Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux

Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux
Oracle® Clusterware
Installation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1) for Linux
B28263-02
August 2007
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1) for Linux
B28263-02
Copyright © 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Douglas Williams
Contributing Authors: Mark Bauer, Namrata Bhakthavatsalam, Jonathan Creighton, Barb Lundhild, Saar
Maoz, Markus Michalewicz, Hanlin Qian, Dipak Saggi, Ara Shakian
Contributors: David Austin, Tanya Bagerman, Aimee Cai, Sumanta Chatterjee, Tracy Chen, Larry Clarke,
Sudip Datta, Dave Diamond, Richard Frank, Luann Ho, Julie Hu, Priyesh Jaiswal, Rajiv Jayaraman, Sameer
Joshi, Roland Knapp, George Kotsovolos, Raj Kumar, Ranjith Kundapur, Seshasai Koduru, Vivekananda
Kolla, Ram Kumar, Sergio Leunissen, Karen Li, Rich Long, Allen Lui, Venkat Maddali, Arnab Maity, Ofir
Manor, Sundar Matpadi, Louise Morin, Anil Nair, Shoko Nishijima, Matthew McKerley, Philip Newlan,
Goran Olsson, Balaji Pagadala, Soma Prasad, Srinivas Poovala, Sandesh Rao, Sudheendra Sampath, Ghassan
Salem, Arun Saral, Vishal Saxena, Sanjay Sharma, David Schreiner, Vivian Schupmann, Janelle Simmons,
Khethavath P. Singh, Duane Smith, Malai Stalin, Janet Stern, Jason Straub, Eri Suzuki, Madhu Velukur, Nitin
Vengurlekar, Sumana Vijayagopal, Ajesh Viswambharan, Rache Wang, Pierre Wagner, Sergiusz Wolicki, Bin
Yan, Jun Yang, Sivakumar Yarlagadda, Gary Young, Shi Zhao, Ricky Zhu
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. ix
Intended Audience......................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility .....................................................................................................................
Related Documents .....................................................................................................................................
Conventions .................................................................................................................................................
ix
ix
x
xi
What's New in Oracle Clusterware Installation and Configuration? ........................... xiii
Changes in Installation Documentation.................................................................................................
Enhancements and New Features for Installation................................................................................
Oracle Validated Configuration RPM ....................................................................................................
1
xiii
xiv
xiv
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks
Installing the Linux Operating System................................................................................................ 1-1
Completing a Default Linux Installation ........................................................................................ 1-1
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM .......................................................................... 1-2
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM..................................................................... 1-2
Logging In to a Remote System as root Using X Terminal............................................................... 1-3
Overview of Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware Installations........................................... 1-4
Creating Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware.......................................................................... 1-4
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Group.................................................................................. 1-5
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Directory ............................................................................ 1-5
Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists ................................ 1-6
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist.......................... 1-6
Creating the Oracle Clusterware User ............................................................................................ 1-6
Example of Creating the Oracle Clusterware User and OraInventory Path ............................. 1-8
Checking the Hardware Requirements................................................................................................ 1-8
Checking the Network Requirements............................................................................................... 1-10
Network Hardware Requirements ............................................................................................... 1-10
IP Address Requirements .............................................................................................................. 1-11
Node Time Requirements .............................................................................................................. 1-12
Network Configuration Options................................................................................................... 1-12
Configuring the Network Requirements..................................................................................... 1-13
Identifying Software Requirements.................................................................................................. 1-14
Software Requirements List for x86 (32-bit) Linux Platforms ................................................. 1-14
Checking the Software Requirements .............................................................................................. 1-18
iii
Configuring Kernel Parameters..........................................................................................................
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux ..................................................................................
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes ...........................................................................................
Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System ...............................................................
Configuring SSH on Cluster Member Nodes .............................................................................
Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Member Nodes ...................................................
Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration .................................................................
Preventing Oracle Clusterware Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands ...................
Configuring Software Owner User Environments.........................................................................
Environment Requirements for Oracle Clusterware Software Owner ...................................
Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments........................................
Setting Shell Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users ...............................................
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Clusterware Home Directory ..........................................
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility..................................................................
Entering Cluster Verification Utility Commands.......................................................................
Using CVU to Determine if Installation Prerequisites are Complete......................................
Using the Cluster Verification Utility Help.................................................................................
Using Cluster Verification Utility with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 or 2..........................
Verbose Mode and "Unknown" Output ......................................................................................
Checking Oracle Clusterware Installation Readiness with CVU................................................
2
1-19
1-22
1-22
1-23
1-23
1-25
1-27
1-27
1-28
1-28
1-28
1-30
1-31
1-32
1-32
1-33
1-33
1-34
1-34
1-34
Oracle Real Application Clusters Preinstallation Tasks
Creating Standard Configuration Operating System Groups and Users...................................... 2-1
Overview of Groups and Users for Oracle Database Installations ............................................. 2-2
Creating Standard Operating System Groups and Users ............................................................ 2-2
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles ................................................. 2-4
Overview of Creating Operating System Group and User Options Based on Job Roles ........ 2-4
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation ............... 2-6
Understanding the Oracle Base Directory Path............................................................................... 2-11
Overview of the Oracle Base directory ........................................................................................ 2-11
Understanding Oracle Base and Oracle Clusterware Directories............................................ 2-11
Creating the Oracle Base Directory Path .......................................................................................... 2-12
Environment Requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle ASM Owners ............................ 2-12
Overview of HugePages....................................................................................................................... 2-12
What HugePages Provides ............................................................................................................ 2-13
Restrictions for HugePage Configurations.................................................................................. 2-13
3
Configuring Oracle Clusterware Storage
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware Files ...............................................................
Overview of Oracle Clusterware Storage Options........................................................................
General Storage Considerations for Oracle Clusterware .............................................................
Quorum Disk Location Restriction with Existing 9.2 Clusterware Installations......................
After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options ............................................................................
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU ...........................................................................
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Supported Shared File System ...........
Requirements for Using a File System for Oracle Clusterware Files..........................................
Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files..........................................
iv
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-5
Checking NFS Mount Buffer Size Parameters for Clusterware ..................................................
Creating Required Directories for Oracle Clusterware Files on Shared File Systems .............
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Clusterware Files..................................................................
Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Clusterware .....................................
Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Clusterware ....................................
4
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Database and Recovery Files........................................... 4-1
Overview of Oracle Database and Recovery File Options........................................................... 4-1
General Storage Considerations for Oracle RAC .......................................................................... 4-2
After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options ............................................................................ 4-4
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU ........................................................................... 4-4
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database Files...................................................................... 4-5
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System ................ 4-5
Requirements for Using a File System for Oracle Database Files ............................................... 4-6
Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Data Files.................................................................... 4-6
Deciding to Use NFS for Data Files ................................................................................................. 4-7
Deciding to Use Direct NFS for Datafiles ....................................................................................... 4-7
Enabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager Control of NFS ............................................ 4-9
Disabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Management Control of NFS.................................... 4-9
Checking NFS Mount Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle RAC................................................ 4-10
Creating Required Directories for Oracle Database Files on Shared File Systems................ 4-10
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management .............................................................. 4-11
Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management ............................... 4-11
Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group ............................................ 4-14
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management with ASMLIB ................................. 4-15
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices............................. 4-19
Planning Your Shared Storage Device Creation Strategy ......................................................... 4-20
Identifying Required Shared Partitions for Database Files....................................................... 4-20
Using Block Devices on Linux....................................................................................................... 4-21
Using Raw Logical Volumes on Linux ........................................................................................ 4-21
Creating Raw Devices on IDE or SCSI Devices .......................................................................... 4-22
Desupport of the Database Configuration Assistant Raw Device Mapping File .................. 4-23
Checking the System Setup with CVU ............................................................................................. 4-23
5
Installing Oracle Clusterware
Verifying Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU ..................................................................
Interpreting CVU Messages About Oracle Clusterware Setup...................................................
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI............................................................................
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI .............................................................................................
Running OUI to Install Oracle Clusterware...................................................................................
Installing Oracle Clusterware Using a Cluster Configuration File.............................................
Troubleshooting OUI Error Messages for Oracle Clusterware ...................................................
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function...........................................................................................
5-1
5-2
5-4
5-7
5-8
5-8
5-9
5-9
v
6
Oracle Clusterware Post-Installation Procedures
Required Post-Installation Tasks ..........................................................................................................
Back Up the Voting Disk After Installation....................................................................................
Download and Install Patch Updates .............................................................................................
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks ................................................................................................
Back Up the root.sh Script.................................................................................................................
7
Deinstallation of Oracle Clusterware
Deciding When to Deinstall Oracle Clusterware ..............................................................................
Relocating Single-instance ASM to a Single-Instance Database Home........................................
Removing Oracle Clusterware ..............................................................................................................
About the rootdelete.sh Script..........................................................................................................
Example of the rootdelete.sh Parameter File .................................................................................
About the rootdeinstall.sh Script .....................................................................................................
Removing Oracle Clusterware .........................................................................................................
A
A-1
A-2
A-4
A-4
A-4
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
Back Up the Oracle Software Before Upgrades.................................................................................
Restrictions for Clusterware Upgrades to Oracle Clusterware 11g ...............................................
Upgrading from Oracle Clusterware 10g Release 2 to Oracle Clusterware 11g ......................
Upgrading from Oracle Cluster Ready Services 10g Release 1 to Oracle Clusterware 11g ...
Verify System Readiness for Patches and Upgrades ........................................................................
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database...................................................................
Shut Down Oracle RAC Databases ................................................................................................
Stop All Oracle Processes.................................................................................................................
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades for Patches.............................................
Copy Patch Software to the Primary Upgrade Node ..................................................................
Shut Down Oracle RAC Instances on Upgrade Nodes ...............................................................
Stop All Oracle Processes on Upgrade Nodes ..............................................................................
Start OUI and Complete Upgrade Processes on Upgrade Nodes .............................................
How to Perform Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release to 11g ..............................................
Index
vi
7-1
7-1
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-3
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware Installation Process
Install OS Watcher and RACDDT .......................................................................................................
General Installation Issues....................................................................................................................
Missing Operating System Packages On Linux ................................................................................
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Oracle Clusterware Installations.................................
Interconnect Errors..................................................................................................................................
B
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2
B-1
B-1
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-4
B-4
B-5
B-5
B-6
B-7
vii
List of Tables
1–1
1–2
1–3
1–4
3–1
3–2
4–1
4–2
4–3
4–4
viii
Linux x86 (32-bit) Operating System Kernel Requirements ............................................. 1-14
Linux x86 (32-bit) Oracle Clusterware Patch Requirements............................................. 1-15
Linux x86 (32-bit) Oracle Database and Oracle RAC Patch Requirements .................... 1-16
Linux x86 Oracle Database Features Packages................................................................... 1-17
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware............................................................. 3-2
Shared File System Volume Size Requirements .................................................................... 3-5
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Recovery Files................................ 4-3
Shared File System Volume Size Requirements .................................................................... 4-6
ORACLEASM Script Options ............................................................................................... 4-19
Shared Devices or Logical Volumes Required for Database Files on Linux .................. 4-20
Preface
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux explains how to install and configure
Oracle Clusterware, and how to configure a server and storage in preparation for an
Oracle Real Application Clusters installation.
This preface contains the following topics:
■
Intended Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documents
■
Conventions
Intended Audience
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux provides configuration information for
network and system administrators, and database installation information for
database administrators (DBAs) who install and configure Oracle Clusterware.
For customers with specialized system roles who intend to install Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC), this book is intended to be used by system
administrators, network administrators, or storage administrators to complete the
process of configuring a system in preparation for an Oracle Clusterware installation,
and complete all configuration tasks that require operating system root privileges.
When configuration and installation of Oracle Clusterware is completed successfully, a
system administrator should only need to provide configuration information and to
grant access to the database administrator to run scripts as root during Oracle RAC
installation.
This guide assumes that you are familiar with Oracle database concepts. For
additional information, refer to books in the Related Documents list.
Documentation Accessibility
Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation
accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our
documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive
technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to
facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to
evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading
technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be
accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility
Program Web site at
ix
http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/
Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation
Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The
conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an
otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text
that consists solely of a bracket or brace.
Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation
This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or
organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes
any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.
TTY Access to Oracle Support Services
Oracle provides dedicated Text Telephone (TTY) access to Oracle Support Services
within the United States of America 24 hours a day, seven days a week. For TTY
support, call 800.446.2398.
Related Documents
For more information, refer to the following Oracle resources:
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Documentation
Most Oracle error message documentation is only available in HTML format. If you
only have access to the Oracle Documentation media, then browse the error messages
by range. When you find a range, use your browser's "find in page" feature to locate a
specific message. When connected to the Internet, you can search for a specific error
message using the error message search feature of the Oracle online documentation.
However, error messages for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC tools are included in
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide, or Oracle Real Application
Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide.
This installation guide reviews steps required to complete an Oracle Clusterware
installation, and to perform preinstallation steps for Oracle RAC. If you intend to
install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, then review those installation guides for
additional information.
Installation Guides
■
Oracle Diagnostics Pack Installation Guide
■
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
Operating System-Specific Administrative Guides
■
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1) for UNIX Systems
■
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows
Oracle Real Application Clusters Management
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
■
x
Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
■
Getting Started with the Oracle Diagnostics Pack
Generic Documentation
■
Oracle Database New Features Guide
■
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database Reference
Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at the following Web
site:
http://oraclestore.oracle.com/
To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other
collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online
before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at the following Web site:
http://otn.oracle.com/membership/
If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the
documentation section of the OTN Web site at the following Web site:
http://otn.oracle.com/documentation/
Oracle error message documentation is available only in HTML. You can browse the
error messages by range in the Documentation directory of the installation media.
When you find a range, use your browser's "find in page" feature to locate a specific
message. When connected to the Internet, you can search for a specific error message
using the error message search feature of the Oracle online documentation.
If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the
documentation section of the OTN Web Site:
http://otn.oracle.com/documentation/
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
xi
xii
What's New in Oracle Clusterware
Installation and Configuration?
This section describes Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) features as they pertain to
the installation and configuration of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC) The topics in this section are:
■
Changes in Installation Documentation
■
Enhancements and New Features for Installation
■
Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
Changes in Installation Documentation
With Oracle Database 11g release 1, Oracle Clusterware can be installed or configured
as an independent product, and additional documentation is provided on storage
administration. For installation planning, note the following documentation:
Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide
This book provides an overview and examples of the procedures to install and
configure a two-node Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC environment.
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
This book (the guide that you are reading) provides procedures either to install Oracle
Clusterware as a standalone product, or to install Oracle Clusterware with either
Oracle Database, or Oracle RAC. It contains system configuration instructions that
require system administrator privileges.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
This platform-specific book provides procedures to install Oracle RAC after you have
completed successfully an Oracle Clusterware installation. It contains database
configuration instructions for database administrators.
Oracle Database Storage Administrator’s Guide
This book provides information for database and storage administrators who
administer and manage storage, or who configure and administer Automatic Storage
Management (ASM).
xiii
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
This is the administrator’s reference for Oracle Clusterware. It contains information
about administrative tasks, including those that involve changes to operating system
configurations and cloning Oracle Clusterware.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
This is the administrator’s reference for Oracle RAC. It contains information about
administrative tasks. These tasks include database cloning, node addition and
deletion, Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) administration, use of SRVCTL and other
database administration utilities, and tuning changes to operating system
configurations.
Enhancements and New Features for Installation
The following is a list of enhancements and new features for Oracle Database 11g
release 1 (11.1):
New SYSASM Privilege and OSASM operating system group for ASM
Administration
This feature introduces a new SYSASM privilege that is specifically intended for
performing ASM administration tasks. Using the SYSASM privilege instead of the
SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of responsibility between ASM
administration and database administration.
OSASM is a new operating system group that is used exclusively for ASM. Members
of the OSASM group can connect as SYSASM using operating system authentication
and have full access to ASM.
OPROCD Monitors Cluster Nodes
With Oracle Clusterware 11g, the Oracle Clusterware Process Monitor Daemon
(oprocd) monitors the system state of cluster nodes. You no longer need to install and
configure the hangcheck timer on Linux.
Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
The Oracle Validated Configuration RPM can be installed on servers using Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or Oracle Enterprise Linux operating systems. It is available from the
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). This RPM completes most preinstallation
configuration tasks required for installing Oracle Clusterware, including setting kernel
parameters and adding required kernel RPMs. It also prepares a server for installation
of Oracle RAC.
xiv
1
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks
This chapter describes the system configuration tasks that you must complete before
you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Installing the Linux Operating System
■
Logging In to a Remote System as root Using X Terminal
■
Overview of Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware Installations
■
Creating Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware
■
Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
Checking the Network Requirements
■
Identifying Software Requirements
■
Checking the Software Requirements
■
Configuring Kernel Parameters
■
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes
■
Configuring Software Owner User Environments
■
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Clusterware Home Directory
■
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility
■
Checking Oracle Clusterware Installation Readiness with CVU
Installing the Linux Operating System
This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution. It
contains the following topics:
■
Completing a Default Linux Installation
■
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
■
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
Completing a Default Linux Installation
Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system with the default
software packages (RPMs). This installation includes most of the required packages
and helps you limit manual checks of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that
you do not customize the RPMs during installation.
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-1
Installing the Linux Operating System
After installation, add all of the Legacy Software Development packages. Review
system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you have all required kernel
packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks required for your
distribution, and for your system configuration.
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
If your Linux distribution is Oracle Enterprise Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and
you are an Unbreakable Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation
configuration tasks by using the Oracle Validated Configurations Setup RPM,
available from the Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
When it is installed, the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM sets and verifies system
parameters based on recommendations from the Oracle Validated Configurations
program, and installs any additional packages needed for installing Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Database. It also updates sysctl.conf settings, system
startup parameters, user limits, and driver parameters to values extensive testing
shows will provide better performance.
To become an Oracle Unbreakable Linux customer, contact your sales representative,
or purchase a license from the Unbreakable Linux store:
http://oraclestore.oracle.com/linux
To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more
information, refer to the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
Use the following procedure to subscribe to Oracle Unbreakable Linux channels, and
to add the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux channel that distributes the Oracle
Validated Configurations Setup RPM:
1.
Complete a default Oracle Enterprise Linux workstation installation, or a default
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
2.
Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Enterprise Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
3.
Log in to ULN at the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
4.
Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The
System Details window opens, and displays the subscriptions for the server.
5.
From the Available Channels list, select the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux
channel that is appropriate for your installation of Linux (for example: "Oracle
Software for Enterprise Linux 4 (x86_64)."
6.
Click Subscribe.
7.
From a terminal session, as root, enter the following command:
# up2date --nox --show-channels
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Software
for Enterprise Linux channel. For example:
el4_i386_latest
1-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Logging In to a Remote System as root Using X Terminal
el4_i386_oracle
8.
Open a terminal session as root, and install the Oracle Validated Configurations
Setup RPM with up2date, using the following command:
# up2date --install oracle-validated
9.
Repeat steps 1 through 8 on all other servers in your cluster.
Check the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM log file to
review system configuration changes:
Note:
/etc/sysconfig/oracle-validated/results/orakernel.log
Logging In to a Remote System as root Using X Terminal
Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root
user on the system where you install Oracle software. To complete tasks as the root
user on a remote server, you need to enable remote display as root.
If you log in as another user (for example, oracle), then you
need to repeat this procedure for that user as well.
Note:
To enable remote display, complete one of the following procedures:
■
If you are installing the software from an X Window System workstation or X
terminal, then:
1.
Start a local terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
2.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a
command using the following syntax to enable remote hosts to display X
applications on the local X server:
$ xhost + remote_host
where remote_host is the fully qualified remote hostname. For example:
$ xhost + somehost.example.com
somehost.example.com being added to the access control list
3.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh,
command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:
$ ssh remote_host
where remote_host is the fully qualified remote hostname. For example:
$ ssh somehost.example.com
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command
to switch the user to root:
$ su - root
password:
#
■
If you are installing the software from a PC or other system with X server software
installed, then:
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-3
Overview of Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware Installations
If necessary, refer to your X server documentation for more
information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X
server software that you are using, you may need to complete the
tasks in a different order.
Note:
1.
Start the X server software.
2.
Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts
to display X applications on the local system.
3.
Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software and start
a terminal session on that system, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user on the remote system, then enter the
following command to switch user to root:
$ su - root
password:
#
Overview of Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware Installations
You must create the following group and user to install Oracle Clusterware:
■
The Oracle Inventory group (typically, oinstall)
You must create this group the first time that you install Oracle software on the
system. In Oracle documentation, this group is referred to as oinstall.
If Oracle software is already installed on the system, then
the existing Oracle Inventory group must be the primary group of
the operating system user (oracle or crs) that you use to install
Oracle Clusterware. Refer to "Determining If the Oracle Inventory
and Oracle Inventory Group Exists" on page 1-6 to identify an
existing Oracle Inventory group.
Note:
■
Oracle clusterware software owner user (typically, oracle, if you intend to create
a single software owner user for all Oracle software, or crs, if you intend to create
separate Oracle software owners.)
You must create at least one software owner the first time you install Oracle
software on the system. This user owns the Oracle binaries of the Oracle
Clusterware software, and you can also make this user the owner of the binaries of
Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Database or Oracle RAC.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator’s Reference for UNIX
Systems and Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for more
information about the OSDBA and OSOPER groups and the
SYSDBA, SYSASM and SYSOPER privileges
Creating Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware
Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle
Inventory group and a software owner for Oracle Clusterware:
■
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Group
1-4 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Creating Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware
■
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Directory
■
Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
■
Creating the Oracle Clusterware User
■
Example of Creating the Oracle Clusterware User and OraInventory Path
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Group
You must have a group whose members are given access to write to the Oracle Central
Inventory (oraInventory). The Central Inventory contains the following:
■
■
A registry of the Oracle home directories (Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Database,
and Automatic Storage Management) on the system
Installation logs and trace files from installations of Oracle software. These files are
also copied to the respective Oracle homes for future reference.
Other metadata inventory information regarding Oracle installations are stored in the
individual Oracle home inventory directories, and are separate from the Central
Inventory.
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Directory
The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer
checks to see if you have created an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) compliant
path in the format u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app, and that the user running the
installation has permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal
Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path
/u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:
/u01/app/oraInventory
If you have set the environment variable $ORACLE_BASE for the user performing the
Oracle Clusterware installation, then OUI creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the
path $ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if $ORACLE_BASE is set to
/opt/oracle/11, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path
/opt/oracle/oraInventory.
If you have created neither an OFA-compliant path nor set $ORACLE_BASE, then the
Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is
performing the installation. For example:
/home/oracle/oraInventory
As this placement can cause permission errors during subsequent installations with
multiple Oracle software owners, Oracle recommends that you either create an
OFA-compliant installation path, or set an $ORACLE_BASE environment path.
For new installations, Oracle recommends that you allow OUI to create the Central
Inventory directory. By default, if you create an Oracle path in compliance with OFA
structure, such as /u01/app, that is owned by an Oracle software owner, then the
Central Inventory is created in the path u01/app/oraInventory using correct
permissions to allow all Oracle installation owners to write to this directory.
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-5
Creating Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware
Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, OUI creates the
oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group
(typically, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Central Inventory directory. An
oraInst.loc file has contents similar to the following:
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group
In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the
Oracle Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to
write to the central inventory.
If you have an existing Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle
Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software
users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.
To determine if you have an Oracle Inventory on your system:
On x86 systems, enter the following command:
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
In the previous output example:
■
■
The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory
The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in
this example, oinstall).
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by
entering a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 501 oinstall
The preceding command creates the group oinstall, with the group ID number 501.
Creating the Oracle Clusterware User
You must create a software owner for Oracle Clusterware in the following
circumstances:
■
■
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first
installation of Oracle software on the system
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, such as crs, with different group membership, to give separate
clusterware and database administrative privileges to those groups in a new
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database installation.
In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle Clusterware software
installations is called the crs user. A user created to own either all Oracle
installations, or only Oracle database installations, is called the oracle user.
1-6 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Creating Groups and Users for Oracle Clusterware
If you intend to use multiple Oracle software owners for
different Oracle Database homes, then Oracle recommends that you
create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle Clusterware, and
install Oracle Clusterware using the Oracle Clusterware software
owner.
Note:
If you want to create separate Oracle software owners (oracle, crs,
asm) to create separate users and separate operating system privileges
groups for different Oracle software installations, then note that each
of these users must have the oinstall group as their primary group,
and each user must share the same Oracle Central Inventory, to
prevent corruption of the Central Inventory. Refer to "Creating
Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles" on page 2-4.
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists
To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle or crs exists,
enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):
# id oracle
If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)
Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user.
If you want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the
Oracle Inventory group (oinstall).
Creating or Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User for Oracle Clusterware
If the Oracle software owner (oracle, crs) user does not exist, or if you require a
new Oracle software owner user, then create it. The following procedure uses crs as
the name of the Oracle software owner.
1.
To create a user, enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 501 -g oinstall crs
In the preceding command:
■
■
The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as
you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user
ID number. However, you must make note of the user ID number of the user
you create for Oracle Clusterware, as you require it later during
preinstallation.
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group. For example: oinstall.
Use the usermod command to change user id numbers and groups. For example:
# id oracle
uid=500(oracle) gid=500(oracle) groups=500(oracle)
# /usr/sbin/usermod -u 500 -g 501 -G 500,502 oracle
# id oracle
uid=500(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=501(oinstall),500(oracle),502(dba)
2.
Set the password of the user that will own Oracle Clusterware. For example:
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-7
Checking the Hardware Requirements
# passwd crs
3.
Repeat this procedure on all of the other nodes in the cluster.
Example of Creating the Oracle Clusterware User and OraInventory Path
The following is an example of how to create the Oracle Clusterware software owner
(in this case, crs), and a path compliant with OFA structure with correct permissions
for the oraInventory directory. This example also shows how to create separate Oracle
Database and Oracle ASM homes with correct ownership and permissions:
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
mkdir
chown
mkdir
chown
chmod
mkdir
chown
-p /u01/app/crs
-R crs:oinstall /u01/app
/u01/app/oracle
oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
775 /u01/app/
/u01/app/asm
asm:oinstall /u01/app/asm
At the end of this procedure, you will have the following:
■
■
■
/u01 owned by root.
/u01/app owned by crs:oinstall with 775 permissions. This ownership and
permissions enables OUI to create the oraInventory directory, in the path
/u01/app/oraInventory.
/u01/app/crs owned by crs:oinstall with 775 permissions. These
permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the installation
process.
■
/u01/app/oracle owned by oracle:oinstall with 775 permissions.
■
/u01/app/asm owned by asm:oinstall with 775 permissions.
