Samsung | SONOACE R7 | Samsung SONOACE R7 User Manual (SONOACE R7 User Manual vol.1)

Volume 1
WARRANTY
Samsung Medison provides the following warranty to the purchaser of this unit. This warranty is valid for
a period of one year from the date of installation and covers all problems caused by faulty workmanship
or faulty material. Samsung Medison will, as sole and exclusive remedy and at no charge, replace any such
defective unit returned to Samsung Medison within the designated warranty period.
The warranty does not cover damages and loss caused by outside factors including, but not limited to, fire,
flood, storm, tidal wave, lightning, earthquake, theft, abnormal conditions of operation, and intentional
destruction of the equipment. Damage caused by equipment relocation is not covered.
The warranty is void in cases where the equipment has been damaged as a result of an accident, misuse,
abuse, dropping, or when attempts to modify or alter any part or assembly of the equipment have taken
place.
Parts with cosmetic defects or deterioration will not be replaced. Replacement of batteries, training
materials, and supplies are not covered.
Samsung Medison will not be responsible for incidental or consequential damages of any kind arising
from or connected with the use of the equipment.
Samsung Medison will not be responsible for any loss, damage, or injury resulting from a delay in services
rendered under the warranty
This limited warranty is in lieu of all other warranties expressed or implied, including warranties of
merchant ability or fitness for any particular use. No representative or other person is authorized to
represent or assume for Samsung Medison any warranty liability beyond that set forth herein.
Defective equipment shipped from you to Samsung Medison must be packed in the replacement
cartons. Shipping and insurance costs are the responsibility of the customer. To return defective material
to Samsung Medison contact the Samsung Medison Customer Service Department.
Samsung Medison or a local distributor will make available, upon request, circuit diagrams, a component
parts list, descriptions, calibration instructions and other information which will assist your appropriately
qualified technical personnel to repair those parts of the equipment which are designed by Samsung
Medison as repairable.
CAUTION: United State federal law restricts this device to sale by or on the order of physicians.
MANUFACTURER : SAMSUNG MEDISON CO., LTD.
1003, Daechi-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul,135-280 KOREA
SAMSUNG MEDISON CO., LTD. Customer Service Department
TEL : 82-2-2194-1234 FAX : 82-2-2194-1071
Website: www.samsungmedison.com
EC REPRESENTATIVE
SONOACE Deutschland GmbH Elbestrasse 10, 45768 Marl, Germany
TEL : 49-2365-924-3810 FAX : 49-2365-924-3830
Diagnostic Ultrasound System
Operation Manual
Version 2.00.00
English
MI68-02404A
PROPRIETRAY INFORMATION AND SOFTWARE LICENSE
The Customer shall keep confidential all proprietary information furnished or disclosed to the Customer by
Samsung Medison, unless such information has become part of the public domain through no fault of the
Customer. The Customer shall not use such proprietary information, without the prior written consent of
Samsung Medison, for any purpose other than the maintenance, repair or operation of the goods.
Samsung Medison’s systems contain Samsung Medison’s proprietary software in machine-readable form.
Samsung Medison retains all its rights, title and interest in the software except that purchase of this product
includes a license to use the machine-readable software contained in it. The Customer shall not copy, trace,
disassemble or modify the software. Transfer of this product by the Customer shall constitute a transfer of this
license that shall not be otherwise transferable. Upon cancellation or termination of this contract or return of
the goods for reasons other than repair or modification, the Customer shall return to Samsung Medison all
such proprietary information.
Safety Requirements
■ Classifications:
▶ Type of protection against electrical shock: Class I
▶ Degree of protection against electrical shock (Patient connection): Type BF equipment
▶ Degree of protection against harmful ingress of water: Ordinary equipment
▶ Degree of safety of application in the presence of a flammable anesthetic material with air or with
oxygen or nitrous oxide: Equipment not suitable for use in the presence of a flammable anesthetic
mixture with air or with oxygen or nitrous oxide.
▶ Mode of operation: Continuous operation
■ Electromechanical safety standards met:
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements for Basic Safety and Essential Performance
[IEC 60601-1:2005]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1-2: General Requirements for Basic Safety and Essential
Performance - Collateral Standard: Electromagnetic Compatibility - Requirements and Tests [IEC
60601-1-2:2007]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1-6: General Requirements for Basic Safety and Essential
Performance- Collateral Standard: Usability [IEC 60601-1-6:2006]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 2-37: Particular Requirements for the Basic Safety and Essential
Performance of Ultrasonic Medical Diagnostic and Monitoring Equipment [IEC60601-2-37:2007]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements for Safety [IEC 60601-1:1988 with A1:1991
and A2:1995]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements for Safety – 1 Collateral Standard: safety
Requirement for Medical Electrical Systems [IEC 60601-1-1:2000]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements for Safety - 2 Collateral Standard:
Electromagnetic Compatibility - Requirements and Test [IEC 60601-1-2:2001, A1:2004]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements for Safety - 4 Collateral Standard:
Programmable Electrical Medical Systems [IEC 60601-1-4: 1996, A1:1999]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 2: Particular Requirements for Safety - 37 Ultrasonic Medical
Diagnostic and Monitoring Equipment [IEC60601-2-37: 2001 with A1:2004, A2:2005]
▶ Medical Devices – Application of Risk Management to Medical Devices [ISO 14971:2007]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements for Safety [UL60601-1:2003]
▶ Medical Electrical Equipment - Part 1: General Requirements for Safety [CAN/CSA 22.2
No.601.1-M90:1990, with R2003, with R2005]
▶ Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices [ISO10993 : 2009]
▶ Standard Means for the Reporting of the Acoustic Output of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasonic Equipment
[IEC61157:2007]
■
Declarations:
This is CSA symbol for Canada and United States of America
This is manufacturer’s declaration of product compliance with
applicable EEC directive(s) and the European notified body.
This is manufacturer’s declaration of product compliance with
applicable EEC directive(s).
Read This First
How to Use Your Manual
This manual addresses the reader who is familiar with ultrasound techniques. Only medical doctors
or persons supervised by medical doctors should use this system. Sonography training and clinical
procedures are not included here. This manual is not intended to be used as training material for the
principles of ultrasound, anatomy, scanning techniques, or applications. You should be familiar with all of
these areas before attempting to use this manual or your ultrasound system.
This manual does not include diagnosis results or opinions. Also, check the measurement reference for
each application’s result measurement before the final diagnosis.
It is useless to make constant or complex adjustments to the equipment controls. The system has been
preset at the factory to produce an optimum image in the majority of patients. User adjustments are not
usually required. If the user wishes to change image settings, the variables may be set as desired. Optimal
images are obtained with little difficulty.
We are not responsible for errors that occur when the system is run on a user’s PC.
Non-Samsung Medison product names may be trademarks of their respective owners.
Please keep this user guide close to the product as a reference when using the system.
For safe use of this product, you should read ‘Chapter1. Safety’ and ‘Chapter8. Maintenance’ in this manual,
prior to starting to use this system.
NOTE: Some features are not available in some countries. The features with options, and specifications
that this manual present can be changed without notice. Government approval is still pending in some
nations.
Conventions Used in This Manual
DANGER: Describes precautions necessary to prevent user hazards of great urgency. Ignoring a
DANGER warning will risk life-threatening injury.
WARNING: Used to indicate the presence of a hazard that can cause serious personal injury, or
substantial property damage.
CAUTION: Indicates the presence of a hazard that can cause equipment damage.
NOTE: A piece of information useful for installing, operating and maintaining a system. Not related
to any hazard.
If You Need Assistance
If you need any assistance with the equipment, like the service manual, please contact the Samsung
Medison Customer Service Department or one of their worldwide customer service representatives,
immediately.
Revision History
VERSION
DATE
NOTE
v2.00.00-02
2012-05-15
Initial Release
System Upgrades and Manual Set Updates
Samsung Medison Ultrasound is committed to innovation and continued improvement. Upgrades may be
announced that consist of hardware or software improvements. Updated manuals will accompany those
system upgrades.
Verify that Check if this version of the manual is correct for the system version. If not, please contact the
Customer Service Department.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents – Volume 1
Chapter 1 Safety
Indication for Use........................................................................................................................ 1-3
Contraindications................................................................................................................................................................ 1-3
Safety Signs.................................................................................................................... 1-4
Safety Symbols..................................................................................................................................................................... 1-4
Symbols.................................................................................................................................................................................. 1-5
Labels....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-6
Electrical Safety.............................................................................................................. 1-8
Prevention of Electric Shock........................................................................................................................................... 1-8
ECG-Related Information...............................................................................................................................................1-10
ESD..........................................................................................................................................................................................1-10
EMI..........................................................................................................................................................................................1-11
EMC........................................................................................................................................................................................1-11
Mechanical Safety........................................................................................................ 1-18
Moving the Equipment...................................................................................................................................................1-18
Safety Note..........................................................................................................................................................................1-19
Biological Safety........................................................................................................... 1-20
ALARA Principle.................................................................................................................................................................1-20
Training.................................................................................................................................................................................1-32
Environmental Protection........................................................................................... 1-33
Correct Disposal of This Product (Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment).............................................1-33
Chapter 2Introduction
Specifications.............................................................................................................................. 2-3
Product Configuration and Installation....................................................................... 2-6
Monitor .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2-9
Control Panel......................................................................................................................................................................2-11
Console.................................................................................................................................................................................2-17
Peripheral Devices ...........................................................................................................................................................2-19
Probe......................................................................................................................................................................................2-22
Accessories..........................................................................................................................................................................2-23
Optional Functions...........................................................................................................................................................2-24
13
Operation Manual
Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
Power Supply............................................................................................................................... 3-3
Powering On......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-3
Powering Off......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-3
Probes & Applications.................................................................................................... 3-4
Probe Selection and Application.................................................................................................................................. 3-5
Changing Application....................................................................................................................................................... 3-5
Editing Probe Preset Values............................................................................................................................................. 3-5
Patient Information........................................................................................................ 3-7
Patient Information for Application............................................................................................................................. 3-9
Finding Patient Information..........................................................................................................................................3-15
Managing Patient Exams...............................................................................................................................................3-17
Changing Measurements..............................................................................................................................................3-22
Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
Information.................................................................................................................................. 4-3
Diagnosis Mode Type........................................................................................................................................................ 4-3
Basic Use................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-4
Basic Mode...................................................................................................................... 4-6
2D Mode................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-6
M Mode.................................................................................................................................................................................4-13
Color Doppler Mode........................................................................................................................................................4-15
Power Doppler Mode......................................................................................................................................................4-18
PW Spectral Doppler Mode...........................................................................................................................................4-20
CW Spectral Doppler Mode..........................................................................................................................................4-25
TDI Mode..............................................................................................................................................................................4-26
TDW Mode...........................................................................................................................................................................4-27
Combined Mode........................................................................................................... 4-28
2D/C/PW Mode..................................................................................................................................................................4-28
2D/PD/PW Mode...............................................................................................................................................................4-28
2D/C/CW Mode..................................................................................................................................................................4-28
2D/PD/CW Mode...............................................................................................................................................................4-28
2D/C/M Mode.....................................................................................................................................................................4-29
2D/C Live Mode.................................................................................................................................................................4-29
Multi-Image Mode........................................................................................................ 4-30
Dual Mode...........................................................................................................................................................................4-30
Quad Mode..........................................................................................................................................................................4-31
14
Table of Contents
3D / 4D Mode................................................................................................................ 4-32
3D/4D Mode........................................................................................................................................................................4-32
3D StandBy Mode.............................................................................................................................................................4-34
3D View-MPR.......................................................................................................................................................................4-37
3D XI Mode (Optional)....................................................................................................................................................4-53
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Accuracy............................................................................................................. 5-3
Causes of Measurement Errors...................................................................................................................................... 5-3
Optimization of Measurement Accuracy................................................................................................................... 5-5
Measurement Accuracy Table........................................................................................................................................ 5-7
Basic Measurements...................................................................................................... 5-9
Distance Measurement...................................................................................................................................................5-11
Circumference and Area Measurement...................................................................................................................5-15
Volume Measurement.....................................................................................................................................................5-17
Calculations by Application........................................................................................ 5-20
Things to note....................................................................................................................................................................5-20
Common Measurement Methods..............................................................................................................................5-23
OB Calculation....................................................................................................................................................................5-27
Gynecology Calculation.................................................................................................................................................5-36
Cardiac Calculation...........................................................................................................................................................5-40
Carotid Calculation...........................................................................................................................................................5-49
Urology Calculation.........................................................................................................................................................5-58
Fetal Echo Calculation.....................................................................................................................................................5-62
LE Artery Calculation.......................................................................................................................................................5-66
UE Artery Calculation.......................................................................................................................................................5-72
LE Vein Calculation...........................................................................................................................................................5-75
UE Vein Calculation..........................................................................................................................................................5-78
Radiology Calculation.....................................................................................................................................................5-82
TCD Calculation.................................................................................................................................................................5-86
Thyroid Calculation..........................................................................................................................................................5-89
Breast Calculation.............................................................................................................................................................5-90
Testicle Calculation...........................................................................................................................................................5-92
Superficial Calculation....................................................................................................................................................5-93
Pediatric Hips Calculation..............................................................................................................................................5-94
Musculoskeletal Calculation.........................................................................................................................................5-96
15
Operation Manual
Report............................................................................................................................ 5-97
Viewing Report..................................................................................................................................................................5-97
Editing Report....................................................................................................................................................................5-98
Adding Comment.......................................................................................................................................................... 5-100
Printing Report................................................................................................................................................................ 5-100
Saving Report.................................................................................................................................................................. 5-101
Transferring Report....................................................................................................................................................... 5-101
Graph Function............................................................................................................................................................... 5-102
Closing Report................................................................................................................................................................. 5-106
** Reference Manual
Samsung Medison is providing an additional SONOACE R7 Reference Manual. GA tables and references for
each application are included in the Reference Manual.
16
1
Chapter
Safety
‹‹Indication for Use.......................................1-3
Contraindications.....................................................................1-3
‹‹Safety Signs................................................1-4
Safety Symbols..........................................................................1-4
Symbols........................................................................................1-5
Labels............................................................................................1-6
‹‹Electrical Safety..........................................1-8
Prevention of Electric Shock.................................................1-8
ECG-Related Information.....................................................1-10
ESD...............................................................................................1-10
EMI................................................................................................1-11
EMC..............................................................................................1-11
‹‹Mechanical Safety....................................1-18
Moving the Equipment........................................................1-18
Safety Note................................................................................1-19
‹‹Biological Safety......................................1-20
ALARA Principle......................................................................1-20
Training......................................................................................1-32
‹‹Environmental Protection.......................1-33
Correct Disposal of This Product
(Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment)...................1-33
Chapter 1 Safety
Indication for Use
The SONOACE R7 Diagnostic Ultrasound System and transducers are intended for diagnostic ultrasound
imaging and fluid analysis of the human body.
The clinical applications include: Fetal, Abdominal, Pediatric, Small Organ, Neonatal Cephalic, Adult Cephalic,
Trans-rectal, Trans-vaginal, Muscular-Skeletal (Conventional, Superficial), Cardiac Adult, Cardiac Pediatric,
Peripheral vessel.
Contraindications
The SONOACE R7 system is not intended for ophthalmic use or any use causing the acoustic beam to pass
through the eye.
CAUTION:
XXFederal law restricts this device to sale by or on the order of a physician
XXT he method of application or use of the device is described in the manual 'Chapter 3. Starting
Diagnosis' and 'Chapter 4. Diagnosis Modes'.
1-3
Operation Manual
Safety Signs
Please read this chapter before using the Samsung Medison ultrasound system. It is relevant to the
ultrasound system, the probes, the recording devices, and any of the optional equipment.
SONOACE R7 is intended for use by, or by the order of, and under the supervision of, a licensed physician who
is qualified for direct use of the medical device.
Safety Symbols
The International Electro Technical Commission (IEC) has established a set of symbols for medical electronic
equipment, which classify a connection or warn of potential hazards. The classifications and symbols are
shown below.
Symbols
1-4
Description
Symbols
Description
AC (alternating current) voltage
source
Data Output port
Indicates a caution for risk of electric
shock.
Data Input port
Isolated patient connection (Type BF
applied part).
Data Input/Output port
Power switch (Supplies/cuts power to
the product)
Left and right Audio / Video output
On / Off button (Partially cuts power
to the product)
Remote print output
Identifies an equipotential ground.
Foot switch port
Indicates dangerous voltages of over
1000V AC or over 1500V DC.
ECG port
Identifies the point where the system
safety ground is fastened to the
chassis. Protective earth connected to
conductive parts of Class I equipment
for safety purposes.
USB port
Chapter 1 Safety
Symbols
Description
Symbols
Description
Network port
Probe port
MIC port
ESD warning
Protection against the effects of
immersion.
CAUTION
Protection against dripping water.
Consult Instructions for Use
Do not sit on control panel
Do not push the product
Do not lean against the product
Follow the operation manual
Symbols
Symbols
Description
Authorised Representative In The
European Community
Symbols
Description
Manufacturer
1-5
Operation Manual
Labels
To protect the system, you may see ‘Warning’ or ‘Caution’ marked on the surface of the product.
[Label 1. Marked on the back sides of the product]
[Label 2. Marked below OUTLET]
1-6
Chapter 1 Safety
[Label 3. Safety note for “TIP-OVER” Precaution]
[Label 4. Prohibition of seating on Control panel]
1-7
Operation Manual
Electrical Safety
This equipment has been verified as a Class I device with Type BF applied parts.
CAUTION:
XXAs for US requirement, the LEAKAGE CURRENT might be measured from a center-tapped circuit when
the equipment connects in the United States to 240V supply system.
XXTo help assure grounding reliability, connect to a “hospital grade” or “hospital only” grounded
power outlet.
Prevention of Electric Shock
In a hospital, dangerous currents are due to the potential differences between connected equipment and
touchable conducting parts found in medical rooms. The solution to the problem is consistent equipotential
bonding. Medical equipment is connected with connecting leads made up of angled sockets to the
equipotential bonding network in medical rooms.
[Figure 1.1 Equipotential bonding]
1-8
Chapter 1 Safety
Additional equipment connected to medical electrical equipment must comply with the respective IEC or
ISO standards (e.g. IEC 60950 for data processing equipment). Furthermore all configurations shall comply
with the requirements for medical electrical systems (see IEC 60601-1-1 or clause 16 of the 3 Ed. of IEC 606011, respectively). Anybody connecting additional equipment to medical electrical equipment configures a
medical system and is therefore responsible that the system complies with the requirements for medical
electrical systems. Attention is drawn to the fact that local laws take priority over the above-mentioned
requirements. If in doubt, consult your local representative or the technical service department.
WARNING:
XXElectric shock may exist result if this system, including and all of its externally mounted recording and
monitoring devices, is not properly grounded.
XXDo not remove the covers on the system; hazardous voltages are present inside. Cabinet panels must
be in place while the system is in use. All internal adjustments and replacements must be made by a
qualified Samsung Medison Customer Service Department.
XXCheck the face, housing, and cable before use. Do not use and disconnect the power source, if the face
is cracked, chipped, or torn, the housing is damaged, or if the cable is abraded.
XXAlways disconnect the system from the wall outlet prior to cleaning the system.
XXAll patient contact devices, such as probes and ECG leads, must be removed from the patient prior
to application of a high voltage defibrillation pulse.
XXThe use of flammable anesthetic gas or oxidizing gases (N2O) should be avoided.
XXAvoid places where the system is likely to be difficult to operate the disconnection device.
XXDo not use HF surgical equipment with the system. Any malfunctions in the HF surgical
equipment may result in burns to the patient.
CAUTION:
XXThe system has been designed for 100-120VAC and 200-240VAC; you should select the input
voltage of printer and VCR. Prior to connecting a peripheral power cord, verify that the voltage
indicated on the power cord matches the voltage rating of the peripheral device
XXAn isolation transformer protects the system from power surges. The isolation transformer
continues to operate when the system is in standby.
XXDo not immerse the cable in liquids. Cables are not waterproof.
XXThe auxiliary socket outlets installed on this system are rated 100-120V and 200-240V with
maximum total load of 200W. Use these outlets only for supplying power to equipment that is
intended to be part of the ultrasound system. Do not connect additional multiple-socket outlets
or extension cords to the system.
XXDo not connect peripheral devices, not listed in this manual, to the auxiliary socket outlets of the
system.
XXDo not touch SIP/SOP and the patient simultaneously. There is a risk of electric shock from leakage
current.
1-9
Operation Manual
ECG-Related Information
WARNING:
XXThis device is not intended to provide a primary ECG monitoring function, and therefore does not
have means of indicating an inoperative electrocardiograph.
XXDo not use ECG electrodes of HF surgical equipment. Any malfunctions in the HF surgical
equipment may result in burns to the patient.
XXDo not use ECG electrodes during cardiac pacemaker procedures or other electrical stimulators.
XXDo not use ECG leads and electrodes in an operating room.
ESD
Electrostatic discharge (ESD), commonly referred to as a static shock, is a naturally occurring phenomenon.
ESD is most prevalent during conditions of low humidity, which can be caused by heating or air conditioning.
During low humidity conditions, electrical charges naturally build up on individuals, creating static electricity.
An ESD occurs when an individual with an electrical energy build-up comes in contact with conductive
objects such as metal doorknobs, file cabinets, computer equipment, and even other individuals. The static
shock or ESD is a discharge of the electrical energy build-up from a charged individual to a lesser or noncharged individual or object.
CAUTION:
XXThe level of electrical energy discharged from a system user or patient to an ultrasound system can be
significant enough to cause damage to the system or probes.
XXAlways perform the pre-ESD preventive procedures before using connectors marked with the ESD
warning label.
- Apply anti-static spray on carpets or linoleum.
- Use anti-static mats.
- Ground the product to the patient table or bed.
XXIt is highly recommended that the user be given training on ESD-related warning symbols and
preventive procedures.
1-10
Chapter 1 Safety
EMI
Although this system has been manufactured in compliance with existing EMI (Electromagnetic Interference)
requirements, use of this system in the presence of an electromagnetic field can cause momentary
degradation of the ultrasound image.
If this occurs often, Samsung Medison suggests a review of the environment in which the system is being
used, to identify possible sources of radiated emissions. These emissions could be from other electrical
devices used within the same room or an adjacent room. Communication devices such as cellular phones
and pagers can cause these emissions. The existence of radios, TVs, or microwave transmission equipment
nearby can also cause interference.
CAUTION: In cases where EMI is causing disturbances, it may be necessary to relocate this system.
EMC
The testing for EMC(Electromagnetic Compatibility) of this system has been performed according to the
international standard for EMC with medical devices (IEC60601-1-2). This IEC standard was adopted in Europe
as the European norm (EN60601-1-2).
Guidance and manufacturer’s declaration - electromagnetic emission
This product is intended for use in the electromagnetic environment specified below. The customer or the
user of this product should assure that it is used in such an environment.
Emission test
Compliance
ElectroMagnetic environment -guidance
RF Emission
CISPR 11
Group 1
The Ultrasound System uses RF energy only for its internal
function. Therefore, its RF emissions are very low and are not likely
to cause any interference in nearby electronic equipment.
RF Emission
CISPR 11
Class B
Harmonic Emission
IEC 61000-3-2
Class A
Flicker Emission
IEC 61000-3-3
Complies
The Ultrasound System is suitable for use in all establishments,
including domestic establishments and those directly connected
to the public low-voltage power supply network that supplies
building used for domestic purpose.
1-11
Operation Manual
Approved Cables, Transducers and Accessories for EMC
■■ Approved Cable for ElectroMagnetic Compliance
Cables connected to this product may affect its emissions;
Use only the cable types and lengths listed below table.
Cable
Type
Length
VGA
Shielded
Normal
Parallel
Shielded
Normal
RS232C
Shielded
Normal
USB
Shielded
Normal
LAN(RJ45)
Twisted pair
Any
S-Video
Shielded
Normal
Foot Switch
Shielded
2.73yd
B/W Printer
Unshielded Coaxial
Normal
MIC
Unshielded
Any
Printer Remote
Unshielded
Any
Audio R.L
Shielded
Normal
VHS
Shielded
Normal
ECG AUX input
Shielded
< 3m
■■ Approved Transducer for ElectroMagnetic Compliance
The probe listed in ‘Chapter 9. Probes’ when used with this product, have been tested to comply with
the group1 class B emission as required by International Standard CISPR 11.
■■ Approved Accessories for ElectroMagnetic Compliance
Accessories used with this product may effect its emissions.
CAUTION: When connecting other customer-supplied accessories to the system, such as a remote
printer or VCR, it is the user’s responsibility to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of the system.
Use only CISPR 11 or CISPR 22, CLASS B compliant devices.
WARNING: The use of cables, transducers, and accessories other than those specified may result in
increased emission or decreased Immunity of the Ultrasound System.
1-12
Chapter 1 Safety
Immunity test
Electrotatic
discharge (ESD)
IEC 60601 Test level
Compliance level
±6KV Contact
±6KV Contact
±8KV air
±8KV air
IEC 61000-4-4
±2KV
for power supply lines
±1KV
for input/output lines
±2KV
for power supply lines
±1KV
for input/output lines
Surge
±1KV differential mode
±1KV differential mode
IEC 61000-4-5
±2KV common mode
±2KV common mode
<5% Uт for 0.5cycle
(>95% dip in Uт)
<5% Uт for 0.5cycle
(>95% dip in Uт)
40% Uт for 5 cycle
(60% dip in Uт)
40% Uт for 5 cycle
(60% dip in Uт)
70% Uт for 25 cycle
(30% dip in Uт)
70% Uт for 25 cycle
(30% dip in Uт)
<5% Uт for 5 s
(<95% dip in Uт )
<5% Uт for 5 s
(<95% dip in Uт )
IEC 61000-4-2
Electrical fast
transient/burst
Voltage dips, short
interruptions and
voltage variations
on power supply
input lines
IEC 61000-4-11
Power frequency
(50/60Hz)
magnetic field
3 A/m
3 A/m
IEC 61000-4-8
ElectroMagnetic environment
-guidance
Floors should be wood,
concrete or ceramic tile.
If floors are covered with
synthetic material, the relative
humidity should be at least
30%.
Mains power quality should be
that of a typical commercial or
hospital environment.
Mains power quality should be
that of a typical commercial or
hospital environment.
Mains power quality should be
that of a typical commercial
or hospital environment. If the
user of this product requires
continued operation during
power mains interruptions,
it is recommended that this
product be powered from an
uninterruptible power supply
or a battery.
Power frequency magnetic
fields should be at levels
characteristic of a typical
location in a typical commercial
or hospital environment.
NOTE Uт is the a.c. mains voltage prior to application of the test level.
1-13
Operation Manual
Immunity test
Conducted RF
IEC 61000-4-6
IEC 60601
Test level
3 Vrms
150 kHz
to 80MHz
Compliance
level
0.01V
ElectroMagnetic
environment - guidance
Portable and mobile RF communications equipment
should be used no closer to any part of the
Ultrasound System, including cables, than the
recommended separation distance calculated from
the equation applicable to the frequency of the
transmitter.
Recommended separation distance
80MHz to 800MHZ
800MHz to 2.5GHz
Radiated RF
IEC 61000-4-3
3 V/m
80 MHz
to 2.5GHz
3V/m
where P is the maximum output power rating of the
transmitter in watts (W) according to the transmitter
manufacturer and d is the recomm-ended separation
distance in meters (m).
Field strengths from fixed RF transmitters, as
determined by an electromagnetic site survey, a
should be less than the compliance level in each
frequency range. b
Interference may occur in the vicinity of equipment
marked with the following symbol :
NOTE 1) At 80MHz and 800MHz, the higher frequency range applies.
NOTE 2) These guidelines may not apply in all situations. Electromagnetic propagation is affected by absorption
and reflection from structures, objects and people.
F ield strengths from fixed transmitters, such as base stations for radio (cellular/cordless) telephones and land
mobile radios, amateur radio, AM and FM radio broadcast and TV broadcast cannot be predicted theoretically
with accuracy. To assess the electromagnetic environment due to fixed RF transmitters, an electromagnetic
site survey should be considered. If the measured field strength in the location in which the Ultrasound
System is used exceeds the applicable RF compliance level above, the Ultrasound System should be observed
to verify normal operation. If abnormal performance is observed, additional measures may be necessary, such
as re-orienting or relocating the Ultrasound System or using a shielded location with a higher RF shielding
effectiveness and filter attenuation.
b
Over the frequency range 150kHz to 80MHz, field strengths should be less than [V1] V/m.
a
1-14
Chapter 1 Safety
Recommended separation distances between portable and mobile RF
communications equipment and the SONOACE R7
This product is intended for use in an electromagnetic environment in which radiated RF disturbances
are controlled. The customer or the user of this product can help Prevent electromagnetic interference
by maintaining a minimum distance between portable and mobile RF communications equipment
(transmitters) and this product as recommended below, according to the maximum output power of the
communications equipment.
Separation distance according to frequency of transmitter [m]
150kHz to 80MHz
80MHz to 800MHz
800MHz to 2.5GHz
V1=0.01Vrms
E1=3 V/m
E1=3V/m
0.01
35.00
0.11
0.23
0.1
110.68
0.36
0.73
1
350.00
1.16
2.33
10
1106.80
3.68
7.37
100
3500.00
11.66
23.33
Rated maximum output
power of transmitter
[W]
For transmitters rated at a maximum output power not listed above, the recommended separation distance d
in meters (m) can be estimated using the equation applicable to the frequency of the transmitter, where p is the
maximum output power rating of the transmitter in watts (W) according to the transmitter manufacturer.
