Mackie Audio Mixer Quick User guide 3204VLZ4

Mackie Audio Mixer Quick User guide 3204VLZ4
Studio A & B
Mackie Audio Mixer Quick User guide
3204VLZ4
VLZ4 4~Bus Features
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Rear Panel Connections
• Mic Ins
This is a female XLR connector that accepts a
balanced mic or line level input from almost any type
of source. These Onyx mic preanips feature higher
fidelity and headroom rivaling any slanrlalone mic
precimp on the market today. These circuits are
cxccllent at rejecting hum and noise.
The XIJR inputs are wired as follows:
Pin I = Shield or ground
Pin 2 = Positive + or hot
Pin 3 = Negative or cold)
Professional ribbon, dynamic, and c nd nser mica all
sound excellent through these inputs. The midline
inputs will handle any kind of level you can toss at
them, without overloading.
Microphone-level signals are passed through thc
mixer’s splendid microphone preamplifiers to become
line-level signals.
Phantom Power
Most modern professional condenser mnics require
48V phantom power. ~hich lets the mixer send
lots-current DC voltage to the mic’s electronics
through the same wires that carry audio. (Semi-pro
condenser mics often have h ~tteries to accomplish the
same thing.) “Phantom” owes its name to an ability to
he ‘unseen” by dynamic mics (Shure SM571SM58, for
instance), which don’t need external power and arent
affected by il anyway.
Phantom power may he selected by pressing up on the
mixer’s phantom [211 switch
microphones, or ribb n mics into the mic
~
Never
plug single
endedpower
(unbalanced)
input jacks
if phantom
is on. Do not
plug instrument outputs into the mic XLR input jacks
with i hantom power on. unless you are certain it is safe
to do so.
-
The Onyx prealflps accept balanced line level signals
because the mixer is equipped with a -20 dB pad on
channels 1-16 (2404VLZ4) and channels
1-24 (3204VLZ4) so hot signals may pass.
2. Line Ins
See Appendix B (page 31) for further details and
some rather lovely drawings of the connectors you can
use with your mixer.
To connect balanced lines to these inputs, use a V4’
Tip-Ring-Sleeve (TRS) plug, wirerl as follows:
Tip = Positive (+ or hot)
Ring = Negative (— or cold)
Sleeve = Shield or ground
These 1/4” jacks share circuitry (but not phantom
power) with the inic preainps, and can be driven by
balanced or unbalanced sources.
To connect unbalanced lines to these inputs, use a
1/4” mono (TS) phone plug, wired as follows.
Tip = Positive (+ or hot)
Sleeve Shield or ground
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3. Insert
5. Stereo Returns 1-2
These unbalanced 1 4 jacks are for connecting serial
etfrcts processors such as compressors, equalizers,
de-essers, r filters. The insert point is after the gain
control 231 and by, cut filter 24], hut before the
channel’s EQ 131-36] and level [43]. The channel signal
can go out of the insert jack to an external device, be
processed and come back in on the same insert jack. To
do this requires a standard insert cable that must be
wired thusly:
The stereo (aux) returns are designed for 1/4” TRS
balanced or 1/4’ TS unbalanced signals, from -20dB to
+20 dB. They allow the stereo processed output from
external effects proce sors or other devices to be added
to the main mix.
SEND to processor
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sleeve
(TRS plug)
This phiQ connects to one of the
mocer’s c,hannel Insert jacks.
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REWAN From processor
Tip Send (output to elTects device)
Ring Return (input from effects device)
Sleeve Common ground
Insert jacks may be used us channel direct outputs;
post-gain, and pre-EQ. See the connector section on
page 30 (figure 0) showing three ways to use insert
cables.
4. Stereo Line Ins
The stereo line inputs are designed for 1/4’ TRS
balanced or 1/4” TS unbalanced signals. They may
accept any line-level instrument, effects device, CD
player, etc.
Level control is available -20 dU to +20 dB if you are
connecting a mono source. Use the left (mono) stereo
return input, and the mono signals will appear on both
sides of the main mix.
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Level adjustment of the incoming signals is made with
the stereo return controls [54].
You may also use these inputs to add any stereo
line-level signals to your main mix, so it could be
another line-level source, not just an effects process
if you are connecting a mono source, use the left
(mono) stereo return input, and the mono signals will
appear on both sides of the main mix.
6. Tape Ins
/ Outs
The stereo unbalanced RCA inputs allow you to play
a CD player, iPod® dock, or other line-level source.
The tape in jacks accept an unbalanced signal using
standard hi-fl hookup cables.
The stereo unbalanced RCA outputs allow you to
record the tnain stereo mix onto a hard disk recorder
or automatic CD burner, for example. This lets you
make a recording for posterity/archive/legal purposes
whenever the band gets back together again.
The tape output is the stereo main mix, and it is not
affected by the main mix level control [75]. The output
could also be used as an extra set of main outputs for
feeding another zone.
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7. Left/Right Maui Outs: XLR & 1/4”
Ii. Group Outs 1-4
The male XLR connectors provide a balanced
line-level signal that represents the end of the mixer
chain, where the fully mixed stereo signal enters the
real world. Connect these to the left or right inputs of
your main power amplifiers, powered speakers, or serial
effects processor (like a graphic equalizer or
compressor/limiter). The XLR outputs are 6dB
hotter than the TRS outputs.
These 1/4” TRS jacks pro’ ide balanced or unbalanced
line-level signals and are typically patched to the
inputs of a multitrack deck, or to secondary amplifiers
in a complex installation
The 1/4” TRS output connectors provide balanced or
unbalanced line-level signals. Connect these to the next
device in thc signal chain like an external processor
(compressor/limiter), or directly to the inputs of the
main amplifier. These are the same signal that appears
at the XLR main outputs, hut 6 dB lower when the XLR
is used balanced.
8.
Main Inserts
These 1/4’ TRS jacks are for connecting serial effects
such as compressors, equalizers, deessers, or litters.
The insert point is after the mix amps, but before the
main mix fader [75]. Refer to the description of the
channel insert on the previous page to see how to
make this connection.
9. Mono Out
The male XLR connector [balanced] and 1 4” TRS
output connector (balanced or unbalanced] provide
a line I vel signal that is a combination of the left and
right n am ft [] signals (L+R). You may use this for
a eparate mix that does not require a stereo feed, or
to soup y test the monaural compatibility of the stereo
mix Again, when used balanced, the XLR signal isO dB
higher than hat from the TRS jack.
0. Mono Out Level Contra
This is a separate level control for the mono out (9].
It comes after the main mix fader 175] so turning the
main mix fader up and down does affect the mono out
signal. With this control turned all the way up you will
have 6 dB of extra gain at the mono out.
12. Group Inserts
These 1/4” TRS jacks are for connecting serial effects
such as compressors, equalizers. de-essers, or filters.
