utility-name stat subcommand
Option
Action
utility-name (On Windows)
Use VMwareToolboxCmd.exe.
utility-name (On Linux, Solaris, and
FreeBSD)
Use vmware-toolbox-cmd.
utility-name (On Mac OS X)
Use vmware-tools-cli.
subcommand
Use hosttime or, speed, one of the subcommands available for virtual machines
hosted in a vSphere environment.
Subcommands for the stat Command
You can use the vmware-toolbox-cmd help stat command to display information such as host time
and CPU speed. Additional subcommands are available for virtual machines in a vSphere environment.
Table 4‑3. Subcommands for the stat Command
Subcommand Name
Description
hosttime
Displays the date and time on the host.
speed
Displays the CPU speed, in MHz.
Exit Codes for the VMware Tools Configuration Utility
You can use exit codes to integrate the VMware Tools configuration utility commands with a scripting tool.
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Table 4‑4. Exit Codes
Code Number
Applicable Command
Description
0
All commands
The command was successful.
1
All commands
A error occurred.
For the shrink command, 1 indicates that although shrinking is
enabled, the shrink command cannot be carried out.
64
All commands
The command-line argument is not valid.
66
script
The file name does not exist.
69
device and stat
For the device command, 69 indicates that the specified device
does not exist. Use the list subcommand to display valid
names of devices.
For the stat command, 69 indicates that the program could not
communicate with the host (EX_UNAVAILABLE).
75
stat
The host does not support the query, perhaps because the host
is not an ESX/ESXi host (EX_TEMPFAIL).
77
All commands
Permission error occurred
guestinfo Variables
You can use the guestinfo variables to query information such as version and build information.
For guestinfo samples related PowerCLI scripts, see PowerCLI-Example-Scripts
Table 4‑5. guestinfo variables for VMware Tools
Variable Name
Description
guestinfo.vmtools.description
Reports version description.
guestinfo.vmtools.versionString
Reports version string.
guestinfo.vmtools.versionNumber
Reports version number.
guestinfo.vmtools.buildNumber
Reports build number.
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Configuring Customer
Experience Improvement
Program
5
When you choose to participate in the Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP), VMware
receives anonymous information to improve the quality, reliability, and functionality of VMware products
and services.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
Categories of Information That VMware Receives
n
Join the Customer Experience Improvement Program in the vSphere Web Client
Categories of Information That VMware Receives
This product participates in VMware's Customer Experience Improvement Program ("CEIP").
Details regarding the data collected through CEIP and the purposes for which it is used by VMware are
set forth at the Trust & Assurance Center at http://www.vmware.com/trustvmware/ceip.html. To join or
leave the CEIP for this product, see .
Join the Customer Experience Improvement Program in
the vSphere Web Client
You can choose to join your vCenter Server to the Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP),
or leave the CEIP at any time. To leave and rejoin your host to the CEIP, see the vSphere Single Host
Management - VMware Host Client documentation.
Prerequisites
Verify that you are a member of the Administrators@vsphere.local group.
Procedure
1
Log in to the vCenter Server instance as a member of Administrators@vsphere.local group by using
the vSphere Web Client.
2
On the vSphere Web Client Home page, under Administration, click Customer Experience
Improvement Program.
3
Click Join to enable the CEIP or Leave to disable the Program.
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Troubleshooting VMware Tools
Components
6
Usually when you upgrade VMware Tools, the modules are upgraded and new features are added. If
some features do not work correctly after an upgrade, you must change or repair modules. On operating
systems other than Windows and Linux, you must manually start the VMware User process after an
upgrade.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
Repair or Change Modules in Windows Virtual Machines
n
Starting the VMware User Process Manually If You Do Not Use a Session Manager
Repair or Change Modules in Windows Virtual Machines
If you have problems with enhanced graphics display or mouse actions or with features that depend on
VMware Tools, you might need to repair or modify installed modules.
Occasionally, some new modules are not installed during a VMware Tools upgrade. You can manually
install new modules by modifying installed modules.
Important Do not use the guest operating system’s Add/Remove Programs item in the Windows
Control Panel to repair or modify VMware Tools.
Prerequisites
n
Power on the virtual machine.
n
Log in to the guest operating system.
Procedure
1
Select the menu command to mount the VMware Tools virtual disk on the guest operating system.
VMware Product
Action
vSphere Client (HTML5)
Right-click the virtual machine and select Guest OS > Install (or Upgrade) Tools
vSphere Client
Inventory > Virtual Machine > Guest > Install/Upgrade VMware
vSphere Web Client
Right-click the virtual machine and select Guest OS > Install (or Upgrade)
VMware Tools
Fusion
Virtual Machine > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
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2
VMware Product
Action
Workstation Pro
VM > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
Workstation Player
Player > Manage > Install (or Upgrade) VMware Tools
On the host, from the Workstation menu bar, select VM > Install VMware Tools.
If an earlier version of VMware Tools is installed, the menu item is Update VMware Tools.