NOTE 1) At 80MHz and 800MHz, the separation distance for the higher frequency range applies.
NOTE 2) These guidelines may not apply in all situations. Electromagnetic propagation is affected by absorption
and reflection from structures, objects and people.
Electromagnetic environment – guidance
The Ultrasound System must be used only in a shielded location with a minimum RF shielding
effectiveness and, for each cable that enters the shielded location. Field strengths outside the shielded
location from fixed RF transmitters, as determined by an electromagnetic site survey, should be less than
3V/m.
It is essential that the actual shielding effectiveness and filter attenuation of the shielded location be
verified to assure that they meet the minimum specification.
CAUTION: If the system is connected to other customer-supplied equipment, such as a local area
network (LAN) or a remote printer, Samsung Medison cannot guarantee that the remote equipment
will work correctly in the presence of electromagnetic phenomena.
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Operation Manual
Avoiding ElectroMagnetic Interference
Typical interference on Ultrasound Imaging Systems varies depending on Electromagnetic phenomena.
Please refer to following table:
Imaging Mode
ESD1
RF2
Power Line3
2D or 3D
Change of operating
mode, system
settings, or system
reset.
Brief flashes in
the displayed or
recorded image.
For sector imaging probes, white
radial bands or flashes in the
centerlines of the image.
For linear imaging probes, white
vertical bands, sometimes more
pronounced on the sides of the
image.
White dots, dashes,
diagonal lines, or diagonal
lines near the center of the
image.
M
Increase in the image background
noise or white M mode lines.
White dots, dashes,
diagonal lines, or increase
in image background noise
Color
Color flashes, radial or vertical
bands, increase in background
noise, or changes in color image.
Color flashes, dots, dashes,
or changes in the color
noise level.
Horizontal lines in the spectral
display or tones, abnormal noise in
the audio, or both.
Vertical lines in the spectral
display, popping type noise
in the audio, or both.
Doppler
ESD caused by discharging of electric charge build-up on insulated surfaces or persons.
RF energy from RF transmitting equipment such as portable phones, hand-held radios, wireless devices,
commercial radio and TV, and so on.
Conducted interference on powerlines or connected cables caused by other equipment, such as switching
power supplies, electrical controls, and natural phenomena such as lightning.
A medical device can either generate or receive electromagnetic interference. The EMC standards describe
tests for both emitted and received interference.
Samsung Medison Ultrasound Systems do not generate interference in excess of the referenced standards.
An Ultrasound System is designed to receive signals at radio frequency and is therefore susceptible to
interference generated by RF energy sources. Examples of other sources of interference are medical
devices, information technology products, and radio and television transmission towers. Due to the
difficulties in finding sources of interference, refer to the following when searching for them.
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Chapter 1 Safety
▶ Is the interference intermittent or constant?
▶ Does the interference show up only with one transducers operating at the same frequency or with
several transducer?
▶ Do two different transducers operating at the same frequency have the same problem?
▶ Is the interference present if the system is moved to a different location in the facility?
The answers to these questions will help determine if the problem reside with the system or the scanning
environment. After you answer the question, contact your local Samsung Medison customer service
department.
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Operation Manual
Mechanical Safety
Moving the Equipment
WARNING: Be extra careful when transporting it. Careless transportation of the product may result
in product damage or personal injury.
■ Before transporting the product, check that the brakes on the front, back wheels or wheels are unlocked.
Also, make sure to retract the monitor arm completely so that it is secured in a stationary position.
■ Always use the handles at the console and move the product slowly.
This product is designed to resist shocks. However, excessive shock, for example if the product falls over, may
cause serious damage.
If the system operates abnormally after repositioning, please contact the Samsung Medison Customer
Service Department.
The Brakes
Brakes are mounted on the front and back wheels of the console only. To lock the brakes, press the area under
the locks with your foot. To unlock the brakes, press the Off area on the locks with your foot.
You can use the brakes to control the movement of the product. We recommend that you lock the brakes
when using the product.
Precautions on Ramps
Always make sure that the control panel is facing the direction of movement.
WARNING: Be aware of the castors, especially when moving the system. Samsung Medison
recommends that you exercise caution when moving the product up or down ramps.
When moving the product down a ramp or resting it temporarily on a ramp, the product may tilt over
even with the brakes on depending on the direction of the product. Do not rest the product on ramps.
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Chapter 1 Safety
Safety Note
CAUTION:
XXDo not press the control panel excessively.
XXNever attempt to modify the product in any way.
XXCheck the operational safety when using the product after a prolonged break in service.
XXMake sure that other objects, such as metal pieces, do not enter the system.
XXDo not block the ventilation slots.
XXTo prevent damage to the power cord, be sure to grip the plug head – not the cord – when
unplugging.
XXExcessive bending or twisting of cables on patient-applied parts may cause failure or intermittent
operation of the system.
XXImproper cleaning or sterilization of a patient-applied part may cause permanent damage.
XXRepair or replacement of parts of this equipment must be performed by a qualified Samsung
Medison service technician. Assuming that the equipment is maintained by a qualified service
technician and meets the guideline of this provided manual, the expected service life of the
equipment is approximately 7 years.
Please refer to “Chapter 8. Maintenance” for detailed information on protecting, cleaning and disinfecting the
equipment.
Safety Note for Monitor
When adjusting the height or position of the monitor, be careful of the space in the middle of the monitor
arm. Having your fingers or other body parts caught in it may result in injury.
[Figure1.2 Safety note for monitor]
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Operation Manual
Biological Safety
For more safety information on probes and biopsy, please refer to Chapter 9 'Probes.'
WARNING:
XXUltrasound waves may have damaging effects on cells and, therefore, may be harmful to the patient. If
there is no medical benefit, minimize the exposure time and maintain the ultrasound wave output level
at low. Please refer to the ALARA principle.
XXDo not use the system if an error message appears on the video display indicating that a
hazardous condition exists. Note the error code, turn off the power to the system, and call your
local Samsung Medison Customer Service Department.
XXDo not use a system that exhibits erratic or inconsistent updating. Discontinuities in the scanning
sequence are indicative of a hardware failure that should be corrected before use.
XXThe system limits the maximum contact temperature to 43 degree Celsius, and the ultrasonic
waves output observes American FDA regulations.
ALARA Principle
Guidance for the use of diagnostic ultrasound is defined by the “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA)
principle. The decision as to what is reasonable has been left to the judgment and insight of qualified
personnel. No set of rules can be formulated that would be sufficiently complete to dictate the correct
response for every circumstance. By keeping ultrasound exposure as low as possible, while obtaining
diagnostic images, users can minimize ultrasonic bioeffects.
Since the threshold for diagnostic ultrasound bioeffects is undetermined, it is the sonographer’s responsibility
to control the total energy transmitted into the patient. The sonographer must reconcile exposure time with
diagnostic image quality. To ensure diagnostic image quality and limit exposure time, the ultrasound system
provides controls that can be manipulated during the exam to optimize the results of the exam.
The ability of the user to abide by the ALARA principle is important. Advances in diagnostic ultrasound not
only in the technology but also in the applications of the technology, have resulted in the need for more and
better information to guide the user. The output indices are designed to provide that important information
There are a number of variables, which affect the way in which the output display indices can be used to
implement the ALARA principle. These variables include mass, body size, location of the bone relative to the
focal point, attenuation in the body, and ultrasound exposure time. Exposure time is an especially useful
variable, because the user controls it. The ability to limit the index values over time support the ALARA
principle.
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Chapter 1 Safety
Applying ALARA
The system-imaging mode used depends upon the information needed. 2D-mode and M-mode imaging
provide anatomical information, while Doppler, Power, and Color imaging provide information about
blood flow. Scanned modes, like 2D-mode, Power, or Color, disperse or scatter the ultrasonic energy
over an area, while an unscanned mode, like M-mode or Doppler, concentrates ultrasonic energy.
Understanding the nature of the imaging mode being used allows the sonographer to apply the ALARA
principle with informed judgment. The probe frequency, system set-up values, scanning techniques, and
operator experience aid the sonographer in meeting the definition of the ALARA principle.
The decision as to the amount of acoustic output is, in the final analysis, up to the system operator. This
decision must be based on the following factors: type of patient, type of exam, patient history, ease or
difficulty of obtaining diagnostically useful information, and the potential localized heating of the patient
due to probe surface temperatures. Prudent use of the system occurs when patient exposure is limited
to the lowest index reading for the shortest amount of time necessary to achieve acceptable diagnostic
results.
Although a high index reading does not mean that a bioeffect is actually occurring, a high index reading
should be taken seriously. Every effort should be made to reduce the possible effects of a high index
reading. Limiting exposure time is an effective way to accomplish this goal.
There are several system controls that the operator can use to adjust the image quality and limit the
acoustic intensity. These controls are related to the techniques that an operator might use to implement
ALARA. These controls can be divided into three categories: direct, indirect, and receiver control.
Direct Controls
Application selection and the output intensity control directly affect acoustic intensity. There are different
ranges of allowable intensity or output based on your selection. Selecting the correct range of acoustic
intensity for the application is one of the first things required during any exam. For example, peripheral
vascular intensity levels are not recommended for fetal exams. Some systems automatically select the
proper range for a particular procedure, while others require manual selection. Ultimately, the user bears
the responsibility for proper clinical use. The Samsung Medison system provides both automatic and userdefinable settings.
Output has direct impact on acoustic intensity. Once the application has been established, the output
control can be used to increase or decrease the intensity output. The output control allows you to select
intensity levels less than the defined maximum. Prudent use dictates that you select the lowest output
intensity consistent with good image quality.
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Operation Manual
Indirect Controls
The indirect controls are those that have an indirect effect on acoustic intensity. These controls affect
imaging mode, pulse repetition frequency, focus depth, pulse length, and probe selection.
The choice of imaging mode determines the nature of the ultrasound beam. 2D-mode is a scanning
mode, Doppler is a stationary or unscanned mode. A stationary ultrasound beam concentrates energy on
a single location. A moving or scanned ultrasound beam disperses the energy over a wide area and the
beam is only concentrated on a given area for a fraction of the time necessary in unscanned mode.
Pulse repetition frequency or rate refers to the number of ultrasound bursts of energy over a specific
period of time. The higher the pulse repetition frequency, the more pulses of energy in a given period of
time. Several controls affect pulse repetition frequency: focal depth, display depth, sample volume depth,
color sensitivity, number of focal zones, and sector width controls.
Focus of the ultrasound beam affects the image resolution. To maintain or increase resolution at a
different focus requires a variation in output over the focal zone. This variation of output is a function of
system optimization. Different exams require different focal depths. Setting the focus to the proper depth
improves the resolution of the structure of interest.
Pulse length is the time during which the ultrasonic burst is turned on. The longer the pulse, the greater
the time-average intensity value. The greater the time-average intensity, the greater the likelihood of
temperature increase and cavitations. Pulse length or burst length or pulse duration is the output pulse
duration in pulsed Doppler. Increasing the Doppler sample volume increases the pulse length.
Probe selection affects intensity indirectly. Tissue attenuation changes with frequency. The higher the
probe operating frequency, the greater the attenuation of the ultrasonic energy. Higher probe operating
frequencies require higher output intensity to scan at a deeper depth. To scan deeper at the same output
intensity, a lower probe frequency is required. Using more gain and output beyond a point, without
corresponding increases in image quality, can mean that a lower frequency probe is needed.
■■ Receiver Controls
Receiver controls are used by the operator to improve image quality. These controls have no effect on
output. Receiver controls only affect how the ultrasound echo is received. These controls include gain,
TGC, dynamic range, and image processing. The important thing to remember, relative to output, is that
receiver controls should be optimized before increasing output. For example; before increasing output,
optimize gain to improve image quality.
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Chapter 1 Safety
Additional Considerations
Ensure that scanning time is kept to a minimum, and ensure that only medically required scanning is
performed. Never compromise quality by rushing through an exam. A poor exam will require a follow-up,
which ultimately increases the time. Diagnostic ultrasound is an important tool in medicine, and, like any
tool, should be used efficiently and effectively.
Output Display Features
The system output display comprises two basic indices: a mechanical index and a thermal index. The
thermal index consists of the following indices: soft tissue (TIs), bone (TIb) and cranial bone (TIc). One of
these three thermal indices will be displayed at all times. Which one depends upon the system preset or
user choice, depending upon the application at hand.
The mechanical index is continuously displayed over the range of 0.0 to 1.9, in increments of 0.1.
The thermal index consists of the three indices, and only one of these is displayed at any one time.
Each probe application has a default selection that is appropriate for that combination. The TIb or TIs is
continuously displayed over the range of 0.0 to maximum output, based on the probe and application, in
increments of 0.1.
The application-specific nature of the default setting is also an important factor of index behavior. A
default setting is a system control state which is preset by the manufacturer or the operator. The system
has default index settings for the probe application. The default settings are invoked automatically by the
ultrasound system when power is turned on, new patient data is entered into the system database, or a
change in application takes place.
The decision as to which of the three thermal indices to display should be based on the following criteria:
Appropriate index for the application: TIs is used for imaging soft tissue; and TIb for a focus at or near
bone. Some factors might create artificially high or low thermal index readings e.g. presence of fluid or
bone, or the flow of blood. A highly attenuating tissue path, for example, will cause the potential for local
zone heating to be less than the thermal index displays.
Scanned modes versus unscanned modes of operation affect the thermal index. For scanned modes,
heating tends to be near the surface; for unscanned modes, the potential for heating tends to be deeper
in the focal zone.
Always limit ultrasound exposure time. Do not rush the exam. Ensure that the indices are kept to a
minimum and that exposure time is limited without compromising diagnostic sensitivity.
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Operation Manual
■■ Mechanical Index (MI) Display
Mechanical bioeffects are threshold phenomena that occur when a certain level of output is exceeded.
The threshold level varies, however, with the type of tissue. The potential for mechanical bioeffects
varies with peak pressure and ultrasound frequency. The MI accounts for these two factors. The higher
the MI value, the greater the likelihood of mechanical bioeffects occurring but there is no specific MI
value that means that a mechanical effect will actually occur. The MI should be used as a guide for
implementing the ALARA principle.
■■ Thermal Index (TI) Display
The TI informs the user about the potential for temperature increase occuring at the body surface,
within body tissue, or at the point of focus of the ultrasound beam on bone. The TI is an estimate of the
temperature increase in specific body tissues. The actual amount of any temperature rise is influenced
by factors such as tissue type, vascularity, and mode of operation etc. The TI should be used as a guide
for implementing the ALARA principle.
The bone thermal index (TIb) informs the user about potential heating at or near the focus after
the ultrasound beam has passed through soft tissue or fluid, for example, at or near second or third
trimester fetal bone.
The cranial bone thermal index (TIc) informs the user about the potential heating of bone at or near the
surface, for example, cranial bone.
The soft tissue thermal index (TIs) informs the user about the potential for heating within soft
homogeneous tissue.
You can select either TIs or TIb using the TIs/TIb selection on the Miscellaneous system setups. TIc is
displayed when you select a trans-cranial application.
■■ Mechanical and Thermal indices Display Precision and Accuracy
The Mechanical and Thermal Indices on the system are precise to 0.1 units.
The MI and TI display accuracy estimates for the system are given in the Acoustic Output Tables manual.
These accuracy estimates are based on the variability range of probes and systems, inherent acoustic
output modeling errors and measurement variability, as described below.
The displayed values should be interpreted as relative information to help the system operator achieve
the ALARA principle through prudent use of the system. The values should not be interpreted as
actual physical values investigated tissue or organs. The initial data that is used to support the output
display is derived from laboratory measurements based on the AIUM measurement standard. The
measurements are then put into algorithms for calculating the displayed output values.
Many of the assumptions used in the process of measurement and calculation are conservative in
nature. Over-estimation of actual in situ exposure, for the vast majority of tissue paths, is built into the
measurement and calculation process. For example:
The measured water tank values are de-rated using a conservative, industry standard, attenuation
coefficient of 0.3dB/cm-MHz.
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Chapter 1 Safety
Conservative values for tissue characteristics were selected for use in the TI models. Conservative values
for tissue or bone absorption rates, blood perfusion rates, blood heat capacity, and tissue thermal
conductivity were selected.
Steady state temperature rise is assumed in the industry standard TI models, and the assumption is
made that the ultrasound probe is held steady in one position long enough for steady state to be
reached.
A number of factors are considered when estimating the accuracy of display values: hardware
variations, algorithm accuracy estimation and measurement variability. Variability among probes and
systems is a significant factor. Probe variability results from piezoelectric crystal efficiencies, processrelated impedance differences, and sensitive lens focusing parameter variations. Differences in the
system pulse voltage control and efficiencies are also a contributor to variability. There are inherent
uncertainties in the algorithms used for estimating acoustic output values over the range of possible
system operating conditions and pulse voltages. Inaccuracies in laboratory measurements are related
to differences in hydrophone calibration and performance, positioning, alignment and digitization
tolerances, and variability among test operators.
The conservative assumptions of the output estimation algorithms of linear propagation, at all depths,
through a 0.3dB/cm-MHz attenuated medium are not taken into account in calculation of the accuracy
estimate displayed. Neither linear propagation, nor uniform attenuation at the 0.3dB/cm-MHz rate,
occur in water tank measurements or in most tissue paths in the body. In the body, different tissues and
organs have dissimilar attenuation characteristics. In water, there is almost no attenuation. In the body,
and particularly in water tank measurements, non-linear propagation and saturation losses occur as
pulse voltages increase.
The display accuracy estimates take into account the variability ranges of probes and systems, inherent
acoustic output modeling errors, and measurement variability. Display accuracy estimates are not
based on errors in, or caused by measuring according to, the AIUM measurement standards. They are
also independent of the effects of non-linear loss on the measured values.
Control Effects - Control affecting the indices
As various system controls are adjusted, the TI and MI values may change. This will be most apparent as
the POWER control is adjusted; however, other system controls will affect the on-screen output values.
■■ Power
Power controls the system acoustic output. Two real-time output values are on the screen: a TI and a MI.
They change as the system responds to POWER adjustments.
In combined modes, such as simultaneous Color, 2D-mode and pulsed Doppler, the individual modes
each add to the total TI. One mode will be the dominant contributor to this total. The displayed MI will
be from the mode with the largest peak pressure.
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Operation Manual
2D-mode Controls
■■ 2D-mode size
Narrowing the sector angle may increase the frame rate. This action will increase the TI. Pulse
voltage may be automatically adjusted down with software controls to keep the TI below the system
maximums. A decrease in pulse voltage will decrease MI.
■■ Zoom
Increasing the zoom magnification may increase frame rate. This action will increase the TI. The number
of focal zones may also increase automatically to improve resolution. This action may change MI since
the peak intensity can occur at a different depth.
■■ Persistence
A lower persistence will decrease the TI. Pulse voltage may be automatically increased. An increase in
pulse voltage will increase MI.
■■ Focal no.
More focal zones may change both the TI and MI by changing frame rate or focal depth automatically.
Lower frame rates decrease the TI. MI displayed will correspond to the zone with the largest peak
intensity.
■■ Focus
Changing the focal depth will change the MI. Generally, higher MI values will occur when the focal
depth is near the natural focus of the transducer.
Color and Power Controls
■■ Color Sensitivity
Increasing the color sensitivity may increase the TI. More time is spent scanning for color images.
Color pulses are the dominant pulse type in this mode.
■■ Color Sector Width
Narrower color sector width will increase color frame rate and the TI will increase. The system may
automatically decrease pulse voltage to stay below the system maximum. A decrease in pulse voltage
will decrease the MI. If pulsed Doppler is also enabled then pulsed Doppler will remain the dominant
mode and the TI change will be small.
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Chapter 1 Safety
■■ Color Sector Depth
Deeper color sector depth may automatically decrease color frame rate or select a new color focal zone
or color pulse length. The TI will change due to the combination of these effects. Generally, the TI will
decrease with increased color sector depth. MI will correspond to the peak intensity of the dominant
pulse type, which is a color pulse. However, if pulsed Doppler is also enabled then pulsed Doppler will
remain the dominant mode and the TI change will be small.
■■ Scale
Using the SCALE control to increase the color velocity range may increase the TI. The system will
automatically adjust pulse voltage to stay below the system maximums. A decrease in pulse voltage
will also decrease MI.
■■ Sec Width
A narrower 2D-mode sector width in Color imaging will increase color frame rate. The TI will increase.
MI will not change. If pulsed Doppler is also enabled, then pulsed Doppler will remain as the primary
mode and the TI change will be small.
M mode and Doppler Controls
■■ Speed
M-mode and Doppler sweep speed adjustments will not affect the MI. When M-mode sweep speed
changes, TI changes.
■■ Simultaneous and Update Methods
Use of combination modes affects both the TI and MI through the combination of pulse types. During
simultaneous mode, the TI is additive. During auto-update and duplex, the TI will display the dominant
pulse type. The displayed MI will be from the mode with the largest peak pressure.
■■ Sample Volume Depth
When Doppler sample volume depth is increased the Doppler PRF may automatically decrease. A
decrease in PRF will decrease the TI. The system may also automatically decrease the pulse voltage to
remain below the system maximum. A decrease in pulse voltage will decrease MI.
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Operation Manual
Doppler, CW, M-mode, and Color Imaging Controls
When a new imaging mode is selected, both the TI and the MI will change to default settings. Each
mode has a corresponding pulse repetition frequency and maximum intensity point. In combined or
simultaneous modes, the TI is the sum of the contribution from the modes enabled and MI is the MI for
the focal zone and mode with the largest derated intensity. If a mode is turned off and then reselected,
the system will return to the previously selected settings.
■■ Probe
Each probe model available has unique specifications for contact area, beam shape, and center
frequency. Defaults are initialized when you select a probe. Samsung Medison factory defaults vary
with probe, application, and selected mode. Defaults have been chosen below the FDA limits for
intended use.
■■ Depth
A decrease in 2D-mode depth will automatically decrease the 2D-mode frame rate. This would decrease
the TI. The system may also automatically choose a deeper 2D-mode focal depth. A change of focal
depth may change the MI. The MI displayed is that of the zone with the largest peak intensity.
■■ Application
Acoustic output defaults are set when you select an application. Samsung Medison factory defaults vary
with probe, application, and mode. Defaults have been chosen below the FDA limits for intended use.
Related Guidance Documents
For more information about ultrasonic bioeffects and related topics refer to the following;
▶ AIUM Report, January 28, 1993, “Bioeffects and Safety of Diagnostic Ultrasound”
▶ Bioeffects Considerations for the Safety of Diagnostic Ultrasound, J Ultrasound Med., Sept. 1998: Vol. 7,
No. 9 Supplement
▶ Acoustic Output Measurement Standard for Diagnostic Ultrasound Equipment. (AIUM, NEMA. 1998)
▶ Acoustic Output Labeling Standard for Diagnostic Ultrasound Equipment (AIUM, 1998)
▶ Second Edition of the AIUM Output Display Standard Brochure, Dated March 10, 1994. (A copy of this
document is shipped with each system.)
▶ Information for Manufacturer Seeking Marketing Clearance of Diagnostic Ultrasound Systems and
Transducers. FDA. September 1997. FDA.
▶ Standard for Real-Time Display of Thermal and Mechanical Acoustic Output Indices on Diagnostic
Ultrasound Equipment. (Revision 1, AIUM, NEMA. 1998)
▶ WFUMB. Symposium on Safety of Ultrasound in Medicine: Conclusions and Recommendations on
Thermal and Non-Thermal Mechanisms for Biological Effects of Ultrasound, Ultrasound in Medicine
and Biology, 1998: Vol. 24, Supplement1.
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Chapter 1 Safety
Acoustic Output and Measurement
Since the first usage of diagnostic ultrasound, the possible human biological effects (bioeffects) of
ultrasound exposure have been studied by various scientific and medical institutions. In October 1987, the
American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine(AIUM) ratified a report prepared by its Bioeffects Committee
(Bioeffects Considerations for the Safety of Diagnostic Ultrasound, J Ultrasound Med., Sept. 1988: Vol.7,
No.9 Supplement), sometimes referred to as the Stowe Report, which reviewed available data on possible
effects of ultrasound exposure. Another report “Bioeffects and Safety of Diagnostic Ultrasound,” dated
January 28, 1993 provides more up to date information.
The acoustic output for this system has been measured and calculated in accordance with the December
1985 “510(K) Guide for Measuring and Reporting Acoustic Output of Diagnostic Ultrasound Medical
Devices,” except that the hydrophone meets the requirements of “Acoustic Output Measurement Standard
for Diagnostic Ultrasound Equipment” (NEMA UD 2-1992)
In Situ, Derated, and Water Value Intensities
All intensity parameters are measured in water. Since water does not absorb acoustic energy, these water
measurements represent a worst case value. Biological tissue does absorb acoustic energy. The true
value of the intensity at any point depends on the amount and type of tissue and the frequency of the
ultrasound that passes through the tissue. The intensity value in the tissue, In Situ, has been estimated
using the following formula:
In Situ = Water [ e
- (0.23 alf) ]
where: In Situ = In Situ Intensity Value
Water = Water Value Intensity
e = 2.7183
a = Attenuation Factor
Tissuea(dB/cm-MHz)
Brain
.53
Heart
.66
Kidney.79
Liver
.43
Muscle.55
l = skin line to measurement depth (cm)
f = Center frequency of the transducer/system/mode combination(MHz)
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Operation Manual
Since the ultrasonic path during an examination is likely to pass through varying lengths and types of
tissue, it is difficult to estimate the true In Situ intensity. An attenuation factor of 0.3 is used for general
reporting purpose; therefore, the In Situ value which is commonly reported uses the formula:
In Situ (derated) = Water [ e -(0.069 lf) ]
Since this value is not the true In Situ intensity, the term “derated” is used.
The maximum derated and the maximum water values do not always occur at the same operating
condition; therefore, the reported maximum water and derated values may not be related to the In
Situ (derated) formula. Take for example a multi-zone array transducer that has maximum water value
intensities in its deepest zone: the same transducer may have its largest derated intensity in one if its
shallowest focal zones.
Acoustic Output and Measurement
The terms and symbols used in the acoustic output tables are defined in the following paragraphs.
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ISPTA.3
The derated spatial-peak temporal-average intensity (milliwatts per square centimeter).
ISPPA.3
The derated spatial-peak pulse-average intensity (watts per square centimeter). The value of
IPA.3 at the position of global maximum MI (IPA.3@MI) may be reported instead of ISPPA.3 if
the global maximum MI is reported.
MI
The Mechanical Index. The value of MI at the position of ISPPA.3, (MI@ISPPA.3) may be
reported instead of MI (global maximum value) if ISPPA.3 is 190W/cm2
Pr.3
The derated peak rarefactional pressure (megapascals) associated with the transmit pattern
giving rise to the reported MI value.
WO
The ultrasonic power (milliwatts). For the operating condition giving rise to ISPTA.3, WO is
the total time-average power;. For operating conditions subject to reporting under ISPPA.3,
WO is the ultrasonic power associated with the transmit pattern giving rise to the value
reported under ISPPA.3
fc
The center frequency (MHz). For MI and ISPPA.3, fc is the center frequency associated with
the transmit pattern giving rise to the global maximum value of the respective parameter.
For ISPTA.3, for combined modes involving beam types of unequal center frequency, fc is
defined as the overall ranges of center frequencies of the respective transmit patterns.
ZSP
The axial distance at which the reported parameter is measured (centimeters).
x-6,y-6
are respectively the in-plane (azimuth) and out-of-plane (elevation) -6 dimensions in the x-y
plane where ZSP is found (centimeters).
Chapter 1 Safety
PD
The pulse duration (microseconds) associated with the transmit pattern giving rise to the
reported value of the respective parameter.
PRF
The pulse repetition frequency (Hz) associated with the transmit pattern giving rise to the
reported value of the respective parameter.
EBD
The entrance beam dimensions for the azimuth and elevation planes (centimeters).
EDS
The entrance dimensions of the scan for the azimuth and elevation planes (centimeters).
Acoustic Measurement Precision and Uncertainty
The Acoustic Measurement Precision and Acoustic Measurement Uncertainty are described below.
Quantity
Precision
Total Uncertainty
PII.3 (derated pulse intensity integral)
3.2 %
+21 % to - 24 %
Wo (acoustic power)
6.2 %
+/- 19 %
Pr.3 (derated rarefaction pressure)
5.4 %
+/- 15 %
Fc (center frequency)
<1%
+/- 4.5 %
■■ Systematic Uncertainties.
For the pulse intensity integral, derated rarefaction pressure Pr.3, center frequency and pulse duration,
the analysis includes considerations of the effects on accuracy of:
Hydrophone calibration drift or errors.
Hydrophone / Amp frequency response.
Spatial averaging.
Alignment errors.
Voltage measurement accuracy, including.
▶ Oscilloscope vertical accuracy.
▶ Oscilloscope offset accuracy.
▶ Oscilloscope clock accuracy.
▶ Oscilloscope Digitization rates.
▶ Noise.
The systematic uncertainties Acoustic power measurements using a Radiation Force are measured
through the use of calibrated NIST acoustic power sources.
We also refer to a September 1993 analysis done by a working group of the IEC technical committee 87
and prepared by K. Beissner, as a first supplement to IEC publication 1161.
1-31
Operation Manual
The document includes analysis and discussion of the sources of error / measurement effects due to:
▶ Balance system calibration.
▶ Absorbing (or reflecting) target suspension mechanisms.
▶ Linearity of the balance system.
▶ Extrapolation to the moment of switching the ultrasonic transducer (compensation for ringing and
thermal drift).
▶ Target imperfections.
▶ Absorbing (reflecting) target geometry and finite target size.
▶ Target misalignment.