Checking the Hardware Requirements
Each system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:
■
■
At least 1 GB of physical RAM
Swap space equivalent to the multiple of the available RAM, as indicated in the
following table:
Available RAM
Swap Space Required
Between 1 GB and 2 GB
1.5 times the size of RAM
Between 2 GB and 8 GB
Equal to the size of RAM
More than 8 GB
.75 times the size of RAM
■
■
400 MB of disk space in the /tmp directory
1 GB of disk space for Oracle Clusterware files, in partitions on separate physical
disks, assuming standard redundancy (2 Oracle Cluster Registry partitions and 3
voting disks)
650 MB of disk space for the Oracle Clusterware home
■
If you intend to install Oracle Database, allocate 4 GB of disk space for the Oracle
home.
1-8 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
If you intend to install Oracle Database single instance, allocate between 1.5 and
3.5 GB of disk space for a preconfigured database that uses file system storage.
Oracle RAC software only requires 3.2 GB, and Oracle RAC software with sample
schemas requires 3.3 GB.
The disk space requirement for databases that use
Automatic Storage Management or shared disk storage is described
in Chapter 4.
Note:
Additional disk space, either on a file system or in an Automatic Storage
Management disk group, is required for the flash recovery area if you choose to
configure automated backups.
See Also:
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
To ensure that each system meets these requirements, follow these steps:
1.
To determine the physical RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required
size, then you must install more memory before continuing.
2.
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about
how to configure additional swap space.
3.
To determine the amount of disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the
following command:
# df -k /tmp
This command displays disk space in 1 kilobyte blocks. On most systems, you can
use the df command with the -h flag (df -h) to display output in
"human-readable" format, such as "24G" and "10M." If there is less than 400 MB of
disk space available in the /tmp directory (less than 4194304 1-k blocks), then
complete one of the following steps:
■
■
4.
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to make available the disk
space required.
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact
your system administrator for information about extending file systems.
To determine the amount of free RAM and disk swap space on the system, enter
the following command:
# free
Note that available RAM and swap space change, depending on user activity on
the server.
5.
To determine if the system architecture can run the software, on all platforms,
enter the following command:
# grep "model name" /proc/cpuinfo
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-9
Checking the Network Requirements
Checking the Network Requirements
Review the following sections to check that you have the networking hardware and
internet protocol (IP) addresses required for an Oracle Real Application Clusters
(Oracle RAC) installation:
■
Network Hardware Requirements
■
IP Address Requirements
■
Node Time Requirements
■
Network Configuration Options
■
Configuring the Network Requirements
For the most up-to-date information about supported
network protocols and hardware for Oracle RAC installations, refer
to the Certify pages on the OracleMetaLink Web site at the following
URL:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Network Hardware Requirements
The following is a list of requirements for network configuration:
■
Each node must have at least two network adapters or network interface cards
(NICs): one for the public network interface, and one for the private network
interface (the interconnect).
If you want to use more than one NIC for the public network or for the private
network, then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding.
■
The public interface names associated with the network adapters for each network
must be the same on all nodes, and the private interface names associated with the
network adaptors should be the same on all nodes.
For example: With a two-node cluster, you cannot configure network adapters on
node1 with eth0 as the public interface, but on node2 have eth1 as the public
interface. Public interface names must be the same, so you must configure eth0 as
public on both nodes. You should configure the private interfaces on the same
network adapters as well. If eth1 is the private interface for node1, then eth1
should be the private interface for node2.
■
■
For the public network, each network adapter must support TCP/IP.
For the private network, the interconnect must support the user datagram protocol
(UDP) using high-speed network adapters and switches that support TCP/IP
(Gigabit Ethernet or better required).
UDP is the default interconnect protocol for Oracle RAC, and
TCP is the interconnect protocol for Oracle Clusterware. You must use
a switch for the interconnect. Oracle recommends that you use a
dedicated switch.
Note:
Oracle does not support token-rings or crossover cables for the
interconnect.
1-10 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Checking the Network Requirements
■
For the private network, the endpoints of all designated interconnect interfaces
must be completely reachable on the network. There should be no node that is not
connected to every private network interface. You can test whether an interconnect
interface is reachable using a ping command.
IP Address Requirements
Before starting the installation, you must have the following IP addresses available for
each node:
■
■
■
An IP address with an associated host name (or network name) registered in the
DNS for the public interface. If you do not have an available DNS, then record the
host name and IP address in the system hosts file, /etc/hosts.
One virtual IP (VIP) address with an associated host name registered in a DNS. If
you do not have an available DNS, then record the host name and VIP address in
the system hosts file, /etc/hosts. Select an address for your VIP that meets the
following requirements:
–
The IP address and host name are currently unused (it can be registered in a
DNS, but should not be accessible by a ping command)
–
The VIP is on the same subnet as your public interface
A private IP address with a host name for each private interface
Oracle recommends that you use private network IP addresses for these interfaces
(for example: 10.*.*.* or 192.168.*.*). You can use DNS servers, or the /etc/hosts
file, or both to register the private IP address. Note that if you use DNS servers
alone, and the public network becomes unreachable due to NIC or cable failure,
then the private IP addresses can fail to resolve.
For the private interconnects, because of Cache Fusion and other traffic between
nodes, Oracle strongly recommends using a physically separate, private network.
You should ensure that the private IP addresses are reachable only by the cluster
member nodes.
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network
interface that OUI detects on your cluster node. You must identify each interface
as a public or private interface, and you must use the same private interfaces for
both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC.
You can bond separate interfaces to a common interface to provide redundancy, in
case of a NIC failure, but Oracle recommends that you do not create separate
interfaces for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. If you use more than one NIC
for the private interconnect, then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding.
Note that multiple private interfaces provide load balancing but not failover,
unless bonded.
For example, if you intend to use the interfaces eth2 and eth3 as interconnects,
then before installation, you must configure eth2 and eth3 with the private
interconnect addresses. If the private interconnect addresses are 10.10.1.1 for eth2
and 10.10.2.1 for eth3, then bond eth2 and eth3 to an interface, such as bond0,
using a separate subnet such as 10.10.222.0. During installation, define the Oracle
Clusterware private node names on 10.10.222.0, and then define 10.10.222.0 (and
only that one) as a private interconnect. This ensures that Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle RAC are using the same network.
After installation, if you modify interconnects on Oracle RAC with the CLUSTER_
INTERCONNECTS initialization parameter, then you must change it to a private IP
address, on a subnet that is not used with a public IP address, nor marked as a
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-11
Checking the Network Requirements
public subnet by oifcfg. Oracle does not support changing the interconnect to an
interface using a subnet that you have designated as a public subnet.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
further information about setting up and using bonded multiple
interfaces
See Also:
You should not use a firewall on the network with the private network IP
addresses, as this can block interconnect traffic.
Before installation, check that the default gateway can be accessed by a ping
command. To find the default gateway, use the route command, as described in your
operating system's help utility. After installation, configure clients to use either the VIP
address, or the host name associated with the VIP. If a node fails, then the node's
virtual IP address fails over to another node.
For example, with a two node cluster where each node has one public and one private
interface, you might have the configuration shown in the following table for your
network interfaces, where the hosts file is /etc/hosts:
Node
Host Name
Type
IP Address
Registered In
node1
node1
Public
143.46.43.100
DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
node1
node1-vip
Virtual
143.46.43.104
DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
node1
node1-priv
Private
10.0.0.1
Hosts file
node2
node2
Public
143.46.43.101
DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
node2
node2-vip
Virtual
143.46.43.105
DNS (if available, else the hosts file)
node2
node2-priv
Private
10.0.0.2
Hosts file
To enable VIP failover, the configuration shown in the preceding table defines the
public and VIP addresses of both nodes on the same subnet, 143.46.43.
All host names must conform to the RFC 952 standard, which
permits alphanumeric characters. Host names using underscores ("_")
are not allowed.
Note:
Node Time Requirements
Before starting the installation, ensure that each member node of the cluster is set as
closely as possible to the same date and time. Oracle strongly recommends using the
Network Time Protocol feature of most operating systems for this purpose, with all
nodes using the same reference Network Time Protocol server.
Network Configuration Options
The precise configuration you choose for your network depends on the size and use of
the cluster you want to configure, and the level of availability you require.
If certified Network-attached Storage (NAS) is used for Oracle RAC and this storage is
connected through Ethernet-based networks, then you must have a third network
interface for I/O. Failing to provide three separate interfaces in this case can cause
performance and stability problems under load.
1-12 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Checking the Network Requirements
For high capacity clusters with a small number of multiprocessor servers, to ensure
high availability, you may want to configure redundant network interfaces to prevent
a NIC failure from reducing significantly the overall cluster capacity. If you are using
network storage, and want to provide redundant network interfaces, then Oracle
recommends that you provide six network interfaces: two for the public network
interface, two for the private network interface, and two for the network storage.
Configuring the Network Requirements
To verify that each node meets the requirements, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, install the network adapters for the public and private networks and
configure them with either public or private IP addresses.
2.
If you are using a domain name server (DNS), then for each node, register the host
names and IP addresses for the public network interfaces in the DNS.
3.
Even if you are using a DNS, Oracle recommends that you add lines to the
/etc/hosts file on each node, specifying the private IP addresses and associated
private host names. Oracle also recommends that you add public and virtual IP
addresses. Configure the /etc/host file so that it is similar to as shown in the
following example, with private interface eth1, and private hosts nodeint1 and
nodeint2:, where xxx represents parts of a valid IP address.
#eth0 - PUBLIC
xxx.xxx.100.45
xxx.xxx.100.46
node1.example.com
node2.example.com
#eth1 - PRIVATE
10.0.0.1
nodeint1.example.com
10.0.0.2
nodeint2.example.com
#VIPs
xxx.xxx.100.47
xxx.xxx.100.48
4.
pmvip1.example.com
pmvip2.example.com
node1
node2
nodeint1
nodeint2
nodevip1
nodevip2
To check network configuration, on each node, enter the following commands:
# hostname
# /sbin/ifconfig
Ensure that each server is properly identified, and that the interface name and IP
address for all network adapters that you want to specify as public or private
network interfaces are properly configured. In addition, use the ping command to
ensure that each node can obtain a response for the public and private IP
addresses from each other node in the cluster.
When you install Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, you
will require the public, private and virtual IP addresses. Make a
note of the addresses you configured in the /etc/hosts file or
DNS.
Note:
5.
To prevent public network failures with Oracle RAC databases using NAS devices
or NFS mounts, enter the following command as root to enable the Name Service
Cache Daemon (nscd):
# /sbin/service
nscd start
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-13
Identifying Software Requirements
Identifying Software Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following
operating system software is installed on the system. To check these requirements refer
to the section "Checking the Software Requirements" on page 1-18, following this
section.
OUI performs checks your system to verify that it meets the
listed operating system package requirements. To ensure that these
checks complete successfully, verify the requirements before you
start OUI.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system
with the default software packages (RPMs). Oracle recommends
that you do not customize RPMs during operating system
installation. A default installation includes most required packages,
and will help you to limit manual checks of package dependencies.
The following is the list of supported Linux versions and requirements at the time of
release:
■
Software Requirements List for x86 (32-bit) Linux Platforms
Software Requirements List for x86 (32-bit) Linux Platforms
For installations only of Oracle Clusterware, ensure that you have the kernel versions
and packages listed in Table 1–1 and Table 1–2.
If you intend to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC in addition to Oracle
Clusterware, then ensure that you have the kernel packages listed in Table 1–1 and
Table 1–3, and check Table 1–4 to determine if you need to install additional packages
for the features you plan to use.
For Asianux, Oracle Enterprise Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, system requirements are identical by kernel version.
Specifically:
Note:
Asianux 2, Oracle Enterprise Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
requirements are the same.
Asianux 3, Oracle Enterprise Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
requirements are the same.
Table 1–1
Linux x86 (32-bit) Operating System Kernel Requirements
Linux Distribution
Requirements
Asianux Distributions
■
Asianux 2, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
Asianux 3, kernel 2.6.18 or later
Enterprise Linux
Distributions
■
■
1-14 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Enterprise Linux 4 Update 4 (Oracle distribution), kernel
2.6.9 or later
Enterprise Linux 5 (Oracle distribution), kernel 2.6.9 or later
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 1–1 (Cont.) Linux x86 (32-bit) Operating System Kernel Requirements
Linux Distribution
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Distributions
SUSE Enterprise Linux
Distributions
Table 1–2
Item
Requirements
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 4, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
SUSE 10, kernel 2.6.16.21 or later
Linux x86 (32-bit) Oracle Clusterware Patch Requirements
Requirements
Asianux 2, Enterprise Linux The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
4, and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.15.92.0.2-18
Linux 4
elfutils-libelf-0.97-5
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97.5
glibc-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-common-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-devel-2.3.4-2.19
gcc-3.4.5-2
gcc-c++-3.4.5-2
libaio-devel-0.3.105-2
libaio-0.3.105-2
libgcc-3.4.5
libstdc++-3.4.5-2
libstdc++-devel-3.4.5-2
make-3.80-5
Asianux 3, Enterprise Linux The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
5, and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.17.50.0.6-2.el5
Linux 5
elfutils-libelf-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
glibc-2.5-12
glibc-common-2.5-12
glibc-devel-2.5-12
gcc-4.1.1-52
gcc-c++-4.1.1-52
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libgcc-4.1.1-52
libstdc++-4.1.1
libstdc++-devel-4.1.1
make-3.81-1.1
SUSE 10
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
glibc-2.4-31.2
glibc-devel-2.4-31.2
gcc-4.1.0
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.0
libstdc++-4.1.0
libstdc++-devel-4.1.0
make-3.80
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-15
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 1–3
Linux x86 (32-bit) Oracle Database and Oracle RAC Patch Requirements
Item
Requirements
Asianux 2, Enterprise Linux The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
4, and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.15.92.0.2-18
Linux 4
compat-libstdc++-33.2.3-47.3
elfutils-libelf-0.97-5
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97.5
glibc-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-common-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-devel-2.3.4-2.19
gcc-3.4.5-2
gcc-c++-3.4.5-2
libaio-devel-0.3.105-2
libaio-0.3.105-2
libgcc-3.4.5
libstdc++-3.4.5-2
libstdc++-devel-3.4.5-2
make-3.80-5
sysstat-5.0.5
unixODBC-2.2.11
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11
Asianux 3, Enterprise Linux The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
5, and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.17.50.0.6-2.el5
Linux 5
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61
elfutils-libelf-0.97-5
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
glibc-2.5-12
glibc-common-2.5-12
glibc-devel-2.5-12
gcc-4.1.1-52
gcc-c++-4.1.1-52
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libgcc-4.1.1-52
libstdc++-4.1.1
libstdc++-devel-3.4.3-22.1
make-3.81-1.1
sysstat-7.0.0
unixODBC-2.2.11
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11
1-16 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 1–3 (Cont.) Linux x86 (32-bit) Oracle Database and Oracle RAC Patch
Item
Requirements
SUSE 10 Packages
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7
glibc-2.4-31.2
glibc-devel-2.4-31.2
gcc-4.1.0
ksh-93r-12.9
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.0
libstdc++-4.1.0
libstdc++-devel-4.1.0
make-3.80
sysstat-6.0.2
unixODBC-2.2.11
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11
Table 1–4
Linux x86 Oracle Database Features Packages
Item
Requirement
LDAP package
If you did not perform a default Linux installation, you intend to
use LDAP, and you want to use the scripts odisrvreg, oidca,
or schemasync, then install the Korn shell RPM for your Linux
distribution.
Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call
Interface, Oracle C++ Call
Interface, Oracle XML
Developer's Kit (XDK)
Intel C++ Compiler 9.1 or later and the version of GNU C and
C++ compilers listed previously for the distribution are
supported for use with these products.
Note: Intel C++ Compiler v9.1 can be used only with gcc 3.4.5,
gcc 4.0 or gcc 4.1 standard template libraries to build OCCI
applications.
Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same
compilers as OCCI.
Oracle ODBC Drivers
If you intend to use ODBC, then you should install the most
recent ODBC Driver Manager for Linux.
You can download and install the Driver Manager from the
following URL:
http://www.unixodbc.org
Linux RPMs are available on the site.
You do not require ODBC Driver Manager to install Oracle
Clusterware, Oracle Database, or Oracle RAC.
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
You can use the following optional JDK version with the Oracle
JDBC/OCI drivers; however, it is not required for the
installation:
■
Sun JDK 1.5.0-06 (JDK 5.0) with the JNDI extension
■
IBM Java 5.0 32-bit (SR1) or later
■
JDK 1.4.2_08 with the JNDI extension
Note: By default, IBM Java 5.0 (32-bit) is installed with this
release.
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-17
Checking the Software Requirements
Table 1–4 (Cont.) Linux x86 Oracle Database Features Packages
Item
Requirement
Oracle Real Application
Clusters
For a cluster file system, use one of the following options:
Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2)
■
Version 1.2.3 or later
For information about Oracle Cluster File System version 2, refer
to the following Web site:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
For OCFS2 certification status, refer to the Certify page on
OracleMetaLink.
Checking the Software Requirements
To ensure that the system meets these requirements, follow these steps:
1.
To determine which distribution and version of Linux is installed, enter the
following command:
# cat /proc/version
Only the distributions and versions listed in the previous
table are supported. Do not install the software on other versions of
Linux.
Note:
2.
To determine whether the required kernel errata is installed, enter the following
command:
# uname -r
The following is sample output displayed by running this command on a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 4.0 system:
2.6.9-55.0.0.0.2.ELsmp
In this example, the output shows the kernel version (2.6.9) and errata level
(55.0.0.0.2.ELsmp) on the system.
Review the required errata level for your distribution. If the errata level is
previous to the required minimum errata update, then obtain and install the latest
kernel update from your Linux distributor.
3.
To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar
to the following:
# rpm -q package_name
If a package is not installed, then install it from your Linux distribution media or
download the required package version from your Linux distributor’s Web site.
4.
To determine if OCFS is installed, enter the following command:
# rpm -qa | grep ocfs
To ensure that OCFS is loaded, enter the following command:
# /etc/init.d/ocfs status
1-18 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Kernel Parameters
If you want to install the Oracle Database files on an OCFS file system and the
packages are not installed, then download them from the following Web site.
Follow the instructions listed with the kit to install the packages and configure the
file system:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs/
Configuring Kernel Parameters
Note: The kernel parameter and shell limit values shown in the
following section are recommended values only. For production
database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to
optimize the performance of the system. Refer to your operating
system documentation for more information about tuning kernel
parameters.
On all cluster nodes, verify that the kernel parameters shown in the following table are
set to values greater than or equal to the recommended value shown. The procedure
following the table describes how to verify and set the values.
Parameter
Value
File
semmsl
semmns
semopm
semmni
250
32000
100
128
/proc/sys/kernel/sem
shmmax
The minimum
of the following
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
(4 GB - 1 byte),
or half the size
of physical
memory (in
bytes),
whichever is
lower.
shmmni
4096
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
shmall
2097152
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall
file-max
65536
/proc/sys/fs/file-max
ip_local_port_range
Minimum: 1024
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
Maximum:
65000
rmem_default
4194304
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default
rmem_max
4194304
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
wmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default
wmem_max
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-19
Configuring Kernel Parameters
If the current value for any parameter is greater than the
value listed in this table, then do not change the value of that
parameter.
Note:
To view the current value specified for these kernel parameters, and to change them if
necessary, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the commands shown in the following table to view the current values of the
kernel parameters:
Make a note of the current values and identify any values
that you must change.
Note:
Parameter
Command
semmsl, semmns,
semopm, and semmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem
This command displays the value of the semaphore parameters
in the order listed. For example:
250
shmall, shmmax, and
shmmni
32000
100
128
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
For example:
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
file-max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
For example:
fs.file-max = 65536
ip_local_port_
range
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range
This command displays a range of port numbers. For example:
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024
65000
rmem_default, rmem_ # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep net.core.rmem
max, wmem_default,
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep net.core.wmem
and wmem_max
For example:
net.core.rmem_default = 4194304
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem-default = 262144
2.
If the value of any kernel parameter is different from the recommended value,
then complete the following process:
Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, and add or edit
lines similar to the following:
1-20 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Kernel Parameters
Note: Include lines only for the kernel parameter values that you
want to change. For the semaphore parameters (kernel.sem), you
must specify all four values. However, if any of the current system
parameter values are greater than the recommended values, then
keep using the larger values.
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
fs.file-max = 65536
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.core.rmem_default = 4194304
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 262144
By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, they persist when you
restart the system.
To have these changes take effect immediately so that you do not have to restart
the system, enter the following command:
# /sbin/sysctl -p
3.
Enter the command /sbin/sysctl -a to confirm that the values are set
correctly.
4.
Repeat steps 1 through 3 on all other nodes in the cluster.
On SUSE systems only, enter the following command to cause the system to read
the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
5.
On SUSE systems only, you must put the GID of the oinstall group into the
/proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group file. Doing this grants members of
oinstall a group permission to create shared memory segments.
In addition, if you intend to install Oracle Database, then you should put the GID
of users that will start the Oracle instance into the /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_
shm_group file.
For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501, and the oracle user is 502:
# echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
# echo 502 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
After running these commands, use vi to add the following text to
/etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the boot.sysctl script to run on system
restart:
vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501
vm.hugetlb_shm_group-502
After updating the values of kernel parameters in the /etc/sysctl.conf
file, either restart the computer, or run the command sysctl -p to make the
changes in the /etc/sysctl.conf file available in the active kernel memory.
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-21
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux
If you are using Red Hat or SUSE Linux, then you must download and install the
operating system package cvuqdisk. Without cvuqdisk, CVU is unable to discover
shared disks, and you receive the error message "Package cvuqdisk not installed"
when you run CVU. Use the cvuqdisk rpm for your hardware (i386).
To install the cvuqdisk RPM, complete the following procedure:
If you prefer, you can choose to disable CVU shared disk
checks by adding the following line to the file CRS_
home/cv/admin/cvuconfig:
Note:
CV_RAW_CHECK_ENABLED=FALSE
1.
Locate the cvuqdisk RPM package, which is in the directory rpm on the
installation media. If you have already installed Oracle Clusterware, then it is
located in the directory CRS_home/rpm.
2.
Copy the cvuqdisk package to each node on the cluster. You should ensure that
each node is running the same version of Linux.
3.
Log in as root.
4.
Using the following command, check to see if you have an existing version of the
cvuqdisk package:
# rpm -qi cvuqdisk
If you have an existing version, then enter the following command to de-install the
existing version:
# rpm -e cvuqdisk
5.
Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that will own
cvuqdisk, typically oinstall. For example:
# CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall; export CVUQDISK_GRP
6.
In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk rpm, use the following
command to install the cvuqdisk package:
# rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0.1-1.rpm
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes
Before you install and use Oracle Clusterware, you must configure secure shell (SSH)
on all cluster nodes for the user that you plan to use to install Oracle Clusterware. In
the examples that follow, the Oracle software owner listed is the crs user.
If you intend to install Oracle RAC or other Oracle software, then you should
configure SSH for each of the other users (oracle, asm or other software owner) that
you plan to use to install software, and either do not use a passphrase, or ensure that
you and other installation users load SSH keys into memory before running the
installation. As you perform this procedure, replace the example with the user name
for which you are configuring SSH.
1-22 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes
OUI uses the ssh and scp commands during installation to run remote commands on
and copy files to the other cluster nodes. You must configure SSH so that these
commands do not prompt for a password.
The SSH configuration procedure in this section describes how to configure SSH using
SSH1. If SSH is not available, then OUI attempts to use rsh and rcp instead. However,
these services are disabled by default on most Linux systems.
This section contains the following:
■
Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System
■
Configuring SSH on Cluster Member Nodes
■
Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Member Nodes
■
Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
■
Preventing Oracle Clusterware Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands
Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System
To determine if SSH is running, enter the following command:
$ pgrep sshd
If SSH is running, then the response to this command is one or more process ID
numbers. In the home directory of the software owner that you want to use for the
installation (crs, oracle), use the command ls -al to ensure that the .ssh
directory is owned and writable only by the user.
You need either an RSA or a DSA key for the SSH protocol. RSA is used with the SSH
1.5 protocol, while DSA is the default for the SSH 2.0 protocol. With OpenSSH, you can
use either RSA or DSA. The instructions that follow are for SSH1. If you have an SSH2
installation, and you cannot use SSH1, then refer to your SSH distribution
documentation to configure SSH1 compatibility or to configure SSH2 with DSA.
Configuring SSH on Cluster Member Nodes
To configure SSH, you must first create RSA or DSA keys on each cluster node, and
then copy all the keys generated on all cluster node members into an authorized keys
file that is identical on each node. Note that the SSH files must be readable only by
root and by the software installation user (oracle, crs, asm), as SSH ignores a
private key file if it is accessible by others. When this is done, then start the SSH agent
to load keys into memory. In the examples that follow, the RSA key is used.
You must configure SSH separately for each Oracle software installation owner that
you intend to use for installation.
To configure SSH, complete the following:
Create .SSH, and Create RSA Keys On Each Node
Complete the following steps on each node:
1.
Log in as the software owner (in this example, the crs user).
2.
To ensure that you are logged in as the Oracle user, and that the user ID matches
the expected user ID you have assigned to the Oracle user, enter the commands id
and id oracle. Ensure that Oracle user group and user and the terminal
window process group and user IDs are identical. For example:
$ id
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-23
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes
uid=502(crs) gid=501(oinstall) groups=501(oinstall),502(crs)
$ id crs
uid=502(crs) gid=501(oinstall) groups=501(oinstall),502(crs)
3.
If necessary, create the .ssh directory in the crs user's home directory, and set
permissions on it to ensure that only the oracle user has read and write
permissions:
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
$ chmod 700 ~/.ssh
4.
Enter the following command:
$ /usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t rsa
At the prompts:
■
Accept the default location for the key file (press Enter).
■
Enter and confirm a pass phrase unique for this installation user.
This command writes the RSA public key to the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub file and
the private key to the ~/.ssh/id_rsa file.
Never distribute the private key to anyone not authorized to perform Oracle
software installations.
5.
Repeat steps 1 through 4 on each node that you intend to make a member of the
cluster, using the RSA key.
Add All Keys to a Common authorized_keys File
Complete the following steps:
1.
On the local node, change directories to the .ssh directory in the Oracle
Clusterware owner’s home directory (typically, either crs or oracle).
Then, add the RSA key to the authorized_keys file using the following
commands:
$ cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys
$ ls
In the .ssh directory, you should see the id_rsa.pub keys that you have created,
and the file authorized_keys.
2.
