350 MHz Mixed Signal Oscilloscope HMO3524.

350 MHz Mixed Signal Oscilloscope HMO3524.
350 MHz
Mixed Signal Oscilloscope
HMO3524.
Manual
English
41-3524-10E0
General information regarding the CE marking
General Information Regarding the CE Marking
KONFORMITÄTSERKLÄRUNG
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
DECLARATION DE CONFORMITE
Declaración de Conformidad
Hersteller / Manufacturer / Fabricant / Fabricante:
HAMEG Instruments GmbH · Industriestraße 6 · D-63533 Mainhausen
Die HAMEG Instruments GmbH bescheinigt die Konformität für das Produkt
The HAMEG Instruments GmbH herewith declares conformity of the product
HAMEG Instruments GmbH déclare la conformite du produit
HAMEG Instruments GmbH certifica la conformidad para el producto
Bezeichnung: Oszilloskop
Product name: Oscilloscope
Designation:Oscilloscope
Descripción:Osciloscopio
Typ / Type / Type / Tipo:
HMO3002, HMO3004
mit / with / avec / con:
HO730
Optionen / Options /
Options / Opciónes: HO720, HO740
mit den folgenden Bestimmungen / with applicable regulations /
avec les directives suivantes / con las siguientes directivas:
EMV Richtlinien / EMC Directives / Directives CEM / Directivas IEM:
2004/108/EG;
Niederspannungsrichtlinie / Low-Voltage Equipment Directive / Directive des
equipements basse tension / Directiva de equipos de baja tensión:
2006/95/EG
Angewendete harmonisierte Normen / Harmonized standards applied /
Normes harmonisées utilisées / Normas armonizadas utilizadas:
Sicherheit / Safety / Sécurité / Seguridad:
DIN EN 61010-1; VDE 0411-1: 07/2011
Überspannungskategorie / Overvoltage category / Catégorie de surtension /
Categoría de sobretensión: II
Verschmutzungsgrad / Degree of pollution / Degré de pollution /
Nivel de polución: 2
0.1General
regarding
the CEofmarHAMEG
measuringinformation
instruments comply
with regulations
the EMC
king
Directive.
HAMEG is basing the conformity assessment on prevailing
generic and product standards. In cases with potentially different
thresholds, HAMEG instruments apply more rigorous test conditions.
Thresholds for business and commercial sectors as well as small
business are applicable for interference emission (class 1B). As to
the interference immunity, the standard thresholds for the industrial
sector apply.
Measurement and data lines connected to the measuring instrument
significantly affect compliance with specified thresholds. Depending
on the respective application, utilized lines may differ. In regards to
interference emission and immunity during measurements, it is critical
that the following terms and conditions are observed:
1. Data Cables
It is imperative to only use properly shielded cables when connecting
measuring instruments and interfaces to external devices (printers,
computers, etc.). Unless the manual prescribes an even shorter
maximum cable length, data cables (input/output, signal/control)
may not exceed a length of 3 meters and may not be used outside
of buildings. If the instrument interface includes multiple ports for
interface cables, only one cable at a time may be connected. Generally,
interconnections require double-shielded connecting cables. The
double-shielded cable HZ72 (available at HAMEG) is well suitable as
IEEE bus cable.
2. Signal Cables
In general, measuring cables for the transmission of signals between
measuring point and measuring instrument should be kept as short as
possible. Unless an even shorter maximum cable length is prescribed,
signal cables (input/output, signal/control) may not exceed a length of
3 meters and may not be used outside of buildings. All signal cables
must be shielded (coaxial cable RG58/U). It is important to ensure
proper ground connection. Signal generators require the use of doubleshielded coaxial cables (RG223/U, RG214/U).
3. Impact on Measuring Instruments
If strong high-frequency electric and magnetic fields are present, it may
occur despite diligent measurement setup that unwanted signal units
are injected into the measuring instrument via connected measuring
cables. This will not damage the HAMEG measuring instrument or put
it out of operation. In some cases, these circumstances may cause the
measuring value to slightly exceed specifications.
Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit / Electromagnetic compatibility /
Compatibilité électromagnétique / Compatibilidad electromagnética:
4. interference Immunity in Oscilloscopes
EMV Störaussendung / EMI Radiation / Emission CEM / emisión IEM:
DIN EN 61000-6-3: 09/2007 (IEC/CISPR22, Klasse / Class / Classe / classe B)
VDE 0839-6-3: 04/2007
4.1 Electromagnetic RF Field
If strong high-frequency electric and magnetic fields are present,
field-related overlays in the measuring signal may become visible.
Coupling of these fields may occur via power supply, measuring and
control cables and/or via indirect radiation. This may affect both the
measurement object and the oscilloscope.
Störfestigkeit / Immunity / Imunitee / inmunidad:
DIN EN 61000-6-2; VDE 0839-6-2: 03/2006
Oberschwingungsströme / Harmonic current emissions / Émissions de courant
harmonique / emisión de corrientes armónicas:
DIN EN 61000-3-2; VDE 0838-2: 06/2009
Spannungsschwankungen u. Flicker / Voltage fluctuations and flicker /
Fluctuations de tension et du flicker / fluctuaciones de tensión y flicker:
DIN EN 61000-3-3; VDE 0838-3: 03/2010
Datum / Date / Date / Fecha
08. 04. 2013
Unterschrift / Signature / Signatur / Signatura
Holger Asmussen
General Manager
2
Subject to change without notice
Although the oscilloscope is shielded by the metal casing, direct
radiation may occur through the monitor opening. Since the
bandwidth of each amplifier stage is higher than the total bandwidth
of the oscilloscope, overlaps with a frequency noticeably higher than
the measuring bandwidth of –3dB may become visible.
01 General information regarding the
4.2 Fast Transients
Discharging Static Electricity
CE/marking
Fast transients (Burst) and direct coupling via power supply or
indirect coupling (capacitive) via measuring and control cables may
trigger the event. Direct or indirect static discharge (ESD) may also
affect the trigger. Since the triggering and signal display should also
occur for signals with low signal amplitudes (<500µV), it is inevitable
that these types of signals (> 1kV) activate the triggering and display
simultaneously.
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Content
01
General information regarding the CE marking
2
02
350 MHz Mixed Signal Oscilloscope HMO3524.
4
03
Specifications
5
Installation and safety instructions
1
1.1 Symbols 1.2 Setting Up the Instrument
1.3Safety
1.4 Intended Operation
1.5 Ambient Conditions
1.6 Warranty and Repair
1.7Maintenance
1.8 Measuring category 0
1.9 Mains Voltage
1.10 Batteries and Rechargeable Batteries/Cells
1.11 Product Disposal
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
2Introduction
2.1 Front View
2.2 Control Panel
2.3Screen
2.4 Rear View
2.5Options
2.6 General Operating Concept
2.7 Basic Settings and Integrated Help
2.8 Bus Signal Source
2.9 Updates to Instrument Firmware and Help
2.10 Upgrade with Software Options
2.11 Self Alignment
2.12 Logic Probe Self Alignment
10
10
10
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
14
15
15
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
16
16
16
16
17
17
18
18
Quick Start Guide
Instrument Positioning and Start-Up
Connecting a Probe and Capturing a Signal
Signal Detail Display
Cursor Measurements
Automatic Measurements
Mathematical Settings
Storing Data
4
Vertical System
20
4.1Coupling
20
4.2 Sensitivity, Y Positioning and Offset
20
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion
21
4.4 Probe Attenuation and Unit Selection
(Volt/Ampere)21
21
4.5 Threshold Setting
4.6 Naming a Channel
21
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
Horizontal System (Time Base)
Acquisition modes RUN and STOP
Time Base Settings
Acquisition modes
Interlace Mode
ZOOM function
Navigation Function
Marker Function
Search Function
22
22
22
22
24
25
25
25
26
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
Trigger System
Trigger Modes Auto, Normal and Single
Trigger Sources
Slope Trigger
Pulse Trigger
Logic Trigger Hold Off
27
27
27
27
28
28
29
7
7.1
6.7
7.2
7.3
7.4
Signal Display
Display Settings
Video Trigger
Usage of the Virtual Screen
Signal Intensity Display and Persistence Function
XY display
30
30
30
31
31
32
8Measurements
8.1 Cursor Measurements
8.2 Automatic Measurements
33
33
34
9Analysis
9.1 Mathematical Functions
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT)
9.3 Quick View
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test Based on Masks
36
36
38
39
39
Documentation, Storage and Recall
10
10.1 Instrument Settings
10.2References
10.3Curves
10.4Screenshots
10.5 Formula Sets
10.6 FILE/PRINT Key Definition
41
41
42
42
43
44
44
11
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4.
Mixed Signal Operation (Optional)
Logic Trigger for Digital Input
Display Functions for the Logic Channels
Cursor Measurements for Logic Channels
Automatic Measurements for Logic Channels
45
45
45
46
46
12
Serial bus analysis (optional)
12.1 Serial Bus Configuration
12.2 Parallel BUS
12.3I2C BUS
12.4 SPI / SSPI BUS
12.5 UART/RS-232 BUS
12.6 CAN BUS
12.7 LIN BUS
47
47
48
48
50
52
53
55
13
Remote control
13.1Ethernet
13.2 USB
13.3 RS-232 (option HO720)
13.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740):
57
57
57
57
57
14
Appendix
Content
14.1 List of pictures
14.2Glossary
58
58
58
Subject to change without notice
3
350 MHz Mixed Signal Oscilloscope HMO3524.
350MHz 4 Channel
Mixed Signal Oscilloscope HMO3524.
8 Channel Logic Probe
HO3508
R
R
R
R
Active Probe HZO30
R
R
R
R
Future-proof due to
Bandwith Upgrade Option
HOO352 / 354 – HOO452 / 454
300/400 MHz
>>>
500 MHz
4
R
R
R
R
R
R
Subject to change without notice
4 GSa /s Real Time, Low Noise Flash A /D Converter
8 MPts Memory,
oom up to 200,000:1
Vertical Sensitivity 1 mV/div., Offset Control ±0.2…±20 V
MSO functionality included, HO3508 [HO3516] Logic Probe
with 8 [16] Logic Channels required
Automatically or manually adjustable Memory Depth
Trigger Modes: Slope, Video, Pulsewidth, Logic, Delayed,
Event, Hold-Off
Serial Bus Trigger and Hardware accelerated Decode
including List View. Options: I2C + SPI + UART/RS-232
(HOO10/HOO11), CAN + LIN (HOO12)
Auto-Measurement: max. 6 Parameters incl. Statistic,
Formula Editor, Ratio Cursor
02 350 MHz Mixed Signal Oscilloscope HMO3524.
6-Digit Hardware Counter
Real-Time FFT (dBm, dBV, Vrms), up to 64 kPts
Automatic Search for user-defined Events
Pass/Fail Test based on Masks
Display Range: 12 div. x-Axis, 20 div. y-Axis (VirtualScreen)
2 x USB for Mass Storage, Ethernet/USB Dual-Interface for
Remote Control
Specifications
HMO3524. 4 Channel Mixed Signal Oscillscope, 350MHz
Firmware: ≥ 5.0
All data valid at 23°C after 30 minute warm-up.
Display
Display:
Resolution:
Backlight:
Display area for traces:
without menu
with menu
Color depth:
Intensity steps per channel:
Channel display:
Bus display:
Virtual Screen
LED brightness:
16.5 cm (6.5") VGA Color TFT
640 x 480 Pixel
LED 500 cd / m2
50 Pts / div.
400 x 600 Pixel (8 x 12div.)
400 x 500 Pixel (8 x 10div.)
256 colors
0…31
False color, inverse brightness
up to 2 busses, parallel busses, serial
busses (option), decoding of the bus values
in ASCII, binary, decimal or hexadecimal
format; Table view of the decoded data
20 div. vertical for all Math-, Logic-, Busand Reference Signals
2 steps
Vertical System
Channels:
DSO mode
MSO mode
CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1…CH 4]
CH 1, CH 2, LCH 0…15 (logic channels)
with 2 x Option HO3508
Auxiliary input:
Front side [Rear side]
Function
External Trigger
Impedance
1 MΩ || 14 pF ±2 pF
Coupling
DC, AC
Max. input voltage
100 V (DC + peak AC)
XYZ-mode:
All analog channels on individual choice
Invert:
CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1…CH 4]
Y-bandwidth (-3 dB):
300/400/500 MHz (5 mV...5 V) /div.
300 MHz: 180 MHz (1mV, 2 mV)/div.
400 / 500 MHz: 200 MHz (1mV, 2 mV)/div.
Lower AC bandwidth:
2 Hz
03 Specifications
Bandwidth
limiter (switchable): approx. 20 MHz
Rise time (calculated):
300 MHz: < 1.166 ns
400 MHz: < 0.875 ns
500 MHz: < 0.7 ns
DC gain accuracy:
2 % of full scale
Input sensitivity:
12 calibrated steps
CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1…CH 4] 1mV/div.…5V/div. (1–2–5 Stepping)
Variable
Between calibrated steps
Inputs CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1…CH 4]:
Impedance
1 MΩ II 13 pF ±2 pF (50 Ω switchable)
Coupling
DC, AC, GND
Max. input voltage
1 MΩ: 200 Vp, derates at 20 dB/Decade to
5 Vrms above 100 kHz
50 Ω: < 5 Vrms, max. 30 Vp
Measuring circuits:
Measuring Category 0
Position range:
± 8 divs
Offset control:
1 mV, 2 mV
± 0.2 V - 8 div. * sensitivity
5 mV…20 mV
± 1 V - 8 div. * sensitivity
50 mV
± 2.5 V - 8 div. * sensitivity
100mV, 200mV
±20V - 8div. * sensitivity
500 mV...5 V
± 50 V - 8 div. * sensitivity
Logic channels:
With Option HO3508 / HO3516
Select. switching
thresholds
TTL, CMOS, ECL, 2 x User -2 V…+8 V
Impedance
100 kΩ || < 4 pF
Coupling
DC
Max. input voltage
40 V (DC + peak AC)
Triggering
Trigger modes:
Auto
Norm
Single
Trigger display:
Trigger sensitivity:
Intern
Ext. trigger via
Ext. Sensitivity
Triggers automatically even when no trigger
event occurs for a certain time
Always triggers when a trigger event occurs
Triggers once on a trigger event
LED
≥5 mV / div.: 0.8 div.
≥2 mV / div. …<5 mV / div.: 1div.
<2 mV / div.: 1.5 div.
Auxiliary Input [Aux. Input rear side]
0.5 V…10 Vpp
Trigger level range:
With auto level
Without auto level
External
Trigger types:
Slope:
Slope direction
Sources
Coupling
Auto level
Adjustability of the level between the peak
values of the signal
-8 div.…+8 div.
-5 V...+5 V
Rising, falling, both
CH 1, CH 2, Line, Ext [CH 1…CH 4, Line, Ext.]
Adjustability of the level between the peak
values of the signal, 5 Hz...300/400/400 MHz
AC
5 Hz...300/400/400 MHz
DC
0...300/400/400 MHz
HF
30 kHz...300/400/400 MHz
LF
0…5 kHz, selectable for DC, Auto level
Noise rejection (low-pass) 100 MHz, selectable for DC, AC, Auto level
Pulse width:
Polarity
Positive, negative
Functions
ti>t, ti<t, ti=t, ti/=t, t1<ti<t2, not (t1<ti<t2)
Pulse duration
16 ns…8.589 s, resolution 4 ns/1 µs
Video
Pos./neg. sync. impulse
Standards
PAL, SECAM, NTSC, PAL-M, SDTV 576i,
HDTV 720p, HDTV 1080i, HDTV 1080p
Fields
Upper, lower, both
Line
All, line number selectable
Source
CH 1, CH 2, Ext. [CH 1…CH 4]
Logic:
Logic functions
AND, OR, TRUE, FALSE, with or without
evaluation of the duration of the logic
operation
Duration functions
ti>t, ti<t, ti=t, ti/=t, t1<ti<t2, not (t1<ti<t2),
Timeout
Duration
4 ns...1 s
Source
LC0…15
State
LC0…15 X, H, L
Serial Busses: (Options)
Start, Stop, ACK, NACK, Address/Data
I2C
SPI
Start, End, Serial Pattern (32Bit)
UART/RS-232
Startbit, Frame Start, Symbol, Pattern
LIN
Frame Start, Wake Up, Identifier, Data, Error
CAN
Frame Start, Frame End, Identifier, Data,
Error
Trigger Holdoff:
50 ns...>10 s
2nd Trigger (B):
Type
Slope trigger
Slope direction
Rising or falling
Min. signal height
0.8 div.
Source
CH 1, CH 2, Ext. [CH 1...CH 4]
Coupling (source B/=A): DC, HF, NR
Coupling (source B=A): see trigger A
Level (source B/=A):
-8 div..…+8 div. (adjustable separately by A)
Level (source B=A):
see level A
Frequency range
0…300 / 400 / 500 MHz
Operating modes:
Time based
16 ns...8,589 s, resolution 4 ns/1 µs
Event based
1…216
Horizontal System
Domain representation:
Time, Frequency (FFT), Voltage (XY)
Representation Time Base: Main-window, main- and zoom-window
Memory Zoom:
Up to 200,000:1
Time Base:
Accuracy
15 ppm
Aging
±5 ppm/year
Refresh operating modes 1 ns/div.…20 ms/div.
Roll operating modes
50 ms/div.…50 s/div.
Deskew:
-62,5 ns…+61,5 ns
Step size
500 ps
Search functions:
Slope, Pulse, Peak, Rise-/Falltime, Runt
Marker:
up to 8 user definable marker for easy
navigation; automatic marker function based
on search criteria
Digital Storage
Sampling rate:
Resolution (vertical):
Memory:
2 x 2 GSa/s, 1 x 4 GSa/s
[4 x 2 GSa/s, 2 x 4 GSa/s]
Logic channels: 16 x 1 GSa/s
8 Bit, HiRes 10 Bit
2 x 4 MPts [4 x 4 MPts], 1x 8 MPts [2 x 8 MPts]
Subject to change without notice
5
Specifications
Operation modes:
Interpolation:
Persistence:
Delay pretrigger:
posttrigger
Display refresh rate:
Display:
Refresh, Average (1024), Envelope,
Peak-Detect (500ps), Filter, Rol (free run/
triggered from time base 50 ms/div. and
slower), HiRes
CH 1...CH 4: Sinx/x, Pulse, Linear;
LC0...15: Pulse
Off, 50 ms…∞
0…4 Million x (1/samplerate), Interlaced x2
0…8,59 Billion x (1/samplerate)
Up to 5,000 waveforms/s
Dots, vectors (interpolation), ‘persistence’
Operation/Measuring/Interfaces
Operation:
Menu-driven (multilingual), Autoset,
help functions (multilingual)
Frequency counter:
0.5 Hz…300/400/500 MHz 6 Digit resolution
Accuracy
15 ppm
Aging
±5 ppm/year
Auto measurements:
Vpp, Vp+, Vp-, Vrms, Vavg, Vtop, Vbase, amplitude,
phase, frequency, period, risetime 80 / 90 %,
falltime 80 / 90 %, pos./neg. pulse width,
pos./neg. duty cycle, standard deviation,
delay, pos./neg. edge count, pos./neg. pulse
count, trigger period, trigger frequency
Statistic
Min., max., mean, standard deviation,
number of measurements for up to 6
Functions simultaneously
Cursor measurements:
∆V, ∆t, 1/∆t (f), V to GND, Vt related to Trigger point, ratio X and Y, pulse count,
edge count, peak to peak, peak+, peak-,
mean value, RMS value, standard deviation,
rise time, duty cycle
Application memory:
8 MByte for references, device settings and
formulars
Interface:
Internal
2x USB-Host (type A) (1x front side, 1x rear
side), mass storage (FAT16/32)
Exchangeable
HO730 Dual-Interface Ethernet/USB-Device
(type B)
Video OUT:
DVI-D (480 p, 60 Hz) for external display,
HDMI compatible
Trigger OUT:
BNC (rear side), Modes: Trigger, Mask
Optional:
USB-Device/RS-232 Dual-Interface (HO720),
IEEE-488 (GPIB) (HO740)
Mathematic functions
Quickmath:
Editor for formula sets:
Label for:
Sources:
6
ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV
Max. 5 formulas per formula set
Math. memories and formula set
All channels and math. Memories,
constants
Subject to change without notice
Targets:
Functions:
Display:
Mask test:
Quickview:
Math. memories
ADD, SUB, 1/X, ABS, MUL, DIV, SQ, POS,
NEG, INV, SQR, MIN, MAX, LOG10, LN,
Integral, Differential, High-pass filter,
Low-pass filter
Up to 4 math. memories with label
Signal test (pass/fail) based on previously
defined mask
Display of Vp+, Vp-, RMS value, rise time,
fall time
General Information
Probe ADJ Output:
1 kHz/1MHz square wave signal
approx. 0,2Vpp (ta <4 ns)
Bus Signal Source (4Bit):
SPI, I2C, UART, retangle, 4Bit counter,
4 Bit random pattern
Internal RTC (Realtime clock): Date and time for stored data
Line voltage:
100...240 V, AC 50…60 Hz, CAT II
Power consumption:
Max. 70 [90] W
Protective system:
Safety class I (EN61010-1), CSA (pending)
Operating temperature:
+5…+40 °C
Storage temperature:
-20…+70 °C
Rel. humidity:
5…80 % (non condensing)
Theft protection:
Kensington Lock
Dimensions (W x H x D):
285 x 175 x 220 mm
Weight:
3.6 kg
Accessories supplied: HO730 Dual-Interface Ethernet/USB-Device, Line cord,
printed operating manual, 2 [4] Probes, 10:1 with attenuation ID (HZ350
400/300MHz, HZ355 500MHz), Software-CD
Recommended accessories:
HOO10
Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode,
I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 on Analog channels and Logic channel
HOO11
Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode,
I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 on Analog channels
HOO12
Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode,
CAN, LIN on Logic channels and Analog channels
HO3508
Active 8 Channel Logic Probe
HO3516
2 x HO3508, active 8 Channel Logic Probes
HO720
Dual-Interface USB-Device/RS-232
HO740
Interface IEEE-488 (GPIB), galvanically isolated
HZ46
4RU 19" Rackmount Kit
HZ99
Carrying Case for protection and transport
HZ355
Slimline Probe 10:1 with automatic identification
HZ355DU Upgrade from 2 x HZ350 to 2 x HZ355
HZO20
High voltage probe 1000:1 (400MHz, 1000Vrms)
HZO30 Active probe 1GHz (0.9pF, 1MΩ, including many accessories)
HZO40 Active differential Probe 200MHz (10:1, 3,5pF, 1MΩ)
HZO41 Active differential Probe 800MHz (10:1, 1pF, 200kΩ)
HZO50
AC/DC Current probe 30A, DC…100kHz
HZO51
AC/DC Current probe 100/1000A, DC…20kHz
Installation and safety instructions
1 Installation and safety instructions
1.1
(1)
Symbols (2)
(3)
(4)
B
Removing the handle (Pos. F)
(5)
C
A
(6)
(7)
(8)
D
Symbol 1: Caution, general danger zone –
Refer to product documentation
Symbol 2: Risk of electric shock
Symbol 3: Ground
Symbol 4: Important note - must be observed
Symbol 5: Stop! – Risk harm to instrument
Symbol 6: PE terminal
Symbol 7: ON/OFF supply voltage
Symbol 8: Stand by display
Symbol 9: Ground terminal
1.2
E
B
F
D
A
Setting Up the Instrument
As shown in the illustrations, the handle can be pivoted into
different positions:
A and B = Carrying position
C, D and E = Operating positions using different angles
F = Position to remove the handle.
G = Position using equipment feet, stacking position and to
transport in the original packaging.
G
C
(9)
Caution!
To change the position of the handle, the oscilloscope must be placed in a safe position so that it
will not fall down (e.g. on a table). Then the handle
knobs must be simultaneously pulled on both sides
and pivoted in the direction of the desired position.
If the handle knobs are not pulled out while pivoting
them into the desired position, they may lock into
the nearest locking position.
Removing/attaching the handle bar: The handle bar may be
removed in position F by pulling it out further. To attach the
handle bar, proceed in the reverse order.
1.3Safety
This instrument was built in compliance with VDE 0411 part 1,
safety regulations for electrical measuring instruments, control
units and Iaboratory equipment. It has been tested and shipped
from the plant in safe condition. It is in compliance with the
regulations of the European standard EN 61010-1 and the
international standard IEC 1010-1. To maintain this condition
and to ensure safe operation, the user must observe all instructions and warnings given in this operating manual. Casing,
chassis and all measuring ports/terminals are connected to
a protective earth conductor/safety ground of the mains. The
instrument is designed in compliance with the regulations of
protection class I.
E
Operating positions
Carrying positions
Stacking positions
Fig. 1.1: Various positions for HMO instruments
The exposed metal parts have been tested against the main
poles with 2200 VDC voltage.
For safety reasons, the instrument may only be connected to
properly installed safety socket outlets. The power plug must
be inserted before signal circuits may be connected. Separating
the grounds is prohibited. If it is assumed that a safe operation
is no longer possible, the instrument must be shut down and
secured against any unintended operation.
Safe operation can no longer be assumed:
– If the instrument shows visible damage,
– If the instrument includes loose parts,
– If the instrument no longer functions properly,
– After an extended period of storage under unfavorable
conditions (e.g. outdoors or in damp rooms),
– After rough handling during transport (e.g. packaging that
does not meet the minimum requirements by post office,
railway or forwarding agency).
1.4
Intended Operation
CAUTION! The measuring instrument is intended only for use
by personnel familiar with the potential risks of measuring
electrical quantities. For safety reasons, the oscilloscope may
only be connected to properly installed safety socket outlets.
Separating the grounds is prohibited. The power plug must be
Subject to change without notice
7
Installation and safety instructions
inserted before signal circuits may be connected. The oscilloscope is designed for use in the following sectors:
If you need technical support or a suitable original packaging,
please contact the HAMEG service department:
– Industrial sector
–Home
– Business and commercial sectors
– Small businesses.
