cpcc Sound Team manual - Chancellor Park Community Church

cpcc Sound Team manual - Chancellor Park Community Church
Chancellor Park Community Church
Sound Team manual - v1.1
Contents
1.1 Mission Statement
1.2 Purpose of this manual
1.3 Introduction
1.4 The roll of the sound engineer
1.5 Hall diagram
pg 2
Compiled by David Vine
pg 2
2.1 Setup - disarming security, unlocking and opening the hall
2.1.1 Disarming the Hall’s security system
2.1.2 Light switches for the Hall’s main areas
2.1.3 Unlocking other areas
pg 5
pg 5
with Craig Charlish
John Conroy
Simon Cox
Alan Johnson
Bryan Radford
Marc Venter
Hayden Walsh
Don Woodley
pg 5
© cpcc 2014
2.2 Setup - stage lighting
2.2.1 Main stage lights
2.2.2 Fluoros on stage and in the wings
pg 6
2.3 Setup - instruments and mic’s on stage
pg 7
pg 2
pg 2
pg 4
pg 5
pg 6
pg 7
2.4 Setup - data projector, projector stand, screen & basic laptop
pg 10
2.5.1 Setup - mixer
2.5.2 Setup - CD recorder
pg 11
2.5.3 Setup - Sound for video
pg 14
2.6 Setup - amp rack
pg 14
2.7 Setup - foldback
pg 14
2.8 Setup - laptop audio
pg 15
3.1 During the service
3.1.1 Basic concepts of audio mixing
3.1.2 Understanding overall volume
3.1.3 Tips on providing strong leadership for the audience
3.1.4 Visual contact with everyone on stage
3.1.5 Recording audio to the CD burner, and providing an audio
feed for the video camera
pg 16
4.1 Packup - stage & instruments
pg 19
4.2 Packup - mixer & CD recorder
pg 20
4.3 Packup - data projector, projector stand & screen
pg 21
4.4 Packup - stage lighting
pg 22
4.5 Packup - Hall and security
pg 22
5.1 Troubleshooting
pg 22
6.1 Reference information
pg 22
7.1 Setup checklist
7.1.1 Packup checklist
pg 23
Page 1
pg 13
pg 16
pg 18
pg 18
pg 19
pg 19
pg 24
Chancellor Park Community Church
Sound Team manual - v1.1
1.1 Mission Statement
Chancellor Park Community Church (CPCC) Sound Team is committed to:
•
•
•
•
providing a consistent and reliable auditory support to speakers and music teams
enabling the congregation to be lead in worship without distractions from poor sound or faults
providing clean audio recordings of weekly messages to be uploaded to the CPCC website
providing clean audio of weekly messages to the CPCC Video Team for their recordings.
Everyone on the sound team is responsible for the quality of sound at CPCC, and for maintaining high
standards.
1.2 Purpose of this manual
The purpose of this manual is to provide a training and referral resource for the volunteer sound engineers
at CPCC. While you won’t learn all aspects of mixing simply from reading this or any other manual, you
should become familiar with the various procedural operations involved in A) putting the system together
and making it run, B) operating the mixer during a service and achieving at least a reasonable mix, and
C) packing the system up ready for the next person to do the same setup next time.
The manual assumes that:
• the room / Hall has a ‘flat’ acoustic characteristic, or
• the Public Address (P.A.) system being used has been previously ‘tuned’ by qualified personnel - this
involves playing a series of static frequencies and sweeps to determine the acoustic properties of
the room, and making adjustments to the P.A.’s EQ (equalisation) if necessary so the response is
flat. A flat response means there are no ranges of frequencies where the room colours the sound by
boosting or cutting them, thereby altering the EQ of the mix.
For a more in-depth look at equalisation see the section 6.1 Reference information.
This document will be periodically updated. The latest version should always be available in the Sound
Team area at www.cpcc.org.au.
1.3 Introduction
While the mechanics of capturing and mixing sound is the same for live performances, church services &
studio recording, there are many specific techniques & practices that can help ensure a positive result.
This manual aims to equip sound personnel with the necessary knowledge to get a system up & running.
The final result will depend on your ability to hear and interpret incoming audio through the tools at hand,
the physical characteristics of the P.A. system, and those of the room / Hall.
Remember in most cases few people will notice a good mix, but almost everyone will recognise a bad one.
1.4 The role of the sound engineer
Most people would recognise a sound engineer as someone who sits or stands at a mixer and manipulates
the P.A. (a.k.a. Front of House), but there are a few other areas that a good engineer should be
comfortable with:
•
A reasonable understanding of his / her own hearing ability - as a sound engineer you are
responsible for the listening experience of everyone at the event. Regardless of how much
preparation has been done, it still comes down to how well you mix. We’ll discuss this in more detail
in section 3.1 During the service.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
•
•
•
Basic electronics and / or electrical knowledge - not essential, but very helpful when something’s
not working as it should. We’ll discuss fault finding on-the-fly later on
At least a basic understanding of using a P.A. system from a musician or singer’s viewpoint - again
not essential, but a big help for a sound engineer to understand the band’s needs. For example,
often what a musician asks for in foldback is not actually what they need to hear - you may be
better to reduce the volume of something else rather than boosting them as they’ve requested.
Being a musician yourself is an advantage in that you may have a better understanding of the
specific requirements for certain instruments - knowing where to place various instruments and / or
mics to get a good sound but minimise spill from others, etc
One of the most important but often unseen roles of a good sound engineer is the ability to fix
things without actually fixing anything - just because someone on stage asks for a foldback change
doesn’t mean they actually need one. Go and have a listen to what they’re hearing. Sometimes a
twiddling of the knobs without really touching anything will produce a placebo effect and solve the
problem. Use this technique carefully
•
Please remember it’s up to each team member to be available on your rostered days for setup at
8:00am. Graham and the regular setup crew are NOT responsible for setting up the sound system,
and if you’re not there for or not participating in the setup of the system you don’t actually know
how it’s been wired up that day. If something goes wrong during the service you have very little
chance of being able to rectify it without causing a distraction
•
and you must also be available on those days to pack the system away after the service
•
If you’re not going to be available on a rostered day please organise a replacement from the other
Sound Team members, and let the office know that a change has occurred.