On the local node, use SCP (Secure Copy) or SFTP (Secure FTP) to copy the
authorized_keys file to the oracle user .ssh directory on a remote node. The
following example is with SCP, on a node called node2, with the Oracle
Clusterware owner crs, where the crs user path is /home/crs:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ scp authorized_keys node2:/home/crs/.ssh/
You are prompted to accept an RSA key. Enter Yes, and you see that the node you
are copying to is added to the known_hosts file.
When prompted, provide the password for the oracle user, which should be the
same on all nodes in the cluster. The authorized_keys file is copied to the
remote node.
Your output should be similar to the following, where xxx represents parts of a
valid IP address:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ scp authorized_keys node2:/home/crs/.ssh/
1-24 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes
The authenticity of host 'node2 (xxx.xxx.173.152) can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 7e:60:60:ae:40:40:d1:a6:f7:4e:zz:me:a7:48:ae:f6:7e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node1,xxx.xxx.173.152' (RSA) to the list
of known hosts
[email protected]'s password:
authorized_keys
100%
828
7.5MB/s
00:00
3.
Using SSH, log in to the node where you copied the authorized_keys file,
using the pass phrase you created. Then change to the .ssh directory, and using
the cat command, add the RSA keys for the second node to the authorized_
keys file:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ ssh node2
The authenticity of host node2 (xxx.xxx.100.102) can’t be established. RSA key
fingerprint is z3:z3:33:z3:z3:33:zz:76:z3:z3:z3.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting? (yes/no)? yes
Enter passphrase for key '/home/oracle/.ssh/id_rsa':
[[email protected] crs]S cd .ssh
[[email protected] ssh]$ cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys
Repeat steps 2 and 3 from each node to each other member node in the cluster.
When you have added keys from each cluster node member to the authorized_
keys file on the last node you want to have as a cluster node member, then use
scp to copy the authorized_keys file with the keys from all nodes back to each
cluster node member, overwriting the existing version on the other nodes.
If you want to confirm that you have all nodes in the authorized_keys file,
enter the command more authorized_keys, and check to see that there is an
RSA key for each member node. The file lists the type of key (ssh-rsa), followed by
the key, and then followed by the user and server. For example:
ssh-rsa AAAABBBB . . . = [email protected]
Note: The crs user's /.ssh/authorized_keys file on every node
must contain the contents from all of the /.ssh/id_rsa.pub files
that you generated on all cluster nodes.
Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Member Nodes
After you have copied the authorized_keys file that contains all keys to each node
in the cluster, complete the following procedure, in the order listed. In this example,
the Oracle Clusterware software owner is named crs:
1.
On the system where you want to run OUI, log in as the crs user.
2.
Use the following command syntax, where hostname1, hostname2, and so on,
are the public hostnames (alias and fully qualified domain name) of nodes in the
cluster to run SSH from the local node to each node, including from the local node
to itself, and from each node to each other node:
[[email protected]]$ ssh hostname1 date
[[email protected]]$ ssh hostname2 date
.
.
.
For example:
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-25
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes
[[email protected] crs]$ ssh node1 date
The authenticity of host 'node1 (xxx.xxx.100.101)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 7z:60:60:zz:48:48:z1:a0:f7:4e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node1,xxx.xxx.100.101' (RSA) to the list of
known hosts.
Enter passphrase for key '/home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa':
Mon Dec 4 11:08:13 PST 2006
[[email protected] crs]$ ssh node1.example.com date
The authenticity of host 'node1.example.com (xxx.xxx.100.101)' can't be
established.
RSA key fingerprint is 7z:60:60:zz:48:48:z1:a0:f7:4e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node1.example.com,xxx.xxx.100.101' (RSA) to the
list of known hosts.
Enter passphrase for key '/home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa':
Mon Dec 4 11:08:13 PST 2006
[[email protected] crs]$ ssh node2 date
Enter passphrase for key '/home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa':
Mon Dec 4 11:08:35 PST 2006
.
.
.
At the end of this process, the public hostname for each member node should be
registered in the known_hosts file for all other cluster member nodes.
If you are using a remote client to connect to the local node, and you see a message
similar to "Warning: No xauth data; using fake authentication data for X11
forwarding," then this means that your authorized keys file is configured correctly,
but your ssh configuration has X11 forwarding enabled. To correct this, proceed to
"Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration" on page 1-27.
3.
Repeat step 2 on each cluster node member.
4.
On each node, enter the following commands to start the SSH agent, and to load
the SSH keys into memory:
$ exec /usr/bin/ssh-agent $SHELL
$ /usr/bin/ssh-add
At the prompt, enter the pass phrase for each key that you generated.
For example:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ exec /usr/bin/ssh-agent $SHELL
[[email protected] .ssh]$ ssh-add
Enter passphrase for /home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa
Identity added: /home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa (/home/crs/.ssh/id_rsa)
These commands start the ssh-agent on the node, and load the RSA keys into
memory so that you are not prompted to use pass phrases when issuing SSH
commands
If you have configured SSH correctly, then you can now use the ssh or scp commands
without being prompted for a password or a pass phrase. For example:
[[email protected]
Mon Feb 26
[[email protected]
Mon Feb 26
[[email protected]
~]$ ssh node2 date
23:34:42 UTC 2007
~]$ ssh node1 date
23:34:48 UTC 2007
~]$ ssh node2
1-26 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes
If any node prompts for a password or pass phrase, then verify that the
~/.ssh/authorized_keys file on that node contains the correct public keys, and
that you have created an Oracle software owner with identical group membership and
IDs.
You must run OUI from this session, or make a note of your
SSH pass phrase, and remember to repeat step 4 before you start OUI
from a different terminal session.
Note:
Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
■
If you are on a remote terminal, and the local node has only one visual (which is
typical), then use the following syntax to set the DISPLAY environment variable:
Bourne, Korn, and Bash shells
$ export DISPLAY=hostname:0
C shell:
$ setenv DISPLAY=hostname:0
For example, if you are using the Bash shell, and if your hostname is node1, then
enter the following command:
$ export DISPLAY=node1:0
■
To ensure that X11 forwarding will not cause the installation to fail, create a
user-level SSH client configuration file for the Oracle software owner user, as
follows:
a.
Using any text editor, edit or create the software installation owner’s
~/.ssh/config file.
b.
Make sure that the ForwardX11 attribute is set to no. For example:
Host *
ForwardX11 no
Preventing Oracle Clusterware Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands
During an Oracle Clusterware installation, OUI uses SSH to run commands and copy
files to the other nodes. During the installation, hidden files on the system (for
example, .bashrc or .cshrc) will cause makefile and other installation errors if they
contain stty commands.
To avoid this problem, you must modify these files in each Oracle installation owner
user home directory to suppress all output on STDERR, as in the following examples:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
if [ -t 0 ]; then
stty intr ^C
fi
■
C shell:
test -t 0
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-27
Configuring Software Owner User Environments
if ($status == 0) then
stty intr ^C
endif
When SSH is not available, the Installer uses the rsh and
rcp commands instead of ssh and scp.
Note:
If there are hidden files that contain stty commands that are
loaded by the remote shell, then OUI indicates an error and stops
the installation.
Configuring Software Owner User Environments
You run OUI from the user account that you want to own the Oracle Clusterware
installation (oracle or crs). However, before you start OUI you must configure the
environment of the user performing the Oracle Clusterware installation. In addition,
create other required Oracle software owners, if needed.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Environment Requirements for Oracle Clusterware Software Owner
■
Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments
■
Setting Shell Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users
Environment Requirements for Oracle Clusterware Software Owner
You must make the following changes to configure the Oracle Clusterware software
owner environment:
■
■
■
Set the installation software owner user (crs, oracle, asm) default file mode
creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022
ensures that the user performing the software installation creates files with 644
permissions.
Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the installation software
owner (crs, oracle)
Set the software owner’s environment variable DISPLAY environment variables in
preparation for the Oracle Clusterware installation
Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments
To set the Oracle software owners’ environments, follow these steps, for each software
owner (crs, oracle, asm):
1.
Start a new terminal session; for example, start an X terminal (xterm).
2.
Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display
on this system:
$ xhost + hostname
The hostname is the name of the local host.
3.
If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the
software, then log in to that system as the software owner user.
4.
If you are not logged in as the user, then switch to the software owner user you are
configuring. For example, with the crs user:
1-28 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Software Owner User Environments
$ su - crs
5.
To determine the default shell for the user, enter the following command:
$ echo $SHELL
6.
Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:
■
Bash shell (bash):
$ vi .bash_profile
■
Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):
$ vi .profile
■
C shell (csh or tcsh):
% vi .login
7.
Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode
creation mask:
umask 022
8.
If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set
in the file, then remove the appropriate lines from the file.
9.
Save the file, and exit from the text editor.
10. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bash shell:
$ . ./.bash_profile
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . ./.profile
■
C shell:
% source ./.login
11. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a command
similar to the following to direct X applications to display on the local system:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ DISPLAY=local_host:0.0 ; export DISPLAY
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system that
you want to use to display OUI (your workstation or PC).
12. If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 400 MB of free disk space,
then identify a file system with at least 400 MB of free space and set the TEMP and
TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file
system:
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-29
Configuring Software Owner User Environments
Note: You cannot use a shared file system as the location of the
temporary file directory (typically /tmp) for Oracle RAC installation.
If you place /tmp on a shared file system, then the installation fails.
a.
Use the df -h command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free
space.
b.
If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary
directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate
permissions on the directory:
$
#
#
#
c.
su - root
mkdir /mount_point/tmp
chmod 775 /mount_point/tmp
exit
Enter commands similar to the following to set the TEMP and TMPDIR
environment variables:
*
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ TEMP=/mount_point/tmp
$ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
$ export TEMP TMPDIR
*
C shell:
% setenv TEMP /mount_point/tmp
% setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
13. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following
commands:
$ umask
$ env | more
Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the
environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.
Setting Shell Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users
To improve the performance of the software on Linux systems, you must increase the
following shell limits for the Oracle software owner users (crs, oracle, asm):
Shell Limit
Item in limits.conf
Hard Limit
Maximum number of open file descriptors
nofile
65536
Maximum number of processes available to a single
user
nproc
16384
To increase the shell limits:
1.
Add the following lines to the /etc/security/limits.conf file (the following
example shows the oracle user as the software owner):
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
1-30 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
soft
hard
soft
hard
nproc
nproc
nofile
nofile
2047
16384
1024
65536
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Clusterware Home Directory
2.
Add or edit the following line in the /etc/pam.d/login file, if it does not
already exist:
session
3.
required
pam_limits.so
Depending on your shell environment, make the following changes to the default
shell startup file (note that these examples show the user oracle):
■
For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the following lines to the
/etc/profile file (or the file on SUSE systems)/etc/profile.local
if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
ulimit -u 16384
ulimit -n 65536
else
ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
fi
umask 022
fi
■
For the C shell (csh or tcsh), add the following lines to the
/etc/csh.login file (or the file on SUSE
systems)/etc/csh.login.local:
if ( $USER == "oracle" ) then
limit maxproc 16384
limit descriptors 65536
endif
4.
Repeat this procedure on all other nodes in the cluster, and for all Oracle software
owners that you intend to use to install Oracle software (crs, asm, oracle).
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Clusterware Home Directory
During installation, you are prompted to provide a path to a home directory to store
Oracle Clusterware binaries. Ensure that the directory path you provide meets the
following requirements:
■
It should be created in a path separate from existing Oracle homes.
■
It should not be located in a user home directory.
■
■
It should be created either as a subdirectory in a path where all files can be owned
by root, or in a unique path.
Before installation, it should be owned by the installation owner of Oracle
Clusterware (typically oracle for a single installation owner for all Oracle
software, or crs for role-based Oracle installation owners)
For installations with Oracle Clusterware only, Oracle recommends that you create a
path compliant with Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines, so that
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) can select that directory during installation. For OUI
to recognize the path as an Oracle software path, it must be in the form u0[1-9]/app.
When OUI finds an OFA-compliant path, it creates the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Central Inventory (oraInventory) directories for you.
Create an Oracle Clusterware path. For example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app
# chown -R crs:oinstall /u01
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-31
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility
Alternatively, if you later intend to install Oracle Database software, then create an
Oracle base path. OUI automatically creates an OFA-compliant path for Oracle
Clusterware derived from the Oracle base path. The Optimal Flexible Architecture
path for the Oracle Base is /u01/app/user, where user is the name of the user
account that you want to own the Oracle Database software. For example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
Note: If you choose to create an Oracle Clusterware home manually,
then do not create the Oracle Clusterware home under Oracle base.
Creating an Oracle Clusterware installation in an Oracle base
directory will cause succeeding Oracle installations to fail.
See Also: "Creating Standard Configuration Operating System
Groups and Users" on page 2-1, and "Creating Custom Configuration
Groups and Users for Job Roles" on page 2-4 for information about
creating groups, users, and software homes for additional Oracle
software installations
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) is a tool that performs system checks. This guide
provides CVU commands to assist you with confirming that your system is properly
configured for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC installation.
This section describes the following topics:
■
Entering Cluster Verification Utility Commands
■
Using CVU to Determine if Installation Prerequisites are Complete
■
Using the Cluster Verification Utility Help
■
Using Cluster Verification Utility with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 or 2
■
Verbose Mode and "Unknown" Output
Entering Cluster Verification Utility Commands
CVU is provided with two scripts: runcluvfy.sh, which is designed to be used
before installation, and cluvfy, which is in the path CRS_home/bin. The script
runcluvfy.sh contains temporary variable definitions which enable it to be run
before installing Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Database. After you install Oracle
Clusterware, use the command cluvfy to check prerequisites and perform other
system readiness checks.
Before Oracle software is installed, to enter a CVU command, change directories and
start runcluvfy.sh using the following syntax:
cd /mountpoint
./runcluvfy.sh options
In the preceding example, the variable mountpoint represents the mountpoint path for
the installation media and the variable options represents the CVU command
options that you select. For example:
1-32 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Understanding and Using Cluster Verification Utility
$ cd /mnt/dvdrom
$ ./runcluvfy.sh comp nodereach -n node1,node2 -verbose
By default, when you enter a CVU command, CVU provides a summary of the test.
During preinstallation, Oracle recommends that you obtain detailed output by using
the -verbose argument with the CVU command. The -verbose argument produces
detailed output of individual checks. Where applicable, it shows results for each node
in a tabular layout.
Using CVU to Determine if Installation Prerequisites are Complete
You can use CVU to determine which system prerequisites for installation are already
completed. Use this option if you are installing Oracle 11g release 1 (11.1) on a system
with a pre-existing Oracle software installation. In using this option, note the
following:
■
■
You must complete the prerequisites for using CVU, notably configuring SSH
between all nodes in the cluster, before you can complete a clusterwide status
check.
CVU can assist you by finding preinstallation steps that need to be completed, but
it cannot perform preinstallation tasks
Use the following syntax to determine what preinstallation steps are completed, and
what preinstallation steps must be performed
$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node_list
In the preceding syntax example, replace the variable node_list with the names of
the nodes in your cluster, separated by commas.
For example, for a cluster with mountpoint /mnt/dvdrom/, and with nodes node1,
node2, and node3, enter the following command:
$ cd /mnt/dvdrom/
$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2,node3
Review the CVU report, and proceed to the sections of the preinstallation chapter to
complete additional steps as needed.
Using the Cluster Verification Utility Help
The cluvfy commands have context-sensitive help that shows correct syntax usage
based on the command line arguments that you enter.
If you enter an invalid CVU command, then CVU shows the correct usage for that
command. For example, if you type runcluvfy.sh stage -pre dbinst, then
CVU shows the correct syntax for the database preinstallation checks that CVU
performs with the dbinst stage option. The following is a list of context help
commands.
■
■
■
■
cluvfy -help —CVU displays detailed CVU command information.
cluvfy comp -list—CVU displays a list of components that can be checked,
and brief descriptions of how each component is checked.
cluvfy comp -help—CVU displays detailed syntax for each of the valid
component checks.
cluvfy stage -list—CVU displays a list of valid stages.
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-33
Checking Oracle Clusterware Installation Readiness with CVU
■
cluvfy stage -help—CVU displays detailed syntax for each of the valid stage
checks.
Using Cluster Verification Utility with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 or 2
You can use CVU on the Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) media to check system
requirements for Oracle Database 10g release 1 (10.1) and later installations. To use
CVU to check 10. 2 installations, append the command flag -r 10gR2 to the standard
CVU system check commands.
For example, to perform a verification check for a Cluster Ready Services 10. 2
installation, on a system where the media mountpoint is /mnt/dvdrom, and the
cluster nodes are node1, node2, and node3, enter the following command:
$ cd /mnt/dvdrom
$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2,node3 -r 10gR2
If you do not specify a release version to check, then CVU
checks for 11g release 1 (11.1) requirements.
Note:
Verbose Mode and "Unknown" Output
If you run CVU using the -verbose argument, and a CVU command responds with
UNKNOWN for a particular node, then this is because the CVU cannot determine
whether a check passed or failed. The following is a list of possible causes for an
"Unknown" response:
■
■
■
■
■
The node is down
Executables required by CVU are missing in the /bin directory in the Oracle
Clusterware home or Oracle home directory
The user account starting CVU does not have privileges to run common operating
system executables on the node
The node is missing an operating system patch, or a required package
The node has exceeded the maximum number of processes or maximum number
of open files, or there is a problem with IPC segments, such as shared memory or
semaphores
Checking Oracle Clusterware Installation Readiness with CVU
Use the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to check your servers for their readiness to
install Oracle Clusterware:
As the installation owner user (oracle or crs), ensure that you have ssh keys loaded
into memory, and enter a command using the following syntax to verify that your
cluster is properly configured for Oracle Clusterware installation:
/mountpoint/runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node_list [-verbose]
In the preceding syntax example, the variable node_list is a comma-separated list of
nodes in your cluster. This command checks node reachability, user and group
equivalence on each node, node connectivity, and basic system requirements,
including kernel versions and packages.
Select the option -verbose to receive progress updates as the CVU performs its
system checks, and detailed reporting of the test results.
1-34 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Checking Oracle Clusterware Installation Readiness with CVU
For example, to verify system readiness on a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and
node2, with the mountpoint /mnt/dvdrom, and with updates and a summary of the
verification checks the CVU performs, enter the following command:
$ /mnt/dvdrom/runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2 -verbose
Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks 1-35
Checking Oracle Clusterware Installation Readiness with CVU
1-36 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
2
Oracle Real Application Clusters
Preinstallation Tasks
This chapter describes the system configuration tasks that are generally completed by
the system administrator if you plan to install Oracle Database or Oracle Database
with Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). These tasks include creating
additional groups and users for the database and for Automatic Storage Management
(ASM).
You must complete these tasks before you or a database administrator start Oracle
Universal Installer to install Oracle RAC. If you do not plan on installing Oracle
Database on this cluster, then you can continue to the next chapter.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Creating Standard Configuration Operating System Groups and Users
■
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
■
Understanding the Oracle Base Directory Path
■
Creating the Oracle Base Directory Path
■
Environment Requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle ASM Owners
■
Overview of HugePages
Any task required for Oracle Database is also required for
Oracle RAC, unless otherwise stated.
Note:
Creating Standard Configuration Operating System Groups and Users
A standard configuration is a configuration with the default groups and users that
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) displays by default during Oracle database
installation, which are not created already for Oracle Clusterware installation.
The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and
groups for Oracle Database or Oracle Database with Oracle RAC and ASM
installations:
To allocate separate operating system user privileges to different administrative users,
refer to "Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles" on page 2-4.
■
Overview of Groups and Users for Oracle Database Installations
■
Creating Standard Operating System Groups and Users
Oracle Real Application Clusters Preinstallation Tasks 2-1
Creating Standard Configuration Operating System Groups and Users
Overview of Groups and Users for Oracle Database Installations
The following operating system groups and user are required if you plan to install
Oracle Database:
■
The OSDBA group (typically, dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. In a standard installation, you are prompted to one group to grant the
following privileges to its members:
–
Database Administrator (OSDBA)
–
Database Operator (OSOPER)
–
ASM Administrator (OSASM)
In addition, members of this group are granted database write access to ASM
(OSDBA for ASM).
The default name for this group is dba.
■
An unprivileged user
Verify that the unprivileged user nobody exists on the system. The nobody user
must own the external jobs (extjob) executable after the installation.
Creating Standard Operating System Groups and Users
The following sections describe how to create required and optional operating system
user and groups:.
■
Verifying That the User nobody Exists
■
Creating the OSDBA Group
■
Creating Identical Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes
Verifying That the User nobody Exists
If you intend to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, then complete the following
procedure to verify that the user nobody exists on the system:
1.
To determine if the user exists, enter the following command:
# id nobody
If this command displays information about the nobody user, then you do not
have to create that user.
2.
If the nobody user does not exist, then enter a command similar to the following
to create it:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 65001 nobody
3.
Repeat this procedure on all the other nodes in the cluster. Note that the ID
number for uid and gid should be the same on all nodes of the cluster.
Creating the OSDBA Group
To create the OSDBA group, complete the following procedure:
1.
Enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 502 dba
2-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Creating Standard Configuration Operating System Groups and Users
The preceding command creates the group dba, with the group ID number 502.
Creating Identical Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes
You must complete the following procedures only if you are
using local users and groups. If you are using users and groups
defined in a directory service such as NIS, then they are already
identical on each cluster node.
Note:
Oracle software owner users and groups must exist and be identical on all cluster
nodes.
Identifying Existing User and Group IDs
To determine the user ID (UID) of the oracle user, and the group IDs (GID) of the
Oracle Inventory, OSDBA, and OSOPER groups, follow these steps:
1.
Enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine a user ID):
# id oracle
The output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)
2.
From the output, identify the user ID (UID) for the user and the group identities
(GIDs) for the groups to which it belongs. Ensure that these are identical on each
node.
Creating Users and Groups on the Other Cluster Nodes
To create users and groups on the other cluster nodes, repeat the following procedure
on each node:
1.
Log in to the next cluster node as root.
2.
Enter commands similar to the following to create groups. Use the -g option to
specify the correct GID for each group.
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 501 oinstall
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 502 dba
If a group already exists, but has a different group ID, then
use the groupmod command to modify it if necessary. If you cannot
use the same group ID for a particular group on this node, then
view the /etc/group file on all nodes to identify a group ID that
is available on every node. You must then specify that ID for the
group on all of the nodes.
Note:
3.
To create the oracle user or another required user, enter a command similar to
the following (in this example, to create the oracle user):
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 501 -g oinstall oracle
In the preceding command:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Preinstallation Tasks 2-3
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
–
The -u option specifies the user ID, which must be the user ID that you
identified in the previous subsection
–
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group; for example, oinstall
If the user already exists, then use the usermod command
to modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same user ID for the
user on this node, then view the /etc/passwd file on all nodes to
identify a user ID that is available on every node. You must then
specify that ID for the user on all of the nodes.
Note:
4.
Set the password of the user. For example:
# passwd oracle
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
A Custom configuration is a configuration with groups and users that divide access
privileges granted by membership in separate operating system groups and users.
This configuration is optional, to restrict user access to Oracle
software on the basis of responsibility areas for different administrator
users.
Note:
To allocate operating system user privileges to a minimum number of groups and
users, refer to Creating Standard Configuration Operating System Groups and Users
on page 2-1.
■
■
Overview of Creating Operating System Group and User Options Based on Job
Roles
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation
If you want to use a directory service, such as Network
Information Services (NIS), refer to your operating system
documentation for further information.
Note:
Overview of Creating Operating System Group and User Options Based on Job Roles
This section provides an overview of how to create users and groups to divide access
privileges by job roles. Log in as root to create these groups and users.
■
Users for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
■
Database Groups for Job Role Installations
■
ASM Groups for Job Role Installations
Users for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
Oracle recommends that you create the following operating system group and users
for all installations where you create separate software installation owners:
2-4 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
■
One software owner to own each Oracle software product (typically, oracle, for
the database software owner user, crs for Oracle Clusterware, and asm for Oracle
ASM.
You must create at least one software owner the first time you install Oracle
software on the system. This user owns the Oracle binaries of the Oracle
Clusterware software, and you can also make this user the owner of the binaries of
Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Database or Oracle RAC.
Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary
group, so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the Central
Inventory, and so that OCR and Oracle Clusterware resource permissions are set
correctly. The Database software owner must also have the OSDBA group and (if
you create it) the OSOPER group as secondary groups. In Oracle documentation,
when Oracle software owner users are referred to, they are called oracle users.
Oracle recommends that you create separate software owner users to own each
Oracle software installation. Oracle particularly recommends that you do this if
you intend to install more than one database on the system.
In Oracle documentation, a user created to own the Oracle Clusterware binaries is
called the crs user.
If you intend to use Automatic Storage Management (ASM), then Oracle
recommends that you create a separate user to own ASM files. In Oracle
documentation, that user is referred to as asm.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator’s Reference for UNIX
Systems and Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for more
information about the OSDBA, OSASM and OSOPER groups and
the SYSDBA, SYSASM and SYSOPER privileges
■
An unprivileged user
Verify that the unprivileged user nobody exists on the system. The nobody user
must own the external jobs (extjob) executable after the installation.
Database Groups for Job Role Installations
The following operating system groups and user are required if you are installing
Oracle Database:
■
The OSDBA group (typically, dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have
database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege). If you do not create
separate OSDBA, OSOPER and OSASM groups for the ASM instance, then
operating system user accounts that have the SYSOPER and SYSASM privileges
must be members of this group. The name used for this group in Oracle code
examples is dba. If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group,
then the OSDBA group you define is also by default the OSASM group.
If you want to specify a group name other than the default dba group, then you
must choose the Custom installation type to install the software or start Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI) as a user that is not a member of this group. In this case,
OUI prompts you to specify the name of this group.
On Automatic Storage Manager (ASM) instances, members of the OSDBA group
are given privileges to perform all administrative privileges granted to the
Oracle Real Application Clusters Preinstallation Tasks 2-5
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
SYSASM privileges, including mounting and dismounting disk groups. This
privileges grant is deprecated, and will be removed in a future release.
■
The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges
(the SYSOPER privilege). By default, members of the OSDBA group also have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege.
If you want to use the OSOPER group to create a database administrator group
with fewer privileges than the default dba group, then you must choose the
Custom installation type to install the software or start OUI as a user that is not a
member of the dba group. In this case, OUI prompts you to specify the name of
this group. The usual name chosen for this group is oper.
ASM Groups for Job Role Installations
SYSASM is a new system privilege that enables the separation of the ASM storage
administration privilege from SYSDBA. Members of the database OSDBA group are
granted SYSASM privileges, but this privilege is deprecated, and may be removed in a
future release.