The insert point is after the mix amps, but before the
group send masters [74) (and after the built-in stereo
compressor [72]). Refer to the description of the
channel insert [3] on the previous pige to see ho~ to
make this connection.
13.Aux Sends 1-6
These 1/4” TRS connectors allo~ you to send balanced
or unbalanced line-level outputs to external effects
devices, headphone amplifiers, or stage monitors. These
could either be passive stage monitors powered by an
external amplifier, or powered stage monitors with builtin power amplifiers. AlL six auxes are independent of
each other, so you can run up to six separate aux mixes.
Aux sends 3-4 may either be pre or post fader,
depending on the position of the pre/post switches [28].
For stage monitor work, use pre, so the stage monitors
do not increase in volume when the channel level is
adjusted. Imagine how upsetting that can be to big hairy
drummers, This allows you to set up the monitor mix
and levels just right, and not have it change every time
a channel level is adjusted.
For external processors, use post. In this way, the
feed to external processors will vary with the channel
level, so the level of any returned effect (like an echo)
will also change if the channel level is changed, keeping
them in the same ratio (wet/dry).
Owner’s Manual
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14. Aux Inserts
These 14” TRS jacks are for connecting serial effects
such as compressors, equalizers, de-essers, or filters.
The insert point is after the mix amps, hut before the
aux send i tasters 52 and the solo switch [60] (so you
may hear the external processor when soloing thc aux
send) Refer to the description of the channel insert [3J
on page 10 to see how to make this connection.
Whenever a solo switch [41, 49, 53, 55, 73) is engaged,
you will only hear the soloed channel(s), 2-track return,
aux(es), and/or group(s) in the headphones. This gives
you the opportunity to audition the channels before
they are added to the main mix. (Solo signals reaching
the headphones are not affected by the channel level or
main level (except in AF’L mode), therefore turn down
the phones level first, as soloed channels may be loud.)
The phones output follows standard conventions:
Tip = Left channel
Ring = Right channel
Sleeve Common ground
15. Left/Right Monitor Outs
These 1/4” TRS jacks provide a balanced line-level
signal that may be used to provide an additional main
mix output or to monitor soloed channels.
Connect these outputs to the inputs of an amplifier,
powered speaker, headphone distribution amplifier,
or recording device.
16. Mono Monitor Out
This 1/4’ TI{S output connector provides a balanced
line-level signal that is a combination of the left and
right monitor out [151 signals (L+R). You may use this
for a separate ink that does not require a stereo feed,
or to simply test the monaural compatibility of the
stereo mix.
Connect these outputs to the inputs of an amplifier,
powered speaker, headphone distribution amplifier,
or recording device.
17. Headphone Out
This 1/4” TRS connector supplies the output to
stereo headphones. It is the same signal that is routed
to the monitor outputs [15-161. The volume is
controlled with the phones knob 1691, right next
to the monitor knob 68].
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WARMNG:
The headphone
is loud,Even
and
can cause permanent
hearingamp
damage.
intermediate levels may he painfully loud
with some headphones. BE CAREFUL! Always turn the
phones level control [69) all the way down before
connecting headphones or pressing a solo switch, or
doing anything new that may affect the headphone
volume. Then turn it up slowly as you listen carefully.
18. USB In/Out
The built-in IJSB interface allows for sonic
powerful and liexible routing It is a 4x2 interface
allowing you to record tp to four streams from the
mixer, or to input stereo playh’iek from a computer
and route it to nearly any output r pair of outputs
on the mixer. To use this feature with a PC, first
download the PC ASlO driver front www.720trees.com.
If connecting to a Mac, the mixer will show up as a
4x2 device with no driver required.
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The USB routing capabilities are as follows:
USB input TO the mixer playback:
—
(1) Stereo channel 23/24 (on the 2404VLZ4) and
31/32 (on the 3204VLZ4) features a USI3 button, so one
may route computer output (such as iTunes®) down the
last stereo channel of the board. This stereo signal may
then be EQ’d, sent to auxiliaries (i.e. to feed monitors,
headphones or effects) and is routable to mains and/or
subgroups via the fader routing features that are
available on all other channels. In short, this signal may
he sent to nearly any desired output or pair of outputs.
Additionally, the gain knob at the top of this channel
strip adjusts the USS input level to the mixer to achieve
an optimal signal level.
(2) The 2-’l~ack Return section features a ‘flip”
switch, so a Tape” source (connected via RCA cables,
such as an iPod°) or the USB signal from a computer
(playing Windows Media Player® files, for example) may
he routed to the main bits. This section also features a
solo button and input level adjustment for fading house
music up and down between bands, at a house of
worship, or any other event where this may be
necessary.
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In other words, if subgroups 1 and 2 are used to sub
mix drums and those drums have a stereo image
(e.g. overheads and toms pan according to desire), this
stereo image is retained in the DAW inputs (assuming
subgroup I is set to “L” and subgroup 2 is set to “R”).
Any adjustments made to the subgroup drum levels
during the show only pertain to the live show itself;
recording levels are not adjusted in the DAW unless they
arc adjusted on the channels. llowever, compression
settings made on the mixer will apply to the recording.
Likewise, it is possible to record the main mix to take
home a copy of the live sho~c These levels are also
pre-main fader, Therefore, levels maybe mixed up or
down in the DAW later depending on the needs of the
recording versus the live show. The end result is that
fade-ins and/or fade-outs made during the show do not
affect recorded levels.
And finally, it is possible to route the aux 5-6 (again,
pre-fader) mixer signals into a DAW or plug in host.
From there. re route the output of the DAW (or plug-it
host) back into the mixer. ‘vbila...a powerful outboard
effects unit!
Success here is partially dependent upon the
computer’s speed. It needs to be fast enough
to run at low buffer sizes so that there is no
noticeable latency between the input signal and. say;
the revei b return. This kind of flexible routing allows
for a variety of choices: running aux 5-6 as effects sends
to outboard gear, internal effects sends (native to the
board), DAW plug-ins (via L SB) or as monitor mix
feeds...a truly powerful feature! Be sure to review the
software requirements on w~w72Otrees.coin to confirm
that the latest device drivers are currently in use.
-
USB output FROM the mixer recording, etc:
—
(1) A variety of different signals may be recorded
via the USB output section, depending on the setup. In
the ‘USB OUT’ section, the switch on the left [51] will
select either Groups 1-2 or the main mix to feed IJSB
output channels 1-2. The second switch (to the right)
will select either Groups 3-4 or Aux 5-6 to feed USB
output channels 3-4.
For example, with both USB ouput switches in the
default position (up), true 4 track recording maybe
accomplished via routing to subgroups 1-4. The USB tap
points for the subgroups are pre-fader (also pre-insert)
and post-compressor. The signals will show up on the
DAW dependent upon how they are panned on the
channels.
Owner~s Manual
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19. Talkhack Mic
This is where to plug in an external talkback
microphone. Dynamic and seIl~powered condenser
microphones work well.