Please be aware that if you’re not able to fulfil the role as described above when you’re
rostered on, you may not be best suited to being involved in this particular ministry at this
time. Perhaps at a later date it might be a more realistic possibility.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
1.5 Hall diagram
Many points throughout this manual will refer back to this diagram for positions, etc. The numbers in red
correspond with the red numbers in brackets i.e. (18) found in the following pages.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
2.1 Setup - disarming security, unlocking and opening the Hall
2.1.1 Disarming the Hall’s security system
Security system box
Front entrance to the Hall
Using the master key on the church keyring unlock the security system box on the outside of the
building - (1) on the Hall diagram above. The display should be showing the zones in the building that
are currently armed. If it has any messages about alarms in the building assume security has already
dealt with it and carry on.
•
Enter the church’s security code (it’s not included here for security reasons), then press OK.
Depending on the time of day you’re doing this the display should now briefly read “Good
Morning/Afternoon/Evening Community Church”, and then move straight on to “Multipurp Hall is
On. Push Off”. Note: this is actually not the alarm system telling you to push off, it means push
the Off button to disarm it.
•
Once this is done the Hall is ready for entry.
•
Use the master same key to open the front glass door nearest the box - see photo above, or it’s
marked (2) on the Hall diagram).
2.1.2 Light switches for the Hall’s main areas
•
•
Hall light and air conditioner switches are on the inside wall next to the front entrance (3).
Light switches for the morning tea wing are on the wall on the left (4), and switches for the right
hand side wing are in a similar position on the wall on the right (5).
2.1.3 Unlocking other areas
•
•
•
•
•
•
Unlock the store room roller door (6) - this is where the chairs, church P.A. and Little Sprouts
stuff is kept - you’ll need the key marked Roller door.
Unlock the Side entrance sliding glass door (7).
Unlock the box with school’s multicore in it (8) - this requires the black plastic key on the
keyring.
Unlock the door on the front of the school’s amp rack (9). This is in the right stage wing, and
requires the smallest key in the bunch.
If the electric drum kit is being used this week you’ll need to unlock the padlock on the door of
the big black drum storage box (13) at the back of the left stage wing.
The entrance to the carpark on the right hand side of the Hall can sometimes be locked, mainly
during school holiday times. The key marked Car Park will unlock it, and the gates can opened
wide to allow vehicles through.
All areas in the Hall are now open and ready for members of various teams to do a complete setup.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
2.2 Setup - stage lighting
The lights on and around the stage consist of both blue and white fluorescents, and the main stage lights.
2.2.1 Main stage lights
•
The main lights on stage are controlled either by the control panel on the wall (10) in the right
stage wing (shown below), or the remote lighting control panel from in the hall itself - this
second option is only to be implemented by authorised personnel and is usually only done for
Christmas programs or similar. We’ll assume the control panel on the wall is being used for this
document.
•
Make sure no warning tags or signs have been posted by the school to warn of problems with
the system. If such an indication exists DO NOT attempt to use the stage lights at all, and tell
whoever’s running the service that the stage lights are out of action. To attempt to use faulty
lights may cause damage or serious injury to the system and / or personnel. For the sake of
this document we’ll assume all is well with the lights.
F
A
B
E
D
C
•
•
•
•
•
Check that all the circuit breaker switches (A above) are in the UP position - meaning they’re
switched on.
Make sure the orange 3-phase plug is in the socket on the wall (B), then switch it on.
Walk out to the stage and determine which lights are now on (if any). Remember not to have
a light shining directly on the data projector screen as it’ll make it too hard to see things on it.
Each light position on the horizontal suspended light poles over the stage has a number which
corresponds with numbers on the power leads (C) which are then plugged in to one of the 12
numbered power sockets (D) on the control panel. The control panel recognises the numbers
on the power socket inputs. Remember any light can be plugged in to any control panel
socket, so you need to make sure you understand the way the numbers work to effectively be
able to adjust the lights.
Press the SELECT button (E) to select CHANNEL, then use the Up & Down buttons to the right
(F) to choose which channel you want to adjust. Press SELECT again and choose % DRIVE this allows you to adjust the percentage of brightness for the light on that channel from 0% to
100%. We usually run all lights except the one which would be shining on the screen at 100%
brightness.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
2.2.2 Fluoros on stage and in the wings
• There are 3 banks of fluorescent lights over the stage area.
• The first bank is over the front of the stage. Having these on brightens the very front of the
stage making the screen difficult to see, so these should remain off. The switch for this
bank of lights is the TOP one in the centre of the front wall of the left stage wing (15).
• The second bank of fluoros is over the back half of the stage area. These are helpful and
can be switched on to add overall light to the stage. The switch for this bank of lights is the
BOTTOM one in the centre of the front wall of the left stage wing (15).
• The third bank is behind the back curtain. These are only needed if people will be moving
behind the curtains from one side of stage to the other during church. These can usually be
left off. The switch for this bank of lights is at the front corner of the left stage wing (17).
• The left and right stage wings have both normal (i.e. white) fluoros as well as blue ones which
throw a low level light. The white ones are useful while setting up and packing away, but the
blue ones are better used during a service as they keep the wings in darkness and aren’t a
visual distraction.
•
Left stage wing light switches:
• (14) White fluoros - next to the dressing room door
• (16) Blue fluoros - on the corner of the front wall.
•
Right stage wing light switches:
• (12) White fluoros - BOTTOM one in the corner of the front wall of the right stage wing
• (12) Blue fluoros - TOP and MIDDLE ones in the corner of the front wall of the right
stage wing.
2.3 Setup - instruments and mic’s on stage
•
The acoustic piano lives in the left stage wing and should have a plastic dust cover over it. Remove
the cover and push it out to an appropriate area on stage, then fully open the main lid using the
long arm to hold it up. DO NOT move the piano while the lid is up as it may fall and cause damage
or serious injury to the instrument and / or personnel.