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Service
Industriestr. 6
D-63533 Mainhausen
Telefon: +49 (0) 6182 800 500
Telefax: +49 (0) 6182 800 501
E-Mail: [email protected]
The oscilloscope is designed for indoor use only. Before each
measurement, you need to verify at a known source if the measurement instrument functions properly.
Use the measurement instrument only with original HAMEG measuring equipment, measuring
cables and power cord. Before each measurement,
measuring cables must be inspected for damage and replaced if necessary. Damaged or worn
components can damage the instrument or cause
injury.
To disconnect from the mains, the rubber connector
on the back panel has to be unplugged.
1.5
Do not obstruct the ventilation holes!
The maximum operating altitude for the instrument is 2000 m
above sea level.
Specifications with tolerance data apply after a warm up period
of at least 30 minutes at a temperature of 23 °C (tolerance
±2°C). Specifications without tolerance data are average values.
Warranty and Repair
HAMEG instruments are subject to strict quality controls. Prior
to leaving the manufacturing site, each instrument undergoes
a 10-hour burn-in test. This is followed by extensive functional
quality testing to examine all operating modes and to guarantee
compliance with the specified technical data. The testing is
performed with testing equipment that is calibrated to national
standards. The statutory warranty provisions shall be governed
by the laws of the country in which the HAMEG product was purchased. In case of any complaints, please contact your supplier.
Applicable only in EU countries:
To accelerate claims, customers in EU countries may also contact HAMEG directly for repairs. The HAMEG customer service is
available for repair services even once the warranty period ends.
Return Material Authorization (RMA):
In any event, before returning an instrument, request a RMA
number either via Internet (http://www.hameg.com) or by fax.
8
1.7Maintenance
Clean the outer case of the oscilloscope at regular
intervals, using a soft, lint-free dust cloth.
Ambient Conditions
Permissible operating temperatures during the operations
range from +5 °C to +40 °C. During storage or transportation
the temperature may be between –20 °C and +70 °C. In case of
condensation during transportation or storage, the instrument
will require approximately two hours to dry and reach the appropriate temperature prior to operation. The oscilloscope is
designed for use in a clean and dry indoor environment. Do not
operate with high dust and humidity levels, if danger of explosion exists or with aggressive chemical agents. Any operating
position may be used; however, adequate air circulation must be
maintained. For continuous operation, a horizontal or inclined
position (integrated stand) is preferable.
1.6
The product may only be opened by authorized and
qualified personnel. Before any work is performed
on the product or before the product is opened, it
must be disconnected from the AC supply network.
Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of
an electric shock.
Subject to change without notice
Before cleaning the instrument, please make sure
that it has been switched off and disconnected from
all power supplies.
No instrument parts may be cleaned with alcohol or
other cleaning agents!
The display may only be cleaned with water appropriate glass
cleaner (not with alcohol or other cleaning agents). Follow this
step by rubbing the display down with a dry, clean and lint-free
cloth. Do not allow cleaning fluid to enter the instrument. The
use of other cleaning agents may damage the labeling or plastic
and laquered surfaces.
1.8
Measuring Category 0
This oscilloscope is designed for measurements on circuits
that are only indirectly connected to the mains or not connected at all. The instrument is in compliance with measuring
category 0. Make sure the entry voltage does not exceed 200 V
(peak value),150 VRMS at 1 MΩ input impedance and 5 VRMS at
50 Ω input impedance.
The maximum value allowed for transient overvoltages is 200 V
(peak value). When performing measurements in circuits with
transient overvoltages higher than category 0, make sure that
no transient overvoltages higher than category 0 occur at the
measurement input. To ensure compliance, it is necessary to
only use probes that have been manufactured and tested in
accordance with DIN EN 61010-031. When performing measurements in category II, III or IV circuits, it is mandatory to insert a
probe that reduces the voltage so that no transient overvoltages
higher than category 0 will be applied to the instrument. Direct
measurements (without galvanic isolation) to category II, III or IV
circuits are prohibited! The measuring circuits are considered
not connected to the mains if an isolation transformer in compliance with safety class II is used. It is also possible to perform
measurements on the mains if appropriate transformers (e.g.
current connectors) are used that are in compliance with safety
class II. The measurement category (for which the manufacturer
specified the required transformer) must be observed.
Measurement Categories
The measurement categories refer to transients from the
Installation and safety instructions
power system. Transients are short, very fast (steep) current
and voltage variations which may occur periodically and nonperiodically. The level of potential transients increases as the
distance to the source of the low voltage installation decreases.
Measurement CAT IV: Measurements at the source of the low
voltage installations (e.g. meters)
Measurement CAT III: Measurements in building installations
(e.g. power distribution installations, power switches, firmly
installed sockets, firmly installed engines etc.).
Measurement CAT II: Measurements on circuits electronically
directly connected to the mains (e.g. household appliances,
power tools, etc.)
Measurement category 0 (previously Measurement CAT I):
Electronic devices and fused circuits in devices.
1.9
Mains Voltage
The instrument applies 50 and 60 Hz mains voltages ranging
from 100 V to 240 V (tolerance ±10%). Mains voltage switching is
therefore not required. The input line fuse is accessible externally. Power socket and fuse holder form a single unit. You need
to first disconnect the power cord from the connector before
you can safely replace the fuse (as long as the fuse holder is
undamaged). Next the fuse holder must be pried out using a
screwdriver. The starting point is a slot next to the contacts.
Then the fuse can be forced out of its mounting and must be
replaced by an identical fuse (please find information about the
fuse type below). The fuse holder will be inserted against the
spring pressure until it locks into place. The use of mended
fuses or to short circuit the fuse holder is prohibited. Resulting
damages are not covered by the warranty.
Fuse type: IEC 60127 - T2.5H 250V, size 5 x 20 mm
1.10 Batteries and Rechargeable Batteries/Cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at
all or to the extent necessary, product users may
be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or
serious personal injury, and, in some cases, death.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline
electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells) must be handled in
accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
5. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical
shocks that are stronger than permitted.
6. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to
come into contact with the skin or eyes. If contact occurs,
wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical
assistance.
7. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that
contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells) can cause
explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching
type in order to ensure the safety of the product.
8. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from
residual waste. Cells and batteries must be recycled and
kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium
are hazardous waste. Observe the national regulations
regarding waste disposal and recycling.
1.11 Product Disposal
Fig. 1.2:
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act implements the following EC directives:
– 2002/96/EC (WEEE) for electrical and electronic equipment
waste and
– 2002/95/EC to restrict the use of certain hazardous substances in electronic equipment (RoHS directive).
Once its lifetime has ended, this product should be disposed
of separately from your household waste. The disposal at
municipal collection sites for electronic equipment is also not
permitted. As mandated for all manufacturers by the German
Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act (ElektroG), HAMEG
assumes full responsibility for the ecological disposal or the
recycling at the end-of-life of their products.
Please contact your local service partner to dispose of the
product.
1. Cells must not be disassembled, opened or crushed.
2. Cells and batteries may not be explosed to heat or fire.
Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided. Keep cells and
batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a
dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a drawer where they
can short-circuit each other, or where they can be shortcircuited by other conductive materials. Cells and batteries
must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Keep cells and batteries out of reach of children. Seek
medical assistance immediately if a cell or battery was
swallowed.
Subject to change without notice
9
Introduction
1
55
54
53
52
51 50
49
A
2
48
B
47
46
C
45 D
Fig. 2.1: Frontview of the HMO3524.
2 Introduction
2.1
Front View
On the instrument frontside you can find the power key 1 , in
order to switch on the instrument or to enter stand-by mode.
If the instrument is in stand-by mode, this key lights up red.
If the instrument is switched off using the main power switch
on the backside, the red light will also switch off (this will
take some seconds). Furthermore you find on the front panel
the the control panel 2 , A , B , C , D , the BNC connectors of
the analog inputs 45 to 48 , the probe adjustment output 51 ,
the bus signal source 50 ,the connectors for the optional logic
probes HO3508 52 53 , a USB port for USB sticks 54 , the TFT
screen 55 and the LED 49 for showing activity on the remote
interface. The two channel instruments includes an AUX socket
for external trigger on the right side.
Use the connectors for the active logic probes 52
53 exclusively for the logic probes of type HO3508.
Connecting other types may demolish the inputs!
Section A
This section includes the Cursor/Menu, Analyze and
General sections. The Cursor/Menu section includes
cursor functions 6 8 , universal knob 4 , Intens/Persist control switch 7 and the option to select the virtual screen 5 .
The Analyze section allows users to directly access the FFT
displays 9 , the Quick View 10 display (all important parameters
of the actual signal display), the PASS/FAIL mask test, and the
AUTOMEASURE settings 11 .
Please note, if you press the AUTOSET button 15
longer then 3 seconds, the HMO will be reset to its
default settings!
The General section includes the Save/Recall 12 key. With
this option, you can control the settings to load and save instrument settings, reference signals, signals, screen displays and
sets of formulas. Additional keys enable the user to access
general settings 13 such as language, DISPLAY 14 , AUTO-
3
2.2
Control Panel
The controls in the front panel allow access to all basic functions while advanced settings are easily accessible through the
menu structure and gray soft menu keys. The power button 1
is clearly set apart by its design. The most significant controls
feature colored LEDs, indicating the current setting. The control
panel is divided into four sections.
10
Subject to change without notice
4
7
6
9
10
12
13
15 16
A
5
8
11
14
17
Fig. 2.2: Control
panel section A
integrierte Hilfe 16 und die Taste 18
FILE/PRINT 17 , welche je nach
Programmierung das direkte 19
Abspeichern von Geräteeinstellungen, Kurven, Bildschirmfotos
oder den Ausdruck auf einem
SET 15 as well as integrated
HELP
Postscriptdrucker
ermöglicht.
B
16 and FILE/PRINT 17 . Depending 20
on how it Bis: programmed, FILE/
Abschnitt
PRINT
enables
you tobefinden
directly 18
Im
Bereich
VERTICAL
save
instrument
settings,
signals
sich alle Einstellmöglichkeiten
21
anddie
screen
displays
or print
für
analogen
Kanäle,
wie on
diea 19
postscript printer.
18 , die Umschaltung Abb. 2.3:
Y-Position
in den XY-Anzeigebetrieb 19 , die Bedienfeldabschnitt B
Section BVerstärkung
:
20 , weitervertikale
The VERTICAL
section
features
gehende
Menüs 21
, die Kanalwahl
C
20
all
controls
for
analog
channels,
22 bis 25 , sowie der optionalen
such as the position
control24knob
25 .
Logiktastköpfe
HO3508
28
18 , the XZ mode
select
the
Außerdem
finden
Sie key
hier19 ,den
20 ,
vertical zur
gainMathematik
adjustment knob
21
26 , den
Zugang
the advanced menu options key
Referenzkurven-unddenBusein29 Control panel
21 , the channel
27 . select keys 22 to Fig. 2.3:
stellungen
25 and the optional logic probes section B
HO3508 24 C25: . You can also access
30
Abschnitt
26 key
the MATH
and the referDer
Abschnitt
TRIGGER
stellt
C
enceFunktionen
signal settings
key
here 27 .
31
alle
zum
Einstellen
des Triggerpegels 28 , der UmSection C :zwischen AUTO- und
schaltung
The
Trigger section
all
29 ,includes
NORMAL-Betrieb
des Trig28 ,
options to31 set
theQuelle
trigger level
32 , der
gertyps
, der
to switch between
Auto and Nor33 ,
einmaligen
Triggerauslösung
29
mal
mode
,
to
set the trigger
derUmschaltungderTriggerflan32 , the single
type35 31, ,sowie
the source
ke
der Einstellungen
33
sweep
,
to
switch
the trigger
36
zur Triggerfilterbedingung
35
slope
and
to
set
the
trigger
zur Verfügung. Zusätzlich
fin36 . Additionally,
signal
den
Siefilters
Statusanzeigen,
ob you
ein
can
find
status
indicators,
and
Signal die Triggerbedingungen
you can
if a signal fulfills the
30 see
erfüllt
undwelchederFlanken
trigger werden
conditions
34 . 30 and which
genutzt
slope is used 34 .
28
32
23
25
2622
2723
24
25
37
27
33
34
35
36
37
39
34
31
35
32
41
36
38
42
Fig. 2.4: Control panel
section C
Abschnitt D :
D : HORIZONTAL erfolgt
Section
Im
Abschnitt
D
43
In
the
Horizontal
section, usdie Einstellung der Horizontalpositi37
ersdes
can
shift the trigger oder
position
on
Triggerzeitpunktes
das
41
4038
horizontally
or set and
Setzen
und Navigieren
von navigate
Markern
markers
manually,
either
step44
über Drucktasten 37 38 39 in Schrit37
37 kleineren
38 39 or
by-step
with themit
keys
42
ten,
oder variabel
dem
alternatively
using thelässt
smaller
Abb.
39 2.5:
41 .by
Drehknopf
Zusätzlich
sich
41 . In the menu,
oneMenü
of theeine
knobs
Bedienfeldabschnitt D
im
Suchfunktion
nach
you
can
also
set
search
criteria
Ereignissen einstellen. Die Auswahl
39 mit einer hinterleuchteten
for events.
TheSTOP
illuminated
des
RUN- oder
Moduskey
erfolgt
43
allows
the
selection
of
the
Run
Taste 39 , wobei im STOP Modus die Taste rot leuchtet. Die
and Stop mode. When
STOP der Erfassungsmodi 44 , die
40 , diethe
Zoom-Aktivierung
Auswahl
mode is selected, the
will der
lightZugriff40auf das Zeitbasismenü
43key
Zeitbasiseinstellung
, sowie
44
uperfolgenebenfallsindiesemAbschnitt.Zusätzlichbefinden
in red. 40 activates the zoom
42
44 auf
option,
selects
acquisitiondie Softmenütasten 2 , mit
sich
links
dem the
Bedienpanel
Fig. 2.5: Control panel
modes,
adjusts the time
base
denen
die43Menüsteuerung
erfolgt.
section D
speed and 42 enables access to
the time base menus.
2.3
Abb. 2.6: Bildschirmansicht
26
Abb. 2.4:
29
33
Bedienfeldabschnitt C
30
D
Introduction
24
von Menüs auf 10 Skalenteile reduziert. Am linken Rand der
Anzeige werden Informationen zum Bezugspotential der
Kanäle mit kleinen Pfeilen markiert [1]. Die Zeile oberhalb
des Gitters enthält Status und Einstellungsinformationen,
wie die eingestellte Zeitbasis, die Triggerverzögerung und
sonstige Triggerbedingungen, die aktuelle Abtastrate und
die Erfassungsart [2]. Rechts neben dem Gitter wird ein
Fig. 2.6: Screen
view
Kurzmenü
für die
wichtigsten Einstellungen des jeweils aktiven Kanales dargestellt, welche mit den Softmenütasten
menu to the werden
right of the
graticule
the most
important
ausgewählt
können
[3]. contains
Im unteren
Bildschirmteil
settings
of
the
currently
active
channel.
You
may
select
werden die Messergebnisse der automatischen Messungenthese
und
settings sowie
using die
thevertikalen
soft menuEinstellungen
keys [3]. Measurement
results for
Cursors,
der eingeschalteten
automated
measurements
and cursors, settings
for the
Kanäle,
Referenzen
und Mathematikkurven
angezeigt
[4].actiIm
vated
vertical
channels,
reference
signals
and
mathematically
Gitter selbst werden die Signale der eingeschalteten Kanäle
derived curves
arestellt
shown
in the lower
section ofdar,
theverfügt
screen
dargestellt.
Dieses
8 Skalenteile
gleichzeitig
[4].
Within
the
graticule,
signals
of
the
selected
channels
are
aber über eine virtuelle Erweiterung auf 20 Skalenteile, welche
displayed.
By
default,
8
scale
divisions
are
shown.
This
can
be
mit Hilfe der Taste SCROLL/BAR 5 angezeigt werden können.
extended virtually to 20 divisions which can be displayed using
the Scroll/Bar 5 key.
2.4
Rückansicht
2.4 Rear View
AufderRückseitedesGerätesbefindetsichdieBuchsezum
Anschluss der Stromversorgung [1], der Modulschacht für die
The rear panel of the(USB/Ethernet,
HMO series features
the connector for
Schnittstellenmodule
USB/RS-232,IEEE-488)
the
power
supply
[1],
the
receptacle
for
the
interface
modules
[2],diestandardmäßigeDVI-DBuchse[3] zum Anschluss
ex[2]
(Ethernet/USB,
USB/RS-232,
IEEE-488),
the
standard
terner digitaler Monitore und Projektoren, der BNC Anschluss
DVI-D
connector [3]sowie
to connect
external
digital
and
für
den AUX-OUT[4],
der BNC
Anschluss
für monitors
den externen
projectors,
the
BNC
connector
for
the
AUX-OUT
[4]
and
for
the
Trigger [5].Beim2-Kanal-GerätfehltderBNCAnschlussfür
external
trigger
[5].
The
2-channel
instrument
does
not
include
den externen Trigger [5],dieserbefindetsichinder2-Kanalthe BNC(AUX)
connector
the external trigger [5]. For this model,
Version
auf derfor
Vorderseite.
it is located on the front panel.
[1]
[2]
[2]
Bildschirm
To the left of the control panel, you also find the soft menu keys
control
theist
menu
2 to
Die
HMO
Serie
mit options.
einem 6,5 Zoll (16,51 cm), mit LED
hinterleuchtetemTF TFarbbildschirmmiteinerVGAAuflösung (640x480 Pixel) ausgestattet. In der Normaleinstellung
2.3Screen
(ohne
eingeblendete Menüs) verfügt der Bildschirm über 12
Skalenteile auf der Zeitachse. Diese wird bei Einblendung
The HMO series is equipped with a 6.5” (16.51 cm) TFT color
monitor with LED backlight and VGA resolution (640x480 pixels).
In the default setting (no menus shown), the screen includes 12
scale divisions on the time axis. If menus are shown, this will
be reduced to 10 divisions. Small arrows [1] on the left of the
display indicate the reference potentials of the channels. The
line above the graticule includes status and settings information
such as time base, trigger delay and other trigger conditions, the
current sampling rate and the acquisition mode [2]. The short
[5] [4]
[3]
Fig. 2.7: Rear panel HMO3524.
Abb. 2.7: Rückseite HMO3004 Serie
2.4.1 DVI Connector
Änderungen vorbehalten
11
The rear panel of the oscilloscope includes a standard DVI-D
connector to connect external monitors and projectors. The
DVI-D connector can only send digital signals. This means it
is impossible to connect monitors or beamers via their analog
inputs. The HMO series yields a DVI signal with VGA resolution
Subject to change without notice
11
Introduction
(640x480). This design enables connectivity with all standard TFT
monitors. Modern flat screens extrapolate the signal, allowing
users to see a full screen.
Beamers can also be connected to the HMO. Ideal beamers
in this case are those designed to be connected to computers
/ notebooks as these are also able to process a 640x480 pixel
resolution.
– If cursor measurements are activated, the COARSE/FINE
key will select the cursor with the activated universal knob
in the CURSOR/MENU section. This key is used to select or
confirm input in all menus for alphanumerical input and for
the file manager.
2.5Options
The HMO series offers several options which allow the user
to expand the range of application considerably. The following
interface modules are available and may be installed by the
customer in the rear receptacle (by default equipped with a
Ethernet/USB HO730 dual interface):
– HO740 (IEEE-488, GPIB, galvanically isolated)
– HO720 (combination of RS-232 and USB)
All HMO series instruments are prepared for mixed-signal
operation and include the appropriate connectors on the
front panel. Each of these connectors can be connected to an
8-channel logic probe HO3508, allowing a maximum of 16 digital
logic channels. Other available options are the passive 500 MHz
Slimline 10:1 probe of type HZ355, passive 1000 : 1 probes with
up to 4000 V of type HZO20, active 10 : 1 probes with <1pF input capacity of type HZO30, active difference amplifier probes
HZ100, HZ109 and HZ115 with up to 1000 VRMS and 40 MHz, active
high speed differential probes HZO40 and HZO41 with 200 or
800 MHz bandwidth, the current probes HZO50 and HZO51 with
up to 100 kHz bandwidth and up to 1000 A, the 19” rack mount
set HZ46 and the HZ99 bag for transportation and protection of
the instruments. The options HOO10/11/12 allow the analysis
of serial buses. For more information, please refer to chapter
2.10. Additionally, you are able to upgrade the bandwidth of the
instrument by an optional license key at any time.
2.6
General Operating Concept
Our oscilloscopes are renowned for their ease of use. The userfriendly operation is based on a few key principals, recurring
with various settings and functions.
– Keys that do not open a soft menu (e.g. SCROLL BAR) activate a specific function; pressing this key a second time
will deactivate this function.
– Keys that call a specific function (e.g. FFT) which in turn enable or require additional settings, activate a function when
pressed once; pressing this key a second time will activate
the soft menu for the settings while pressing it a third time
deactivates the function.
– Keys that open a soft menu when pressed once will close
the soft menu when pressed a second time.
– Depending on the requirements, the universal knob is
designed to either select a numeric value or to navigate
through submenus.
– The MENU OFF key below the soft menu keys closes the
current menu or switches to the next higher level.
– Pressing the appropriate key will activate a deactivated
channel. If a channel was already activated, selecting another channel will change operation to the channel whose
key was pressed (its LED lights up). Pressing an illuminated
channel key for a channel that is already displayed and
selected will deactivate this channel and, depending on
availability, activate the next channel in the sequence CH1
>CH2 >CH3 >CH4.
12
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 2.8: Selection of basic soft
menu elements
Fig. 2.9: Basic soft menu
elements for settings and
navigation
The soft menus include some frequently used navigation elements as described below.
Fig. 2.8 illustrates the choice between two selection elements.
To select from the three upper elements, press the corresponding soft menu key with the element marked in blue. A second
option is shown in the two lower menu entries. By pressing the
corresponding key, you may toggle between the options. The
active selection is also marked in blue.
Fig. 2.9 illustrates how to use these menus for functions that
have to be activated or require to have values set. You may toggle
between OFF and the set value. The round arrow on the bottom
right of the menu window indicates that the value is to be set
by means of the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section.
A small triangle on the bottom right of a menu item indicates
a lower menu level. You can navigate additional pages on the
same level by using the last menu item. It includes the number
of menu pages on this level as well as the current page number.
You can advance to the next page by pressing the appropriate
soft menu key. Once the last page was listed, the display will
loop back to the the first page.
2.7
Basic Settings and Integrated Help
You can access important basic settings such as language for
user interface and help, general settings and interface settings
in the menu that opens when you press the SETUP key in the
GENERAL section of the control panel.
On the first page of the menu for the basic settings you can
select the language for user interface and help.
Pressing the soft menu key MISC opens a menu to select the
following settings:
– MENU OFF (selection of manual or automatic with time limit
of 4-30 seconds to hide soft menus)
– TIME REFERENCE (position to reference the trigger time
from -5 scale divisions to +5 scale divisions where 0 is the
middle and default)
Introduction
with explanatory text, and the HELP key is illuminated. The text
in the help window is dynamically updated with descriptions of
the corresponding setting or function. If you no longer require
help, push the HELP key to close the HELP option. This will
turn the LED indicator for the key off and the text window for
the help will close.
2.8
Bus Signal Source
To the left of channel 1, the HMO series features four contacts
generating the following signals (depending on the respective
settings):
Fig. 2.10: Menu for basic settings
– DATE & TIME (menu to set date and time)
– SOUND (menu to set any combination of sound - as beep
during setup, in the event of an error and for triggers)
– DEVICE NAME (menu to set a name with a maximum of 19
characters included with printouts)
- LOGO IN SCREENSHOT (select whether to include HAMEG
logo in the upper right of the printout or not)
- AUTOSET KEY (activate or block functionality of the AUTOSET
key)
Depending on the installed interface (USB and RS-232 by
default), the menu item INTERFACE activates the menus to
perform the interface configuration.
The menu item PRINTER includes settings for POSTSCRIPT and
PCL compatible printers. When pushing this soft menu key, a
submenu opens allowing the user to select the paper format and
color mode. Using the assigned soft menu key, the top menu
item PAPER FORMAT allows you to choose from A4, A5, B5,
B6, Executive, Letter and Legal in either portrait or landscape
format. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section
to select the appropriate format.
Following the same setup procedure, the menu item COLOR
MODE allows you to choose between Grayscale, Color and
Inverted. The Grayscale mode converts the color image to a
grayscale image which can be printed on a black-and-white
postscript printer. The Color mode prints the image in color as
shown on the screen (black background). The INVERTED mode
prints the color image with a white background on a color printer
thus saving toner and ink.
When using the INVERTED mode, you should set the
intensity of the signals to about 70% to allow a high
contrast print.
The menu item DEVICE INFORMATION opens a window with
detailed information on hardware and software of the measuring instrument.
The second page includes the menu for the instruments and
help update (for more information, please refer to the following chapter) and the PROBE COMP and BUS SIGNAL SOURCE.
Pushing this soft menu key will open a submenu for the PROBE
ADJUST output and the bus signal source. For a detailed description of the settings, please read chapter 2.8.
The integrated help can be activated by pushing the HELP key in
the GENERAL section of the control panel. This opens a window
– Square wave signal for probe compensation (default setting),
frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
– SPI signal, data rates 100 kBit/s, 250 kBit/s or 1 MBit/s
–I2C signal, data rates 100 kBit/s, 400 kBit/s or 1 MBit/s
– UART signal, data rates 9600 Bit/s, 115,2 kBit/s and 1 MBit/s
– Parallel stochastic bit pattern, frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
– Parallel counter signal, frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
The contact at the upper left is always ground and the signal
levels are about 1 V. The table below shows how the four outputs
S1, S2, S3 and
are used, depending on the signal.
To access the setup menu for the bus signal source, press the
SETUP key in the GENERAL section of the control panel, select
page 2|2 and press the soft menu key PROBE COMP. Now you
may select the desired operating mode for the bus signal source.