20. Power
Press the top of this rocker switch inwards to turn on
the mixer. The front panel power LED [57] will glow
with happiness, or at least it will if you have the mixer
plugged into a suitable live AC mains supply.
Press the bottom of this switch to put the mixer into
standby mode, It will not function, hut some circuits are
still live. To remove AC power, either turn off the AC
mains supply, or unplug the power cord from the mixer
and the AC mains supply.
As a general guide. you should turn on your
~ mixer first, before any external power
amplifiers or powered speakers, and turn it
off last. This will reduce the possibilities of any turn-on,
or turn-off thumps in your speakers.
•
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21. 48V Phantom Power
Most modern professional condenser tuics require
48V phantom powcr, which lets the mixer send
low-current DC voltage to the mie’s electronics through
the same wires that carry audio. (Semi pro condenser
mics often have batteñes to accomplish the same
thing.) “Phantoni” owes its name lo an ability to be
‘unseen” by dynamic nucs (Share 5M57/SM5S, for
instance), which don’t need external power and aren’t
affected by it anyway
Press the top of this switch in if your microphone
requires phantom power. (Always check the position
of this switch before connecting microphones.) A red
LED [56] will illuminate just above the main mix
meters [581 to indicate that phantom power is active.
This is a global switch that affects all mic channels’ XLR
jacks at once.
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V114 4.Bus
Never plug single-ended (unbalanced)
microphones, or ribbon mics into the mic
input jacks if phantom power is on. Do not
plug instrument outputs into the mic XLR input jacks
with phantom power on, unless you know for certain it
is safe to do so. Be sure the main level [75] is turned
down when connecting microphones to the mic inputs
when phantom power is turned on, to prevent pops from
getting through to the speakers.
•
22. Power Connection
This is a standard 3-prong lEO power connector.
Connect the detachable Iinecord (included in the box
with your mixer) to the power receptacle, and plug the
other end of the linecord into an AC outlet. The
VLZ4 4•Bus Series Mixers have a universal power
supply that can accept any AC voltage ranging from
too VAC to 240 V4C. No need for voltage select switches.
It will work virtu TIly anywhere in the world, That’s why
we call it a “Planet Earth” power supply! It is less
susceptible to ye tage sags or spikes, compared to
conventional power supplies, and provides greater
electromagnetic isolation and better protection against
AC line noise.
Disconnecting the plug’s ground pin is
dangerous. Don’t do it.
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The vertical channel strips look very similar, and
have only a few differences between them, Each
channel works independently, and just controls the
signals plugged into the inputs directly behind it.
“U” like Unity gain
VLZ4 mixers have a “U” symbol on almost every level
control. It stands for “unil,y gain,” meaning no change in
signal level. The labels on the controls are measured in
decibels (dB) so you’ll know what you’re doing
level-wise if you choose to change a control’s settings.
3. Gain Control
If you haven’t already, please read the getting started
section on page 6.
The gain knobs adjust the input sensitivity of the tuic
and line inputs. This allows signals from the outside
world to be adjusted to run through each channel at
optimal internal operating levels.
If the signal originates through the mic XLR jack,
there will he 0dB of gain with the knob fully down,
ramping to 60dB of gain fully tip.
Through the V4” line input of Mnnels 1-20
(2”104\LZ4) and channel 1-28 3204VLZ4), there is 20
dB of attenuation fully down and 40 dB of gain fully up,
with unity gain “U” at 10:00.
Through the 1/4” line input of channels 21/22 and
23/24 (2404VLZ4) and 29/30 and 31/32 (3204VLZ4),
there is 20 dB of attenuation fully down and 20 dB of
gain fully up with unity gain “U” at 12:00.
This 20 dB of attenuation can be very handy when you
are inserting a hot signal, or when you want to add EQ
gain, or both. Without this “~irtu~l pad,” there is more
chince of channel clipping.
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24. Low Cut
All mono channels have a low-cut switch (often
referred to as a high-pass filter) that cuts bass
frequencies below 100 Hz at a rate of 18 dE per octave.
We recommend that you use low-cut on every
microphone application except kick drum, bass guitar,
or hassy synth patches. These aside, there isn’t much
down there that you want to hear, and filtering it out
makes the low stuff you do want much more crisp and
tasty. Not only that, but low-cut can help reduce the
possibilit~ of feedback in live situations, and it helps
to conserve ampliflcr power.
Another way to consider low-cut’s function
is that it actually adds flexibility during live
performances. With the addition of low-cut,
you can safely use low equalization on vocals. Many
times bass shelving EQ can really benefit voices.
Trouble is. adding low EQ also boosts stage rumble,
mic handling clunks and breath pops from way-down
low. Apply~ng low-cut removes all those problems,
so you can add low EQ without blowing your subwoofers.
25. Pad (-20 dB) Switch
In most eases, the pad switch will be disengaged.
However, microphones and balanced line-level signals
that produce a higher output than usual may require
that the gain control [23~ is turned way down. If this is
the case, engage the pad switch to allow an additional
20 dB at the input to the inic preamnp. This prevents
overloading the microphone preamp and provides better
gain control. The pad only applies to flIt inputs, not the
1/4” TRS inputs.
26. Compressor
.20
Each of the last four mono channels in the
VLZ4 4’Bus mixer has an in-line compressor circuit
with a variable threshold. This is very useful for
compression of vocals and snire drums, for example
so you might consider connecting your microphone
and drum mics to these channels, rither than other
channels.
I
When the incoming signals exceed the threshold leve
set by this knob, the signal le’.el is automaticall~
compressed. This reduces the dyn’iniic range, and
reduces the chance of distortion due to overloading the
input signals.
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Dynajuic rangc is the differcnce in level
between the quietest and loudest parts of a
~. song. A compressor “squeezes” the dynamic
range, resulting in an overall steadiet; more constant
~oIumo level for the signal. It helps sources, such as
vocals, ‘sit” properly in the mix: it is very useful for live
sound.
The compression ratio is fixed at around 6:1, with
a soft knee response. The threshold maybe adjusted
clockwise from off (110 compression) toO dBu (max).
As an example, suppose the thresi old is set to
maximum. An incoming signal reaches the threshold of
0 dBu. As it increases beyond the threshold, it becomes
compressed at a ratio of 6:1. This means that even if the
input further increases by 6 dB, the actual output only
increases by 1 dB. This compresses the output sigual, so
there is more protection to your system from distortion
and overload due to poor microphone technique (say
it ain’t so) and general pops, bangs and heavy metal
screaming. The soft knee means that the compression
slowly ramps up to 6:1 from the threshold. It does not
jump abruptly to 6:1, as this would be hard knee
compression, and harder en the ears too.
The graph on this page shows the input signal level
going into the compressor, versus the output level
conuLig out of it. It is the typical graph to see when
compressors are discussed, and is just the kind f thing
our engineers like to discuss during the company
Christmas party*.