•
The church’s electric keyboard is in a black plastic keyboard case located in the storage area (6).
There should also be a folding keyboard stand there as well. Take them both to the stage, set the
stand where it needs to go, then place the keyboard on the stand. The power adapter and sustain
pedal should both be in the case as well.
•
The church’s electric drum kit lives in the big black storage cupboard at the back of the left stage
wing (13). The riser has wheels at the end furthest in the box, but you’ll need to manhandle the
closest end by lifting it a bit and shuffling it along - this end has rubber feet instead of wheels to
stop it from rolling when in use.
•
Mic stands are kept in the Store room (6). Some are better than others, and not all stands have the
correct mic cradles for our mic’s so you’ll need to check for the right ones.
•
Please handle microphones carefully. DON’T DROP THEM as this will cause irreparable damage. The
mic’s we use at cpcc are Rode NT3’s. These are condenser mic’s which are more sensitive than
many other stage mic’s and give a fuller, richer sound. They require either 48v phantom power
from the mixer or internal 9v batteries (we use phantom power so we don’t have to keep changing
batteries). Because they’re sensitive they get damaged from rough handling or being dropped, so
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
please try not to let this happen. A mic that’s had this kind of treatment will sound dull as the high
frequency response will be affected.
•
Always make sure line level instruments (i.e. electric keyboard, electric drums, bass guitar, electric
guitar, acoustic guitar with a pickup, etc) are plugged directly into a Direct Input (D.I.) box - this
reduces the chances of introducing a noisy signal into the system. Run a line from the D.I. box
output to a guitar amp or whatever the player has for their own foldback, and a mic lead to the
stage box. Here’s an example of one of the types of D.I. we use at CPCC:
C
A
•
B
Here’s another D.I. that we use. This one has 8 seperate channels and requires mains power
A
B
C
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For an instrument with mono output (i.e. a guitar or bass not running through a stereo effect unit):
•
Using a 6.5mm guitar lead plug the output from the instrument into the D.I.’s left input (A). This
can be either a TRS (tip/ring/sleeve, balanced) lead or a TS (tip/sleeve, unbalanced) one since
the signal from the instrument is unbalanced at this point. FYI the same will work on the right
side of the D.I., just be aware of which output you’re trying to use to go off to an amp.
•
Run another 6.5mm lead from the D.I.’s left output/link (B) to the input of a guitar amp or
similar. Now when changes are made on the amp to the volume or equalisation (EQ) of the
instrument it doesn’t have any effect on the Front of House (FOH) signal. Note - make sure the
person playing this instrument has their amp facing away from the audience (i.e. towards the
back wall) and that the volume is as low as they can have it and still hear what they’re playing.
On-stage volume can become a real problem if it’s too loud.
•
Finally plug a mic lead into the left balanced output (C) on the back of the unit. The other end
can then be plugged into an appropriate channel on the stage box (Sb on the Hall diagram).
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
•
For an instrument with stereo outputs (i.e. many keyboards, electric drums, the laptop, etc):
•
As per the mono setup above, but use both outputs from the instrument and both L & R channels
of the D.I. The only thing to remember is that in a stereo setup you usually still only need one
output running to a guitar amp for foldback. The main exception to this is an electric drum
trigger module (a.k.a. a drum brain) in which case you’ll need to take the foldback feed straight
from the brain’s headphone output. By doing this and only plugging the 6.5mm jack in half-way
at the amp end you’ll be able to hear all the parts of the stereo image through a mono speaker.
•
Remember that we use a stereo P.A. system. Wherever possible use both outputs from a stereo
instrument as this will create a fuller, richer sound.
For a more in-depth look at D.I. boxes see the section 6.1 Reference information.
All mic’s and instruments connect into the P.A. system through a multicore and stage box - or in our
case it’s by two identical multicores and stage boxes. As is shown in the following diagram the first
stage box (Sb) can be hidden under the piano on stage - this is so people don’t trip on it, hurting
themselves and damaging the cables and connectors.
•
Inputs
x 16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
A
B
C
D
Returns x 4
•
Inputs 1-16 will correspond with channels 1-16 on the mixer as long as the numbering remains
consistant from the stage box to the mixer and assuming there’s no wiring problems. This means
channels 1-16 at the stage box will also be channels 1-16 on the mixer.
•
The tails of the CPCC multicore plug into the school’s stage box (12
shown at right), which is hard-wired to the multicore in the box at (8).
The tails of the school’s multicore then plug into the mixer at (18).
•
As well as the 16 inputs on the multicores there’s also 4 returns on the
bottom row. The photo at right shows the pair of output leads heading off
to the school’s amp rack (9) for the FOH speakers, in returns A & B.
•
•
Returns C & D are for foldback 1 & 2 respectively. Plug the CPCC
multicore tails labelled F1 & F2 in here.
Remember to use the input and output channel conventions as explained in
section 2.5.1 Setup - mixer. This is a very important step, especially if
anything goes wrong during the service. Except for channels 1, 15 & 16 all
channels will differ week to week, depending on the mic and instrument
combinations.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
Our mixer connects to the amps via the school’s multicore stored in the box on the wall (8), and by
moving a pair of leads which are plugged into the school’s mixer during the week (11 - as below).
•
A
B
L
R
•
Unplug the left (L) output from the school’s mixer and plug it into the wall-mounted stage box
(12) bottom left socket A. Likewise unplug the right (R) output from the school’s mixer and plug
it into the wall-mounted stage box (12) socket B. This completes the link between the mixer and
the amplifiers.
2.4 Setup - data projector, projector stand, screen & basic laptop
The following is not an exhaustive description of projection setup, but a guide to the basics:
•
The projector stand and screen are stored in the Store room (6).
•
Set up the screen on the left side of stage (Screen 17), instructions are written on the screen itself.
•
The data projector stand goes just in front of the first row of chairs (Data).
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Plug the MacBook into power and a HDMI cable into the projector (adaptor is in the laptop bag).