For each mode of operation, an image with the corresponding
pattern of signals on the contacts is displayed. By pressing a
soft menu key, you can open a submenu with the speed setting
of the selected operating mode.
The following options are available for the SQUARE WAVE signal
for probe compensation: 1 kHz for the low frequency compensation, 1 MHz for the high frequency compensation or AUTOMATIC
(default setting). In the Automatic mode, the output will provide
1 kHz at time bases from 100 µs and provide 1 MHz at smaller
time bases.
These different signals allow users to become familiar with
and verify the settings for the parallel and optional serial bus
analysis.
2.9
Updates to Instrument Firmware and Help
HAMEG is constantly advancing the HMO series. You can
download the current firmware at www.hameg.com. Firmware
and help are packed in one ZIP file. Depending on the required
extent of the update, the ZIP file might include either all updates or simply the instrument firmware, for instance. After
downloading the ZIP file, unpack the data to the base directory
of a USB stick. Then connect the USB stick with the USB port
of the oscilloscope and press the SETUP key in the GENERAL
section of the control panel. The menu item UPDATE can be
found on page 2|2. Selecting this menu item opens a window
Signal
SQUARE
WAVE
S1
S2
S3
no signal
no signal
no signal
clock,
rising edge
clock SCL
no signal
bit 1
bit 1
data,
high active
data SDA
data
bit 2
bit 2
Chip Select
low active
no signal
I2C
UART
no signal
PATTERN bit 0
COUNTER bit 0
SPI
Square wave
no signal
no signal
no signal
bit 3
bit 3
Subject to change without notice
13
Introduction
displaying version number, date and build information of the
currently installed firmware. Instrument firmware or help can
be updated at this point.
Typically, you will receive the licence key by email as a file attachment (name: SERIAL NUMBER.hlk). The attached ASCII
file may be opened with an editor. This allows you to read the
actual key in plain text. You can choose between two methods
to enable the desired option with this key: an automated reading or manual input.
The automated reading via USB stick is the fastest and easiest
method. Store the licence file on a USB stick and then install it
to the instrument using the FRONT USB port. Press the SETUP
key in the GENERAL section of the HMO control panel to open
the SETUP menu. You will find the LICENCES menu on page
2|2. The following menu appears:
Fig: 2.11: Updating menu and information window
Pressing the soft menu key to update the instrument firmware
will result in a search for the corresponding file on the USB stick.
The information for the new firmware to be installed will then be
displayed on the stick below the row labeled NEW:. The version
number will be displayed in red in case the existing firmware on
the instrument is identical to the latest version; otherwise the
version number will be shown in green. Only if this is the case,
press the soft menu EXECUTE to start the update. Choose the
HELP menu item in the Update menu if you intend to update
the help or add a new language for help.
The information window will now display all installed languages,
the date and relevant information about the languages available on the stick. The soft menu allows you to add, remove or
update languages. Please note the date format (YYYY-MM-DD)
in compliance with multilingual help ISO 8601 standards.
2.10 Upgrade with Software Options
The HMO series may be upgraded with options made available
by entering a licence key. At this time, options HOO10/HOO11/
HOO12 are available. The option HOO10 allows triggering and
decoding of up to two serial buses I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 on
digital channels (with option HO3508) and on analog channels.
HOO11 allows these features only on analog channels and with
only one bus. HOO12 allows triggering and decoding of up to two
serial buses CAN and LIN both on analog and digital channels.
Fig. 2.13: „UPGRADE“ menu.
Press the soft menu key READ KEYS from licence file to open the
file manager. Select the required licence file with the universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section and then use the soft menu
key LOAD to load it. This will load the licence key, making the
option instantly available by restarting the instrument.
Alternatively, you can enter the licence key manually.
Select the menu UPGRADE and press the soft menu key
INPUT KEY manually. This will open an input window. Use the
universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section and the ENTER
key to enter the licence key manually. After entering the complete key, press the soft menu key ACCEPT to confirm the entry.
The option will be activated after restarting the instrument.
Fig. 2.14: Manual licence key input.
Fig. 2.12: Menu and information window for help udates
14
Subject to change without notice
Introduction
2.11 Self Alignment
The HMO series features an integrated self alignment procedure
to achieve the highest possible accuracy.
During the standard self alignment the HMO adjusts vertical
accuracy, offset, time base and several trigger settings and
saves the identified correction data internally.
The instrument must have reached the required
operating temperature (switched on for at least 20
minutes) and all inputs must be unused, in other
words all cables and probes must be removed from
the inputs.
Aborting the self alignment procedure should be the exception,
e.g. if you failed to remove all probes from the inputs. Once
the procedure has been aborted, it is important to carry out a
complete self alignment.
If an error occurs during the self alignment although it has been carried out as described, please
send the exported .log file (see Self Alignment
menu) to [email protected] You can save the
.log file to a USB stick.
2.12 Logic Probe Self Alignment
The self alignment for the logic probe primarily aligns the
switching levels.
To start the self alignment for the logic probe, it is necessary that
the logic probe type HO3508 is connected to the HMO. It is imperative that the bit connectors are not connected. To start the
process, select the menu item LOGIC PROBE SELF ALIGNMENT.
The process is similar to the basic instrument alignment but it
only takes a few seconds.
Fig. 2.15: Successful self alignment
To start the self alignment in the SETUP menu, go to page
2|2, press the soft menu key SELF ALIGNMENT and press the
START key. The procedure will run for about 5-10 minutes.
Each step and its corresponding progress will be shown in a
bar display. After completion of a successful self alignment, you
will see a similar message as shown in Fig 2.15.
Press the soft menu key EXIT to close the Self Alignment menu.
Abort the self alignment by pressing the soft menu key ABORT.
Fig. 2.16: Logic probe self alignment
Subject to change without notice
15
Quick Start Guide
item to select frequently used settings. Press the top soft menu
key to change the input coupling to DC.
3 Quick Start Guide
Active settings are marked in blue.
The following chapter is an introduction to the most important
HMO oscilloscope features and settings allowing you to use the
instrument promptly. The integrated calibrator signal output is
used as the signal source which means that the first steps will
not require any additional instruments.
3.1
Instrument Positioning and Start-Up
To optimally set up the instrument, position the handle so that
the display will be inclined slightly upwards (please see chapter
1.1 on how to position the handle). Plug the power cord into the
rear panel connector. To start the instrument, press the red
On/Off key 1 on the front panel. The display appears after a
few seconds, and the oscilloscope is ready for operation. Press
the AUTOSET key 15 for at least 3 seconds. This will reset the
most important oscilloscope settings to their default settings.
3
4
6
7
9
10
12
13
15 16
A
Briefly press the AUTOSET key once 15 . After a few seconds,
the oscilloscope will have automatically selected the sensitivity, time base and trigger settings. A square wave signal will
now be shown.
8
11
5
Fig. 3.1: Control panel section A
3.2
Fig. 3.3: Screen display after changing to DC coupling
14
17
Connecting a Probe and Capturing a Signal
Take one of the provided probes HZ350 resp. HZ355 and remove
the protective cap from the tip. Apply the probe compensation
box to the BNC connector for channel 1 and turn the black knob
to the right until it latches into place.
Make sure to align the passive probes prior to their
first use. For more information, please refer to the
probe manual. Place the probe in the appropriate
position on the ADJ. output. The tip will be accepted
by the hole of the right output and the ground connection connects with the left output, as shown in
Fig. 4.3 in chapter 4.
On the right hand side of the screen, you will see the short menu
for channel 1. Press the soft menu key to the right of each menu
Fig. 3.4: Screen display after nach Autosetup
3.3
Signal Detail Display
With the time base knob 43 you can change the displayed time
window. Turning it CCW increases the time base. The memory
depth of 4MB per channel allows you to capture wide time windows with high resolution. Continue to turn the knob CCW until
you can read “TB:5ms” in the upper
left corner of the screen. Press the
D
ZOOM key 40 .
37
You will see the following two window display: The upper section of the
window displays the entire captured
signal whereas the lower section
shows an enlarged section. Use the
time base knob to select the zoom
factor. The small knob allows you to
determine the horizontal position of
the section.
Fig. 3.2: Screen display after connection of the probe
16
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 3.5: Section D of the
control panel with zoom key
38
37
41
42
39
43
40
44
Quick Start Guide
Your HAMEG oscilloscope offers two options:
– Display definition of 6 parameters from varying sources,
– Quick display of all important parameters of one source by
use of the QUICK VIEW feature.
Please change the time base to 100 µs per scale division and
press the QuickView 10 key. You will see the following display:
Fig. 3.6: Zoom function
Press the ZOOM key 40 again to deactivate the zoom mode.
3.4
Cursor Measurements
After displaying and reviewing the signal, the next step will
introduce cursor measurements of the signal. Again, briefly
press the AUTOSET key once followed by the CURSOR/MEASURE key. You can now select the desired type of measurement
cursor from the menu. Press the top soft menu key MEASURE
TYPE to open the appropriate selection menu. You can specify
your selection with the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
section of the control panel. Turn the knob CCW until the entry
“V marker“ is marked in blue. Press the MENU OFF key to
close the menu or wait until it automatically closes after a few
seconds. Now two cursors will be shown along the signal as
well as the measurement results on the bottom of the display.
Press the universal knob to select the active cursor and turn
the universal knob to position the cursor.
Fig. 3.8: Quickview parameter measurement
The following list features the most important parameters of
a signal:
– positive and negative peak voltages,
– rise and fall times,
– mean voltage.
10 additional parameters are shown below the grid:
– RMS, – peak-peak voltage,
– frequency, – period,
– number of rising edges,
– amplitude, – pos. pulse width, – neg. pulse width,
– pos. duty cycle, – neg. duty cycle.
Fig. 3.7: Cursor measurements
The cursor measurement results will be shown on the bottom
of the display. In this example with the entry “V marker”, the
display includes the voltage at both cursor positions, their difference, and the time difference between the cursor positions. To
switch off the cursor, press the Cursor Measure key again.
3.5
Automatic Measurements
In addition to cursor measurements, automatic measurements
can display the most important signal parameters.
Fig. 3.9: AutoMeasure menu
With just one key, you can view all available parameters simultaneously that characterize the signal. This feature always
applies to the currently active display channel. You may also
display parameters for several signals. For this option, press
the Quickview 10 key twice to deactivate this mode, press the
CH2 key 23 to activate CH2 and press the Auto Measure 11
key to open the menu as displayed below.
Subject to change without notice
17
Quick Start Guide
Pressing the MEAS. PLACE soft key will display a list. Use
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to choose
the appropriate measurement place. The parameters will be
displayed at the bottom of the screen. This menu allows you to
define the parameters. Use the appropriate menu key to select
the desired field and use the universal knob 4 in the Cursor
menu section to complete the selection. This procedure is
used in all soft menus where selections are available. In this
example, press the menu key TYPE and use the universal knob
to select the rise time as parameter.
3.6
Mathematical Settings
In addition to cursor and automatic measurements, your HMO
can also apply mathematical operations to the signals. Pressing
the MATH 26 key and the QM resp. the MENU key in the VERTICAL section opens a quick math menu (QM) enabling you to apply
addition, subtraction, multiplication or division to two analog
channels. This also displays the mathematical graph. The top
soft menu key allows you to select the first operand. With the
key below, you can select the operator (in quick mathematics
you can choose between addition, subtraction, multiplication
or division). The soft menu key below that allows you to select
the second operand. Only activated and displayed channels
are available for the operands. Press the bottom soft menu
key FORMULARY. This opens the formula editor to select and
define 5 potential sets of formulas with up to 5 mathematical
functions each.
Fig. 3.10: Selection of parameter
Press the CH2 key in the VERTICAL section of the control panel.
This will activate CH2. Press the AUTOMEASURE key to return
to the definition menu.
Select Measurement Place 1, select “Mean” as measurement
type and CH1 as source. Press the MEAS. PLACE soft menu
key on top to select the second measurement place. Define the
measurement place as before as RMS value with the voltage
of CH2. Page 2 of this menu allows you to activate complete
statistics for the selected channels, including the current measurement value, the smallest, the largest and the mean value,
the standard deviation and the number of values used for the
statistics. Once the menu is closed, parameters can be easily
identified by the colors of the respective source signal (in this
instance, yellow for channel 1 and blue for channel 2).
Fig. 3.12: Formula editor
To change the settings, use the soft menu keys and the universal
knob 4 . Here you can define and store the most frequently used
formulas. After selecting the desired formula and pressing the
soft menu key EDIT, you can edit individual formula functions.
Once a mathematical function has been defined and activated
by pressing the soft menu key VISIBLE (ON), the short menu
for the mathematical functions will display this function. The
graph will be marked in the short menu by a red dot. The
sources selected in the function must be activated so that the
mathematical graph can be calculated and the result signals
can be displayed.
3.7
Storing Data
Your HMO is able to store 5 different types of data:
– Instrument settings – Reference signals
– Signals (up to 24,000 points)
– Screen displays
– Sets of formulas
Fig. 3.11: Measuring the parameters of two sources
18
Subject to change without notice
Out of these data types, signals and screen displays can only be
stored on a USB stick. All other data types can be stored on a
USB stick or internally in the instrument to non-volatile storage
media. To store data you have to define the data type and the
destination to be used for storing. First attach a USB stick to
the front USB connector of your oscilloscope. Press the Save/
Recall 12 key to open the respective menu.
Quick Start Guide
allows you to save a screenshot using the default file name (the
current file name is displayed in the menu item FILE NAME). You
can also select a name for the target file with up to 8 characters.
Select the menu item FILE NAME and use the universal knob
to enter the name (in this example “TRC”).
Press the soft menu key ACCEPT. The oscilloscope accepts the
name and returns to the settings menu. Here you can store the
current image by pressing the soft menu key SAVE. Alternatively,
you can move up one level in the menu by using the OFF key
on the bottom and select the menu item FILE/PRINT. In the
following menu press the soft menu key SCREENSHOTS. This
will assign the function Screenshot to the FILE/PRINT 17
key with the selected settings. This enables you to generate a
screenshot on your USB stick by pressing the FILE/PRINT key
at any given time using any menu.
Fig. 3.13: Save/Recall menu
Select the type of data you wish to store by pressing the respective soft menu key (in this example SCREENSHOTS). This will
open the settings menu.
Fig. 3.14: SCREENSHOTS menu
In the top menu make sure that Storage Front is selected.
Press the soft menu key to open the menu where you can select
these settings. It is important to connect a USB stick with the
front USB connector of your oscilloscope which must be recognized by your instrument. Pressing the soft menu key SAVE
Fig. 3.15: File naming
Subject to change without notice
19
Vertical System
max. 400 Vp) supplied with the instrument will be used. These
are specified for the 1 MΩ inputs and feature a 10 MΩ impedance
and partial automatic recognition.
4 Vertical System
You can select vertical settings
using knobs for the vertical position and the sensitivity. You may
also use a menu that is permanently displayed as well as an
advanced menu.
Make sure to align the passive probes prior to their
first use. For more information, please refer to the
probe details.
B
22
18
23
The PROBE ADJUST output of the HMO oscilloscope
is only suitable for 1:1 and 1:10 probes. 100:1 or
1000:1 probes require special generators! Use the
shortest possible ground connection to the PROBE
ADJUST output as shown in Fig. 4.3.
19
24
25
20
26
Fig. 4.1: Control panel for the vertical
system
21
27
LOGIC
CHANNELS
USB STICK
You can select for which channel you want
the settings
to be
activated by pressing the
respective
channel key. Once a chanPOD
2 (15..8)
nel has been activated, the key will be marked by a colored LED
light in the corresponding channel color. Additionally, the screen
display will include a frame around the activated channel with
a frame and a color brighter than that of deactivated channels.
The corresponding short menu is always visible and you can
push the Menu 21 key to activate the advanced menu.
Made in Germany
!
ADJ.
REM
POD 1 (7..0)
Use recommended probes only!
S1 S2 S3
Bus Signal
Source
!
Fig. 4.3: Correct connection of the probe to the probe
adjust output
You can set the coupling using the short menu. Simply press
the respective soft menu key to set the coupling and the graphic
inversion of the input channel. The menu applies to the corresponding active channel. The illuminated channel key indicates
which channel is active. The channel name of the active channel
is shown at the top of the short menu. You can switch between
channels by pressing the respective channel key.
4.2
Fig. 4.2: Short menu for vertical settings
4.1Coupling
Sensitivity, Y Positioning and Offset
You can select the sensitivity of the analog inputs by using the
knob in the VERTICAL section of the control panel in 1-2-5
steps of 1mV/div to 5V/div for the 1 MΩ and 50 Ω coupling. The
knob is associated with the active channel (push the respective
channel key to activate the desired channel). Pushing the knob
once will switch to a continuous sensitivity setting. You can use
the smaller knob in the VERTICAL menu to determine vertical
When coupling analog inputs, you need to first select the input
impedance (1 MΩ or 50 Ω).
Do not connect the 50 Ω inputs to effective voltage
higher than 5 volts!
The 50 Ω inputs should only be selected if the signal source is
50 Ω, such as a generator with a 50 Ω output impedance and if
the oscilloscope displays the line termination at the ending point
of the signal path. In all other cases, select coupling with 1 MΩ input resistance. Next, the user determines if DC coupling or
AC coupling is to be used. With CD coupling, the DC voltage of
the signal will be displayed. With AC coupling, an input filter of
2 Hz suppresses the display of DC voltage. Signals of up to 200 V
RMS voltage may be connected directly to 1 MΩ inputs. Higher
voltages can be measured with external probes (up to 40 kV
peak voltage). This should only be used with DC coupling. For
all general applications, the probes HZ350 (10:1, 10 MΩ ||12pF,
20
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 4.4: Vertical offset
CH 1
Vertical System
settings for the active channel. Press the MENU key to access
advanced options.
ing this soft menu item, you can set the threshold using the
universal knob.
On page 2|2 of this menu, you can add a DC offset. To activate
this offset push the corresponding soft menu key. The settings
window will be activated (marked in blue), and the activity indicator next to the universal knob will be illuminated. You can now
set the offset value using this knob. The selected sensitivity setting determines the value of the offset. This is selected directly
at the input amplifier as real voltage. The offset voltage will be
added to the signal at the vertical amplifier input offsetting it
by the corresponding amount from the zero position. This will
be indicated by two channel markers to the left margin of the
screen (also visible if the menu has been closed). One marker
indicates the position while the other marker indicates the
offset (refer to Fig. 4.4). The offset is individually adjustable for
each channel.
Each analog channel may also be shifted in time by ± 61,5 ns.
This setting is selected in the same menu and according to the
same method as the DC offset. It is used to compensate different signal delays when using different cable lengths or probes.
Fig. 4.5: Threshold setting
4.3
4.6
Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion
Both the short menu and the advanced menu enable you to
insert an analog 20 MHz low pass filter to the signal path. This
will eliminate all higher frequency interference. To activate the
filter in the short menu, press the respective soft menu key
BWL. Once the filter is activated, the menu item will be marked
in blue, and the identifier BW will be displayed in the channel
information window.
Signal inversion is available in the short menu and the advanced
menu in the VERTICAL section of the control panel. An activated
filter will be indicated in blue in the menu and by a bar above
the channel name in the channel name window.
4.4
Naming a Channel
The last entry in the VERTICAL menu opens a submenu which
allows you to enter a channel name. This name will be displayed
on the grid and the printout (refer to Fig. 4.6). Your first option
is to switch the display on or off. The next option includes the
menu item LIBRARY. After selecting this option, you can use
the universal knob to choose a name from several suggestions. The EDIT LABEL key allows you to enter a completely
new name or to customize the suggested name. You may enter
up to 8 characters. Use the ACCEPT key to confirm the name
in the editor. It will then be shown in the display. The name is
assigned to that specific signal and will move alongside any
set offset value.
Probe Attenuation and Unit Selection
(Volt/Ampere)
The HZ350 resp. HZ355 probes supplied include an integrated
part detection feature which enables the oscilloscope to
promptly recognize the appropriate 10:1 divider and to display
the correct values. If you are using any other probe without
automatic recognition or if you connect a cable directly to the
oscilloscope input, you can manually set the attenuation factor
in the advanced menu in the VERTICAL section of the control
panel. This is possible with the predefined steps x1, x10, x100,
x1000 or, using the universal knob, as defined by the user from
x0.001 to x1000.
In this menu, you can also select the unit Ampere in case you
are using a current probe. If you select the unit Ampere, the
menu shows the most common factors (1V/A, 100mV/A, 10mV/A,
1mV/A). You may also use the USER setting to select any given
value. This setting may also be used to measure the voltage via
shunt. All measurements are always displayed with the correct
unit and scale.
4.5
Fig. 4.6: Name selection
Threshold Setting
The advanced menu in the VERTICAL section of the control
panel allows you to set a threshold. This threshold defines the
level to detect a High or a Low if analog channels are used as
source for the serial bus analysis or logic trigger. After selectSubject to change without notice
21
Horizontal System
5 Horizontal System (Time Base)
D
37
In the horizontal system section,
users can select time base settings
for capturing, trigger time position,
zoom functions, acquisition modes,
marker functions and search functions.
38
37
41
42
39
43
Knobs allow you to set time base
and trigger time position. A menu
enables you to select the desired
40
acquisition mode. A separate key is
44
available to activate the zoom. Use
37 and the SET/ Fig. 5.1: Control panel of
the arrow keys
CLR key to select marker functions. the horizontal system
5.1
Acquisition modes RUN and STOP
The acquisition mode can be selected with the RUN/STOP key
39 . In Run mode signals are shown on the screen according to
the selected trigger conditions, discarding previously captured
signals with each new capture. If you wish to analyze a captured
signal on the screen without overwriting it, capture must be
stopped by pressing the RUN/STOP key. While in STOP mode,
you may not capture new signals and the key is illuminated in
red.
5.2
Time Base Settings
The large knob in the Horizontal section of the control
panel is used to change the time base. The current time base
setting (e.g.”TB: 500 ns”) is displayed in the upper right above
the graticule. To the right of the display you can see the trigger
time position in relation to the default setting. The default setting shows the trigger time position in the center of the display,
with 50% of the signal display before and 50% after this trigger
position. The knob X position 41 allows continuous adjustment
of the x position. The maximum values allowed depend on the
time base setting.
Pushing the SET/CLR key resets the value to its reference
position as long as the marker or search functions have not
37 allow you to change the X
been applied. The arrow keys
position by a fixed amount of 5 divisions in the respective direction. The MENU 42 key opens a menu to determine the function
37 and the SET/CLR key. As described
for the arrow keys
above, these keys allow you to set the X position. Alternatively,
you can use them to mark events within the signal with the
option to navigate between up to 8 markers. In the submenu
NUMER.INPUT you can enter any horizontal position directly.
This menu also allows you to activate and set search functions.
You can also set the TIME REFERENCE (position for the trigger
reference point, from -5 divisions to +5 divisions with 0 being
the center and default setting).
5.3
Acquisition modes
The acquisition modes are selected by pressing the ACQUIRE
44 key. This opens a display menu which offers the following
five basic acquisition modes:
22
Subject to change without notice
5.3.1 Roll
This acquisition mode is intended specifically for very slow
signals, with the untriggered signal „rolling“ across the screen
from right to left (requires signals slower than 200 kHz). The
HMO uses a ring buffer to store the signal values in roll mode.
Simply put, the instrument writes the first division to the first
storage space, the second division to the second storage space,
etc. Once the storage is full, the instrument overwrites the first
storage space with the data of the most recent measurement
value. This creates a „ring“ or cycle run, similar to a ticker.
The ZOOM feature is not available in the roll mode
(also refer to Ch. 5.5 ZOOM Function).
5.3.2 Arithmetic
The soft menu ARITHMETIC offers following menu items:
- REFRESH:
This mode allows the capture and display of current signals.
-ENVELOPE:
In this mode, the display includes the normal capture of
each signal and the maximum as well as the minimum
values of each capture. Over time, this creates an envelope
surrounding the signal.
- AVERAGE:
In this mode, you can use the universal knob in the Cursor/
Menu section of the control panel to set the number of signal
periods for averaging, available in powers of 2 from 2 to 1024
(requires repetitive signals).
- SMOOTH:
The function SMOOTH is used to calculate the mean value
from several adjacent sampling points. The result is a
smooth waveform. This function is used for non-periodic
signals.
- FILTER:
In this mode, you can activate a low pass filter with adjustable cut off frequency to suppress unwanted high frequency
interferences. The cut off frequency can be set based on the
sampling frequency. The minimum setting is 1/100 of the
sampling frequency and the maximum value is 1/4 of the
sampling rate. You can select this setting with the universal
knob.
5.3.3 Peak Detect
This mode is used for very large time base settings to detect
even short signal changes. You can also deactivate this function within the menu or you can select the automatic switching
mode. The following conditions must be met to activate the
PEAK DETECT mode:
–
–
Function HIGH RESOLUTION is deactivated
None of the serial or parallel buses are active
During peak detection, the oscilloscope distinguishes between
two types: Acquisition peak detection and memory peak detection.
Each A/D converter converts at the full sampling rate (no
Interlace mode), even if results have not been written to the
acquisition memory at full sampling rate (for slow time bases,
for instance). If peak detection is activated, unused converter
values will be evaluated to detect minimum and maximum
amplitudes. During this process, the identified minimum and
Horizontal System
maximum values including sampling interval are written to the
acquisition memory. As a result, the acquisition memory stores
data pairs representing the signal sequence according to the
sampling interval. The smallest detectable pulse is the period of
the maximum sampling rate (no Interlace mode). This describes
the so-called acquisition peak detection.
A hardware peak detection is not available if data is written to
the acquisition memory at the ADC‘s maximum sample rate. For
slow time bases and a repeat rate set to automatic or maximum
value, not all data from the acquisition memory will display on
the screen. With peak detection activated when reading out,
skipped data will be used to create a minimum and maximum
value. The smallest detectable pulse is the period of the sample
rate used to write to the acquisition memory. This describes the
so-called memory peak detection.