If the compressor is off, then the input output. For
example an input signal le~cl of 5 dRu results in an
output level of +5 dBu. The diagonal line from lower left
to upper right represents x y, that is input output.
~10
.5
+0
INPUT SIGNAL STPENGTh dBu
At the maximum compression, the threshold is set at
o dRu, and the input to output relationship is
represented by the lower curve. If the input is -5 dBu
(that is, below the threshold), the output is-S dBu. As
the input reaches 0 dBu, the output is a bit. less than
o dBu. If the input is +5 dBu, the output is about
-i-2 dBu. If the input reaches + 10 dBu, then tile output
is ÷3 dBu. Notice the shapely curve of the soft knee
between the diagonal slope of x = y and the compressor
slope of 6:1 (the compression ratio).
The other blue curves represent in-between positions
of the compressor knob, with higher thresholds before
compression begins.
Outboard compressors often have controls such as
compression ratio, threshold, soft knee/hard knee,
attack time, and release time. These last two affect how
quickly the compressor kicks in when the input exceeds
the threshold, and how quickly it is released after it
drops below the threshold. In this compressor, these
parameters are specially chosen to give you the best
overall perfermnance
Adjust the threshold carefully, so your dynamic range
is still lovely, without distortion or overload during the
performance. Run through a few practice screams and
high notes, and adjust the compression 15 required
My High School math teacher, Mr. Marvin, thought that
graphs might come in handy for me one day. Finally!
*
Owner’s Manual
[17]
29. hit IX 1 -2
These controls allow you to set up
to six independent mixes, typically
for running stage monitor or
external effects processors.
These controls have dual hinctions depending on
what your needs are at any given time. They allow you
to send signal either t internal effects FXI and FX2, or
to aux 5 and aux 6, typically used for running stage
monitors or external effects processors.
The controls are off when turned
fully down, deliver unity gain at the
center, and can provide up to 15 dB
of gain turned fully up. Chances are
that you will never need this extra
gain, but it’s nice to know that it’s
there if you do.
Aux Sends 1-6 [13] are line-level
outputs, and are used if you wait
to connect external processors
powered stage monitors, or externa
power amps with passive stage
monitors. Stereo Returns 1-2 (5
are line-level inputs, typically us d
t. return the output from external
processors back to the main mix
arefully adjust how much f each
channel appears in your aux mixes.
For example, if you are running
stage monitors, and someone want
“more me, and less them,” adjust
these carefully.
Aux sends 3-4 cm either be pre or
post fider, depending on the position
of the aux pre/post switches [28).
For stage mentor work, use pre, so
Mono channel
the stage monitors d not increase in
volume when the channel le; el is adjusted. For external
processors, use post. In this way, the feed to external
processors will vary with the channel level, keeping
them in the same ratio (wet/dry),
28, Pre-Fader / Mix Sends 1-2
Aux sends 1-2 are always pre-fader, designed for
stage monitor applications. Aux sends 3-4 may be set
to pro- or post-fader, so they may he used for monitors
or effects.
Pre-fader: with the pro switch engaged (pressed in,
not commitod to marriage), aux Sand 4 deliver signals
post-insert, post-low cut, post EQ., post-mute and
pre-fader. Any changes made to the channel controls,
except the fadei~ will affect the aux send signal.
Post-fader: with the pre switch disengaged (up),
nux 3 and 4 deliver signals post-insert, post-low cut,
post-mute, post-EQ and post-fader. Any changes made
to the channel controls will affect the aux send signal.
V174 4’.Bus
/ Mix Sends 5-6
21. Mix Sends 1-6
Aux Sends 5-6 (or FXI-2) are post-fader. Any changes
made to the channel controls will affect the signal going
to the internal effects processors or to the aux 5-6
output jacks [131. Adjustments to the channel fader
[43), gain [23] and channel EQ [31-36] will affect the
feed going to the internal effects processors.
30.lntFX/AuxS-6 wi ~
This switch determines if that channel’s controls
[29, above] will he used for running the internal effects
processors (engaged) or as aux 5-6 disengaged).
Channel Equalization (EQ)
All VLZ4 4•Bus mono channels have 3-hand EQ with
shelving high, peaking nud with adjustable mid
frequency and shelving low. The stereo channels have
peaking hi-mid and peaking low-mid EQ controls in
additi n to the shelving high and sI ehing low EQ
controls.
Shelving means that the circuitry boosts or cuts all
frequencies past the specified frequency. For example,
the low EQ boosts bass frequencies below $0 Hz and
continuing down to the lowest note you never heard.
Peaking means that certain frequencies form a “hill”
around the center frequency.
With too much EQ. you can really upset things.
We’ve designed a lot of boost and cut into each
equalizer circuit because we know that everyone
will occasionally need that. But if you max the EQ
on every channel, you’ll get mix mush. Equalize subtly
and use the left sides of the knobs (cut), as well as the
right (boost). If you find yourself repeatedly using a
lot of boost or cut, consider altering the sound source,
such as placing a mnic differentb, trying a different kind
of mic, a different vocalist, changing the strings, or
gargling.
31. High EQ
37. Pan
The high EQ provides up to
15dB of boost or cut above
12 kllz, and it is also flat (no
boost or cut) at the detent.
Use it to add sizzle to cymbals,
an overall sense of
w.
a,
transparency, or an edge to
keyboards, vocals, guitar and bacon frying. mm it down
a little to reduce sibilance or to mask tape hiss.
This control allows you to adjust
how much of the channel signal
is sent to the left versus the right
outputs
tt,
...
~.
32. Mid EQ And 33. Freq (Mono Channels Only)
The mono channels employ
a semi-parametric mid-sweep
EQ. The gain (up to 15dB of
boost or cut) is set via the mirl
eq [321. and then “aimed” at a
specific frequency, from
100 Hz to 8 kHz, ~ia freq [331
a
34. Low EQ
The low EQ pro’. ides up to
15dB of boost or cut below
80 Hz. The circuit is flat at
the center detent position.
This frequency represents the
punch in bass drums, bass
•
I
guitar, fat synth patches, and
some really serious male singers who eat raw beef for
breakfast.
35. High Mid EQ Level (Stereo Channels Only)
The high mid EQ provides
up to 15 dB of boost or cut
at 2.5 kHz, and it is flat at
the detent. Midrange EQ is
often thought of as the most
dynamic because the
frequencies that define any
particular sound are almost always found within this
range. For example, the female vocal range as well
as the fundamentals and harm nics of many
higher-tiinhrcd instruments.
36. Low Mid EQ Level (Stereo Channels Only)
The low mid EQ provides up
to 15 dB of boost or cut at
400 Hz, and is fiat at the
detent. Frequencies affected
typically include the male
vocal range ~is well as the
fundamentals and harmonics
of in mv lower-timbred instruments.