•
Connect a 3.5mm jack Y-lead into the laptop’s headphone output, and into a D.I. at the other end
•
The two D.I. outputs run back to the mixer position (18), and plug into channels 15 & 16
•
Turn on the laptop and the projector.
•
Open ProPresenter (Pro icon on the Mac).
•
The Order of service is shown in the bottom left of the screen. The on-screen display is shown in the
main portion of the screen. Advance by clicking on slides. Use “Clear All” at the top left to blacken
the screen when it’s not needed.
Use of the iPad with the laptop requires additional setup described separately (not in this manual).
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2.5.1 Setup - mixer (Mackie CFX20 mkII)
•
The mixer is kept in the Store room (6). It sits on top of a rack that wheels out to the Mixer position
(18) on the Hall diagram. Once in position lock the two castors at the front. Here’s a quick
explanation of the main sections of the mixer you’ll be working with.
Inputs - multicore tails plug in
here, matching the number on
each tail with the correct channel
Channel
strip the main
controls
for each
input
Tape input - from
the DVD player
Tape output - to
the CD recorder
Main out - tails
A & B, to amps
Aux send foldback sends
Graphic
EQ - main
output EQ
Aux
fol dback
levels for
channel
strips
Phantom
power required
for mic’s
& D.I.’s
EFX 2 reverb
levels for
channel
strips
Effects reverb
master
Assign subgroup
routing
for each
channel
strip
•
Sub out adapters
for video
camera
Subs music &
message
masters
Gain knob & fader - the Gain knob sets the input level, the Fader determines the
output level. Together these are the two main players in setting up the gain structure
for each channel. Keep the gain as low as possible to reduce the risk of feedback
Pull the school’s multicore out from it’s storage box on the wall (8), and make sure it gets
covered by a row of chairs so no one trips on it.
• Plug the male input tails for channels 1-16 in the Mic inputs for each channel strip of the
mixer. Hang the cable strain relief made from gaffa tape over one of the middle channel
input plugs - this will make sure the cables don’t get damaged by hanging loose and pulling
on the plugs.
•
Plug the female output tails into the MAIN OUT’s shown above - A into MAIN OUT L, and
output tail B into MAIN OUT R. These are the main stereo outputs that will go to the
amplifier. We don’t have a dedicated output for a sub woofer so we don’t use the MAIN OUT
S output.
•
There should be two pairs of adapters already plugged into some of the output sockets:
•
One pair should be plugged into the AUX SEND 1 & 2 sockets. Plug the multicore tail
labelled C in the adapter plugged into AUX SEND 1 (this will be Foldback send 1), and
plug the tail labelled D in the AUX SEND 2 adapter (Foldback send 2).
•
The other pair should be in the SUB OUT 3 & 4 sockets. These are used for the audio
inputs on a video camera that records the messages. We don’t need to go any further
with this once we’ve checked the adapters are where they should be - the Video Team
guys will take it from here.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
•
Take the front and back panels off the rack case if they’re not already off. They can be
stashed over against the side wall of the building during the service.
•
Run a 240v extension lead from the wall box (8) to the back of the rack, and make sure it
gets covered by a row of chairs so no one trips on it (preferably a white lead so it’s easier
to see and less likely to cause an accident across the walkway). Plug it in to the white
power board attached at the bottom of the rack - this provides power for the entire rack.
•
In the back of the rack is a grey IEC lead with a plug like the one shown
to the right, hanging loose. This is the power cord for the mixer - plug it
into socket shown below, and turn the mixer on with the POWER switch.
•
Also in the back of the rack are two RCA leads like the one to the right.
•
One of these leads is connected at the other end to a DVD player.
This one doesn’t get used very often since Graham usually plays any
video clips during the service directly from his laptop. If it is needed
though the RCA plugs for it’s audio output connect to the TAPE
INPUT sockets shown below. The audio then appears at the TAPE
LEVEL volume knob shown below right. There is no EQ for this input.
Break switch - be
careful this button
is NOT engaged as
it will mute all other
channels and cause
lots of confusion
•
Remember to use the input and output channel conventions - in most cases this will reduce
the need for a masking tape scribble strip with names for the channels on them.
•
Input convention
•
Channel 1 - always the main mic, either Lectern or Hand held (i.e. Graham’s mic).
This channel doesn’t generally need to go to either foldback Send, nor should it go
through the effect unit.
•
Channels 2-14 - vocal mic and instrument input channels. Remember to go Left to
Right, and Front to Back in rows. For a more in depth review of the input convention
see section 6.1 Reference information.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
•
Output convention (for foldback)
•
•
Channels 15-16 - reserved for the laptop audio if needed. You’ll need to use a D.I.
and run two mic leads under the chairs back to the mixer. Laptop audio doesn’t
generally need to go to either foldback Send, nor does it need to go through the effect
unit.
•
We’ve got 2 AUX SENDs on our mixer - that means there are 2 independent foldback
sends that will each wind up connected to a powered speaker at the stage, so the
Music Team can hear each other.
•
The AUX SEND 1 & 2 outputs on the mixer should both have adapter leads plugged in
to them.
•
The singers will use foldback 1 which should come from AUX SEND 1 at the mixer. The
singers use No 1 because they’re generally at the front of the stage, so by our
numbering convention they use the first number.
•
The other foldback speaker will generally be at the piano or wherever the main
instrumentalist will be situated on the stage. Because this one will usually be further
back from the front of the stage it will be foldback 2 and should come from AUX SEND
2 at the mixer.
See section 2.7 Setup - foldback for a deeper look at foldback configuration
2.5.2 Setup - CD recorder (Tascam CD-RW4U)
•
The CD burner is mounted in the mixer rack, and just needs to have it’s RCA inputs (A) plugged
in to start recording the stereo audio image coming from the mixer.
B
C
D
A
F
E
•
The POWER button is at the top left corner on the front panel (B). Press this and then OPEN/
CLOSE on the right side of the tray to load a blank CD (DVD’s will not work in this unit).
•
Press the RECORD button (C) to place the unit in record ready mode. When you’re ready to start
recording to the CD press the PLAY/PAUSE button (D). Recording will commence on Track 1. To
adjust the recording level use the INPUT knob (E).