If one of the peak detection modes or a combination of the two
are used, the corresponding detection mode is marked with
„PD“ in the upper right of the display.
per second in the signal window. Each column in the signal
window displays a captured date. When peak detection is
activated, each column displays a pair of min/max values.
The HMO oscilloscope displays a signal window of 600x400
pixels (Yt without zoom). This translates into 600 data points
per detection. When peak detection is activated, 600 pairs
of min/max values or 1,200 data values are displayed. The
memory depth corresponds to at least the displayed time
window (time base x signal window grid section in horizontal direction) multiplied by the current sampling rate. The
minimum value is determined by the maximum sampling
rate and the maximum signal repeat rate of the oscilloscope.
The displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current
sampling rate divided by the amount of data skipped while
reading out from the acquisition memory. If peak detection
is activated, the displayed sampling rate corresponds to the
current sampling rate.
5.3.4 High Resolution
This mode uses Boxcar Averaging via adjacent detection points
(i.e. the converter runs at the maximum sampling rate) to increase the vertical resolution to up to 10 bit. You can deactivate
this function within the menu or you can select the automatic
switching mode.
Averaging several adjacent sampling rates creates a value with a
higher degree of accuracy than the input data. The resulting data
is called high resolution data. The process of merging multiple
sampling rates to one new value only allows a sampling rate that
is smaller than the maximum value. If the HIGH RESOLUTION
mode is activated and the current instrument setting allows
the use of the HIGH RESOLUTION mode, the detection mode is
marked with „HR“ in the upper right of the display.
The following requirements must be met to activate the HIGH
RESOLUTION mode:
– Sampling rate is smaller than the maximum sampling rate
(no Interlace mode)
– Peak detection is deactivated
– No active logic pod (POD1/POD2)
– None of the serial or parallel buses are active
By default, all functions listed above are deactivated.
5.3.5 Interpolation
With the soft menu item INTERPOLATION users can select
Sinx/x, Linear or Sample-Hold as interpolation type to display
acquired data points. The default setting is Sinx/x interpolation
which is the best option for displaying analog signals. Linear
interpolation uses a line to connect acquired data points.
Sample-Hold allows a more precise assessment of the position
for the acquired data points.
Fig. 5.2: AM modulated signal with maximum repeat rate
– MAX. SA. RATE
If this function is activated, the instrument always sets the
maximum sampling rate while using the maximum memory
available.
The MAX. SAMPLE RATE function always uses the maximum
sampling rate and displays the maximum amount of data.
Each column in the signal window displays up to 40 detected
data values (limited by processor performance). How much
data is currently displayed depends on the displayed time
window and the current sampling rate. If peak detection is
activated, each column displays up to 20 pairs of min/max
values.
5.3.6 Record Mode
This soft menu item provides the following functions:
– MAX. WFM. RATE:
This mode allows you to select the memory depth and sampling rate to obtain the maximum trigger repeat rate.
When using the MAX. WAVEFORM RATE mode, the oscilloscope is set to display the maximum amount of captures
Fig.5.3: AM modulated signal with maximum sampling rate
Subject to change without notice
23
Horizontal System
The memory depth always corresponds to the maximum
acquisition memory. The displayed sampling rate is identical with the current sampling rate. Peak detection is used
if the displayed time window contains more data than 40 *
signal window columns in the acquisition memory or min/
max data in the acquisition memory.
All settings apply the identical current sampling rate (sampling
rate used to write to the acquisition memory). In STOP mode it
is also possible to change menu items. This does not impact the
current memory depth but the amount of displayed data will be
adjusted. Peak detection is also activated in STOP mode (time
base in microseconds).
The entire oscilloscope memory can only be read
out by interface if the maximum sampling rate has
been activated (refer also to the HMO SCPI Manual).
In time bases displaying each sampling point, all three settings behave identically (except used memory depth and signal
update rate).
–AUTOMATIC:
This function is the default setting and offers the best
compromise between maximum repeat rate and maximum
sampling rate (selection of memory depth).
Table 5.1 displays advantages and disadvantages of each setting.
Each column in the signal window displays up to 10 captured
data values. How much data is currently displayed depends
on the displayed time window and the current sampling rate.
When peak detection is activated, each column displays up
to 5 pairs of min/max values.
The memory depth is at least twice as much as the storage
capacity set for the maximum repeat rate (limited by the
maximum acquisition memory). The displayed sampling
rate corresponds to the current sampling rate divided by
the amount of data skipped while loading from the acquisition memory. If peak detection is activated, the displayed
sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate.
Finally, it needs to be mentioned that this menu replaces the
adjustable memory depth, a standard for other manufacturers.
An adjustable memory depth is intended to allow users to understand the relation between memory depth, time base and
sampling rate and to evaluate advantages and disadvantages.
With this option, the oscilloscope always captures signals with
the maximum sampling rate. This allows users in STOP mode
to zoom in retrospectively, even at the maximum repeat rate.
It is also possible to zoom out at the maximum repeat rate if
the STOP mode was run at fast time bases. If a high repeat rate
can only be attained by means of low memory depth (as is the
case with other manufacturers) it is nearly impossible to zoom
in retrospectively in STOP mode.
5.4
Interlace Mode
In Interlace mode, converters (ADC) and storage units of two
channels within the same interlaced group are connected. This
doubles the sampling rate and the acquisition memory. Interlace
groups are channels 1 and 2 and channels 3 and 4. If an interlace
group is not interlace-capable, the non-interlace mode is also
applied to the related group. A channel is considered active
even if it has been deactivated while still serving as the trigger
source. If a channel is activated, the respective LED next to the
input connector is illuminated.
The following conditions must be met to activate the Interlace
mode:
– No active logic pod
– None of the serial or parallel buses are active
– Logic trigger not active
Fig. 5.4: AM modulated signal with automatic setting
Setting
Advantages
If the interlace mode is possible, it will be activated automatically.
Disadvantages
Application
Max. Repeat Rate
• Many captures in one image
• Rare events can be detected more
quickly in connection with per sistence
• Quick response to Operation or
change in signal
• Low noise band
• High aliasing risk
• Low accuracy of details
• Low accuracy of measurements
due to reduced amount of data
• Search for rare events
• Displaying modulated signals
Maximum Sampling Rate
• Maximum accuracy of details
• Lowest aliasing risk
• High accuracy of measurements
• Slow response to operation or
change in signal
• Low signal update rate
• Higher visibility of noise
• For signals with high frequency
parts
• Assessment of small signal
details
Automatic
• Average signal update rate
• Reasonably smooth operation
• Good accuracy of measurements
• Low noise band
• Possible aliasing
• Default application
Table 5.1: Advantages and disadvantages of each setting.
24
Subject to change without notice
Horizontal System
The following table displays channel configurations that allow
the operation in interlace mode.
Interlace group 1
Interlace group 2
CH1
CH3
CH2
CH4
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
On
Off
On
Off
Off
On
On
Off
Off
On
Off
On
Tab. 5.2: Channel configuration in interlace mode
5.5
ZOOM function
The HMO series features a memory depth of 2 MB per channel. This allows the user to record long and complex signals
which can be analyzed in full detail with the Zoom function. To
activate this feature, press the ZOOM key 40 . The screen will
be divided into two sections. The upper window displays the
entire time base window whereas the lower graticule shows
an enlarged section of the upper window. The enlarged signal
section is marked by two blue cursors in the original signal (upper window). If several channels are activated in Zoom mode,
all displayed channels will be zoomed simultaneously by the
same factor and at the identical position.
base settings without having to leave the zoom mode. Pressing the knob again will highlight the cursors limiting the zoom
area in white, allowing you to use the knob to change the zoom
area. Now you can use the small knob in the horizontal area of
the control panel to move the position of the zoomed section
across the entire signal. As described above, pressing the large
knob enables you to set the time base but not the zoom factor.
This in turn enables the small knob to move the trigger position
to define the relationship of pre- and post captures/records.
In the acquisition mode ROLL, it is generally not possible to
zoom in on the memory because the signal values of the X axis
are always captured with the maximum memory depth. The
acquisition mode NORMAL always includes more samples in the
memory than what can be shown in the display. That explains
why in this mode you are able to zoom in on the memory. The
same does not apply to the values in the Y axis (amplitude).
These values apply to a specified axis and can therefore also
be scaled in ROLL mode.
The ZOOM function is not available in ROLL mode.
5.6
Navigation Function
The Navigation function offers easy trigger time handling and
allows it to be entered numerically. The soft menu keys allow you
to set the trigger time to the minimum or the maximum value,
for instance. You can use the soft menu key TIME REFERENCE
to define where in the signal window to find the trigger point
value “0”. The signal is scaled by this reference point. You can
use the universal knob in the Cursor/ Menu section to select
the desired setting.
5.7
Marker Function
Markers allow you to highlight specific positions on the screen,
e.g. a rising or falling slope, an unexpected signal value or a
search result. Markers can be used to identify specific signal
sections to zoom in on and to analyze the data more closely.
Use the soft menu to activate the marker function. Press the
MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section of the control panel to
open the soft menu. Use the universal knob in the menu to select
MARKER. Once this mode is activated, you can press the SET/
CLR key to set a time marker at the 6th time unit (the menu in
the center of the grid must be deactivated). The time markers
are marked by a vertical line in gray-blue. The knob X Position
Fig. 5.5: Zoom function
Fig. 5.2 displays the Zoom window with 100 µs per division. The
signal was captured within a time window of 12ms. The zoom
area (lower grid) also displays the parameter for zoom time base
whereas time is displayed above the zoom window. Z indicates
the zoom time base (zoom factor) and determines the width
of the zoom area displayed in the zoom window (12 divisions x
scaling per division). Tz indicates the zoom time and determines
the position of the zoom area.
The time base setting in the upper right of the display is highlighted in gray while the zoom time base above the zoom window
is marked in white. The large knob in the horizontal menu is
used to change the zoom factor. You can also press this knob.
If the knob is pushed, the time base setting is highlighted in
white and the zoom time base in gray. Now the knob is available
to select the time base setting. This allows you to change time
Fig. 5.6: Marker in zoom mode
Subject to change without notice
25
Horizontal System
allows you to move the signal including the set marker. After
identifying an important signal position and setting it to the
center of the screen using the position knob, you can set an
additional marker. This procedure allows you to mark up to 8
interesting positions within the signal. You can toggle between
37 . These keys also
markers by pressing the arrow keys
allow you to center the markers in the middle of the screen.
This feature enables you to quickly compare marked signal
sections in ZOOM mode.
To delete a marker, center it in the middle of the screen and
press the SET/CLR key once again. You can also delete all time
markers simultaneously in the marker soft menu.
5.8
Search Function
The search function in the HMO series enables you to search for
all slopes, pulse widths, peaks or additional events in the detection mode that match the manually specified search criteria.
Specific settings are available for each search type. Searches
can be performed on any analog channel or mathematical
signal. The searched time base section can be restricted by
defining a level.
Press the MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section of the control
panel to activate the search function in the soft menu. Use the
universal knob to select the menu item SEARCH. Once this mode
is activated, you can define events, e.g. a rise time with specific
attributes, such as <12ns. The search function will then look for
these events in STOP mode in the most current capture. Press
the menu item SEARCH TYPE and use the universal knob to
select the desired search criteria.
The following functions are available:
–Slope:
Comparable to the slope trigger; this function searches for
slopes in the signal. The point in time of a detected slope corresponds to the point in time when the signal leaves the set
hysteresis. The soft key LEVEL selects a level for the slope
detection of the search function. The search function level
matches the trigger level of the slope trigger, for instance.
Level and hysteresis will display in the signal window. The
hysteresis determines the area that the signal has to pass
until a valid slope is detected. This area also defines the rise
time of the slope. It is recommended to select a sufficiently
large hysteresis to reduce noise on the signal slope.
– Pulse width:
Comparable to the pulse width trigger; this function
searches for pulses with a predetermined pulse width. A
pulse always consists of a rising and a falling slope. Leaving
the hysteresis defines the start and end time of the pulse.
The level for the search function corresponds to the trigger
level of the slope trigger, for instance. Level and hysteresis
will display in the signal window. The adjustable comparison
type is a search criterium for the detected time event width.
The pulse width is the time period between start and stop
slope of the pulse.
–Peak:
The peak search function searches for pulses within the
signal. The time of the event is the maximum value of the
peak.
– Rise / fall time:
This function searches for slopes with a specific rise /fall
time within the signal. The point in time of a detected slope
corresponds to the point in time when the signal leaves the
26
Subject to change without notice
set hysteresis. The upper and lower level define the upper
/lower position of the hysteresis. The adjusted level will
display in the signal window. The adjustable comparison
type is a search criterium for the detected time event width.
–Runt:
A runt is an aborted pulse within a signal. This occurs when
the rise times of the system are greater than necessary for
the desired pulse width. A positive runt exceeds the lower
level of the hysteresis, for instance, but does not reach the
upper level. The analyzing digital circuits of this signal fail
to detect the pulse which leads to transmission errors. The
pulse width of the runt is defined by the entry and exit point
from the hysteresis (duration between start and stop slope
of the pulse). The adjustable comparison type is a search
criterium for the detected time event width. The difference
defines the maximum time range by which the specified
event width may vary.
Once you have selected the appropriate search type, you can
choose the desired SOURCE (choose from any of the activated
analog channels including mathematical channels). Use the
menu item SETUP to open a submenu where you can choose
the settings for the selected search criterium (e.g. greater than
a specific pulse width). Some of the adjustable parameters may
be dependent on the time base (for a time base of 100μs/Div
the smallest time is 2μs, for 1μs/Div the corresponding time
value is 20ns). If events match the search criterium, they will be
highlighted. The soft menu VIEW EVENT TABLE allows you to
display the search results in a table format. Use the arrow keys
or the universal knob to navigate the events in STOP mode. The
Select option allows you to center the selected event. When the
Zoom function is activated, the selected event will automatically
be centered in the Zoom window.
Fig. 5.7: Search mode with event list
Trigger System
6 Trigger System
The consistent application of the
HAMEG operating concept allows for
easy use of the HMO trigger system.
Fig. 6.1: Control panel
for the trigger system
C
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
Four keys are available to select one of the frequently used
settings:
– TYPE – selection of trigger type EDGE (EDGE A/B), PULSE,
LOGIC, VIDEO and HOLD OFF
– SLOPE – type of slope
– SOURCE – determines the triggers source
– FILTER – determines the exact trigger conditions
Additional keys are available to select the trigger modes (AUTO,
NORMAL and SINGLE).
6.1
Trigger Modes Auto, Normal and Single
The AUTO/ NORM 29 key allows you to toggle directly between
the basic trigger modes. If Auto mode is activated, the key is
not illuminated. Pressing the key will activate NORMAL mode,
and a red LED will highlight the key.
In AUTO mode, the screen always displays a signal. If a signal
fulfills the trigger conditions, the oscilloscope will synchronize
with this event and triggers when the set condition is met. In
case of a signal that does not fulfill the trigger condition (a
simple case would be direct current), the oscilloscope itself
will generate a trigger event. This allows a glance at the input
signals at any time, regardless of the trigger condition.
Fig. 6.2: Coupling modes with slope trigger
In NORMAL mode, the signal will now be captured and displayed
if the trigger condition is met. In case no new signal fulfills the
set trigger condition, the signal that was triggered last will be
displayed. To ensure that only a signal that meets the trigger
condition is detected and displayed, press the Single key to
33 activate this mode. This key is highlighted in white when
the SINGLE mode is activated. The HMO detection and trigger
system is now activated, indicated by a blinking RUN/STOP
key 39 . If the trigger condition is fulfilled, the trigger system is
activated, data is stored and the oscilloscope switches to STOP
mode (the RUN/STOP key is permanently highlighted in red).
6.2
Trigger Sources
Four analog channels and the external trigger input (AC/DC)
are available as trigger sources. If the optional extension with
active logic probes HO3508 including 8 or 16 digital inputs is
connected, up to 16 digital inputs are available as trigger source.
The soft menu key AC LINE enables you to trigger the trigger
at system frequency. The trigger signal is extracted internally
from the power supply.
6.3
Slope Trigger
The easiest and by far the most frequently used trigger is the
slope trigger. The oscilloscope triggers if slopes that were
set with the SLOPE key occur within the signal selected in the
SOURCE menu. The signal slope has to pass through the set
trigger level.
The trigger type Slope Trigger is selected in the Autosetup mode
(AUTOSET key). If, for instance, you select the pulse trigger and
press the AUTOSET key the setting will switch to Slope Trigger.
The TYPE 31 key in the trigger control panel allows you to set the
trigger type. This opens a menu with corresponding options. If
the Slope type is not active (highlighted in blue), you can press
the respective soft menu key to select this type. The slope type
(rising, falling or both) can be set directly with the SLOPE 35
key. This will shift the setting forward by one, i.e. from rising to
falling slope, to both slopes, and pressing the key yet one more
time will trigger another rising slope. The center of the status
line on the top of the display and the display above the SLOPE
key 35 show which slope type has been selected.
The FILTER 36 key allows you to select how to couple the signal
for the trigger circuit:
AUTO LEVEL: Automatic filter setting (default setting).
AC:
The trigger signal is coupled via high pass filter with a
minimum cut-off frequency of 5 Hz which suppresses the
DC portion of the triggering signal. With a changing DC
portion, the trigger level remains at the set point in the AC
signal. The trigger type AUTO (AUTO/NORM key) includes
the Peak-Peak mode which sets limits for the trigger in
the AC signal. This setting means that the trigger condition
will be met for any applied signal without having to set the
level. For the trigger type NORM (AUTO/NORM key), the
Peak-Peak mode is deactivated, allowing the trigger level
to be moved past the peak values of the signal.
DC:
The trigger signal is coupled to the trigger circuit with all
signal portions (AC and DC voltage). This has no impact
on the triggering signal.
HF:
The trigger signal is coupled via high pass filter with a
minimum cut-off frequency (-3 dB) of 30 kHz and is auSubject to change without notice
27
Trigger System
tomatically limited when triggering the level with normal
trigger. This coupling type should only be applied to very
high frequency signals.
LP (low pass):
The trigger signal is coupled via low pass with a maximum cut-off frequency of 5 kHz. This filter removes high
frequencies and is available with AC and DC coupling.
NR (noise reduction):
A low pass filter with a maximum cut-off frequency of
100 MHz will improve the noise performance for the trigger amplifier. This filter removes high frequencies and
is available with AC and DC coupling.
The coupling types low pass and noise reduction
may not be activated simultaneously.
You can use the soft menu key EDGE A/B to combine the edge
trigger with a B trigger. As a result, it is possible to set the
trigger to first require a completed “A” condition followed by
a completed “B” condition for the trigger signal to activate the
trigger. The dual soft key TRIGGER ON allows you to determine
if the B event should be checked after a specified amount of
time (minimum 16 ns, maximum 8,58993 s) or after a specified
quantity (minimum 1, maximum 65535) after the A event.
Both A trigger and B trigger can have different sources. In
the SOURCE menu, you can use the soft menu key SOURCE
A / SOURCE B to select the respective source via universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU control panel. You can select the
analog channels and an external trigger signal (Extern) which
is applied to the EXT-TRIG connector on the back panel of the
instrument. Press the respective soft menu key and enter the
level via universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU control panel
or enter it numerically via KEYPAD button. To set the type of
slope (rising, falling or both), use the respective soft menu key
SLOPE A / SLOPE B.
You can select additional settings in the FILTER menu. The
same filter settings are available for filter A as described
above (FILTER A is highlighted in blue). For filter B (FILTER
B is highlighted in blue), the coupling types DC, HF and NOISE
RED. are available.
6.4
Pulse Trigger
The pulse trigger allows triggering for specific pulse widths of
positive or negative pulses or for pulse width ranges. The oscilloscope triggers if a pulse occurs within the signal selected in
the SOURCE menu that matches the properties set in the FILTER
menu. If a pulse fulfills the trigger conditions, the oscilloscope
triggers on the trailing slope, i.e. for a positive pulse it triggers
on the falling slope and for a negative pulse on a rising slope.
Activate the pulse trigger by pressing the TYPE key 31 in the
trigger control panel. Press the FILTER key 36 , then you can
select additional settings for the pulse trigger in the soft menu.
There are six different settings:
ti > t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is
greater than the adjustable reference time t.
ti < t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is less
than the adjustable reference time t.
ti = t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger equals
the adjustable reference time t. The reference time is a
combination of time t plus the adjustable deviation.
28
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 6.3: Menu for pulse trigger settings
ti ≠ t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is
unequal to the adjustable reference time t. The reference time is a combination of time t plus the adjustable
deviation.
t1<ti<t2: The pulse width ti which will generate the trigger is
less than the adjustable reference time t2 and greater
than the adjustable reference time t1.
Not(t1<ti<t2): The pulse width which will generate the trigger
is greater than the adjustable reference time t2 and less
than the adjustable reference time t1.
The comparison time can be set anywhere between 8 ns to
134.217 ms. For any value up to 1 ms the resolution is 8 ns
and for any value greater than 1 ms the resolution is 1 µs. The
deviation can be set anywhere between 4ns to 262.144 µs with
a resolution of 4 ns.
Select the desired function and then adjust the desired reference time. If you select “ti ≠ t“ or “ti = t“ you can use the soft
menu key TIME and the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
control panel to set a reference time. Selecting the soft menu
item DEVIATION allows you to use the universal knob to define
a tolerance zone. Selecting “t1<ti<t2“ or “Not(t1<ti<t2)“ allows
you to define both reference times with the menu items TIME 1
and TIME 2. Selecting „ti < t“ or „ti > t“ allows you to define
only one limit. Selecting the corresponding soft menu item allows you to set any of these settings for positively or negatively
polarized pulses. For the associated positive pulse, you define
the width from rising to falling slopes, and accordingly for the
associated negative pulse from falling to rising slopes. As is
consistent with the principle, triggering always occurs on the
second slope of the pulse.
6.5
Logic Trigger
You may test all settings in the logic trigger without
any active logic probes HO3508 connected; however, the settings will only be effective when a HO3508
is connected.
Selecting the LOGIC trigger in the soft menu after pressing the
TYPE key 31 will switch the trigger source to the digital inputs.
Pressing the SOURCE key 32 after selecting this trigger type
displays a soft menu for additional settings and a window to list
these settings (see Fig. 11.1).
The top soft menu key enables you to select a logic channel
for which you wish to determine the trigger condition. Use
the universal knob for this purpose. In the general menu, the
selected digital input is marked with a blue background. In the
field, the trigger level is marked as High (H), Low (L) or (X). Use
Trigger System
the corresponding soft menu key to select the trigger level. As
before, the selected level will be marked in the soft menu with
a blue background. Another soft menu item allows the logic
combination of the digital channels. They can be combined by
logic AND or OR. If AND is selected, the set conditions of all
channels must be met simultaneously for the input signal so
that the combination produces a logic High (H) as a result. If OR
is selected, at least one of the defined level conditions must be
met. The last item in this menu is the option TRIGGER ON. Use
the soft menu key to select TRUE or FALSE. This allows you to
preselect whether the trigger will be generated at the beginning
(TRUE) or the end of the logic condition (FALSE).
After selecting the desired set of conditions, you can use the
FILTER key 36 for additional settings. A soft menu will open
allowing you to add a time limit to the TRIGGER ON option (this
menu shows the condition selected in the SOURCE menu). Press
the top soft menu key to add a time limit. This option compares
the duration of the output signal for the combination of the logic
conditions to the set duration ti. If the duration is identical or
not identical, you can set the deviation ∆t. If t is within these
parameters, the trigger condition has been met. The menu field
below allows the selection of the comparison criteria.
The following six criteria are available:
ti ≠ t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is unequal to the adjustable reference time.
ti = t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is equal to the adjustable reference time.
ti < t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is less than the adjustable reference time
ti > t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is greater than the adjustable reference time.
t1<ti<t2: The pulse width ti which will generate the trigger is
less than the adjustable referance time t2 and greater
than the adjustable reference time t1.
not(t1<ti<t2): The pulse width which will generate the trigger
is greater than the adjustable reference time t2 and less
than the adjustable reference time t1.
As with the pulse trigger, for ti ≠ t or ti = t you can set a reference time with the soft menu key TIME and the universal knob.
Selecting the soft menu item DEVIATION allows you to use
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU control panel to
set the deviation ∆t which defines the tolerance between set
reference time t and valid and real pulse width ti (permissible
tolerance range). Selecting “t1<ti<t2“ or “not(t1<ti<t2)“ allows
you to set both comparison times (time interval limits) with
Fig. 6.5: Logic channels’ settings display
the soft menu items TIME 1 and TIME 2. For ti < t or ti > t, only
one limit can be defined. Time and deviation can be set with
the universal knob or the KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/
MENU control panel.
To change the threshold values for the logic states “one” and
“zero”, it is necessary to use settings in the channel menu
(MENU key in the VERTICAL control panel). Select the desired POD (POD1 with key CH3/POD1 24 , POD2 with key CH4/
POD1 25 ). This is a dual soft key. Pressing the key allows
you to toggle between the conditions, with the active condition highlighted by a background in the respective channel
color. If logic mode is already activated, the digital channels
will be displayed in the channel display section of the display
(framed and marked with “POD1:xxxV“ or “POD2:xxxV“). Pressing the MENU key 21 in the VERTICAL section of the control
panel allows you to activate one of five predefined logic levels.
Three of these are fixed for TTL, CMOS and ECL. After pressing the respective menu item, two customized logic levels may
be set from –2 V to 8 V with the universal knob. The soft menu
key RESET POS. & SIZE activates the display for all digital
channels of the selected group by using default values for the
vertical position and size. You may also define the name for the
current signal by using the soft menu NAME. A library provides
a list of predefined names. The name can be activated, deactivated or edited.
6.6
Hold Off
The trigger hold off time indicates how long after a trigger the
HMO oscilloscope waits until the trigger system is ready again.
The trigger system is active again only after the trigger hold off
time has expired. This allows the function to guarantee stable
triggering in case unwanted events are triggered. Ideally, the
hold off time is used to trigger on periodic signals with several
slopes.