▶ Ultrasonic transducer misalignment.
▶ Water temperature.
▶ Ultrasonic attenuation and acoustic streaming.
▶ Coupling or shielding foil properties.
▶ Plane-wave assumption.
▶ Environmental influences.
▶ Excitation voltage measurement.
▶ Ultrasonic transducer temperature.
▶ Effects due to nonlinear propagation and saturation loss.
The overall findings of the analysis give a rough Acoustic Power accuracy figure of +/- 10% for the
frequency range of 1 - 10 MHz.
Training
The operator of this equipment must become thoroughly familiar with the correct use of the equipment
in order to optimize its performance and recognize possible malfunctions. It is recommended that all users
receive proper training before operation. Applications training is available through the Samsung Medison
Customer Service Department, or from one of their worldwide customer service representatives.
1-32
Chapter 1 Safety
Environmental Protection
CAUTION:
XXThe console and peripherals could be sent back to manufacturers for recycling or proper disposal after
their useful lives.
XXDisposal of waste shall be disposed in accordance with national laws.
XXThe waste sheaths are to be disposed of safely and national regulations must be observed.
Correct Disposal of This Product
(Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment)
Applicable in countries with separate collection systems
This marking on the product, accessories or literature indicates that the product and its electronic
accessories (e.g. charger, headset, USB cable) should not be disposed of with other household waste
at the end of their working life. To prevent possible harm to the environment or human health from
uncontrolled waste disposal, please separate these items from other types of waste and recycle them
responsibly to promote the sustainable reuse of material resources.
Household users should contact either the retailer where they purchased this product, or their local
government office, for details of where and how they can take these items for environmentally safe
recycling.
Business users should contact their supplier and check the terms and conditions of the purchase
contract. This product and its electronic accessories should not be mixed with other commercial wastes
for disposal.
1-33
Chapter
2
Introduction
‹‹Specifications....................................................2-3
‹‹Product Configuration and Installation........2-6
Monitor ........................................................................................2-9
Control Panel............................................................................2-11
Console.......................................................................................2-17
Peripheral Devices ................................................................2-19
Probe...........................................................................................2-22
Accessories................................................................................2-23
Optional Functions................................................................2-24
Chapter 2 Introduction
Specifications
Physical Dimensions
Imaging modes
Height: 1340mm (with monitor)
Width: 450mm
Depth: 700mm
Weight: more than 61kg (with monitor)
2D imaging mode
M imaging mode
Color Doppler Imaging (CDI) mode
Power Doppler Imaging (PDI) mode
Directional Power Doppler Imaging (DPDI) mode
Pulse Wave (PW) Spectral Doppler imaging mode
Continuous Wave (CW) Spectral Doppler imaging mode
Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) mode
3D imaging mode
Dual modes
Quad modes
Combined modes
Simultaneous mode
Zoom
Gray Scale
256 (8 bits)
Focusing
Transmit focusing, maximum of eight points (four points simultaneously selectable)
Digital dynamic receive focusing (continuous)
Probes
(Type BF / IPX7)
Mini DLP Type
Curved Linear Array
C2-5, C2-8, C4-9
Linear Array
L3-8, L5-12/50, LN5-12
Phased Array
P2-4, PN2-4
Endocavity Curved Linear Array
ER4-9, EVN4-9
Volume Probe (256 Pin)
3D4-8, 3D4-9, 3DC2-6, VN4-8
CW
CW2.0
156 Pin Type
Curved Linear Array
C2-5, C2-8, C4-9/10ED
Linear Array
HL5-12ED, L3-8, L5-12/50EP, LN5-12
Phased Array
P2-4AH, P3-7AC
Endocavity Curved Linear Array
ER4-9/10ED, EV4-9/10ED
Volume Probe (256 Pin)
3D4-8ET, 3D4-9ES, 3DC2-6
2-3
Operation Manual
Probe connections
Monitor
ECG
17 inch LCD monitor
Type CF
Rear Panel
Input / Output
Connections
VHS and SVHS VCR left and right audio
B/W printer video and remote control
VGA monitor
Parallel port
USB
LAN
Image Storage
Maximum 7084 frames for CINE memory
Maximum 8192 Lines for LOOP memory
Image filing system
Application
Electrical Parameters
Measurement Packages
Signal processing
(Pre-processing)
Signal processing
(Post-processing)
Measurement
2-4
4 probe connectors (including one CW probe connector)
Obstetrics, Gynecology, Abdomen, Cardiac, Urology, Vascular, Small Parts,
Musculoskeletal, TCD, Pediatric
100-120V/200-240VAC, 680VA, 50/60Hz
Obstetrics, Gynecology, Cardiac, Carotid, Fetal Echo, UE Artery, LE Artery, UE Vein,
LE Vein, Urology, Radiology, TCD, Thyroid, Breast, Testicle, Superficial, Pediatric Hips,
MSK
* Refer the Chapter 5 for additional information
TGC control
Mode-independent gain control
Acoustic power control (adjustable)
Dynamic aperture
Dynamic apodization
Dynamic range control (adjustable)
Image view area control
M-mode sweep speed control
Frame average
Edge Enhancement / Blurring
Gamma-scale windowing
Image orientation (left/right and up/down, rotation)
White on black/black on white
Zoom
Trackball operation of multiple cursors
2D mode: Linear measurements and area measurements using elliptical
approximation or trace
M mode: Continuous readout of distance, time, and slope rate
Doppler mode: Velocity and trace
Chapter 2 Introduction
Auxiliary
VCR
Video Page Printer
Color Video Page Printer
USB Video Printer
USB Color Video Printer
USB HDD
USB Wireless LAN
USB Foot Switch (IPX1)
USB Flash Memory Media
Monitor
Microphone
User Interface
English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Russian
Pressure Limits
Operating: 700hPa to 1060hPa
Storage: 700hPa to 1060hPa
Humidity Limits
Operating: 30% to 75%
Storage & Shipping: 20% to 90%
Temperature Limits
Operating: 10 OC ~ 35OC
Storage & Shipping: -25OC ~ 60OC
2-5
Operation Manual
Product Configuration and Installation
This product consists of the monitor, the control panel, the console, the peripheral devices, and the probes.
① Monitor
② Monitor Hinge
1
③ Speaker
④ Keyboard & Control Panel
⑤ Probe Holder
⑥ Handle
2
⑦ Cable Hook
⑧ Lift
3
4
5
⑩ Probe Port
6
7
8
9
10
11
[Figure 2.1 Front of the SONOACE R7]
2-6
⑨ DVD Drive
⑪ Wheel
Chapter 2 Introduction
Tips!
Probe Port Type
SonoAce R7 v2.00.00 support Mini DLP type probes. If you have the lower version, the probe port is
different with v2.00.00.
<v2.xx.xx: Mini DLP Type PSA>
<v1.xx.xx :156 Pin Type PSA>
3D probes are 256 pin type.
① Handle (Optional)
② Storage Space
③ Ventilation
④ Rear Panel
⑤ Cable Hook
⑥ Power Connection Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
[Figure 2.2 Back of the SONOACE R7]
2-7
Operation Manual
Tips!
Principles of Operation
Medical ultrasound images are created by computer and digital memory from the transmission
and reception of mechanical high-frequency waves applied through a probe. The mechanical
ultrasound waves spread through the body, producing an echo where density changes occur.
For example, in the case of tissue, an echo is created where a signal passes from an adipose tissue
region to a muscular tissue region. The echoes return to the probe where they are converted back
into electrical signals.
These echo signals are highly amplified and processed by analog and digital circuits having filters
with many frequency and time response options, transforming the high-frequency electrical signals
into a series of digital image signals which are stored in memory. Once in memory, the image can
be displayed in real-time on the image monitor. All signal transmission, reception and processing
characteristics are controlled by computer.
2-8
Chapter 2 Introduction
Monitor
The color LCD monitor displays ultrasound images and other information.
Monitor Display
The monitor displays ultrasound images, operation menus and a variety of other information. As shown in
the figure below, the screen contains: ① Title Area, ② Menu, ③ Image Area, ④ Thumbnail Area, ⑤ User
Information Area, ⑥ Soft Menu.
1
4
3
2
5
6
[Figure 2.3 Monitor Display]
■■ Title Area
The title area displays the patient name, hospital name, application, frame rate and depth, probe
information, acoustic output information, and the date and time.
2-9
Operation Manual
■■ Menu
This displays the utility menu or measurement menu.
■■ Image Area
The ultrasound image, image information, annotation, and measurement are displayed in the image
area.
■■ Thumbnails Area
When clicking on the Save button, the saved images are displayed. If you place the pointer on an image
and click, the image is magnified. Up to 7 images are displayed.
■■ User Information Area
User information area provides a variety of information necessary for system use e.g. current system
status, image information, available items, bodymarkers, and so on.
Tips!
Displaying the current status of the system
: Shows the status of LAN connection.
: Shows whether a removable disk is connected to the system. Double-click the icon to display the
Storage Manager window.
: Shows the total disk space and available disk space for the system.
: Shows Caps Lock ‘On’ When user press the Caps Lock on the alphanumeric keyboard. Under
the ‘Caps Lock On’ status, user can input text as large character.
■■ Soft Menu
Different items are displayed in the menu, depending on the current status of the system. To set or
change the items in the Soft Menu, use the dial-button for the corresponding number on the control
panel.
2-10
Chapter 2 Introduction
Control Panel
The system can be controlled with the control panel.
Quad
APTD
×T TD
HC
BPD
AC
FL
CRL
GS
[Figure 2.4 Control Panel]
The control panel consists of a keyboard, buttons, dial-buttons, a switch, a slide, and a trackball.
The dial-button can be used both as a dial and a button.
Control Panel Map
The following are descriptions and instructions for the controls on the control panel. For more information
on the buttons with multiple functions, see Chapter 3 and later of this manual.
On/Off
Patient
Button
Turns the system on/off.
Button
Displays the Patient Information screen, which allows you to select a patient
ID or enter information on a new patient.
2-11
Operation Manual
Probe
Button
Displays the Probe Selection screen to select or change probes
and applications.
End Exam
Button
Finishes the current patient’s exam and resets the related data.
Report
Button
Displays the Report screen to show the measurement results of the
corresponding application.
User 1
Button
Performs preset functions. See Chapter 7 ‘Setting Peripheral Devices’ in
‘Utilities’ for more detailed information.
SONOVIEW
Button
Runs SONOVIEW, which is the image filing program.
Freq.
Switch
Changes the frequency of the probe.
Focus
Switch
Moves focus onto the area for observation.
Depth
Switch
Adjusts the scanning depth of the image.
Dual
Button
Used for Dual mode.
M
Button
Press this dial-button to start/stop M mode.
PD
Button
Press this dial-button to start/stop Power Doppler mode.
C
Button
Press this dial-button to start/stop Color Doppler mode.
2D
Button
Press this dial-button to start 2D mode.
PW
Button
Press this dial-button to start/stop PW Spectral Doppler mode.
CW
Button
Press this dial-button to start/stop CW Spectral Doppler mode.
This can only be used for the Phased Array probe.
▶ Q Scan: When pressing this dial-button, the Quick Scan function turns on.
The Q Scan indication displays at the top of an image. This can be used in
specific applications with specific probes.
▶ Gain: Rotate this dial-button to adjust the gain.
▶ R.S: In 3D View mode, you can move the reference slice parallel by rotating
this dial-button. R.S stands for Reference Slice.
Q Scan
/ Gain / R.S
Dialbutton
3D / 4D
Button
Starts/Finishes 3D/4D mode.
Button
Pauses/Resumes scanning.
Button
Prints the image on the screen using the printer connected to the system.
Button
Saves the images or reports on the screen in the database.
Freeze
Print
Save
2-12
Chapter 2 Introduction
▶ Menu: Press this dial-button to change a page on the Soft Menu. Select an
item when the measurement menu or utility menu is displayed.
▶ Angle: Adjust the angle by rotating this dial-button. In Spectral Doppler
mode, the angle of a sample volume is adjusted by 1°. In 2D mode, if the
sector width is not 100%, the image can be shifted horizontally. In Body
Marker mode and Indicator mode, the angle of the probe cursor and the
indicator can be adjusted.
Menu
/ Angle
Dialbutton
Clear
Button
Deletes the text, indicator, body marker, and measurement result, etc.
displayed on an image.
Active Mode
Button
Changes the Soft Menu. Every time you press this button, the Soft Menu
changes to the Soft Menus for the other modes that are used in the current
Active mode.
Button
Selects an item or value using the trackball.
Button
Exits the currently used function and returns to the previous function.
Button
Starts to measure distance, circumference, area, and volume.
Button
Starts measurements by application.
Button
Changes the function of the trackball to other functions. For example, this
button resets the location of the dot which was last placed during the
measurement.
Button
Changes the image to panning status.
In PW or CW Spectral Doppler mode, if this button is pressed, the mode
changes to D only mode.
Button
Displays an arrow-shaped pointer on the screen.
Set
Exit
Caliper
Calculator
Change
Update
Pointer
Trackball
Trackball
TGC
Slide
Moves the cursor on the screen and scrolls through CINE images.
Adjusts the TGC values for each depth using 8 slides. TGC stands for Time
Gain Compensation.
CAUTION: If the gain values of neighboring TGC slides are adjusted with a large difference, bands may
occur on the image.
2-13
Operation Manual
■■ Soft Menu
Dialbutton
Soft Menu
1~6
Tips!
Performs the functions of the corresponding number on the Soft Menu.
Different items are displayed in the menu, depending on the current status of
the system. Adjust the items by pressing or rotating the dial-button.
How to use the Soft Menu Dial-Buttons
The Soft Menu is divided into top and bottom rows. Depending on the situation, you can use two
functions with one Soft Menu button.
▶▶Soft Menu Top (①): Turn the Soft Menu dial-button to select or adjust a function.
▶▶Soft Menu Bottom (②): Press the Soft Menu dial-button to select or adjust a function.
1
2
[Figure 2.5 Soft Menu]
Tips!
Soft Menu Dial-buttons [4] to [6]
In 3D View mode, the Soft Menu dial-buttons [4] to [6] have the following functions:
▶▶Soft Menu Dial-button [4]: Rotates the image to the X axis.
▶▶Soft Menu Dial-button [5]: Rotates the image to the Y axis.
▶▶Soft Menu Dial-button [6]: Rotates the image to the Z axis.
2-14
Chapter 2 Introduction
■■ Keyboard
The keyboard allows you to enter text and execute a variety of functions quickly using the function
keys.
APTD
×T TD
Quad
HC
BPD
AC
FL
CRL
GS
[Figure 2.6 keyboard]
Esc
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
Quad
Help
Indicator
Text
BodyMarker
Utility
Starts Quad mode.
Displays the Help Manual on the screen.
Starts Indicator mode.
Starts Text mode. But, if you select the checkbox: Utility > Setup > Utility >
Text Setup > Quick Text, you can enter text immediately without pressing
this key.
Starts BodyMarker mode.
Displays the Utility menu on the screen.
F6
APTD X TTD
Starts APTD X TTD measurement
F7
HC
Starts HC measurement
F8
BPD
Starts BPD measurement.
F9
AC
Starts AC measurement.
F10
FL
Starts FL measurement.
2-15
Operation Manual
F11
CRL
Starts CRL measurement.
F12
GS
Starts GS measurement.
Space Bar
Every time you press the Space bar, the information on the screen disappears
in this sequence, Image Information → Gray Scale Bar / Color Bar → TGC.
After all the information has disappeared, if you press the Space bar, all the
information returns to the screen.
Allows you to adjust the monitor brightness.
,
,
Allows you to adjust volume in Spectral Doppler Mode.
Adjusting Control Panel
Carefully move the control panel up and down while pressing the lever on the control panel handle.
CAUTION: Do not apply excessive force to the control panel.
2-16
Chapter 2 Introduction
Console
The console consists of two parts – the inner unit and the outer unit. The interior of the console mainly
contains devices that produce ultrasound images. On the exterior of the console are various connectors,
probe holders, storage compartments, handles, wheels, etc.
Rear Panel
A monitor and other peripheral devices like printer, VCR, etc. are connected via the rear panel at the back
of the system.
① MIC Port (Input): Connects the mic.
② Remote Print Port (Output): Prints out remotely by connecting the Echo
printer.
③ B/W Printer Port (Output): Connects the Echo printer.
④ Parallel Port (Output): Connects the printer and foot switch.
⑤ DVI Port (Output): Outputs digital signals on the monitor.
⑥ USB Port: Connects USB peripheral devices.
⑦ Network Port: Connects to network. Patient information can be
transferred to other servers through the DICOM network.
⑧ S-VHS Port (Output): Connects S-VHS VCR.
⑨ VHS Port (Output): Connects VHS VCR.
⑩ Audio Port (Output): Used for outputting audio signals.
[Figure 2.7 Rear Panel]
2-17
Operation Manual
Power Connection Part
The power connection part is located at the back of the system body.
1
2
3
4
5
[Figure 2.8 Power Connection Part]
① Power Switch: Supplies or cuts power to the entire system.
② Power Inlet: Connects the power cable to an external power source.
③ Fuse Holder: Holds the inlet fuse
④ Equipotential Terminal: This should be connected to the equipotential connection part in the exam
room.
⑤ Output rating change switch: Selects the output power.
Probe Holder
A probe holder is mounted at the left and right side of the control panel.
2-18
Chapter 2 Introduction
Peripheral Devices
CAUTION: Do not place peripheral devices, not listed in this manual, inside the patient environment.
If you place them in the patient environment, it may cause electrical hazard.
N
N
N
N
[Figure 2.9 Patient Environment]
NOTE: Refer to the operation manual of peripheral device about its operating.
Internal Peripheral Devices
These are peripheral devices mounted in the system.
■■ DVD-Multi
DVD+R, DVD+R DL, DVD+RW, DVD-R, DVD-R DL, DVD-RW, DVD -RAM, DVD-ROM, CD-ROM, CD-R, CDRW
■■ Hard Disc Drive
Min. 200Gbyte-SATA
2-19
Operation Manual
External Peripheral Devices
These are peripheral devices that can be connected for use when needed and are connected via the USB
port located at the rear panel.
CAUTION: When using a peripheral device from a USB port, always turn the power off before
connecting/disconnecting the device. Connection/discon-nection of USB devices during power-on may
lead to malfunction of the system and USB devices.
NOTE:
▶▶When remove the removable disk, use Utility > Storage manager.
▶▶USB ports are located both on the front panel and the rear panel of the console.
Connect a USB storage device (Flash memory media, etc) to the port on the front panel. Connect other
USB peripheral devices to the port on the rear panel for your convenience.
The following products are recommended:
■■ Video Cassette Recorder (VCR)
Panasonic MD835, SONY DVO-1000MD, JVC BD-X201
■■ Video Page printer
▶▶Color : Mitsubishi CP910U, Mitsubishi CP910E, SONY UP-20
▶▶Black and White : Mitsubish P93W, SONY UP-897MD
■■ USB Video Printer
▶▶Color : Mitsubish 30DW, SONY UP-D23MD, SONY UP-D25MD
▶▶Black and White : Mitsubishi P93DW, Mitsubishi P95D, SONY UP-D897
CAUTION:
▶▶You must install a Microsoft Windows XP™ or above (English) compatible printer and driver. Contact
Samsung Medison Customer Service Center for inquiries about printer driver installation.
▶▶When connecting the printer, ensure that the printer is configured under Microsoft Windows™ or
system setup and has been chosen as the default printer.
▶▶Please check the port used in printer before connecting. Printers should be connected to the
Printer port while the USB printer connected to the USB port.
2-20
Chapter 2 Introduction
■■ USB to RS-232C Serial Cable
USB to Serial (RS-232C) Converter with FTDI Chipset (FTDI FT232BM Compatible)
NOTE: For more information about the Open Line Transfer, refer to `Chapter 5. Measurements and
Calculations’.
■■ USB Foot Switch
Set the function of the foot switch in Utility > Setup > Peripherals > Foot Switch; Freeze, Update,
Record, Print, Store, or Volume Start.
WARNING: Foot Switch cannot be used in the operating room.
■■ Others
Flash Memory media
NOTE:
▶▶If you use the USB 1.1 flash memory, the system cannot recognize it. In the case of this, delete the flash
memory from the console and quip again.
▶▶Regarding file formats that are not ordinarily saved: Please check first to see if it is possible to save the
file format on a desktop PC before trying to save the file on a Flash Memory.
2-21
Operation Manual
Probe
Probes are devices that generate ultrasound waves and process reflected wave data for the purpose of image
formation.
NOTE: For more information, refer to `Chapter9 Probes’.
Be sure to connect or disconnect probes when the power is off to ensure the safety of the system and the
probes.
1. Push the probe’s lockdown switch to the left and disconnect the probe.
2. Connect the probe to the probe port.
3. Push the probe’s lockdown switch to the right to lock it in place.
Tips!
How to connect 156 Pin Type probe (include 3D probes)
▶▶Equip probes to the probe connectors on the front panel of the system. A maximum of three
probes can be connected at one time.
▶▶Turn the connector-locking handle clockwise.
2-22
Chapter 2 Introduction
Accessories
An accessory box containing the items below is supplied with the product.
CAUTION: Main cord set, separately certified according to the relevant standards, is to be used when
supplied to EU and USA/CAN.
SONO GEL
FUSE
POWER CORD
GROUND CABLE
MANUAL
WINDOWS XP LABEL
VTR CORD
CLAMP VELCRO
DVI2RGB GENDER
[Figure 2.10 Accessories]
NOTE: Accessories can be different according to the country.
2-23
Operation Manual
Optional Functions
This product has the following optional functions:
▶ 4D
▶ DICOM
▶ 3D XI
▶ Auto IMT
▶ Cardiac Measurement
▶ CW Function
▶ Spatial Compound
▶ DynamicMR / DynamicMR+
For further information about optional functions, please refer to the relevant chapters in this manual.
2-24
Chapter
3
Starting Diagnosis
‹‹Power Supply.....................................................3-3
Powering On...............................................................................3-3
Powering Off..............................................................................3-3
‹‹Probes & Applications......................................3-4
Probe Selection and Application........................................3-5
Changing Application.............................................................3-5
Editing Probe Preset Values..................................................3-5
‹‹Patient Information..........................................3-7
Patient Information for Application..................................3-9
Finding Patient Information...............................................3-15
Managing Patient Exams.....................................................3-17
Changing Measurements....................................................3-22
Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
Power Supply
Boot the system for use.
CAUTION: Make sure to connect the probe and peripheral devices that will be used before powering
on the system. If you attempt to connect them during system use, it may lead to patient injury or fatal
damage to the console.
Powering On
Press the On/Off button when the power is off. Booting begins, and the product logo appears on the screen.
When booting is completed, the 2D mode screen appears in End Exam status.
CAUTION: Before starting the diagnosis, you must register the patient information.
NOTE:
▶▶The product should be turned on about 10 seconds after the power switch at the back of the product
is turned on.
▶▶During system booting, do not press any key on the keyboard. It may cause product malfunction.
▶▶If you turn on the power after turning it off forcibly, the system may turn on and off momentarily. This is
one of the characteristics of the Intel® PC main board, not a system error.
Powering Off
Press the On/Off button while using the system.
CAUTION: If you hold down the On/Off button for five seconds or longer, the product power is turned
off forcibly. This may cause hard disk damage.
3-3
Operation Manual
Probes & Applications
Before scanning, select a probe and an application.
CAUTION: Please refer to "Chapter 9. Probes” for more information about the probes supported by this
system.
Press the Probe button on the control panel and then the Probe Selection screen will appear. In this window,
you can select or change probes and applications and edit probe presets.
[Figure 3.1 Probe Selection]
3-4
Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
Probe Selection and Application
1. Select a probe and an application on the screen by using the trackball and the Set button.
2. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [5] OK to make a selection. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] Cancel
to cancel a selection.
Tips!
Selecting a probe with a Soft Menu button
Press a Soft Menu button for the probe that you want.
Changing Application
1. After checking the currently selected probe, select an application using the trackball and Set button.
2. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [5] Ok on the screen. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] Cancel to
cancel a selection.
Editing Probe Preset Values
The probe settings are preset with optimal values for each application. However, if needed, you can change
the preset values as follows:
1. After checking the currently selected probe and application, change the probe settings using the
trackball and Set button under Preset.
▶ A Userset such as User1 can be selected for each setting. Usersets are available under Preset.
Tips!
User Preset
If user presets are specified, the specified name will appear in the title area.
For example, if the Cardiac application along with the preset User1 is selected, ‘Cardiac/User1’ will be
displayed in the title area.
2. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [5] Ok on the screen. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] Cancel to
cancel a selection.
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Operation Manual
Tips!
Changing probe settings with a Soft Menu button
Press the Utility button on the control panel. The current probe settings are shown in the Soft Menu
[2] and [3]. Rotate the Soft Menu dial-button [2] and [3] to select desired settings. Press the Soft
Menu dial-button [3] to apply the selected settings to the system.
NOTE: To change the value for presets, press Utility. Please refer to "Chapter 7. Utility” for details.
3-6
Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
Patient Information
Press the Patient button on the control panel and the Patient Information screen will appear on the screen.
In this screen, you can enter, search, or change patient information. Patient information includes basic
information such as the patient ID, name, DOB, and gender, together with additional information for
applications.
NOTE: The ID and name fields are required.
Entering Basic Patient Data
You can enter or change basic patient data at the top of the Patient Information screen. Use the trackball
and the Set button to select the desired field. Or, use the Menu dial-button to move between fields.
■■ ID
Enter a patient ID.
▶▶To enter it manually, enter an ID in the ID field.
▶▶To enter it automatically, select Auto ID Creation and press New. The icon is changed to
▶▶If you enter an ID that exists already, the icon next to the ID field is changed to
.
.
■■ Name
Enter patient’s full name.
▶▶Last Name: Enter the patient’s last name.
▶▶First Name: Enter the patient’s first name.
▶▶Middle Name: Enter the patient’s middle name.
The name that you have entered will appear in the title area and reports.
■■ Birth
Enter the patient’s birth date in the specified format.
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Operation Manual
■■ Age
Enter the patient’s age in “yy-mm” format. When a birth date is specified in the Birth field, this
information is automatically calculated and displayed.
■■ Gender
Select the patient’s gender.
■■ Accession
When viewing the worklist for a patient via the DICOM server, this information is automatically filled.
[Figure 3.2 The Patient Information]
3-8
Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
Patient Information for Application
In Study Information, enter additional patient information or change the existing patient information
required for a diagnosis.
1. In the Patient Information screen, press the Study Information tab.
2. In Category, select an application.
3. Enter additional information required for a diagnosis.
Pressing Clear Measure deletes all existing measurements entered.
General
In Category, select General. Enter additional information. The items in General are also included in the
patient information screen for other applications.
■■ Height
Enter the patient’s height in Inches (in) or Centimetres (cm). Press the Unit button to change the unit.
When the unit is changed, the entered number is automatically recalculated and displayed in the
changed unit.
■■ Weight
Enter the patient’s weight in Ounces (oz), Pounds (lb) or Kilograms (Kg). Press the unit to change it.
■■ BSA (Body Surface Area)
When height and weight are entered, BSA (Body Surface Area) is automatically calculated and
displayed.
■■ HR (Heart Rate)
Enter a heart rate.
■■ Diag. Physician (Diagnostic Physician)
Enter the name of the physician who diagnosed the patient. When there is more than one physician
available, you can use the combo button to make a selection.
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Operation Manual
■■ Ref. Physician (Ref. Physician)
Enter the name of the physician. When there is more than one physician available, you can use the
combo button to make a selection.
■■ Sonographer
Enter the name of the sonographer who scanned the patient. When there is more than one
sonographer available, you can use the combo button to make a selection.
■■ Description
Enter a description of the diagnosis. If a description is entered, it can be searched for and viewed under
Description in SonoView.
■■ Indication
Enter a brief description of the symptom or disease.
[Figure 3.3 Study Information - General]
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Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
OB
In Category, select OB. Enter additional information for OB.
[Figure 3.4 Study Information - OB]
■■ LMP (Last Menstrual Period)
Enter the last menstrual period for a patient.
You can enter it manually in the specified format, or have it automatically calculated and displayed with
the GA entered.
■■ GA (LMP)
It indicates the gestational age of a patient.
You can enter it manually in the specified format, or have it automatically calculated and displayed with
the LMP entered.
■■ EDD (LMP)
With the LMP or GA entered, EDD (Expected Date of Delivery) is calculated and displayed.
Tips!
Calculating EDD (LMP)
EDD can be calculated by entering LMP or GA.
▶▶When LMP is entered: GA and EDD are automatically calculated and displayed on the screen.
▶▶When GA is entered: LMP and EDD are automatically calculated and displayed on the screen.
■■ Estab. Due Date
Enter EDD in the specified format.
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Operation Manual
■■ Ovul. Date
Enter an ovulation date in the specified format. LMP, GA, and EDD will be automatically calculated and
displayed.
Tips!
Calculating LMP and EDD (LMP) with Ovul. Date
The following formulae are used:
▶▶LMP = Ovul. Date - 14
▶▶EDD = (280 -14) + Ovul. Date
■■ Gestations
Enter the number of fetuses, up to maximum of 4.
■■ Day of Cycle
Enter a menstrual period in number of days (dd).
■■ Ectopic
Enter the number of ectopic pregnancies
■■ Gravida
Enter the number of pregnancies.
■■ Para
Enter the number of deliveries.
■■ Aborta
Enter the number of miscarriages.
■■ New Pregnancy
Delete previous OB data for this patient.
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Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
Gynecology
In Category, select Gynecology. Enter additional information for Gyn. This is the same information as for
OB.