•
At the end of the service press the STOP button (F).
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2.5.3 Setup - audio for video
•
Audio for the video camera is sent via the SUB OUT 3 & 4 sockets, which should have a pair of
adapters connected to them. Remember that only the channels which have been routed through
sub groups 3 & 4 will be sent to the video camera, so every channel being used for the message
should be routed accordingly.
2.6 Setup - amp rack
The amp rack (9) is located in the right stage wing. The settings on the volume knobs shown below set
the front, delay and sub volumes for the room. In case it’s hard to see the marks below the Delay
speakers are all the way up, the FOH (front of house) speakers are at about 2:00, and the Sub is set at
3:00 - the right hand Sub speaker knob isn’t used, but it doesn’t hurt to turn it up as well.
Delay speakers - up full
Front of House speakers - 2:00
Subs - 3:00
2.7 Setup - foldback
The role of foldback is to enable the band members to hear enough of themselves and the rest of the
band so they can stay in pitch and time. A complete mix is not only unnecessary, but it would cause
confusion by cluttering what’s being heard. Similarly a band member who wants lots of themselves in
foldback will probably be causing problems for other band members who then can’t hear themselves
enough. This is why a separate personal foldback (i.e. guitar amp, etc) is recommended for
instrumentalists who can’t hear themselves acoustically.
•
On-stage volume is a major concern for any P.A. system operator as too much will prevent the main
speakers (a.k.a. Front of House speakers) from carrying a solid mix. That means if an audience is
hearing the foldback over the top of the FOH speakers it becomes A) uncontrollable by the sound
engineer, and B) it’s a muffled, muddy sound due to the fact that the speakers aren’t being faced at
the audience. This gives the impression that the sound is coming from another room and lacks any
clarity. To prevent this make sure everyone on stage is operating with minimum volumes.
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•
The signal path from the mixer to the foldback speakers is as follows:
Left
stage wing
14
Dressing
room
Sc
X
n
ree
X
Right
stage
wing
Sb
Fb2
15 16
Loading
door
Rear stage curtain
Drums
c'board 13
School's
mixer
X
X
Ltrn
Fb1
12
11 10
9
17
School's
stage box
& lights
X
Data
Seating
•
Amp
rack
Stage lights
control
panel
Seating
C
Mixer
position
D
18
8
8
7 Side
entrance
The AUX SEND sockets (shown in the graphic above) should have a pair of adapters in them. Plug
the multicore tail labelled C in the adapter plugged into AUX SEND 1 (this will be Foldback send 1),
and plug the tail labelled D in the AUX SEND 2 adapter (Foldback send 2).
Morning
•
teafrom
area the CPCC multicore into the school’s stage box (12), then run the multicore
Plug all the tails
around
and
under
the piano. The grey foldback adapter leads will run from there to the speakers.
Kitchen
2.8 Setup - laptop audio
Seating
Seating
Since we’ve already dealt with the mechanics of setting up the laptop in section 2.4 Setup - data
projector, projector stand, screen & basic laptop, this section will concentrate only on the physical
wiring needed to get the audio from the laptop to the mixer and out to the FOH speakers
•
In most cases audio from the laptop will not need to go to foldback
•
Store
6 the
Plug the stereo 3.5mm jack at one end of the laptop’s ‘Y’ lead into the headphone output on
room
laptop - the other end of this cable will split into 2 x 6.5mm tails. These are then plugged into a D.I.
•
Run a pair of mic leads from the D.I.’s outputs under the chairs and back to the mixer. Plug them
into channels 15 & 16. This will power the the D.I. with phantom power (providing it’s switched
on).
•
Channels 15 & 16 should be routed to Subs 3 & 4. This will ensure any audio or video clips used
as part of the message are included on the video camera’s audio tracks.
4
5
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3 Main entrance
1
2
Carpark gate -->
Chancellor Park Community Church
Sound Team manual - v1.1
3.1 During the service
3.1.1 Basic concepts of audio mixing
•
Firstly we need to understand that the concept of learning to mix audio beyond the basics from
reading a manual like this one isn’t very realistic. To be proficient in the use of a mixer’s
capabilities takes a long time of learning and experience - this is one reason there are numerous
TAFE and university courses dedicated to this pursuit. What we aim to do with this document is
to target a few of the main areas and explain how to get the most from the mixer’s basic
functions.
•
So, how do you know what to listen for in the mix? Trying to mix by concentrating on the overall
sound is usually not successful - you need to break it up into it’s individual components, or
channels in the context of the mixer.
•
•
Make sure you can distinguish each sound source, whether it’s vocal or instrumental - either
by using a pair of headphones with the PFL buttons on the mixer, or just by concentrating and
closely watching one band member at a time. Pull the fader down on their channel
momentarily to see how it effects the overall mix, then replace it at a level that seems to
enhance the sound without being overbearing. Doing this one channel at a time with the
whole mix will allow you to be aware of what’s happening at an individual channel level.
Remember that not all vocals or instruments need to be obvious in the mix for every song work with the strengths of the band members and reduce the level of a weaker part in any
given song.
How do you handle a sound source that’s either out of tune or just not sitting right in the mix?
Just because there are people on stage do we have to hear them if they’re struggling to fit in
with the sound?
The short answer is to lower the volume on that channel until it sounds better. The longer
answer is that you need to make a judgement call at the time, dependant on the specific
circumstances. While it is the job of the sound operator to produce as good a mix as possible,
there are times when it’s appropriate to let things happen - there are others when it’s just not.
•
•
What do you do if there’s some noise (i.e. a noisy effect unit) on stage and you don’t want it to
detract from the audio quality of the message? Sometimes a particular piece of equipment can
add unwanted noise to the mix. It may be unavoidable while the Music Team is playing, but you
don’t want it in FOH, on the recorded CD or the video.
•
This is the biggest reason why we’ve got the mixer set up with Subs 1 - 4 the way they are.