With the knob panned hard left:
the signal feeds the main left.
group 1, or group 3 busses,
depending on the setting of the
assign switches [421. With the knob
panned hard right, the signaL feeds
the main right, group 2, or group 4
busses, again dependent on the
setting of the assign switches [42].
The halance control employs a
design called “Constant Loudness.”
If you have a channel panned hard
left (or right) and then pan to the
center, the signal is attenuated
about 3 dB to maintain the same
apparent loudness, Otherwise, it
would make the sound appear much
louder when panned center. This
control is properly called “BAL” for
balance in the stereo channels.
38. Mute
Mute switches do just what they
sound like they do. They turn off the
signil by “routing” it into oblivion.
Engaging a channel’s mute switch
(almost) provides the same results
as turning the fader all the way
down (a pre-aux send is not affected
by the channel fadet; but it is by
the mute switch). Any channel
assignments to main mix, group 1-2.
or group 3-4 will he interrupted and
all of the aux sends will be silenced
(both pro- and post-fader). The
channel insert [3] will continue to
provide a signal when a channel
is muted. The OL LED [39] will
ilLuminate when a channel s mute
switch is engaged.
39. OL LED
This LED indicates the channel’s
signal le’~el after the gain and EQ
controls, but just before the
channel’s level. So even if the level
is turned clown, you can see if the
channel is being overloaded.
Stereo channel
Owner’s Manual
____
The OL (overload) LED will come on when the
channels input signal is too high. This should he
avoided, as distortion will occur. lithe OL LED conies
on regularly, check that the gain control [23] is set
correctly for your input device, and that the channel
EQ is not set with too much boost. The OL LED will
also illuminate when a channel’s mute switch [38] is
engaged.
With the pan knob at the center detent, the left and
right sides receive equal signal levels (main mix L-R,
group 1-2, and group 3-4). To feed only one side or the
other, turn the pan knob accordingly.
This LED also indicates t.he channel’s signal level
after the gain and EQ controls, hut just hefore the
channel’s level. So even if the level is turned down, you
can see if a signal is present.
If you are doing a mixdown to a 2-track, for example,
simply engage the main mix switch on each channel
that you want to hear, and they will be sent to the main
mix bus. If you want to create a group of certain
channels, engage either the 1-2 or 3-4 switches instead
of the main mix, and they will be sent to the appropriate
group faders From there, the groups may be sent back
to the main mix (using the group assign switches [731
above the group faders [74]), allowing you to use the
group faders as a master control for those channels.
‘l’he 510 (signal) LED will come on when the
channel’s input signal (at least .20 dBu) is present.
It should illuminate non-stop if signal above 0 dBu is
present in that channel. This LED will be solid when a
channel’s solo switch [411 is engaged.
If you are creating new tracks or bouncing existing
ones, you will also use the 1-2 and 3-4 switches, but not
the main mix switch. Here you do not want the groups
sent back into the main mix bus, but sent out, via the
group out jacks [lii, to your multitrack inputs.
4L Solo
43. C wind Fader
Whenever a channel’s solo switch is engaged, you
will hear only the soloed channel(s) in the headphones
and monitor outputs. This gives you the opportunity to
audition the channels before they are added to the main
mix. In PFL mode you can hear the solo signal, even
when the channel’s fader is down.
This is the last control in a channel’s signal path, and
it adjusts the level of each channel onto the main mix.
The “U” mark indicates unity gain, meaning no increase
or decrease of signal level. MI the way up provides an
additional 10 dB, should you need to boost a section of
a song. If you find that the overall level is too quiet or
too loud with the level near unity, check that the gain
control [23] is set correctly.
40.516 LED
Solo is also used to set the gain of each channel
correctly. When a channel is soloed, adjust the
channel gain [23] until the input source reaches
the level of the 0dB LED of the left meter Select
PFL on the SOLO MODE switch [60] for gain setting.
Solo signals reaching the headphones and
monitor outputs are not affected by the
SI channel level (unless the SOLO MODE switch
is set to Aft) or main level; therefore, turn down the
phones level [69] and monitor level [681 first, as soloed
channels may be loud.
44. FX1 and FX2
When engaged, these switches, located just below the
stereo channels’ gain controls [23], indicate that you
want to return the internal FX processor signal to the
stereo channel. The TRS inputs are disengaged when
the switch is depressed.
-
The rude solo light [59] will turn on as a reminder
that what you are listening to in the headphones and
control room is just the soloed channel(s), 2-track
return, stereo return(s), aux(es), and/or group(s If
the solo source is an input channel, that channels SIG
(signal) LED [40] will illuminate when that channel is
soloed.
Remember to turn the FX processor level
controls to aux 1/2 and main all the way down
to avoid double-bussing the FX return.
See Appendix E (page 37) for a list of the effects
provided and a description of each one.
.
42. Assign
Alongside each channel fader are three buttons
re~~ferred to as channel assignment switches. Used in
conjunction with the channel’s balance knob [37], they
are used to determine the destination of the channel’s
signal.
VI.Z4 4.Bus
45. USB Switch
The USE switch en the last stereo channel provides
stereo playback of iTunes or a DAW via the USE
connection. Like any other input, this signal may also
be EQ’d, sent to an a ix bus, or mixed in with the other
signals and assigned to subgroups or main outs. I’his
switch overrides both the TRS inputs [51 and the FX2
switch [441
SUCK
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24-CHANNEL MIdLINE MIXER
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So, the original unprocessed “dry” signals go from
the channels to the main mix, and the processed “wet”
signaLs go from the stereo returns to the main mix, and
once mixed together, the dry and wet signals combine to
create a glorious sound!
Pre-fader aux sends are typically used to provide
another mix for stage monitors, If no external effects
are being used, the stereo returns can be used as
additional stereo inputs, or not used at all.
Read on to learn more about these features...
46. tamp
LR
a
2-Track, USB, Aux Masters
and Meters
This section includes the 2-track returns, USB, aux
masters and stereo returns, and the meters. A 4x2 USB
recording and playback function is at your disposal.
This means up to four signals may be recorded
simultaneously and a stereo mix returned to the mixer
for playback.
The six auxes receive signals from the channels via
the channel aux sends [27, 29]. Auxes 1-4 may also be
ted from stereo returns 1-2 [54) and talkback [70,711
and aux 1-2 may get internal effects processor output
via the FX to Al. X controls [621. Any or all of those
signals are mixed together, sauteed to a turn and sent
out the aux send jacks [13] after the optimum output
level is determined by the aux masters [52]. Aux sends
from the channels are pro-fader (aux 1-2), selectable
pre- or post-fader (aux 3-4), and post-fader (aux 5-6
All are post-EQ.
Post-fader aux sends may be fed to the inputs of an
external processor like a reverb or digital delay. From
there, the outputs of this external processor are fed
back to the mixer’s stereo return jacks [5]. Then these
signals are sent through the stereo return level controls
[54], and finally delivered to the main mix or to auxes
1-4 to add effects to monitors if so desired by the talent
[“More me! More reverb!”].