Changing the time base does not impact the selected hold off time.
Fig. 6.4: Menu for logic trigger settings
HOLD OFF is a dual soft menu key. If the top section of the
soft menu key is active (highlighted in blue), a value can be
entered in the CURSOR/MENU control panel via universal
knob or numerically via KEYPAD button. You may enter any
value between 50ns and 10s. The bottom section of the soft
menu key OFF (highlighted in blue) allows you to deactivate
the function HOLD OFF.
Subject to change without notice
29
Trigger System
6.7
Video Trigger
The video trigger allows you to trigger on PAL, NTSC SECAM
standard video signals or on HDTV signals. Select the video
trigger mode by pressing the key TYPE 31 in the trigger section
of the control panel. Select the source by pressing the SOURCE
32 key. The FILTER 36 menu allows you to define additional settings. The oscilloscope triggers if the CVBS signal (Color Video
Baseband Signal) selected in the SOURCE menu features the
attributes set in the FILTER menu.
Select the desired standard by pressing the respective soft menu
key STANDARD. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
control panel or press the soft menu key again to select the
desired standard. The second setting will apply to the polarity
of the sync pulse (may be positive or negative). With positive
video modulation (the highest brightness is represented in the
image by the maximum signal voltage), the synchronization
pulses are negative, with negative modulation they are positive.
The slopes of the synchronization pulses are used for triggering
which explains why a faulty polarity setting causes irregular
triggering by image information. Next you can select between
frame triggering (FRAME) and line triggering (LINE). Selecting
LINE allows you to define the exact line between 1 and 625 via
universal knob or the KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/MENU
control panel.
The soft menu item ALL LINES enables the oscilloscope to
trigger on the start of the lines in the video signal. This key
selects all lines i.e. even when other trigger conditions are met,
the oscilloscope will trigger on each line. If FRAME is selected
for frame triggering, the lower menu items will allow to trigger
on ODD or only EVEN half frames. In this case, the oscilloscope
will trigger on the start of the half frames in the video signal.
The respective key will select the odd (even) half frames, i.e.
even if the other trigger conditions are met, the oscilloscope
will trigger on each odd (even) half frame.
The following modes are available:
PAL, NTSC, SECAM, PAL-M and
SDTV 576i Interlaced
HDTV 720p Progressive
HDTV 1080p
Progressive
HDTV 1080i Interlaced
Fig. 6.6: Video trigger menu
30
Subject to change without notice
7 Signal Display
The following chapter describes the selection and display of signals from various sources as well as all available display modes.
7.1
Display Settings
The HMO series features a high quality TFT display with VGA
(640x480 pixels resolution) including LED backlighting. Basic
display settings can be defined by pressing the DISPLAY 14
key in the GENERAL control panel. When the soft menu item
VIRTUAL SCREEN is activated, a scroll bar will display to the
right of the display graticule. Use the universal knob to upload
and download the display window within the 20 divisions of the
virtual screen. You will find a detailed description of the VIRTUAL
SCREEN option in the next chapter.
The following settings can be selected:
DOTS ONLY:
If this option is activated (ON), only the acquired data points will
be shown. This means that the data points of all signals will not
be connected by vertical lines. If this option is deactivated (OFF),
interpolated data points will also be shown.
INVERSE BRIGHTN.:
This setting inverts the brightness of the displayed signals. Normally, frequently captured dots will be displayed more brightly
than rare dots. The INVERSE BRIGHTNESS option reverses
the circumstances. Rare events display a higher brightness
compared to frequent events. To capture rare events in a signal,
this setting can be used in combination with persistence.
FALSE COLORS:
This setting converts the brightness levels of the displayed
signals to a color scale (ranging anywhere from blue, magenta,
red and yellow to white). Thanks to the higher contrast, users
can view signal details more easily. This setting applies to all
signals simultaneously.
GRID:
This soft menu allows you to display the graticule as LINES
(the graticule is divided into horizontal and vertical divisions),
as CENTER CROSS (displays one horizontal and one vertical
zero line, showing the divisions as dots) or as OFF (the entire
graticule will include no dots or lines).
INFO WINDOWS:
Selecting this soft menu item will open a submenu which allows
you to set the transparency for the info windows. Info windows
are small windows that appear on the screen depending on the
particular application (e.g. values are displayed when offset is
changed). A transparency value of 0% to 100% is selectable. Use
the universal knob 4 to define this setting. Additional menu
items allow you to activate or deactivate the info windows for
POSITION and TRACE BRIGHTN.. If POSITION is activated and
the vertical position is changed, the respective value on the zero
line will be displayed. Depending on the selected trigger type, the
user will see specific information about the acquisition status.
This information will only be displayed if the signal changes on
the screen can persist over a longer period. If the trigger condition has been met, the information window shows a progress
display for the post-trigger and pre-trigger. If the trigger condition has not been met, the information window shows the time
of the last trigger event (Trig?). If the trigger type AUTOMATIC
is selected, the instrument will switch to non-triggered acquisi-
Signal Display
tion mode in case of a non-triggered condition over an extended
period of time. This acquisition mode does not display an info
window as the data currently captured is displayed.
AUX. CURSORS:
This soft menu allows you to define the settings for auxiliary
cursors. Pressing the function keys enables you to activate or
deactivate the cursors. The menu item DEFAULTS resets the
default settings.
7.2
Usage of the Virtual Screen
The graticule for the HMO series includes 8 vertical divisions but
also has a virtual range of 20 divisions. These 20 divisions may
be used entirely by the optional digital channels D0 to D15, the
mathematical channels and the references signals. The analog
channels may use up to ±5 divisions from the center.
Fig. 7.2: Menu for setting the signal display intensities
The soft menu SETTINGS allows you to select the persistence
settings for the signals on the screen. The persistence function
ensures that signals will not be replaced when the screen is
updated. Instead, the signals will pause for a specific amount
of time and then slowly begin to fade. This type of display is very
similar to that of an analog oscilloscope.
Fig. 7.1: Drawing of the virtual screen area and an example
Fig. 7.1 illustrates the functionality of the virtual screen. The
display includes a section of 8 vertical divisions in gray. This
section enables you to display analog signals. The small bar
next to the graticule indicates the position of the 8 visible divisions within the available 20 divisions. By pressing the SCROLL
BAR 5 the bar will be activated and displayed in blue and you
can use the universal knob to shift the 8 visible divisions (gray
section) within the available 20 divisions. This allows a simple
and clear display of many individual signal portions.
7.3
There are three possible settings for the duration of the persistence: Off, Automatic and MANUAL. The option MANUAL
allows you to set a duration of 50ms to infinite by using the universal knob. If a finite duration was selected, new signals will
be written on top of one another within this timeframe where
the most recent captures will be displayed more brightly than
older signals. For instance, if 300 ms is selected, the display
for the signal curves will become darker in 50ms intervals and
will be erased after 300 ms. The AUTOMATIC setting allows
you to select the automatic configuration of the persistence.
If this setting is activated, the instrument attempts to select
the optimal time. If OFF is selected, the persistence function
is deactivated. Another available option is the BACKGROUND
function. With this key, you can activate or deactivate a mode
which allows older signal curves to not disappear entirely after
the set persistence time. Instead, these signals will continue
to be displayed in the background with low brightness. This
display is useful for the analysis of peak values in signals, for
instance.
Signal Intensity Display and Persistence Function
The default setting (indicated as active when the INTENS/
PERSIST 7 key is illuminated in white) allows you to use the
universal knob to change the intensity of the signal display to
anywhere from 0% to 100%. Persistence mode allows the display
of varying signals by enabling the instrument to write several
signals on the display simultaneously. It is also possible to induce accelerated aging of signals with an adjustable persistence
from 50ms to infinite. Signals occurring less frequently will be
displayed in darker color and signals occurring more frequently
will be displayed in lighter color. Press the INTENS/PERSIST
key in the soft menu to select this mode.
The soft menu items GRID and BACKLIGHT allow you to use
the universal knob to adjust the grid intensity and the backlighting. The soft menu key LED BRIGHTNESS allows you to toggle
between bright (Bright) and dark luminescent (Dark) LEDs.
This setting affects the brightness of the channel status LEDs
and all illuminated keys on the front panel.
Fig. 7.3: Persistence function
Subject to change without notice
31
Signal Display
7.4
XY display
The HMO series features a key that allows you to switch directly
to the XY display. Two signals will be displayed simultaneously,
one in Y direction and one in X direction. This implicates that the
time base X will be replaced by amplitude values of a secondsource. The resulting signal curves for harmonic signals are
known as Lissajous figures and allow the analysis of frequency
and phase position for these two signals. In case of a nearly identical frequency the figure will rotate. If the frequency is exactly
identical, the figure will stand still and the phase position can
be deduced from its shape. You can activate the XY display by
pressing the XY key 19 in the VERTICAL section of the control
panel. The key will be illuminated and the display will divided
into one large and three small display areas.
The following settings apply exclusively to the four
channel instruments. The two channel instruments
only supports the simple XY display.
which input signal is defined as X, Y1, Y2 or Z. To do so, press
the XY key again. The menu that opens allows you to assign X,
Y1 and Y2 accordingly.
Press the soft menu key Z SETTINGS to determine the settings
for the Z input. The function SOURCE Z allows you to use any of
the analog channels as source for the Z input. Use the universal knob to select the desired setting. The Z input allows you
to control the brightness of the XY signal. This can be static or
dynamic, by setting an adjustable threshold or by modulating
the brightness with the amplitude change of the Z input. In the
MODULATION setting, large amplitudes of the Z source will
display the XY points. The transition is continuous. The setting
On|Off displays values below the selected threshold of the
Z source and the XY points with the lowest brightness (ON/
OFF). Values exceeding the threshold will be displayed with
the selected brightness. There is no transition between the two
states. You can use the universal knob or the KEYPAD button
to select the threshold.
The XY display will be deactivated by pressing the XY key in the
VERTICAL section of the control panel if the XY settings are
activated. If you wish to show no menu or a different menu,
press the XY key twice to deactivate the XY display.
Fig. 7.4: Settings in the X–Y menu
The large grid shows the XY display while the small grids show
the source for X, Y1, Y2 and Z. The small windows feature the
classical signal display as Y vs. time. It is possible to define two
signals as the Y input and display this vs. the x input to perform
a comparison. It is necessary to show the menu to determine
32
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 7.5: Settings for the Z input
Measurements
8 Measurements
There are two different types of measurements on signals:
cursor measurements and automatic measurements. All measurements are stored in a buffer memory that is larger than the
display memory. The integrated hardware counter shows the
frequency and period duration for the selected input.
8.1
Cursor Measurements
The measurement option that is most frequently used with
an oscilloscope is the cursor measurement. The concept for
this function is based on the expected measurement results.
This is reflected by the availability of not only one or two cursors but even three cursors in some measurement modes. To
control cursor measurements, you may use the keys CURSOR
MEASURE and KEYPAD as well as the universal knob. The
measurement type can be defined in the menu that opens
when you press the CURSOR MEASURE key.
The menu CURSOR MEASURE allows you to select cursorbased measurements for an activated signal source on the
oscilloscope. The measurement source is indicated by the font
color of the respective result. The results are displayed at the
bottom of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement is
not applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be the case
for a voltage measurement on a POD because only logic states
without voltage reference are displayed here. If “?” is displayed,
the display does not show a complete measurement result. For
instance, the period to be measured may not display completely
and can consequently not be identified.
TIME
This mode provides two cursors to measure three different
times and an equivalent frequency. The values t1 and t2 correspond to the time between the trigger and the current position
of the first or second cursor. The value Δt corresponds to the
amount of time between the two cursors.
RATIO X
This mode provides three cursors to measure a ratio in X direction (e.g. a duty ratio) between the first two cursors and the first
and the third cursor. The measurement values are displayed
in four different formats (floating point, percent, degrees and
radians).
RATIO Y
This mode provides three cursors to measure a ratio in Y direction (e.g. an overshoot) between the first two cursors and
the first and the third cursor. The measurement values are
displayed in two different formats (floating point and percent).
COUNT
This mode provides three cursors to count signal changes that
exceed the threshold within a specific interval. The interval may
be set by using the first two cursors and the threshold may be
set by using the third cursor. The measurement values are
displayed in four different formats (number of rising and falling
slopes and number of positive and negative pulses).
PEAK VALUES
This mode provides two cursors to measure the minimum
and the maximum voltage of a signal within the interval set by
using both cursors. The values Vp- and Vp+ correspond to the
minimum and the maximum voltage. The peak value (Vpp) corresponds to the amount of voltage between the minimum and
maximum value.
RMS, MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION σ
This mode provides two cursors to measure the effective value
(RMS – Root Mean Square), the mean value and the standard
deviation within the interval set by using both cursors.
DUTY RATIO
This mode provides three cursors to determine the duty ratio
between the two horizontal cursors. The third cursor is used
to specify the threshold at which the duty ratio is measured.
RISE TIME
This mode provides two cursors to automatically measure the
rise and fall time of each slope to the far left within the interval
set by using both cursors.
Fig. 8.1: Selection menu for cursor measurements
As shown above, the measurement type can be selected by
pressing the respective soft menu key and the cursor measurement type can be selected by using the universal knob.
The measurement results are displayed at the bottom of the
screen. To move cursors, press the universal knob and position
the cursor by turning the universal knob. The measurement
types have the following functions:
VOLTAGE
This mode provides two cursors to measure three different voltages. The values V1 and V2 correspond to the voltage between
the zero base line of the selected signal and the current position
of the first or second cursor. The value ΔV corresponds to the
amount of voltage between the two cursors.
V MARKER
This mode provides two cursors to measure three different voltages and a time. The values V1 and V2 correspond to the voltage
between the zero base line of the selected curve and the current
position of the first or second cursor. The value ΔV corresponds
to the amount of voltage between the two cursors. The value Δt
corresponds to the amount of time between the two cursors.
If the function AUTOM. SOURCE is activated (On), the currently
targeted channel will be used as source for the measurement.
If the setting is deactivated (Off), the channel set under SOURCE
will be applied even if it is not targeted. The soft menu key
SOURCE allows you to select a source for the measurement
by using the universal knob. Pressing the soft menu key SET
TO TRACE places the selected cursors in their optimal position
on the signal curve. This allows very fast and typically optimal
automatic positioning of the cursors. For the most part, only
fine tuning is required at this point and the tedious major adjustSubject to change without notice
33
Measurements
ments to the cursors will no longer be necessary. As previously
described, the cursors can also be selected by pressing the
universal knob and may be positioned by turning the universal
knob. In case the automated function SET TO TRACE does not
provide the anticipated results due to complex signals, you
can press the key SET TO TRACE to position the cursors in a
predefined starting position. This allows you to return distant
cursors to the screen.
The soft menu key GLUE TO TRACE allows cursors to stay on
the selected data point without changing the position in the
measurement signal even if the scaling is modified (cursors
will be „glued“ to the signal). This function can be activated
or deactivated. If this mode is deactivated, the cursor stays in
position on the screen if scaling occurs. With GLUE TO TRACE
deactivated, the measured value changes while it remains
unmodified when the mode is activated.
8.2
Automatic Measurements
The HMO series features cursor measurements and also
various automatic measurements. These may be activated by
pressing the key AUTO MEASURE 11 in the section ANALYZE
of the control panel.
MEAN:
This mode measures the mean value of the signal amplitude.
If the signal is periodic, the first period on the left of the screen
will be used for the measurement. The measurement will only
be applied to the selected channel.
RMS:
This mode identifies the effective value from the displayed view
of the signal. If the signal is periodic, the first period on the left
of the screen will be used for the measurement. The effective
value is not applied to a sine signal will be calculated directly
(so-called TrueRMS). The measurement will only be applied to
the selected channel.
PEAK–TO–PEAK:
This mode measures the difference in voltage between the
maximum and the minimum peak value of the signal within
the displayed view.
PEAK + :
This mode measures the maximum voltage value in the displayed view of the screen. The measurement will only be applied
to the selected channel.
PEAK – :
This mode measures the minimum voltage value in the displayed
view of the screen. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
FREQUENCY:
This mode identifies the frequency of the signal from the reciprocal value of the first signal period T. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel.
PERIOD:
This mode measures the duration of the signal period T. The
period identifies the duration between two equal values of one
periodically repeated signal.
Fig. 8.2: Menu for the automatic measurements settings
This menu allows you to select up to six automatic measurement
functions by using the soft menu key MEAS. PLACE and the
universal knob. A maximum of two measurements are possible
simultaneously. These may originate from two different sources.
The measurement source (soft menu SOURCE) is indicated by
the font color of the respective result. The results are displayed
at the bottom of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement is not applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be
the case for a voltage measurement on a POD because only
logic states without voltage reference are displayed here. If “?”
is displayed, the display does not show a complete measurement
result. For instance, the period to be measured may not display
completely and can consequently not be identified.
The list of available sources only includes displayed
channels (possible sources are analog, digital and
mathematical channels).
The following measurement types are available:
AMPLITUDE:
This mode measures the amplitude of a square wave signal. This
mode calculates the difference in voltage between the upper
and the lower level (Vbase and Vtop). The measurement will only
be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of
one complete period of a triggered signal.
UPPER LEVEL:
This mode measures the mean voltage level of an upper square
wave. This mode calculates the mean value of the slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel and requires a minimum of one complete
period of a triggered signal.
LOWER LEVEL:
This mode measures the mean voltage level of the lower square
wave. This mode calculates the mean value of the slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel and requires a minimum of one complete
period of a triggered signal.
PULSE WIDTH +:
This mode measures the width of the positive pulse. A positive
pulse consists of a rising slope followed by a falling slope. This
measurement type identifies the two slopes and calculates the
pulse width from their time difference. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum
of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
PULSE WIDTH –:
34
Subject to change without notice
Measurements
This mode measures the width of the negative pulse. A negative
pulse consists of a falling slope followed by a rising slope. This
measurement type identifies the two slopes and calculates the
pulse width from their time difference. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
DUTY RATIO +:
This mode measures the positive duty ratio. In this mode, positive signal portions are identified over a specific period and will
then be analyzed in relation to the signal period. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel and requires
a minimum of one complete period of a triggered signal.
DUTY RATIO –:
This mode measures the negative duty ratio. In this mode,
positive negative portions are identified over a specific period
and will then be analyzed in relation to the signal period. The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel and
requires a minimum of one complete period of a triggered
signal.
RISE TIME 90%:
This mode measures the rise time of the first rising slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The rise time identifies
the time in which the signal rises from 10% to 90% of its
amplitude.
FALL TIME 90%:
This mode measures the fall time of the first falling slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The fall time identifies
the time in which the signal falls from 90% to 10% of its
amplitude.
RISE TIME 80%:
This mode measures the rise time of the first rising slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The rise time identifies
the time in which the signal rises from 20% to 80% of its
amplitude.
FALL TIME 80%:
This mode measures the fall time of the first falling slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The fall time identifies
the time in which the signal falls from 80% to 20% of its
amplitude.
σ-STD. DEVIATION
This mode measures the standard deviation of the signal
amplitude in the displayed view of the screen. The standard
deviation is the measurement for the deviation of a signal from
its mean value. A low result indicates that the values are close
to the mean value. A higher result illustrates that on average
the difference between the values is greater.
DELAY:
This mode measures the time delay between the set measurement source and the reference source. This mode searches
for the slope of the measurement source that is closest to the
time reference. Then, beginning from this point, it searches
for the nearest slope of the reference source. This time difference indicates the measurement result. A submenu (DELAY
SETTINGS) allows you to select the setting for measurement
source, reference source and slopes.
PHASE:
This mode measures the phase between two slopes of two
channels in the displaced view of the screen. This mode measures the relation of the time delay between the set sources
to the signal period of the measurement source. This mode
searches for the slope of the measurement source that is
closest to the time reference. Then, beginning from this point,
it searches for the nearest slope of the reference source. The
time difference and the signal period indicate the measurement result in degrees. A submenu (MEASUREMENT SOURCE/
REFERENCE SOURCE) allows you to select the measurement
source and the reference source.
COUNT + :
This mode counts positive pulses in the displayed view of the
screen. A positive pulse consists of a rising slope followed by a
falling slope. The mean value is calculated from the amplitude
of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if the signal
runs through the mean value. A pulse that passes the mean
value only once will not be calculated. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT – :
This mode counts negative pulses in the displayed view of the
screen. A negative pulse consists of a falling slope followed by
a rising slope. The mean value is calculated from the amplitude
of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if the signal
runs through the mean value. A pulse that passes the mean
value only once will not be calculated. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT +/ :
This mode counts signal changes (slopes) from Low Level
to High Level in the displayed view of the screen. The mean
value is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement
signal. A slope will be counted if the signal runs through the
mean value. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
COUNT –/ :
This mode counts signal changes (slopes) from High Level
to Low Level in the displayed view of the screen. The mean
value is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement
signal. A slope will be counted if the signal runs through the
mean value. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
TRIGGER FREQUENCY:
This mode measures the frequency of the trigger signal bases
on the period duration. The source for the measurement is the
currently set trigger source. The frequency will be determined
with a hardware counter with a high accuracy of 6 digits.
TRIGGER PERIOD:
This mode measures the duration of periods of the trigger
signal (with a hardware counter).
8.2.1Statistics for Automatic Measurements
If automatic measurement functions are defined, you can
view statistics for these parameters on page 2|2 of the AUTO
MEASURE menu. The statistics allow you to evaluate a periodic
signal over a number of measurements. The results (current
value, minimum, maximum, mean value, standard deviation
and number of measurements) are shown in table format in
the display window. Statistics are available for up to 1,000
captures, and you can define the desired number with the
universal knob. The mean value and the standard deviation
are identified by means of the most current n values where
n corresponds to the set captures (soft menu key NO. OF
AVERAGES). Minimum and maximum of the measurement
value applies to the total number of measurements. The total
number of measurements will be displayed in the statistics.
Subject to change without notice
35
Measurements
The key RESET STATISTIC resets the statistics. All recorded
values are erased. This function can be used to restart the
statistics at a defined point. The key CLEAR MEASUREMENTS
deactivates the automatic measurements.
9 Analysis
The HMO series oscilloscopes features an analysis function for
the collected data records which are displayed on the screen.
Simple mathematical functions can be performed with the function “Quick Mathematics” while more complex functions and
the linking of functions can be accomplished with the formula
editor. The MATH menu includes mathematical functions for
the recorded signal types. The mathematical functions track
the changes of the included signals and only apply to the visible area. You can also activate the frequency analysis (FFT) by
pressing the respective key. The function QUICKVIEW provides
a quick overview for the signal properties. A masked-based
PASS/FAIL test allows you to monitor signals automatically.
9.1
Fig. 8.3: Statistics for automatic measurements
Mathematical Functions
The MATH menu includes mathematical functions for the
recorded signal types. The mathematical functions track the
changes of the included signals and only apply to the visible
area of the screen. If a signal is cut off at the edge of the screen
may indicate that the corresponding mathematical curve is also
truncated. The DIV encoder can be used to scale an activated
mathematical curve.
The MATH menu is divided into Quick Mathematics and formula
sets. Quick Mathematics is designed for simple and quick calculations. The formula sets, however, allow more complicated
links.
Fig. 9.1: Mathematics short menu
9.1.1 Quick Mathematics
Pressing the MATH key 26 in the VERTICAL control panel will
activate a short menu. The lowest soft menu key QM/MA activates
Quick Mathematics or the formula editor. QM stands for Quick
Mathematics and MA for die Mathematics Advanced (formula
editor). You can toggle between the two mathematical functions
by pressing this soft menu key.
The soft menu keys in the QM menu allow you to configure the
Quick Mathematics function. With the first and the third soft
menu key, you can choose the respective channel (source) for
the Quick Mathematics calculation. You may only choose acti36
Subject to change without notice
Analysis
vated analog channels. The central soft menu key allows you
to select the calculation type addition (ADD), subtraction (SUB),
multiplication (MUL) or division (DIV). Pressing the MENU key in
the VERTICAL control panel will switch you to a more detailed
display of the QM menu. You can use the universal knob to select
operands and operators.
Fig. 9.4: Entry of constants and units
Fig. 9.2: Quick Mathematics menu
9.1.2 Formula Editor
The HMO series includes five mathematical formula sets. Each
of these formula sets contains five formulas which may be edited
with a formula editor to also define linked mathematical functions. These are labeled MA1 to MA5. You can use the universal
knob to select the formula set. The formula set editor (soft menu
key EDIT FORMULARY) lists all existing equations which may
be edited. A blue bar indicates that an equation is selected. It is
important to distinguish between editing the display and editing
the parameters. Use the universal knob to select the respective
equation and activate it by pressing the soft menu key VISIBLE.
An activated, visible equation is marked by a filled-in eye symbol
in the formula editor and is listed in the short menu.
In the soft menu UNIT you can use the universal knob to select
from the following units:
Fig. 9.3: Formula editor for formula sets
The formula editor menu (soft menu key MA) allows you to
activate and deactivate mathematical equations that are defined and displayed within the selected formula set. The list
only includes visible equations. Four out of five functions from
the current formula set can be displayed simultaneously. The
5th curve may be used as operand for one of the four mathematical curves. It will be calculated, but will not be included
in the display. The MENU key in the VERTICAL control panel
opens a menu to select the formula set and its corresponding
formulas. You can also choose a NAME with a maximum of
8 characters, load a formula set (from the internal memory
or from a USB stick) or save a formula set (internally or on a
USB stick). You can use the universal knob to enter the name
of your choice and you can save it by using the ACCEPT key. The
name will now be displayed Instead of the generic labels MA1…
MA5. You can specify the names for all equations separately.
Once all equations, constants and names have been entered,
you may also choose a name for this formula set by pressing
the NAME key in the formula set menu and entering the name
of your choice.