All channels relating to anything OTHER than the message go through Subs 1&2, so ONLY the
channels to be recorded to CD and the video camera go through Subs 3&4. This means when
the Music Team isn’t playing Subs 1&2 can have their faders lowered right off. This will
eliminate any unwanted noise from FOH and the recordings. If you can still hear noise coming
from the Foldback, isolate which channel the noise is coming from and Mute it - remember to
lift the faders for Subs 1&2 and un-Mute the noisy channel at the end of the message.
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Understanding the mixer’s on-board effect unit for reverb.
•
•
The Lectern mic (i.e. channel 1) should generally not have the SFX 2 knob turned up. There’s
enough natural reverberation in the Hall that it’s not necessary for FOH, and it just sounds
messy on the CD and video recordings. Channels 15 & 16 (laptop audio) don’t need it either.
B
Ch 1
Representing channels 2-14
Channels 15&16
off
these can be used as required to add depth and space
to the sound. If you’re not sure or comfortable with
the use of the reverb unit it’s OK to leave it off.
off
No reverb is way better than too much
•
D
A
E
This diagram shows the mixer’s EFX sends & controls for the mixer’s built-in effects processor:
•
•
•
•
C
The top row of orange knobs (i.e. EFX 1 shown above) is for use with an external effect
unit, which we don’t use. Turning these up or down has no effect on anything at all - ever.
The big selector knob (A above) can be left on MD HALL. This setting simulates the reverb
in a medium sized hall by adding many multiples of the original source audio at slightly
delayed intervals, giving the impression of reflected sound bouncing off the walls of a
medium sized open building with reasonably soft surfaces.
The orange EFX 2 knob (B) is the master input to the effect unit - if the red Clip LED is
flashing very much it may be allowing distortion to enter the signal path. By turning (B)
down until the LED stops flashing you’re keeping the sound distortion-free.
•
You may need to turn up the effect unit’s outputs for the reverb to be heard - only adjust
these in small amounts as no audible reverb is way better than too much. The white MAIN
MIX knob (C) is the output volume for the reverb to FOH, CD recorder and video camera.
•
The two red AUX 1 & AUX 2 knobs (D) are the effect unit’s output volumes for Foldbacks 1
& 2 respectively. The Music Team will get very distracted if they’re hearing very much
reverb, so keep it fairly low or even off altogether.
•
The BYPASS button (E) is the main thing you’ll need to keep in mind regarding the effect
unit during a service. Because you’ll typically have the vocalists going through the reverb
while singing (i.e. the button will be UP, the red LED will be OFF), you’ll need to remember
to hit this button as soon as a song finishes so the reverb unit is bypassed (i.e. muted)
before anyone in the Music Team begins talking. If this isn’t done their voice will still have
lots of reverb on it, which sounds bad. Try to avoid this.
Understanding where to place everyone on stage to reduce ‘spill’. Spill is a term that describes
what happens when sound is heard on a channel that’s supposed to be for something else. For
example the piano is often heard to some degree on a vocal mic’s channel because of the
acoustic volume of the piano. This is also one of the main reasons why our drum kit is electric.
The downside to having too much spill in the mix is that the sound operator doesn’t have total
control over individual volume levels, which can detract from an otherwise good mix.
•
In most cases at CPCC we don’t have loud acoustic instruments apart from the piano. Keeping
the singers away from the open piano lid will reduce the possibility of piano being too loud in
the overall mix.
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•
Many churches and other venues struggle with the on-stage volume level. This can be from loud
acoustic instruments and / or loud foldback so the singers can hear themselves, etc. The
downsides to having too much on-stage sound are that the FOH mix may have all of a particular
sound source removed and it’s still too loud, or the entire mix can be uncontrollable and sound
muffled because the foldback speakers emitting the sound are facing away from the audience.
This is a bad situation and should be avoided at all cost - it will also lead to potential feedback.
•
Understanding your gain structure (i.e. the relationship between the mixer’s input Gain
volume, anything that’s happening on the way through, and the output Fader volume) should
allow you the flexibility to reduce the risk of problems in this area, but still have enough
volume at FOH and Foldback. This brings us to the next point:
3.1.2 Understanding overall volume
•
The overall volume for FOH is critical for ensuring that everyone in the audience can hear what’s
being said, but not so loud that it becomes uncomfortable to listen to. The Music Team will
always be louder than someone who is speaking, but there’s a range of listening volume that’ll
help people to enjoy what’s happening on stage better.
•
While you’re mixing a service, imagine that you’re at home watching TV.
•
•
If someone is speaking and you’re having trouble hearing them because the volume’s too low
you want to turn it up so you’re not having to strain your ears to pick up what they’re saying.
The same thing applies here, if it’s too soft and people are straining to hear they get
frustrated and miss part of what’s going on.
•
Conversely if you’re watching a concert on TV (especially one that’s not quite a style of music
you prefer) you’ll tend to get a bit jumpy if the volume’s too loud. This is exactly the case with
many older people, many of whom wouldn’t rate contemporary songs among their favourites.
It’s all well and good for a younger audience to like to have the volume pumped up a bit, but
certain high frequencies can actually be painful to a person with hearing aids for example. If
you get people complaining after the service that the volume was too loud, you may need to
check your overall volume and keep it a bit lower next time, but you can also suggest to the
person that it’s not as loud the further back you go in the Hall - suggest this carefully.
The overall volume can easily be measured with a sound pressure level meter, like the one in the
mixer rack. If you’re not sure how your overall level is sitting, turn it on and sit it on the mixer
facing the front during a service. The volume should sit somewhere around 85dB when the Music
Team is playing, and around 75dB during the message. This should ensure anyone sitting in any
part of the Hall will have a pleasant experience with the volume.
3.1.3 Tips on providing strong leadership for the audience
•
When the Music Team is playing pick the instrument that seems to be carrying the main chord
structure for the song - this will usually be piano if it’s being used, or guitar. Make sure the level
of this instrument is slightly more prominent than others so the audience can hear the chords
being played. Then pick whichever vocalist is singing the melody strongest and make them a bit
more prominent in the mix. With a strong chordal instrument and melody coming through the
audience has a better chance of being led in music ministry.