Use the Custom Installation option to designate separate operating system groups as
the operating system authentication groups for privileges on ASM. Before you start
OUI, create the following groups and users for ASM
■
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Group (typically asm)
SYSASM privileges for ASM files provide administrator privileges for storage file
equivalent to SYSDBA privileges for the database. In Oracle documentation, the
operating system group whose members are granted SYSASM privileges is called
the OSASM group, and in command lines, is referred to as asm.
If you have more than one database on your system, then you must create a
separate OSASM group, and a separate ASM user. ASM can support multiple
databases.
Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an ASM instance as
SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges permit
mounting and dismounting disk groups, and other storage administration tasks.
SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance. In this
release of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database, SYSASM privileges and
SYSDBA privileges are equivalent, but using SYSDBA privileges to perform ASM
management tasks on ASM instances is deprecated. SYSDBA privileges may be
limited on ASM instances in a future release.
■
The OSDBA group for ASM (typically asmdba)
Members of the OSDBA group for ASM are granted read and write access to files
managed by ASM. The Oracle database software owner (typically oracle) must
be a member of this group, and all users with OSDBA membership on databases
that you want to have access to the files managed by ASM should be members of
the OSDBA group for ASM
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation
The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and
groups:.
■
Creating the OSDBA Group for Custom Installations
2-6 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
■
Creating an OSOPER Group
■
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User
■
Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes
Creating the OSDBA Group for Custom Installations
You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:
■
■
An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database
installation
If the OSDBA group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create
it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name dba unless a group with
that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 502 dba
Creating an OSOPER Group
Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system
users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator
privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If
you want to use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following
circumstances:
■
■
If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
If you require a new OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following, use the
group name oper unless a group with that name already exists.
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 505 oper
Creating the OSASM Group
If the OSASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSASM group, then create
it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name asm unless a group with
that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -504 asm
Creating the OSDBA Group for ASM
You must create an OSDBA group for ASM to provide access to the ASM instance.
This is necessary if OSASM and OSDBA are different groups.
If the OSDBA group for ASM does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA group for
ASM, then create it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name
asmdba unless a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 506 asmdba
Oracle Real Application Clusters Preinstallation Tasks 2-7
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User
You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:
■
■
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative
privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation
If you have created an Oracle software owner for Oracle Clusterware, such as crs,
and you want to create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle Database
software, such as dba.
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists To determine whether an Oracle
software owner user named oracle or crs exists, enter a command similar to the
following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):
# id oracle
If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)
Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user. If you
want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle
Inventory group and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER
groups. Refer to one of the following sections for more information:
Note: If necessary, contact your system administrator before using
or modifying an existing user.
■
■
To modify an existing user, refer to the "Modifying an Existing Oracle Software
Owner User" section on page 2-9.
To create a user, refer to the following section.
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User If the Oracle software owner user does not exist,
or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows. In the
following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already
exists.
1.
To create an oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 502 -g oinstall -G dba oracle
In the preceding command:
■
■
■
2.
The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as
you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user
ID number. However, you must make note of the oracle user ID number, as
you require it later during preinstallation.
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group--for example, oinstall
The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA
group, and, if required, the OSOPER group. For example: dba, or dba,oper
Set the password of the oracle user:
# passwd oracle
2-8 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User If the oracle user exists, but its primary
group is not oinstall, or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER
groups, then enter a command similar to the following to modify it. Specify the
primary group using the -g option and any required secondary group using the -G
option:
# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba[,oper] oracle
Repeat this procedure on all of the other nodes in the cluster.
Creating a Separate ASM Owner
1.
To create asm, enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 504 -g oinstall -G asm
In the preceding command:
■
■
■
2.
The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as
you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user
ID number. However, you must make note of the asm ID number, as you
require it later during preinstallation.
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group--for example, oinstall
The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSASM
group. For example: asm.
Set the password for asm:
# passwd asm
Verifying That the User nobody Exists
Before installing the software, complete the following procedure to verify that the user
nobody exists on the system:
1.
To determine if the user exists, enter the following command:
# id nobody
If this command displays information about the nobody user, then you do not
have to create that user.
2.
If the nobody user does not exist, then enter the following command syntax to
create it:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u number nobody
for example:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 65555 nobody
3.
Repeat this procedure on all the other nodes in the cluster.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Preinstallation Tasks 2-9
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes
You must complete the following procedures only if you are
using local users and groups. If you are using users and groups
defined in a directory service such as NIS, then they are already
identical on each cluster node.
Note:
Oracle software owner users and the Oracle Inventory, OSDBA, and OSOPER groups
must exist and be identical on all cluster nodes. To create these identical users and
groups, you must identify the user ID and group IDs assigned them on the node
where you created them, and then create the user and groups with the same name and
ID on the other cluster nodes.
Identifying Existing User and Group IDs
To determine the user ID (UID) of the crs, oracle, or asm users, and the group IDs
(GID) of the Oracle Inventory, OSDBA, and OSOPER groups, follow these steps:
1.
Enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine a user ID for
the oracle user):
# id oracle
The output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=502(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)
2.
From the output, identify the user ID (UID) for the user and the group identities
(GIDs) for the groups to which it belongs. Ensure that these ID numbers are
identical on each node of the cluster.
Creating Users and Groups on the Other Cluster Nodes
To create users and groups on the other cluster nodes, repeat the following procedure
on each node:
1.
Log in to the next cluster node as root.
2.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the oinstall and dba groups,
and if required, the oper and asm groups. Use the -g option to specify the correct
GID for each group.
#
#
#
#
#
#
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
501
502
503
505
504
506
oinstall
crs
dba
oper
asm
asmdba
Note: If the group already exists, then use the groupmod
command to modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same
group ID for a particular group on this node, then view the
/etc/group file on all nodes to identify a group ID that is
available on every node. You must then change the group ID on all
nodes to the same group ID.
2-10 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Understanding the Oracle Base Directory Path
3.
To create the oracle or asm user, enter a command similar to the following (in
this example, to create the oracle user):
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 502 -g oinstall -G dba[,oper] oracle
In the preceding command:
–
The -u option specifies the user ID, which must be the user ID that you
identified in the previous subsection
–
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group, for example oinstall
–
The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA
group and if required, the OSOPER group. For example: dba or dba,oper
If the user already exists, then use the usermod command
to modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same user ID for the
user on every node, then view the /etc/passwd file on all nodes
to identify a user ID that is available on every node. You must then
specify that ID for the user on all of the nodes.
Note:
4.
Set the password of the user. For example:
# passwd oracle
5.
Complete SSH configuration for each user as described in the section "Configuring
SSH on All Cluster Nodes" on page 1-22.
6.
Complete user environment configuration tasks for each user as described in the
section Configuring Software Owner User Environments on page 1-28.
Understanding the Oracle Base Directory Path
This section contains information about preparing an Oracle base directory.
Overview of the Oracle Base directory
During installation, you are prompted to specify an Oracle base location, which is
owned by the user performing the installation. You can choose a location with an
existing Oracle home, or choose another directory location that does not have the
structure for an Oracle base directory. However, setting an Oracle base directory may
become mandatory in a future release.
Using the Oracle base directory path helps to facilitate the organization of Oracle
installations, and helps to ensure that installations of multiple databases maintain an
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) configuration.
Understanding Oracle Base and Oracle Clusterware Directories
Even if you do not use the same software owner to install Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Database, be aware that the root.sh script in the clusterware installation
changes ownership of the Oracle Clusterware home directory to root. For this reason,
the Oracle Clusterware home cannot be in the same location as other Oracle software.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Preinstallation Tasks 2-11
Creating the Oracle Base Directory Path
Creating the Oracle Base Directory Path
If you have created a path for the Oracle Clusterware home that is compliant with
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines for Oracle software paths, then
you do not need to create an Oracle base directory. When OUI finds an OFA-compliant
path, it creates the Oracle base directory in that path.
For OUI to recognize the path as an Oracle software path, it must be in the form
u0[1-9]/app, and it must be writable by any member of the oinstall group.
Oracle recommends that you create an Oracle base path manually. The Optimal
Flexible Architecture path for the Oracle Base is /u01/app/user, where user is the
name of the user account that you want to own the Oracle Database software. For
example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
Environment Requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle ASM Owners
If you create separate Oracle installation owner accounts for the database or ASM,
then complete the following tasks for the Oracle Database software owner (oracle)
and Oracle ASM software owner (asm).
■
If you create an Oracle base path, as described in the preceding section, then set
the path to the Oracle base directory as an environment variable for the Oracle
database owner. For example:
# ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle; export ORACLE_BASE
■
On Linux systems, ensure that the PATH variable lists $ORACLE_HOME/bin
before /usr/X11R6/bin
This is necessary if you want to run the RMAN (Recovery Manager) binary for
Oracle, rather than the rman (RosettaMan) binary in Linux that is located in
/usr/X11R6/bin.
■
■
■
Set the installation software owner user (asm, oracle) default file mode creation
mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that
the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.
Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the installation software
owner (asm, oracle)
Set the software owners’ environment variable DISPLAY environment variables in
preparation for the ASM or Oracle Database installation
Overview of HugePages
You can choose to configure HugePages. For some uses, HugePages can provide
enhanced performance. However, this feature is an advanced configuration option. It
is not a requirement for Oracle RAC.
The following is an overview of HugePages. It does not provide RPM or configuration
information. The tasks you need to perform for configuration depend on kernel
distribution and hardware on your system. If you decide that you want to configure
your cluster nodes to use HugePages, then refer to your distribution documentation
and to Oracle Technical Network (OTN) and OracleMetaLink for further information.
2-12 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Overview of HugePages
What HugePages Provides
HugePages is a feature integrated into the Linux kernel with release 2.6. It is a method
to have larger pages where it is useful for working with very large memory. It can be
useful for both 32-bit and 64-bit configurations. HugePage sizes vary from 2MB to
256MB, depending on the kernel version and the hardware architecture. For Oracle
Databases, using HugePages reduces the operating system maintenance of page states,
and increases TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffer) hit ratio.
Without HugePages, the operating system keeps each 4 KB of memory as a page, and
when it is allocated to the SGA, then the lifecycle of that page (dirty, free, mapped to a
process, and so on) must be kept up to date by the operating system kernel.
With HugePages, the operating system page table (virtual memory to physical
memory mapping) is smaller, since each page table entry is pointing to pages from 2
MB to 256 MB in size. Also, the kernel has fewer pages whose lifecyle needs to be
monitored.
For example, if you use HugePages with 64-bit hardware, and you want to map 256
MB of memory, you may need one page table entry (PTE). If you do not use
HugePages, and you want to map 256 MB of memory, then you need to have 256 MB *
1024 KB/4 KB = 65536 PTEs.
Restrictions for HugePage Configurations
To use HugePages, you must configure Grub to allocate memory for HugePages
during system startup. After paging space is reserved, HugePages can be used as
needed. However, if the space they require is not reserved in memory during system
startup, then a HugePages allocation may fail.
HugePages are not subject to allocation or release after system startup, unless a system
administrator changes the hugepages configuration by modifying the number of pages
available, or the pool size.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Preinstallation Tasks 2-13
Overview of HugePages
2-14 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
3
Configuring Oracle Clusterware Storage
This chapter describes the storage configuration tasks that you must complete before
you start Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Clusterware.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware Files
■
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU
■
■
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Supported Shared File
System
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Clusterware Files
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware Files
This section describes supported options for storing Oracle Clusterware.
Overview of Oracle Clusterware Storage Options
There are two ways of storing Oracle Clusterware files:
■
A supported shared file system: Supported file systems include the following:
–
A supported cluster file system
For information about how to download and configure Oracle
Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2), refer to the following URL
Note:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs/documentation/
OCFS (version 1) is designed for the 2.4 kernel. You must use OCFS2
with this release.
See Also: The Certify page on OracleMetalink for supported cluster
file systems
–
Network File System (NFS): A file-level protocol that enables access and
sharing of files
See Also: The Certify page on OracleMetalink for supported
Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices
Configuring Oracle Clusterware Storage
3-1
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware Files
■
Block or Raw Devices: Oracle Clusterware files can be placed on either Block or
RAW devices based on shared disk partitions. Oracle recommends using Block
devices for easier usage.
General Storage Considerations for Oracle Clusterware
For all installations, you must choose the storage option that you want to use for
Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle Database files, or for Oracle Clusterware with
Oracle Real Application Clusters databases (Oracle RAC). You do not have to use the
same storage option for each file type.
Oracle Clusterware files include voting disks, used to monitor cluster node status, and
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) which contains configuration information about the
cluster. The voting disks and OCR are shared files on a cluster or network file system
environment. If you do not use a cluster file system, then you must place these files on
shared block devices or shared raw devices. Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
automatically initializes the OCR during the Oracle Clusterware installation.
For voting disk file placement, Oracle recommends that each voting disk is configured
so that it does not share any hardware device or disk, or other single point of failure.
Any node that does not have available to it an absolute majority of voting disks
configured (more than half) will be restarted.
The following table shows the storage options supported for storing Oracle
Clusterware files. Oracle Clusterware files include the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR),
a mirrored OCR file (optional), the Oracle Clusterware voting disk, and additional
voting disk files (optional).
For information about Oracle Cluster File System version 2
(OCFS2), refer to the following Web site:
Note:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
For OCFS2 certification status, refer to the Certify page on
OracleMetaLink.
Table 3–1
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware
Storage Option
File Types Supported
OCR and Voting Disks
Oracle Software
Automatic Storage Management
No
No
OCFS2
Yes
Yes
Red Hat Global File System (GFS); for
Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Oracle
Enterprise Linux
Yes
Yes
Local storage
No
Yes
NFS file system
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Note: Requires a certified NAS device
Shared disk partitions (block devices
or raw devices)
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options that you want to use
for Oracle Clusterware:
3-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU
■
■
■
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type provided that you satisfy all requirements listed for the chosen storage
options.
You cannot use ASM to store Oracle Clusterware files, because these files must be
accessible before any ASM instance starts.
If you do not have a storage option that provides external file redundancy, then
you must configure at least three voting disk areas to provide voting disk
redundancy.
Quorum Disk Location Restriction with Existing 9.2 Clusterware Installations
When upgrading your Oracle9i release 9.2 Oracle RAC environment to Oracle
Database 11g release 1 (11.1), you are prompted to specify one or more voting disks
during the Oracle Clusterware installation. You must specify a new location for the
voting disk in Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1). You cannot reuse the old Oracle9i
release 9.2 quorum disk for this purpose.
After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options
When you have determined your disk storage options, you must perform the
following tasks in the order listed:
1: Check for available shared storage with CVU
Refer to Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU on page 3-3.
2: Configure shared storage for Oracle Clusterware files
■
To use a file system (NFS, OCFS2, GPS, GPFS) for Oracle Clusterware files,
refer to Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Supported Shared
File System on page 3-4.
■
To use block devices for Oracle Clusterware files, refer to Configuring Disk
Devices for Oracle Clusterware Files on page 3-7.
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU
To check for all shared file systems available across all nodes on the cluster on a
supported shared file system, log in as the installation owner user (oracle or crs),
and use the following syntax:
/mountpoint/runcluvfy.sh.sh comp ssa -n node_list
If you want to check the shared accessibility of a specific shared storage type to
specific nodes in your cluster, then use the following command syntax:
/mountpoint/runcluvfy.sh comp ssa -n node_list -s storageID_list
In the preceding syntax examples, the variable mountpoint is the mountpoint path of
the installation media, the variable node_list is the list of nodes you want to check,
separated by commas, and the variable storageID_list is the paths for the storage
devices that you want to check.
For example, if you want to check the shared accessibility from node1 and node2 of
storage devices /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc, and your mountpoint is /dev/dvdrom/,
then enter the following command:
$ /mnt/dvdrom/runcluvfy.sh comp ssa -n node1,node2 -s /dev/sdb,/dev/sdc
Configuring Oracle Clusterware Storage
3-3
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Supported Shared File System
If you do not specify storage device IDs in the command, then the command searches
for all available storage devices connected to the nodes on the list.
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Supported Shared
File System
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) does not suggest a default location for the Oracle
Cluster Registry (OCR) or the Oracle Clusterware voting disk. If you choose to create
these files on a file system, then review the following sections to complete storage
requirements for Oracle Clusterware files:
■
Requirements for Using a File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
■
Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
■
Checking NFS Mount Buffer Size Parameters for Clusterware
■
Creating Required Directories for Oracle Clusterware Files on Shared File Systems
The OCR is a file that contains the configuration information
and status of the cluster. Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
automatically initializes the OCR during the Oracle Clusterware
installation. Database Configuration Assistant uses the OCR for
storing the configurations for the cluster databases that it creates.
Note:
The OCR is a shared file in a cluster file system environment. If you do
not use a cluster file system, then you must place this file on a shared
storage device.
Requirements for Using a File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
To use a file system for Oracle Clusterware files, the file system must comply with the
following requirements:
■
■
To use a cluster file system, it must be a supported cluster file system, as listed in
the section "Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files" on
page 3-5.
To use an NFS file system, it must be on a certified NAS device. Log in to
OracleMetaLink at the following URL, and click the Certify tab to find a list of
certified NAS devices.
https://metalink.oracle.com/
■
■
If you choose to place your Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) files on a shared file
system, then Oracle recommends that one of the following is true:
–
The disks used for the file system are on a highly available storage device, (for
example, a RAID device that implements file redundancy).
–
At least two file systems are mounted, and use the features of Oracle
Clusterware 11g release 1 (11.1) to provide redundancy for the OCR.
The user account with which you perform the installation (oracle or crs) must
have write permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.
3-4 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Supported Shared File System
If you are upgrading from Oracle9i release 2, then you can
continue to use the raw device or shared file that you used for the
SRVM configuration repository instead of creating a new file for the
OCR.
Note:
Use Table 3–2 to determine the partition size for shared file systems.
Table 3–2
Shared File System Volume Size Requirements
File Types Stored
Number of
Volumes
Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and
voting disks) with external
redundancy
1
Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and
voting disks) with redundancy
provided by Oracle software.
1
Volume Size
At least 280 MB for each OCR
volume
At least 280 MB for each voting disk
volume
At least 280 MB for each OCR
volume
At least 280 MB for each voting disk
volume
In Table 3–2, the total required volume size is cumulative. For example, to store all
Oracle Clusterware files on the shared file system with normal redundancy, you
should have at least 1.3 GB of storage available over a minimum of three volumes (two
separate volume locations for the OCR and OCR mirror, and one voting disk on each
volume).
Note: When you create partitions with fdisk by specifying a device
size, such as +256M, the actual device created may be smaller than the
size requested, based on the cylinder geometry of the disk. This is due
to current fdisk restrictions.
Oracle configuration software checks to ensure that devices contain a
minimum of 256MB of available disk space. Therefore, Oracle
recommends using at least 280MB for the device size. You can check
partition sizes by using the command syntax fdisk -s partition.
For example:
[[email protected]]$ fdisk -s /dev/sdb1
281106
Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
For Linux x86 (32-bit) and x86 (64-bit) platforms, Oracle provides Oracle Cluster File
System (OCFS2). Use Oracle Cluster File System 2 (OCFS2), rather than OCFS version
1 (OCFS), as OCFS2 is designed for Linux kernel 2.6. You can have a shared Oracle
home on OCFS2.
If you have an existing Oracle installation, then use the following command to
determine if OCFS2 is installed:
# rpm -qa | grep ocfs
To ensure that OCFS2 is loaded, enter the following command:
/etc/init.d/ocfs status
Configuring Oracle Clusterware Storage
3-5
Configuring Storage for Oracle Clusterware Files on a Supported Shared File System
If you want to install Oracle Clusterware files on an OCFS2 file system, and the
packages are not installed, then download them from the following Web site. Follow
the instructions listed with the kit to install the packages and configure the file system:
OCFS2:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
For OCFS2 certification status, refer to the Certify page on
OracleMetaLink:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Checking NFS Mount Buffer Size Parameters for Clusterware
If you are using NFS, then you must set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters
rsize and wsize to at least 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value 32768.
For example, if you decide to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value
32768, then update the /etc/fstab file on each node with an entry similar to the
following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp
nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Refer to your storage vendor documentation for additional
information about mount options.
Note:
Creating Required Directories for Oracle Clusterware Files on Shared File Systems
Use the following instructions to create directories for Oracle Clusterware files. You
can also configure shared file systems for the Oracle Database and recovery files.
For both NFS and OCFS2 storage, you must complete this
procedure only if you want to place the Oracle Clusterware files on
a separate file system from the Oracle base directory.
Note:
To create directories for the Oracle Clusterware files on separate file systems from the
Oracle base directory, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, configure the shared file systems that you want to use and mount
them on each node.
The mount point that you use for the file system must be
identical on each node. Ensure that the file systems are configured
to mount automatically when a node restarts.
Note:
2.
Use the df -h command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file
system.
3.
From the display, identify the file systems that you want to use. Choose a file
system with a minimum of 512 MB of free disk space (one OCR and one voting
disk, with external redundancy).
3-6 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Clusterware Files
If you are using the same file system for more than one type of file, then add the
disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space
requirement.
4.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
5.
If the user performing installation (typically, crs or oracle) has permissions to
create directories on the disks where you plan to install Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Database, then OUI creates the Oracle Clusterware file directory, and
DBCA creates the Oracle Database file directory, and the Recovery file directory.
If the user performing installation does not have write access, then you must
create these directories manually using commands similar to the following to
create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and
set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on the Oracle Clusterware
home (or CRS home). For example, where the user is oracle, and the CRS home
is oracrs:
# mkdir /mount_point/oracrs
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oracrs
# chmod 640 /mount_point/oracrs
After installation, directories in the installation path for the
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) files should be owned by root, and
not writable by any account other than root.
Note:
When you have completed creating a subdirectory in the mount point directory, and
set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions, you have completed OCFS2 or
NFS configuration for Oracle Clusterware.
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Clusterware Files
On Linux systems, O_DIRECT enables direct read and writes to block devices,
avoiding kernel overhead. With Oracle Clusterware release 10.2 and later, Oracle
Clusterware files are configured by default to use direct input/output.
With the 2. 6 kernel or later for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Enterprise Linux, and
SUSE Enterprise Server, you must create a permissions file to maintain permissions on
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting disk partitions. If you do not create this
permissions file, then permissions on disk devices revert to their default values,
root:disk, and Oracle Clusterware will fail to start.
On Asianux 2, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, and Oracle Enterprise Linux 4, you must
create a permissions file number that is lower than 50.
On Asianux 3, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, Oracle Enterprise Linux 5, or SUSE
Enterprise Linux 10, you must create a permissions file number that is higher at 50.
To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:
1.
Create a permissions file in /etc/udev/permissions.d, to change the
permissions from default root ownership to root and members of the oinstall
group, called 49-oracle.permissions, or 51-oracle.permissions,
depending on your Linux distribution. In each case, the contents of the
xx-oracle.permissions file are as follows:
devicepartition:root:oinstall:0640
Configuring Oracle Clusterware Storage
3-7
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Clusterware Files
For example, to set permissions for an OCR partition on block device /dev/sda1,
create the following entry:
sda1:root:oinstall:0640
Use the section "Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle
Clusterware" on page 3-8 for a step-by-step example of how to perform this task.
2.
Configure the block devices from the local node with the required partition space
for Oracle Clusterware files. Use the section "Example of Configuring Block Device
Storage for Oracle Clusterware" on page 3-9 to help you configure block devices, if
you are unfamiliar with creating partitions.
3.
Load updated block device partition tables on all member nodes of the cluster,
using /sbin/partprobe devicename. You must do this as root.
4.
Change the ownership of OCR partitions to the installation owner on all
member nodes of the cluster. In the session where you run the Installer, the OCR
partitions must be owned by the installation owner (crs, oracle) that performs
the Oracle Clusterware installation. The installation owner must own the OCR
partitions so that the Installer can write to them. During installation, the Installer
changes ownership of the OCR partitions back to root. With subsequent system
restarts, ownership is set correctly by the oracle.permissions file.
5.
Enter the command /sbin/udevstart. This command should assign the
permissions set in the oracle.permissions file. Check to ensure that your
system is configured correctly.
Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Clusterware
The procedure to create a permissions file to grant oinstall group members write
privileges to block devices is as follows:
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Change to the /etc/udev/permissions.d directory:
# cd /etc/udev/permissions.d
3.
Start a text editor, such as vi, and enter the partition information where you want
to place the OCR and voting disk files, using the syntax
device[partitions]:root:oinstall:0640. Note that Oracle recommends that you place
the OCR and the voting disk files on separate physical disks. For example, to grant
oinstall members access to SCSI disks to place OCR files on sda1 and sdb2, and to
grant the Oracle Clusterware owner (in this example crs) permissions to place
voting disks on sdb3, sdc1 and sda2, add the following information to the file:
# OCR disks
sda1:root:oinstall:0640
sdb2:root:oinstall:0640
# Voting disks
sda2:crs:oinstall:0640
sdb3:crs:oinstall:0640
sdc1:crs:oinstall:0640
4.
Save the file:
On Red Hat and Oracle Enterprise Linux 4 systems, save the file as
49-oracle.permissions.
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 systems, save the file as
51-oracle.permissions.
3-8 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Clusterware Files
5.
Using the following command, assign the permissions in the udev file to the
devices:
# /sbin/udevstart
Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Clusterware
The procedure to create partitions for Oracle Clusterware files on block devices is as
follows:
1.
log in as root
2.
Enter the fdisk command to format a specific storage disk (for example,
/sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb)
3.
Create a new partition, and make the partition 280 MB in size for both OCR and
voting disk partitions.
4.
Use the command syntax /sbin/partprobe diskpath on each node in the
cluster to update the kernel partition table for the shared storage device on each
node.
The following is an example of how to use fdisk to create one partition on a shared
storage block disk device for an OCR file:
[[email protected] /] $ su
Password:
[[email protected] /] # /sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 1024.
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e
extended
P
primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-1024, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1024, default 1)
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1024, default 1024):+280m
Command (m for help):w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl () to re-read partition table.
Synching disks.
[[email protected] /]#
exit
[[email protected] /] $ ssh remotenode
Last login Wed Feb 21 20:23:01 from localnode
[[email protected] ~]$ su
Password:
[[email protected] /] # /sbin/partprobe /dev/sdb1
Oracle recommends that you create partitions for Oracle
Clusterware files on physically separate disks.
Note:
Configuring Oracle Clusterware Storage
3-9
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Clusterware Files
3-10 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
4
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters
Storage
This chapter includes storage administration tasks that you should complete if you
intend to use Oracle Clusterware with Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC).
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
■
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU
■
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database Files
■
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System
■
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
■
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices
■
Checking the System Setup with CVU
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
This section describes supported options for storing Oracle Database files, and data
files.