NOTE: In the GYN information input screen, even if the Ovul. Date is entered, LMP and EDD will not be
calculated automatically.
[Figure 3.5 Study Information - Gynecology]
Cardiac
In Category, select Cardiac. Enter additional information for Cardiac.
[Figure 3.6 Study Information-Cardiac]
■■ RAP (Right Atrium Pressure)
Enter blood pressure.
■■ BP (Body Pressure)
Enter maximum/minimum blood pressures.
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Operation Manual
Urology
In Category, select Urology. Enter additional information for Urology.
■■ PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)
Enter the PSA value.
[Figure 3.7 Study Information-Urology]
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Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
Finding Patient Information
In the Patient Information screen, select the Search tab.
Local Search
Search through the information stored in the system.
1. In Search Source, select Local.
2. In Search By, select a search condition.
▶ Select Patient ID to search by ID, or select a patient’s name under Patient Name to search by name.
3. In the Search window, enter an ID or name and press Search. The list of patients who meet the
conditions will appear. Pressing Search All will show a list of all the patients stored in the system.
4. In the list, press ID or Name to sort the information alphabetically or numerically by the selected
item.
5. Select the desired patient and press Apply. The information on the selected patient will be applied
to the system.
Press Select All to select all the patients in the list. Press Delete to delete the ID and other information for
the selected patient.
[Figure 3.8 Search - Local]
WARNING: If a patient ID is deleted, all related data and images stored in SONOVIEW are erased.
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Operation Manual
Worklist Search
Perform a search by connecting to the DICOM Modality Worklist server in the hospital network.
1. In Search Source, select Worklist.
2. Enter more than one item from among Patient ID, Last Name, Accession # or Procedure ID, and then
press Search. The list of patients who meet the condition will appear.
▶ In the list, press Date/Time or Patient Name to sort the information alphabetically or numerically
by the selected item.
3. Select the desired patient and press Apply. The information on the selected patient will be applied
to the system.
[Figure 3.9 Search - Worklist]
NOTE: The worklist server is configured under the DICOM tab on the Setup screen. Please refer to “DICOM
Setting” in ‘chapter 7. Utility’.
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Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
Managing Patient Exams
In the Patient Information screen, select the Exam View tab. The list of exams for the patient ID applied in the
previous search will appear.
NOTE: The exam list appears only when a patient searches is completed and the related patient
information is applied to the system.
In addition to the patient ID, Age and Gender, information such as the Exam Date, the number of images
stored (Images), the measurement status (Measure), the report creation status (Structured Report, SR), the
exam transfer status (Storage Commit, SC) and the lock status are displayed. You can press ID or Name to sort
the information alphabetically or numerically by the selected item.
To select more than one exam, press the Set button while holding down the Ctrl button on the keyboard.
[Figure 3.10 Exam View]
Executing Exam
Use the trackball and the Set button to select an exam, and then press Review Exam or Continue
Exam on the screen. For an exam currently being executed, the button is displayed as Current Exam and
disabled.
NOTE: If the selected exam has been executed in the past 24 hours, the button in the lower left corner is
displayed as Continue Exam. If the exam was executed earlier than this, the button is displayed as Review
Exam.
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Operation Manual
■■ Continue Exam
In addition to using the Resume Exam function, you can update the current scan with the exam
executed previously.
The selected exam appears on the screen and scanning is available. The initial execution date for the
corresponding exam (Exam Resumed) is displayed in the feedback area.
Double-clicking a stored image in the thumbnail area in the right side of the screen retrieves the
image and displays the stored image information. In the retrieved exam screen, you can perform
measurements or enter text, bodymarkers or indicators.
■■ Review Exam
The selected exam appears on the screen. Double-clicking a stored image in the thumbnail area in the
right side of the screen retrieves the image and displays the initial execution date for the corresponding
exam (Exam Reviewed) and the stored image information. In the retrieved exam screen, you can
perform measurements or enter text, bodymarkers or indicators.
Viewing Exam
Select an exam by using the trackball and the Set button, and press Review on the screen. Switch to the
SONOVEIW screen.
NOTE: For information on using SonoView, please refer to "Chapter 6. Image Management.”
Deleting Exam
Select an exam by using the trackball and the Set button, and press Delete on the screen. All images for
the exam will be deleted. However, an exam in progress or a locked exam cannot be deleted.
NOTE: Once deleted, exams cannot be restored.
Sending Exams via DICOM
You can send the selected exams via the DICOM network.
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Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
NOTE: Before using this feature, make sure that DICOM is properly configured. For information on
configuring DICOM, please refer to the “DICOM Setting” section in Chapter 7 “Utility.”
1. Select an exam(s) and then press Send on the screen. The DICOM Storage window will appear.
▶ To check the connection between the server and DICOM before sending, press Test.
[Figure 3.11 DICOM Storage]
2. Select an image or report to send. You can select images under Storage Image, and reports under
Storage SR.
3.Pressing Transfer starts a transfer and displays the transfer progress (%). To cancel the transfer, press
Close.
Printing Exams via DICOM
You can print the selected exams via the DICOM network. You cannot print exams if DICOM has not been
properly configured.
1. Select an exam(s) and then press Print on the screen. The DICOM Printer window will appear.
▶ To check the connection between the server and DICOM before sending, press Test.
2. Select an Exam(s) to print.
3.Pressing Print starts printing and displays the transfer progress (%). To cancel printing, press Close.
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Operation Manual
[Figure 3.12 DICOM Printer]
Exporting Exam
You can save the selected exams in an external storage device.
1. Select exam(s) and then press Export on the screen. The Image Export window will be displayed.
2. Under Drive, select a media where the selected exams will be saved. You can select CD-ROM or Flash
Memory.
3. Under File Name, specify the file name. The same file name is assigned to all images associated with
an exam. When there is more than one image, a serial number is automatically appended to the end
of the file name.
4. Under File Format, specify a file format in which files will be saved. You can select BMP, JPEG, TIFF or
DICOM.
5. Under Export Option, select a file option(s). You can select more than one option.
▶ 3D Volume Data: Export the 3D volume data along with an image.
▶ 2D Cine: Convert the stored Cine image to an. AVI file before exporting.
▶ 3D and Live Cine: Convert the 3D Cine and Live Cine images to an .AVI file before exporting.
▶ Use Patient ID for File Name: Use patient ID for file name automatically.
▶ Hide Patient Information: Export an image without a patient ID and name.
6. Under Directories, select a location where the selected exams will be saved. To create a new directory,
and specify a directory name. To delete a directory, press
press
the storage device are displayed.
7.Press Export to start saving. To cancel saving, press Close.
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. Under Files, files saved in
Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
[Figure 3.13 Image Export]
Backing up Exam
You can back up the selected exams in an external storage device.
1. Connect a storage media for backup. CD-ROM or Flash Memory can be used.
2. Select an exam(s) and then press Backup on the screen.
3. A confirmation window will appear asking whether to continue the backup. Press Yes to continue.
Press No to cancel.
4.The Select Drive window will appear. Under Drive, select the media where the selected exams will
be saved.
5.Press Ok to start the backup. Press Cancel to cancel.
[Figure 3.14 Exam Backup]
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Operation Manual
Changing Measurements
In the Patient Information screen, press the Measure Data tab. Under the Measure Data tab, you can enter
obstetrics measurements for a patient or check the existing measurements. Press the button, and the Insert
screen will appear.
NOTE:
▶▶This option is available for obstetrics only and enabled only when a patient ID is selected.
▶▶If OB data has been changed under New Pregnancy at Patient Information > Study Information >
OB, enter LMP before measurement data can be changed.
The Insert Screen
You can enter the existing obstetrics measurements.
■■ Exam. Date
Enter the measurement date.
NOTE: If OB data has been changed under New Pregnancy, only dates between the new LMP and
yesterday can be entered.
■■ Fetus
If the fetus is a twin, identify each fetus. Up to 4 fetuses (A, B, C, D) can be specified.
■■ Exam No.
Up to 8 exam numbers can be entered for each date. An exam number appears next to the Fetus field.
■■ New Data
Cancel all measurement data entered for other exams and enter new measurement data.
■■ Clear
Cancel entering the measurement data.
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Chapter 3 Starting Diagnosis
■■ Insert
Complete entering the measurement data.
■■ Page Browse
Use the [>>] or [<<] button.
■■ View
Switch to the View screen.
[Figure 3.15 Measure Data - Insert]
The View Screen
You can view the measurements entered or save them in an Excel file. The * symbol next to Exam Date
indicates that the data is the current measurement data.
■■ Package
Select a measurement package to display on the screen. Enter the measurement date.
■■ Refresh
Update the measurement data. New measurements, or the measurements entered, are added.
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Operation Manual
■■ Save
The Save To Excel window appears, allowing you to save information on the screen in an Excel file. By
default, the Excel file name is set to the measurement ID.
After specifying the target path and file name, press Save to save the information. To cancel saving,
press Close.
NOTE: Checking the HTML checkbox saves information in an HTML file instead of an Excel file.
■■ Insert
Switch to the Insert screen.
[Figure 3.16 Measure Data - View]
3-24
Chapter
4
Diagnosis Modes
‹‹Information.......................................................4-3
Diagnosis Mode Type..............................................................4-3
Basic Use......................................................................................4-4
‹‹Basic Mode........................................................4-6
2D Mode......................................................................................4-6
M Mode......................................................................................4-13
Color Doppler Mode.............................................................4-15
Power Doppler Mode............................................................4-18
PW Spectral Doppler Mode................................................4-20
CW Spectral Doppler Mode................................................4-25
TDI Mode...................................................................................4-26
TDW Mode................................................................................4-27
‹‹Combined Mode............................................ 4-28
2D/C/PW Mode.......................................................................4-28
2D/PD/PW Mode....................................................................4-28
2D/C/CW Mode.......................................................................4-28
2D/PD/CW Mode....................................................................4-28
2D/C/M Mode..........................................................................4-29
2D/C Live Mode.......................................................................4-29
Chapter
4
‹‹Multi-Image Mode......................................... 4-30
Dual Mode.................................................................................4-30
Quad Mode...............................................................................4-31
‹‹3D / 4D Mode.................................................. 4-32
3D/4D Mode.............................................................................4-32
3D StandBy Mode..................................................................4-34
3D View-MPR............................................................................4-37
3D XI Mode (Optional)..........................................................4-53
Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
Information
Diagnosis Mode Type
This product supports a variety of diagnosis modes including Basic Mode, Combined Mode, Multi-Image
Mode, and 3D Mode.
■ Basic Mode: Consists of different modes, each of which has a specific usage and function. By default, 2D
Mode is applied together with other mode.
■ Combined Mode: For an image, two or three Basic Modes are applied at the same time. By default, 2D
Mode is applied together with other mode. An image is viewed in a single screen.
■ Multi-Image Mode: The screen is divided into two (dual) or four (quad) sub screens, each of which is
used to view an image. Since each sub screen can display a different image, it can be a very useful
feature, allowing multilateral views of an organ.
■ 3D / 4D Mode: 3D images can be obtained. Consist of Freehand 3D, Static 3D Mode and 4D Modes.
The types of diagnosis mode that are available with the product are shown below:
Mode
Basic Mode
Combined Mode
Multi-Image Mode
3D / 4D Mode
Type
2D Mode
Color Doppler Mode
Power Doppler Mode
M Mode
PW Spectral Doppler Mode
CW Spectral Doppler Mode
TDI Mode
TDW Mode
2D/C/PW Mode
2D/PD/PW Mode
2D/C/CW Mode
2D/PD/CW Mode
2D/C/M Mode
2D/C Live Mode
Dual Mode
Quad Mode
Freehand 3D Mode
Static 3D Mode
4D Mode
NOTE: The functionalities for each mode may be restricted by the selected probe.
4-3
Operation Manual
Basic Use
The items that can be used commonly in each diagnosis mode are shown below:
Using Control Panel
The items that can be used in each diagnosis mode are provided as menu items. You can change the
image format or optimize an image to facilitate your diagnosis.
■■ Q Scan / Gain / R.S
▶Q Scan: Press the dial-button to turn the Quick Scan function on. The Q Scan indication is displayed
at the top of an image. In 2D Mode, the brightness and shading are optimized by automatically
adjusting the gain and TGC. In PW Spectral Doppler Mode, the spectrum is optimized by
automatically adjusting the scale and baseline.
NOTE: The Quick Scan function can be used in specific diagnoses with specific probes.
▶Gain: Rotate the dial-button to adjust the gain. The Gain buttons differ depending on the diagnosis
mode and the dial-button is usually used for selecting diagnosis modes.
Also use the dial-button to adjust the brightness of the image. Rotating the dial-button clockwise
increases the gain.
▶R.S: In 3D View mode, you can move the reference slice parallel by rotating the dial-button. R.S
stands for Reference Slice.
■■ TGC (Time Gain Compensation)
Use the TGC slide on the control panel.
In general, ultrasound penetration gets weaker with depth. TGC can be used to compensate for this
effect.
The product provides eight TGC slides for varying depths, allowing you to adjust Gain by area. Among
the eight slides, the top slide represents the shallowest area, while the lower slides represent the
deeper ones.
Move the slide to the right (+) to increase Gain, brightening the image.
4-4
Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Frequency
Use the Freq. switch-button on the control panel.
Use the switch-button to adjust the frequency of the currently used probe. Select from Res, Pen and
Gen.
▶▶Res (Resolution): High frequency
▶▶Gen (General): General frequency
▶▶Pen (Penetration): Low frequency
The selected frequency is displayed in the title area, allowing you to determine the state of the current
frequency easily.
■■ Focus
Use the Focus switch-button on the control panel.
Use the switch-button to adjust the location of the focus. When the top of this button is pressed, the
location of the focus becomes shallow.
■■ Depth
Use the Depth switch-button on the control panel.
Use the switch-button to adjust the scanning depth of an image. When the upper end of the button
is pressed, the scanning depth of the image becomes shallow. When the lower end of the button is
pressed, the scanning depth of the image becomes deep.
The range of adjustment differs depending on the probe type you use.
Using Soft Menu
The items that are commonly used in each diagnosis mode during scanning are provided as Soft Menu
items. You can use the Soft Menu dial-button corresponding to a specific menu item on the control panel.
If you rotate the dial-button, the setting for the selected item changes.
If the Soft Menu is more than a page long, press the Menu dial-button on the control panel to change
pages.
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Operation Manual
Basic Mode
2D Mode
This basic mode, also referred to as B Mode (Brightness mode), provides scan planes of organs. This is used to
display two-dimensional anatomy images in the direction of scanning in real time.
[Figure 4.1 2D Mode]
Entering 2D Mode
NOTE: Because 2D Mode is applied by default for all diagnosis modes, it cannot be terminated.
Press the 2D button on the control panel.
If you press the 2D button in other diagnosis modes, it will switch to the basic 2D Mode.
4-6
Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
2D Mode Soft Menu
The items that are commonly used in 2D Mode during scanning are provided as Soft Menu items.
You can use the Soft Menu dial-button corresponding to a specific menu item on the control panel.
If you rotate the dial-button, the setting for the selected item changes.
■■ Dynamic Range / Harmonic
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1].
▶▶Dynamic Range
The contrast of an image is adjusted by adjusting the ratio of the minimum and maximum values
of the input signals. Select a value between 50 and 200 by rotating the Soft Menu dial-button [1].
The larger the ratio, the smoother the image gets.
▶▶Harmonic
When pressing the Soft Menu dial-button [1], the HAR indication appears on the image
information. The OHI (Optimal Harmonic Imaging) function, which allows you to optimize images
by using high frequencies, is provided.
NOTE: The Harmonic function can be used with specific probes.
■■ Reject Level / 2D/C Live
Use Soft Menu dial-button [2].
▶▶Reject Level
Noise or echo is removed to make the image clearer. Select a value between 1 and 32 by rotating
the Soft Menu dial-button [2].
▶▶2D/C Live
▶▶Press the Soft Menu dial-button [2]. You can observe a scanned area in 2D and Color Doppler
images simultaneously in real time.
■■ FSI / M Line
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3].
4-7
Operation Manual
▶▶FSI
Select a value between 1 and 3 by rotating the Soft Menu dial-button [3]. FSI stands for Full
Spectrum Imaging. An image can be combined with the data obtained in 2D Mode using
frequencies with various characteristics. Therefore the resolution is improved in a shallow area for
observation and the penetration is improved in a deep area for observation.
▶▶M Line
An M line is displayed on an image. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to turn it on or off. The M
line indicates where the observing image is located in the 2D image when M Mode or PW Mode is
used with 2D mode.
■■ Read Zoom / Write Zoom
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4].
You can magnify an image. The zoom function is categorized as Read Zoom and Write Zoom according
to magnification methods.
▶▶Read Zoom: Magnifies the images stored on the hard disk drive.
1. Rotate the dial-button to the left or right.
2. Adjust the location of the Zoom box using the trackball. The location of the Zoom box on the
image can be found through the Zoom Navigation box on the top left side of the screen.
3. Observe the magnified image. Rotate the dial-button clockwise to magnify the image.
▶▶Write Zoom: Magnifies and scans an image in real time.
1. Press the dail-button to select Write Zoom box.
2. The image is magnified and scanned. Use the Change button to adjust the location and size of
the Zoom box. Every time the Change button is clicked, the current status of the Zoom box is
displayed on the bottom left of the screen.
- PreZoom position: The location of the Zoom box can be changed. Move the Zoom box using
the trackball.
- PreZoom size: The size of the Zoom box can be changed. Use the trackball to adjust the size of
the Zoom box.
If you change the depth of the image when using the Write Zoom function, the Zoom mode ends
automatically.
4-8
Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Spatial Compound (Optional) & Trapezoidal
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [5].
▶▶Spatial Compound: Rotate the dial-button to select from Off, Low, Middle or High.
NOTE: This item appears in the Soft Menu only when a Linear Probe is used.
▶▶Trapezoidal: Press the dial-button to turn it on or off.
In general, the rectangular frame provided by a Linear Probe is changed to a trapezoidal shape.
This allows a wider view of an image.
The Trapezoid function may not be available for certain depths. In addition, the Write Zoom
function cannot be accessed with the Zoom button when the Trapezoidal function is in use.
(However, Read Zoom can be used.)
NOTE: The Trapezoidal item appears in the menu only when a Linear Probe is used.
■■ SRF
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to turn it on or off.
▶▶SRF Index: SRF stands for Speckle Reduction Filter. The image is optimized by minimizing the noise
and automatically adjusting the brightness of the boundaries. Select a value between 0 and 3 by
rotating the dial-button.
■■ Chroma
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to turn it on or off.
▶▶Chroma Map: Changes the color of an image. Select Type 1 to Type 9 or User 1 to User 3 by rotating
the dial-button.
NOTE: The user type setting can be changed in Utility > Post Curve > 2D Post > Edit.
See ‘Post Curve’ in ‘Chapter 7 Utilities’ for detailed information.
4-9
Operation Manual
■■ Gray Map / L/R Flip
▶▶Gray Map
Changes a 2D Post Curve. Select from Type 1 to Type 9 or User 1 to User 2 by rotating the Soft
Menu dial-button [2].
▶▶L/R Flip
When the Soft Menu dial-button [2] is pressed, the left and right sides of an image are flipped.
The M indication at the top of the image indicates the direction of the current image.
■■ Focus / U/D Flip
▶▶Focus
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to set the number of focusing points to between 1 and 4.
▶▶U/D Flip
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [3]. Whenever the dial-button is pressed, an image is flipped
upside down.
■■ Sector Width
Change the sector width. Select a value of between 40 to 100 % by rotating the Soft Menu dial-button
[4]. When the width is increased, the frame rate is reduced.
NOTE: If the application is set as Fetal Heart, you can select up to 20%.
■■ Frame Avg
When images are updated, the previous and current images are averaged. Select a value between 0
and 15 by rotating the Soft Menu dial-button [5]. If you scan the same area repeatedly, speckles may
appear on the updated image. This item is used to minimize this phenomenon.
■■ Power
Adjusts the intensity of the ultrasound output. Select a value between 10 and 100 by rotating the Soft
Menu dial-button [6].
4-10
Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ 2D Image Size
Press 2D Image Size in the menu.
You can adjust the overall size of a 2D image. Select a value between 80~100(%).
NOTE: You can set this function in Utility > Menu Edit. For details on Menu Edit, please refer to ‘Chapter 7.
Utility’.
■■ Edge Enhance
Press Edge Enhance in the menu.
This function allows you to view more accurate images of organ or tissue boundaries. Use the Menu
dial-button to select a value between -3 – 3. A higher value provides more accurate images of
boundaries.
NOTE: You can set this function in Utility > Menu Edit. For details on Menu Edit, please refer to ‘Chapter 7.
Utility’.
■■ Pulse Inversion
Press the dial-button to turn it on or off. If it is turned on, pulses are inverted for a clear view of images.
NOTE:
▶▶Pulse Inversion is available with specific probes only.
▶▶You can set this function in Utility > Menu Edit. For details on Menu Edit, please refer to ‘Chapter 7.
Utility’.
■■ Tissue
Press Tissue in the menu.
Optimize an image by using an appropriate ultrasound speed for the characteristics of the object (tissue)
to view. Use the Menu dial-button to select from Solid, Normal, Adipose or Cystic.
NOTE: You can set this function in Utility > Menu Edit. For details on Menu Edit, please refer to ‘Chapter 7.
Utility’.
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Operation Manual
■■ Frame Rate
Press Frame Rate in the menu.
The frame rate is the number of images generated per second. Use the Menu dial-button to select from
Fast, Normal or Slow.
It is recommended to set a high frame rate for objects that are highly active or fast-moving.
NOTE: You can set this function in Utility > Menu Edit. For details on Menu Edit, please refer to ‘Chapter 7.
Utility’.
■■ DynamicMR (Optional)
Press DynamicMR in the menu.
You can obtain a clearer image by eliminating noise and enhancing boundaries. Five pre-configured
indices are provided.
If it is turned on, the DMR Index appears in the menu. Use the Menu dial-button to set the index
between 1~3. DynamicMR+ is available with OB, Gynecology, Urology only and set the index between
1~5.
NOTE:
▶▶Connect a dongle to the console before using DynamicMR. (Dongles can be purchased separately from
the product.)
▶▶For information on installing a dongle, please refer to the DynamicMR User Manual.
▶▶You can set this function in Utility > Menu Edit. For details on Menu Edit, please refer to ‘Chapter 7.
Utility’.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
M Mode
The M Mode is used to specify an observation area in a 2D image with the M Line, and display changes over
time.
This mode is appropriate for the observation of organs with a lot of movement such as cardiac valves. The 2D
Mode image is also shown, allowing the marking and adjustment of an observation area within the entire
image.
[Figure 4.2 M Mode]
Entering & Exiting M Mode
Press the M button on the control panel. Press the M button again. M Mode will be terminated and the
mode switched to 2D.
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Operation Manual
M Mode Screen
■■ M Line
Use the trackball on the control panel to move to the right or left. The M Line indicates the relative
position of the M Mode image in the 2D image. Therefore, you can move the M Line to change the
observation area.
M Mode Soft Menu
■■ Speed
Rotate the dial-button to adjust the progression speed of M images. Available options are 60Hz, 120Hz,
180Hz, 240Hz, 300Hz and 360Hz.
■■ Negative
Reverses the color of an M image. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to turn it on or off.
■■ Display Format
Sets the display layout of M and 2D images on the screen. Select Top/Bottom or Side by Side by rotating
the Soft Menu dial-button [4].
▶▶Top/Bottom: Places a 2D image at the top and an M image at the bottom of the screen.
▶▶Side By Side: Places a 2D image on the left and an M image on the right side of the screen.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
Color Doppler Mode
This mode displays the colored blood flow pattern of the ROI (Region of Interest) within the 2D image.
It is appropriate for examining the presence of the blood flow, its average speed and direction. The 2D Mode
image is also shown allowing the marking and adjustment of the ROI within the entire image.
[Figure 4.3 Color Doppler Mode]
Entering & Exiting C Mode
Press the C button on the control panel. Press the C button again. C Mode will be terminated and the
mode switched to 2D.
C Mode Screen
■■ ROI Box
ROI stands for Region of Interest. The ROI Box outlines the area of the 2D image where color (blood
flow) information is displayed in Color Doppler Mode.
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Operation Manual
Use the Change button to move and resize the ROI box. Each time you press the Change button, the
current state of the ROI box is displayed in the lower left of the screen.
▶▶ROI Position: You can move the ROI box. Use the Trackball to move the ROI box.
▶▶ROI Size: You can resize the ROI box. Use the Change button to resize the ROI box.
C Mode Soft Menu
■■ Steer / Invert
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1].
▶▶Steer: Rotate the dial-button to adjust the angle of the ultrasound beam. This can minimize loss of
color information based on the angle of the ultrasound beam. Select ROI from Left, None or Right.
NOTE: The Steer function appears in the Flexible Soft menu only when a Linear Probe is used.
▶▶Invert: Press the dial-button to invert the color bar. Inverting the color bar also inverts the colors
displayed on the image.
■■ Sensitivity
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to select a value between 8 and 31. Increasing Sensitivity enhances
the sensitivity of a color image, but reduces the frame rate.
■■ Density
Selects the density of a scan line. Select Low, Middle1, Middle2 or High using the Soft Menu dialbutton [3].
If you select High, the number of scan lines are increased and the resolution of an image improves. The
Frame Rate however reduces.
■■ Scale (PRF)
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [5]. Rotating the Scale dial clockwise makes the PRF (Pulse Repetition
Frequency) increase so that the speed range of the blood flow is widened, and vice versa.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Baseline / Filter
▶▶Baseline
If you rotate the Soft Menu dial-button [6] clockwise, the baseline rises.
In Color Doppler Mode, the color bar indicates the direction and speed of blood flow. Relative
to the baseline in the centre, the red color indicates the direction and speed of the blood flow
towards a probe. By contrast, the blue color indicates the direction and speed of the blood flow
away from a probe.
▶▶Filter
The filter is an electrical filter used to eliminate low-frequency Doppler signals caused by the
motion of vessel walls. Adjust the Cutoff Frequency to remove the Doppler signals for which the
frequencies are lower than the Cutoff Frequency from the screen.
Select a value between F 0 and F 3 by pressing the Soft Menu dial-button [6]. The value will be
displayed on the monitor.
■■ Color Map
Sets the Post Curve of an image. Select a type between 1 and 14 by rotating Soft Menu dial-button [1].
■■ Balance
Adjust the range of color image display by comparing the Gray Level of the 2D image with the Doppler
signal values of the color image. As the Balance value increases, the color image appears, even in
regions with a high Gray Level in 2D image (bright regions), expanding the range of the color image.
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to choose a Balance value between 1~16.
■■ Color Format
Sets C Mode to use. Select Color + B/W, B/W Only or Color Only by rotating the Soft Menu dial-button [3].
■■ Color Mode
Sets the color display. Select Velocity or Vel + Var by rotating the Soft Menu dial-button [4]. If Velocity
or Vel+ Var is selected, a numeral representing the number of a color scale is indicated above and below
the color bar.
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Operation Manual
Power Doppler Mode
This mode displays the color intensity of blood flow within the ROI in the 2D image.
It is appropriate for examining the presence and amount of blood flow. The 2D Mode image is also shown,
allowing the marking and adjustment of the ROI within the entire image.
[Figure 4.4 Power Doppler Mode]
Entering & Exiting PD Mode
Press the PD button on the control panel. Press the button again. PD Mode will be terminated and the
mode switched to 2D.
PD Mode Screen
■■ Color Bar
In Power Doppler Mode, the colour bar varies depending on the screen display for Power Doppler
Mode that is selected in the PD Mode menu.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
▶▶PD Mode: The color bar indicates the presence of blood flow and its amount. The top of the colour
bar is the brightest section, where the amount of blood flow is at its highest.
▶▶DPDI Mode: The color bar indicates the direction and intensity of blood flow. With the baseline
in the centre, the red colour represents the direction and intensity of blood flow moving toward
the probe, and the blue colour represents the direction and intensity of blood flow away from the
probe.
■■ ROI Box
The ROI (Region of Interest) outlines the area of the 2D image where color (blood flow) information is
displayed in Power Doppler Mode.
PD Mode Soft Menu
■■ PD Mode
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to select the screen display for Power Doppler Mode from PD Mode
or DPDI Mode.
▶▶PD Mode: Shows only the intensity of the blood flow.
▶▶DPDI Mode: Directional Power Doppler Imaging (DPDI) shows the intensity and direction of blood
flow.
NOTE: Use of the menu and Soft Menu items is the same as in Color Doppler Mode.
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Operation Manual
PW Spectral Doppler Mode
PW stands for Pulse Wave. PW Spectral Doppler Mode gives information on the speed of blood flow at
a specific site in the form of a spectral trace and audio signal. Distance (depth) information can also be
obtained by transmitting pulses over time frames.
This mode is useful for measuring low-speed blood flow such as in the abdomen and peripheral vessels. The
2D Mode image is also shown, allowing the marking and adjustment of an observation area within the entire
image.
[Figure 4.5 PW Spectral Doppler Mode]
Entering & Exiting PW Spectral Doppler Mode
Press the PW dial-button on the control panel. Press it again to return to 2D Mode.
Click the Update button to obtain a Spectral Doppler image.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
PW Spectral Doppler Mode Screen
■■ Sample Volume
When Sample Volume is on the blood flow of the 2D image, it represents Doppler Spectrum. The size
and depth of Sample volume is displayed in [mm] units. Its position is moved with the Trackball and
displayed in the xx.xx@yy.yy mm format. The format means that a Sample Volume of ‘xx.xx’ mm size is
located at a depth of ‘yy.yy’ mm.