•
When someone is speaking make sure they’re being heard to the degree that their voice carries
the weight of authority in the way it sounds. This will help the speaker to get his or her message
across to the audience.
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3.1.4 Visual contact with everyone on stage
•
It’s important that the sound operator makes occasional eye contact with all members of the
Music Team in case a problem occurs and needs to be dealt with.
•
Apart from that you should be continually listening for changes in the instrumental make-up of
each song, and if necessary making changes to the mix as required.
3.1.5 Recording audio to the CD burner, and providing an audio feed for the video camera
•
Now that the CD burner and video camera’s audio have been plugged in (this was covered in
section 2.5.2 Setup - CD recorder and 2.5.3 Setup - audio for video, and the service is under
way, it’s a good idea to check the input volume on the CD recorder (the Video Team guys will
keep an eye on their own input levels).
A
B
•
•
The volume display (A shown above) gives an accurate reading of the current input volume.
Make sure both sides L & R are showing up on the display and that the input volume level is
correct for what’s currently happening. Adjust the INPUT volume knob (B) up or down as
required, but try not make adjustments during the message if possible - this just makes the
job of editing harder later.
There’s not much to be said about audio for the video camera, except a reminder that the
camera only receives audio going through Subs 3 & 4.
4.1 Packup - stage & instruments
•
At the conclusion of the service press the STOP button on the CD recorder - you’ll come back and
finalize the disc a bit later. Let’s pack up the stage first.
•
Switch the amps off in the school amp rack (9) - this will prevent any loud bangs or pops through
the FOH speakers as cables are unplugged which can cause damage to the equipment.
•
Switch off the Foldback speakers (Fb1 and / or Fb2) - this will prevent any loud bangs or pops
through foldback.
•
All leads on stage can then be unplugged and left in place on the stage floor.
•
•
Take the mics out of their cradles and carefully put them away. Please handle microphones
carefully. DON’T DROP THEM as this will cause irreparable damage. Remember a mic that’s been
treated roughly will sound dull as the high frequency response will be effected.
Fold up the mic and music stands, and lay them at the front of the stage ready to be put away.
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
•
Leads can now be rolled up using the inside / outside rolling method. This reduces damage to
the leads and prevents tangles when they’re rolled out again next time.
•
Unplug the CPCC multicore’s tails from the stage box on the wall, and roll it up into it’s storage
box, being careful not to stress any of the cables by bending them too tightly.
While you’re near the stage box on the wall, unplug the school’s two cables in the bottom left
hand corner (labelled A & B on the stage box). The cables have an L and an R on them - they
need to be plugged in to the back of the school’s mixer, in the Left & Right outputs.
•
•
Unplug the left output from the school’s wall-mounted stage box (12) bottom left socket A
above, and plug it into the school mixer’s left output (L). Likewise unplug the right output from
the school’s stage box and plug it into the school mixer’s right output (R). This re-connects the
school’s mixer to the amps so their P.A. will work again.
•
Instruments should be packed up next.
•
The acoustic piano has a plastic dust cover that can be pulled over it when it’s back in it’s
storage position on the left stage wing.
•
The electric piano can go back in it’s case, along with it’s power adapter and sustain pedal.
•
The electric drum riser can be pushed back into the cupboard on the left stage wing, and the
door can be locked up again.
4.2 Packup - mixer and CD recorder
•
Coming back to the mixer - unplug all the audio cables, but leave the power on at this point.
•
Zero’ing the mixer is the process of setting it up for the next person to use. This should be
done during pack up each week so everyone has a common starting point whenever they
setup the system.
•
Wind the GAIN’s all the way off (i.e. 7:00), and make sure all the LOW CUT buttons are
down, except for channels 15 & 16.
•
Wind the AUX 1 & 2 knobs for each channel all the way off, but leave the MASTER SEND
AUX 1 & 2 at Unity (i.e. 12:00). Then make sure all the PRE FADER buttons are down.
•
Wind all the EFX 1 & EFX 2 knobs all the way off, and the EFX 2 SEND knob (the orange one
under the red CLIP LED in the effect unit section of the mixer) to Unity (i.e. 12:00). The
white TO MAIN MIX knob can also be left at 12:00, but the red AUX 1 & 2 EFFECTS TO
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
MONITOR knobs should both be left at 9:00. The big effect section knob should be at MD
HALL, and also make sure the BYPASS button is left down so the BYPASS LED is lit.
•
•
Wind all the EQ knobs for all channels to Unity (i.e. 12:00).
•
Wind the PAN knob for all channels to Unity (i.e. 12:00).
•
Check that the MUTE button for each channel is up.
•
Check that the ASSIGN 1-2 button is down on channels 1, 15 & 16 but it’s up on all others.
•
Check that the ASSIGN 3-4 button is up on channels 1, 15 & 16 but it’s down on all others.
•
Pull all the FADERS down to the bottom of their travel, and check that all the SOLO PFL
buttons are up.
•
Check that SUB 1 & SUB 3 have their ASSIGN LEFT buttons down and RIGHT buttons up.
•
Check that SUB 2 & SUB 4 have their ASSIGN LEFT buttons up and RIGHT buttons down.
•
Wind the TAPE LEVEL all the way off, and check that the BREAK SWITCH button is up.
•
Check that the PHANTOM POWER button is down and the yellow LED is lit.
•
Set all the STEREO GRAPHIC EQ faders to 0, except the lowest one (63Hz) - this can be
pulled right down
At this point audio data has been written to the CD in the burner, but there isn’t a table of
contents on the disc - this means it can be read by this recorder, but not by another CD player
until the next step is completed.
•
Press the FINALIZE button in the top right corner, then press the big MULTI-DIAL knob to
commence the finalization process - this writes the table of contents data to the disc for use
by other CD players. It’ll take just over a minute to complete. IMPORTANT - make sure the
power is not switched off during this process or the disc may be irreversibly damaged.