See Also: The Oracle Certify site for a list of supported vendors for
Network Attached Storage options:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/support/metalink/
Refer also to the Certify site on OracleMetalink for the most current
information about certified storage options:
https://metalink.oracle.com/
Overview of Oracle Database and Recovery File Options
There are three ways of storing Oracle Database and recovery files:
■
Automatic Storage Management: Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is an
integrated, high-performance database file system and disk manager for Oracle
Database files. It performs striping and mirroring of database files automatically.
For Standard Edition Oracle Database installations using
Oracle RAC, ASM is the only supported storage option.
Note:
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-1
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
■
A supported shared file system: Supported file systems include the following:
–
A supported cluster file system: Note that if you intend to use a cluster file
system for your data files, then you should create partitions large enough for
the database files when you create partitions for Oracle Clusterware. If you
intend to store Oracle Clusterware files on OCFS2, then you must ensure that
OCFS2 volume sizes are at least 500 MB each.
See Also: The Certify page on OracleMetalink for supported cluster
file systems
–
NAS Network File System (NFS) listed on Oracle Certify: Note that if you
intend to use NFS for your data files, then you should create partitions large
enough for the database files when you create partitions for Oracle
Clusterware.
See Also: The Certify page on OracleMetalink for supported
Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices, and supported cluster file
systems
■
Block or Raw Devices: A partition is required for each database file. If you do not
use ASM, then for new installations on raw devices, you must use a custom
installation.
On Linux, Oracle recommends using block devices for new
installations.
Note:
General Storage Considerations for Oracle RAC
For all installations, you must choose the storage option that you want to use for
Oracle Database files, or for Oracle Clusterware with Oracle RAC. If you want to
enable automated backups during the installation, then you must also choose the
storage option that you want to use for recovery files (the flash recovery area). You do
not have to use the same storage option for each file type.
For single-instance Oracle Database installations using Oracle Clusterware for failover,
you must use OCFS2, ASM, block devices (on Linux), or shared raw disks if you do
not want the failover processing to include dismounting and remounting of local file
systems.
The following table shows the storage options supported for storing Oracle Database
files and Oracle Database recovery files. Oracle Database files include data files,
control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file.
For the most up-to-date information about supported storage
options for Oracle RAC installations, refer to the Certify pages on the
OracleMetaLink Web site:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
4-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Reviewing Storage Options for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Table 4–1
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
File Types Supported
Storage Option
Database
Recovery
Automatic Storage Management
Yes
Yes
OCFS2
Yes
Yes
Red Hat Global File System (GFS); for
Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Oracle
Enterprise Linux
Yes
Yes
Local storage
No
No
NFS file system
Yes
Yes
Shared raw devices
Yes
No
Shared block devices
Yes
No
Note: Requires a certified NAS device
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options that you want to use
for each file type:
■
■
■
■
■
■
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type provided that you satisfy all requirements listed for the chosen storage
options.
Oracle recommends that you choose Automatic Storage Management (ASM) as
the storage option for database and recovery files.
For Standard Edition Oracle RAC installations, ASM is the only supported storage
option for database or recovery files.
You cannot use ASM to store Oracle Clusterware files, because these files must be
accessible before any ASM instance starts.
If you intend to use ASM with Oracle RAC, and you are configuring a new ASM
instance, then your system must meet the following conditions:
–
All nodes on the cluster have the 11g release 1 (11.1) version of Oracle
Clusterware installed.
–
Any existing ASM instance on any node in the cluster is shut down.
If you intend to upgrade an existing Oracle RAC database, or an Oracle RAC
database with ASM instances, then you must ensure that your system meets the
following conditions:
–
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) and Database Configuration Assistant
(DBCA) are run on the node where the Oracle RAC database or Oracle RAC
database with ASM instance is located.
–
The Oracle RAC database or Oracle RAC database with an ASM instance is
running on the same nodes that you intend to make members of the new
cluster installation. For example, if you have an existing Oracle RAC database
running on a three-node cluster, then you must install the upgrade on all three
nodes. You cannot upgrade only 2 nodes of the cluster, removing the third
instance in the upgrade.
See Also: Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about how
to prepare for upgrading an existing database
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-3
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU
■
If you do not have a storage option that provides external file redundancy, then
you must configure at least three voting disk areas to provide voting disk
redundancy.
After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options
After you have installed and configured Oracle Clusterware storage, and after you
have reviewed your disk storage options for Oracle Database files, you must perform
the following tasks in the order listed:
1: Check for available shared storage with CVU
Refer to Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU on page 4-4.
2: Configure storage for Oracle Database files and recovery files
■
To use a shared file system for database or recovery file storage, refer to
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System
on page 4-5, and ensure that in addition to the volumes you create for Oracle
Clusterware files, you also create additional volumes with sizes sufficient to store
database files.
■
■
To use Automatic Storage Management for database or recovery file storage,
refer to "Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management with ASMLIB" on
page 4-15
To use shared devices for database file storage, refer to "Configuring Storage for
Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices" on page 4-19.
If you choose to configure database files on raw devices, note
that you must complete database software installation first, and then
configure storage after installation.
Note:
You cannot use OUI to configure a database that uses raw devices for
storage. In a future release, the option to use raw and block devices for
database storage will become unavailable.
Checking for Available Shared Storage with CVU
To check for all shared file systems available across all nodes on the cluster on a
supported shared file system, log in as the installation owner user (oracle or crs),
and use the following syntax:
/mountpoint/runcluvfy.sh comp ssa -n node_list
If you want to check the shared accessibility of a specific shared storage type to
specific nodes in your cluster, then use the following command syntax:
/mountpoint/runcluvfy.sh comp ssa -n node_list -s storageID_list
In the preceding syntax examples, the variable mountpoint is the mountpoint path of
the installation media, the variable node_list is the list of nodes you want to check,
separated by commas, and the variable storageID_list is the list of storage device
IDs for the storage devices managed by the file system type that you want to check.
For example, if you want to check the shared accessibility from node1 and node2 of
storage devices /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc, and your mountpoint is /dev/dvdrom/,
then enter the following command:
4-4 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System
$ /mnt/dvdrom/runcluvfy.sh comp ssa -n node1,node2 -s /dev/sdb,/dev/sdc
If you do not specify storage device IDs in the command, then the command searches
for all available storage devices connected to the nodes on the list.
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database Files
Database files consist of the files that make up the database, and the recovery area
files. There are five options for storing database files:
■
Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS2), GPS
■
Network File System (NFS)
■
Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
■
Block devices (Database files only--not for the recovery area)
■
Raw devices (Database files only--not for the recovery area)
During configuration of Oracle Clusterware, if you selected OCFS2 or NFS, and the
volumes that you created are large enough to hold the database files and recovery
files, then you have completed required preinstallation steps. You can proceed to
Chapter 5, "Installing Oracle Clusterware" on page 5-1.
If you want to place your database files on ASM, then proceed to Configuring Disks
for Automatic Storage Management on page 4-11.
If you want to place your database files on raw devices, and manually provide storage
management for your database and recovery files, then proceed to "Configuring
Storage for Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices" on page 4-19.
Note: Databases can consist of a mixture of ASM files and non-ASM
files. Refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for additional
information about ASM. For OCFS2 certification status, refer to the
Certify page on OracleMetaLink.
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File
System
Review the following sections to complete storage requirements for Oracle Database
files:
■
Requirements for Using a File System for Oracle Database Files
■
Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Data Files
■
Deciding to Use NFS for Data Files
■
Deciding to Use Direct NFS for Datafiles
■
Enabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager Control of NFS
■
Disabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Management Control of NFS
■
Checking NFS Mount Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle RAC
■
Creating Required Directories for Oracle Database Files on Shared File Systems
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-5
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System
Requirements for Using a File System for Oracle Database Files
To use a file system for Oracle Database files, the file system must comply with the
following requirements:
■
■
■
■
To use a cluster file system, it must be a supported cluster file system, as listed in
the section "Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Data Files" on page 4-6.
To use an NFS file system, it must be on a certified NAS device.
If you choose to place your database files on a shared file system, then one of the
following must be true:
–
The disks used for the file system are on a highly available storage device, (for
example, a RAID device that implements file redundancy).
–
The file systems consist of at least two independent file systems, with the
database files on one file system, and the recovery files on a different file
system.
The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that
you specify.
Use Table 4–2 to determine the partition size for shared file systems.
Table 4–2
Shared File System Volume Size Requirements
File Types Stored
Number of
Volumes
Volume Size
Oracle Database files
1
At least 1.5 GB for each volume
Recovery files
1
At least 2 GB for each volume
Note: Recovery files must be on a
different volume than database files
In Table 4–2, the total required volume size is cumulative. For example, to store all
database files on the shared file system, you should have at least 3.4 GB of storage
available over a minimum of two volumes.
Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Data Files
For Linux x86 (32-bit) and x86 (64-bit) platforms, Oracle provides Oracle Cluster File
System 2 (OCFS2) is designed for Linux kernel 2.6. You can have a shared Oracle home
on OCFS2.
If you have an existing Oracle installation, then use the following command to
determine if OCFS2 is installed:
# rpm -qa | grep ocfs
To ensure that OCFS2 is loaded, enter the following command:
/etc/init.d/ocfs status
If you want to install the Oracle Database files on an OCFS2 file system, and the
packages are not installed, then download them from the following Web site. Follow
the instructions listed with the kit to install the packages and configure the file system:
OCFS2:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
4-6 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System
For OCFS2 certification status, refer to the Certify page on
OracleMetaLink:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Deciding to Use NFS for Data Files
Network-attached storage (NAS) systems use NFS to access data. You can store data
files on a supported NFS system.
NFS file systems must be mounted and available over NFS mounts before you start
installation. Refer to your vendor documentation to complete NFS configuration and
mounting.
Deciding to Use Direct NFS for Datafiles
This section contains the following information about Direct NFS:
■
About Direct NFS Storage
■
Using the Oranfstab File with Direct NFS
■
Mounting NFS Storage Devices with Direct NFS
About Direct NFS Storage
With Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1), instead of using the operating system kernel
NFS client, you can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using
an Oracle internal Direct NFS client.
To enable Oracle Database to use Direct NFS, the NFS file systems must be mounted
and available over regular NFS mounts before you start installation. The mount
options used in mounting the file systems are not relevant, as Direct NFS manages
settings after installation. Refer to your vendor documentation to complete NFS
configuration and mounting.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer
is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS to
operate. To disable reserved port checking, consult your NFS file server
documentation.
Using the Oranfstab File with Direct NFS
If you use Direct NFS, then you can choose to use a new file specific for Oracle datafile
management, oranfstab, to specify additional options specific for Oracle Database
to Direct NFS. For example, you can use oranfstab to specify additional paths for a
mount point. You can add the oranfstab file either to /etc or to $ORACLE_
HOME/dbs. The oranfstab file is not required to use NFS or Direct NFS.
With Oracle RAC installations, if you want to use Direct NFS, then you must replicate
the file /etc/oranfstab on all nodes, and keep each /etc/oranfstab file
synchronized on all nodes.
When the oranfstab file is placed in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs, the entries in the file are
specific to a single database. In this case, all nodes running an Oracle RAC database
use the same $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab file.
When the oranfstab file is placed in /etc, then it is globally available to all Oracle
databases, and can contain mount points used by all Oracle databases running on
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-7
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System
nodes in the cluster, including single-instance databases. However, on Oracle RAC
systems, if the oranfstab file is placed in /etc, then you must replicate the file
/etc/oranfstab file on all nodes, and keep each /etc/oranfstab file
synchronized on all nodes, just as you must with the /etc/fstab file.
In all cases, mount points must be mounted by the kernel NFS system, even when they
are being served using Direct NFS.
Mounting NFS Storage Devices with Direct NFS
Direct NFS determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on the
configurations in /etc/mtab, which are changed with configuring the /etc/fstab
file.
Direct NFS searches for mount entries in the following order:
1.
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab
2.
/etc/oranfstab
3.
/etc/mtab
Direct NFS uses the first matching entry found.
Note: You can have only one active Direct NFS implementation for
each instance. Using Direct NFS on an instance will prevent another
Direct NFS implementation.
If Oracle Database uses Direct NFS mount points configured using oranfstab, then it
first verifies kernel NFS mounts by cross-checking entries in oranfstab with
operating system NFS mount points. If a mismatch exists, then Direct NFS logs an
informational message, and does not serve the NFS server.
If Oracle Database is unable to open an NFS server using Direct NFS, then Oracle
Database uses the platform operating system kernel NFS client. In this case, the kernel
NFS mount options must be set up as defined in "Checking NFS Mount Buffer Size
Parameters for Oracle RAC" on page 4-10. Additionally, an informational message will
be logged into the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS could not be
established.
The Oracle files resident on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client are
also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual
considerations for maintaining integrity of the Oracle files apply in this situation.
Specifying Network Paths with the Oranfstab File
Direct NFS can use up to four network paths defined in the oranfstab file for an
NFS server. The Direct NFS client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If
a specified path fails, then Direct NFS reissues I/O commands over any remaining
paths.
Use the following views for Direct NFS management:
■
v$dnfs_servers: Shows a table of servers accessed using Direct NFS.
■
v$dnfs_files: Shows a table of files currently open using Direct NFS.
■
■
v$dnfs_channels: Shows a table of open network paths (or channels) to servers for
which Direct NFS is providing files.
v$dnfs_stats: Shows a table of performance statistics for Direct NFS.
4-8 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System
Enabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager Control of NFS
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS:
1.
Create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server to be
accessed using Direct NFS:
■
■
Server: The NFS server name.
Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP
address, or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command.
■
Export: The exported path from the NFS server.
■
Mount: The local mount point for the NFS server.
Note: On Linux and Unix platforms, the location of the oranfstab
file is $ORACLE_HOME/dbs.
The following is an example of an oranfstab file with two NFS server entries:
server: MyDataServer1
path: 132.34.35.12
path: 132.34.35.13
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
server: MyDataServer2
path: NfsPath1
path: NfsPath2
path: NfsPath3
path: NfsPath4
export: /vol/oradata2
export: /vol/oradata3
export: /vol/oradata4
export: /vol/oradata5
2.
mount:
mount:
mount:
mount:
/mnt/oradata2
/mnt/oradata3
/mnt/oradata4
/mnt/oradata5
Oracle Database uses an ODM library, libnfsodm10.so, to enable Direct NFS.
To replace the standard ODM library, $ORACLE_HOME/lib/libodm10.so, with
the ODM NFS library, libnfsodm10.so, complete the following steps:
a.
Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/lib.
b.
Enter the following commands:
cp libodm10.so libodm10.so_stub
ln -s libnfsodm10.so libodm10.so
Disabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Management Control of NFS
Use one of the following methods to disable the Direct NFS client:
■
■
■
Remove the oranfstab file.
Restore the stub libodm10.so file by reversing the process you completed in step
2b, "Enabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager Control of NFS"
Remove the specific NFS server or export paths in the oranfstab file.
If you remove an NFS path that Oracle Database is using, then
you must restart the database for the change to be effective.
Note:
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-9
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on a Supported Shared File System
Checking NFS Mount Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle RAC
If you are using NFS, then you must set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters
rsize and wsize to at least 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value 32768.
If you are using Direct NFS, then set the rsize and wsize values to 32768. Direct NFS
will not serve an NFS server with write size values (wtmax) less than 32768.
For example, if you decide to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value
32768, then update the /etc/fstab file on each node with an entry similar to the
following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp
nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Refer to your storage vendor documentation for additional
information about mount options.
Note:
Creating Required Directories for Oracle Database Files on Shared File Systems
Use the following instructions to create directories for shared file systems for Oracle
Database and recovery files (for example, for a RAC database).
1.
If necessary, configure the shared file systems that you want to use and mount
them on each node.
The mount point that you use for the file system must be
identical on each node. Ensure that the file systems are configured
to mount automatically when a node restarts.
Note:
2.
Use the df -h command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file
system.
3.
From the display, identify the file systems that you want to use:
File Type
File System Requirements
Database files
Choose either:
■
■
Recovery files
A single file system with at least 1.5 GB of free disk space.
Two or more file systems with at least 1.5 GB of free disk space in
total.
Choose a file system with at least 2 GB of free disk space.
If you are using the same file system for more than one type of file, then add the
disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space
requirement.
4.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
5.
If the user performing installation (typically, oracle) has permissions to create
directories on the disks where you plan to install Oracle Database, then DBCA
creates the Oracle Database file directory, and the Recovery file directory.
If the user performing installation does not have write access, then you must
create these directories manually using commands similar to the following to
4-10 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and
set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:
■
Database file directory:
# mkdir /mount_point/oradata
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
# chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
■
Recovery file directory (flash recovery area):
# mkdir /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
# chmod 775 /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
By making the oracle user the owner of these directories, this permits them to be
read by multiple Oracle homes, including those with different OSDBA groups.
When you have completed creating subdirectories in each of the mount point
directories, and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions, you have
completed OCFS2 or NFS configuration for Oracle Database shared storage.
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
This section describes how to configure disks for use with Automatic Storage
Management. Before you configure the disks, you must determine the number of disks
and the amount of free disk space that you require. The following sections describe
how to identify the requirements and configure the disks:
■
Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management
■
Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
■
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management with ASMLIB
Note:
■
■
For Automatic Storage Management installations:
Although this section refers to disks, you can also use
zero-padded files on a certified NAS storage device in an
Automatic Storage Management disk group. Refer to Oracle
Database Installation Guide for Linux for information about
creating and configuring NAS-based files for use in an
Automatic Storage Management disk group.
You can run ASM using ASMLIB, or run ASM using raw
devices. Oracle recommends that you use raw devices only
with upgrades, and migrate to other storage systems for Oracle
Database files.
Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Automatic Storage Management, you
must determine how many devices and the amount of free disk space that you require.
To complete this task, follow these steps:
1.
Determine whether you want to use Automatic Storage Management for Oracle
Database files, recovery files, or both.
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-11
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for
database files and recovery files. You can use the file system for one
file type and Automatic Storage Management for the other.
Note:
If you choose to enable automated backups and you do not have a
shared file system available, then you must choose Automatic
Storage Management for recovery file storage.
If you enable automated backups during the installation, you can choose
Automatic Storage Management as the storage mechanism for recovery files by
specifying an Automatic Storage Management disk group for the flash recovery
area. Depending on how you choose to create a database during the installation,
you have the following options:
■
If you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration
Assistant in interactive mode (for example, by choosing the Advanced
database configuration option) then you can decide whether you want to use
the same Automatic Storage Management disk group for database files and
recovery files, or use different disk groups for each file type.
The same choice is available to you if you use Database Configuration
Assistant after the installation to create a database.
■
2.
If you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration
Assistant in noninteractive mode, then you must use the same Automatic
Storage Management disk group for database files and recovery files.
Choose the Automatic Storage Management redundancy level that you want to
use for the Automatic Storage Management disk group.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Automatic Storage Management
disk group determines how Automatic Storage Management mirrors files in the
disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of free disk space that
you require, as follows:
■
External redundancy
An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device.
The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of
the disk space in all of its devices.
Because Automatic Storage Management does not mirror data in an external
redundancy disk group, Oracle recommends that you select external
redundancy only use only RAID or similar devices that provide their own
data protection mechanisms for disk devices.
■
Normal redundancy
In a normal redundancy disk group, to increase performance and reliability,
Automatic Storage Management by default uses two-way mirroring. A normal
redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two disk devices (or two
failure groups). The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is
half the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you select normal redundancy
disk groups.
■
High redundancy
In a high redundancy disk group, Automatic Storage Management uses
three-way mirroring to increase performance and provide the highest level of
4-12 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
reliability. A high redundancy disk group requires a minimum of three disk
devices (or three failure groups). The effective disk space in a high redundancy
disk group is one-third the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
While high redundancy disk groups do provide a high level of data protection,
you should consider the greater cost of additional storage devices before
deciding to select high redundancy disk groups.
3.
Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files
and recovery files.
Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the
minimum disk space requirements for installing the starter database:
Redundancy
Level
Minimum Number Database
of Disks
Files
Recovery
Files
Both File
Types
External
1
1.15 GB
2.3 GB
3.45 GB
Normal
2
2.3 GB
4.6 GB
6.9 GB
High
3
3.45 GB
6.9 GB
10.35 GB
For Oracle RAC installations, you must also add additional disk space for the
Automatic Storage Management metadata. You can use the following formula to
calculate the additional disk space requirements (in MB):
15 + (2 * number_of_disks) + (126 * number_of_Automatic_Storage_Management_
instances)
For example, for a four-node Oracle RAC installation, using three disks in a high
redundancy disk group, you require an additional 525 MB of disk space:
15 + (2 * 3) + (126 * 4) = 525
If an Automatic Storage Management instance is already running on the system,
then you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If
necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the installation.
The following section describes how to identify existing disk groups and
determine the free disk space that they contain.
4.
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Automatic Storage Management disk
group devices.
You need to complete this step only if you intend to use an
installation method that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
interactive mode, for example, if you intend to choose the Custom
installation type or the Advanced database configuration option.
Other installation types do not enable you to specify failure groups.
Note:
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect your database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices
in a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its own failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller
fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
To protect against failures of this type, you could use two SCSI controllers, each
with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller.
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-13
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI
controller.
If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify
a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk
groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
Note:
5.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following
guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
■
■
■
All of the devices in an Automatic Storage Management disk group should be
the same size and have the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify more than one partition on a single physical disk as a disk
group device. Automatic Storage Management expects each disk group device
to be on a separate physical disk.
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Automatic
Storage Management disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use.
Logical volume managers can hide the physical disk architecture, preventing
Automatic Storage Management from optimizing I/O across the physical
devices. They are not supported with Oracle RAC.
Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
If you want to store either database or recovery files in an existing Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then you have the following choices, depending on the
installation method that you select:
■
If you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
interactive mode (for example, by choosing the Advanced database configuration
option), then you can decide whether you want to create a disk group, or to use an
existing one.
The same choice is available to you if you use Database Configuration Assistant
after the installation to create a database.
■
If you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
noninteractive mode, then you must choose an existing disk group for the new
database; you cannot create a disk group. However, you can add disk devices to
an existing disk group if it has insufficient free space for your requirements.
The Automatic Storage Management instance that manages
the existing disk group can be running in a different Oracle home
directory.
Note:
To determine if an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group exists, or to
determine if there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control or Database Control. Alternatively, you can use the
following procedure:
1.
View the contents of the oratab file to determine if an Automatic Storage
Management instance is configured on the system:
$ more /etc/oratab
4-14 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
If an Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system, then
the oratab file should contain a line similar to the following:
+ASM2:oracle_home_path
In this example, +ASM2 is the system identifier (SID) of the Automatic Storage
Management instance, with the node number appended, and oracle_home_
path is the Oracle home directory where it is installed. By convention, the SID for
an Automatic Storage Management instance begins with a plus sign.
2.
Set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME environment variables to specify the
appropriate values for the Automatic Storage Management instance that you want
to use.
3.
Connect to the Automatic Storage Management instance as the SYS user with
SYSDBA privilege and start the instance if necessary:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus "SYS/SYS_password as SYSDBA"
SQL> STARTUP
4.
Enter the following command to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy
level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
5.
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and
note the free space that it contains.
6.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements listed in the previous section.
If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then
Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size
and performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk
group.
Note:
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management with ASMLIB
The Automatic Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) simplifies the
configuration and management of the disk devices by eliminating the need to rebind
raw devices used with ASM each time the system is restarted.
A disk that is configured for use with Automatic Storage Management is known as a
candidate disk.
If you intend to use Automatic Storage Management for database storage for Linux,
then Oracle recommends that you install the ASMLIB driver and associated utilities,
and use them to configure candidate disks.
To use the Automatic Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) to configure
Automatic Storage Management devices, complete the following tasks.
■
Installing and Configuring the ASM Library Driver Software
■
Configuring Disk Devices to Use ASM Library Driver on x86 Systems
■
Administering the ASM Library Driver and Disks
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-15
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
To create a database during the installation using the ASM
library driver, you must choose an installation method that runs
DBCA in interactive mode. For example, you can run DBCA in an
interactive mode by choosing the Custom installation type, or the
Advanced database configuration option. You must also change the
default disk discovery string to ORCL:*.
Note:
Installing and Configuring the ASM Library Driver Software
If you are a member of the Unbreakable Linux Network, then you can install the
ASMLIB rpms by subscribing to the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux channel, and
using up2date to retrieve the most current package for your system and kernel. For
additional information, refer to the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/linux/asmlib/uln.html
To install and configure the ASMLIB driver software manually, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of
the system:
# uname -rm
2.
Download the required ASMLIB packages from the OTN Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/linux/asmlib/index.html
You must install oracleasm-support package version 2.0.1
or later to use ASMLIB on Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Server,
or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
Note:
You must install the following packages, where version is the version of the
ASMLIB driver, arch is the system architecture, and kernel is the version of the
kernel that you are using:
oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
3.
Switch user to the root user:
$ su -
4.
Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:
# rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
For example, if you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 4 enterprise kernel
on an AMD64 system, then enter a command similar to the following:
# rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-2.0.1.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasmlib-2.0.1.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasm-2.6.9-11.EL-2.0.1.x86_64.rpm
5.
Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the
configure option:
4-16 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
6.
Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script
displays:
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default user to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the Oracle
software owner user (typically, oracle)
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the ASM software
owner user (typically asm).
Default group to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSDBA group
(typically dba).
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSASM group
(typically asm).
Start Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Library driver on boot (y/n):
Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver when
the system starts.
Fix permissions of Oracle ASM disks on boot?
(y/n)
Specify the Oracle software owner (the
owner of the RDBMS installation).
The script completes the following tasks:
■
Creates the /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm configuration file
■
Creates the /dev/oracleasm mount point
■
Loads the oracleasm kernel module
■
Mounts the ASMLIB driver file system
The ASMLIB driver file system is not a regular file system.
It is used only by the Automatic Storage Management library to
communicate with the Automatic Storage Management driver.
Note:
7.
Repeat this procedure on all nodes in the cluster where you want to install Oracle
RAC.
Configuring Disk Devices to Use ASM Library Driver on x86 Systems
To configure the disk devices that you want to use in an Automatic Storage
Management disk group, follow these steps:
1.
If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then follow these steps:
a.
If necessary, install or configure the shared disk devices that you intend to use
for the disk group and restart the system.
b.
To identify the device name for the disks that you want to use, enter the
following command:
# /sbin/fdisk -l
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-17
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary:
Disk Type
Device Name
Format
IDE disk
/dev/hdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
IDE disk and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first
IDE bus.
SCSI disk
/dev/sdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
SCSI disk and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first
SCSI bus.
Description
To include devices in a disk group, you can specify either whole-drive device
names or partition device names.
Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk
partition on each disk that you want to use.
Note:
c.
2.
Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the
disk devices that you want to use.
Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Automatic Storage
Management disk:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
In this example, DISK1 is a name that you want to assign to the disk.
Note: The disk names that you specify can contain uppercase
letters, numbers, and the underscore character. They must start
with an uppercase letter.
If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Automatic
Storage Management, then make sure that you specify the correct
logical device name for the disk.
3.
To make the disk available on the other nodes in the cluster, enter the following
command as root on each node:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm scandisks
This command identifies shared disks attached to the node that are marked as
Automatic Storage Management disks.
Administering the ASM Library Driver and Disks
To administer the Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use the
oracleasm initialization script with different options, as described in Table 4–3.
4-18 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices
Table 4–3
ORACLEASM Script Options
Option
Description
configure
Use the configure option to reconfigure the Automatic
Storage Management library driver, if necessary:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
enable
disable
Use the disable and enable options to change the actions of
the Automatic Storage Management library driver when the
system starts. The enable option causes the Automatic Storage
Management library driver to load when the system starts:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm enable
start
stop
restart
Use the start, stop, and restart options to load or unload
the Automatic Storage Management library driver without
restarting the system:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm restart
createdisk
Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device for use with
the Automatic Storage Management library driver and give it a
name:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISKNAME devicename
deletedisk
Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named disk device:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm deletedisk DISKNAME
Caution: Do not use this command to unmark disks that are
being used by an Automatic Storage Management disk group.
You must delete the disk from the Automatic Storage
Management disk group before you unmark it.
querydisk
Use the querydisk option to determine if a disk device or disk
name is being used by the Automatic Storage Management
library driver:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm querydisk {DISKNAME |
devicename}
listdisks
Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of marked
Automatic Storage Management library driver disks:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm listdisks
scandisks
Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes to identify
which shared disks have been marked as Automatic Storage
Management library driver disks on another node:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm scandisks
When you have completed creating and configuring Automatic Storage Management,
with ASMLIB, proceed to Chapter 5, "Installing Oracle Clusterware" on page 5-1.
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices
The following subsections describe how to configure Oracle Clusterware files on raw
devices.
■
Planning Your Shared Storage Device Creation Strategy
■
Identifying Required Shared Partitions for Database Files
■
Using Block Devices on Linux
■
Using Raw Logical Volumes on Linux
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-19
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices
■
Desupport of the Database Configuration Assistant Raw Device Mapping File
Planning Your Shared Storage Device Creation Strategy
Before installing the Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) software with Oracle RAC,
create enough partitions of specific sizes to support your database, and also leave a
few spare partitions of the same size for future expansion. For example, if you have
space on your shared disk array, then select a limited set of standard partition sizes for
your entire database. Partition sizes of 50 MB, 100 MB, 500 MB, and 1 GB are suitable
for most databases. Also, create a few very small and a few very large spare partitions
that are (for example) 1 MB and perhaps 5 GB or greater in size. Based on your plans
for using each partition, determine the placement of these spare partitions by
combining different sizes on one disk, or by segmenting each disk into same-sized
partitions.
Be aware that each instance has its own redo log files, but
all instances in a cluster share the control files and data files. In
addition, each instance's online redo log files must be readable by
all other instances to enable recovery.
Note:
In addition to the minimum required number of partitions, you
should configure spare partitions. Doing this enables you to
perform emergency file relocations or additions if a tablespace data
file becomes full.
Identifying Required Shared Partitions for Database Files
For new installations, Oracle recommends that you do not use
raw devices for database files.
Note:
Table 4–4 lists the number and size of the shared partitions that you must configure for
database files.
Table 4–4
Shared Devices or Logical Volumes Required for Database Files on Linux
Number
Partition Size
(MB)
Purpose
1
500
SYSTEM tablespace
1
300 + (Number of
instances * 250)
SYSAUX tablespace
Number of
instances
500
UNDOTBSn tablespace (One tablespace for each instance)
1
250
TEMP tablespace
1
160
EXAMPLE tablespace
1
120
USERS tablespace
2 * number of 120
instances
Two online redo log files for each instance
2
110
First and second control files
1
5
Server parameter file (SPFILE)
1
5
Password file
4-20 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices
If you prefer to use manual undo management, instead of
automatic undo management, then, instead of the UNDOTBSn
shared storage devices, you must create a single rollback segment
tablespace (RBS) on a shared storage device partition that is at least
500 MB in size.
Note:
Using Block Devices on Linux
Use the following procedure to create block device partitions:
1.
Use fdisk to create disk partitions on block devices for database files.
If you intend to manage files manually, then create partitions at least the size of
those in Table 4–4.
If you intend to configure block devices and use ASM to manage data files, then
create one partition for each disk comprising the whole disk, and go to the
procedure in the section "Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
with ASMLIB" on page 4-15.
2.
On each node, create or modify a permissions file in
/etc/udev/permissions.d, to change the permissions of the datafiles from
default root ownership. On Asianux 2, Enterprise Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 4, this file should be called 49-oracle.permissions, so that the kernel
loads it before 50-udev.permissions. On Asianux 3, Enterprise Linux 5, Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 5, and SUSE Enterprise Server 10, this file should be called
51-oracle.permissions, so that the kernel loads it after
50-udev.permissions.
For each partition, the contents of the xx-oracle.permissions file are as
follows:
devicepartition:oracle_db_install_owner:OSDBA:0660
Using Raw Logical Volumes on Linux
This section contains information about logical volume managers for Linux.
Binding Partitions to Raw Devices for Oracle ASM Files
After you have created the required partitions, you must bind the partitions to raw
devices on every node. However, you must first determine what raw devices are
already bound to other devices. The procedure that you must follow to complete this
task varies, depending on the Linux distribution that you are using:
■
Red Hat
■
SUSE
If the nodes are configured differently, then the disk device
names might be different on some nodes. In the following procedure,
be sure to specify the correct disk device names on each node.
Note:
After you configure block or raw devices, you can choose to configure
ASM to use the devices and manage database file storage.
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-21
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files on Shared Storage Devices
Red Hat
1. To determine what raw devices are already bound to other devices, enter the
following command on every node:
# /usr/bin/raw -qa
Raw devices have device names in the form /dev/raw/rawn, where n is a
number that identifies the raw device.
For each device that you want to use, identify a raw device name that is
unused on all nodes.
2.
Open the /etc/sysconfig/rawdevices file in any text editor and add a
line similar to the following for each partition that you created:
/dev/raw/raw1 /dev/sdb1
Specify an unused raw device for each partition.
3.
To bind the partitions to the raw devices, enter the following command:
# /sbin/service rawdevices restart
The system automatically binds the devices listed in the rawdevices file
when it restarts.
4.
Repeat step 2 through step 3 on each node in the cluster.
SUSE
1.
To determine what raw devices are already bound to other devices, enter the
following command on every node:
# /usr/sbin/raw -qa
Raw devices have device names in the form /dev/raw/rawn, where n is a
number that identifies the raw device.
For each device that you want to use, identify a raw device name that is
unused on all nodes.
2.
Open the /etc/raw file in any text editor and add a line similar to the
following to associate each partition with an unused raw device:
raw1:sdb1
3.
To bind the partitions to the raw devices, enter the following command:
# /etc/init.d/raw start
4.
To ensure that the raw devices are bound when the system restarts, enter the
following command:
# /sbin/chkconfig raw on
5.
Repeat step 2 through step 5 on the other nodes in the cluster.
Creating Raw Devices on IDE or SCSI Devices
If you intend to use IDE or SCSI devices for the raw devices, then follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, install or configure the shared disk devices that you intend to use for
the raw devices and restart the system.
4-22 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Checking the System Setup with CVU
Because the number of partitions that you can create on a
single device is limited, you might need to create the required
partitions on more than one device.
Note:
2.
To identify the device name for the disks that you want to use, enter the following
command:
# /sbin/fdisk -l
Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary:
Disk Type
Device Name
Format
IDE disk
/dev/hdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the IDE
disk and n is the partition number. For example,
/dev/hda is the first disk on the first IDE bus.
SCSI disk
/dev/sdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the SCSI
disk and n is the partition number. For example,
/dev/sda is the first disk on the first SCSI bus.
Description
You can create the required partitions either on new devices that you added or on
previously partitioned devices that have unpartitioned free space. To identify
devices that have unpartitioned free space, examine the start and end cylinder
numbers of the existing partitions and determine whether the device contains
unused cylinders.
3.
To create partitions on a shared storage device, enter a command similar to the
following:
# /sbin/fdisk devicename
When creating partitions:
–
Use the p command to list the partition table of the device.
–
Use the n command to create a partition.
–
After you have created the required partitions on this device, use the w
command to write the modified partition table to the device.
–
Refer to the fdisk man page for more information about creating partitions.
Desupport of the Database Configuration Assistant Raw Device Mapping File
With the release of Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC release 11g, configuring raw
devices using Database Configuration Assistant is not supported.
Checking the System Setup with CVU
As the oracle user, use the following command syntax to start Cluster Verification
Utility (CVU) stage verification to check hardware, operating system, and storage
setup:
/mountpoint/runcluvfy.sh stage –post hwos –n node_list [-verbose]
In the preceding syntax example, replace the variable node_list with the names of
the nodes in your cluster, separated by commas. For example, to check the hardware
Configuring Oracle Real Application Clusters Storage 4-23
Checking the System Setup with CVU
and operating system of a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and node2, with the
mountpoint /mnt/dvdrom/ and with the option to limit the output to the test results,
enter the following command:
$ /mnt/dvdrom/runcluvfy.sh stage –post hwos –n node1,node2
Select the option -verbose to receive detailed reports of the test results, and progress
updates about the system checks performed by Cluster Verification Utility.
4-24 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
5
Installing Oracle Clusterware
This chapter describes the procedures for installing Oracle Clusterware for Linux. If
you are installing Oracle Database with Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle
RAC), then this is phase one of a two-phase installation.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Verifying Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU
■
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
■
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
■
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
Verifying Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU
Using the following command syntax, log in as the installation owner user (oracle or
crs), and start the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to check system requirements for
installing Oracle Clusterware:
/mountpoint/runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node_list
In the preceding syntax example, replace the variable mountpoint with the
installation media mountpoint, and replace the variable node_list with the names of
the nodes in your cluster, separated by commas.
For example, for a cluster with mountpoint /mnt/dvdrom/, and with nodes node1,
node2, and node3, enter the following command:
$ /mnt/dvdrom/runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2,node3
The CVU Oracle Clusterware preinstallation stage check verifies the following:
■
Node Reachability: All of the specified nodes are reachable from the local node.
■
User Equivalence: Required user equivalence exists on all of the specified nodes.
■
■
■
Node Connectivity: Connectivity exists between all the specified nodes through
the public and private network interconnections, and at least one subnet exists that
connects each node and contains public network interfaces that are suitable for use
as virtual IPs (VIPs).
Administrative Privileges: The oracle user has proper administrative privileges
to install Oracle Clusterware on the specified nodes.
Shared Storage Accessibility: If specified, the OCR device and voting disk are
shared across all the specified nodes.
Installing Oracle Clusterware 5-1
Verifying Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU
■
■
■
System Requirements: All system requirements are met for installing Oracle
Clusterware software, including kernel version, kernel parameters, memory, swap
directory space, temporary directory space, and required users and groups.
Kernel Packages: All required operating system software packages are installed.
Node Applications: The virtual IP (VIP), Oracle Notification Service (ONS) and
Global Service Daemon (GSD) node applications are functioning on each node.
Avoid changing host names after you complete the Oracle
Clusterware installation, including adding or deleting domain
qualifications. Nodes with changed host names must be deleted from
the cluster and added back with the new name.
Note:
Interpreting CVU Messages About Oracle Clusterware Setup
If the CVU report indicates that your system fails to meet the requirements for Oracle
Clusterware installation, then use the topics in this section to correct the problem or
problems indicated in the report, and run the CVU command again.
User Equivalence Check Failed
Cause: Failure to establish user equivalency across all nodes. This can be due to
not creating the required users, or failing to complete secure shell (SSH)
configuration properly.
Action: The CVU provides a list of nodes on which user equivalence failed. For
each node listed as a failure node, review the oracle user configuration to ensure
that the user configuration is properly completed, and that SSH configuration is
properly completed.
See Also: "Creating Identical Users and Groups on Other Cluster
Nodes" in Chapter 2 on page 2-3, and "Configuring SSH on All Cluster
Nodes" in Chapter 1 on page 1-22 for user equivalency configuration
instructions
Use the command su - oracle and check user equivalence manually by
running the ssh command on the local node with the date command argument
using the following syntax:
$ ssh node_name date
The output from this command should be the timestamp of the remote node
identified by the value that you use for node_name. If ssh is in the default
location, the /usr/bin directory, then use ssh to configure user equivalence. You
can also use rsh to confirm user equivalence.
If you have not attempted to use SSH to connect to the host node before running,
then CVU indicates a user equivalence error. If you see a message similar to the
following when entering the date command with SSH, then this is the probable
cause of the user equivalence error:
The authenticity of host 'node1 (140.87.152.153)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 7z:ez:e7:f6:f4:f2:4f:8f:9z:79:85:62:20:90:92:z9.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
Enter yes, and then run CVU again to determine if the user equivalency error is
resolved.
5-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Verifying Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU
If ssh is in a location other than the default, /usr/bin, then CVU reports a user
equivalence check failure. To avoid this error, navigate to the directory
$CV_HOME/cv/admin, open the file cvu_config with a text editor, and add or
update the key ORACLE_SRVM_REMOTESHELL to indicate the ssh path location on
your system. For example:
# Locations for ssh and scp commands
ORACLE_SRVM_REMOTESHELL=/usr/local/bin/ssh
ORACLE_SRVM_REMOTECOPY=/usr/local/bin/scp
Note the following rules for modifying the cvu_config file:
■
Key entries have the syntax name=value
■
Each key entry and the value assigned to the key defines one property only
■
Lines beginning with the number sign (#) are comment lines, and are ignored
■
Lines that do not follow the syntax name=value are ignored
When you have changed the path configuration, run the CVU check again. If ssh is
in another location than the default, you also need to start OUI with additional
arguments to specify a different location for the remote shell and remote copy
commands. Enter runInstaller -help to obtain information about how to use
these arguments.
Note: When you or OUI run ssh or rsh commands, including any
login or other shell scripts they start, you may see errors about invalid
arguments or standard input if the scripts generate any output. You
should correct the cause of these errors.
To stop the errors, remove all commands from the oracle user's login
scripts that generate output when you run ssh or rsh commands.
If you see messages about X11 forwarding, then complete the task
"Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration" on page 1-27 to
resolve this issue.
If you see errors similar to the following:
stty: standard input: Invalid argument
stty: standard input: Invalid argument
These errors are produced if hidden files on the system (for example,
.bashrc or .cshrc) contain stty commands. If you see these
errors, then refer to Chapter 1, "Preventing Oracle Clusterware
Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands" on page 1-27 to correct
the cause of these errors.
Node Reachability Check or Node Connectivity Check Failed
Cause: One or more nodes in the cluster cannot be reached using TCP/IP
protocol, through either the public or private interconnects.
Action: Use the command /usr/sbin/ping address to check each node
address. When you find an address that cannot be reached, check your list of
public and private addresses to make sure that you have them correctly
configured. On platforms other than Linux, if you use third-party vendor
clusterware, then refer to the vendor documentation for assistance. Ensure that the
public and private network interfaces have the same interface names on each node
of your cluster.
Installing Oracle Clusterware 5-3
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
User Existence Check or User-Group Relationship Check Failed
Cause: The administrative privileges for users and groups required for
installation are missing or incorrect.
Action: Use the id command on each node to confirm that the oracle user is
created with the correct group membership. Ensure that you have created the
required groups, and create or modify the user account on affected nodes to
establish required group membership.
See Also: "Creating Standard Configuration Operating System
Groups and Users" in Chapter 2 for instructions about how to create
required groups, and how to configure the oracle user
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
Before you install Oracle Clusterware with Oracle Universal Installer (OUI), use the
following checklist to ensure that you have all the information you will need during
installation, and to ensure that you have completed all tasks that must be done before
starting to install Oracle Clusterware. Mark the check box for each task as you
complete it, and write down the information needed, so that you can provide it during
installation.
❏
Shut Down Running Oracle Processes
If you are installing Oracle Clusterware on a node that already has a
single-instance Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) installation, then stop the
existing ASM instances. After Oracle Clusterware is installed, start up the ASM
instances again. When you restart the single-instance Oracle database, the ASM
instances use the Cluster Synchronization Services (CSSD) Daemon from Oracle
Clusterware instead of the CSSDdaemon for the single-instance Oracle database.
You can upgrade some or all nodes of an existing Cluster Ready Services
installation. For example, if you have a six-node cluster, then you can upgrade two
nodes each in three upgrading sessions.Base the number of nodes that you
upgrade in each session on the load the remaining nodes can handle. This is called
a "rolling upgrade."
If a Global Services Daemon (GSD) from Oracle9i Release 9.2 or earlier is running,
then stop it before installing Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) Oracle
Clusterware by running the following command:
$ Oracle_home/bin/gsdctl stop
where Oracle_home is the Oracle Database home that is running the GSD.
If you have an existing Oracle9i release 2 (9.2) Oracle
Cluster Manager (Oracle CM) installation, then do not shut down the
Oracle CM service. Shutting down the Oracle CM service prevents the
Oracle Clusterware 11g release 1 (11.1) software from detecting the
Oracle9i release 2 nodelist, and causes failure of the Oracle
Clusterware installation.
Caution:
5-4 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
If you receive a warning to stop all Oracle services after
starting OUI, then run the command
Note:
Oracle_home/bin/localconfig delete
where Oracle_home is the home that is running CSS.
❏
Prepare for Clusterware Upgrade If You Have Existing Oracle Cluster Ready
Services Software
During an Oracle Clusterware installation, if OUI detects an existing Oracle
Database 10g release 1 (10.1) Cluster Ready Services (CRS), then you are given the
option to perform a rolling upgrade by installing Oracle Database 11g release 1
(11.1) Oracle Clusterware on a subset of cluster member nodes.
If you intend to perform a rolling upgrade, then you should shut down the CRS
stack on the nodes you intend to upgrade, and unlock the Oracle Clusterware
home using the script mountpoint/clusterware/upgrade/preupdate.sh,
which is available on the 11g release 1 (11.1) installation media.
If you intend to perform a standard upgrade, then shut down the CRS stack on all
nodes, and unlock the Oracle Clusterware home using the script
mountpoint/clusterware/upgrade/preupdate.sh.
When you run OUI and select the option to install Oracle Clusterware on a subset
of nodes, OUI installs Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) Oracle Clusterware
software into the existing Oracle Clusterware home on the local and remote node
subset. When you run the root script, it starts the Oracle Clusterware 11g release 1
(11.1) stack on the subset cluster nodes, but lists it as an inactive version.
When all member nodes of the cluster are running Oracle Clusterware 11g release
1 (11.1), then the new clusterware becomes the active version.
If you intend to install Oracle RAC, then you must first complete the upgrade to
Oracle Clusterware 11g release 1 (11.1) on all cluster member nodes before you
install the Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) version of Oracle RAC.
❏
Determine the Oracle Inventory location
If you have already installed Oracle software on your system, then OUI detects the
existing Oracle Inventory directory from the /etc/oraInst.loc file, and uses
this location.
If you are installing Oracle software for the first time on your system, and your
system does not have an Oracle inventory, then you are asked to provide a path
for the Oracle inventory, and you are also asked the name of the Oracle Inventory
group (typically, oinstall).
See Also: The preinstallation chapters in Chapter 1 for
information about creating the Oracle Inventory, and completing
required system configuration
❏
Obtain root account access
During installation, you are asked to run configuration scripts as the root user. You
must run these scripts as root, or be prepared to have your system administrator
run them for you. Note that these scripts must be run in sequence. If you attempt
to run scripts simultaneously, then the installation will fail.
❏
Decide if you want to install other languages
Installing Oracle Clusterware 5-5
Preparing to Install Oracle Clusterware with OUI
During installation, you are asked if you want translation of user interface text into
languages other than the default, which is English.
If the language set for the operating system is not supported
by Oracle Universal Installer, then Oracle Universal Installer, by
default, runs in the English language.
Note:
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for detailed
information on character sets and language configuration
❏
Determine your cluster name, public node names, private node names, and
virtual node names for each node in the cluster
If you install the clusterware during installation, and are not using third-party
vendor clusterware, then you are asked to provide a public node name and a
private node name for each node.
When you enter the public node name, use the primary host name of each node. In
other words, use the name displayed by the hostname command. This node
name can be either the permanent or the virtual host name.
In addition, ensure that the following are true:
–
Determine a cluster name with the following characteristics:
*
It must be globally unique throughout your host domain.
*
It must be at least one character long and less than 15 characters long.
*
It must consist of the same character set used for host names: underscores
(_), hyphens (-), and single-byte alphanumeric characters (a to z, A to Z,
and 0 to 9). On platforms other than Linux, if you use third-party vendor
clusterware, then Oracle recommends that you use the vendor cluster
name.
–
Determine a private node name or private IP address for each node. The
private IP address is an address that is accessible only by the other nodes in
this cluster. Oracle Database uses private IP addresses for internode, or
instance-to-instance Cache Fusion traffic. Oracle recommends that you
provide a name in the format public_hostname-priv. For example:
myclstr2-priv.
–
Determine a virtual host name for each node. A virtual host name is a public
node name that is used to reroute client requests sent to the node if the node is
down. Oracle Database uses VIPs for client-to-database connections, so the
VIP address must be publicly accessible. Oracle recommends that you provide
a name in the format public_hostname-vip. For example: myclstr2-vip.
5-6 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
The following is a list of additional information about node IP
addresses:
Note:
■
■
■
❏
For the local node only, OUI automatically fills in public, private,
and VIP fields. If your system uses vendor clusterware, then OUI
may fill additional fields.
Host names, private names, and virtual host names are not
domain-qualified. If you provide a domain in the address field
during installation, then OUI removes the domain from the
address.
Private IP addresses should not be accessible as public interfaces.
Using public interfaces for Cache Fusion can cause performance
problems.
Identify shared storage for Oracle Clusterware files and prepare disk partitions
if necessary
During installation, you are asked to provide paths for two files that must be
shared across all nodes of the cluster, either on a shared raw device, or a shared
file system file:
–
The voting disk is a partition that Oracle Clusterware uses to verify cluster
node membership and status.
The voting disk must be owned by the user performing the installation
(oracle or crs), and must have permissions set to 640.
–
The Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) contains cluster and database configuration
information for the Oracle RAC database and for Oracle Clusterware,
including the node list, and other information about cluster configuration and
profiles.
The OCR disk must be owned by the user performing the installation (crs or
oracle. That installation user must have oinstall as its primary group.
The OCR disk partitions must have permissions set to 640, though
permissions files used with system restarts should have ownership set to
root:oinstall. During installation, OUI changes ownership of the OCR
disk partitions to root. Provide at least 280 MB disk space for the OCR
partitions.
If your disks do not have external storage redundancy, then Oracle recommends
that you provide one additional location for the OCR disk, and two additional
locations for the voting disk, for a total of five partitions (two for OCR, and three
for voting disks). Creating redundant storage locations protects the OCR and
voting disk in the event of a disk failure on the partitions you choose for the OCR
and the voting disk.
See Also:
Chapter 1, "Oracle Clusterware Preinstallation Tasks"
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
This section provides you with information about how to use Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) to install Oracle Clusterware. It contains the following sections:
■
Running OUI to Install Oracle Clusterware
■
Installing Oracle Clusterware Using a Cluster Configuration File
Installing Oracle Clusterware 5-7
Installing Oracle Clusterware with OUI
■
Troubleshooting OUI Error Messages for Oracle Clusterware
Running OUI to Install Oracle Clusterware
Complete the following steps to install Oracle Clusterware on your cluster. At any
time during installation, if you have a question about what you are being asked to do,
click the Help button on the OUI page.
1.
Unless you have the same terminal window open that you used to set up SSH,
enter the following commands:
$ exec /usr/bin/ssh-agent $SHELL
$ /usr/bin/ssh-add
2.
Start the runInstaller command from the /Disk1 directory on the Oracle
Database 11g release 1 (11.1) installation media.
3.
Provide information or run scripts as root when prompted by OUI. If you need
assistance during installation, click Help.
Note: You must run root.sh scripts one at a time. Do not run
root.sh scripts simultaneously.
4.
After you run root.sh on all the nodes, OUI runs the Oracle Notification Server
Configuration Assistant, Oracle Private Interconnect Configuration Assistant, and
Cluster Verification Utility. These programs run without user intervention.
When you have verified that your Oracle Clusterware installation is completed
successfully, you can either use it to maintain high availability for other applications,
or you can install an Oracle database.
If you intend to install Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1) with Oracle RAC, then refer
to Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux. If you intend to use Oracle
Clusterware by itself, then refer to the single-instance Oracle Database installation
guide.
See Also: Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide for information about using cloning and node
addition procedures, and Oracle Clusterware Administration and
Deployment Guide for cloning Oracle Clusterware
Installing Oracle Clusterware Using a Cluster Configuration File
During installation of Oracle Clusterware, on the Specify Cluster Configuration page,
you are given the option either of providing cluster configuration information
manually, or of using a cluster configuration file. A cluster configuration file is a text
file that you can create before starting OUI, which provides OUI with information
about the cluster name and node names that it needs to configure the cluster.
Oracle suggests that you consider using a cluster configuration file if you intend to
perform repeated installations on a test cluster, or if you intend to perform an
installation on many nodes.
To create a cluster configuration file:
1.
On the installation media, navigate to the directory Disk1/response.
2.
Using a text editor, open the response file crs.rsp, and find the section
CLUSTER_CONFIGURATION_FILE.
5-8 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
3.
Follow the directions in that section for creating a cluster configuration file.
Troubleshooting OUI Error Messages for Oracle Clusterware
The following is a list of some common Oracle Clusterware installation issues, and
how to resolve them.
PRKC-1044 Failed to check remote command execution
Cause: SSH keys need to be loaded into memory, or there is a user equivalence
error.
Action: Run the following commands to load SSH keys into memory:
$ exec /usr/bin/ssh-agent $SHELL
$ /usr/bin/ssh-add
Note that you must have the passphrase used to set up SSH. If you are not the
person who set up SSH, then obtain the passphrase. Note also that the .ssh folder
in the user home that is performing the installation must be set with 600
permissions.
In addition, confirm group membership by entering the id command, and entering
ID username. For example:
$ id
$ id oracle
Incorrect permissions on partitions used for OCR or Voting Disks
Cause: The user account performing the installation (oracle or crs) does not have
permission to write to these partitions
Action: Make the partitions writable by the user performing installation. For
example, use the command chown user to make the selected partitions writable by
the user (oracle or crs) performing the installation. During installation, these
permissions are changed to root ownership.