For example, 2.00@16.70 mm means that a Sample Volume of 2.00mm size is located at a depth of
16.07mm.
▶▶Moving Sample Volume: Use the Trackball on the control panel.
▶▶Resizing Sample Volume: Adjust the Sample Volume size by pressing the Change button and
using the Trackball on the control panel. Press the Change button again to return to the Sample
Volume Position Control screen. The icon showing the two Trackball functions (SV Position/SV Size)
is shown for a second and then disappears.
▶▶Adjusting the angle of Sample Volume: Use the Menu dial-button on the control panel. If you
rotate the dial-button clockwise, the angle increases from between –70 ~ +70.
■■ HPRF (High PRF) Function
This function measures blood flow for which the speed exceeds the specified limit at a specified depth.
It expands the scale into double the size of the original scale. This function is available only in PW
Spectral Doppler Mode (D Only).
▶▶Activating HPRF
To activate HPRF, increase the Scale values at the required depth. A The Phantom Gate will appear
on the D Line at a position higher than the sample volume. Once HPRF starts, PRF does not
increase even if you increase the scale value.
▶▶Finishing HPRF
While HPRF is in use, decrease the scale value by one step to finish HPRF. The maximum PRF values
in PW Spectral Doppler Mode are shown.
▶▶Moving Sample Volume
To move the Sample Volume position in the D Only state, the system calculates PRF values and the
Phantom Gate position, and updates them on the PW Spectral Doppler image. HPRF is terminated
when HPRF cannot be activated.
When Sample Volume is moved in the 2D Only state, the PRF values don’t change.
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Operation Manual
NOTE: HPRF is not activated in Simultaneous Mode. It is also not activated if [PRF*2] exceeds 23KHz.
CAUTION:
▶▶The Phantom Gate position can be located outside the 2D image area in Zoom Mode.
▶▶Make sure that sample volume and Phantom Gate are not placed together in the measuring area. If
more than two Sample Volumes are located in the vessels, all Doppler components will appear in the
spectrum, causing noise.
PW Spectral Doppler Mode Soft Menu
■■ SV Size / Angle
▶▶SV Size
Set the size of the Sample Volume. Select a size between 0.5 and 15 by rotating the Soft Menu
dial-button [2].
▶▶Angle
If you press the Soft Menu dial-button [2], the angle changes – 60, 0 or 60 degrees. The speed can
be measured accurately by adjusting the angle of the Sample Volume.
■■ Auto Calc
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to turn it on or off.
If it is turned on, Doppler Trace is performed and the resulting values are displayed. When it is on, the
Mean Trace button is activated. The displayed values are as below. For information on setting display
values, please refer to "Chapter 3. Settings.”
▶ Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV)
▶ Time Averaged Mean Velocity (TAM)
▶ End Diastolic Velocity (EDV)
▶ Diastole / Systole Ratio (D/S)
▶ Time Averaged Peak Velocity (TAP)
▶ Max Pressure Gradient (PGmax)
▶ Resistive Index (RI)
▶ Mean Pressure Gradient (PGmean)
▶ Pulsatility Index (PI)
▶ Velocity Time Integral (VTI)
▶ Systole / Diastole Ratio (S/D)
▶ PeakA
CAUTION: The measurements done by Auto Trace under Measure and Real Time Automatic Doppler
Trace (Automatic Calculator) may be different from each other. This is because the algorithms for these
two methods are different. It is recommended to use Auto Trace under Measure for more accurate
measurement.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
Tips!
Things to Consider for Real Time Automatic Doppler Trace
1. Aliasing occurs because PRF is too low in comparison to the image speed, or the spectrum is clustered
around the baseline because PRF is too high.
2. Peak is indistinctive or intermittent such as in Spectral waveforms for veins.
3. Meaningful spectrum distinction becomes difficult because Doppler Gain is set too high or too low.
4. An index is displayed during the transition time after Sample Volume is moved with the Trackball.
5. The major spectral signals are cut off because Doppler Wall Filter is set too high.
6. Peak Trace is interrupted due to abnormal Doppler noise or artifact, and the heart rate is above
approximately 140 bpm.
The trace and/or results of Real Time Automatic Doppler Trace may not be accurate in the above
situations. Furthermore, during auto calculation, results will not be displayed if the Freeze function is
run against inaccurate values.
■■ AutoCalc Direction
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3]. You can select the part of spectrum to use AutoCalc from Up, Down,
or All.
■■ Simultaneous
Each time you press the Soft Menu dial-button [4], the Simultaneous function turns on and off.
NOTE: It appears in the PW menu only when “Utility > Setup > General > Simultaneous Mode” is set
to Allow.
If the Simultaneous function is enabled, you can view the 2D image and Spectral Doppler image
simultaneously in real time. If it is disabled, you can view only one of the two images.
The Simultaneous function decreases Doppler PRF, thus decreasing the measurable speed range.
■■ Mean Trace
NOTE: When AutoCalc is on, Mean Trace is displayed in the Soft Menu.
Displays a mean value by performing Doppler Trace. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to turn it on or
off.
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Operation Manual
■■ Baseline
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [6]. Adjust the X-axis of a Doppler image by rotating the dial-button.
NOTE: For information on the menu and other items in the Soft Menu, please refer to ‘2D Mode’ and ‘Color
Doppler Mode.’ .
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
CW Spectral Doppler Mode
CW stands for Continuous Wave. PW Spectral Doppler Mode gives information on the speed/direction of
blood flow at a specific site in the form of a spectral trace and audio signal. Unlike PW Spectral Doppler Mode,
it does not provide Sample Volume.
[Figure 4.6 CW Spectral Doppler Mode]
■■ Steered CW Spectral Doppler Mode
This mode is available with a Phase Array Probe only.
The 2D Mode image is also shown, allowing the marking and adjustment of an observation area within
the entire image.
Entering & Exiting CW Spectral Doppler Mode
Press the CW button on the control panel. Press it again to return to 2D Mode.
NOTE: The information on menu and Soft Menu items for PW Spectral Doppler Mode also applies to this
mode.
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Operation Manual
TDI Mode
NOTE: This function appears in the Soft Menu only when a Phased Array Probe is used for cardiac
application.
TDI stands for Tissue Doppler Imaging. It represents movements of tissues such as a heart.
[Figure 4.7 Tissue Dopple Imaging Mode]
Entering TDI Mode
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] in Color Doppler Mode.
NOTE: For information on other items, please refer to ‘Color Doppler Mode’.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
TDW Mode
NOTE: TDW is available only when the cardiac application with a Phased Array probe is selected.
TDW stands for Tissue Doppler Wave. It represents movements of tissues such as a heart.
[Figure 4.8 TDW Mode]
Entering TDW Mode
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] in Color Doppler Mode or PW Spectral Doppler Mode.
NOTE: For information on other items, please refer to ‘PW Spectral Doppler Mode.
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Operation Manual
Combined Mode
In Combined Mode, three different modes are combined including the default 2D Mode. Note that, in 2D/C
Live Mode, only two modes are combined: 2D and Color Doppler Modes.
2D/C/PW Mode
Color Doppler Mode and PW Spectral Doppler Mode are displayed simultaneously.
In Color Doppler Mode, press the PW button on the control panel. Or, in PW Spectral Doppler Mode, press
the C button on the control panel.
2D/PD/PW Mode
Power Doppler Mode and PW Spectral Doppler Mode are displayed simultaneously.
In Power Doppler Mode, press the PW button on the control panel. Or, in PW Spectral Doppler Mode, press
the PD button on the control panel.
2D/C/CW Mode
Color Doppler Mode and CW Spectral Doppler Mode are displayed simultaneously. This mode is available
only with certain probes.
In Color Doppler Mode, press the CW button on the control panel. Or, in CW Spectral Doppler Mode, press
the C button on the control panel.
2D/PD/CW Mode
Power Doppler Mode and CW Spectral Doppler Mode are displayed simultaneously. This mode is available
only with certain probes.
In Power Doppler Mode, press the CW button on the control panel. Or, in CW Spectral Doppler Mode, press
the PD button on the control panel.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
2D/C/M Mode
Color Doppler Mode and M Mode are displayed simultaneously.
In Color Doppler Mode, press the M dial-button on the control panel. Or, in M Mode, press the C dial-button
on the control panel. (This button is enabled for specific diagnostic applications with specific probes only.)
2D/C Live Mode
2D Mode and Color Doppler Mode are displayed simultaneously. In 2D Mode, press the Soft Menu dialbutton [2] 2D/C Live.
Changing Combined Mode Format
■■ Changing the active image mode
Press the Update button on the control panel. The current active image mode - ‘D Only’ or ‘2D Only’ - is
displayed above the menu on the screen.
In Combined Mode, more than two image modes are used at the same time. The image mode currently
in use is called ‘Active Image Mode.’ For example, if Sample Volume is moved with the Trackball in 2D/C/
PW Mode, PW Spectral Doppler Mode becomes the current active image mode.
Because the menu and button options vary depending on the active image mode, use the Update
button change the active image mode.
Note that the active image mode cannot be changed with the Update button when the Freeze
function is in effect.
■■ Changing menu
Press the Active Mode button on the control panel.
You can change the menu and Soft Menu items without changing the active image mode. Buttons for
the active image mode appear on the control panel.
For example, if the Soft Menu for 2D Mode is displayed on the screen in 2D/C/PW Mode, press the
Active Mode button to switch to the Soft Menu for Color Doppler Mode.
NOTE: For information on optimizing an image in Combined Mode, please refer to “Basic Mode.”
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Operation Manual
Multi-Image Mode
The product supports Dual Mode and Quad Mode.
In Multi-Image Mode, an image can be displayed in different combined modes. Button operations in an
active area are the same as in Combined Mode.
Dual Mode
Press the Dual button on the control panel.
You can compare two different images at the same time. Each time you press the Dual button, one of the two
images is selected. The current active image mode is displayed as a yellow line at the top. Button and menu
items for the current image mode are displayed.
Press the 2D button on the control panel to exit Dual Mode.
[Figure 4.9 Dual mode]
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
Quad Mode
Press the ESC key button on the keyboards.
You can compare four different images at the same time. Each time you press the ESC key, one of the four
images is selected. The current active image mode is displayed as a yellow line at the top. The button controls
and menus of the active image mode are used.
To exit from Quad Mode, press the 2D button.
[Figure 4.10 Quad mode]
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Operation Manual
3D / 4D Mode
An observation area is displayed in a 3D image. SONOACE R7 provides 3D and 4D Modes.
3D/4D Mode
3D Mode
In this mode, 3D or standard probes are used to obtain 3D images.
NOTE: Standard probes may not be used in 4D Modes and their use may be limited in 2D and 3D Modes.
Depending on the probe used and how images are obtained, 3D Mode can be divided into the following:
■■ 2D/3D
In this mode, 3D or standard probes are used to obtain 3D images.
Tips!
In Static 3D Mode, a 3D probe is used. In Freehand 3D Mode, a standard probe is used.
4D Mode
In this mode, a 3D probe is used to obtain 3D images in real time. It is also called Live 3D Mode.
Entering & Exiting 3D/4D Mode
Press the 3D/4D button on the control panel. Press it again to exit 3D/4D Mode and return to 2D Mode.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
3D/4D Mode Screen
■■ ROI Box
In 3D/4D Mode, the ROI box is also called the Volume Box, which indicates an area in a 2D image to be
converted into a 3D/4D image.
The location and size of the ROI box can be adjusted with the Change button on the control panel.
Each time the Change button is pressed, the state of the ROI box is shown in the lower left corner of
the screen as below:
▶▶ROI Position: The ROI Box can be relocated. Use the Trackball to move the ROI box to another
location.
▶▶ROI Size: The ROI Box can be resized. Use the Trackball to change the size of the ROI box, and then
press the Change button to set the new size.
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Operation Manual
3D StandBy Mode
In this mode, various parameters can be set before 3D or 4D images are obtained.
[Figure 4.11 3D StandBy Mode]
3D StandBy Mode Soft Menu
NOTE: In Freehand 3D Mode, where only standard probes are allowed, Soft Menus [1], [2] and [3] are
available.
■■ Scan Mode
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1]. Rotate the dial-button to select the desired 3D Mode between 3D
and 4D.
When a standard probe is used, 3D is displayed, and this may not be changed.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ View Mode
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2]. Rotate the dial-button to select the desired View Mode from MPR,
MSV and Oblique View.
▶▶MPR (Multi Planar Rendering): A standard 3D mode. Once 3D images are obtained, the 3D View
screen appears.
▶▶MSV (Multi Slice View): A type of 3D XI. Once 3D images are obtained, the 3D XI screen appears.
▶▶Oblique View: A type of 3D XI. Once 3D images are obtained, the Oblique View screen of 3D XI
appears.
When a standard probe is used, MPR is displayed, and this may not be changed.
NOTE: For more information on MSV and Oblique View, please refer to ‘3D XI.’
■■ Load Preset
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3]. Rotate the dial-button to select the desired preset.
When a standard probe is used, available options are Default or User1 - User5.
NOTE: You can select Default, Surface, Skeleton or User3~User5 for OB application.
■■ Scan Quality / Auto ROI
▶▶Scan Quality
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [5]. Rotate the dial-button to select the scan speed from Low,
Middle, High, Extreme.
- Extreme: The image quality is excellent. Use this option to observe detailed images.
- High: The image quality is lower than Extreme but the speed is faster than Extreme.
- Middle: The image quality is lower than High but the speed is faster than High.
- Low: The image quality is low but the 3D image speed (or rendering speed) is fast.
▶▶Auto ROI
NOTE: This option appears only when the application for a 3D probe is set to OB.
Select Auto ROI in the menu. Press the button to turn it on or off. If it is turned on, the Volume Box is
automatically placed over an area that will be converted to a 3D image.
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Operation Manual
When Auto ROI is used, the following should be considered:
- Images can be obtained over the fetal body only.
- The resulting 3D image is affected by the brightness or contrast of a 2D image.
- Once Auto ROI is turned on, the location or size of the Volume Box cannot be changed.
■■ Scan Angle
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [6]. Rotate the dial-button to adjust the scan angle. The desired scan
angle varies depending on the probe used.
Acquiring 3D Images
1. Select the desired 3D Mode in the Soft Menu [1].
2. Specify the location and size of the ROI box as desired.
3. Use the Menu button and the Soft Menu dial-buttons [2] - [6] to set various parameters.
4. Once done, press the Freeze or Set button. The system will start acquiring 3D images.
5. Once 3D images are acquired, the 3D View or 3D XI screen appears.
▶ In the Soft Menu [2], if MPR is selected, 3D View is enabled, and if MSV or Oblique View is selected, 3D
XI is enabled. Depending on the mode selected, 3D View or 3D XI is displayed in the upper left corner
of the screen.
▶ If a 3D image is acquired with its left and right sides flipped, it appears in 3D View or 3D XI with its
sides flipped.
6. After optimizing the acquired 3D images, proceed with diagnosis
Tips!
How to Improve 3D Image Quality
▶▶Consider the direction, division and size of the viewpoint, as well as the visibility of an object.
▶▶Before acquiring 3D images, adjust the contrast in 2D Mode.
▶▶If the ROI box is bigger, it takes more time to acquire 3D images. Therefore, set the ROI box to an
appropriate size.
▶▶To see the 3D scan of a fetus in a frontal view, position the fetal head in the direction of “Direction Mark”,
putting it in the coronal plane. Then scan the fetus from back to abdomen.
▶▶The 3D image of the fetal face can be more easily found in the coronal plane than in the sagital
plane.
▶▶In case echo is not generated (ex. amniotic fluid), to determine surface contour, the surfaces of
objects should be insulated with hypo-echoic textures.
▶▶To obtain a high quality 3D surface, adjust Low-Threshold. As a general rule, do not adjust HighThreshold; set it to the maximum value of 255.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
3D View-MPR
This screen appears after 3D images are acquired when View Mode is set to MPR in 3D StandBy Mode. 3D
View is displayed in the upper left corner of the screen.
After optimizing the acquired 3D images, proceed with diagnosis and measurement.
NOTE: When 3D images are acquired with a standard probe, 3D View is automatically enabled.
[Figure 4.12 3D View – MPR]
3D View Screen
■■ Screen Layout
The main 3D View screen consists of Axial Section, Sagital Section and Coronal Section surface images
—which are volume data cut by anatomical locations— and 3D images.
For the purpose of convenience, Axial Section is displayed as “A plane,” Sagital Section as “B plane,” and
Coronal Section as “C plane.”
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Operation Manual
■■ Trackball Mode
The current Trackball mode is displayed in the user information area. You can choose Trackball mode
from Cursor, Move and ROI. To change the Trackball mode, press the Change button on the control
panel. Each time the button is pressed, the Trackball mode is toggled.
▶▶Cursor: The Trackball can be used to position the cursor. Use the Trackball and Set button to select
the icon menu on the screen. Press the Pointer button on the control panel to switch to the cursor
mode.
▶▶Move: The Trackball can be used to move 3D images. The acquired 3D image is moved around
according to the movement of the Trackball.
▶▶ROI: The Trackball can be used to resize the ROI box. The size of the ROI box over a 3D image is
changed according to the Trackball movement. The ROI mode is available only when Basic in the
icon menu is set to ROI.
■■ Moving Images
Place the Trackball pointer over an image to move, and then move it while pressing the Set button.
Alternatively, use the Trackball to move an image when Trackball mode is set to Move.
▶▶Set Button: An image can be rotated around the center.
▶▶Exit Button: An image can be moved up/down/left/right.
■■ Resizing ROI
When the Trackball mode is set to ROI, move the Trackball to resize the ROI box. When the Trackball
mode is set to Cursor, place the cursor over the ROI box and then use the Trackball and Set button to
resize it.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Rotating Images by X-axis
Use the Soft Menu dial-buttons [4/X] on the control panel. Alternatively, when the Trackball mode is
set to Cursor, place the cursor on the A Plane image and then move the Trackball while pressing the Set
button.
■■ Rotating Images by Y-axis
Use the Soft Menu dial-buttons [5/Y] on the control panel. Alternatively, when the Trackball mode is
set to Cursor, place the cursor on the B Plane image and then move the Trackball while pressing the Set
button.
■■ Rotating Images by Z-axis
Use the Soft Menu dial-buttons [6/Z] on the control panel. Alternatively, when the Trackball mode is
set to Cursor, place the cursor on the C Plane image and then move the Trackball while pressing the Set
button.
■■ Showing/Hiding Menu
Press the Menu dial-button to show the menu on the screen. Press the Exit button to hide the menu.
■■ Moving Menu Tabs
Use the Trackball and the Set button to move a tab in the menu. The Active mode can also be used.
■■ Selecting Items
Press the Menu dial-button.
■■ Returning to Upper Menu
Press the Exit button.
Entering Text and Indicator
■■ Entering Text
Press the [F3] button on the alphanumeric keyboard.
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Operation Manual
■■ Entering Indicator
Press the [F2] button on the alphanumeric keyboard.
Saving and Printing
■■ Saving Images
Press the Save button on the control panel. The 3D Data Save window will appear.
Select Image under Save Type and then press the Save button to save images
[Figure 4.13 3D Data Save]
■■ Saving Images with Volume Data
Press the Save button on the control panel and then the 3D Data Save window will appear.
Select Volume under Select Item and then press the Save button again to save images along with
volume data. If volume data contains Cine images, they are also saved together.
NOTE: If volume data contains both 4D and 3D Cine images, choose one or other under Select Item and
save it.
If images are saved with volume data, they can be converted to 3D rendering images with SonoView.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Printing Image
Press the Print button on the control panel.
MPR Mode Menu
Display
Select Display in the menu to specify the desired display format.
■■ 2D
Axial, Sagital or Coronal plane images and Orientation Help (OH) are displayed on the screen. OH shows
the relative position of the selected plane in reference to volume data.
Tips!
How to Improve 3D Image Quality
Since diagnosis is performed with multi-planar images only in 2D Mode, Soft Menu Full can be used
for more detailed observation.
■■ 2D / 3D
Axial, Sagital or Coronal plane images and 3D images are displayed on the screen.
■■ Volume CT
Axial, Sagital or Coronal plane images and the actual combination of them are displayed on the screen.
The boundary of each plane is shown in a different color.
■■ ROI 3D
Axial, Sagital or Coronal plane images and 3D images are displayed on the screen. The ROI Box can be
changed for better observation.
■■ Fixed 3D
Axial, Sagital or Coronal plane images and the 3D image that is set within the ROI box in ROI 3D Mode
are displayed on the screen. The ROI Box does not appear.
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Operation Manual
Ref. Image
Use the Menu dial-button to select a reference image from A, B and C. Depending on the reference image
selected, the direction of the arrow changes.
3D Orientation
Select 0, 90, 180 or 270 degrees using the Menu dial-button. The coordinate system rotates to the Z-axis
in the 3D Reference Coordinate System.
VCE
Press the Menu dial-button to turn it on or off. If it is on, the contrast ratio of a 3D image is enhanced. VCE
stands for Volume Contrast Enhancement.
NOTE:
▶▶Select VCE in the Quick menu in MPR Mode.
▶▶VCR is available only in the 2D/3D, ROI 3D and Fixed 3D modes.
Auto Contour
Press the Menu dial-button to turn it on or off.
This function automatically locates the fetal face area in a fetus image scanned for Sagital. If it is turned on,
a contour line appears and a 3D image is contoured in the ROI box on A Plane.
NOTE: This function is only available in ROI 3D Mode where Render Direction under Render Setup is C+.
3D Cine
Use the Menu dial-button to select 3D Cine in the 3D View menu. Then 3D Cine Mode will be enabled.
■■ 3D Cine Define
Specify settings required for Cine execution.
■■ Rotation Angle
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to set all of the rotation angles for an image. Valid values are 30, 45,
60, 90, 180 and 360˚.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Step Angle
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to set the rotation angle by step for an image. Valid values are 1, 3, 5
and 15˚.
The Difference between Rotation Angle and Step Angle
Tips!
A Cine image rotates to the angle set in Rotation Angle in increments as set in Step Angle. For
example, if Rotation Angle is set to 360˚ and Step Angle is set to 15°, 3D Cine rotates to 360° using
15˚ steps.
■■ Rotate Axis
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to set the rotation direction to X or Y.
■■ Start Angle
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to set the start point of a Cine image. Valid values are -180 to -1. If
Start Angle is set, Rotation Angle is disabled.
■■ End Angle
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to set the end point of a Cine image. Valid values are 1 - 180. If End
Angle is set, Rotation Angle is disabled.
■■ Mix
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to set the rendering mix. Valid values are 0 - 100.
■■ Calculate
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6]. Start configuring a Cine image with the specified settings.
■■ 3D Cine
Specify settings required for Cine execution.
■■ Play Mode
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to select how 3D Cine is played.
▶▶Loop: Continues to play 3D Cine in one direction repeatedly.
▶▶Yoyo: Plays 3D Cine in one direction until the end is reached and then continues to play it in the
reverse direction.
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Operation Manual
■■ Speed(%)
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to set the playback speed of a Cine image. Valid options are 25,
50,100, 200, 300 and 400%.
■■ Cine Frame
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to select and observe a specific Cine image. Cine Frame is displayed
in the menu only when the Cine playback is stopped. The number of the frame for the current image,
out of all the frames, is indicated in the menu.
■■ Mix
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to set the rendering mix. Valid values are 0 - 100.
■■ Cine Playback / Pause
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to pause or play.
■■ New Cine
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to enable New Cine Mode. Return to the 3D Cine Define screen.
■■ Clear Cine
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to delete the current Cine image. Return to the 3D Cine Define
screen.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
[Figure 4.14 3D Cine]
4D Cine
Use the Menu dial-button to select 4D Cine in the 3D View menu. Then 4D Cine Mode will be enabled.
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Operation Manual
[Figure 4.15 4D Cine]
NOTE: 4D Cine can also be enabled by pressing the Freeze button in 4D Mode.
After specifying the playback mode and Cine type, press the Play button to start playing a Cine image.
■■ Cine Type
In the menu on the screen, use the Menu dial-button to select Cine type.
▶▶Image: The standard Cine playback mode. [Start Angle], [End Angle], [Speed(%)], [Image Position]
appear in the Soft Menu.
▶▶Volume: While a Cine image is being played, the MPR screen appears on the screen. The display
format can be changed to optimize Cine image playback. Vol. Indexs appears in the Soft Menu.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Play Mode
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to select the playback mode of a Cine image.
▶▶Loop: Continues to play a Cine image in one direction repeatedly.
▶▶Yoyo: Plays a Cine image in one direction until the end is reached and then continues to play it in
the reverse direction.
■■ Cine Type
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to select a Cine type.
■■ Start Angle
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to set the start point of a Cine image. This option appears only when
Cine Type is Image.
■■ End Angle
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to set the end point of a Cine image. This option appears only when
Cine Type is Image.
■■ Speed (%)
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to set the playback speed of a Cine image. Valid values are 25 - 400%.
This option appears only when Cine Type is Image.
■■ Image Position
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to select a Cine image that will be shown on the current screen. This
option appears only when Cine Type is Image.
■■ Vol. Index
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to select volume data that will be shown on the current screen. This
option appears only when Cine Type is Volume.
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Operation Manual
Preset
Use the Menu dial-button to select. Set or rename a preset as desired.
■■ Preset
Select a preset between Default or User1 and User 5. If you click Default, it is set to the default value of
the system.
■■ Load Preset
Loads the selected preset onto the system.
■■ Save Preset
Saves the changes of the preset.
■■ Rename
Changes the name of a User Preset in a Name pop-up window.
Render Setup
Use the Menu dial-button to select Render Setup.
■■ Gray Render Mode
This mode shows volume data acquired by the gray method as a 3D rendering image.
■■ Render Mode 1
Sets Render Mode 1.
▶▶Surface: Represents a 3D image in the Ray-casting method where the surface of an image is
expressed with curves.
▶▶Smooth: Provides a 3D image that is smoother than Surface.
▶▶Max: Represents a 3D image in maximum intensity. This option can be useful for observation of
bone structure.
▶▶Min: Represents a 3D image in minimum intensity. This option can be useful for observation of
vessels or cavities in the human body.
▶▶X-Ray: Represents a 3D image in average intensity. An image is shown like an X-ray image.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Render Mode 2
Sets Render Mode 2. It can be set in the same way as for Render Mode 1.
■■ TH. High
Sets the minimum range of a threshold. Select between 0 and 255.
MagiCut
Use the Menu dial-button to select MagiCut in the 3D View menu. MagiCut can be used to eliminate parts
in a 3D image that are irrelevant for diagnosis.
NOTE: This function is not available in 4D Mode.
[Figure 4.16 MagiCut]
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Operation Manual
■■ CutMode
Use the Menu dial-button to set Cut Mode.
▶▶Inside Contour: Cuts the inside of the selected area.
▶▶Outside Contour: Cuts the outside of the selected area.
▶▶Inside Box: Cuts the inside of the box.
▶▶Outside Box: Cuts the outside of the box.
▶▶Small Eraser: Cuts with a small eraser.
▶▶Big Eraser: Cuts with a big eraser.
■■ Depth
Use the Menu dial-button to set Cut Depth.
▶▶Full: Cuts the entire area.
▶▶Defined: Cuts the defined area. Define an area to cut as below:
1. Use the Trackball and the Set button to define an area to cut.
2. Use the Menu dial-button to set the cutting depth. Valid values are 1 - 100.
- Use the Undo function or Undo All function to restore the image and to cut the same area.
- Undo: Cancels cutting the selected area.
- Redo: Redoes the cancelled area.
- Undo All: Cancels all cutting operations.
3. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] Apply to complete the setting.
Palette
Use the Menu dial-button to select Palette in the 3D View menu. Then set the colors for 2D and 3D images.
■■ 2D Palette
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to set the color of a 2D image. Valid options are Palettes 0 - 9.
■■ 3D Palette
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to set the color of a 3D image. Valid options are Palettes 0 - 9.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
MPR Mode Soft Menu
■■ Mix
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to set the rendering mix between 0 and 100.
NOTE: This option is available in 2D/3D, ROI 3D and Fixed 3D only.
■■ Init
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [1]. The initial 3D image and settings will be restored.
■■ Th.Low
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to set the value between 0 and 254.
Tips!
Threshold
A threshold is used to eliminate unnecessary data from an image. If it is increased, more cyst
components are shown. If it is decreased, more bone components are shown.
NOTE: This option is available in 2D/3D, ROI 3D and Fixed 3D only.
■■ Full
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [2]. A 3D image will be displayed in the full screen mode. Press the
button again to return to the previous screen.
■■ Transparency
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to set the transparency to between 20 and 250 for a 3D image.
The lowest value of 20 is the most transparent level, and the highest value of 250 is a completely
opaque level.
NOTE: This option is available in 2D/3D, ROI 3D and Fixed 3D only.
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Operation Manual
■■ U/D Flip
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [3]. An image is flipped upside down.
■■ Rotate X / Y / Z
Rotates a 3D image in the selected axis direction. Use the Soft Menu dial-buttons [4], [5] or [6] to
rotate the image to the X, Y or Z axis, respectively.
■■ Next Page
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to move to the next page.
■■ Select
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to select a Post Curve to change the settings for.
NOTE: This option is available in 2D/3D, ROI 3D and Fixed 3D only.
■■ Position
Use the Soft Menu button [2] to change the location of a Post Curve that is selected under Select. Valid
values are 0 – 100.
■■ Bias
Use the Soft Menu button [3] to change the bias of a Post Curve that is selected under Select. Valid
values are -100 to 100.
■■ Zoom
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to adjust a value between 25 and 400.
■■ Prev Page
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to move to the previous page.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
3D XI Mode (Optional)
If View Mode is set to MSV or Oblique View in 3D StandBy Mode, this screen appears when a 3D image is acquired. 3D XI is displayed in the upper left corner of the screen.