•
Eject the finalized disc and place it together with a copy of the running sheet for the morning
in an empty CD jewel case found in the back of the mixer rack. Please make sure it gets given
to either to the Sound Team leader or Graham Kell. IMPORTANT - if the number of empty
jewel cases or blank CD’s is getting low please advise the Sound Team leader.
•
You can now power down the mixer & wind up the school’s multicore into it’s storage box (8).
The power extension lead can be wound up and stored in one of the plastic lead boxes in the
storage room (6).
4.3 Packup - data projector, projector stand & screen
At the end of the service leave the projector running for a few minutes with the final frame. Then:
•
Press the projector’s power button twice to begin the shutdown process - this will take a couple of
minutes as the fan needs to cool the bulb before switching off.
•
Quit Pro Presenter by selecting it from the menu bar, then down to Quit Pro Presenter.
•
To shutdown the MacBook select the Apple icon at the top left corner of the monitor, then down to
Shut Down.
•
Disconnect and pack up the audio leads and D.I. box.
•
The HDMI cable can be rolled up and packed in the laptop bag.
•
Fold up the screen and projector stand, and return them to the storage room (6).
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4.4 Packup - stage lighting
•
Switch off the 3 phase power switch at the main stage lights control panel (10).
•
Switch off all light switches around both sides of the stage area (12,14,15,16 & 17).
4.5 Packup - Hall and security
•
Check that all doors (including the roller door at the back of the stage) are closed and locked.
•
Check that all chairs, kids club and morning tea items have been put away neatly in the storage
room (6), the floor’s been swept and tidied up, and the rubbish has all been taken out to the bins.
•
Check that all lights have been switched off.
•
Exit the Hall via the Main entrance door (2), then using the master key on the church keyring
unlock the security system box on the outside of the building - (1) on the Hall diagram. The display
should be showing “Multipurp Hall is Off. Push On”.
•
Press On. The display will quickly test the alarm zones in the building to make sure they can all
•
Once this is done the display will read “Multipurp Hall now On”. That’s it for the security system.
Close and lock the little door on the box.
be armed. It will ask you to wait for a few seconds while the arming process is carried out.
•
Close and lock the gate at the footpath, and the carpark gate.
•
That’s it, thanks. Have a great week. Don’t forget to give the keys to the appropriate person for
next week.
5.1 Troubleshooting
(a.k.a. where to go when the wheels are falling off)
6.1 Reference information
For an in-depth look at equalisation - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equalization_(audio).
For more information on what a D.I. box is and does - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DI_unit.
Helpful information on a much wider range of issues than we’ve dealt with in this manual, as well as
well produced instructional videos - http://www.musicademy.com/info/church-sound-tech-pa-training
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Sound Team manual - v1.1
7.1 Setup checklist
Task descriptions
Personnel
Unlock security system box (1) & front door (2) to gain building entry,
then switch on Hall lights, and air con (if needed)
Unlock Store room (6), side entrance door (7) and the school’s
multicore box (8)
Switch on the left and right stage wing fluoro lights (12, 14, 15, 16)
and unlock the amp rack (9)
Unlock the drum cupboard if they’re being used this week (13)
Check to see if the Car park gate is open, unlock and open if needed
Check and turn on the stage lights (10)
Operator
Set large instruments in position on the stage
Operator
Lay out the church multicore and stage box
Assistant
Position mic stands, music stands and foldback speakers, and lay Assistant
out D.I. boxes in approx stage positions
Run mic & instrument leads and foldback speaker leads as needed, Assistant
and set out mic’s on their stands - following input/output conventions
Plug the school’s mixer output leads into the wall stage box (11)
Operator
Set up the data projector, screen and laptop
Operator
Position the mixer, run a power lead, plug in all 16 XLR inputs, Aux Operator
sends 1 & 2, the Main outputs, and the laptop audio if required
Switch the amplifiers on (9) and check the levels are set correctly as Operator
per 2.6 Setup - amp rack
Check all channels individually to make sure there’s signal coming Operator at the mixer,
through all of them - if not sort out what’s wrong and rectify it
assistant on stage
Once the Music Team begins their sound check do a rough mix for Operator at the mixer,
FOH, then work on foldback. You’ll need to go and listen to get it right assistant on stage
Plug the RCA outputs for the CD burner into the mixer’s Tape output Operator
sockets, insert a blank disc and put the burner in record ready mode
If the Video Team are recording today check the levels on Subs 3 & 4
Operator at the mixer,
assistant on Lectern mic
Begin recording to CD by pressing PLAY - check level, particularly in Operator
the lead up to the message. At the end of the service stop recording
and Finalize the disc
Page 23
Done
Chancellor Park Community Church
Sound Team manual - v1.1
7.1.1 Packup checklist
Task descriptions
Personnel
Remove the Finalized CD from the recorder, and place it in an empty
jewel case along with the morning’s order of service sheet. Make sure
to give it to the appropriate person for editing
Once you’re sure no one needs the P.A. system any more, go and
switch off the amplifiers
Switch off the power to the mixer and unplug all leads. Roll up the
school’s multicore and any other leads that may be a trip hazzard.
Leave the rest of the mixer packup and start packing up the stage
Unplug all leads on stage, and carefully put the mic’s away. Then
systematically work on clearing the stage, being careful to wind leads
up correctly
Lay the mic stands, foldback speakers, music stands, lead boxes etc
neatly at the front of the stage so anyone helping with the packup can
carry them back to the Store room (6)
Pack the electric drums back in their cupboard if they were used
Push the acoustic piano back to it’s storage area in the left stage
wing, and cover it with its plastic dust cover
Unplug the leads from the school’s stage box (12) and roll up the
church’s multicore. Re-plug the school’s output leads back into the
school’s mixer (11) as per 4.1 Packup - stage & instruments
Finish packing up the mixer and return it to the Store room (6)
Pack up the data projector, projector stand and screen
Switch off stage lighting
Check that all doors and roller doors are closed and locked
Switch off general Hall lights
Close and lock the front door, and arm the hall’s security system (1)
Close and lock footpath and carpark gates. Thanks
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