–V (Volt)
–A (Ampere)
– Ω
(Ohm)
– V/A (Volt per Ampere)
–W (Watt)
– VA (Volt Ampere)
– VAr (reactive power)
–dB (decibel)
– m (Milli, 10-3)
– µ
(Mikro, 10-6)
(Nano 10-9)
– n
– p
(Piko, 10-12)
– f
(Femto, 10-15)
– a
(Atto, 10-18)
– z
(Zepto 10-21)
(Yokto, 10-24)
– y
– K
(Kilo, 103)
– M (Mega, 106)
– G
(Giga, 109)
– T
(Tera, 1012)
– P
(Peta, 1015)
– E
(Exa, 1018)
– Z
(Zetta 1021)
(Yotta, 1024)
– Y
– dBm (decibel milliwatt)
– dBV (decibel Volt)
–s (second)
–Hz (Hertz)
–F (Farad)
–H (Henry)
–% (percent)
–º (degree)
– p(Pi)
–Pa (Pascal)
–m (meter)
–g (Acceleration)
– ºC (Degress Celsius)
–K (Kelvin)
– ºF (Degrees Fahrenheit)
–N (Newton)
–J (Joule)
–C (Coulomb)
–Wb(Weber)
–T (Tesla)
– (dez)(decimal)
– (bin)(binary)
– (hex)(hexadecimal)
– (oct)(octal)
– DIV (Division, division)
–px (pixel)
–Bit (Bit)
–Bd (Baud)
–Sa (Sample)
The unit selected for the equation will be applied to the channel
description, cursor types and automatic measurement types.
The equation name is listed in the formula set editor and is
used as label in the curve window. The soft menu key DELETE
removes the equation from the formula set.
Subject to change without notice
37
Analysis
An equation consists of an operator (mathematical function) and
up to two operands. You can use the universal knob to choose
one of the following operators:
–Addition
–Subtraction
–Multiplication
–Division
–Maximum
–Minimum
–Square
–Root
–Amount
– Pos. Wave
– Neg. Wave
–Reciprocal
–Inverted
– Common logarithm
– Natural logarithm
–Derivation
–Integral
– IIR Low Pass Filter
– IIR High Pass Filter
For each corresponding equation, the input channels CH1, CH2,
CH3, CH4 and an adjustable constant are allowed as OPERAND
(sources). For the formula MA2, MA1 is added as source, for
MA3 the added source is MA2, for MA4 it is MA3 and finally for
MA5 the added source is MA4. From these five equations, you
can create, save and retrieve a total of five different sets. New
equations can be added by using the universal knob to select
the menu item NEW in the formula set editor. Pressing the soft
menu key ADD allows you to edit the new equation.
The FFT menu allows a quick Fourier transformation which
displays the frequency spectrum of the measured signal. The
changed display allows you to determine the most frequent
frequencies in the signal and the corresponding amplitude.
You can activate the frequency analysis by pressing the FFT
key 9 in the ANALYZE section of the control panel. Once the
key was pressed, it will be illuminated in white and the screen
will be divided into two graticules. The upper section displays
the voltage time curve whereas the lower section lists the results of the Fourier analysis. The FFT is calculated including a
maximum of 65,536 acquired data points. Additional points at a
consistent span result in a smaller frequency increment of the
FFT. The number of points for the output data is half the size
of that of the input data.
Fig. 9.4 illustrates how in formula MA1 channel 1 is added with
100 µA. Press the key EDIT CONSTANT in the menu for entering constants and use the universal knob to choose from the
following constants:
–Pi
– 2x Pi
– 0,5 x Pi
– User 1 . . . 10
(up to 10 customized constants are available)
For instance, if you select USER1 as constant, you can press
the soft menu key VALUE and use the universal knob to select a
numeric value. You can apply the same method to set a DECIMAL
POINT and enter an additional S prefix (soft menu key PREFIX).
You may choose a UNIT from the same SI prefixes as those that
are available in the soft menu EDIT. Press SAVE to store these
settings as USER 1 and return to the menu to edit the equation.
You can store up to 10 of these customized constants. When
saving a formula set, you may also add a comment (soft menu
key COMMENT). Press the key SAVE to save this formula set with
the determined name and comment to the selected location.
Stored formula sets may be reloaded at any time. Press the
MATH key to activate the Mathematics menu and then press
the MENU key below the SCALE VOLTS/DIV key. This menu
displays the menu item LOAD. This will start the file manager
which will display the internal memory or the connected USB
stick as possible storage location. Select the respective formula
set file and press the key LOAD to load the file.
9.2
Frequency Analysis (FFT)
In general, the FFT in an oscilloscope works differently than in
a spectrum analyzer and is affected not only by the time base
setting, but also by the available number of used acquired data
points when calculating the FFT. The HMO series allows you
to include up to 65k point in the FFT resulting in a very high
resolution for this price bracket.
The FFT is not suitable for the analysis of very slow
signals (Hz-range); this type of analysis requires a
classic oscilloscope mode.
38
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 9.5: FFT illustration
The upper left of the display shows information about the settings in the time range, the area between the upper and the
lower window shows details about zoom and position, and
the section below the large FFT display window indicates the
settings (Span and Center) in the frequency range. The lower
FFT display window will be outlined in white when the FFT is
activated. This means that the large knob in the time range
section is used to select the span. The span is specified in the
unit Hz (Hertz) and identifies the width of the shown frequency
range. The span position can be determined by selecting the
Center value. You may use the horizontal encoder X Position for
this purpose. The shown frequency range ranges from (Center
- Span/2) to (Center + Span/2).
The minimum increment depends on the time base.
The greater the time base, the smaller the span.
Another important element for the FFT is the setting “Max. Sampling Frequency” in the ACQUIRE
menu of the HMO instrument.
The soft menu key MODUS allows you to choose from the following display types:
Refresh
This mode calculates and displays the FFT without additional
evaluation or editing of the captured data. The new input data
is captured, displayed and overwrites previously stored and
displayed values.
Envelope
In the Envelope mode, the maximum deflections of all spectra
will be stored separately in addition to the current spectrum
and will be updated with each new spectrum. These maximum
Analysis
is zero at both ends of the measurement interval. The Blackman window function allows you to measure the amplitudes
with high accuracy. However, it is more difficult to determine
the frequency due to the wide spectral lines. This function is
useful for a precise amplitude measurement of a period signal,
for instance.
Square wave
The square wave window function multiplies all points by 1.
This results in a high frequency accuracy with narrow spectral
lines and increased noise. This function can be used for pulse
response tests with start and end values of zero.
Fig. 9.6: Advanced FFT menu
values will be displayed with the input data and create an envelope curve. The spectrum is located within the envelope limits.
This forms an area or a sleeve including all occurrences of FFT
signal values. With each signal parameter change the envelope
curve will be reset.
Average
This mode calculates the mean value from several spectra. It is
applicable for noise reduction. The soft menu key #AVERAGES
allows you to select the number of spectra used to calculate
the mean value by setting the universal knob in the power of
2 from 2 to 512.
The menu entry POINTS allows you to select the maximum
number of capture points to be included in the calculation by
using the universal knob. The possible settings are 2048, 4096,
8192, 16384, 32768, 65536 points.
The soft menu WINDOWS allows you to improve the FFT display
in case of irregularities at the margins of the measurement
interval. Irregularities are calculated as a leap by a computing algorithm and interfere with the measurement result. In
the event of a bell-shaped window function, the margins with
lower values are multiplied and the impact is damped. The soft
menu item WINDOW allows you to choose from the following
window functions:
Hanning
The Hanning window function is bell-shaped. In contrast to the
Hamming window function, it is equal to zero at the margin of
the measurement interval. Therefore the noise level is reduced
in the spectrum and the width of the spectral lines is increased.
This function is useful for a precise amplitude measurement of
a period signal, for instance.
Hamming
The Hamming window function is bell-shaped. In contrast to
the Hanning and Blackman window function, it is not equal to
zero at the margin of the measurement interval. Therefore the
height of the noise level in the spectrum is greater than with
the Hanning and Blackman window function but less than with
the square wave window function. However, the spectral lines
not as wide as in other bell-shaped functions. This function is
useful for a precise amplitude measurement of a period signal,
for instance.
Blackman
The Blackman window function is bell-shaped and its waveform
features the steepest fall-off among the available functions. Is
The menu item Y-SCALE allows you to scale the FFT in the
amplitude logarithmically (dBm / dBV) or linear (Veff). The unit
dBm (Decibel-Milliwatt) refers to 1 mW. The unit dBV (DecibelVolt) refers to 1 Veff. The displayed values refer to a 50 Ohm
terminating resistor. You can either use an internal resistor or
connect an external terminating resistor parallel to the high
impedance input.
Pressing the respective channel key allows you to activate a
different channel as source for the FFT. You can deactivate the
FFT function by pressing the soft menu key FFT OFF or pressing
the FFT key on the control panel again.
9.3
Quick View
The QUICK VIEW function allows a quick overview of the typical
signal size. Pressing the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the ANALYZE
section of the control panel activates several basic automatic
measurements. Measurement results are displayed at the bottom of the screen and with a cursor on the signal. The following
five measurement values are displayed directly in the signal:
– Maximum voltage
– Mean voltage
– Minimum voltage
– Rise time
– Fall time
The following ten measurement values are displayed at the
bottom of the screen:
–
–
–
–
–
RMS value
Peak to peak voltage
Amplitude Pos. pulse width Pos. duty ratio
–
–
–
–
–
Period
Frequency
Number of positive /slopes
Neg. pulse width
Neg. duty ratio
Pressing the AUTO MEASURE key allows you to change the six
measurement parameters on the bottom right. You may undo
these changes by choosing RESET or restore the default setting. Only one channel can be active in the Quickview mode. All
measurements will be performed on the active channel.
9.4
PASS/FAIL Test Based on Masks
The Pass/Fail test allows you to evaluate if a signal is located
within defined limits. This limits are set by a so-called mask.
If the signal exceeds the mask, there is an error. These errors
will be displayed together with successful sweeps and the total
of all sweeps at the bottom of the screen. It is also possible to
perform certain actions if errors are discovered.
Press the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the ANALYZE section of the
control panel and press the soft menu key PASS/FAIL to activate the mode which opens a menu to set and use the mask
test. Prior to starting the test by pressing the top soft menu
Subject to change without notice
39
Analysis
On the right below the display window you can view the total
number and the total duration of the tests (in brackets) in white.
The number of successful tests and their percentage (in brackets) are displayed in green, and the number of failures and their
percentage (in brackets) are displayed in red. If a test has been
started, the previously unavailable soft menu key PAUSE is now
activated. Pressing the PAUSE key will interrupt the test while
the acquisition of signals and the total duration are continued.
If you press the PAUSE key again, the test will be resumed and
all event counters continue to be incremented. If you deactivate
a test by pressing the soft menu key Stop the event and time
counters will be stopped. If a new test is started by pressing the
soft menu key TEST activated (Run), all counters will be reset
and resume at zero.
The PASS/FAIL mode is deactivated by pressing the soft menu
key PASS/FAIL OFF.
Fig. 9.7 PASS/FAIL mask test.
key TEST ON/OFF, it is necessary to generate or load a mask
and to select an action. To generate a new mask, press the soft
menu key NEW MASK. Masks are displayed as light gray curves/
waveforms on the screen. If a mask was copied or loaded, you
can use menu items to change the expansion of the signal form
and consequently the limits for the test.
In the menu that opens you can use the key COPY CHANNEL to
copy the current signal into a mask memory. The mask displays
in white and appears as an overlay of the output signal. The
menu keys Y-POSITION and STRECH Y enable you to shift this
curve vertically or to enlarge it. The two menu items WIDTH Y
and WIDTH X allow you to set the tolerance for the mask. The
universal knob or the KEYPAD button are used to enter values
with a resolution of 1/100 division. A mask includes a minimum
and a maximum value for each captured data value. The minimum and maximum value for a source curve with only one value
per data are identical. The width indicates the distance between
the peripheral points and the original point. The greater the
selected value is, the greater are the potential curve deviations
in the amplitude. The tolerance mask is displayed in white in
the background. The generated and edited mask can be used
immediately for the test, however, it is only saved temporarily
in the instrument storage. The soft menu key SAVE can be used
to store the mask permanently to a USB stick or to the internal
memory. Press the key MENU OFF to return to the start menu.
Press the soft menu key LOAD MASK to open a file browser
which allows you to load previously stored masks for the test
(file extension .HMK). A loaded mask can be changed in the
menu NEW MASK. Changes will be applied to the file when the
mask is edited and saved.
Pressing the soft menu key ACTIONS in the PASS/FAIL main
menu opens a menu with the available actions. The following
four actions can be performed:
1. Audio signal if the tolerance limits have been exceeded
2. Stop for first-time failure (number is adjustable)
3. Pulse for first-time failure (emits a pulse at the Y output in
case of failure, only for instruments with bus signal source)
4. Screen dump for first-time failure
An action is performed if the respective condition is met (e.g.
a specific number of mask failures). Each action is assigned
a unique condition which can be defined separately from the
other actions. The respective condition can be defined in the
menu for the corresponding action. Select the respective action
by pressing the appropriate soft menu key; the corresponding
soft menu item will be highlighted in blue. Press the MENU
OFF key to return to the main menu and to start the mask test.
40
Subject to change without notice
Documentation, Storage and Recall
10 Documentation, Storage and Recall
The oscilloscope allows all screen displays that store user settings (e.g. trigger condition and time base setting), reference
curves, simple curves and formula sets. An internal memory
integrated with the instrument is available for reference curves,
instrument settings and formula sets. These types of data,
screenshots and curve data can also be stored on a connected
USB stick.
The USB stick should not exceed 4GB and must
be FAT formatted (FAT32). It should be avoided to
store a large number of files on the USB stick.
You can access the main menu to store and load functions by
pressing the SAVE/RECALL key.
use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment which
will be displayed in the file manager footer once a file has been
selected. With the soft key FORMAT and the universal knob you
can choose the HDS (binary data) or the SCP (plain text) format. In
contrast to the HDS format device settings in the SCP mode can
be also loaded after firmware update. Instrument settings in the
HDS format from a previous firmware version cannot be loaded
with a new firmware version.
Deveice settings in the SCP format can be also
loaded after firmware update.
The option SAVE allows you to store the settings. To reload
stored preference files, press the respective soft menu key to
open the soft menu LOAD. This opens the file manager where
you can use the universal knob to select the respective file.
10.1 Instrument Settings
The soft menu DEVICE SETTINGS allows you to save current
instrument settings load saved settings and import or export
instrument settings.
Fig. 10.3: Loading instrument settings
Fig. 10.1: Basic menu for instrument settings
Press the soft menu key SAVE to open the Save menu. You can
use the soft menu key STORAGE to select a possible location (internal memory, front or back USB connection) where you would
like to save the instrument settings. Pressing this key opens
the file manager. The FILE NAME can be changed or adjusted
to the corresponding setting (SET is the default label). You can
Fig. 10.2: Storing instrument settings
Once the storage location and the respective settings file has
been selected, you can load the file by pressing the soft menu
key LOAD. To remove files that are no longer required you can
use the universal knob to select the respective settings file and
remove it by pressing the soft menu key REMOVE FILE. If a USB
stick is connected, you can also change and delete directories.
Use the soft menu key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings
files by name, type, size or date.
The soft menu IMPORT/EXPORT allows you to copy a file from
an internal memory to an external storage medium (USB stick)
or vice versa. Source (SOURCE FILE) and target (DEST. PATH)
must be selected for copying. Use the universal knob to select
a storage location which will open a file manager.
Fig. 10.4: Import/Export menu for instrument settings
Subject to change without notice
41
Documentation, Storage and Recall
To import or export instrument settings, you must
have a USB stick connected, otherwise the menu
cannot be selected.
Pressing the IMPORT/EXPORT key by default will copy the selected settings file. If two USB sticks are connected (front and
back) this will also work between the two USB sticks.
The menu item DEFAULT SETT. also allows you to load the
factory default settings.
10.2References
References are data sets which consist of settings information
and A/D converter data. These may be stored and reloaded
internally or externally. Data can be reloaded into one of the
4 reference memories (RE1 to RE4) which can also be displayed. The main feature of references is the fact that all
information (e.g. vertical gain, time base setting, A/D converter data) is included when saving or reloading, enabling a
comparison between the original signal and its corresponding
values.
The soft menu REFERENCES only allows you to import or export
references (IMPORT/EXPORT). The transfer of references to
other instruments is possible. The standard menu for the file
manager opens which allows you to copy references between
the internal memory and the external USB stick (description
see Chap. 10.1.).
To load a reference from a USB stick or the internal memory,
open the soft menu LOAD. This shows a window displaying the
internally stored references. You can select the desired target
reference curve in the top menu item and by pressing LOAD in
the file manager. To complete loading and displaying the reference, press LOAD in the file manager menu again. To save a
reference, press the SAVE key, determine the source, storage
location, file name and curve, and press the soft menu key
SAVE (with the disk icon). The FILE NAME can be changed or
adjusted to the corresponding setting (REF ist the default label).
You can use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment
which will be displayed in the file manager footer once a file
has been selected.
10.3Curves
In addition to references, you can also store A/D converter data.
A maximum of 24,000 measured samples (expanded display
memory) can be stored on a USB stick. Curves can only be stored
to externally connected USB sticks (not internally).
The maximum of 24,000 measured value points can
only be read out with the maximum sampling rate
(ACQUIRE menu). For the AUTOMATIC setting (repeat rate), the maximum amount of measured value
points is limited to 6,000 (default setting).
The soft menu STORAGE allows you to use the USB connection
on the front or back of the instrument as storage location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a USB
stick has been recognized. If a USB stick is connected, you can
also change, create or delete directories. Use the soft menu key
SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files by name, type, size
or date. Press ACCEPT DIR. to confirm the target directory and
you will automatically return to the curve main menu.
The soft menu CURVE allows you to use the universal knob to
select a channel which will be saved as a curve. You may only
select channels that have been activated via channel keys. You
can also save all visible channels simultaneously. The soft menu
key FILE NAME opens the menu for the name entry, where you
can use the universal knob to enter a name and confirm your
entry by pressing ACCEPT (TRC is the default name). The curve
main menu will display automatically.
Fig. 10.5: Loading and storing references
You may only use the format CSV to store all visible
channels. No other format is available.
An additional menu is opened for storing and loading references. Press the REF/BUS key in the VERTICAL section of the
control panel to open a quick menu. The bottom menu key is
divided into RE (reference) and BU (bus). The current setting is
highlighted in white. The soft menu key RE allows you to activate
each of the four possible reference curves “RE1…RE4”. This is
done by pressing the respective soft menu key. The selected
reference will be displayed and highlighted in the quick menu.
If the reference memory is empty, a file dialog opens to load a
reference curve from the internal memory.
Open the menu to store and load by pressing the MENU key in
the VERTICAL section of the control panel. The top soft menu
SOURCE allows you to use the universal knob to select the
source for the reference to be saved. You can select from the
activated channels and mathematical curves. Press the soft
menu key DISPLAY to display the selected reference curve or
to update the current reference curve.
42
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 10.6: Storage menu for curves
Documentation, Storage and Recall
You can open a selection window by pressing the soft menu
key FORMAT to determine the file format. The universal knob
allows you to select the desired format. You can choose from
the following formats:
BIN
A binary file may contain any type of Byte value. The captured
curve data will be stored without any time information.
10.4Screenshots
The most important format to store information for documentation purposes is the screenshot. A screenshot is an image
file which shows the current screen content at the time that
storage takes place.
FLT
A FLT file contains the captured data as voltage values. Compared to a FLT file, the captured amount of data for a CSV file
is 16 times greater. The voltage values are stored in the Float
format (4 Byte Float, binary, Big Endian). This file can be reused
in programs written by users, for instance.
CSV (Comma Separated Values):
In CSV files, curve data is stored in table format. Each table row
is separated by a comma.
If you define the REPEAT RATE as “Max. Sampling
Rate” in the ACQUIRE menu, two rows will be
affixed with a time stamp during the CSV export
because a minimum and a maximum value must be
assigned to this time value. To acquire an amplitude
value per time stamp, activate the REPEAT RATE
“Automatic” in the ACQUIRE menu.
Fig. 10.7: Screenshot menu
Example: Curve with all visible channels
[s],CH1[V],CH2[V],CH3[V],CH4[V]
-4.99500E-07,-2.601E-03,2.566E-02,-1.003E-04,1.139E-04
-4.99000E-07,-6.012E-04,-5.434E-02,-1.003E-04,-8.611E-05
-4.98500E-07,-6.012E-04,-5.434E-02,9.973E-05,-8.611E-05
-4.98000E-07,1.399E-03,-5.434E-02,2.997E-04,-8.611E-05
The soft menu STORAGE allows you to use the USB connection
on the front or back of the instrument as storage location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a USB
stick has been recognized. If a USB stick is connected, you can
also change, create or delete directories. Use the soft menu
key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files by name, type,
size or date. Press ACCEPT DIR. to confirm the target directory
and you will automatically return to the screenshot main menu.
TXT
TXT files are ASCII files that only contain amplitude values (no
time values). Amplitude values are separated by a comma. The
value pairs are listed as single values without identification.
The soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu for the name
entry where you can use the universal knob to enter a name
and confirm your entry by pressing ACCEPT (SCR is the default
name). The screenshot main menu will display automatically.
Example:
1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,3.000E-02
The file format of a graphics file determines the color depth and
the type of compression. The quality of the various formats is
identical for the oscilloscope graphics. You can choose from the
following file formats in the soft menu FORMAT:
HRT (HAMEG Reference Time)
Files with this extension are reference curves of the time domain. If the displayed curve is saved in this format, it can be
used in the reference menu. The HRT format also allows you
to generate files that can be reloaded into the oscilloscope via
reference menu.
You can use the universal knob to select in the soft menu
POINTS whether to read out the display memory or the entire
acquisition memory.
Please note that the repeat rate has to be set to the
maximum sampling rate via ACQUIRE key when
reading out the entire acquisition memory. The
entire acquisition memory can only be read out in
STOP mode.
After you made all entries, press the menu key STORE to save
the selected curve(s) according to the settings.
– BMP = Windows Bitmap Format
– GIF = Graphics Interchange Format
– PNG = Portable Network Graphic
Press the soft menu key COLOR MODE to to choose from
GRAYSCALE, COLOR or INVERTED with the universal knob.
If GRAYSCALE is selected, the colors are converted to gray
scales when the data is stored, if COLOR is selected, the data
is stored as it displays in the screen, and if INVERTED is activated, data will be stored in color with a white background.
To achieve prints with well-defined contrasts
when using the color mode INVERTED, you should
set the curve intensity (via INTENS/PERSIST and
universal knob) to approximately 70%.
If you press the key SAVE, the current screen will be saved
immediately to the selected storage location with the selected
name and format.
The soft menu key PRINT allows you to print a screenshot immediately to a connected printer (e.g. PCL or PCLX as „printer
language“). If a printer is detected, the soft menu key PRINT
will no longer be grayed out.
Subject to change without notice
43
Documentation, Storage and Recall
Press the RUN/STOP key to stop acquisition prior
to printing which will allow a correct printout.
The free software HMScreenshot (software module of the
HMExplorer software) enables the transfer of screenshots in
bitmap, GIF or PNG format from a HAMEG HMO series oscilloscope via RS-232 or USB interface to a connected PC where
the screenshots may then be saved or printed. For additional
information on the software, refer to the internal HMExplorer
help at www.hameg.com.
10.5 Formula Sets
–
–
–
–
-
DEVICE SETTINGS: Stores settings
TRACES: Stores curves
SCREENSHOTS: Stores screenshots
SCREEN & SETUP: Stores screenshots and settings
PRINT: Prints directly to a compatible printer (Postscript,
some PCL and PCLX capable printer)
If you press the respective soft menu key to activate the required operation, the corresponding menu will be displayed
with a blue background. Press the MENU OFF key to quit the
selection menu. If you press the FILE/PRINT key, the selected
function will be performed.
In the soft menu FORMULARIES you can import or export
formula sets. This allows the data exchange between different
storage media (internal memory / external USB sticks). The
exact procedure is described in chapter 9.2.
10.6 FILE/PRINT Key Definition
The FILE/PRINT key in the GENERAL control panel allows you
to save instrument settings, curves, screenshots and screenshot settings simultaneously with just one key. As described
in previous chapters, you must first select the corresponding
settings for storage location, name etc. The soft menu key
FILE/PRINT in the SAVE/RECALL main menu opens the
setup menu for the FILE/PRINT key. You may choose from
the following actions:
44
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 10.8: Definition of FILE/PRINT key
Mixed Signal Operation
11 Mixed Signal Operation (Optional)
As a standard, all instruments in the HMO series are equipped
with the connectors for the HO3508 logic probes to add 8 or 16
digital logic inputs. All software required for the mixed signal
operation is already included in the firmware of each HMO. It
is only necessary to purchase and connect the active HO3508
logic probes (8 channels).
For the HMO3524., activation of Pod1 (with 8 digital inputs each)
will deactivate the analog channel 3 and activation of Pod2 will
deactivate the analog channel 4. This allows the following configurations: 3 analog channels plus 8 logic inputs (channel 1, 2,
4 and Pod1) or 2 analog channels and 16 logic inputs in mixed
signal operation (channel 1, 2 plus Pod1 and Pod2).
11.1 Logic Trigger for Digital Input
Please find an additional description of the logic
trigger for the inputs of the logic probe in chapter
6.5 (page 28).
11.2 Display Functions for the Logic Channels
With the series HMO3524., you can use the short menu for channel settings to switch from an analog channel to a logic input.
If channel 3 is activated and the corresponding short menu is
displayed, the bottom soft menu key CH is shown in the channel
color. To switch on the digital channels, press this soft menu
key again which will activate PO (POD). The digital channels 0
to 7 will now display and the short menu now shows the most
important settings for the digital channels.
You must always set the level to indicate a High
and a Low. If POD1 or POD2 are activated, press
the MENU button 21 in the VERTICAL section of the
control panel to display the menu. This will allow
you to set the level to distinguish between the logic
states. For each POD, you can activate one of five
predefined logic level settings (TTL, CMOS, ECL),
and two of these may be user-defined (USER 1,
USER 2).