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
After installation, log in as root, and use the following command syntax to confirm
that your Oracle Clusterware installation is installed and running correctly:
CRS_home/bin/crs_stat -t -v
For example:
[[email protected] /]:/u01/app/crs/bin/crs_stat -t -v
Name
a Type
R/RA
F/FT
Target
crs....ac3.gsd application 0/5
0/0
Online
crs....ac3.ons application 0/5
0/0
Online
crs....ac3.vip application 0/5
0/0
Online
crs....ac3.gsd application 0/5
0/0
Online
crs....ac3.ons application 0/5
0/0
Online
crs....ac3.vip application 0/5
0/0
Online
State
Online
Online
Online
Online
Online
Online
Host
node1
node1
node1
node2
node2
node2
You can also use the command crsctl check crs for a less detailed system check. for
example:
[[email protected] bin] $ ./crsctl check crs
Cluster Synchronization Services appears healthy
Cluster Ready Services appears healthy
Event Manager appears healthy
Installing Oracle Clusterware 5-9
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
5-10 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
6
Oracle Clusterware Post-Installation
Procedures
This chapter describes how to complete the post-installation tasks after you have
installed the Oracle Clusterware software.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Required Post-Installation Tasks
■
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks
Required Post-Installation Tasks
You must perform the following tasks after completing your installation:
■
Back Up the Voting Disk After Installation
■
Download and Install Patch Updates
Back Up the Voting Disk After Installation
After your Oracle Clusterware installation is complete and after you are sure that your
system is functioning properly, make a backup of the contents of the voting disk. Use
the dd utility. For example:
# dd if=/dev/sda1 of=/dev/myvdisk1.bak
Also, make a backup copy of the voting disk contents after you complete any node
additions or node deletions, and after running any deinstallation procedures.
Download and Install Patch Updates
Refer to the OracleMetaLink Web site for required patch updates for your installation.
To download required patch updates:
1.
Use a Web browser to view the OracleMetaLink Web site:
https://metalink.oracle.com
2.
Log in to OracleMetaLink.
Note: If you are not an OracleMetaLink registered user, then click
Register for MetaLink and register.
3.
On the main OracleMetaLink page, click Patches & Updates.
Oracle Clusterware Post-Installation Procedures
6-1
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks
4.
On the Patches & Update page, click Advanced Search.
5.
On the Advanced Search page, click the search icon next to the Product or Product
Family field.
6.
In the Search and Select: Product Family field, select Database and Tools in the
Search list field, enter RDBMS Server in the text field, and click Go.
RDBMS Server appears in the Product or Product Family field. The current release
appears in the Release field.
7.
Select your platform from the list in the Platform field, and at the bottom of the
selection list, click Go.
8.
Any available patch updates appear under the Results heading.
9.
Click the number of the patch that you want to download.
10. On the Patch Set page, click View README and read the page that appears. The
README page contains information about the patch set and how to apply the
patches to your installation.
11. Return to the Patch Set page, click Download, and save the file on your system.
12. Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 10g to uncompress the Oracle
patch updates that you downloaded from OracleMetaLink. The unzip utility is
located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
13. Refer to Appendix B on page B-1 for information about how to stop database
processes in preparation for installing patches.
Recommended Post-Installation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you complete the following tasks after installing Oracle
Clusterware.
Back Up the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then the
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) updates the contents of the existing root.sh script
during the installation. If you require information contained in the original root.sh
script, then you can recover it from the root.sh file copy.
6-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
7
Deinstallation of Oracle Clusterware
This chapter describes how to remove Oracle Clusterware.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Deciding When to Deinstall Oracle Clusterware
■
Relocating Single-instance ASM to a Single-Instance Database Home
■
Removing Oracle Clusterware
See Also: Product-specific documentation for requirements and
restrictions, if you want to remove an individual product
Deciding When to Deinstall Oracle Clusterware
Remove installed components in the following situations:
■
■
■
■
■
You have encountered errors during or after installing or upgrading Oracle
Clusterware, and you want to re-attempt an installation.
Your installation or upgrade stopped because of a hardware or operating system
failure.
You are advised by Oracle Support to reinstall Oracle Clusterware.
You have successfully installed Oracle Clusterware, and you need to remove the
Clusterware installation, either in an educational environment, or a test
environment.
You have successfully installed Oracle Clusterware, but you need to downgrade to
a previous release.
Relocating Single-instance ASM to a Single-Instance Database Home
If you have a single-instance Oracle Database on Oracle Clusterware, and you want to
remove Oracle Clusterware, then use the following syntax to add the local CSS
configuration to the ASM home:
ASM_home/bin/localconfig add
For example:
$ cd /u01/app/asm/bin/
$ ./localconfig add
Deinstallation of Oracle Clusterware 7-1
Removing Oracle Clusterware
Removing Oracle Clusterware
The scripts rootdelete.sh and rootdeinstall.sh remove Oracle Clusterware
from your system.
About the rootdelete.sh Script
The rootdelete.sh script should be run from the Oracle Clusterware home on each
node. It stops the Oracle Clusterware stack, removes inittab entries, and deletes
Oracle Clusterware files. It can also be used to downgrade the Oracle Cluster Registry
from the existing release to a previous release. The script uses the following syntax:
# rootdelete.sh options
Options:
■
■
■
■
■
paramfile: Use a parameter file containing configuration information for the
rootdelete.sh command. Provide the path and name of the parameter file. For
example: -paramfile /usr/oracle/cwdeletepar.
local|remote: Use local if you are running rootdelete.sh on the local node,
and use remote if you are running the script on one of the other nodes. The local
node is the one from which you run OUI (in other words, the last surviving node),
and on which you run rootdeinstall.sh.
nosharedvar|sharedvar: Use nosharedvar if the directory path for ocr.loc (in
/etc/oracle or /var/opt/oracle) is not on a shared filesystem. Use
sharedvar if the directory path for ocr.loc is in a shared location. The default is
nosharedvar.
sharedhome|nosharedhome: Use sharedhome if the Oracle Clusterware home is
shared across the nodes. Otherwise, use nosharedhome. The default is
sharedhome.
downgrade: Use this option if the Oracle Clusterware is downgraded to a
previous Oracle Clusterware version. The -downgrade option takes the following
flags:
–
-version: Use this option to specify the version to which you want to
downgrade. The default is 10.2.
–
-force: Use this option to force cleanup of root configuration
For example, to run the rootdelete.sh script from an Oracle Clusterware home in
the path /u01/app/crs, where you are running the script on a remote node, and the
ocr.loc file is in /etc/oracle on each node, enter the following command:
# cd /u01/app/crs/install/
# ./ rootdelete.sh remote nosharedvar
Example of the rootdelete.sh Parameter File
You can create a parameter file for rootdelete.sh to repeat deinstallation steps. You
may want to do this if you intend to perform repeated reinstallations, as in a test
environment. The following is an example of a parameter file for rootdelete.sh;
terms that change relative to system configuration are indicated with italics:
CLUSTER_NODES=mynode1,mynode2
INVENTORY_LOCATION=u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
CRS_HOME=true
ORA_CRS_HOME=/u01/app/crs
ORACLE_OWNER=oracle
7-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Removing Oracle Clusterware
DBA_GROUP=oinstall
About the rootdeinstall.sh Script
The rootdeinstall.sh script should be run on the local node only, after
rootdelete.sh has been run on all nodes of the cluster. Use this command either to
remove the Oracle Clusterware OCR file, or to downgrade your existing installation.
The rootdeinstall.sh script has the following command options:
■
■
paramfile: A parameter file containing configuration information for the
rootdelete.sh command
downgrade: Use this option if the database is downgraded to a previous Oracle
Clusterware version. Use the -version flag to specify the version to which you
want to downgrade. The default is 10.2.
Removing Oracle Clusterware
Stop all Oracle processes except for Oracle Clusterware, as described in Appendix B, in
the section "How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database" on page B-2. Then
run the following scripts in order from the CRS_home/install directory, using the
appropriate options:
rootdelete.sh
rootdeinstall.sh
For example:
[[email protected] /]# cd /u01/app/crs/install
[[email protected] install]# ./rootdelete.sh local nosharedvar -paramfile /home/
crs/deconfig.param
Reading /home/crs/deconfig.param..
File (/home/crs/deconfig.param) is used for setting CRS variables.
ORA_CRS_HOME=/u01/app/crs
ORACLE_OWNER=oracle
DBA_GROUP=oinstall
Getting local node name
NODE = node1
Getting local node name
NODE = node1
Stopping VIPs that are still up
Getting cluster node names
Cluster Nodes = node1
node2
Stopping vip
Stopping resources.
This could take several minutes
Successfully stopped Oracle Clusterware resources
Shutting down the Cluster Synchronization Services daemon.
Shutdown request successfully issued.
Waiting for Cluster Synchronization Services daemon to stop
Cluster Synchronization Services daemon has stopped
Oracle CRS stack is not running.
Oracle CRS stack is down now
Removing script for Oracle Cluster Ready services
Updating ocr file for downgrade
Cleaning up SCR settings in '/etc/oracle/scls_scr'
Cleaning up NS directories
[[email protected] install]# ssh docrac2
[[email protected] /] cd /u01/app/crs/install
Deinstallation of Oracle Clusterware 7-3
Removing Oracle Clusterware
[[email protected] install]# ./rootdelete.sh remote nosharedvar -paramfile
/home/crs/deconfig.param
Reading /home/crs/deconfig.param..
Getting local node name
ORA_CRS_HOME=/u01/app/crs
ORACLE_OWNER=oracle
DBA_GROUP=oinstall
Getting local node name
NODE = node2
Getting local node name
NODE = node2
Getting cluster node names
Cluster Nodes = node1
node2
Stopping vip
Stopping resources.
Shutting down Oracle Cluster Ready Services (CRS):
Stopping resources.
This could take several minutes.
Successfully stopped Oracle Clusterware resources
Shutting down the Cluster Synchronization Services daemon.
Shutdown request successfully issued.
Shutdown has begun. The daemons should exit soon.
Checking to see if Oracle CRS stack is down...
Oracle CRS stack is not running.
Oraacle CRS stack is down now
Removing script for Oracle Cluster Ready services
Updating ocr file for downgrade
Cleaning up SCR settings in '/etc/oracle/scls_scr'
Cleaning up NS directories
[[email protected] install]# exit
[[email protected] install]# ./rootdeinstall.sh
7-4 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
A
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware
Installation Process
This appendix provides troubleshooting information for installing Oracle Clusterware.
See Also: The Oracle Database 11g Oracle RAC documentation set
included with the installation media in the Documentation directory:
■
■
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment
Guide
This appendix contains the following topics:
■
Install OS Watcher and RACDDT
■
General Installation Issues
■
Missing Operating System Packages On Linux
■
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Oracle Clusterware Installations
■
Interconnect Errors
Install OS Watcher and RACDDT
To address troubleshooting issues, Oracle recommends that you install OS Watcher,
and if you intend to install an Oracle RAC database, RACDDT. You must have access
to OracleMetaLink to download OS Watcher and RACDDT.
OS Watcher (OSW) is a collection of UNIX/Linux shell scripts that collect and archive
operating system and network metrics to aid Oracle Support in diagnosing various
issues related to system and performance. OSW operates as a set of background
processes on the server and gathers operating system data on a regular basis. The
scripts use common utilities such as vmstat, netstat and iostat.
RACDDT is a data collection tool designed and configured specifically for gathering
diagnostic data related to Oracle RAC technology. RACDDT is a set of scripts and
configuration files that is run on one or more nodes of an Oracle RAC cluster. The
main script is written in Perl, while a number of proxy scripts are written using Korn
shell. RACDDT will run on all supported Unix and Linux platforms, but is not
supported on any Windows platforms.
OSW is also included in the RACDDT script file, but is not installed by RACDDT.
OSW must be installed on each node where data needs to be collected.
To download binaries for OS Watcher and RACDDT, go to the following URL:
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware Installation Process
A-1
General Installation Issues
https://metalink.oracle.com
Download OSW by searching for OS Watcher, and downloading the binaries from the
User Guide bulletin. Installation instructions for OSW are provided in the user guide.
Download RACDDT by searching for RACDDT, and downloading the binaries from
the RACDDT User Guide bulletin.
General Installation Issues
The following is a list of examples of types of errors that can occur during installation.
It contains the following issues:
■
An error occurred while trying to get the disks
■
Failed to connect to server, Connection refused by server, or Can't open display
■
MEMORY_TARGET not supported on this system
■
Nodes unavailable for selection from the OUI Node Selection screen
■
Node nodename is unreachable
■
PROT-8: Failed to import data from specified file to the cluster registry
■
Time stamp is in the future
■
YPBINDPROC_DOMAIN: Domain not bound
An error occurred while trying to get the disks
Cause: There is an entry in /etc/oratab pointing to a non-existent Oracle
home. The OUI error file should show the following error: "java.io.IOException:
/home/oracle/OraHome//bin/kfod: not found" (OracleMetalink bulletin
276454.1)
Action: Remove the entry in /etc/oratab pointing to a non-existing Oracle
home.
Failed to connect to server, Connection refused by server, or Can't open display
Cause: These are typical of X Window display errors on Windows or UNIX
systems, where xhost is not properly configured.
Action: In a local terminal window, log in as the user that started the X Window
session, and enter the following command:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.example.com
Then, enter the following commands, where workstation_name is the host
name or IP address of your workstation.
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ DISPLAY=workstation_name:0.0
$ export DISPLAY
To determine whether X Window applications display correctly on the local
system, enter the following command:
$ xclock
The X clock should appear on your monitor.
A-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
General Installation Issues
If the X clock appears, then close the X clock and start Oracle Universal Installer
again.
MEMORY_TARGET not supported on this system
Cause: On Linux systems, insufficient /dev/shm size for PGA and SGA.
If you are installing on a Linux system, note that Memory Size (SGA and PGA),
which sets the initialization parameter MEMORY_TARGET or MEMORY_MAX_
TARGET, cannot be greater than the shared memory filesystem (/dev/shm) on
your operating system.
Action: Increase the /dev/shm mountpoint size. For example:
# mount -t fmpfs shmfs -o size=4g /dev/shm
Also, to make this change persistent across system restarts, add an entry in
/etc/fstab similar to the following:
shmfs /dev/shm tmpfs size=4g 0
Nodes unavailable for selection from the OUI Node Selection screen
Cause: Oracle Clusterware is either not installed, or the Oracle Clusterware
services are not up and running.
Action: Install Oracle Clusterware, or review the status of your Oracle
Clusterware. Consider restarting the nodes, as doing so may resolve the problem.
Node nodename is unreachable
Cause: Unavailable IP host
Action: Attempt the following:
1.
Run the shell command ifconfig -a. Compare the output of this command
with the contents of the /etc/hosts file to ensure that the node IP is listed.
2.
Run the shell command nslookup to see if the host is reachable.
3.
As the oracle user, attempt to connect to the node with ssh or rsh. If you
are prompted for a password, then user equivalence is not set up properly.
Review the section "Configuring SSH on All Cluster Nodes" on page 1-22.
PROT-8: Failed to import data from specified file to the cluster registry
Cause: Insufficient space in an existing Oracle Cluster Registry device partition,
which causes a migration failure while running rootupgrade.sh. To confirm,
look for the error "utopen:12:Not enough space in the backing store" in the log file
$ORA_CRS_HOME/log/hostname/client/ocrconfig_pid.log.
Action: Identify a storage device that has 280 MB or more available space. Locate
the existing raw device name from /var/opt/oracle/srvConfig.loc, and
copy the contents of this raw device to the new device using the command dd.
Time stamp is in the future
Cause: One or more nodes has a different clock time than the local node. If this is
the case, then you may see output similar to the following:
time stamp 2005-04-04 14:49:49 is 106 s in the future
Action: Ensure that all member nodes of the cluster have the same clock time.
YPBINDPROC_DOMAIN: Domain not bound
Cause: This error can occur during post-installation testing when a node public
network interconnect is pulled out, and the VIP does not fail over. Instead, the
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware Installation Process
A-3
Missing Operating System Packages On Linux
node hangs, and users are unable to log in to the system. This error occurs when
the Oracle home, listener.ora, Oracle log files, or any action scripts are located on
an NAS device or NFS mount, and the name service cache daemon nscd has not
been activated.
Action: Enter the following command on all nodes in the cluster to start the nscd
service:
/sbin/service
nscd start
Missing Operating System Packages On Linux
You have missing operating packages on your system if you receive error messages
such as the following during Oracle Clusterware, Oracle RAC, or Oracle Database
installation:
libstdc++.so.5: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
libXp.so.6: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
Typically, errors such as these occur if you have not fully checked required operating
system packages during preinstallation, and failed to confirm that all required
packages were installed. Run Cluster Verification Utility (CVU), either from the
shiphome mount point (runcluvfy.sh), or from an installation directory (CRS_
home/bin). CVU reports which required packages are missing.
If you have a Linux support network configured, such as the Red Hat network or
Oracle Unbreakable Linux support, then you can also use the up2date command to
determine the name of the package. For example:
# up2date --whatprovides libstdc++.so.5
compat-libstdc++-33.3.2.3-47.3
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Oracle Clusterware Installations
If Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) does not display the Node Selection page, then
perform clusterware diagnostics by running the olsnodes -v command from the
binary directory in your Oracle Clusterware home (CRS_home/bin on Linux and
UNIX-based systems, and CRS_home\BIN on Windows-based systems) and analyzing
its output. Refer to your clusterware documentation if the detailed output indicates
that your clusterware is not running.
In addition, use the following command syntax to check the integrity of the Cluster
Manager:
cluvfy comp clumgr -n node_list -verbose
In the preceding syntax example, the variable node_list is the list of nodes in your
cluster, separated by commas.
Interconnect Errors
If you use more than one NIC for the interconnect, then you must use NIC bonding, or
the interconnect will fail.
If you install Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, then they must use the same NIC or
bonded NIC cards for the interconnect.
A-4 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Interconnect Errors
If you use bonded NIC cards, then they must be on the same subnet.
Troubleshooting the Oracle Clusterware Installation Process
A-5
Interconnect Errors
A-6 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
B
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling
Upgrades
This appendix describes how to perform Oracle Clusterware rolling upgrades. Because
you must stop database processes before initiating an Oracle Clusterware process, it
includes information about how to stop processes in Oracle Real Application Clusters
(Oracle RAC) databases.
This appendix contains the following topics:
You can use the procedures in this chapter to prepare to
perform rolling upgrades of Oracle Clusterware from any Oracle
Clusterware 10g release 10.2 or Oracle Clusterware 11g installation to
the latest patch update. For example, you can use these procedures to
prepare to upgrade from Oracle Clusterware 10.2.0.1 to 10.2.0.3.
Note:
■
Back Up the Oracle Software Before Upgrades
■
Restrictions for Clusterware Upgrades to Oracle Clusterware 11g
■
Verify System Readiness for Patches and Upgrades
■
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database
■
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades for Patches
■
How to Perform Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release to 11g
Back Up the Oracle Software Before Upgrades
Before you make any changes to the Oracle software, whether you intend to upgrade
or patch part of the database or clusterware, or all of your cluster installation, Oracle
recommends that you create a backup of the Oracle software.
Restrictions for Clusterware Upgrades to Oracle Clusterware 11g
To upgrade existing Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Cluster Ready Services installations
to Oracle Clusterware 11g, you must first upgrade the existing installations to the most
recent patch update. The following sections provide information about Oracle
Clusterware upgrades.
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
B-1
Verify System Readiness for Patches and Upgrades
Upgrading from Oracle Clusterware 10g Release 2 to Oracle Clusterware 11g
Complete the following procedure to prepare an existing Oracle Clusterware release
10.2 for rolling upgrade to release 11g:
1.
Upgrade the Oracle Clusterware home (or CRS home) to Oracle Clusterware
release 10.2.0.3, or 10.2.0.2 with CRS Bundle Patch #2 (reference Bug 5256865).
Upgrading the database Oracle home is not required.
2.
Upgrade Oracle Clusterware from release 10.2.0.3 to release 11.1.
Upgrading from Oracle Cluster Ready Services 10g Release 1 to Oracle Clusterware 11g
Complete the following procedure to prepare an existing Oracle Cluster Ready
Services release 10.1 for rolling upgrade to Oracle Clusterware release 11g:
1.
Upgrade the Oracle Cluster Ready Services home (or CRS home) to release
10.1.0.3. Upgrading the database Oracle home is not required.
2.
Upgrade Oracle Cluster Ready Services from release 10.1.0.3 to Oracle Clusterware
release 11.1.
Verify System Readiness for Patches and Upgrades
If you are completing a patch update of your database or clusterware, then after you
download the patch software, and before you start to patch or upgrade your database,
review the Patch Set Release Notes that accompany the patch to determine if your
system meets the system requirements for the operating system and the hardware
platform.
Use the Cluster Verification Utility to assist you with system checks in preparation for
starting a database patch or upgrade.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database
To stop process in an existing Oracle RAC database, where you want to shut down the
entire database in preparation for an Oracle Clusterware upgrade, complete the
following steps.
Shut Down Oracle RAC Databases
Shut down any existing Oracle Database instances on each node, with normal or
immediate priority.
If Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is running, then shut down all databases
that use ASM, and then shut down the ASM instance on each node of the cluster.
To upgrade using Oracle Clusterware, you must shut down all
Oracle Database instances on all cluster nodes before modifying the
Oracle software. If you are performing a patch update, review the
instructions in the Patch Set Notes for detailed instructions.
Note:
Stop All Oracle Processes
Stop all listener and other processes running in the Oracle home directories where you
want to modify the database software.
B-2 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database
If you shut down ASM instances, then you must first shut
down all database instances that use ASM, even if these databases run
from different Oracle homes.
Note:
Stop Oracle Clusterware Processes
If you are modifying an Oracle Clusterware installation, then shut down the following
Oracle Database 10g services.
Note:
1.
You must perform these steps in the order listed.
Shut down any processes in the Oracle home on each node that might be accessing
a database; for example, shut down Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
Before you shut down any processes that are monitored by
Enterprise Manager Grid Control, set a blackout in Grid Control for
the processes that you intend to shut down. This is necessary so that
the availability records for these processes indicate that the shutdown
was planned downtime, rather than an unplanned system outage.
Note:
2.
Shut down all Oracle RAC instances on all nodes. To shut down all Oracle RAC
instances for a database, enter the following command, where db_name is the
name of the database:
$ Oracle_home/bin/srvctl stop database -d db_name
3.
Shut down all ASM instances on all nodes. To shut down an ASM instance, enter
the following command, where node is the name of the node where the ASM
instance is running:
$ Oracle_home/bin/srvctl stop asm -n node
4.
Stop all node applications on all nodes. To stop node applications running on a
node, enter the following command, where node is the name of the node where the
applications are running
$ oracle_home/bin/srvctl stop nodeapps -n node
5.
Log in as the root user, and shut down the Oracle Clusterware process by entering
the following command on all nodes:
# CRS_home/bin/crsctl stop crs
Stop Oracle Database 10g Processes Before Adding Products or Upgrading
This section provides an overview of what needs to be done before adding additional
products to Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1). If you are performing a patch
upgrade, then refer to the Database Patch Set Notes for the patch for additional
instructions.
Note:
You must perform these steps in the order listed.
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
B-3
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades for Patches
1.
Shut down any processes in the Oracle home on each node that can access a
database; for example, shut down Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
Before you shut down any processes that are monitored by
Enterprise Manager Grid Control, set a blackout in Grid Control for
the processes that you intend to shut down. This is necessary so that
the availability records for these processes indicate that the shutdown
was planned downtime, rather than an unplanned system outage.
Note:
2.
Shut down all Oracle RAC instances on all nodes. To shut down all Oracle RAC
instances for a database, enter the following command, where db_name is the
name of the database:
$ oracle_home/bin/srvctl stop database -d db_name
3.
Shut down all ASM instances on all nodes. To shut down an ASM instance, enter
the following command, where node is the name of the node where the ASM
instance is running:
$ oracle_home/bin/srvctl stop asm -n node
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades for Patches
To perform a rolling upgrade, complete all of the following steps in sequence.
■
Copy Patch Software to the Primary Upgrade Node
■
Shut Down Oracle RAC Instances on Upgrade Nodes
■
Stop All Oracle Processes on Upgrade Nodes
■
Start OUI and Complete Upgrade Processes on Upgrade Nodes
To perform rolling upgrades, the existing Oracle Clusterware
home directory, sometimes referred to in Oracle documentation as
CRS home, must be located on local directories on the node. You
cannot perform rolling upgrades on a shared Oracle Clusterware
home directory.
Note:
Also note that Oracle does not support attempting to add additional
nodes to a cluster during a rolling upgrade.
Copy Patch Software to the Primary Upgrade Node
Download the patch software to the primary node on the cluster (the node where you
performed initial Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database installation). Review the
patch set Readme to confirm that your system meets the system requirements for the
patch set updates, and complete any special instructions for particular environments
or configurations.
To download patches, or download the patch note Readme:
1.
Log in to OracleMetaLink (https://metalink.oracle.com)
2.
Click the Patches & Updates tab.
3.
Search for the patch that you want to install.
B-4 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades for Patches
4.
Click the patch number to open the patch page
From this location, you can download the patch binary, download the patch
Readme, and obtain other information regarding the patch update.
5.
Download the patch set installation archive to a directory inside the Oracle base
directory that meets the following requirements:
■
■
6.
It is not the existing Oracle home directory, or Oracle Clusterware home
directory
It is not under an existing Oracle home directory, or Oracle Clusterware home
directory
Extract the patch set installation archive
Shut Down Oracle RAC Instances on Upgrade Nodes
On each node on which you want to perform a rolling upgrade, shut down the Oracle
Database instance, with normal or immediate priority.
If Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is running, then for each node that you
intend to perform a rolling upgrade, shut down the database that uses ASM, and then
shut down the ASM instance on the node.
To upgrade Oracle Clusterware, you must shut down all
Oracle Database instances on all cluster nodes that you intend to
upgrade before modifying the Oracle software. If you are performing
a patch update, review the instructions in the Patch Set Notes for
detailed instructions.
Note:
You can use this procedure to shut down one node, and perform
upgrades one node at a time, or to shut down groups of nodes, and
upgrade groups of nodes at the same time.
Stop All Oracle Processes on Upgrade Nodes
On each node on which you want to perform a rolling upgrade, before you upgrade
Oracle Clusterware, you must shut down Oracle Database services that use
clusterware processes.
Complete the following steps:
Note:
1.
You must perform these steps in the order listed.