This female BNC connector provides 12 volts DC with
the center pin positive. Connect any quality gooseneck
lamp here.
47. Suck Knob
If the band performing asks you if you can make them
sound better, reply with a resounding “yes, indeed I can
make you sound better... I will turn down the Suck Knob
[47] which will do wonders for your band!”
As seen, it is broken down in percentages, from 0%
suck (turned fully counter-clockwise) to 100% stick
(turned fully clockwise). TIus way you get to determine
the ‘Suck Factor Percentage’ (SFP) of the band.
If they follow instructions, buy you beers, ‘and are a
swell hunch, turn the knob counter-clockwise. If the
drummer hits the snare drum or the guitarist does a
screaming harmonic dive-bomb while you’re setting up
mies on their respectite equipment (and thusly helping
to ruin your hearing...huh?) feel free to crank the knob
clockwise.
48, 2-Track Return Leve
This knob controls the overall level to the mains of
the tape (RCA) or USB, depending on the position of
the 2-track return tnpefUSB swit h [50]. This knob’s
level ranges from off, througl um ity (center detent
position), on up to 20dB of extra gain (fully clockwise)
49. 2-Track Return Solo
This switch sends the 2-track return (tape or USB.
depending on the position of the switch [50)) to the
solo bus.
50. 24rack Return Tape/USU
This determines if the 2-track return gets its sign-fl
from the RCA “tape inputs (switch disengaged) or
USH (switch engaged)
Owner’s Manual
121 ~
®
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2-TRACKRETuRN
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SOLO
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USBOUT
1
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AUX MASTER
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STEREO REI1JRNS
El
This button allows you to solo an individual aux son I.
If you are using the aux sends to feed your stage
monitors, you may use these buttons to check your
mont or mix. The rude solo LED [591 will flash to let
you know the solo system is active.
The aux send solo is AFL and is not affected by the
solo mode switch (PFL/AFL) (60], except that in PFL
mode only the left meter indicates the signal.
LEFT morn
Odo—OdRo
-Gao
.—“—.
53. Master Aux Sends Solo
AIJX
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LR
54. Stereo Returns 1 -2 to Aux 1 -4/Main
These ten controls set the overall level of line signals
received from the stereo returu 1-2 inputs [5j. These
controls range from off to +15db of gain when fully
clockwise, to compensate for low-level effects.
Signals passing through these controls go directly to
the main mix and aux 1-4 b ises where they are
combined with signals from the channels.
SUER SOLO
4~6~
ElO El
5aON~DE
El
Fri a
Aft —
55. Stereo Returns a o
This button allows you to solo a stereo return. The
rude solo LED [591 will flash to let you know that the
solo system is active. Since thi is an input, this signal is
affected by the PF’L~AFL master swit h.
56. 48V LED
51. USB Out
These two switches allow for monstrous flexibility on
the four recordable signals. The default switch
coiffiguration (disengaged) routes subgroups 1-4 ‘er
the USB connection to your favorite DAW software for
a “atix it later’ 4-track recording. Engaging the switch
on the left allows the main L-R mix to be recorded for
convenient stereo mixes of the show. The other switch
allows aux 5/6 to he sent to the DAW for a unique stereo
recording or the use of DAW plug-ins as effects.
52. Master Aux Sends 1-6
These knobs provide overall control over the aux send
levels1 just before they are delivered to the aux send
outputs [131. These knobs go from off to +15db when
turned all the way up.
This is usually the knob you turn up when the lead
singer glares otyou, points at his stage monitor, and
sticks his thumb up in the air. (It would follow that if
the singer stuck his thumb down, you’d turn the knob
down, bitt that never happens.)
Keep in itund that aux sends 3-4 may either be
I14LJ~l propost-fader,mix
depending
the position
of theorchannel’s
pro/post on
switch
(281.
[‘xi
VLZ4
4•Bus
Most modern professional condenser mics require
48V phantom power, which Lets the nuxer send
loss-current DC voltage to the nile’s electronics
through the same wires that carry audio. (Semi-pro
conden er inics often have batteries to accomplish the
same thing “Phantom” owes its name to an ability to
be “unseen” by dynamic inics (Shure SM’7 5M58. for
instance), whi h don’t need external power and aren’t
affected hy it an3way.
Phantom power for all Lute inputs (except the
talkhaek nile) may be selected by pressing up on
the mixer’s phantom [21] switch.
~ Ne’.er plug single ended unbalan ed)
microphones, or ribbon nucs into the mic
input jacks if phantom power is on. Do not
plug instrument outputs into the mic XLR input jacks
with phantom po~ver on unless you are certain it is safe
to rIo so.
~
57. Power LED
This green LED will illuminate when the mixer is
turned on. as a reminder of how on it really is. If it is
not on, then it is off, and the mixer becomes a rather
nice weight for keeping your morning newspaper front
blowing away in the wind.
If it does not turn on, make sure the power cord is
correctly inserted at both ends, the local AC mains
supply is active, and the power switch [20 is on.
58. Left/Right Level Meters
60. So o Mode
These peak meters are made up of two columns of
twelve LEDs, with three colors to indicate different
ranges of signal level, traffic light style They range from
—30 at the bottom, to 0 in the middle, to +20 (CLIP) at
the top.
Engaging a channel’s soLo switch [41 will cause this
dramatic turn of events: kny existing source selection
is immediately replaced by the solo signal, appearing
at the monitor utputs 115, 16], phones [1] an I at
the left meter [58] (left and right meters when in AFL
solo mode). The audible solo levels are then controlled
by the solo knob [67]. The discrete level controls for
headphones and monitor outputs are dependent on
what is plugged in.
When a channel is soloed in PFL, the right meter
shows no reading, and the left meter shows the level of
that channels signal level. pre-fader.
In AF’L, both left and right meters illuminate to
indicate the ‘After Fader Level’ of the signal and stereo
imaging. AFL is always used for outputs, regardless
of the position of the PF[JAFL master switch, as you
always want to view the output level after the fader.
The left meter’s 0dB LED is labeled ‘level set” to
show where the level should be when adjusting a
channels gain [231 in the solo mode (as described in
“Set the Levels” on page 6).
When 0 dbu (0.775 V) is at the main left and right
TRS outputs 171, it shows as 0 dB on the meters.
You can get a good mix with peaks flashing anywhere
between —20 and +10 dB on the meters. Most amplifiers
clip at about + 10 dEn, and some recorders aren’t so
forgiving either. For best real-world results, try to keep
your peaks between “0” and “+7.” Remember. audio
meters are just tools to help assure you that your levels
are “in the ballpark.” You don’t have to stare at them
(unless you want to).