3D XI Mode also appears if MSV, Oblique View or Volume CT is selected in the 3D View screen. 3D XI is displayed in the upper left corner of the screen.
In 3D XI Mode, the plane of an image is divided into several sections and displayed to enhance the effectiveness of diagnosis. It has three sub-modes as below.
NOTE: 3D XI is available only when a 3D probe is used.
MSV Mode
Press the MSV tab in the menu. MSV stands for Multi-Slice View, which allows you to divide an image into
several slices for better observation.
[Figure 4.17 Multi-Slice View]
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Operation Manual
NOTE: This mode provides a number of functions including Calculator, Caliper, Text and Indicator.
MSV Mode Menu
■■ Layout
Set the screen layout by selecting one out of the [1x1], [2x1], [3x2], [3x3], [4x3] and [6x4] buttons on the
screen.
▶▶If 1×1 is selected, one image can be viewed at a time. - If 6×4 is selected, 24 slice images can be viewed
at a time.
Tips!
▶▶Each time a new layout is selected, the currently selected image moves to the first position on the
screen.
■■ Ref. Image
Choose a plane in which to view multi-slice images by selecting from A, B and C planes.
■■ Ref. OH
Select a plane to be used as Reference OH.
▶▶If Ref. OH is 3D: Indicates the location of the selected slice in relation to volume data.
▶▶If Ref. OH is A, B or C: Indicates the location of the selected slice.
■■ Preset
Sets a preset or renames.
▶▶Preset: Use the dial-button to select Default or User1 ~ User5. If you select Default, it is set to the
default value of the system.
▶▶Rename: Renames a preset. If you press the dial-button, a Name window will appear.
▶▶Save Preset: Press the dial-button to save changes of a preset.
▶▶Load Preset: Press the dial-button to load the selected preset onto the system.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Palette
Set the color of a 2D image. The Soft Menu changes.
▶▶2D Palette: Use the dial-button to set the color to between 0 and 9 for a 2D image.
Post Processing
Use the Menu dial-button to select Post Processing in the 3D XI menu. The Post Processing menu will appear.
Post Processing performs post processing for a multi-slice image.
■■ Invert
Press the Menu dial-button to turn it on or off. If it is turned on, the brightness of multi-slice images is
inverted.
■■ Auto Contrast
Press the Menu dial-button to turn it on or off. If it is turned on, the brightness of multi-slice images is
automatically adjusted.
■■ Thres.
Press the Menu dial-button to turn it on or off.
This function moderates excessive brightness in an image. If it is turned on, Th. Low and Th. High appear in the Soft Menu.
▶▶Th. Low: Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3].
▶▶Th. High: Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4].
■■ Sharp
Press the Menu dial-button to turn it on or off.
This function allows you to adjust the boundary of Multi-Slice images. If it is turned on, Sharp appears
in the Soft Menu.
▶▶Sharp: Use the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to set the value between 100 and 400. If it is set to a
higher value, the boundary becomes clearer.
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Operation Manual
■■ XI MR
Press the Menu dial-button to turn it on or off. XI MR is used to improve the image quality by stressing
the contrast and edges of images. When it is turned on, it only affects the index image in a yellow frame.
■■ Gradient Mask
Rotate the Menu dial-button to select Top, Bottom, Left or Right. Gradient Mask adjusts the brightness
of a certain area in a multi-slice image. An area corresponding to the selected button gets brighter.
NOTE: For information on Preset and Palette, please refer to ‘3D View-MPR Mode.’
MSV Mode Soft Menu
■■ Slice Thickness
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to select a multi-slice cutting space between 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and
5.0 mm.
NOTE: Slice Thickness represents a slice space in the volume data, and thus it does not represent the
actual anatomical location.
■■ Selected Slice
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to select a slice line. The selected line can be viewed in a 2D
reference image. The volume slice image for the selected slice line is indicated with an orange color
band.
■■ Page Change
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to change page. This option is used when there is more than one
page due to multiple indices.
■■ Orientation Dot
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to turn it on or off. If it is on, a dot is indicated in the center of the
image.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Init
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to return to the initial screen in MSV Mode.
■■ Ruler
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to set the location of the ruler. You can select None, Right, Left, Top,
Bottom or All.
■■ Bias
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to adjust the bias of a Post Curve. Valid values are -100 to 100.
■■ Position
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to adjust the location of a Post Curve. Valid values are 0 – 100.
■■ Zoom
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to adjust a value between 25 and 400.
■■ L/R Flip
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4]. When the button is pressed, the left and right sides of an image are
flipped.
■■ U/D Flip
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [5]. When the button is pressed, an image is flipped upside down.
Oblique View
Press the Oblique View tab in the menu. Perpendicular plane images can be viewed by applying a line or
contour on Coronal, Sagital and Axial images.
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Operation Manual
Tips!
The View Direction of Perpendicular Plane Image
The direction of view is perpendicular to a cross-sectional plane in volume data. Please refer to the following illustration:
.
NOTE: While measurement functions such as Calculator and Caliper are not available, Text and Indicator
functions are available.
[Figure 4.18 Oblique View]
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
Oblique View Mode Menu
■■ Single Static Line
This allows you to view a plane that is perpendicular to the default line in an image. Use the Soft Menu
dial-button [2] Rotation Line dial-button on the control panel to rotate the default line.
■■ Dynamic Line
This allows you to draw a straight line and view a plane that is perpendicular to the line.
▶▶Use the Trackball and the Set button to draw a straight line. For the line drawn, the start point is
marked with S and the end point is marked with E.
▶▶Use the Change button on the control panel to move the line. Use the Trackball to place the line at
the desired location and then press the Set button to set the new location.
▶▶Use the Angle dial-button on the control panel or the Soft Menu dial-button [2] Rotation Line to
change the angle of the line.
■■ Contour
This allows you to contour a straight line or curve and view a plane that is perpendicular to it. The contouring, moving and modifying of a line are the same as in Dynamic Line.
■■ Multi- Line
This allows you to draw a straight line and view a plane that is perpendicular to the line. The drawing,
moving and modifying of a line are the same as in Dynamic Line.
NOTE: With Multi-Line and Multi-Contour, more than one line can be drawn only when Auto Increase is
turned on.
■■ Multi Contour
This allows you to contour a straight line or curve and view a plane that is perpendicular to it. The contouring, moving and modifying of a line are the same as in Dynamic Line.
■■ Multi Parallel
If you draw a straight line, four lines parallel to it are applied to a reference image to display an oblique
image.
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Operation Manual
▶▶After pressing Multi-Parallel, use the Trackball and the Set button to draw a reference line. Paral-
lel lines are then automatically drawn.
▶▶Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] Slice Thickness to adjust the spaces between parallel lines.
■■ Multi Plumb
If you draw a straight line, four lines perpendicular to it are applied to a reference image to display an
oblique image.
▶▶After pressing Multi-Plumb, use the Trackball and the Set button to draw a reference line. Perpen-
dicular lines are then automatically drawn.
▶▶Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] Slice Thickness to adjust the spaces between perpendicular
lines.
NOTE:
▶▶For information on Orientation Dot, please refer to ‘MSV Mode.’
▶▶For information on Preset and Palette, please refer to ‘3D View-MPR Mode.’
Oblique View Mode Soft Menu
■■ Rotate Line
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to adjust the location of a line. This option is not available when Contour or Multi-Contour is selected in the Oblique View Mode menu.
■■ Rotate X / Y / Z
Rotates a 3D image in the selected axis direction. Use the Soft Menu dial-buttons [4], [5] or [6] to
rotate the image to the X, Y or Z axis, respectively.
■■ Orientation Dot
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to turn it on or off. If it is on, a dot is indicated in the center of the
image.
■■ Next Page
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to move to the next page.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Position
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to adjust the location of a Post Curve. Valid values are 0 – 100.
■■ Bias
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to adjust the bias of a Post Curve. Valid values are -100 to 100.
■■ Prev Page
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to move to the previous page.
Volume CT Mode
Press the Volume CT tab in the menu. In this mode, an image is divided into Axial, Sagital and Coronal images, which are then recombined in 3D for display. This mode provides information on surface images.
Volume CT Mode has two sub-modes: Cube Volume CT and Cross Volume CT.
NOTE: While measurement functions such as Calculator and Caliper are not available, Text and Indicator
functions are available.
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Operation Manual
■■ Cube Volume CT
Press the Cube in the Volume CT menu. This mode provides information on neighboring external surface images in a cube.
[Figure 4.19 Cube VolumeCT]
■■ Select Surface
Use the Menu dial-button to select a reference surface to view. Available options are Front, Back, Left,
Right, Up and Down. The selected surface appears in frontal view. The orientation of the current cube is
shown in the lower right corner of the screen.
Use the Soft Menu dial-buttons [1]~[6] to change the location of the selected reference surface.
■■ Init
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to return to the initial screen in Volume CT Mode.
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Chapter 4 Diagnosis Modes
■■ Boundary
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to turn it on or off. This option allows you to show or hide additional boundary lines in Cube Volume CT. Additional boundary lines indicate the external area of the entire
volume.
■■ Zoom
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] on the control panel to zoom an image by 25 – 400 times.
■■ Rotation
Use the [4/X], [5/Y] and [6/Z] dial-button on the control panel to rotate a Cube Volume CT image by
the X-, Y- or Z-axis.
■■ Cross Volume CT
Press the Cross in the Volume CT menu. This mode provides information on images within the planes
intersecting each other.
[Figure 4.20 Cross Volume CT]
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Operation Manual
■■ A Plane
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to set the location of the Front Surface from between -127 and 127.
It will be displayed in blue frames on the screen.
■■ B Plane
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] to set the location of the Upper Surface from between -127 and 127.
It will be displayed in red frames on the screen.
■■ C Plane
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to set the location of the Left Surface from between -127 and 127. It
will be displayed in frames on the screen.
NOTE: Other usages are the same as for Cube Volume CT.
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Chapter
5
Measurements and
Calculations
‹‹Measurement Accuracy...................................5-3
Causes of Measurement Errors............................................5-3
Optimization of Measurement Accuracy........................5-5
Measurement Accuracy Table..............................................5-7
‹‹Basic Measurements........................................5-9
Distance Measurement........................................................5-11
Circumference and Area Measurement.........................5-15
Volume Measurement..........................................................5-17
‹‹Calculations by Application......................... 5-20
Things to note..........................................................................5-20
Common Measurement Methods...................................5-23
OB Calculation.........................................................................5-27
Gynecology Calculation.......................................................5-36
Cardiac Calculation................................................................5-40
Carotid Calculation................................................................5-49
Urology Calculation...............................................................5-58
Fetal Echo Calculation..........................................................5-62
LE Artery Calculation.............................................................5-66
UE Artery Calculation............................................................5-72
LE Vein Calculation.................................................................5-75
UE Vein Calculation................................................................5-78
Radiology Calculation...........................................................5-82
TCD Calculation.......................................................................5-86
Chapter
5
Thyroid Calculation................................................................5-89
Breast Calculation...................................................................5-90
Testicle Calculation................................................................5-92
Superficial Calculation..........................................................5-93
Pediatric Hips Calculation...................................................5-94
Musculoskeletal Calculation..............................................5-96
‹‹Report............................................................. 5-97
Viewing Report........................................................................5-97
Editing Report..........................................................................5-98
Adding Comment...............................................................5-100
Printing Report.....................................................................5-100
Saving Report.......................................................................5-101
Transferring Report.............................................................5-101
Graph Function....................................................................5-102
Closing Report......................................................................5-106
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Accuracy
Measurement values can vary, depending on the nature of the ultrasound, the body’s response to ultrasound,
the measurement tools, algorithms, product settings, probe type and user operation.
Before using this product, make sure to read and understand the following information regarding the causes
of measurement errors, and measurement optimization.
Causes of Measurement Errors
Image Resolution
The resolution of ultrasound images may be limited by the available space.
▶Errors due to a signal range may be minimized by adjusting focus settings. Optimizing focus settings
increases the resolution of the measurement area.
▶In general, lateral resolution is lower than axial resolution. Therefore, measurements should be
performed along the axis of the ultrasound beam to obtain accurate values.
▶Gain has a direct impact on resolution. Gain can be adjusted by using the Gain button for each
mode.
▶In general, increasing the frequency of ultrasound enhances resolution.
Pixel Size
▶An ultrasound images in the product consist of pixels.
▶Since a single pixel represents the basic unit of an image, a measurement error may result in the
displacement of approximately ±1 pixel when compared to the original image size.
▶However, this error becomes significant only when a narrow area in an image is measured.
Ultrasound Velocity
▶The velocity of ultrasound used during measurement is usually 1,540 m/s on average.
▶The velocity of ultrasound may vary depending on the cell type.
▶The possible range of error is between approximately 2-5% depending on the structure of cells (about
2% for typical cells and about 5% for fatty cells).
5-3
Operation Manual
Doppler Signal Adjustment
▶During velocity measurement, an error may occur depending on the cosine angle between the
blood flow and the ultrasound beam.
▶For Doppler velocity measurements, the most accurate results can be ensured when the ultrasound
beam is aligned in parallel with the blood flow.
▶If that is not possible, the angle between them should be adjusted by using the Angle option.
Aliasing
▶PW Spectral Doppler Mode uses a signal sampling technique to calculate the frequency (or velocity)
spectrum.
▶Adjust the baseline or the velocity scale to minimize aliasing. A lower frequency probe can also be
used to reduce aliasing.
▶Aliasing is dramatically reduced in CW Spectral Doppler Mode.
Calculation Equation
▶Some of the calculation equations used for clinical purposes originate from hypotheses and
approximation.
▶All calculation equations are based on medical reports and articles.
Human Error
▶Human error may occur due to inappropriate use or lack of experience.
▶This can be minimized through compliance with and thorough understanding of the manuals.
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Optimization of Measurement Accuracy
2D Mode
▶Resolution is in proportion to the frequency of the probe.
▶Penetration is in inverse proportion to the frequency of the probe.
▶The highest resolution can be obtained at the focus of the probe where the ultrasound beam is
narrowest.
▶The most accurate measurements can be obtained at the focus depth. The accuracy decreases as the
distance from the focus increases, widening the beam width.
▶Using the zoom function or minimizing the depth display makes distance or area measurements
more accurate.
M Mode
▶The accuracy of time measurements can be increased when the speed and the display format are set
to high values.
▶The accuracy of distance measurements can be increased when the display format is set to higher
values.
Doppler Mode
▶It is recommended to use lower frequency ultrasound for measurement of faster blood flows.
▶The size of the sample volume is limited by the axial direction of the ultrasound.
▶Using lower frequency ultrasound increases penetration.
▶The accuracy of time measurements can be increased when the speed is increased.
▶The accuracy of velocity measurements can be increased when the vertical scale is set to smaller
values.
▶It is most important to use an optimal Doppler angle to enhance the accuracy of velocity
measurements.
Color/Power Doppler Mode
▶A protocol is not specified for images in Color Doppler Mode or Power Doppler Mode. Therefore, the
same limitations imposed when measurements are taken in B/W images apply to the accuracy of the
measurements taken in these modes.
5-5
Operation Manual
▶It is not recommended to use images in Color/Power Doppler Mode for measurement of accurate
blood flow velocity.
▶The amount of blood flow is calculated based on the average velocity rather than the peak velocity.
▶In all applications, the amount of blood flow is measured in PW/CW Spectral Doppler Mode.
Cursor Position
▶All measurements are affected by input data.
▶To ensure accurate positioning of the cursor:
Adjust the images on the screen so that they are displayed at maximum granularity.
Use the front edge or boundary point of a probe to make the start and end points of a measurement
object more distinct.
Make sure that the probe direction is always aligned during measurement.
5-6
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Accuracy Table
The following tables show the accuracy of the measurements available using the product. Ensure that the
results of measurement accuracy checks are kept within the ranges specified in the table. Except for certain
applications or probes, the following accuracy ranges should be maintained for measurement of a straight
distance.
NOTE: To ensure accurate measurements, an accuracy check should be performed at least once per year.
If the measurement accuracy falls outside the ranges specified in the following table, contact Samsung
Medison Customer Service.
2D Mode
Measurements
System Tolerance
(Whichever is greater)
Test Methodology
Accuracy(1)
Based on
Range(2)
Axial Distance
< +/- 4% or 1mm
Phantom
Acquisition
Full Screen
Lateral Distance
< +/- 4% or 2mm
Phantom
Acquisition
Full Screen
Axial Resolution
< = 2mm
Phantom
Acquisition
Full Screen
Lateral Resolution
< = 3mm
Phantom
Acquisition
Full Screen
(1) The accuracy of the measurements differs from the table above, depending on the user’s skills.
(2) The distance is indicated as ‘cm’ up to two decimal points.
M Mode
Measurements
System Tolerance
(whichever is greater)
Test
Methodology
Accuracy (1)
Based on
Range (2)
Depth
<+/- 5% or 3 mm
Phantom
Phantom
1 - 25 cm
Time
< +/- 5%.
Signal generator
Phantom
.01 - 11.3 sec
(1)The accuracy of the measurements differs from the table above, depending on the user’s skills.
(2)The distance is indicated as ‘cm’ up to two decimal points. The speed is indicated as ‘cm/s’ up to two
decimal points.
5-7
Operation Manual
PW/CW Spectral Doppler Mode
Doppler
Measurement
System Tolerance
(whichever is greater)
Methodology
Range(2)
Velocity
< ± 15%
Phantom
PW:0.1cm/s – 8.8 m/s
CW:.1cm/s - 19.3 m/s
Time:
< +/- 5%.
Signal generator
.01 - 11.3 sec
(1) The accuracy of the measurements differs from the table above, depending on the user’s skills.
(2) The distance is indicated as ‘cm’ up to two decimal points. The speed is indicated as ‘cm/s’ up to two
decimal points.
5-8
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Basic Measurements
Press the Caliper button on the control panel.
NOTE: Take basic measurements of distance and area regardless of the application. For information on
measurements for each application, please refer to “Measurements by Application” in this chapter.
The available measurement methods vary depending on the current diagnosis mode. Please refer to the
following table:
Measurement
Distance Measurement
Circumference and Area
Measurement
Volume Measurement
Diagnosis Mode
Measurement Method
2D, M, D
Distance
Line Trace
Angle
%StD
M
M Distance
D
D Velocity
D A/B
D Trace
D time
2D, M, D
Ellipse
Trace
%StA
2D, M, D
3 Distance
1 Distance
Distance + Ellipse
Ellipse
MOD
[Table 5.1 Basic Measurements by Diagnosis Mode]
Basic Measurement Operations
The following is the information on common button operations for basic measurements:
■■ Select/Change Measurement Method
Use the Soft Menu dial-button on the control panel. The Soft Menu items displayed vary depending on
the diagnosis mode. The selected measurement method is displayed in the user information area.
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Operation Manual
■■ Set Display Location of Measurement Results
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [4] Result Action.
▶▶Move: Change the display location of measurement results. Use the Trackball to change the
location and then press the Set button.
▶▶Reset: Press the Soft Menu dial-button to initialize the display location of measurement results.
NOTE: When measurement results are displayed in more than one screen because there are too many of
them, use Move to find the desired measurement results.
■■ Cancel Measurement Results
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [5] Undo to cancel the current measurement and take it again.
NOTE: Among volume measurement items, only 3 Distance and Distance+Ellipse can be undone.
■■ Delete Measurement Result
Press the Clear button on the control panel.
■■ Print Measurement Result
Press the Print button on the control panel.
■■ Finish Basic Measurements
Press the Exit button on the control panel.
NOTE: To change various settings such as measurement units, press F5 Utility and select Measure
Setup > General. For more information, please refer to "Chapter 7. Utility.”
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Distance Measurement
Distance
This is a basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. You can specify two points in a 2D
image and measure the straight distance between them.
1. Select Distance in the Soft Menu [1]. Distance will appear in the user information area.
2. Use the Trackball and the Set button on the control panel to specify both end points of the
measurement area.
▶ Use the Trackball to place the cursor at the desired position and press the Set button.
Tips!
Repositioning Point
Pressing the Change button before pressing the Set button to complete positioning resets the position
of a point just set.
3. Specify both end points and then the distance between them will be measured.
4. Once measurement is done, the result is displayed on the screen.
Line Trace
It is a basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. You can specify a point in a 2D image
and trace a curve from that point to measure the distance between them.
1. Select Line Trace in the Soft Menu [1]. Line Trace will appear in the user information area.
2. Use the Trackball and the Set button on the control panel to specify the start point of the
measurement area.
▶ Use the Trackball to place the cursor at the desired position and press the Set button.
3. Use the Trackball to draw the desired curve and then press the Set button to set the end point.
Tips!
Editing Curve
Before pressing the Set button to specify the end point, you can rotate the Soft Menu dial-button [5]
Delete to delete a part of the curve being traced.
4. Specify both end points and then the length of the curve will be automatically measured.
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Operation Manual
Angle
A basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. Specify two straight lines in a 2D image and
measure the angle between them.
1. Select Angle in the Soft Menu [1]. Angle will appear in the user information area.
2. Draw two straight lines. For information on drawing a straight line, please refer to ‘Distance.’
3. The angle between two lines will be calculated and displayed on the screen.
▶ When two angles are calculated, the smaller angle is displayed.
%StD
StD stands for Stenosis Distance, which is a basic measurement available in all diagnosis modes. In a 2D
image, the diameter of a vessel is measured and the stenosis ratio calculated.
1. Select %StD in the Soft Menu [1]. %StD will appear in the user information area.
2. Measure the total diameter of a vessel using the Distance measurement method.
3. When a new cursor appears, measure the inner wall diameter of the vessel under stenosis.
4. Calculate %StD with the following equation:
%StD = (Outer Distance – Inner Distance) / Outer Distance × 100
M Distance
This is a basic measurement that is available in M Mode only. You can specify two points in an M image
and measure the distance, elapsed time and velocity between them.
1. Select M Distance in the Soft Menu [1]. M Distance will appear in the user information area.
2. Specify two points and then measure the shortest distance between them. The way that it is
measured is the same as in ‘Distance.’
3. Once measurement is done, the result is displayed on the screen.
D Velocity
This is a basic measurement that is available in Spectral Doppler Mode only. You can specify two points
in a Spectral Doppler image and measure the distance between them, and the velocity at each point to
calculate the velocity change, time change and acceleration.
NOTE: In a Spectral Doppler image, the X- and Y-axes represent time and velocity, respectively.
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
1. Select D Velocity in the Soft Menu [1]. D Velocity will appear in the user information area.
2. Specify two points and then measure the shortest distance between them. The way that it is
measured is the same as in ‘Distance.’
3. Once measurement is done, the result is displayed on the screen.
▶ V1 : Velocity at Point 1
▶ Time : Change in Time
▶ V2 : Velocity at Point 2
▶ Acc : Acceleration
▶ PGmax : Max Pressure Gradient
▶ RI : Resistivity Index
▶ V2-V1 : Change in Velocity
▶ S/D : Systolic to Diastolic Ratio
The equations used for D Velocity measurement are as follows:
▶
▶
▶
NOTE: If Application is set to Cardiac at Utility > Measure Setup > General > Caliper, the results
including Vmax, PGmax, V2-V1, Time, and Acc will be shown on the screen.
D A/B
This is a basic measurement that is available in Spectral Doppler Mode only. You can specify two points
in a Spectral Doppler image and measure the velocity at each point to calculate the ratio of the velocity
between them.
1. Select D A/B in the Soft Menu [1]. D A/B will appear in the user information area.
2. Specify two points for which to measure velocity.
▶ Use the Trackball to place the cursor at the desired position and press the Set button.
3. Once measurement is done, the result is displayed on the screen.
▶ V1 : Velocity at Point 1
▶ PGmax : Max Pressure Gradient
▶ V2 : Velocity at Point 2
▶ V1/V2 : The Ratio of Velocity
NOTE: If Application is set to Cardiac at Utility > Measure Setup > General > Caliper, the results
including Vmax, PGmax, V2-V1 will be shown on the screen.
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Operation Manual
D Trace
This is a basic measurement that is available in Spectral Doppler Mode only. You can specify a point in
a Spectral Doppler image and trace a curve from that point to calculate the velocity, integral value and
average velocity of blood flow.
1. Select the Soft Menu dial-button [1] D Trace. “D Trace” is displayed in the user information area.
2. Trace a curve. The method for measuring a curve is the same as in “2D Line Trace.”
3. When the measurement is finished, its result is shown on the screen.
▶ PSV: Peak Systolic Velocity
▶ PGmean: Mean Pressure Gradient
▶ EDV: End Diastolic Velocity
▶ VTI: Velocity Time Integral
▶ PI: Pulsatility Index
▶ PHT: Pressure Half Time
▶ RI: Resistivity Index
▶ Acc: Acceleration
▶ S/D: Ratio of PSV to EDV
▶ AccT: Acceleration Time
▶ Vmax: Max Velocity
▶ Dec: Deceleration
▶ Vmean: Mean Velocity
▶ DecT: Deceleration Time
▶ PGmax: Max Pressure Gradient
The equations used for D Trace measurement are as follows:
▶
▶
▶
▶
NOTE: If Application is set to Cardiac at Utility > Measure Setup > General > Caliper, the results
including Vmax, PGmax, PGmean, VTI, PHT, Acc, AccT, Dec and DecT will be shown on the screen.
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Circumference and Area Measurement
Ellipse
This is a basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. You can measure the circumference
and area of a circular (elliptical) object in a 2D image.
1. Select the Soft Menu [2] Ellipse. “Ellipse” is displayed in the user information area.
2. Use the Trackball and the Set button on the control panel to specify the diameter (axis) of the
measurement area.
▶ Place the cursor at a desired position with the Trackball, and press the Set button.
Tips!
Repositioning Point
Pressing the Change button before pressing the Set button to complete positioning resets the
position of a point just set.
3. Specify the size of the circle (ellipse).
▶ Adjust the size using the Trackball, and press the Set button.
4. When the measurement is finished, its result is shown on the screen.
The equations used for ellipse measurement are as follows:
, (A: Long axis, B: Short axis)
Area =
, (a, b: Axis)
Trace
This is a basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. You can measure the circumference
and area of an irregular object in a 2D image.
1. Select the Soft Menu [2] Trace. “Trace” is displayed in the user information area.
2. Use the Trackball and the Set button on the control panel to specify the start point for tracing over
the contour of the measurement area.
▶ Place the cursor at a desired position with the Trackball, and press the Set button.
3. Trace the curve so that the measurement cursor returns to the start point, and then press the Set
button.
5-15
Operation Manual
NOTE: Trace lines must be closed. If you press the Set button before tracing is complete, tracing may be
done over a straight line between the current point and the start point, resulting in a significant error.
4. When the measurement is finished, its result is shown on the screen.
The equations used for Trace measurement are as follows:
, (N = 1,2… last point)
, (N = 1,2… last point)
%StA
StA stands for Stenosis Area, which is a basic measurement available in all diagnosis modes. In a 2D image,
the area of a vessel is measured and the stenosis ratio (%) calculated.
1. Select %StA in the Soft Menu [2]. %StA will appear in the user information area.
2. Measure the area of the vessel outer wall using the Area measurement method.
3. When a new cursor appears, measure the inner wall area of the vessel under stenosis.
4. Calculate %StA with the following equation:
%StA = (Outer Area – Inner Area) / Outer Area × 100
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Volume Measurement
NOTE: Since Dual Mode simultaneously displays two images on the screen, you don’t have to return to
the diagnosis mode to measure volume in Dual Mode.
3 Distance
This is a basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. You can measure the volume of an
object in a 2D image by using 3 straight lines.
1. Select the Soft Menu [3] 3 Distance. “3 Distance” is displayed in the user information area.
2. Specify two points and measure the straight distance between them. The method for measuring a
line is the same as in “Distance.”
3. Measure the length of the remaining two straight lines as in the above. Measure other two distance
using the same method with 2.
4. When the measurement is finished, its result is shown on the screen. The volume of the object along
with the length of each straight line are calculated.
The equations used for 3 Distance measurement are as follows:
, (D: distance)
1 Distance
This is a basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. You can measure the volume of an
object in a 2D image by using only one straight line.
1. Select the Soft Menu [3] 1 Distance. “1 Distance” is displayed in the user information area.
2. Specify two points and measure the straight distance between them. The method for measuring a
line is the same as in “Distance.”
3. When the measurement is finished, its result is shown on the screen. The volume of the object along
with the length of the straight line are calculated.
The equations used for 1 Distance measurement are as follows:
, (D: distance)
5-17
Operation Manual
Distance + Ellipse
This is a basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. You can measure the volume of an
object in a 2D image by using one straight line and one circle (ellipse).
1. Select the Soft Menu [3] Distance + Ellipse. “Distance + Ellipse” is displayed in the user information
area.
2. Specify two points and measure the straight distance between them. The method for measuring a
line is the same as in “Distance.”
3. Specify the size of the circle (ellipse). The method for measuring a circle (ellipse) is the same as in
“Ellipse.”
4. When the measurement is finished, its result is shown on the screen.
▶ D: The length of a straight line
▶ Area: The area of a circle
▶ Long: The length of the long axis in an ellipse
▶ Vol.: Volume
▶ Short: The length of the short axis in an ellipse
The equations used for Distance + Ellipse measurement are as follows:
,(
)
Ellipse
A basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. In a 2D image, the volume of a conical object
is measured using an ellipse.