For the logic channels, a logic One will be indicated by a bar
that is two pixels wide, and a logic Zero will be indicated by a
bar that is one pixel wide. The set logic level and the current
sample rate for the logic inputs will be shown next to the
name POD1 or POD2 in the information field in the bottom
left of the display.
You may now choose the Y position and the size of the logic
channel display just as you would for the analog channels. Use
the buttons Y POSITION 18 and SCALE VOLTS/DIV 20 to select
the settings (if the soft menu key “0/7“ is selected, indicated
by a blue background). If you wish to display fewer than 8 logic
channels or change the position and size of a particular logic
channel, you can use the short menu in combination with the soft
menu keys (channel 0 to 7) and the buttons Y POSITION 18 and
SCALE VOLTS/DIV 20 to select the respective settings. You can
choose a channel by pressing the and soft menu keys. This
allows you to resize and position specific channels individually.
You can reset the position and size of the individual logic channels on page 2|2 of the POD menu. You also have the option to
label the individual bits of the logic channel by using the soft
menu NAME. The procedure to assign names is identical to the
one described in chapter 4.6 (page 21). The option NAME On/
Off activates or deactivates the name for the individual bits D0
to D7. The name is displayed to the right of the logic channels.
You also have the option to combine digital channels to form
buses which will then be displayed on the screen as a cell in
a table. Basically, two independent buses are possible. For
instance, it would be possible to combine an 8 bit address bus
and an 8 bit data bus. To select the settings for the buses, press
the REF/BUS button and then the MENU button in the VERTICAL
section of the control panel.
In the menu that opens you can press the top soft menu key
BUS to select which BUS you want to define, B1 or B2. The
active BUS is indicated in blue.
You can use the soft menu key BUS TYPE to choose the BUS
type for the display and the analysis. The BUS type determines
the bus structure and is organized differently depending on
serial vs. parallel or the number of data and clock signals. The
universal knob allows you to select the BUS type PARALLEL or
PARALLEL + CLK. Select CONFIGURATION to determine the
bus source and structure. The contents of the menu change
with the selected BUS type. After pressing the top soft menu
key BUS WIDTH, you can use the universal knob to select a bus
width from 1-16 bits. The table displaying the bit assignments
will be adjusted dynamically depending on your choice. Each
bit of the displayed bus has a source. The source refers to the
individual POD bits. Based on the measurement setup, the
sources can be assigned via soft menu key SOURCE and the
universal knob. The soft menu keys PREVIOUS/NEXT BIT allow
you to move the position of the selection bar for the source of
the individual bits. The selected bit is highlighted in blue. The
left side of the table contains the bits in fixed sequence, beginning at the top with D0 (= LSB). The universal knob allows
you to assign a real logic channel to the selected BUS bit. For
instance, the logic channel D9 is assigned to BUS bit D0 (this
corresponds to the LC9 input for POD2). The allocation is not
subject to restrictions; you can also use partially identical logic
channels in the two possible buses.
If you select PARALLEL + CLOCK as BUS TYPE, you can also use
the bottom soft menu key CONTROL WIRES to select sources
for CHIP SELECT, and you can use the universal knob to select
the settings for CLOCK. The soft menu key ACTIVE is used to
determine if the chip select signal High or Low Active is selected.
The soft menu key SLOPE allows you to toggle between rising, falling and both slopes. The active selection is always
highlighted in blue and is listed after the label CLK in the bit
Fig. 11.1: Settings for the logic channel display
Subject to change without notice
45
Mixed Signal Operation
source window. Press the MENU OFF button to return to the
BUS main menu.
The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP opens a menu to select the
display format and its extent. The universal knob in the submenu
allows you to choose the format to decode the bus values. You
can choose from the following formats:
The results for the logic channels will be as follows:
TIME
The display will include the time position of both cursors relative to the trigger time, the time difference between the two
positions and the resulting frequency.
–Binary
–Hexadecimal
–Decimal
–ASCII
RATIO X
In this measurement type, three cursors are used to display
a time ratio between the first two cursors plus the first and
third cursor. The results are shown in floating point format, in
percent, in degrees and in radians.
The decoded values will be shown in the cells/tables of the buses
according to the selected format. The next soft menu key BITS
can also be used to activate or deactivate the table display for
the individual bus bits.
V-MARKER
For the logic channels, the logic value of the selected POD will
be measured at the respective cursor and shown in hexadecimal
and decimal format.
A white dot in the short menu indicates that a BUS is activated.
You can now use the position control knob to determine the
position of the bus display on the screen. The VOLT/DIV knob
allows you to determine the size of the table display. This may
be particularly useful for the binary display as it allows the display of the complete value in up to 4 rows even for short tables.
11.3 Cursor Measurements for Logic Channels
If the logic channels are activated, you may select several parameters via cursor measurements (CURSOR MEASURE button). For all activated logic channels of a POD, you can choose
from the measurement types TIME, RATIO X and V-MARKER.
46
Subject to change without notice
11.4. Automatic Measurements for Logic Channels
If the logic channels are activated, you can use the automatic
measurement functions to determine several parameters.
For all activated logic channels of a POD, you can choose
from the measurement types FREQUENCY, PERIOD, PULSE
WIDTH +/–, DUTY CYCLE+/–, DEALY, PHASE, BURST WIDTH,
NUMBER PULSE +/– and NUMBER SLOPE pos./neg. As with
all automatic measurements, you can activate the statistic
on page 2|2.
Serial bus analysis
12 Serial bus analysis (optional)
The HMO series can be equipped with three options to trigger
and decode serial buses.
The option HOO10 can be used to trigger and decode I2C, SPI
and UART/RS-232 buses on the digital channels (option logic
probe HO3508) and on the analog inputs. This option allows the
decoding of two serial buses simultaneously.
The option HOO11 can be used to trigger and decode I2C, SPI
and UART/RS-232 buses on analog inputs only and it only allows
the decoding of one serial bus at a time.
The option HOO12 can be used to trigger and decode CAN and
LIN buses on the digital channels (option logic probe HO3508)
and on the analog inputs. This option allows the decoding of
two serial buses simultaneously.
The options are activated by a software licence key. This key
will either be installed at the time of manufacturing or it will be
loaded to the instrument via USB stick when the user installs
an update as described in chapter 2.10 (page 14).
The analysis of parallel and serial data consists of the following
three basic steps:
– Protocol configuration
(BUS type / protocol-specific settings)
–Decoding
(Display of decoded data / Zoom / BUS table)
–Trigger
(Start / Stop / serial samples)
The serial bus analysis is performed with 1/8 of the
sampling rate.
12.1 Serial Bus Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2, page 45) or the analog channels
(see chapter 4.5, page 21). The default setting for
both is 500 mV.
Fig. 12.2: Decoding format selection menu
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
It is necessary to define a BUS before you can determine the settings for the serial trigger and decoding functions. A maximum
of two buses, B1 and B2, may be defined. Press the BUS/REF
button in the VERTICAL section of the control panel. This will
open a short menu where you can press the bottom soft menu
key BU (BUS). Use the MENU button in the VERTICAL section
of the control panel and the top soft menu key to define the
respective BUS (B1 or B2).
Use the soft menu key BUS TYPE and the installed options
HOO10/HOO11/HOO12 to choose from the following BUS types:
– Parallel Standard
– Parallel + Clock Standard
– SSPI (2 wire)
HOO10/HOO11
– SPI (3 wire)
HOO10/HOO11
–I2CHOO10/HOO11
–UART
HOO10/HOO11
–CAN
HOO12
–LIN
HOO12
The soft menu key CONFIGURATION allows you to invoke a
menu corresponding to the selected bus type. A menu description can be found in the chapters of the respective BUS
configuration. The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP is identical for
all buses and allows you to select the decoding format.
You may choose from the following formats:
Binary, Hexadecimal, Decimal and ASCII
Use the soft menu key BITS to activate or deactivate the display
of individual bit lines (above the table display).
The soft menu key NAME allows you to rename a bus (see
chapter 4.6 (page 21)).
12.1.1BUS Table
Fig. 12.1: Menu for the definition of buses
The soft menu BUS TABLE allows you to configure / export a
list of all decoded messages in storage. The table content is
protocol specific and the table display can be activated for each
individual BUS type. The top soft menu key BUS TABLE allows
you to activate or deactivate the list view. By default, the table
is displayed at the bottom of the screen. Generally, a complete
message of a protocol is displayed in a row. The columns include
Subject to change without notice
47
Serial bus analysis
12.3I2C BUS
The I2C bus is a two-wire bus which was developed by Philips
(today known as NXP Semiconductor). The HMO series supports
the following bit rates (for measurements without measuring
object via BUS SIGNAL SOURCE):
– 100 kBit/s (Standard Mode)
– 400 kBit/s (Fast Mode)
– 1000 kBit/s (Fast Mode Plus).
Use the soft menu PROBE COMP & BUS SIGNAL SOURCE
to select the respective clock rate in the SETUP menu (page
2|2).
Fig. 12.3: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
important information, e.g. address and date of the message.
The number of rows in the table is identical to the number of
complete message frames in storage. The decoding results
may be saved as CSV file by using the soft menu key SAVE (e.g.
save to a USB stick).
Example of a I2C BUS table:
“Bus table: BUS1 (I2C: Clock SCL = D0, Dates SDA = D1)“
Frame,Mark,Start time[s],Type,ID,Length,Date,Condition
1,,-197.89200e-6,Read,0x2D,5,0xF110E55D31,OK
2,,28.00000e-9,Write,0x42,8,0xEB8DC599AE5D6FC0,OK
3,,217.74000e-6,Write,0x3B,6,0xA113B7263E5B,OK
4,,376.07200e-6,Read,0x0E,6,0x55C3EB71D9E8,OK
5,,613.58000e-6,Write,0x66,8,0x91B86EE6655E2300,Data Error0
A BUS table can only be stored if the STOP mode is
active.
The soft menu key TRACK FRAME allows you to scroll through
the BUS table and simultaneously jump to the corresponding
position in the memory via universal knob to display details
on the screen. However, this is only possible if acquisition has
been stopped. This option is also available in the short menu
BUS via soft menu key Trk (= Track). If you activate the soft
menu key FRAME TIME DIFFERENCE (highlighted in blue),
the time difference to the previous frame (data packet) will
be displayed in the BUS table. This column will be labeled in
the table as “Time diff. “. If this function is deactivated, the
absolute time in relation to the trigger point will be displayed
in the column “Start time”. The soft menu key Tab in the BUS
short menu allows you to activate or deactivate the BUS table
without opening a menu.
You can use the soft menu item POSITION to move the table
to the top or bottom of the screen. In addition, it is possible
to display the BUS table in full screen. Select the position via
universal knob in the BUS menu or directly via soft menu key
Pos in the BUS short menu.
Fig. 12.4: I2C BUS signal source
A I2C BUS has the following properties:
– Two wire bus (2-wire): Clock (SCL) and data (SDA)
– Master-Slave Communication: the master provides the clock
pulse and selects the slave
– Addressing: Each slave can be addressed via unique address; multiple slaves can be linked with each other and
can be addressed by the same master
– Read/Write bit: Master reads data (=1) or writes data (=0)
– Acknowledge: issued after each byte
The format of a simple I2C message (frame) with an address
length of 7 bit is structured as follows:
– Start condition: Falling slope on SDA (Serial Data), while
SCL (Serial Clock) is HIGH
– 7 bit address (write or read slave)
– Read/Write bit (R/W): Indicates, if the data is to be written
or read out from the slave
– Acknowledge bit (ACK): Is issued by the recipient of the
previous byte if transmission was successful (exception: for
read access, the master terminates the data transmission
with a NACK bit after the last byte)
– Data: a series of data bytes with a ACK bit after each byte
– Stop condition: rising slope on SDA (Serial Data), while SCL
(Serial Clock) is HIGH
12.2 Parallel BUS
The HMO series is able to analyze up to 15 bit lines (depending
on activated POD1/POD2). The soft menu key BUS WIDTH and
the universal knob allow you to select the number of bit lines.
You can use the soft menu keys PREV. BIT and NEXT BIT (or
the universal knob) to move the position of the SOURCE selection bar for individual BUS bits. The selected bit is highlighted
in blue. To trigger on parallel buses, it is recommended to use
the logic trigger (see chapter 6.5).
48
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 12.5: I2C 7 bit address
Serial bus analysis
12.3.1I2C BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2, page 45) or the analog channels
(see chapter 4.5, page 21). The default setting for
both is 500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
Certain portions of the I2C messages will be displayed in color
to distinguish between the different elements. If the data lines
are selected with the table display, the respective sections will
also be displayed in color. These are described as follows:
Read address:
Yellow
Magenta
Write address:
Data:Cyan
Start:White
Stop:White
No acknowledge:
Red
Green
Acknowledge:
The decoding of the address is performed as a 7 bit
value. The 8th bit for the write/read distinction will
be decoded in color, not in the HEX value of the address.
12.3.2I2C Bus Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose I2C Bus. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the
control panel to list all available I2C trigger conditions.
Fig. 12.6: Menu for the definition of I2C sources
To decode the I2C bus it is necessary to determine during the
bus configuration which logic channel will be connected to the
clock and which one to the data line. This setting is selected
after choosing the BUS TYPE I2C in the BUS menu and pressing
the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu, choose the
top soft menu key CLOCK SCL and use the universal knob to
select the source channel. You can define the data channel by
pressing the soft menu key DATA SDA. A small window provides
information about the current settings.
If the option HOO11 is installed, it it only possible
to select analog channels as source. If the option
HOO10 is installed, both analog and digital channels
are available as source.
You can trigger on the START signal (the start signal is the falling slope on SDA when SCL is high), and the STOP signal (the
start signal is the rising slope on SDA when SCL is high) of all
messages as well as on a RESTART (the new start signal is a
repeated start signal) or on a NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE condition.
The NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE bit is the 9th bit in a data or address
unit of the SDA line. For NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE, the Acknowledge
bit is on SDA high, although it should be low.
The soft menu key READ/WRITE offers additional trigger options. You can use the soft menu key MASTER to toggle the
trigger condition between read and write access. The 8th bit of
the first data unit (depending on the address length) is used to
distinguish between read and write access. The selected condition is displayed in the I2C settings window and is highlighted
by the menu key in blue.
Press the MENU OFF button twice to close all menus.
The address length (in bit) defines the maximum number of
slave addresses to be used with the bus. For a 7 bit address
length, the maximum number of available addresses is 112.
Fig. 12.7: I2C message decoded with hexadecimal values
Fig. 12.8: I2C READ/WRITE trigger menu
Subject to change without notice
49
Serial bus analysis
The 10 bit addressing mode is downward compatible with the
7 bit addressing mode by using 4 of 16 reserved addresses and
can be used simultaneously. For a 10 bit address length, a total
of 1136 addresses (1024 + 128 - 16) is available. The highest
10 bit address is 1023 (0x3FF). The selected address length is
displayed in the I2C settings window and is highlighted by the
menu key in blue.
The SLAVE ADDRESS is the address used on the BUS to distinguish which slave the master communicates with. Use the
universal knob to select the address for the observing bus
participant to be triggered.
the state H (=1), L (=0) or X (don’t care) for each bit. The state
X defines any state. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire
byte can be set to X.
If you choose the hexadecimal input, use the soft menu key
VALUE and the universal knob to set the respective byte value.
The soft menu key SELECT BYTE allows you to edit the different
bytes (byte 1 to byte 2 to byte 3 etc.) sequentially (depending on
the defined NUMBER OF BYTES). The active byte will be marked
with a green border in the display window of the trigger condition (see fig. 12.9). Press the MENU OFF button three times to
close all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set
address and data.
12.4 SPI / SSPI BUS
The Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is used to communicate with
slow peripheral devices, in particular for the transfer of data
streams. The SPI bus was developed by Motorola (today known
as Freescale); however, it has not been formally standardized.
Generally, this is a bus with clock and data lines and a select
line (3-wire). If only one master and one slave are present, the
select line may be deleted. This type of line is also called SSPI
(Simple SPI) (2-wire).
Fig. 12.9: I2C data trigger menu
The soft menu DATA enables you to enter specific data in addition to the address. With this menu, you can trigger on clearly
defined data bytes (color cyan) within the transmission, allowing
you to filter out irrelevant transmissions.
You can trigger on up to 24 bit (3 byte) of data. An offset of 0
to 4095 to the address is allowed. Select BYTE OFFSET which
defines the distance between the bytes relevant for the trigger condition and the address. In most cases, the byte offset
is zero if the trigger is to occur on the maximum first 24 bits
after the address. The soft menu key NUMBER OF BYTES allows
you to define how many bytes are to be analyzed for the trigger
condition. The input may be binary or hexadecimal (PATTERN
INPUT). If binary input is selected, the individual bits can be
assigned to any condition via soft menu key SELECT BIT and
the universal knob. The soft menu key STATE allows you to set
Fig. 12.11: SPI BUS signal source
The HMO series supports the following bit rates (for measurements without measuring object via BUS SIGNAL SOURCE):
– 100 kBit/s,
– 250 kBit/s and
– 1 MBit/s.
Use the soft menu PROBE COMP & BUS SIGNAL SOURCE to
select the respective clock rate in the SETUP menu (page 2|2).
A SPI BUS has the following properties:
– Master-slave communication
– No instrument addressing
– No acknowledge to confirm data reception
– Duplex capability
Most SPI buses have 4 common lines, 2 data lines and 2 control
lines:
– Clock to all slaves (SCLK)
– Slave select or chip select lines (SS or CS)
– Master-Out-Slave-In, Slave-Data-Input (MOSI or SDI)
– Master-In-Slave-Out, Slave-Data-Output (MISO or SDO)
Fig. 12.10: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
50
Subject to change without notice
If the master generates a clock pulse and selects a slave, data
can be transmitted in either one direction or simultaneously in
both directions.
Serial bus analysis
If the option HOO10 is installed, it is possible to select analog and digital channels as source. For the
installed option HOO11, only the analog channels
are available as source. For two channel instruments and a 3-wire SPI, the chip select signal has
to be connected to the external trigger input.
Fig. 12.12: Simple configuration of a SPI BUS
12.4.1SPI / SSPI BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2, page 45) or the analog channels
(see chapter 4.5, page 21). The default setting for
both is 500 mV. For the two channel instruments,
the CS (chip select) must be connected to the external trigger input; the level can be set at the setup
menu of the bus under CONFIGURATION > EXTERNAL LEVEL.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
Certain settings are necessary to guarantee that a SPI bus is
decoded correctly. First, you have to determine if a SPI system
with or without chip select is available (2-wire or 3-wire SPI).
This can be done in the BUS setup menu when selecting the
BUS type. For a 2-wire SPI system, select the option SSPI; for
a 3-wire SPI system, select the option SPI.
Then press the CONFIGURATION button to open the setup
menu for SPI.
In addition to assigning the source, the soft menu key ACTIVE
allows you to select the following settings:
CS:
CLK:
DATA:
Chip select high or low active (low active is the default
setting)
Data will be stored with rising or falling slope (rising
slope is the default setting)
Data high or low active (high active is the default
setting)
You can use the soft menu key BIT ORDER to determine if the
data of each message starts with the MSB (most significant
bit) or the LSB (least significant bit). The soft menu key WORD
SIZE allows you to select via universal knob how many bits are
included per message. You may select any value between 1
and 32 bits.
12.4.2SPI / SSPI BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose SPI Bus. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the
control panel to list all available SPI trigger conditions.
Fig. 12.14: SPI trigger menu
Fig. 12.13: Menu for the definition of a SPI bus
Use the top soft menu key SOURCE to select the respective
channel for chip select (CS), clock (Clk) and data. Select the
respective soft menu key CS, Clk or Data (key will be highlighted in blue) and then use the soft menu key DATA and the
universal knob to the select the respective source channel. For
the 2-wire SPI, select the possible TIME OUT instead of a chip
select source. During the time out, data and clock line are at
Low. When the time out has been reached, a new frame begins.
If the time intervals between the data packets are shorter than
the time out, these packets belong to the same frame. You can
select the dead time via universal knob or via numeric input
(KEYPAD button). A small window provides information about
the current settings (see fig. 12.13).
The option FRAME START sets the trigger event on the start of
the frame. The frame starts when the chip select (CS) signal
switches to the selected active mode. By contrast, FRAME ENDE
sets the trigger event on the end of the frame. The frame ends
when the chip select (CS) signal switches from the selected
active to the inactive mode. The soft menu key BIT and the
universal knob allow you to select the trigger time to the set
bit within the set bit sequence. You can also enter a numeric
value to determine the desired bit number (KEYPAD button).
Use the soft menu SER. PATTERN to define a specific bit sequence within the frame which start the trigger event. The soft
menu key BIT OFFSET allows you to select the first bit of the
predefined bit sequence within the frame. The bits in front of
it have no impact on the trigger event (for instance, if the bit
Subject to change without notice
51
Serial bus analysis
offset = 2, bit 0 and bit 1 after CS will be ignored and the pattern begins with bit 2). You can select a value between 0 and
4095 via universal knob or enter it numerically (KEYPAD button). The soft menu key NUMBER OF BITS allows you to select
how many bits will be analyzed for the trigger condition. You
can select a value between 1 and 32 bit via universal knob. The
serial bit sequence (PATTERN INPUT) can be entered as binary
or hexadecimal value.
If you choose the binary input, the soft menu key SELECT BIT
and the universal knob allow you to select which individual bits
within the data are to be edited. The option STATE allows you
to assign a logic state to each bit (High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or
X = don’t care). The state X defines any state. If you choose the
hexadecimal input, the soft menu key VALUE and the universal
knob allow you to set the value for the respective nibble (4 bit).
If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire nibble can be set to
X. Use the soft menu key SELECT NIBBLE to toggle between
nibbles. The active nibble will be marked with a green border in
the display window of the trigger condition (see fig. 12.15). Press
the MENU OFF button three times to close all menus, and the
oscilloscope will trigger on the set bit sequence.
Fig. 12.17: Page 1 of the menu to define a UART bus
(see chapter 4.5, page 21). The default setting for
both is 500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
To decode the UART BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting
is selected after choosing the bus type UART in the BUS menu
and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu
that opens you can press the top soft menu key DATA SOURCE
to select the desired channel via universal knob. If the option
HOO10 is installed, each analog and digital channel is available
as source. If the option HOO11 is installed, it is only possible to
select analog channels as source.
Fig. 12.15: SPI data trigger menu
12.5 UART/RS-232 BUS
The UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) bus
is a general bus system and the base for many protocols. One
example is the RS-232 protocol. It consists of a frame with a
start bit, 5 to 9 data bits, one parity bit and a stop bit. The stop
bit can assume the single length, or 1.5 or twice the length of
a normal bit.
Start
Data0 Data1 [Data8][Parity] Stop
Fig. 12.16: UART bit sequence
The soft menu key ACTIVE can be used to determine if the data
transferred to the BUS are active high (High = 1) or active low
(Low = 1) (for RS-232, choose Low). Use the soft menu key
SYMBOL SIZE and the universal knob to select a value between
5 bit to 9 bit for the bits that form a symbol. Another setting can
be selected via soft menu key PARITY. Parity bits are used to
detect errors during a transmission.
The soft menu PARITY offers the following options:
– None: Use no parity bits
– Even: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is uneven (without parity bit)
– Odd: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is even (without parity bit)
The bottom soft menu key STOP BITS allows you to define the
length of the stop bit (1 = single, 1.5 = 1 1/2 or 2 = double).
The HMO series supports bit rates of 9600bit/s, 115.2kBit/s
and 1MBit/s (for measurements without measuring object via
BUS SIGNAL SOURCE). Use the soft menu PROBE COMP &
BUS SIGNAL SOURCE to select the respective clock rate in the
SETUP menu (page 2|2).
On page 2|2 of the UART BUS setup menu, you can select the
BIT RATE (symbol rate) via universal knob. The bit rate defines
how many bits are sent per second. The soft menu key BIT
RATE allows you to select standard numeric values. Press the
soft menu key USER if you wish to define customized rates via
universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
12.5.1UART/RS-232 BUS Configuration
The IDLE TIME describes the minimum time between the stop
bit of the last data and the start bit of the new data. The sole
purpose of the idle time is to define the start of a transmission and consequently the exact start of a frame (one or more
symbols, most commonly bytes). Only this information can
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2, page 45) or the analog channels
52
Subject to change without notice
Serial bus analysis
Fig. 12.18: Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
Fig. 12.20: UART trigger menu page 2
guarantee correct decoding and triggering (regardless of the
trigger type). A start bit within the idle time will not be recognized. You can enter the value via universal knob or numeric
input (KEYPAD button).
VALUE and the universal knob allow you to set the value for the
respective symbol. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire
symbol can be set to X. Use the soft menu key SELECT SYMBOL
to toggle between symbols.
12.5.2UART/RS-232 BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose UART. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel to list all available UART trigger conditions.
The soft menu PATTERN offers additional options for UART
trigger settings. The soft menu key SYMBOL OFFSET and the
universal knob are used to select the number of irrelevant symbols that proceed the pattern within the frame that are relevant
for the trigger event. Any value between 0 to 4095 symbols after
the start bit may be entered. Use the soft menu key NUMB. OF
SYMB. to select the number of relevant symbols as 1, 2 or 3. The
number of symbol defines the pattern size. The symbol length
(5 to 9 bit) was configured at the time of the bus definition and
will be observed accordingly in the trigger menu.
The value input for the symbols may be binary or hexadecimal
(as described above). Use the soft menu key PATTERN INPUT for
this selection. If binary input is selected, the individual bits can
be assigned via soft menu key SELECT BIT and the universal
knob. The soft menu key STATE allows you to determine the
state for each bit (1, 0 or X). If you choose the hexadecimal input,
the soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow you to
set the value for the respective symbol. Use the soft menu key
SELECT SYMBOL to toggle between symbols. The active byte
will be marked with a green border in the display window of the
trigger condition. Press the MENU OFF button twice to close
all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
Fig. 12.19: Trigger menu UART data
The trigger condition START BIT sets the start bit as trigger
event. The start bit is the first 0 bit that succeeds a stop bit or
idle time. The soft menu key FRAME START defines the first
start bit after idle time. The soft menu key SYMBOL<N>
assigns a predefined N-th symbol as trigger event. The soft
menu ANY SYMBOL allows you to define any symbol to trigger on. The symbol can be located anywhere within a frame.