59, Rude Solo Light
l’his large red LED flashes when one or more solo
switches are engaged [41,49,53 55,73]. This acts as
a reminder that what you hear in the control room and
headphones is the soloed channel(s), 2-track return,
stereo return, aux(es). and/or group(s). If you forget
that you are in sole mode, you can easily be tricked
into thinking that something is wrong with your mixer.
Hence, the rude solo light. Please forgive its rudeness,
it is only trying to help, and wants to be your friend.
With the solo mode switch in the up position, wit are
in PFL mode, meaning Pre-Fader Listen. This mode is
required for the ‘Set the LewIs” procedure and is handy
for quick spot.ehecks of channel ,especiall ones that
have their fader turned down. PEL mode is only
a’~ailable to input signals. While in PFL mode, if an
output is soloed, its signal will show up, hut it will
he an All signal.
With the solo mode switch down, you are ii AFL
mode, meaning After-Fader Listen. You will be able
to hear the stereo output of the soloed channel it
will follow the channel’s fader [43] and balance [37]
settings. It is similar to muting all of the other channels,
hut without the hassle. AFL mode is the only soloing
mode for subgroups arid aux masters. Subgroups 1-2
or 3-4 may be soloed simultaneously for a true stereo
image.
—
APL is a new feature available to channel inputs and
provides a mixdown solution that allows soloing the mix
as it is on the faders.
In PFL mode, solo will not be affected by a channel’s
mute switch [381 position.
Reniombem; PFL mode taps the channel signal
before the fader. If you haveS ~ channel’s fader
set way below “U” (unity gain), solo will not
know that and will send a unity gain signal to the
monitor outputs [15, 16]. phones output [17], and
meter display [58]. That may result in a startling level
boost at these outputs when switching from AFL to PFL
mode, depending on the position of the solo level
knob [67)
Owner’s Manual
L .1
Or the FX returns may be routed to the stereo input
channels[23/24 on the 2404 VLZ4, 31/32 on the 3204
VLZ4] using the the FX1 anchor FX2 switches [44].
This allows for way more flexibility. For example, you
can EQ the FX and send them to any aux, group, or
main, dims remember to turn the ‘to aux 1’, ‘to aux 2’
and to main knobs [621 fully counter-clockwise to
a’1.id doubl bussing.
The talkback feature allows the engineer to
coinmun ate with the talent either through the phones
utp it 1 or the aux 1-4 send outputs [13] using
an external talkh’ick microphone. This saves a lot of
shouting over the audience’s heads as you set up the
talented one’s stage monitors to their peculiarly-picky
satisfaction.
61. FX1 and EX2 Send Master
These knobs control the level of the signals going into
each internal effects processor. Adjust them carefully,
keeping an eye on the adjacent sig/ol LED [63] to
prevent overloading the effects processor.
62. FX1 and FX2 to Aux 1/Aux 2/Maui
These knobs route the effects output to aux 1, mix
2 and mains independently. Use aux 1 and aux 2 to
provide effects to monitors. Slowly add effects to the
monitors by turning the ‘to aux 1’ and to aux 2 knobs
clockwise. Use the aux master to menitor the amount
sent. The FX output to the mains ~ll be heard directly
from the PA.
63. SIG/OL LED
Stereo Effects Processors,
Headphones, Talkback, Main
and Groups Mix*
There arc two identical Running-Man 32-bit internal
effects processors. They are mono-in, stereo-out effects
processors, With 24 presets each. Signals to these effe ts
processors come from adjusting the FX1 and/or FX2 iu’~
send [291 on each channel and the FX masters (611.
The stereo output. from each processor may be
added to the main mix using the ‘FX to main’ knob 1621.
The stereo output from each processor may also
be added to nux I and/or aux 2 by adjusting the
FXtoaux’ control [62].
These dual-LEDs illuminate green whei the signal
level going into each effects processor is within a good
operating range (sig). They illuminate red if the effects
processor is overloaded with too strong of a signal (el).
Thrn down the send master levels [611 and check the
channel sends if these light red regularly.
The signals going into the processors are affected by
the channels’ aux 5/6 sends [29], the channel gain [231,
EQ [31-361, and channel faders [43 as well as the FX
Send Master 1611,
64. Preset Display
These displays show the number of the currently
selected effects preset, as shown in the list of presets
silkscreened above. Rotate the preset selector knob
right or left to change a preset.
A now preset will be loaded approximately 1/4 of a
second after you step turning the knob, and it will be
stored into the FX memory after about one second.
When the VLZ4 4•Bus mixer is turned on, the FX
section will load up the last-used preset.
VLZ4 4.Bus
*
Affectionately referred to as “the meat n potatoes”.
i
2
3
4
5
6
• ~0~
FT MAS SEE
TO AliT
IEH
TA
(‘ETA
~0
MUTT
S
9
El
12_
SUBGROUPS
(Oaec*)
OfF
MAT
OFF
MAX
OFF
FMX
OFF
11
12
Mn
LEVEL
PUSH
SOLO
501.0
SOLO
SOLO
LEn
LEFT
LEFT
LEFT
fl
El
El
El
1
2
3
4
PC4TT
malT
IT
—
mOUlT
‘—
RIGHT
—
[1
Plate Reverb
Vocal Plate
Warm Room
Bright Room
Warm Lounge
Small Stage
Warm Theater
Bright Stage
Warm Hall
I~1
—
—
TO—
—
Concert Hall
Catheclral
Gated Reverb
13
14
15
16
17
18
i.e
20
21
22
23
24
Chorus
Chorus + Reverb
Doubler
Tape Slap
Delay I Brt S5Oits
Delay 1 Wrm 300ms
licla~Brt250ms
D~la~’2Wrm 200ms
Delãy3 B~t175ins
Delay 3 Wrm lSOms
Chorus + INS’ 3OÔms
Rev&rh+ Dly 200ms
The knob also offers a tap delay function for presets
t7-24. This works as follows:
I.
2
Use the knob to select a preset from 17 to 24.
Press the knob in at least two times.
The DSP processor will calculate the time delay
between the last. two pushes and it will assign
this time interval to the echoes of the current
digital delay.
The minimum tap delay is .50 iiis and the
maximum is 500 ins.
• If your taps are faster than 50 ins, they will
be set to 50 ms.
• If taps are 500 ins to 1 second. they will be
set to 500 ins.
• If taps are greater than 1 second apart.
they will he ignored. Try again a hit faster.
3. The LED ~sill flash in time with the new tap
delay time.
66. Internal FX Mute
When engaged, the internal effects processor is
muted, and its output will not appear on the main mix,
monitor mix or anywhere for that matter. The adjacent
mute LED will come en as a reminder that the effects
are muted. When power is first applied, these LEDs will
i lumini.te and the FX will be muted for about 10
seconds while the little FX gerbils inside settle clown.
65. Preset Selector, Tap Delay and LED
Rotate these endless controls tn select one of the
24 preset effects. When the rotation stops, that preset
will he loaded and become operational. The current
preset number is shown in the display [64].