1. Select Ellipse in the Soft Menu [3]. Ellipse will appear in the user information area.
2. Set the size of the ellipse. The way it is measured is the same as in ‘Ellipse.’
3. Once measurement is done, the result is displayed on the screen.
The following equation is used for ‘Ellipse’ measurement:
5-18
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
MOD
A basic measurement that is available in all diagnosis modes. In a 2D image, the area of an irregular object
and the length of its long axis are obtained to calculate its volume. MOD is an abbreviation for ‘Method of
Disk.’
1. Select MOD in the Soft Menu [3]. MOD will appear in the user information area.
2. Draw a contour to measure. The way it is measured is the same as in ‘Trace.’
3. Measure the length of the long axis. The way it is measured is the same as in ‘Distance.’
4. Once measurement is done, the result is displayed on the screen.
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Operation Manual
Calculations by Application
Press the Calc button on the control panel.
Things to note
Before Taking Measurements
■■ Register Patient
Make sure that the currently registered patient information is correct. If the patient is not registered,
press the Patient button on the control panel.
■■ Check Probe, Application & Preset
▶▶Check the probe name and application that are displayed in the title bar. Press the Probe button
on the control panel to use another probe or application.
▶▶Check the preset settings in the Probe Selection screen.
Measurement Operations
The following gives information on the common button operations for measurements:
■■ Change/Select Application
Use the Calculator button on the control panel. Each time the Calculator button is pressed, the
application toggles in the order determined under Measure Setup. The order in which applications
appear can be specified at Utility > Measure Setup > General > Packages.
■■ Select Measurement Item
After moving the cursor by using the Trackball or the Menu dial-button on the control panel, press the
Set button or the Menu dial-button.
■■ Change Measurement Method
Press the Change button on the control panel. If the current measurement item can be measured
in more than one way, the measurement method is changed. The current measurement method is
displayed in the user information area. Once measurement is started, it cannot be changed.
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
■■ Measurement Result Display Settings
Use the Soft Menu dial-button on the control panel to set the location and to adjust the font size.
■■ Delete Measurement Result
Press the Clear button on the control panel.
NOTE: The measurement results are deleted from the screen but still shown on the report for the
corresponding application.
■■ Print Measurement Result
Press the Print button on the control panel.
■■ Exit Measurement
Press the Exit button on the control panel.
■■ End Diagnosis
Press the End Exam button on the control panel. The diagnosis for the current patient ends and all
measurement results are saved.
Measurement
[Figure 5.1 The Soft Menu for Measurement Results Display]
■■ HR Cycle
Enabled when a heart rate is measured in M/D Mode. Rotate the Soft Menu dial-button [1] to set the
Heart Rate Cycle and select a value between 1 and 20.
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Operation Manual
■■ Trace Direction
Enabled after Auto or Limited Trace is performed in Spectral Doppler Mode. Rotate the Soft Menu dialbutton [2] and select a direction to trace from Up, Down and All.
▶▶Up: Traces only the positive part on the Doppler spectrum.
▶▶Down: Traces only the negative part on the Doppler spectrum.
▶▶All: Traces the whole Doppler spectrum.
■■ Threshold
Rotate the Soft Menu dial-button [3] to set the threshold. Enabled after Auto or Limited Trace is
performed in Spectral Doppler Mode. Adjusting the threshold value helps the contouring of a Doppler
spectrum.
■■ Result Action
Rotate the Soft Menu dial-button [4] to set the position for the measurement results.
▶▶Move: Change the position where the measurement results are displayed. After changing the
position, press the Set button.
NOTE: The measurement results are deleted from the screen but still shown on the report for the
corresponding application.
▶▶Reset: Press the Soft Menu dial-button to initialise the position where the measurement results
are displayed.
■■ Delete
Enabled when a trace is measured. Rotate the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to delete the part of the curve
which is being traced.
■■ Font Size
Use the Soft Menu dial-button [6] to set the font size for the measurement results between 10 and 30.
■■ Undo
Press the Soft Menu dial-button [5] to cancel the last measurement.
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Common Measurement Methods
This section provides information on the common measurement methods used for applications.
Measurements in Spectral Doppler Mode
In general, if you trace a Doppler spectrum, you can obtain results for various measurement items
automatically. There are 3 ways to trace a Doppler spectrum.
SONOACE R7 also allows you to select a specific item under the Measurement menu and take
measurements individually without tracing a Doppler spectrum.
■■ Auto Trace
A spectrum is traced automatically. It is enabled in the Measurement menu in Spectral Doppler Mode.
1.Press Auto Trace in the Measurement menu.
2. The system traces a spectrum automatically.
3. When Trace is complete, the measurement results are displayed on the screen.
Tips!
Things to consider for Doppler Spectrum Auto Trace
The state of a Doppler spectrum may affect measurement results. Please see the following:
▶▶Causes for Trace Failure
- If Gain is changed for a Doppler image in the Freeze state, Contour Trace and Peak Trace will not work.
- If there is little or no noise in an image without a spectrum, Contour Trace will not work.
- If there is severe noise in an image, Contour Trace will not work.
- If the Clutter filter is set too high, Auto Trace or Limited Trace may not work.
▶▶Causes for Inaccurate Peak Trace
-If PRF (Pulse Repetition Frequency) is lower than the velocity of the observation area, aliasing
may occur. If the original signals are separated from aliasing, Trace can be done but the peak
measurement may not be accurate.
- If the peak of a spectral waveform is not clear or occurs intermittently, Trace can be done but the
peak measurement may not be accurate.
- If the Doppler Gain is set to high or low, it becomes difficult to distinguish spectrums. This may result
in measurement error(s).
- If the Wall Filter is set too high, only part of the spectrum is displayed. In this case, Trace can be done
but Peak measurement may not be accurate.
- If abnormal noise or artifact occurs, Trace can be done but Peak measurement may not be accurate.
▶▶Misc.
- Limited Trace is supported only for two-peak spectrums such as Mitral Valve Inflow and Tricuspid
Valve Inflow in the cardiology application.
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Operation Manual
■■ Limited Trace
If you specify a measurement range, a spectrum is traced automatically. It is enabled in the menu in
Spectral Doppler Mode.
1. Press Limited Trace in the Measurement menu. A bar appears allowing you to specify a measurement
area.
2. Specify the measurement range.
▶▶Place the bar at a desired position with the Trackball, and press the Set button.
3. The system traces spectrums within the specified range automatically.
4. When Trace is complete, the measurement results are displayed on the screen.
■■ Manual Trace
A spectrum is traced manually. It is enabled in the menu in Spectral Doppler Mode.
1.Press Manual Trace in the Measurement menu. A measurement cursor appears over a spectrum.
2. Trace the spectrum. The measuring method is the same as in “D Trace.”
3. When Trace is complete, the measurement results are displayed on the screen.
■■ Itemized Measurement
In the Measurement menu, select an individual item and take a measurement.
1. Press the Calculator button on the control panel after obtaining a desired image.
2. Select a desired item in the Measurement menu. The “+” cursor appears over a spectral waveform.
3. Position the “+” cursor and press the Set button.
4. The measurement results for the selected item are displayed on the screen.
Measurement items for Doppler Spectrum are as follows:
5-24
Item
Type
Unit
PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity)
Velocity
cm/s or m/s
EDV (End Diastolic Velocity)
Velocity
cm/s or m/s
TAMV (Time Average Mean Velocity)
Velocity
cm/s or m/s
TAPV (Time Average Peak Velocity)
Velocity
cm/s or m/s
PGmean (Mean Pressure Gradient)
Calculation
mmHg
PGmax (Max Pressure Gradient)
Calculation
mmHg
Equation
4 × PSV 2
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Tips!
Item
Type
Unit
Equation
S/D (Ratio of PSV to EDV)
Calculation
Ratio
(PSV / EDV)
D/S (Ratio of EDV to PSV)
Calculation
Ratio
EDV /PSV
RI (Resistivity Index)
Calculation
Ratio
(PSV – EDV) / PSV
PI (Pulsatility Index)
Calculation
Ratio
(PSV – EDV) / Vmean
Taking measurements via Auto Calc
You can use Auto Calc to take measurements on predetermined item(s).
Items measured are as follows. For information on setting measurement item(s), please refer to “Auto Calc”
in "Chapter 7. Utility.’
▶▶Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV)
▶ Time Averaged Mean Velocity (TAMV)
▶▶End Diastolic Velocity (EDV)
▶ Diastole / Systole Ratio (D/S)
▶▶Time Averaged Peak Velocity (TAPV)
▶ Max Pressure Gradient (PGmax)
▶▶Resistive Index (RI)
▶ Mean Pressure Gradient (PGmean)
▶▶Pulsatility Index (PI)
▶ Velocity Time Integral (VTI)
▶▶Systole / Diastole Ratio (S/D)
▶ PeakA
Volume Flow Measurement
Select Volume Flow in the Measurement menu.
Volume Flow allows you to measure and calculate an area or distance. For information on distance or
area measurements, please refer to “Basic Measurements.” The TAMV (Time Avg. Mean Velocity) value is
automatically measured.
■■ Vesl. Area (Vessel Area)
Measure the area of a blood vessel and calculate TAMV and Volume Flow.
■■ Vesl. Dist. (Vessel Distance)
Measure the width of a blood vessel and calculate TAMV and Volume Flow.
5-25
Operation Manual
Stenosis Measurement
You can measure the stenosis of each blood vessel system by measuring and calculating an area or
distance.
■■ % StA
Measure the area of the inner and outer walls of a blood vessel. StA stands for Stenosis Area.
1. Select the %StA menu and the first cursor will appear in 2D Mode.
2. Measure the area of the vessel’s outer wall using the Circ/Area measurement method.
3. When the second cursor appears, measure the area of the vessel’s inner wall under stenosis.
%Stenosis Area. = (Outer Area – Inner Area) / Outer Area × 100
■■ % StD
Measure the diameter of a blood vessel. StD stands for Stenosis Distance.
1. Select the %StD menu and the first cursor will appear in 2D Mode.
2. Measure the total diameter of a blood vessel using the Distance measurement method.
3. When the second cursor appears, measure the diameter of the vessel’s inner wall under stenosis.
%Stenosis Dist. = (Outer Distance – Inner Distance) / Outer Distance × 100
Heart Rate Measurement
■■ HR (Heart Rate)
You can calculate heart rates for a certain period of time.
1.Select HR in the Measurement menu. A bar appears allowing you to specify a measurement area.
2. Specify the measurement range.
▶▶Place the bar at a desired position with the Trackball, and press the Set button.
3. The system measures the heart rate within the specified range automatically. The measurement
results are displayed on the screen.
5-26
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
OB Calculation
Before Taking OB Measurements
■■ OB Basic Information
Enter the information required for OB diagnosis in the Patient Information window. The basic OB
information includes LMP (Last Menstrual Period) and Gestations.
Once LMP is entered, EDD (Estimated Delivery Date) and GA (Gestational Age) are calculated
automatically. LMP is required for the calculation of values such as EDD and SD in obstetrics
measurement.
▶▶EDD(LMP) = LMP + 280 days
▶▶GA(LMP) = Current System Date - LMP
Regardless of LMP, enter the EDD with a physician’s opinion into Estab. Due Date. If LMP is not available,
when Estab. Due Date is modified, LMP is automatically calculated and the “C” mark is displayed next to
the LMP information.
A maximum of four fetuses can be entered in the Gestations menu. The default value is ‘1’. In the case of
twins, enter ‘2’.
For further information about patient information menus and how to input patient information, refer
to “Entering Patient Data” in "Chapter 3. Setting”.
■■ OB Measurement Menu Settings
Set up the GA Equation, GA Table and OB measurement menus that are used in obstetrics
measurements. The user can manually write, back up or restore GA Tables. For more information on the
GA Equation and Table, refer to the Reference Manual.
Refer to the “Setting Measurements” section in Chapter 7 “Utility” for additional information.
NOTE:
▶▶It will be convenient to set the function of the User Key 1 buttons on the control panel to the two
obstetrics measurement items you want to use. Set their functions in Utility > Setup > Peripherals >
User Key Setup.
▶▶For twins, distinguish fetuses by specifying them as Fetus A and Fetus B in the Measurement
menu. Press the Change button on the control panel to change a fetus to measure.
5-27
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
When the measurements for the selected items are complete, the measurements and gestational age are
displayed on the screen. The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement.
Measured items are automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.2 OB Measurement Menu]
5-28
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Fetal Biometry
Fetal Biometry
Fetal Long Bones
Fetal Cranium
Items
Mode
Methods
Unit
GS
All
Distance
cm, mm
CRL
All
Distance
cm, mm
YS
All
Distance
cm, mm
BPD, HC
All
Distance
cm, mm
BPD
All
Distance
cm, mm
OFD
All
Distance
cm, mm
HC
All
Circumference or automatic
calculation
cm, mm
APD
All
Distance
cm, mm
TAD
All
Distance
cm, mm
AC
All
Circumference or automatic
calculation
cm, mm
FTA
All
Area or
automatic calculation
cm2, mm2
FL
All
Distance
cm, mm
SL
All
Distance
cm, mm
APTD, TTD
All
Distance
cm, mm
APTD
All
Distance
cm, mm
TTD
All
Distance
cm, mm
ThC
All
Circumference or automatic
calculation
cm, mm
HUM
All
Distance
cm, mm
ULNA
All
Distance
cm, mm
TIB
All
Distance
cm, mm
RAD
All
Distance
cm, mm
FIB
All
Distance
cm, mm
CLAV
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vertebral
All
Distance
cm, mm
CEREB
All
Distance
cm, mm
CM
All
Distance
cm, mm
NF
All
Distance
cm, mm
NT
All
Distance
cm, mm
OOD
All
Distance
cm, mm
IOD
All
Distance
cm, mm
NB
All
Distance
cm, mm
Lat Vent
All
Distance
cm, mm
HW
All
Distance
cm, mm
5-29
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Fetal Others
AFI
Cervix
CTAR
PLI
Umb. Artery
5-30
Items
Mode
Methods
Unit
Foot
All
Distance
cm, mm
Ear
All
Distance
cm, mm
MP
All
Distance
cm, mm
Lt/Rt. Renal L
All
Distance
cm, mm
Lt/Rt.Renal AP
All
Distance
cm, mm
Pelvis
All
Distance
cm, mm
All
All
Distance
cm, mm
Q1
All
Distance
cm, mm
Q2
All
Distance
cm, mm
Q3
All
Distance
cm, mm
Q4
All
Distance
cm, mm
MVP
All
Circumference
cm, mm
Cervix Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
All (D)
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
ThD ap
All
Distance
cm, mm
ThD trans
All
Distance
cm, mm
HrtD ap
All
Distance
cm, mm
HrtD trans
All
Distance
cm, mm
All (A)
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
ThA
All
Area
cm2, mm2
HrtA
All
Area
cm2, mm2
All
PW
Calculated after
velocity measurement
Sys Flow
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
A. Rev Flow
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dias Flow
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
%StD
All
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
%
2
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm , mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
MCA
Rt. / Lt.
Uterine Artery
Plac. Artery
Rt. / Lt.
Fetal Carotids
Items
Mode
Methods
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Unit
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm , mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
2
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
5-31
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt.
Fetal Carotids
Fetal Aorta
Items
Mode
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Renal Artery
Volume Flow
Fetal HR
5-32
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Unit
%
%
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
Vesl. Area
Ductus Venosus
Methods
All
%
Area
cm , mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
2
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
%
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
Volume
Flow(Auto)
Volume Flow(D)
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
PW
Automatic calculation
ml/m
PW
Automatic calculation
ml/m
TAMV
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
cm/s or m/s
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vesl. Area.
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Fetal HR
PW
Heart Rate
bpm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
NOTE:
▶▶PLI, Renal Artery, and Fetal HR can only be measured in Doppler Mode.
▶▶For information on basic measurements, please refer to “Basic Measurements” in this chapter.
▶▶For references on measurement items, please refer to “Reference Manual – Part 1.”
Automatic Calculation
Some items in the measurement menu are automatically calculated based on measurements of other
items.
■■ HC
This is automatically calculated using the following formula, provided there are measured BPD and OFD
values.
Exception: when you use Merz reference,
■■ AC
This is automatically calculated using the following formula, provided there are measured APD and TAD
values.
Exception: when you use Merz reference,
■■ FTA
This is automatically calculated using the following formula, provided there are measured APD and TAD
values.
■■ ThC
This is automatically calculated using the following formula, provided there are measured APTD and
TTD values.
5-33
Operation Manual
AFI (Amniotic Fluid Index)
Measure the amniotic fluid index. Measurements are performed by dividing the pregnant woman’s
abdomen into four parts. The distance between the fetus and the farthest point of each area is measured.
To obtain a specific image from each quadrant plane, press the Freeze button to go to the diagnosis
mode. After obtaining the image, press the Freeze button again to return to the measurement mode.
Calculating Fetal Weight (EFW)
When measurements for the following items are complete, the system uses the results to calculate the
estimated fetal weight automatically. For an equation for calculating fetal weight, please refer to “Estimated
Fetal Weight Formula” in the Reference Manual Part 1.
▶ BPD and AC
▶ AC and FL
▶ BPD, FL and FTA
▶ BPD, AC and FL
▶ BPD, APTD, TTD and FL
▶ HC, AC and FL
▶ BPD, APTD, TTD and SL
▶ BPD,HC, AC and FL
▶ BPD and TTD
▶ AC
NOTE: For reference, the Osaka University /Tokyo University methods are mainly used in Asia, the Merz
method in Europe, and the Shepard/ Hadlock methods on the American continent.
Continuous Measurement / Review for EFW Calculation
You can measure OB item(s) continuously for EFW calculation.
Tips!
Before Measurement
1. Check whether the User key has been set to measure the EFW consecutively. To measure the EFW
consecutively using the User key, set it in Utility > Setup > Peripherals > User Key.
2. When the Confirm Current EFW Reference is not selected or when you want to change it, select or
change it in Utility > Measure Setup > OB > Tables > Fetal weight > EFW Equation.
NOTE: This function is not available in 3D Mode.
5-34
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
■■ How to measure
1. Press the User Key1 on the control panel. OB menu and measure items are displayed on the screen.
2. Measure the items for EFW calculation using trackball and the Set button.
3. Press the Freeze button to finish the first measurement.
4. Press the Freeze button to measure the next items.
5. When you finish the measurement for all items, the result will be displayed on the monitor.
See following table;
Reference
Measure Item (by Order)
Campbell
Hadlock
Hadlock1
Hadlock2
Hadlock3
Hadlock4
Hansmann
Merz
Osaka
Shepard
Shinozuka1
Shinozuka2
Shinozuka3
Ferrero
Higginbottom
Thurnau
Warsof
Weiner1
Weiner2
Woo
AC
BPD→AC
AC→FL
BPD→AC→FL
AC→FL→HC
BPD, HC→AC→FL
BPD→TTD
BPD→AC
BPD→FTA→FL
BPD→AC
BPD→AC→FL
BPD→APTD, TTD→SL
BPD→APTD, TTD→FL
AC→FL
AC
BPD→AC
BPD→AC
HC→AC
AC→FL→HC
BPD→AC→FL
■■ Review the Result of EFW Calculation
▶▶Press the User Key1 on the control panel. Measured items and its results are displayed on the
screen.
▶▶To remove the results, press the Clear button on the control panel.
5-35
Operation Manual
Gynecology Calculation
Before Taking GYN Measurements
Enter the information required for GYN diagnosis in the Patient Information screen. Basic Information for
gynecology includes Gravida, Para, Aborta, Ovul Date, Day of Cycle and Ectopic.
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.3 GYN Measurement Menu]
5-36
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Uterus
Rt. / Lt. Cyst
Rt. / Lt. Ovary
Rt. / Lt. Follicles
Mass 1~3
Rt. / Lt. Ovarian A
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Endo. Thickness
All
Distance
cm, mm
Cervix Vol.
All
Volume
ml
Cervix Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Cervix Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Cervix Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
1 ~ 12
All
Volume calculated after
distance measurement
cm, mm and ml
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
5-37
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Uterine A
Pericystic
Endometrial
Endo. Polyp
Rt. / Lt. Ovarian Mass
Uterine Tumor 1~3
5-38
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Uterine Tumor 1~3
Cervical Tumor
Cervical Tumor
Ectopic
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Fetal Heart Rate
PW
Heart Rate
bpm
Most of the gynecology measurements are distance measurements and volume measurements based on
the distance measurement results. If multiple images, such as long axis images and transverse axis images
are needed, press the Freeze button to switch to Scan Mode and obtain images from another perspective.
NOTE:
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common Measurement
Methods’.
▶▶For references on measurement items, see the Reference Manual – Part 2.
5-39
Operation Manual
Cardiac Calculation
NOTE: Cardiac measurement is an optional item.
Before Taking Cardiac Measurements
■■ Cardiology Basic Information
Enter the patient information required for cardiology diagnosis in the Patient Information window. The
basic information for cardiology includes Height, Weight, HR (Heart Rate), RAP (Right Arterial Pressure)
and BP (Blood Pressure). When the patient’s height and weight are entered, BSA (Body Surface Area) is
automatically calculated and displayed.
For more information about patient information menus and how to enter information, please refer to
“Entering Patient Data” in "Chapter 3. Setting.”
■■ Cardiac Measurement Menu Settings
Set the related menus for convenient measurement. You can specify how an area and volume can
be calculated. Please refer to the “Setting Measurements” section in "Chapter 3. Setting” for more
information on measurement menus and settings.
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
■■ Dist20
Traces the cardiac circumference and then draw the cardiac axis. The system automatically draws 20
straight lines perpendicular to the axis and calculates its volume.
NOTE:
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common Measurement
Methods’.
▶▶For references on measurement items, see the Reference Manual – Part 2.
5-40
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
[Figure 5.4 Cardiac Measurement Menu]
Measurement Menu
LV
LV(M)
Item
Mode
Method
LVd
All
Continuous measurement
Unit
IVSd
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVIDd
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVPWd
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVAWd
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVIIDd
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVs
All
Continuous measurement
IVSs
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVIDs
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVPWs
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVAWs
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
RVIDs
All
Distance
All LV (M)
M
Continuous measurement
IVSd
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVIDd
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVPWd
M
Distance
cm, mm
RVAWd
M
Distance
cm, mm
5-41
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
LV(M)
LV Vol. (Simpson)
LV Vol. (A/L)
LV Vol. (Bullet)
LV Mass
RV
RV (M)
5-42
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
RVIDd
M
Distance
cm, mm
IVSs
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVIDs
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVPWs
M
Distance
cm, mm
RVAWs
M
Distance
cm, mm
RVIDs
M
Distance
cm, mm
A2C Vol.d
All
Dist20
ml
A2C Vol.s
All
Dist20
ml
A4C Vol.d
All
Dist20
ml
A4C Vol.s
All
Dist20
ml
Vol. d
All
Volume
ml
Vol. s
All
Volume
ml
2
LVAd sax
All
Area
cm , mm2
LVAs sax
All
Area
cm2, mm2
LVLd apical
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVLs apical
All
Distance
cm, mm
All
All
Calculated after
area measurement
g
LVAd sax epi
All
Area
cm2, mm2
LVAd sax endo
All
Area
cm2, mm2
LVLd apical
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVAWd
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVIDd
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVAd
All
Area
cm2, mm2
RVAWs
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVIDs
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVAs
All
Area
cm2, mm2
RV Major
All
Distance
cm, mm
RV Minor
All
Distance
cm, mm
LPA Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
MPA Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
RPA Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVAWd
M
Distance
cm, mm
RVIDd
M
Distance
cm, mm
RVAWs
M
Distance
cm, mm
RVIDs
M
Distance
cm, mm
RVPEP
M
Time
ms
RVET
M
Time
ms
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
LA Vol.
LA Vol. (Simpson)
Ao / LA
Ao / LA (M)
RA
LVOT
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
All
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
LA Major
All
Distance
cm, mm
LA Minor
All
Distance
cm, mm
LA Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
LA EDV A2C
All
Dist 20
ml
LA ESV A2C
All
Dist 20
ml
LA EDV A4C
All
Dist 20
ml
LA ESV A4C
All
Dist 20
ml
All
All
Continuous measurement
Ao Root
All
Distance
cm, mm
LA Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVOT Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
Ao Arch
All
Distance
cm, mm
Asc Ao
All
Distance
cm, mm
Desc Ao
All
Distance
cm, mm
Ao Isth Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
Ao ST Junct Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
Ao Sinus Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
All
M
Continuous measurement
Ao Root
M
Distance
cm, mm
AV Cusp Sep
M
Distance
cm, mm
LA Diam
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVPEP
M
Time
ms
LVET
M
Time
ms
RA Major
All
Distance
cm, mm
RA Minor
All
Distance
cm, mm
RAAd
All
Area
cm2, mm2
RAAs
All
Area
cm2, mm2
RAEDV
All
Dist20
Ml
RAESV
All
Dist20
Ml
IVC Diam Exp.
All
Distance
cm, mm
IVC Diam Ins.
All
Distance
cm, mm
SVC Diam Exp.
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
SVC Diam Ins.
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
5-43
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
LVOT
RVOT
AV
5-44
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
LVOT Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVOT Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
LVOT VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
LVOT AccT
PW
Time
ms
LVOT ET
PW
Time
ms
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
RVOT Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
RVOT Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
RVOT VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
RVOT ET
PW
Time
ms
AV Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
AV Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
AV Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
AV Cusp
All
Distance
cm, mm
AV Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
AVA Planimetry
All
Area
cm2, mm2
AV Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
AV PHT
PW
Time
ms
AV VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
AV AccT
PW
Time
ms
AV DecT
PW
Time
ms
AV ET
PW
Time
ms
Bpm
R-R Interval
M, PW
Heart Rate
AR Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
AR Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
AR Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
AR VC Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
AR Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
AR ed Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
AR PHT
PW
Time
ms
AR VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
AR AccT
PW
Time
ms
AR DecT
PW
Time
ms
AR PISA Rad
C
PISA-Radius
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
AV
MV (M)
MV
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
AR Alias Vel.
C
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
AR IVRT
PW
Time
ms
AR IVCT
PW
Time
ms
AVO
C,PW
Time
ms
ms
AVC
C,PW
Time
All Points
M
Continuous measurement
D-E
M
Distance
cm, mm
E-F Slope
M
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
A-C Interval
M
Time
ms
EPSS
M
Distance
cm, mm
Propagation Vel.
M
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
MV Ann Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
MV Diam 1
All
Distance
cm, mm
MV Diam 2
All
Distance
cm, mm
MVA Planimetry
All
Area
cm2, mm2
MV Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
MV Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
E-DT-A
PW
Time-Velocity-Time
ms and m/s
MV Peak E
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
MV Peak A
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
MV Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
MV PHT
PW
Time
ms
MV VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
MV AccT
PW
Time
ms
MV DecT
PW
Time
ms
MV A Dur.
PW
Time
ms
MV ET
PW
Time
ms
MV IVRT
PW
Time
ms
MV IVCT
PW
Time
ms
R-R Interval
M, PW
Heart Rate
bpm
cm, mm
MR VC Diam
All
Distance
MR Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
MR Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
MR Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
MR Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
MR VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
MR dp / dt
PW
Calculated after
time measurement
mmHg/s
5-45
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
MV
TV
PV
5-46
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
MR PISA-Rad.
C
Distance
cm, mm
MR Alias Vel.
C
Velocity
m/s
TV Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
TV Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
TV Ann Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
TV Diam 1
All
Distance
cm, mm
TV Diam 2
All
Distance
cm, mm
TVA Planimetry
All
Area
cm2, mm2
TV Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
TV Peak E
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
TV Peak A
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
TV PHT
PW
Time
ms
TV VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
TV AccT
PW
Time
ms
TV DecT
PW
Time
ms
TV A Dur.
PW
Time
ms
Q to TV Open
PW
Time
ms
bpm
R-R Interval
M, PW
Heart Rate
TR Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
TR Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
TR Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
TR VC Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
TR Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
TR VTI
PW
cm, mm
TR dp / dt
PW
mmHg/s
TR PISA-Rad.
C
Distance
Calculated after
time measurement
PISA-Radius
TR Alias Vel.
C
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
cm, mm
PV Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PV Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PV Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PV Ann Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
PVA Planimetry
All
Area
cm2, mm2
PV Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
PV PHT
PW
Time
ms
PV AccT
PW
Time
ms
PV DecT
PW
Time
ms
PV ET
PW
Time
ms
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
PV
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
R-R Interval
M, PW
Heart Rate
Bpm
Q to PV Close
PW
Time
ms
PR Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PR Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PR Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PR VC Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
PR Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
MPA Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
PR PHT
PW
Time
ms
PR AccT
PW
Time
ms
PR DecT
PW
Time
ms
Calculated after
continuous measurement
All
Tei Index
Pulm. Veins
Hepatic Veins
Tissue Doppler
Qp: Qs
MV TST
PW
Time
ms
MV ET
PW
Time
ms
MV IVCT
PW
Time
ms
MV IVRT
PW
Time
ms
All
PW
Continuous measurement
Sys Vel.
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dias Vel.
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
A. Rev Vel.
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
A. Rev Dur.
PW
Time
ms
All
PW
Continuous measurement
Sys Vel.
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dias Vel.
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
A. Rev Vel.
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
A. Rev Dur.
PW
Time
ms
All
PW
Continuous measurement
Peak E’
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Peak A’
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Peak S’
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
AccT
PW
Time
ms
DecT
PW
Time
ms
LVOT Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
Sys.HR
PW
Heart Rate
bpm
Sys.VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
RVOT Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
5-47
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Qp: Qs
PE
HR
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Plum. HR
PW
Heart Rate
bpm
Plum. VTI
PW
Distance
cm, mm
PEd
All
Distance
cm, mm
PEs
All
Distance
cm, mm
HR
M, PW
Heart Rate
bpm
NOTE:
▶▶In Dual 2D Mode, two images can be viewed simultaneously.