The serial bit sequence (PATTERN INPUT) can be entered as
binary or hexadecimal value. If you choose the binary input, the
soft menu key SELECT BIT and the universal knob allow you
to select which individual bits within the data are to be edited.
Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to each bit (High
= H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X defines any
state. If you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key
Use the respective soft menu key on page 2|2 of the UART
trigger filter menu to select a PARITY ERROR (trigger with a
parity filter), a FRAME ERROR (trigger with a frame error) or a
BREAK (trigger with a break) as the desired trigger condition.
The BREAK condition is fulfilled if a stop bit does not succeed
a start bit within a specified time period. The stop bits low are
active during the break.
12.6 CAN BUS
The CAN (Controller Area Network) BUS is a bus system primarily developed for automotive applications and is used for the data
exchange between controller units and sensors. It can be found
increasingly in the aviation, healthcare, and general automation
industries. At the physical level, CAN is a differential signal,
therefore a differential probe (e.g. HZO40) is recommended
for decoding, although standard probes are equally suitable
to capture the signals. The standard data rates range between
10 kBit/s and 1 MBit/s. A CAN message primarily consists of a
Subject to change without notice
53
Serial bus analysis
start bit, the Frame ID (11 or 29 bit), the data length code DLC,
the data, a CRC, acknowledge and an end bit.
12.6.1CAN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2, page 45) or the analog channels
(see chapter 4.5, page 21). The default setting for
both is 500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
To decode the CAN BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting
is selected after choosing the bus type CAN in the BUS menu
and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu
that opens you can press the top soft menu key DATA to select
the desired channel via universal knob. An analog or a digital
channel can be connected to CAN-High or CAN-Low. In addition,
it is possible to connect a differential probe (e.g. HZO40) to an
analog channel. When using a differential probe, select CAN
High if the positive input of the probe is connected to CAN-H
and the negative input to CAN L. If the probe is connected with
reversed polarity, you must select CAN L.
The soft menu key SAMPLE POINT allows you to specify the
exact point within the bit at which the value for the current bit
is sampled. You can select a value in percent (25% to 90%) via
universal knob. The option BIT RATE defines how many bits are
transmitted per second and allows you to select default data
rates (10 / 20 / 33.333 / 50 / 83.333 / 100 / 125 / 250 / 500 kBit/s
and 1 MBit/s) via universal knob. Use the soft menu key USER
to specify user-defined bit rates. You can enter the value via
universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
Fig. 12.21: Setting the SAMPLE POINT during the CAN configuration
12.6.2CAN BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose CAN. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the
control panel to list all available CAN trigger conditions.
54
Subject to change without notice
The function START OF FRAME triggers on the first slope of
the SOF bit (synchronizing bit). The function END OF FRAME
triggers on the end of the frame. The soft menu FRAME offers
the following options:
–ERROR: General frame error
–OVERLOAD: Trigger on CAN Overload frames
–DATA: Trigger on data frames; select the correct identifier
type via universal knob
– READ DATA: Trigger on read frames; select the correct
identifier type via universal knob
–DATA|READ: Trigger on read and data frames; select the
correct identifier type via universal knob
– ID TYPE: Identifier type (11 bit, 29 bit or any)
The soft menu ERROR identifies various errors in a frame. This
menu allows you to choose one or several error message types
as trigger condition:
STUFF BIT
Individual frame segments (e.g. frame start etc.) are coded
during the bit stuffing procedure. The transmitter automatically adds a complimentary bit to the bit stream if it detects
5 consecutive bits with identical value in the bit stream to be
transmitted. A “stuff” error occurs if the 6th identical bit level
is detected in the specified sections.
FORM
A form error occurs if a fixed bit field contains one or several
invalid bits.
ACKNOWLEDGE
An authentication error occurs if the transmitter receives no
authentication (acknowledge).
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
CAN BUS applies a complex checksum calculation (Cyclic
Redundancy Check). The transmitter calculates the CRC and
transmits the result in a CRC sequence. The receiver calculates the CRC in the same manner. A CRC error occurs if the
calculated result deviates from the received CRC sequence.
The soft menu key IDENTIFIER identifies the priority and
the logical address of a message. In the menu that opens you
can press the top soft menu key to select the FRAME TYPE
(general data, read data or read/write data) via universal knob.
The soft menu IDENTIFIER SETUP below allows you to specify
the length of the identifier type via soft menu key ID TYPE
and universal knob (11 bit base or 29 bits for extended CAN
frames). The soft menu key COMPARE defines the comparison
function. If the pattern includes at least one X (don’t care),
it is possible to trigger on a value equal or not equal to the
specified value. If the pattern includes only 0 or 1, it is possible
to trigger on an area greater than or less than the specified
value. The PATTERN INPUT may be binary or hexadecimal. If
you choose the binary input, the soft menu key BIT and the
universal knob allow you to select which individual bits within
the data are to be edited.
Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to each bit (High
= H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X defines any
state. If you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key
VALUE and the universal knob allow you to set the value for
the respective byte. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire
byte can be set to X. Use the soft menu key BYTE to toggle
between bytes.
The soft menu IDENTIFIER AND DATA includes the same settings as the soft menu IDENTIFIER. In the menu that opens
you can select the FRAME TYPE (general data or read data) via
Serial bus analysis
top soft menu key and universal knob. In the menu IDENTIFIER SETUP below you can enter the address of the respective
pattern. The soft menu DATA SETUP allows you to specify the
data bit pattern or HEX values for up to 8 bytes (only available
if DATA was selected as frame type). Available comparisons
for address and data values are GREATER, EQUAL OR LESS,
EQUAL and NOT EQUAL.
Press the MENU OFF button twice or three times to close all
menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
To decode the LIN BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting
is selected after choosing the bus type LIN in the BUS menu
and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the
menu that opens you can press the top soft menu key DATA to
select the desired channel via universal knob. The soft menu
key POLARITY allows you to toggle between High and Low;
the active function will be highlighted in blue. An analog or a
digital channel can be connected to LIN-High or LIN-Low. You
can select any version for the LIN standard (version 1x, version
2x, J2602 or any) via soft menu key VERSION and universal
knob. The option BIT RATE allows you to specify the number of
transmitted bits per second. You can use the universal knob to
choose from predefined standard data rates (1.2 / 2.4 / 4.8 / 9.6
/ 10.417 and 19.2 KBit/s) and user-defined data rates (USER).
The highest possible user-defined data rate is 4MBit/s. You
can enter the user-defined value via universal knob or numeric
input (KEYPAD button).
If LIN standard VERSION J2602 is selected, you
may only choose from the predefined standard data
rates via bottom menu item and universal knob.
Fig. 12.22: CAN data trigger menu
12.7 LIN BUS
The LIN (Local Interconnect Network) BUS is a simple master/
slave bus system for automotive applications and is used for
the data exchange between controller units and sensors or
actuators. The signal is transmitted on one line with ground
reference to the vehicle mass. The standard data rates range
between 1.2 kBit/s and 19.2 kBit/s. A LIN message consists of
a header and the data.
A LIN BUS has the following properties:
– Serial single-wire communication protocol (byte-oriented)
– Master-slave communication (generally up to 12 knots)
– Master-controlled communication (master initiates / coordinates communication)
Fig. 12.23: Layout LIN byte structure
The data is transmitted in bytes without parity (based on UART).
Each byte consists of a start bit, 8 data bits and a stop bit.
12.7.1LIN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2, page 45) or the analog channels
(see chapter 4.5, page 21). The default setting for
both is 500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
Fig. 12.24:
Menu for the definition of a LIN bus
12.7.2LIN BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose LIN. This will only be available if it was configured earlier.
Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the control
panel to list all available CAN trigger conditions.
The function START OF FRAME triggers on the stop bit of the
synchronizing field. The function WAKE UP triggers after a wakeup frame. The soft menu ERROR identifies various errors in a
frame. This menu allows you to choose one or several error
message types as trigger condition:
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
LIN BUS applies a complex checksum calculation (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The transmitter calculates the CRC and transmits the result in a CRC sequence. The receiver calculates the
CRC in the same manner. A CRC error occurs if the calculated
result deviates from the received CRC sequence.
PARITY
Triggering occurs on a parity error. Parity bits are bit 6 and bit 7
of the identifier. The correct transfer of the identifier is verified.
Subject to change without notice
55
Serial bus analysis
SYNCHRONISATION
Triggering occurs if the synchronizing field indicates an error.
Available comparisons for address and data values are EQUAL
and NOT EQUAL.
With the soft menu key IDENTIFIER you can set the trigger to
a specific identifier or a specific identifier range. The soft menu
key COMPARE defines the comparison function. If the pattern
includes at least one X (don’t care), it is possible to trigger on
a value equal or not equal to the specified value. If the pattern
includes only 0 or 1, it is possible to trigger on an area greater
than or less than the specified value. The PATTERN INPUT may
be binary or hexadecimal. If you choose the binary input, the
soft menu key BIT and the universal knob allow you to select
which individual bits within the data are to be edited. Select the
option STATE to assign a logic state to each bit (High = H = 1,
Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X defines any state. If
you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key VALUE and
the universal knob allow you to set the value for the respective
byte. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire byte can be
set to X. Use the soft menu key BYTE to toggle between bytes.
Press the MENU OFF button twice or three times to close all
menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
The soft menu IDENTIFIER AND DATA and the soft menu key
IDENTIFIER SETUP include the same settings as the soft
menu IDENTIFIER. The soft menu DATA SETUP allows you
to specify the data bit pattern or HEX values for up to 8 bytes.
56
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 12.25: LIN data trigger menu
Remote control
13 Remote control
The HMO series is equipped with the interface card HO730,
which have an Ethernet and USB connection on board as a
standard.
To make any communication possible, the chosen
interface and it’s correcponding settings must be
the same in the PC as in the oscilloscope. Only exception is the virtual COM port, which is described
under the USB section.
13.1Ethernet
In addition to the USB interface, the interface card HO730 includes an Ethernet interface. Configure the settings in the oscilloscope for all necessary parameters after you select ETHERNET
as interface and press the soft menu key PARAMETER. You can
specify all parameters and assign a fixed IP address. You can
also assign a dynamic IP address with the activated DHCP
function. Please contact your IT management to configure the
settings properly.
If DHCP is used and the system cannot assign an
IP address to the HMO (for instance, if no Ethernet
cable is connected or the network does not support DHCP), it may take up to three minutes until a
timeout allows the interface to be configured again.
If the device has an IP address, it can be accessed via web
browser at this IP since the HO730 includes an integrated web
server. Enter the IP address in the location bar on your browser
(http//xxx.xxx.xxx.xx). This opens a window that includes the device name and type, serial number and interfaces with technical
information and configured parameters.
13.2 USB
All descriptions regarding the USB interface are
true for the HO730 interface card as well as for the
optional HO720 USB part. All currently available USB
driver are fully tested, functional and released for
Windows XP™ 32 Bit, Windows Vista™ or Windows 7™
both as 32Bit or 64Bit versions.
The USB interface must be chosen in the oscilloscope and does
not need any setting. At the first connection Windows ™ ask
for a driver. The driver you can find on the delivered CD or in
the internet at www.hameg.com at the download area for the
HO720/HO730. The connection can be done via the normal USB
or via the virtual COM port. The description how to install the
driver you can find in the HO720/730 manual.
If the virtual COM port will be used, you must set
USB as interface at the oscilloscope.
For further information, consult the HO720 manual at www.
hameg.com.
13.3 RS-232 (option HO720)
The RS-232 interface is made as a 9 pole D-SUB connecter. Over
this bi directional interface you can transfer settings, data and
screen dumps from an external device (PC) to the oscilloscope
or vice versa. The direct physical link between oscilloscope
and serial port of the PC can be done via an 9 pole cable with
shielding (1:1 wired). The maximal length must below 3 m.
The exact pinning oft he plug is as follows:
Pin
2 Tx Data (data from oscilloscope to external device)
3 Rx Data (data from external device to oscilloscope)
7 CTS ready for sending
8 RTS ready for receiving
5 ground (ground reference, due to oscilloscope
- category I - and power plug connected to earth)
9 +5 V supply voltage for external devices (max.400 mA)
The maxiaml amplitude at Tx, Rx, RTS und CTS is 12 Volt. The
standard RS-232 settings are:
8-N-2 (8 data bits,no parityt, 2 stop bits),
RTS/CTS-Hardware-protocol: none.
In order to set these parameter at the HMO, please press the
button SETUP at the front panel in the area GENERAL and hit
the soft key INTERFACE at the opened soft menu. Make sure
the RS-232 interface is chosen (blue backlighted) and then hit
the button PARAMETER. This opens a menu where you can set
and save all parameter for the RS-232 communication.
13.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740):
Fig. 13.1: web server with device data
To the left, you can use the link Screen Data to transfer a
screenshot of the HMO (Right-click to copy to the clipboard
for further use).
The optional interface card HO740 includes a IEEE488.2 interface. Configure the settings in the oscilloscope for all necessary
parameters after you select IEEE488 as interface and press the
soft menu key PARAMETER. For further information, consult the
HO740 manual at www.hameg.com.
The link SCPI Device Control opens a site with a console to
send remote SCPI commands to the oscilloscope.
For further information, consult the HO730 manual at www.
hameg.com.
Subject to change without notice
57
Appendix
Fig. 7.1: 14 Appendix
14.1 List of pictures
Fig. 1.1: Fig. 1.2: Various positions for HMO instruments
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
Fig. 2.1: Fig. 2.2: Fig. 2.3: Fig. 2.4: Fig. 2.5: Fig. 2.6: Fig. 2.7: Fig. 2.8: Fig. 2.9: Fig. 2.10: Fig: 2.11: Fig. 2.12: Fig. 2.13: Fig. 2.14: Fig. 2.15: Fig. 2.16: Frontview of the HMO3524
10
Control panel section A
10
Control panel section B
11
Control panel section C
11
Control panel section D
11
Screen view
11
Rear panel HMO3524 series
11
Selection of basic soft menu elements
12
Basic soft menu elements for settings and
navigation12
Menu for basic settings
13
Updating menu and information window
14
Menu and information window for help udates 14
„UPGRADE“ menu.
14
Manual licence key input.
14
Successful self alignment
15
Logic probe self alignment
15
Fig. 3.1: Fig. 3.2: Fig. 3.3: Fig. 3.4: Fig. 3.5: Fig. 3.6: Fig. 3.7: Fig. 3.8: Fig. 3.9: Fig. 3.10: Fig. 3.11: Fig. 3.12: Fig. 3.13: Fig. 3.14: Fig. 3.15: Control panel section A
Screen display after connection of the probe
Screen display after changing to DC coupling
Screen display after nach Autosetup
Section D of the control panel with zoom key
Zoom function
Cursor measurements
Quickview parameter measurement
AutoMeasure menu
Selection of parameter
Measuring the parameters of two sources
Formula editor
Save/Recall menu
SCREENSHOTS menu
File naming
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
18
18
18
19
19
19
Fig. 4.1: Fig. 4.2: Fig. 4.3: Control panel for the vertical system
Short menu for vertical settings Correct connection of the probe to the
probe adjust output
Vertical offset Threshold setting Name selection
20
20
Fig. 4.4: Fig. 4.5:
Fig. 4.6: Fig. 5.1: Fig. 5.2: Fig. 5.3: 7
9
20
20
21
21
Fig. 5.4: Fig. 5.5: Fig. 5.6: Fig. 5.7: Control panel of the horizontal system
22
AM modulated signal with maximum repeat rate23
AM modulated signal with maximum sampling
rate23
AM modulated signal with automatic setting
24
Zoom function
25
Marker in zoom mode
25
Search mode with event list
26
Fig. 6.1: Fig. 6.2: Fig. 6.3: Fig. 6.4: Fig. 6.5: Fig. 6.6: Control panel for the trigger system
Coupling modes with slope trigger
Menu for pulse trigger settings
Menu for logic trigger settings
Logic channels’ settings display
Video trigger menu
58
Subject to change without notice
27
27
28
29
29
30
Fig. 7.2: Fig. 7.3: Fig. 7.4: Fig. 7.5: Drawing of the virtual screen area and
an example
Menu for setting the signal display intensities
Persistence function
Settings in the X–Y menu
Settings for the Z input
Fig. 8.1: Fig. 8.2: Fig. 8.3: Selection menu for cursor measurements
33
Menu for the automatic measurements settings34
Statistics for automatic measurements
36
Fig. 9.1: Fig. 9.2: Fig. 9.3: Fig. 9.4: Fig. 9.5: Fig. 9.6: Fig. 9.7 Mathematics short menu
Quick Mathematics menu
Formula editor for formula sets
Entry of constants and units
FFT illustration
Advanced FFT menu
PASS/FAIL mask test.
36
37
37
37
38
39
40
Fig. 10.1: Fig. 10.2: Fig. 10.3: Fig. 10.4: Fig. 10.5: Fig. 10.6: Fig. 10.7: Fig. 10.8: Basic menu for instrument settings
Storing instrument settings
Loading instrument settings
Import/Export menu for instrument settings
Loading and storing references
Storage menu for curves
Screenshot menu
Definition of FILE/PRINT key 41
41
41
41
42
42
43
44
31
31
31
32
32
Fig. 11.1: Settings for the logic channel display
45
Fig. 12.1: Fig. 12.2: Fig. 12.3: Fig. 12.4: Fig. 12.5: Fig. 12.6:
Fig. 12.7:
Fig. 12.8: Fig. 12.9:
Fig. 12.10: Fig. 12.11: Fig. 12.12: Fig. 12.13: Fig. 12.14: Fig. 12.15: Fig. 12.16: Fig. 12.17: Fig. 12.18:
Fig. 12.19: Fig. 12.20: Fig. 12.21: 47
47
48
48
48
49
49
49
50
50
50
51
51
51
52
52
52
53
53
53
Fig. 12.22: Fig. 12.23: Fig. 12.24:
Fig. 12.25: Menu for the definition of buses
Decoding format selection menu
Example I2C BUS with BUS table
I2C BUS signal source
I2C 7 bit address
Menu for the definition of I2C sources
I2C message decoded with hexadecimal values I2C READ/WRITE trigger menu
I2C data trigger menu Example I2C BUS with BUS table
SPI BUS signal source
Simple configuration of a SPI BUS
Menu for the definition of a SPI bus SPI trigger menu
SPI data trigger menu UART bit sequence
Page 1 of the menu to define a UART bus
Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
Trigger menu UART data
UART trigger menu page 2
Setting the SAMPLE POINT during the
CAN configuration
CAN data trigger menu
Layout LIN byte structure
Menu for the definition of a LIN bus
LIN data trigger menu
Fig. 13.1: web server with device data
14.2Glossary
Acquisition mode: 10
addition: 10, 16, 17, 20, 26, 31, 35, 41
ADJ. output: 14
adjustment: 9, 10, 18, 19, 20
54
55
55
55
56
57
Appendix
amplitude: 26, 27, 29, 30, 33
amplitudes: 26, 27
analog channel: 19, 37
analysis functions: 31
Analyze: 9
arbitrary: 20
arrow buttons: 21
Auto: 16, 22, 29
AUTOMATIC: 12, 20, 26
AUTOMEASURE: 16, 29
AUTOSET: 9, 14, 15
average: 8
Average: 20
Bandwidth: 11, 18, 20
Base Level:: 29
BNC connector: 10, 14
brightness: 26
B-Trigger: 22, 23
Blackman: 33
bus: 12, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45
bus analysis: 12, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45
Bus Signal Source: 12
Capturing modes: 20
COM port: 46
constants: 32
COUNT –: 29
COUNT +: 29
COUNT-/: 29
COUNT:: 28
coupling: 15, 18, 23
Coupling: 18
cursor measurements: 11, 16, 28, 29, 38
Cursor/Menu: 9, 20
CURSOR SELECT: 11, 15, 17, 23, 28, 32
CURSOR SELECT-key: 11
curves: 10, 26, 34, 35, 36, 37
Data manager: 13, 34, 35, 36
digital channel: 37
division: 10, 20, 25, 26, 31, 33
DVI connector: 10
Envelope: 20, 33
equations: 31, 32
Ethernet: 10, 46
Factory settings: 34
FALL TIME: 30
FFT analysis: 32
FFT display: 32, 33
FFT function: 33
FFT results: 33
FILE/PRINT: 9, 17, 37
firmware: 12, 33, 37
firmware update: 33
formula editor: 17, 31
frequency: 12, 19, 23, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 38
frequency analysis: 31, 32
Frequenz: 33
General: 9, 11, 13
glue to: 28
Half frames: 25
Hamming: 33
handle: 7, 8, 14
Hanning: 33
hardware counter: 28, 30
help: 11, 12
high pass filter: 23
Horizontal: 10, 20
horizontal positioning: 15
IEEE-488: 10
input impedance: 18
instrument settings: 9, 12, 17, 34, 35
intensity: 26, 27
Language: 9, 11, 12, 13
level: 10, 11, 17, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
licence key: 13, 39
LINE MIN: 25
logic channel: 37, 38, 40, 42
logic level: 24, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
logic probes: 9, 10, 37
low pass filter: 23
Mathematics function: 10
MAX. REP RATE: 20
MAX. SAMPL. RATE: 20
mean value: 29, 33
mean voltage: 16, 29
memory depth: 15, 21
memory location: 32
mixed-signal operation: 10
Modulation: 27
multiplication: 31
Negative Duty Cycle:: 30
NIBBLE: 42
Normal: 20, 22
normal trigger: 10, 20
NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE: 41
NTSC: 24
Offset: 18, 19, 25, 41, 42
PAL: 24
PASS/FAIL: 33, 34
PATTERN INPUT: 42, 43
PEAK –: 29
PEAK +: 29
PEAK LEVELS: 28
PEAK VALUE: 20
PERIOD: 29
Periodendauer: 16
Persistence: 9, 26
Positive Duty Cycle:: 29
Probe attenuation: 19
pulse trigger: 23, 24
Pulse Width -:: 29
Pulse Width +:: 29
Quickview: 11, 16
Quickview mode: 33
R ANDOM SAMPL: 20
RATIO X: 28, 38
RATIO Y: 28
reference: 9, 10, 11, 20, 23, 24, 34, 35, 36, 39
reference curves: 34, 35
references: 23, 24, 26, 35, 39
reference signal: 9, 10
rise and fall times: 16, 28
rise-time: 16, 30
Rise-time: 28, 30, 33
Subject to change without notice
59
Appendix
RMS: 16
RMS MEAN: 28
rms value: 29, 33
Roll: 20
RS-232 interface: 46
Sampling rate: 10, 20, 37
Save/Recall: 9, 17
SCL: 12
SCPI Device Control: 46
screen displays: 9, 17, 34
Screenshots: 17, 36
SDA: 12
self alignment: 13, 14
sensitivity: 18
Sensitivity: 18
short menu: 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 31, 35, 37, 38, 39
Signal inversion: 19
Signals: 17
signal source: 12, 14, 18
single sweep: 10
Single: 22
slope: 10, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 38, 41
soft key: 9, 11, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 28, 36
soft menu keys: 11, 24, 26, 28, 31, 37, 38
sources: 16, 17, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31, 40
Square: 12, 31, 33
square wave signal: 12, 15
storage location: 34
subtraction: 17, 31
TIME: 11, 21, 23, 24, 28, 30, 33, 38, 43
time base: 10, 12, 15, 16, 20, 21, 26, 32, 33, 34, 35
toggle key: 33, 34, 39
Top Level:: 30
trigger conditions: 10, 20, 22, 34, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45
TRIGGER FREQ: 30
trigger level: 10, 23, 24, 25, 29
trigger mode: 22, 23
TRIGGER PER.: 30
trigger signal: 10, 23, 30
trigger slope: 10
trigger source: 10, 22, 24, 30
trigger type: 10, 22, 23, 40
two-window display: 15
UART: 12, 13, 39, 42, 43
UART/RS-232 Bus: 42, 43, 44
universal knob: 11, 13, 17, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33,
35, 36, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43
UPGRADE menu: 13
USB port: 9, 12, 13, 36
USB stick: 9, 12, 17, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37
user interface: 11
VERTICAL: 10, 18, 24, 26, 27, 35, 37, 38, 39
vertical amplifier: 18
vertical position: 18
V-marker: 15, 28, 38
voltage: 8, 16, 18, 19, 28, 29, 33
voltage selector: 8
XY function: 26, 27
XY mode: 10
Y-Positioning: 18
Z input: 26, 27
60
Subject to change without notice
ZOOM: 15, 21
zoom mode: 15, 21
Appendix
Subject to change without notice
61
Appendix
62
Subject to change without notice
Appendix
Subject to change without notice
63
Oscilloscopes
Spectrum Analyzer
Power Supplies
Modular System
Series 8000
authorized dealer
43-2030-2010
41-3524-10E0
*43-2030-2010*
*41-3524-10E0*
Programmable Instruments
Series 8100
www.hameg.com
Subjecttochangewithoutnotice
Subject
to change without notice
43-2030-2010(10)21092011
41-3524-10E0
(01) 08072013
©HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH
©
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
AARohde&SchwarzCompany
Rohde & Schwarz Company
DQS-Certification:DINENISO9001:2000
DQS-Zertifikation:
DIN EN ISO 9001
Reg.-Nr.:071040QM
Reg.-Nr.:
071040 QM
HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH
HAMEG
Instruments GmbH
Industriestraße6
Industriestraße
6
D-63533Mainhausen
D-63533 Mainhausen
Tel+49(0)6182800-0
Tel
+49 (0) 61 82 800-0
Fax+49(0)6182800-100
Fax +49 (0) 61 82 800-100
[email protected]
[email protected]
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