3
If autorun is not enabled for the CD-ROM drive, to manually launch the VMware Tools installation
wizard, click Start > Run and enter D:\setup.exe, where D: is your first virtual CD-ROM drive.
4
On the Welcome page of the wizard, click Next.
5
Specify whether to repair or modify the modules.
6
n
Click Repair to repair the files, registry settings, and so on of components that are already
installed.
n
Click Modify to select which modules are installed.
Follow the on-screen prompts.
What to do next
If features still do not work, uninstall and reinstall VMware Tools.
Starting the VMware User Process Manually If You Do Not
Use a Session Manager
VMware Tools in Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD guest operating systems uses the VMware User process
executable file. This program implements the fit-guest-to-window and other features.
Normally, this process starts after you configure VMware Tools, log out of the desktop environment, and
log back in. The vmware-user program is located in the directory in which you selected to install binary
programs, which defaults to /usr/bin. The startup script that you need to modify depends on your
system. You must start the process manually in the following environments:
n
If you run an X session without a session manager. For example, if you use startx to start a desktop
session and do not use xdm, kdm, or gdm.
n
If you are using an older version of GNOME without gdm or xdm.
n
If you are using a session manager or environment that does not support the Desktop Application
Autostart Specification, available from http://standards.freedesktop.org.
n
If you upgrade VMware Tools.
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Procedure
u
Start the VMware User process.
Option
Action
Start the VMware User process when
you start an X session.
Add vmware-user to the appropriate X startup script, such as the .xsession
Start the process after a VMware Tools
software upgrade, or if certain features
are not working.
Open a terminal window and type the vmware-user command.
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or .xinitrc file.
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Uninstalling VMware Tools
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If the upgrade process of VMware Tools is incomplete, you can uninstall and then reinstall the VMware
Tools.
In a vSphere and open-vm-tools deployment, if you decide to use packages specific to Linux operating
systems to manage VMware Tools, and if you already used vSphere to install VMware Tools, you must
uninstall the existing VMware Tools. For more information about Linux OSPs for VMware Tools, see
Operating System Specific Packages for Linux Guest Operating Systems.
Prerequisites
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Power on the virtual machine.
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Log in to the guest operating system.
Procedure
u
Select a method to uninstall VMware Tools.
Operating System
Action
Windows 7, 8, 8.1, or Windows 10
In the guest operating system, select Programs > Uninstall a program.
Windows Vista and Windows Server
2008
In the guest operating system, select Programs and Features > Uninstall a
program.
Windows XP and earlier
In the guest operating system, select Add/Remove Programs.
Linux
Log in as root and enter vmware-uninstall-tools.pl in a terminal window.
Mac OS X Server
Use the Uninstall VMware Tools application, found in /Library/Application
Support/VMware Tools.
What to do next
Reinstall VMware Tools.
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FAQs about VMware Tools
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8
Can my OS run without VMware Tools?
Although a guest operating system can run without VMware Tools, always run the latest version of
VMware Tools in your guest operating systems to access the latest features and updates. You can
configure your virtual machine to automatically check for and apply VMware Tools upgrades each
time you power on your virtual machines.
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How is VMware Tools released?
ISOs (containing installers): These are packaged with the product and are installed in a number of
ways, depending upon the VMware product and the guest operating system installed in the virtual
machine. For more information, see the Installing VMware Tools section. VMware Tools provides a
different ISO file for each type of supported guest operating system: Mac OS X, Windows, Linux,
NetWare, Solaris, and FreeBSD.
Operating System Specific Packages (OSPs): Downloadable binary packages that are built and
provided by VMware for particular versions of Linux distributions. OSPs are typically available for
older releases, such as RHEL 6. Most current versions of Linux include Open VM Tools, eliminating
the need to separately install OSPs. To download OSPs and to find important information and
instructions, see VMware Tools Operating System Specific Packages (OSPs) . For a list of supported
guest operating systems, see VMware Compatibility Guide.
open-vm-tools (OVT): This is the open source implementation of VMware Tools intended for Linux
distribution maintainors and virtual appliance vendors. OVTs are generally included in the current
versions of popular Linux distributions, allowing administrators to effortlessly install and update
VMware Tools alongside other Linux packages. For more information, see KB Mware support for
Open VM Tools (2073803)
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Which operating systems are supported by open-vm-tools?
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 and later releases
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SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 and later releases
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Ubuntu 14.04 and later releases
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CentOS 7 and later releases
n
FreeBSD 10.3, 10.4 & 11.1
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VMware Tools User Guide
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n
Debian 7.x and later releases
n
Oracle Linux 7 and later
n
Fedora 19 and later releases
n
openSUSE 11.x and later releases
Are there VMware Tools VIB available?
Offline bundles with VMware Tools VIB can be installed on vSphere 5.5.x, 6.0.x and 6.5.x versions
using vSphere Update Manager. Offline bundles are supported from 10.2.0 and later.
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