Shut down any processes on each node you intend to upgrade that might be
accessing a database, such as Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
Before you shut down any processes that are monitored by
Enterprise Manager Grid Control, set a blackout in Grid Control for
the processes that you intend to shut down. This is necessary so that
the availability records for these processes indicate that the shutdown
was planned downtime, rather than an unplanned system outage.
Note:
2.
Shut down all Oracle RAC instances on each node you intend to upgrade. To shut
down Oracle RAC instances on individual nodes in the database, enter the
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
B-5
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades for Patches
following command, where db_name is the name of the database, and
instance_name is the name of the instance:
$ oracle_home/bin/srvctl stop instance -d db_name -i instance_name
Repeat this process on each node of the cluster on which you intend to perform
the rolling upgrade.
3.
Shut down ASM instances on each node on which you intend to perform the
rolling upgrade.
If you shut down ASM instances, then you must first shut
down all database instances on the nodes you intend to upgrade that
use ASM, even if these databases run from different Oracle homes.
Note:
To shut down an ASM instance, enter the following command, where node is the
name of the node where the ASM instance is running:
$ oracle_home/bin/srvctl stop asm -n node
4.
Stop all node applications on each node on which you intend to perform the
rolling upgrade. To stop node applications running on a node, enter the following
command, where node is the name of the node where the applications are running
$ oracle_home/bin/srvctl stop nodeapps -n node
5.
On each node where you intend to perform the rolling upgrade, Initiate the
upgrade state by using the following command as the root user:
# preupdate.sh -crshome CRS_home -crsuser crs_user
In the preceding syntax example, the variable CRS_home is the location of the
Oracle Clusterware home, and the variable crs_user is the Oracle Clusterware
installation owner, typically crs in Oracle documentation. For example, if the
Oracle Clusterware home is /u01/app/crs, and the Oracle Clusterware software
owner is crs, then enter the following command:
# preupdate.sh -crshome /u01/app/crs -crsuser crs
Start OUI and Complete Upgrade Processes on Upgrade Nodes
To complete the patch upgrade, use the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) downloaded
with the patch update.
Complete the following steps:
1.
Start the patch set OUI. At the Welcome window, click Next.
2.
On the Specify Home Details window, select the Oracle Clusterware home
directory, and click Next.
3.
On the Specify Hardware Cluster Installation Nodes window, select the nodes
where you want to perform the upgrade, and click Next.
4.
Follow further instructions as directed from the OUI windows.
5.
At the end of the install, OUI instructs you to run the script preupdate.sh.
Open a terminal window, log in as the root user, and run the script as directed.
Wait for the response that the shutdown request has completed successfully.
B-6 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
How to Perform Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release to 11g
6.
From the terminal window you opened in the previous step, enter a command
similar to the following:
# CRS_home/install/rootupgrade.sh
7.
When the install script completes, it displays text similar to the following, where
patch_version displays the patch version you are installing:
patch_version patch successfully applied.
clscfg -upgrade completed successfully
This indicates that the upgrade process is complete. The upgraded Oracle
Clusterware stack and AUTOSTART resources are started on the node.
Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each node on which you are performing a rolling
upgrade.
How to Perform Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release to 11g
Use the following procedure to upgrade Oracle Clusterware from an earlier release to
a later release:
You cannot change the owner of the Oracle Clusterware home
during an upgrade. You must use the same Oracle software owner
that owns the existing Oracle Clusterware home.
Note:
1.
Mount the Oracle Clusterware 11g release 1 (11.1) installation media.
2.
Complete operating system prerequisite checks on each of the nodes that you
intend to upgrade, to ensure that they meet the system prerequisites for Oracle
Clusterware 11g release 1 (11.1).
3.
If necessary, perform patch upgrades of the previous release Oracle Clusterware or
Oracle Cluster Ready Services software to the most recent patch version, as
described in the preceding section, "How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling
Upgrades for Patches" on page B-4. When you have completed patch upgrades,
shut down processes on the nodes you intend to upgrade, as described in the
preceding section, "How to Stop Processes in an Existing Oracle Database" on
page B-2.
4.
From the Oracle Clusterware home, run the following script:
mountpoint/clusterware/upgrade/preupdate.sh
This script shuts down the Oracle Clusterware software stack, and unlocks the
Oracle Clusterware home (CRS home) for upgrading.
Run this script on each node in the cluster that you want to upgrade.
5.
Ensure that you are logged in as the user that you want to own the Oracle
Clusterware installation, and run the Oracle Clusterware installation. For example,
if the owner you want to use for Oracle Clusterware is crs, and the mountpoint
for Oracle Clusterware 11g release 1 (11.1) is /shiphome/clusterware, then
you could use the following command:
$ whoami
crs
$ /shiphome/clusterware/runInstaller
Provide information as prompted by the Installer.
How to Perform Oracle Clusterware Rolling Upgrades
B-7
How to Perform Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release to 11g
You can upgrade one node, a subset of nodes, or all nodes,
depending on your upgrade plan. However, note the following
information about starting upgrades with OUI:
Note:
■
■
6.
If this is the initial upgrade, then the node where OUI is running
must be one of the set of nodes that is being upgraded.
If this is the second or subsequent upgrade, then the node where
OUI is running must be on a node that has not been upgraded.
When prompted, in a separate terminal session, log in as root, and run the
rootupgrade script.
You must install Oracle Clusterware into the existing Oracle
Clusterware home on the local and remote node subset. When you
run the root script, it starts the Oracle Clusterware 11g release 1 (11.1)
stack on the subset cluster nodes, but lists it as an inactive version.
Note:
7.
Start the second and subsequent installs of a rolling upgrade from a node that
hasn't already been upgraded.
8.
After installing the Oracle Clusterware upgrade, if you intend to upgrade
Automatic Storage Management, or the Oracle Database software, complete
preinstallation procedures for installing Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, as
described in Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform, or in this guide
(for Oracle RAC preinstallation checks).
See Also: Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for additional information
about completing database upgrades
B-8 Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
Index
A
architecture
checking system architecture, 1-9
Asianux
operating system requirements, 1-14
ASM
and multiple databases, 2-6
block device names, 4-18
characteristics of failure groups, 4-13
checking disk availability, 4-17, 4-23
configuring disks for ASM, 4-15
creating the asmdba group, 2-7
disk groups, 4-12
displaying attached disks, 4-17, 4-23
failure groups, 4-12
examples, 4-13
identifying, 4-13
identifying available disks, 4-18
identifying available disks on Linux, 4-23
identifying disks, 4-18
identifying disks on Linux, 4-23
OSDBA group for ASM, 2-6
recommendations for disk groups, 4-12
space required for preconfigured database,
storage option for data files, 3-2, 4-2
asm group
creating, 2-7
asmdba group
creating, 2-7
ASMLIB, 4-21
Automatic Storage Management See ASM.
storage option for data files, 4-2
Bourne shell
default user startup file, 1-29
setting shell limits on Linux x86, 1-30
C
4-13
B
Bash shell
default user startup file, 1-29
setting shell limits, 1-30
.bash_profile file, 1-29
block devices, 4-3
creating partitions on, 4-20
creating permissions file for Oracle Clusterware
files, 3-7
creating permissions file for Oracle Database
files, 4-21
device name, 4-18
C shell
default user startup file, 1-29
setting shell limits, 1-30
Central Inventory, 2-5
about, 1-5
See also oraInventory
changing host names, 5-2
checking existence of the nobody user, 2-2, 2-9
checking kernel parameters, 1-20
checking Linux distribution, 1-18
chmod command, 3-7, 4-11
chown command, 3-7, 4-11
cluster configuration file, 5-8
cluster file system
storage option for data files, 3-2, 4-2
cluster name
requirements for, 5-6
cluster nodes
private node names, 5-6
public node names, 5-6
specifying uids and gids, 2-3, 2-10
virtual node names, 5-6
Cluster Ready Services
upgrading, 5-4
Cluster Synchronization Services, 5-4
Cluster Verification Utility
difference between runcluvfy.sh and cluvfy, 1-32
hardware and operating system setup stage
verification, 4-23
Oracle Clusterware configuration check, 5-1
shared storage area check, 3-3, 4-4
user equivalency troubleshooting, 5-2
clusterware diagnostics, A-4
commands
chmod, 3-7, 4-11
chown, 3-7, 4-11
cluvfy, 1-33
fdisk, 3-7, 3-9, 4-17, 4-21, 4-23
groupadd, 2-10
Index-1
id, 2-2, 2-3, 2-9, 2-10
limit, 1-31
lsdev, 4-17, 4-23
mkdir, 3-7, 4-11
partprobe, 3-8, 3-9, 4-21
passwd, 2-4, 2-11
raw, 4-22
rpm, 1-18
runcluvfy.sh, 1-32
service, 4-22
swap, 1-9
swapon, 1-9
sysctl, 1-20
udevstart, 3-8
ulimit, 1-31
umask, 1-28, 2-12
uname, 4-16
useradd, 1-7, 2-3, 2-8, 2-9, 2-11
usermod, 2-9
xhost, 1-3
xterm, 1-3
configuring kernel parameters, 1-19
control files
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
csh.login file, 1-31
csh.login.local file, 1-31
CSS, 5-4
OCCSD, 5-4
custom database
failure groups for ASM, 4-13
requirements when using ASM, 4-13
Custom installation type
reasons for choosing, 2-5
CVU. See Cluster Verification Utility
cvuqdisk, 1-22
D
data files
creating separate directories for, 3-6, 4-10
setting permissions on data file directories, 3-7,
4-11
storage options, 3-2, 4-2
data loss
minimizing with ASM, 4-13
database files
supported storage options, 3-2, 4-3
databases
ASM requirements, 4-13
dba group
and SYSDBA privilege, 2-2, 2-5
creating, 2-7
creating on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
description, 2-2, 2-5
default file mode creation mask
setting, 1-28, 2-12
default Linux installation
recommendation for, 1-1
device names
Index-2
for raw devices on Linux, 4-22
IDE disks, 4-18
IDE disks on Linux, 4-23
SCSI disks, 4-18
SCSI disks on Linux, 4-23
/dev/shm
and initialization parameters, A-3
df command, 1-9, 1-30
diagnostics, A-4
Direct NFS
disabling, 4-9
enabling, 4-9
for datafiles, 4-7
directory
creating separate data file directories, 3-6, 4-10
permission for data file directories, 3-7, 4-11
disk group
ASM, 4-12
recommendations for ASM disk groups, 4-12
disk space
checking, 1-9
requirements for preconfigured database in
ASM, 4-13
disks
checking availability for ASM, 4-17, 4-23
displaying attached disks, 4-17
displaying attached disks Linux
displaying attached disks, 4-23
DISPLAY environment variable
setting, 1-29
E
emulator
installing from X emulator, 1-3
Enterprise Linux
operating system requirements, 1-14
env command, 1-30
environment
checking settings, 1-30
configuring for oracle user, 1-28
environment variables
DISPLAY, 1-29
removing from shell startup file, 1-29
SHELL, 1-29
TEMP and TMPDIR, 1-9, 1-29
errata
Linux kernel errata, 1-18
error
X11 forwarding, 1-27
errors
X11 forwarding, 1-26
/etc/csh.login file, 1-31
/etc/csh.login.local file, 1-31
/etc/pam.d/login file, 1-31
/etc/profile file, 1-31
/etc/profile.local file, 1-31
/etc/raw file, 4-22
/etc/security/limits.so file, 1-30
/etc/sysconfig/rawdevices file, 4-22
/etc/sysctl.conf file, 1-20
EXAMPLE tablespace
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
examples
ASM failure groups, 4-13
external jobs
UNIX user required for, 2-2, 2-5
extjob executable
UNIX user required for, 2-2, 2-5
F
failure group
ASM, 4-12
characteristics of ASM failure group, 4-13
examples of ASM failure groups, 4-13
fdisk command, 4-17, 4-23
file mode creation mask
setting, 1-28, 2-12
file system
storage option for data files, 3-2, 4-2
file-max file, 1-19
file-max parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
files
$ORACLE_HOME/lib/libnfsodm10.so, 4-9
$ORACLE_HOME/lib/libodm10.so, 4-9
.bash_profile, 1-29
control files
raw devices for on Linux, 4-20
default shell startup file, 1-31
editing shell startup file, 1-29
/etc/csh.login, 1-31
/etc/csh.login.local, 1-31
/etc/pam.d/login, 1-31
/etc/profile, 1-31
/etc/profile.local, 1-31
/etc/raw, 4-22
/etc/security/limits.so, 1-30
/etc/sysconfig/rawdevices, 4-22
/etc/sysctl.conf, 1-20
.login, 1-29
oraInst.loc, 1-6
password file
raw devices for on Linux, 4-20
/proc/sys/fs/file-max, 1-19
/proc/sys/kernel/sem, 1-19
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall, 1-19
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax, 1-19
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni, 1-19
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range, 1-19
.profile, 1-29
profile.local, 1-31
raw device mapping file
desupport for, 4-23
redo log files
raw devices for on Linux, 4-20
SPFILE
raw devices for on Linux, 4-20
SPFILE file
raw devices for on Linux, 4-20
filesets, 1-14
for raw devices on Linux, 4-22
G
gid
identifying existing, 2-3, 2-10
specifying, 2-3, 2-10
specifying on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
globalization
support for, 5-5
group IDs
identifying existing, 2-3, 2-10
specifying, 2-3, 2-10
specifying on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 1-6
creating identical groups on other nodes, 2-3,
2-10
creating the asm group, 2-7
creating the asmdba group, 2-7
creating the dba group, 2-7
creating the oinstall group, 1-5
creating the oper group, 2-7
specifying when creating users, 2-3, 2-10
UNIX OSDBA group (dba), 2-2, 2-5
UNIX OSOPER group (oper), 2-6
using NIS, 2-1, 2-3, 2-4, 2-10
H
hardware requirements, 1-8
host names
changing, 5-2
I
id command, 2-2, 2-3, 2-9, 2-10
IDE disks
device names, 4-18
device names on Linux, 4-23
initialization parameters
MEMORY_TARGET, A-3
installation
and globalization, 5-5
using cluster configuration file, 5-8
installation types
and ASM, 4-13
ip_local_port_range file, 1-19
ip_local_port_range parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
J
JDK requirements, 1-14
K
kernel
Index-3
Linux errata, 1-18
kernel parameters
checking on Linux, 1-20
configuring on Linux, 1-19
making changes persist on Linux, 1-20
setting on Linux, 1-20
Korn shell
and LDAP, 1-17
default user startup file, 1-29
setting shell limits, 1-30
ksh
See Korn shell
and ASM, 2-6
multiple oracle homes, 1-7, 4-11
N
Network Information Services
See NIS
NFS, 3-6, 4-10
and data files, 4-7
and Oracle Clusterware files, 3-4, 4-6
buffer size parameters for, 3-6, 4-10
Direct NFS, 4-7
for datafiles, 4-7
rsize, 3-6, 4-10
NIS
alternative to local users and groups, 2-1, 2-2, 2-4,
2-6
nobody user
checking existence of, 2-2, 2-9
description, 2-2, 2-5
nofile
shell limit on Linux, 1-30
nproc
shell limit on Linux, 1-30
L
LDAP
odisrvreg
system requirements for, 1-17
oidca
system requirements for, 1-17
schemasynch
system requirements for, 1-17
libnfsodm10.so, 4-9
libodm10.so, 4-9
lightweight directory access protocol
See LDAP
limit command, 1-31
limits.so file, 1-30
Linux
binding raw devices to partitions, 4-21
checking version, 1-18
creating partitions, 4-23
cvuqdisk package, 1-22
IDE disk device names, 4-23
identifying disks for ASM, 4-23
kernel errata, 1-18
making kernel parameter changes persist,
SCSI disk device names, 4-23
setting kernel parameters, 1-20
setting shell limits, 1-30
Linux (32-bit)
software requirements for, 1-14
.login file, 1-29
login file, 1-31
lsdev command, 4-17, 4-23
LVM
recommendations for ASM, 4-12
O
1-20
M
mask
setting default file mode creation mask, 1-28, 2-12
memory requirements, 1-8
Memory Size (SGA and PGA), A-3
MEMORY_TARGET, A-3
and /dev/shm, A-3
mkdir command, 3-7, 4-11
mode
setting default file mode creation mask, 1-28, 2-12
multiple databases
Index-4
OCCSD, 5-4
OCFS
checking on Linux, 1-18, 3-5, 4-6
download location for Linux, 1-18, 3-5, 4-6
status of, 1-18
OCR. See Oracle Cluster Registry
oinstall
and oraInst.loc, 1-6
oinstall group
checking for existing, 1-6
creating, 1-5
creating on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
description, 1-4
olsnodes command, A-4
oper group
and SYSOPER privilege, 2-6
creating, 2-7
creating on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
description, 2-6
operating system
checking distribution and version of Linux, 1-18
operating system requirements, 1-14
Oracle Cluster Registry
configuration of, 5-7
mirroring, 3-4, 4-6
permissions file to own block device
partitions, 3-7
See OCR
supported storage options, 3-2
Oracle Clusterware
installing, 5-1
installing with Oracle Universal Installer, 5-7
patch requirements for, 1-15
rolling upgrade of, 5-5
supported storage options for, 3-2
Oracle Database
creating data file directories, 3-6, 4-10
data file storage options, 3-2, 4-2
operating system patch requirements for, 1-16
privileged groups, 2-2, 2-5
requirements with ASM, 4-13
supported storage options for, 4-1
Oracle Disk Manager
and Direct NFS, 4-9
Oracle Inventory
pointer file, 1-6
Oracle Inventory Group
and Central Inventory (oraInventory), 1-5
Oracle Inventory group
checking for existing, 1-6
creating, 1-5, 1-6
creating on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
description, 1-4
Oracle Notification Server Configuration
Assistant, 5-8
Oracle patch updates, 6-1
Oracle Private Interconnect Configuration
Assistant, 5-8
Oracle RAC
configuring disks for raw devices on Linux, 4-20
Oracle Real Application Clusters
configuring disks for ASM, 4-17
operating system patch requirements for, 1-16
shared storage device setup, 4-20
Oracle Software Owner user
configuring environment for, 1-28
creating, 1-6, 1-7, 2-8
creating on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
description, 1-4, 2-5
determining default shell, 1-29
required group membership, 1-4, 2-5
Oracle Software Owner users
setting shell limits for, 1-30
Oracle Universal Installer
and Oracle Clusterware, 5-7
oracle user
configuring environment for, 1-28
creating, 1-6, 1-7, 2-8
creating on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
description, 1-4, 2-5
determining default shell, 1-29
required group membership, 1-4, 2-5
setting shell limits for, 1-30
Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
about, 1-2
installing, 1-2
ORACLE_BASE environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 1-29
ORACLE_HOME environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 1-29
ORACLE_SID environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 1-29
OracleMetaLink, 6-1
oraInst.loc
and Central Inventory, 1-6
contents of, 1-6
oraInst.loc file
location, 1-6
location of, 1-6
oraInventory, 2-5
creating, 1-6
oraInventory directory
and Oracle Inventory Group, 1-5
OSASM
and multiple databases, 2-6
and SYSASM, 2-6
OSASM group
creating, 2-7
OSDBA group
and SYSDBA privilege, 2-2, 2-5
creating, 2-7
creating on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
description, 2-2, 2-5
for ASM, 2-6
OSDBA group for ASM
creating, 2-7
OSOPER group
and SYSOPER privilege, 2-6
creating, 2-7
creating on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
description, 2-6
OUI
see Oracle Universal Installer
P
package cvuqdisk not installed, 1-22
packages
checking on Linux, 1-18
default Linux installation and, 1-14
partition
using with ASM, 4-12
partitions
binding to raw devices on Linux, 4-21
creating, 4-20
creating on Linux, 4-23
passwd command, 2-4, 2-11
password file
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
patch updates
download, 6-1
install, 6-1
OracleMetaLink, 6-1
patch upgrades, B-3
rolling upgrades, B-4
PC X server
installing from, 1-3
permissions
for data file directories, 3-7, 4-11
physical RAM requirements, 1-8
post-installation
patch download and install, 6-1
Index-5
root.sh back up, 6-2
preconfigured database
ASM disk space requirements, 4-13
requirements when using ASM, 4-13
preinstallation
shared storage device creation, 4-20
privileged groups
for Oracle Database, 2-2, 2-5
processor
checking system architecture, 1-9
/proc/sys/fs/file-max file, 1-19
/proc/sys/kernel/sem file, 1-19
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall file, 1-19
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax, 1-19
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni file, 1-19
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default file, 1-19
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max file, 1-19
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default file, 1-19
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max file, 1-19
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range file, 1-19
.profile file, 1-29
profile file, 1-31
profile.local file, 1-31
R
RAID
and mirroring Oracle Cluster Registry and voting
disk, 4-6
and mirroring Oracle Cluster Registry and voting
disks, 3-4
recommended ASM redundancy level, 4-12
RAM requirements, 1-8
raw command, 4-22
raw device
for SPFILE
on Linux, 4-20
for SPFILE file
on Linux, 4-20
raw devices
binding to partitions on Linux, 4-21
creating partitions on, 4-20
creating partitions on Linux, 4-23
desupport for creating a raw device mapping
file, 4-23
device names on Linux, 4-22
device names, 4-22
for control files
on Linux, 4-20
for EXAMPLE tablespace
on Linux, 4-20
for password file
on Linux, 4-20
for redo log files
on Linux, 4-20
for SYSAUX tablespace
on Linux, 4-20
for SYSTEM tablespace, 4-20
for TEMP tablespace
on Linux, 4-20
Index-6
for UNDOTBS tablespace
on Linux, 4-20
for USER tablespace
on Linux, 4-20
storage option for data files, 3-2, 4-2
raw file, 4-22
rawdevices file, 4-22
recovery files
supported storage options, 3-2, 4-3
Red Hat
binding partitions to raw devices, 4-22
operating system requirements, 1-14
Red Hat Package Manager
See RPM
redo log files
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 4-13
requirements, 4-13
hardware, 1-8
rmem_default file, 1-19
rmem_default parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
rmem_max file, 1-19
rmem_max parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
rolling upgrade
of Oracle Database with patch, B-4
Oracle Clusterware, 5-5
root user
logging in as, 1-3
root.sh, 5-8
back up, 6-2
running, 5-5
RPM
checking, 1-18
rpm command, 1-18
RPMs
default Linux installation and, 1-14
rsize parameter, 3-6, 4-10
S
scripts
root.sh, 5-5
SCSI disks
device names, 4-18
device names on Linux, 4-23
security
dividing ownership of Oracle software, 2-4
sem file, 1-19
semmni parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
semmns parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
semmsl parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
semopm parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
service command, 4-22
setting shell limits, 1-30
shared storage devices
configuring for datafiles, 4-19
shell
default shell startup file, 1-31
determining default shell for oracle user, 1-29
SHELL environment variable
checking value of, 1-29
shell limits
setting on Linux, 1-30
shell startup file
editing, 1-29
removing environment variables, 1-29
shmall file, 1-19
shmall parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
shmmax file, 1-19
shmmax parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
shmmni file, 1-19
shmmni parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
software requirements, 1-14
checking software requirements, 1-18
SPFILE
raw deviceS for
on Linux, 4-20
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
ssh
and X11 Forwarding, 1-27
configuring, 1-22
loading keys into memory before
installation, 1-26
Standard Edition Oracle Database
supported storage options for, 4-1
startup file
default shell startup file, 1-31
for shell, 1-29
storage options
for Enterprise Edition installations, 4-1
for Standard Edition installations, 4-1
supported storage options, 4-3
and block devices, 4-3
Oracle Clusterware, 3-2
SUSE
binding partitions to raw devices, 4-22
operating system requirements, 1-14
swap space
requirements, 1-8
SYSASM
and OSASM, 2-6
SYSAUX tablespace
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
sysctl command, 1-20
sysctl.conf file, 1-20
SYSDBA
using database SYSDBA on ASM deprecated, 2-6
SYSDBA privilege
associated UNIX group, 2-2, 2-5
SYSOPER privilege
associated UNIX group, 2-6
system architecture
checking, 1-9
SYSTEM tablespace
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
T
tcsh shell
setting shell limits, 1-30
TEMP environment variable, 1-9
setting, 1-29
TEMP tablespace
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
temporary directory, 1-9
temporary disk space
checking, 1-9
freeing, 1-9
requirements, 1-8
/tmp directory
checking space in, 1-9
freeing space in, 1-9
TMPDIR environment variable, 1-9
setting, 1-29
troubleshooting
ssh, 1-23
user equivalency, 1-23, 5-2
U
uid
identifying existing, 2-3, 2-10
specifying, 2-3, 2-10
specifying on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
ulimit command, 1-31
umask, 1-30
umask command, 1-28, 1-30, 2-12
UNDOTBS tablespace
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
UNIX commands, 1-30
env, 1-30
xterm, 1-3
UNIX groups
oinstall, 1-4
OSDBA (dba), 2-2, 2-5
OSOPER (oper), 2-6
required for oracle user, 1-4, 2-5
using NIS, 2-2, 2-6
UNIX users
nobody, 2-2, 2-5
oracle, 1-4, 2-5
required for external jobs, 2-2, 2-5
unprivileged user, 2-2, 2-5
Index-7
using NIS, 2-2, 2-6
unprivileged user
nobody user, 2-2, 2-5
upgrade
of Cluster Ready Services, 5-4
of Oracle Clusterware, 5-5
of Oracle Database with patch, B-3
user equivalence
testing, 5-2
user IDs
identifying existing, 2-3, 2-10
specifying, 2-3, 2-10
specifying on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
USER tablespace
raw devices for
on Linux, 4-20
useradd command, 1-7, 2-3, 2-8, 2-9, 2-11
users
checking existence of the nobody user, 2-2, 2-9
creating identical users on other nodes, 2-3, 2-10
creating the oracle user, 1-6, 1-7, 2-8
Oracle Software Owner user (oracle), 1-4, 2-5
setting shell limits for, 1-30
setting shell limits for users on Linux, 1-30
specifying groups when creating, 2-3, 2-10
UNIX nobody user, 2-2, 2-5
using NIS, 2-1, 2-3, 2-4, 2-10
V
voting disk
configuration of, 5-7
mirroring, 3-4, 4-6
voting disks, 3-2
requirement of absolute majority of, 3-2
supported storage options, 3-2
W
wmem_default file, 1-19
wmem_default parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
wmem_max file, 1-19
wmem_max parameter
recommended value on Linux, 1-19
workstation
installing from, 1-3
wsize, 3-6, 4-10
wsize parameter, 3-6, 4-10
X
X emulator
installing from, 1-3
X window system
enabling remote hosts, 1-3
X11 forwarding
error, 1-27
X11 forwarding errors, 1-26
xhost command, 1-3
xterm command, 1-3
Index-8
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