The different presets are shown in the table to the
right and on the silkscreen in the upper right hand
corner of each VLZ4 4•Bus mixer. Further details of
each preset are explained in Appendix B on page 37.
Ii this switch is not engaged, then the internal effects
are set free and may be added as required to the main
mix, monitor mix and last two stereo channels.
67. Solo Level
This knob is used to adjust the volume nf th
oed
signal as it is routed to the monitor [15, 16] and phones
[17) outputs. This control is independent of, and prior
to the monitor [68] and phones [69) level controls.
Owner’s Manual
68. Monitor Level
This knob is used to adjust the ~oIume at the monitor
output [15, 16]. from off to maximum gain (max).
69. Phones Level
This knob is used to adjust the volume at the phones
output [171, from off to maximum gain (max). If solo is
not active, the monitor, phones and meter are fed the
post fader main mix signal.
NOTE: The talkback destination switches are
latching switches, not momentary. In other
—
words, there is no need to hold down the
switch(es) when using the talkback feature. Simply
engage the switch(es) and begin talking. But don’t
forget to disengage the switch when you’re done talking
to them, or they may hear your unflattering remarks
regarding their choice of apparel.
~
fl
I
WARNING: The headphone amp is loud, and
can cause permanent hearing damage. Eion
intermediate levels may be painfully loud
with sonic headphones. BE cAREFUl4! Always turn this
control all the way down before connecting headphones,
or pressing a solo switch [41, 49, 53, 55, 73], or doing
anything new that may affect the headphone volume.
Then turn it up slowly as you listen carefully.
70. Tnlkhack Level
Use this knob to control the level of the talkback
signal being routed to the main mix or aux 1-4 outputs,
from the internal micr phone.
1.
2
Start ~ith this control turned down.
Se ect the destination, either main mix and/or
aux 14 [71] and make sure that their Ie~els
are already set nicely, using the main mix fader
[75] or aux masters [52].
3. Slowly turn this control up until you get
confirmation from whoever is listening that
they can hear and obey your every command.
Once you have set the level, you can leave it there for
the duration of the session or gig.
71. Push To Talk: Main, Aux 1-4
Push in the main switch to route the talkback signal
to the main outputs. Use this to communicate with the
talent in the studio throu0h the headphones during a
recording session.
The aux 1-4 switch routes the talkhack signal to the
aux send 1-4 outputs 13]. Use this to communicate
with the musicians through their stage monitors when
you are setting Lp a live performance.
It is fine to have both destination switches pushed in
at the s’ii e time, so the talkback signal will be routed
to both de tinations. But if you don’t have either of the
destinati n swit lies engiged, the talkback signal won’t
go anywhere. You might as well be talking to a brick
wall.
V114
4•Bus
NOTE #2: The talkhack will not work unless
you have a microphone attached to the
talkback inic input [19]
72. Compress
*
Each of the four groups in the VLZ4 4•Bus mixer has
an in-line compressor circuit with a variable
threshold. This is very useful f r compression of vocals,
and snare’ drumi ,for enmn~ Ic. See pige 17 for an entire
page (and a gnph e en dedicated entirely to
explaining eompres ion.
73. Groups Assign
One popular use of the groups is to use them as
master faders for a group of channels on their way to the
main mix [75]. Let us say you have a drum kit hogging
up seven channels and you are going to want to control
their group ~olume more conveniently. You do not want
to try that with seven hands or seven fingers, so just
un-assign these channels from the main mix and
reassign them to groups 1-2, engage the assign to main
mix left on group 1 and assign to main nux right on
group 2. Now you may ride the entire drum mix with two
faders groups I and 2.
—
If you engage just one assign to main mnLx button per
group (left or right), the signal sent to the main mix
[75] will he the same level as the group outs [11]. If
you want the subgroup to appear in the center of the
main mix, engage both the assign to main mix left and
right buttons. The signal will be sent to both sides, and
reduced in level by 3 dU like a pan pot, so the overall
level is the same, whether the gro ip ‘s assigned to main
left, main right, or both.
Each group may also he soloed. This does not mean
that each mneniber of a group gets their shot at a solo
and stardom. Rather, this allows you to listen to the
group in isolation via monitor outputs or headphones.
Being an output, these signals are MI.
Groups 1-2 and 3-4 are paired together for purposes of
solo and work together differently in p11 and all modes.
In pH mode, since pH is a mono bus, soloing Group 1 by
itself, Group 2 by itself or both together will result in the
same level solo signal, monaurally (assuming Groups 1
and 2 have the same levels of signal).
All is a stereo solo bus, so in all mode, soloing Group 1
by itself ~ilaces the signal on the left, Grout) 2 shows ~p
on the right, and soloing both yields a stereo image, with
Group 1 on the left and Group 2 on Llie rigl and each
reduced by 3 dB, not unlike using one or the channels’
balance pots to center the signal. Groups 3 and 4
function similarly
fl
monitor outputs are not affected by the
Schannel
lo signals
headphones
levelreaching
or main the
level;
therefore. and
turn
d w i ti c phor es le~cl [691 and monitor level [681 first,
as so oed el innels may he loud.
The rude solo light [59) will turn on as a reminder
that what. you are listening to in the headphones isjust
the soloed group(s)
74. Group 1”4Fa er3
As you might expect, these faders control the levels
of the signals sent to the group outs [11]. All channels
that arc assigned to groups, not muted. and not turn d
fully down will appear at the group outs.
The group signal is off when its fader is fully down,
the “U” marking is unity gain, and fully up provides
10 dB additional gain. Remember that if you are treating
two groups as a stereo pair, group 1 and 2 for example,
make sure that both group faders “ride’ together to
maintain the left/right balance.
75. Main M
This stereo Pider allows you to adjust the le~ els of the
main mix signals sent to the XLR and 1/4” main
line-level outputs 7). and the tal e outputs [61
This gi;.es ~ou the ultin ate f cling of power and
control over the sound levels sent t your audience.
Adj ust this ontrol carefully, with y ur good eye on the
meters to check gunst o~erl ading, and your good
ear to the level, to ni the sure y ur audience (if any) is
happy.
The main ii x s gi ‘Us are off with the lader fully down.
the “U” marking m ul t3 g~mn. and fully up provides 10
rIB of additional gain. This a.c ditional gain will typically
never be needed, but once again, it’s nice to know that
it’s there. The fader is stereo, as it affects both the left
and right of the main mix ertually. This is the ideal
control to slowly bring down at the end of a song (or
quickly in the middle of a song if the need ever arises).
This control does not affect the aux outputs [131.
This does, however, conclude the main portion of the
owner’s manual. Prom here on out it’s all appendices.
You should pour yourself a cold, frosty one and pat
yourself on the, hack for making it herei
Ok, congratulations are now over. Time to plug in your
LZ4 4•Bus mixer, power it on, and start twiddlin some
knobs!
\,
Owner’s Manual
I .1
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