▶▶For RVAWd, RVIDd, RVAWs, and RVIDs, see the LV measurement method.
▶▶MPA Diam, RPA Diam, and LPA Diam are measured under Aortic Valve Level in Parasternal Short
Axis.
▶▶C Mode is mainly used for measuring reverse cardiac blood flow.
▶▶As PISA-Radius or PISA-Alias Vel. measurements require Velocity values, you have to select color
display for Velocity or Vel + Var in C Mode. For more information, see the ‘Color Doppler Mode’
section in "Chapter 4. Diagnosis Mode”.
5-48
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Carotid Calculation
Before Taking Carotid Measurements
Set the related menus for convenient measurement. You can also specify how an area and volume are
calculated. Please refer to the “Setting Measurements” section in "Chapter 3. Setting” for more information
on the measurement menus and settings.
Measurement Menu
[Figure 5.5 Carotid Measurement Menu]
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
NOTE:
▶▶For information on basic measurements, please refer to “Basic Measurements” in this chapter.
▶▶For references on measurement items, please refer to “Reference Manual – Part 2.”
5-49
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt.
Subclavian A
Rt. / Lt. Prox CCA
Rt. / Lt. Mid CCA
Rt. / Lt. Distal CCA
5-50
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
IMT
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
IMT
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Distal CCA
Rt. / Lt. Bulb
Rt. / Lt. Prox ICA
Rt. / Lt. Mid ICA
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
IMT
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
IMT
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
IMT
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
5-51
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Mid ICA
Rt. / Lt.. Distal ICA
Rt. / Lt. ECA
Rt. / Lt. Vetebral A
5-52
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
IMT
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
IMT
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
IMT
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Vetebral A
General
Volume Flow
HR
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Volume Flow(Auto)
PW
Automatic calculation
ml/m
Volume Flow(D)
PW
Automatic calculation
ml/m
TAMV
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
cm/s or m/s
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vesl. Area.
All
Area
cm2, mm2
HR
PW
Heart Rate
bpm
5-53
Operation Manual
Auto IMT (Optional)
This function allows you to take IMT measurement easily and quickly.
NOTE:
▶▶Auto IMT is available only under the following conditions:
▶▶Probe: Linear Probe
▶▶Application: Vascular
▶▶Diagnosis Mode: 2D, C or PD Mode
Auto IMT Screen
■■ Risk Color Bar
It is shown in colors based on the IMT thickness. If the thickness is <= 0.5 mm, the entire bar is shown
in green. If the thickness is >= 1.1 mm, the entire bar is shown in red. For a thickness between these
values, it is shown in the corresponding color.
■■ Rular and Range Bar
Use the Trackball and Set button to specify the location and range at which IMT will be measured.
▶▶Rular: The grid unit is 10 mm. This option is used when a vessel is lying laterally. At the
measurement location, press the Set button to take IMT measurement at 10 mm interval.
▶▶Range Bar: This option is used when a vessel is not lying laterally, or the length of a specific
segment is measured. Press and hold the Set button at the start point, and then drag the Trackball
to specify the end point.
■■ Intima and Adventitia Pair
▶▶Between the Near and Far zones, the one with the higher QI is automatically selected as a
measurement value and it is represented by the color of the Risk Color Bar.
▶▶A pair with lower QI is represented in dark sky blue.
▶▶Press Change to move the Near and Far zones that are automatically selected with QI. The
measurement value and color presentation are also changed. However, if QI is 0, it will not be
changed.
5-54
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
■■ Measure Result Table
▶▶Max: The maximum thickness of the Intima/Adventitia pair.
▶▶Mean: The average thickness of the Intima/Adventitia pair.
▶▶SD : Standard Deviation
▶▶QI: The distance ratio of the measured point in a distance for Quality Index measurement.
▶▶Points: The total number of the measured Intima/Adventitia pairs.
[Figure 5.6 Auto IMT]
5-55
Operation Manual
Auto IMT Measurement
1. After checking the probe, application and preset, start carotid measurement.
2. If the desired images are obtained, press Freeze. Use the Trackball to select an image for IMT
measurement.
3. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [1] Auto IMT. The Auto IMT screen will appear.
▶ If scanning is performed when the center of the vessel is aligned with the center of the image area,
IMT measurement starts automatically.
4. Use the Trackball and the Set button to set a location for IMT measurement.
Tips!
Operation #1, #2
If Operation #1, #2 in the user information area is followed, IMT measurement can be taken more
easily.
▶ Select a point between Near and Far.
▶ If the vessel image quality is poor, select an area that is close to the Intima to be measured.
▶ If a detailed area has to be selected, use Range Bar.
▶ Press Space Bar in the keyboard to turn on/off the Intima and Adventitia Marker.
5. Once the measurement location is set, measurement values are listed in a table.
Auto IMT Measurements Analysis
1. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] Analysis. The Analysis screen will appear.
2. Use the Trackball and the Set button to select the desired analysis from Framingham, Risk Factor,
Normal IMT and User Graph.
▶ Bars corresponding to the measurement results will be shown on each graph. However, bars are not
shown when the measurement results are smaller than the Framingham Risk Factor.
Tips!
User Graph
User Graph can be used to customize a graph for better analysis of measurement results.
3. Press the Soft Menu dial-button [6] Analysis again to complete analysis.
The following materials were referred to when analyzing the measurements of Auto IMT.
5-56
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
■■ Framingham
Correlation between the Framingham Risk Score and Intima Media Thickness: the Paroi Arterielle et
Risque Cardio-vasculair (PARC) Study.
Pierre-Jean Touboul, EricVicaut, Julien Labreuche, Jean-Pierre Belliard, Serge Cohen, Serge Kownator,
Jean-Jacques Portal, Isabelle Pithois-Merli, Pierre Amarenco. On behalf of PARC Study participating
physicians.
■■ Risk Factor
Mannheim Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Consensus (2004~2006)
P.-J. Touboul, M.G. Hennerici, S.Meairs, H.Adams, P.Amarenco, N.Borstein, L.Csiba, M.Desvarieux,
S.Ebrahim, M.Fatar, R.Hermandez Hernandez, M.Jaff, S.Kownator, P.Prati, T.Rundek, M.Sitzer, U.Schiminke,
J.-C. Tardif, A.Taylor, E.Vicaut, K.S.Woo, F.Zannad, M.Zureik
■■ Normal IMT
Simon A, Gariepy J, Chironi G, Megnien JL, Levenson J: Intima-media thickness: a new tool for diagnosis
and treatment of cardiovascular risk. Journal of Hypertension 20:159-169, 2002
Saving Auto IMT Measurement Values
1. Use the Soft Menu dial-button [1] Direction to select the direction of the measurement area.
2. Use the Soft Menu dial-button [2] Position to select the location of the measurement area.
3. Use the Soft Menu dial-buttons [3] – [5] to choose a name for the measurement area. Press the
button to save measurement values and exit Auto IMT Measurement Mode. The saved values will
be displayed in the left hand side of the screen.
5-57
Operation Manual
Urology Calculation
Before Taking Urology Measurements
Set the related menus for convenient measurement.
You can select the volume method for measurement. There are four types of volume method. The factor
value can be set manually for the formulae that need it.
For more information on the measurement menus and settings, please refer to “Setting Measurements” in
"Chapter 7. Utility.”
Measurement Menu
[Figure 5.7 Urology Measurement Menu]
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
NOTE:
▶▶The measurement methods of each menu vary with the Volume Method set at Utility > Measure
Setup > Urology.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common Measurement
Methods’.
▶▶For references on measurement items, see the Reference Manual – Part 2.
5-58
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
■■ 3Distance
Calculate a volume by measuring three distances.
Measurement Menu
Urology
Bladder Vol.
WG Prostate Vol.
T-Zone Vol.
Residual Vol.
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
cm, mm
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
cm, mm
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
cm, mm
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
2
Vesl.Area
All
Area
cm , mm2
Vesl.Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
All
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
All
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
All
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Pre Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Pre Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Pre Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Pre Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Post Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Post Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Post Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Post Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
5-59
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Renal Vol.
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
All
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Renal Pelvis
All
Distance
cm, mm
Transitional Zone Prostate Volume, Bladder Volume, Left Renal Volume, Right Renal Volume are the
same measurements as for Prostate Volume.
■■ 3 Distance * Factor
The same as for “3 Distance.”
■■ Ellipsoid
Calculate a volume by using the Main Diameter and Beside Diameter values.
Measurement Menu
Bladder Vol.
WG Prostate Vol.
T-Zone Vol.
Residual Vol.
Residual Vol.
5-60
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vol.
All
Calculated after distance
measurement
ml
Main Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Beside Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vol.
All
Calculated after distance
measurement
ml
Main Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Beside Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vol.
All
Calculated after distance
measurement
ml
Main Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Beside Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Pre All
All
Calculated after distance
measurement
ml
Pre Main Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Pre Beside Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Post All
All
Calculated after distance
measurement
ml
Post Main Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Item
Mode
Residual Vol.
Post Beside Dia.
Rt. / Lt. Renal Vol.
Method
Unit
All
Distance
cm, mm
All
All
Calculated after distance
measurement
ml
Main Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Beside Dia.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Renal Pelvis
All
Distance
cm, mm
■■ Sum of 20 Disks
After measuring the circumference of a prostate, use the Trackball and the Set button to calculate the
volume by measuring the axis of the prostate.
Measurement Menu
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Bladder Vol.
Vol.
All
Dist20
ml
WG Prostate Vol.
Vol.
All
Dist20
ml
T-Zone Vol.
Vol.
All
Dist20
ml
Residual Vol.
Rt. / Lt. Renal Vol.
Pre Vol.
All
Dist20
ml
Post Vol.
All
Dist20
ml
Vol.
All
Dist20
ml
Renal Pelvis
All
Distance
cm, mm
5-61
Operation Manual
Fetal Echo Calculation
Before Taking Fetal Echo Measurements
Set the related menus for convenient measurement. You can also specify how volume can be calculated.
Please refer to the “Setting Measurements” section in "Chapter 7. Utility” for more information on the
measurement menus and settings.
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. In addition, measurement
items are similar to those for cardiac calculation.
Measured items are automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.8 Fetal Echo Measurement Menu]
NOTE:
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common Measurement
Methods’.
▶▶For references on measurement items, see the Reference Manual – Part 2.
5-62
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
LV Vol.
(Simpson)
2D Echo
CTAR
Fetal M-mode
MPA
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
A2C Vol.d
A2C Vol.s
All
Dist20
ml
All
Dist20
ml
A4C Vol.d
All
Dist20
ml
A4C Vol.s
All
Dist20
ml
Asc Ao
All
Distance
cm, mm
MPA Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
Duct Art
All
Distance
cm, mm
LA Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
RA Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
RV Diam
All
Distance
cm, mm
IVS
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVIDd
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVIDs
All
Distance
cm, mm
LVPW
All
Distance
cm, mm
HrtC
All
Circumference
cm, mm
ThC
All
Circumference
cm, mm
All (D)
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
ThD ap
All
Distance
cm, mm
ThD trans
All
Distance
cm, mm
HrtD ap
All
Distance
cm, mm
HrtD trans
All
Distance
cm, mm
All (A)
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
ThA
All
Area
cm2, mm2
HrtA
All
Area
cm2, mm2
All
M
Continuous measurement
cm, mm
IVSd
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVIDd
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVPWd
M
Distance
cm, mm
IVSs
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVIDs
M
Distance
cm, mm
LVPWs
M
Distance
cm, mm
RVDd
M
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
5-63
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Duct Artriosus
IVC
Duct Venosus
Asc Aorta
Dsc Aorta
MV Inflow
MV Regurg
TV Inflow
TV Regurg
PLI
PLI
5-64
Item
Mode
Method
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Unit
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Peak E
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Peak A
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vel.
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Peak E
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Peak A
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vel.
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
All
PW
Calculated after
velocity measurement
Sys Flow
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dias Flow
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
A. Rev Flow
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Tei Index
Fetal HR
Item
Mode
Method
All
PW
Calculated after
continuous measurement
TST
PW
Time
Unit
ms
Eject T
PW
Time
ms
Fetal Heart Rate
M, PW
Heart Rate
bpm
■■ CTAR (Cardio-Thorax Area Ratio)
This measurement is for comparing the sizes of the fetus’ chest and heart. The comparison is made by
obtaining the ThD ap, ThD trans, HrtD ap, and HrtD trans values.
5-65
Operation Manual
LE Artery Calculation
Measurement Menu
[Figure 5.9 LE Artery Measurement Menu]
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common Measurement
Methods’.
▶▶For references on measurement items, see the Reference Manual – Part 2.
5-66
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. CIA
Rt. / Lt. IIA
Rt. / Lt. EIA
Rt. / Lt. CFA
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
5-67
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. CFA
Rt. / Lt.. SFA
Rt. / Lt. DFA
Rt. / Lt. Pop A
5-68
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
2
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm , mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt.. ATA
Rt. / Lt.. PTA
Rt. / Lt.. Peroneal A
Rt. / Lt. DPA
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
5-69
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. DPA
Rt. / Lt. MPA
Rt. / Lt. LPA
Rt. / Lt. Metatarsal A
5-70
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
2
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm , mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Digital A
General
Volume Flow
HR
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
cm, mm
Volume Flow(Auto)
PW
Distance
Automatic calculation
Volume Flow(D)
PW
Automatic calculation
ml/m
TAMV
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
cm/s or m/s
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vesl. Area.
All
Area
cm2, mm2
HR
M. PW
Heart Rate
bpm
ml/m
5-71
Operation Manual
UE Artery Calculation
Measurement Menu
[Figure 5.10 UE Artery Measurement Menu]
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common Measurement
Methods’.
▶▶For references on measurement items, see the Reference Manual – Part 2.
5-72
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt.
Subclabian A
Rt. / Lt. Axillary A
Rt. / Lt. Brachial A
Rt. / Lt. Radial A
Item
Mode
Method
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Unit
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
2
cm , mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
5-73
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Radial A
Rt. / Lt. Ulnar A
Rt. / Lt. Ulnar A
Rt. / Lt. SPA
General
Volume Flow
HR
5-74
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Volume Flow(Auto)
Volume Flow(D)
TAMV
Vesl. Dist.
Vesl. Area.
HR
All
All
PW
PW
PW
All
All
M. PW
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Automatic calculation
Automatic calculation
Doppler spectrum trace
Distance
Area
Heart Rate
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
2
cm , mm2
cm, mm
ml/m
ml/m
cm/s or m/s
cm, mm
cm2, mm2
bpm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
LE Vein Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common Measurement
Methods’.
▶▶For references on measurement items, see the Reference Manual – Part 2.
[Figure 5.11 LE Vein Measurement Menu]
5-75
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. FV
Rt. / Lt. GSV
Rt. / Lt. POP V
Rt. / Lt.. SSV
Rt. / Lt. MPV
Rt. / Lt. LPV
5-76
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Metatarsal V
Rt. / Lt. Metatarsal V
Rt. / Lt. Digital V
General
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Vmax
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Dur T
PW
Time
ms
Vesl. Dist.
All
Distance
cm, mm
5-77
Operation Manual
UE Vein Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.12 UE Vein Measurement Menu]
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common Measurement
Methods’.
▶▶For references on measurement items, see the Reference Manual – Part 2.
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt.
Internal Jugular
Item
Mode
Method
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StA
5-78
Unit
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt.
Internal Jugular
Rt. / Lt. Innominate V
Rt. / Lt. Subclavian V
Rt. / Lt. Axillary V
Item
Mode
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Method
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Unit
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
2
cm , mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
5-79
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Axillary V
Rt. / Lt. Brachial V
Rt. / Lt. Cephalic V
Rt. / Lt. Basilic V
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
%StD
All
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
5-80
All
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
2
cm , mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
2
cm , mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
2
cm , mm2
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Basilic V
Rt. / Lt. Radial V
Rt. / Lt. Ulnar V
General
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Vel A
Vel B
All
All
PW
PW
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Velocity
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
5-81
Operation Manual
Radiology Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.13 Radiology Measurement Menu]
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common
Measurement Methods’.
Measurement Menu
Aorta
5-82
Item
Mode
Method
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
All
All
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Unit
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Celiac A
Splenic A
Splenic Vol.
Hepatic A
Item
Mode
Method
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
All
All
Vol.
All
Length
Height
Width
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Hepatic A
SMA
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
All
All
PW
PW
PW
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Calculated after
distance measurement
Distance
Distance
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Unit
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
ml
cm, mm
cm, mm
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
2
cm , mm2
cm, mm
5-83
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Item
Mode
IVC
Rt. / Lt. Renal Vol.
Rt. / Lt. Renal A
5-84
Unit
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
SMA
IMA
Method
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
All
All
Vol.
All
Length
Height
Width
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Calculated after
distance measurement
Distance
Distance
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
ml
cm, mm
cm, mm
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Renal A
Rt. / Lt. Arcuate A
Bladder Vol.
General
HR
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
All
All
Vol.
All
Length
Height
Width
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Fetal Heart Rate
All
All
M, PW
Area
Distance
Heart Rate
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
bpm
Area
Distance
Calculated after
distance measurement
Distance
Distance
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
ml
cm, mm
cm, mm
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
5-85
Operation Manual
TCD Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.14 TCD Measurement Menu]
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common
Measurement Methods’.
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. ACA
5-86
Item
Mode
Method
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
%StD
All
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Unit
%
%
2
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm , mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. MCA
Rt. / Lt. PCA(P1)
Rt. / Lt. PCA(P2)
Rt. / Lt. Distal Basilar A
Item
Mode
Method
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
Calculated after
area measurement
Calculated after
distance measurement
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
%StA
All
%StD
All
Unit
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
2
cm , mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
%
%
5-87
Operation Manual
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Distal Basilar A
Rt. / Lt. Mid Basilar A
Rt. / Lt. Prox Basilar A
General
Volume Flow
5-88
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Auto Trace
Limited Trace
Manual Trace
PSV
EDV
All
All
PW
PW
PW
PW
PW
Area
Distance
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Doppler spectrum trace
Velocity
Velocity
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
Vesl. Area
Vesl. Dist
Volume Flow(Auto)
Volume Flow(D)
TAMV
Vesl. Dist.
Vesl. Area.
All
All
PW
PW
PW
All
All
Area
Distance
Automatic calculation
Automatic calculation
Doppler spectrum trace
Distance
Area
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
ml/m
ml/m
cm/s or m/s
cm, mm
cm2, mm2
cm2, mm2
cm, mm
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Thyroid Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.15 Thyroid Measurement Menu]
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common
Measurement Methods’.
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Vol.
Rt. / Lt. Flow
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Height
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vel A
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vel B
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
5-89
Operation Manual
Breast Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.16 Breast Measurement Menu]
NOTE: For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common
Measurement Methods’.
5-90
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Mass 1-10
Rt. / Lt. Flow
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Depth
All
Distance
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
cm, mm
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vel A
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vel B
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
5-91
Operation Manual
Testicle Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.17 Testicle Measurement Menu]
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common
Measurement Methods’.
Measurement Menu
Rt. / Lt. Vol.
Rt. / Lt. Flow
5-92
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Depth
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm2, mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vel A
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Vel B
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Superficial Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.18 Superficial Measurement Menu]
NOTE:
▶▶It is convenient to calculate each measurement value on the Spectral Doppler image.
▶▶For information on basic measurement methods, see ‘Basic Measurements’ and ‘Common
Measurement Methods’.
Measurement Menu
Vol.
Flow
Item
Mode
Method
Unit
Vol.
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
ml
Length
All
Distance
cm, mm
Depth
All
Distance
cm, mm
cm, mm
Width
All
Distance
Auto Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Limited Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
Manual Trace
PW
Doppler spectrum trace
PSV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
EDV
PW
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
%StA
All
Calculated after
area measurement
%
%StD
All
Calculated after
distance measurement
%
2
Vesl. Area
All
Area
cm , mm2
Vesl. Dist
All
Distance
cm, mm
Vel A
PW
Velocity
Vel B
PW
cm/s, m/s
cm/s, m/s
5-93
Operation Manual
Pediatric Hips Calculation
Measurement Menu
Measured items are automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.19 Pediatric Hips Measurement Menu]
Measurement Menu
Item
Method
Unit
Hip Angle
Type
Three Distance Measurement
°
Measurement Method
1. Use the Trackball and the Set button on the control panel to specify the first straight line.
▶ Place the cursor at a desired position with the Trackball, and press the Set button.
Tips!
Repositioning Point
Pressing the Change button before pressing the Set button to complete positioning resets the
position of a point just set.
2. Repeat the above process to specify two other straight lines.
3. The angle between them will be calculated automatically.
▶ α: The angle between the first and second straight lines.
▶ β: The angle between the first and third straight lines.
4. When the measurement is finished, its result is shown on the screen.
Please refer to the table below for Hip Joint Type information:
5-94
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Type
α
β
1a
60 ≤ α< 90
0 < β< 55
1b
60 ≤ α< 90
55 ≤ β< 90
2a/b
50 ≤ α< 60
0 < β< 90
2c
43 ≤ α< 50
77 ≤ β< 90
d
43 ≤ α< 50
0 < β< 77
3/4
0 ≤ α< 43
[Table 5.2 Hip Joint Type Table]
5-95
Operation Manual
Musculoskeletal Calculation
Measurement Menu
The measurement method for each item is the same as for basic measurement. Measured items are
automatically recorded in a report.
[Figure 5.20 MSK Measurement Menu]
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Measurement Menu
Item
Method
Unit
Rt. / Lt. Shoulder
1~10
Distance Measurement
cm, mm
Rt. / Lt. Wrist
1~10
Distance Measurement
cm, mm
Rt. / Lt. Knee
1~10
Distance Measurement
cm, mm
Rt. / Lt. Ankle
1~10
Distance Measurement
cm, mm
Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Report
Measurement results are arranged by application and displayed on the screen in the form of a report.
[Figure 5.21 The Report Screen – Example]
Viewing Report
Press the Report button on the control panel. The system switches to the Ultrasound Report screen.
When measurement results cannot be displayed in a screen, they can be moved into the upper and lower
portions of the screen in three ways as below:
▶Use the scroll bar on the right side of the screen.
▶Rotate the Menu dial-button on the control panel.
▶The measurement menus saved in the current application report are displayed in the left side of the
screen. Select a menu to review from them.
To view a report for another application, press Next App. on the screen. Each time Next App. is pressed,
reports for other applications are shown.
NOTE: Reports for applications in which no measurements have been made will not be shown.
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Operation Manual
Editing Report
Press Edit on the Ultrasound Report screen to switch to a screen where the report can be edited. You can edit
measurement results or change the way that measurements are displayed.
Press OK on the screen or the Exit button on the control panel to save the changes and close the edit screen.
Press Cancel to close the edit screen without saving the changes.
[Figure 5.22 Editing Report]
Modify Measurements
Use the Trackball, the Set button and the alphanumeric keyboard on the control panel to modify
measurements. The values are displayed in grey, indicating that they are modified.
Measurement Display Method
The product allows you to measure one measurement item several times. However, only the first three
measurement results are saved in a report.
When taking the same item more than once, measurements can be displayed in four ways as below: On
the edit report screen, you can specify or change the measurement display method.
■■ Avg.
Obtain the average of measurements and display it on the screen.
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
■■ Last
Display the last measurements on the screen.
■■ Max
Display the largest value of the measurements on the screen.
■■ Min
Display the smallest value of the measurements on the screen.
Fetal Description
Select Fetal Description on the screen by using the trackball. The Fetal Description can only be used with
an OB measurement value. Select Normal, Abnormal, Not seen, Seen.
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Operation Manual
Adding Comment
Press Comment on the Ultrasound Report screen to switch to a screen where text can be entered. You can
enter a comment or opinion. You can also modify existing comments.
Press OK on the screen or the Exit button on the control panel to save the changes and close the edit screen.
Press Cancel to close the edit screen without saving the changes.
[Figure 5.23 Comment]
Printing Report
Press Print in the report screen. If there is no connection with a printer, this button will not be displayed.
NOTE: You can change the settings for printing measurement reports in Utility > Setup > Peripherals
> Print Setup > Measure Report Print. For more information, refer to “Peripherals Setup” in "Chapter 7.
Utility”.
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Saving Report
Press Write to file on the report screen. You can save reports into a file.
NOTE: If Utility > Measure Setup > General > Data Transfer > Measured Data is checked, this button
will be displayed.
When the settings window appears, specify the directory, drive, filename and file type. When using an
external storage media, make sure to connect to or disconnect from the storage media by using Storage
Manager.
Press OK to save the report. Press Cancel to cancel.
[Figure 5.24 Saving Report]
Transferring Report
Press Transfer on the report screen. Transfer the report data using an RS232C cable. A button is created when
a measurement is completed.
To use this button,
1. Connect the RS232C cable with the console.
2. Set Utility > Setup > Peripherals > COM as ‘Open Line Transfer’.
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Operation Manual
Graph Function
On the Ultrasound Report screen, pressing Graph switches to the graph screen, where you can review graphs
and history.
NOTE: The graph function is available with OB reports only.
NOTE: If you select ‘Graph’ for the function of User Key, Graph screen will be displayed when you press
the User Key button. Set the function for User Key at Utility > Setup > Utility > User Key Setup > User
Key> User Key1.
Press Report on the screen to return to the report screen.
Graph
The list of measured items appears in the left side of the screen. If you select an item, a graph for the
selected item will appear on the screen.
[Figure 5.25 Graph]
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
NOTE:
▶▶To display a graph, the LMP or Estab. Due Date should be saved under Patient Information, and the GA
table and Fetal Growth table should be enabled.
▶▶A graph is created based on the patient ID, LMP and measurement date.
■■ Select Graph
Use the Trackball and the Set button to select an item from the list.
■■ Display Graph
If the 2 x 2 checkbox is checked, 4 graphs will be displayed in a screen.
Specify a desired graph by checking the checkbox for a measurement item.
■■ Percentile Criteria
Select from LMP, EstabDD and Avg.US GA.
▶▶GA by LMP: GA is calculated based on the maternal LMP.
▶▶Estab. Due Date: GA is calculated based on the Estab. Due Date that is entered in the Patient
Information.
▶▶Average US GA: GA is calculated using the average value of several ultrasound measurements.
▶▶GA View: If the checkbox is checked, the current GA instead of the current date is shown under
History.
■■ Patient
▶▶Patient Information: View patient information.
▶▶Fetus Information: View fetus information.
▶▶Comment: Enter a comment or opinion. Modify existing comments.
■■ Measure
View measurement data.
■■ Trend
Select a graph you want, or select all.
■■ History
The current and past measurements for a fetus are displayed in a concise format.
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Operation Manual
History
Press History in the left menu on the graph screen. The current and past measurements for a fetus are
displayed in a tabular format. You can change the percentile criteria as desired.
[Figure 5.26 History]
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Chapter 5 Measurements and Calculations
Tips!
Standard Deviation & Percentile
Among OB information, the Growth Table and the typical fetal distribution for the same number of weeks
are used to determine the following information:
▶▶The normal distribution curve.
▶▶The measurements for an actual fetus or a position in EFW distribution.
▶▶Whether a distribution point is within the normal range.
The reference number of weeks for the Growth Table can be set to LMP, Estab. DD or Average US GA under
[Pctl.Criteria]. The typical setting is LMP.
When LMP is not known or uncertain, or when the difference between LMP and Average US GA is
substantial, care must be taken, as selecting different [Pctl.Criteria] can result in a significant difference.
The distribution of the number of weeks in the Growth Table for the selected reference is a normal
distribution that is laterally symmetrical around 50% (the average), and it shows the distance from the
average as a deviation. The deviation can be represented by Standard Deviation (SD) or Percentile.
[Figure 5.27 The distribution of the Growth Table for the selected number of weeks
(m: Average, σ: Standard Deviation)]
When represented by SD, a point near the average indicates a value closer to ±0 SD and a point away from
the average indicates a value closer to the maximum or minimum value. The greater part of the range
falls within ±3 SD, and ±1 SD represents 68.3% of the entire range. Thus it can be seen that most fetal
measurements are tightly clustered around the average value.
The Percentile represents a point in distribution from between 0 and 100 inclusive. Therefore, the average
point is represented as 50 Percentile.
As shown in the figure, the average point corresponds to 0 SD (that is, 50 Percentile). If a point is in the
range between -1 SD and +1 SD, it falls within 68.3% of the entire range. This means that the point falls
within the range between 16 and 84.
Further, if a point is in the range between -2 SD and +2 SD, it falls within 95.5% of the entire range. Thus,
the point falls in the range between 3 and 97.
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Operation Manual
Tips!
SD and Percentile are interchangeable. Percentile can be used when a fetal measurement ranking is
desired, and SD can be used when the distance between actual fetal measurements and the average
measurement is sought.
While the range of Growth Table references that are primarily used with OB measurement data varies
depending on the user, the typical range accepted by most users is as below:
1) When references are created based on SD:
▶▶2.0 SD - +2.0 SD (when converted to Percentile: 2.28 Percentile - 97.72 Percentile)
▶▶1.5 SD - +1.5 SD (when converted to Percentile: 6.68 Percentile - 93.32 Percentile)
▶▶1.0 SD - +1.0 SD (when converted to Percentile: 15.87 Percentile - 84.13 Percentile)
2) When references are created based on Percentile:
▶▶2.5 Percentile - 97.5 Percentile (when converted to SD: -1.96 SD - 1.96 SD)
▶▶5.0 Percentile - 95.0 Percentile (when converted to SD: -1.645 SD - 1.645 SD)
▶▶10.0 Percentile - 90.0 Percentile (when converted to SD: -1.288 SD - 1.288 SD)
Closing Report
Press Exit on the Ultrasound Report screen or the Exit or Report button on the control panel. The system will
return to the previous diagnosis mode screen.
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